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Swimming has appeared from the necessity that the human beings have to adapt to its environment, and one of these needs is water. If we consider that the Earth’s surface consists of three quaters of water, we understand the importance and need of human beings to adapt to their enviroment.
The first world champion was Grehn Mall, who has won a mile race on the Thames at the end of the century 1863. At the end of the century competitive swimming was being established in Australia and New Zeland and several European countries and had already established federations. In the United States amateur clubs began to hold competitions in 1870. Swimming has been known since prehistoric times, as evidenced by drawings of the Stone Age. Around 1938 competitive swimming started in Europe, the most commont estile wast the crawl, then called ‘Trudgen’ in those days, it was introduced in 1873 by John Arthur Trudgen, who copied from the natives american indians.
The swimming appeared to form part of the moderns Olympic Games in 1896 on Atens. In 1902 the trudgen stile was imrobed by Rivvhard Cavill by using the continous kick. In 1908 was created the ISF:International Swimming Federation. The butterfly stroke was developed like a derrivate of the arm stroke, until it was accepted in 1952 like a proper stile. Swimming is the art of stand and move, using your arms and legs, on or under water. Activity can be as playful or as a competitive sport. Because humans do not swim instinctively, swimming is a skill that must be learnt. Unlike other land animals given the will in the water, in what is essentially a way of walking, humans have had to develop a series of strokes and body movements that propel him into the water with power and speed. In these movements and styles behind the evolution of competitive swimming as a sport. You can practise swimming in every water place or area large enough to allow free movement. The currents and tides can be dangerous, but also pose a challenge to demonstrate the strength and value of the swimmers, as is apparent with the many successful attempts to cross the Channel or the Straits of Gibraltar. Swimming was an appreciated sport in the old civilizations of Greece and Rome, used as a training method for the soldiers. In Japan the conpetitions started on the A.C. century. However, during the Middle Age in Europe the
which was once a sign of exceptional privilege. No other exercise use many muscles of the body and so much intensity. it is increasingly common. By tradition and speed. The diferents Stiles There are four the styles that are used in competitions: • • • • • freestyle backstroke butterfly arm stroke crawl Competitive swimming is swimming in order to improve their own brands and those set by others is a sport of self-improvement. It became popular in the nineteenth century. 100m. use the crawl swimming freestyle races. have greatly increased the number of outdoor public swimming pools and decks around the world. Moreover. swimming has become a way to regard a valuable system of physical therapy and exercise is generally the most beneficial . The body that administers competitive swimming is FINA. after the start and each turn. the only rules are that when starting the races. you can not drive or walk on the bottom of the pool. until testing is complete. 400 m. and in the twentieth. which includes sub-branches of local groups like the United States Swimming (USS) in the United States. At the conclusion of any stretch and finish the race. as the water immersion was associated with continued disease epidemics of the time. the swimmer must start from the exit bank. During the swim you can not get out of the "rails" . By the nineteenth century and this bias disappeared. The events are made at distances of 50m. • Free Style (crawl) that the swimmer can do it the style that suits you. In freestyle.practice was almost forgotten. FINA Swimming coordinates four disciplines at different distances. you have to touch the wall in any manner which marks the end of the pool. and is a major event in the Olympics. The private pool. but we know how to differentiate which are not synonymous. 200 m. 800 m and 1500 m. 2 . you can stay submerged up to 15 meters. increased influx of swimmers and the best techniques of construction and heating.
• Crawl is characterized by being the fastest of all the styles that are used in competitive swimming. 100 m and 200 m. • Relay: where a number of swimmers take part in a sequence. when necessary breathing together with any head with lateral body rotation when the arm on the side you breathe to live up the legs and prepared to do the recovery air while in turn the other arm stretched forward and makes the recovery head under water and again it’s recovering its position in the water. has the additional restriction that the swimmer’s hands must be pushed forward together from the chest and the elbows. back. Events are held at distances of 100 m. 100 m and 200 m.the body must remain under water at an angle of 90 degrees. except during the turn made in the wall. butterfly events require that the swimmer's actions have bilateral symmetry (the left side of the body should do what's right) and also the legs are coordinated in a shake up and down. there are a number of such events in competitive swimming. • • • The style and crawl back styles are called axis-long because the body is in a much more elongated than in the breast and butterfly styles. The events are made at distances of 50 m. known as axiscut styles. • Styles: where a swimmer swims butterfly styles. This style involves the legs that provide the greatest force for progress. It's a slower style in competitive swimming. but with your elbows straight . At the same time. but swimmers must stay back for the entire event. 200 m and 400 m • Relay styles where four swimmers swim the backstroke. from which evolved the butterfly. coupled with a kick like that to crawl. 4x100 m freestyle and 4x200 m freestyle. Events are held at distances of 50 m. Backstroke no symmetry restrictions. This style is essentially an investment in the crawl. breast and free in that order. 100 m and 200 m. 3 . These events are conducted over distances of 4x50 m freestyle. turns. This style is one that requires more strength and more energyconsuming of all. Events are held at distances of 50 m. starting the movement of arms. legs with a ripple that will travel from hip to toe. Chest (or arm). breaststroke. and pushed into the water to produce progress.the competitor moves his arms back over their shoulders. crawl the correct position is achieved with the body straight and head facing forward under water.
but recently that dominance has been challenged by Australia. There is also swimming long distances. Vicki Keith holds the record for the person with the most long-distance world records. swimmers had the likes of Shane Gould and Dawn Fraser. Swimming is also an important part in other sports.10 and 25 [[miles] and that both formally organized as the LEN FINA World Championships in their country and Europe respectively. Michael Klim. called open water (open water). The swimming biggest ahtletes Franziska van Almsick (1978 -). Events are held at distances of 4x50 my 4x100 m Swimming has traditionally been dominated by the United States. admitted in his Olympic program for Beijing 2008. The IOC. The world record of longest nonstop swim is what Martin Strel who swam 504 km non-stop in 2001 in the Danube River. Kaitlin Sandeno and Kara Lynn Joyce and they will give a close contest with the Australians as they did in the 2004 Olympics and the performance of Michael Phelps and USA in men's category in 2008. or circumnavigating Manhattan Island. triathlon and rescue and lifesaving. Colin Cordes. Despite being the greatest 4 . as in the competitive field for spectators and competitors. such as water polo. at its meeting on 29 October 2005.885 km. He also swam the Mississippi River in 2002 at 66 +2. Natalie Coughlin.butterfly and free stroke in that order. world champion and winner of four silver medals at the Olympics. since swimmers can get to be up to 5 hours in the water (in the case of 25 km) with only occasional help of some supplies. such as open water races of 5. This variation is to swim long distances (5 km and 10 km) at sea or in lakes . German swimmer. (See list of water sports). Grant Hackett and Kieren Perkins is a revival of the old era of Australian swimming gold of the 1950 and 1960. synchronized swimming. but for now led by American swimmers Michael Phelps. Not officials competitions In addition to these races there are other long distance ones outside the official program of FINA and LEN such as crossing the Channel. competitions of 10 km open water because so far there is no evidence that category was part of the Olympic program. modern pentathlon. The success of Australian swimmers like Ian Thorpe. There are other swimming competitions. a total of 3. where this sport is a popular recreational long boom. These races are noted for their hardness.
the medals achieved in such appointments as well as its spectacular track record in various editions of the European Championships and the World. • Felipe Tibio Kapamas Munoz (1951 -). Argentine swimmer first Olympic swimming champion born in South America . the best butterfly specialist racer of all time and one of the most successful in history. Russian swimmer with eight Olympic medals. and winnig in all of them.figure of the female swimming during the 1990s. • Mark Spitz (1950 -). Until some years ago they have improved and the new good swimmers coming up and their good results in the international competiotions have risen the interest in swimming. provided it with a very characteristic way of swimming.he achieved another gold medal (in 200 m backstroke) and one silver (in 100 m butterfly).Martín is the most outstanding swimmer in the history of this sport in Spain. German swimmer. a seabird whose movements ressembled. German swimmer who won six gold medals at the 1988 Olympic Games • Michael Gross (1964 -). he became one of the best swimmers in the 1980s and early 1990s. Mexican swimmer. world and Olympic record holder and universal in the 200 m backstroke. His tall figure and an extraordinary power derived from his large size. swimming in all the categories. This sport is generating a new generation of swimmers. The image shows the happy moment when Lopez-Zubero celebrates his victory in the 100 m backstroke at the European Championship held in Athens in 1991. However. • Alexandr Popov (1971 -). for which he received the nickname "The Albatross. Spanish swimmer. American swimmer whose 11 medals in three editions of the Olympic Games. In 1997 he received the Olympic Order. • Alberto Zorrilla (1906-1986). • Michael Phelps(2009). This aroused a gig interest among young people and children. The Spanish swimmers have never been part of the best ones on the world. European champion. one of the last prodigious in this sport who did an incredible actuation in the 2008 Olympic Games. Germany. • Kristin Otto (1966 -). Some of the best swimmers in the Spanish 5 . American swimmer. is considered the greatest exponent of the history of swimming in his country. where in the not too distant future great athletes will. • Matt Biondi (1965 -). American swimmer who won 7 gold medals at the Olympics in Munich. endorse one of the most brilliant careers in the sport in recent decades. the German Franziska van Almsick failed to get the Olympic gold or Barcelona (1992) and Atlanta (1996). has one of the best records in the history of swimming. 1972. • Martin Lopez-Zubero (1969 -). first from his country to get an Olympic gold. In the same competition. who are dreaming of one day becoming world-class champions as national idols.
VALENCIANO 22.D.D. 200 m. VALENCIANO 49.N.K.20 E 16/07/2006 ALMERIA 6 . L LORENTE GINESTA EDUARD 1 1977 C.14 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 400 m. L VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX WILDEBOER FABER OLAF MEDRANO ARJONA ALBERT C. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.82 E 06/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 2 NUÑEZ MOLANO JAVIER 1983 C.75 E 22/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.04 E 24/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G. SABADELL 1:49.history in various individual categories: Males Name 50 m.A.12 E 04/03/2004 CADIZ 3 1988 NAVIAL 22.N.T.C. L NORIEGA SANZ JAVIER LORENTE GINESTA EDUARD MUÑOZ PEREZ RAFAEL C. 2 1977 C.09 E 21/04/2006 EINDHOVEN 3 1982 C.80 E 28/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 100 m. SANTA OLAYA 1 1983 3:49. 22.N.N.34 E 07/03/2004 CADIZ 2 ALONSO TELLEZ JOSE ANTONIO AIZPURUA EZEIZA MAÑEL 1988 C.C. SABADELL 1:49.N.C.74 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 3 1988 BARDULIA I. SABADELL 3:51.45 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 2 1983 C.N.21 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 9 FERNANDEZ CABALLERO DANIEL 1987 REAL CANOE N. SANT ANDREU 1 1990 1:48. ALCORCON ARENA Year CLUB Recording CRONO Date Place 1 1980 22. 49. ZAMORA 49.
N.N.09 E 28/07/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 FERNANDEZ ORDOÑEZ IGNACIO 1987 C.N.47 E 01/08/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 FERNANDEZ ORDOÑEZ IGNACIO 1987 C.43 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 2 MIRA NAVAS PABLO VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX 1988 C. SANTA OLAYA 1 1983 7:49.85 E 08/12/2009 DOHA (QAT) 7 .41 E 01/08/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 1990 51. M 1 MUÑOZ PEREZ RAFAEL 1988 NAVIAL 22.CERRADO CALDERON C.78 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 3 GARCIA SOTO MARCOS 1988 C.N. TARRACO 1:58.N. 200 m. M 1 MUÑOZ PEREZ RAFAEL VILLAECIJA GARCIA ALEX 1988 NAVIAL C.09 E 19/12/2007 GIJON 3 MANTAS MOTA ADRIAN 1992 15:24. SANT ANDREU 8:00.N.N.N.D. FERROL 52.12 E 08/07/2009 PRAGA 800 m. M GALDEANO CASTILLO EDUARD 1 1992 C. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.CERRADO CALDERON C.00 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 3 1990 24.C.02 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 100 m. L RIVERA MIRANDA MARCO C.N.N. 1500 m. SANT ANDREU 50. FERCA-SAN JOSE 3:52.N.C. SANT ANDREU 24. SANTA OLAYA 1 1983 14:57. FERCA-SAN JOSE 15:23.N.3 MANTAS MOTA ADRIAN 1992 C.96 E 21/12/2007 GIJON 3 NUÑEZ MOLANO JAVIER 1983 8:03.83 E 23/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.32 E 09/07/2009 PRAGA 50 m.77 E 24/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G. FUENGIROLA UN SOL DE CIUDAD C.
B 1 MONTEAGUDO ESPINOSA HECTOR PLUTECKI ADAM MUÑOZ GONZALEZ DAVID 1989 1985 C. RIVEIRA C.51 E 05/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 50 m.N. SANT ANDREU 24.N.N.89 E 21/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G. SANT ANDREU 1:57. SANT ANDREU 52.48 E 01/08/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 1988 24. 3 ORDOÑEZ MENA PABLO 1988 1:59.N.N. SABADELL C.N.95 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 3 1988 1:58.89 E 27/07/2009 ROMA (ITA) 3 CABELLO FORNS ALAN 1988 55.N.N.N. ALCORCON ARENA 27.MIGUEL 1 1986 C.N. CIUDAD REAL C.C.68 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 50 m.77 E 01/08/2009 ROMA (ITA) 3 1989 C.N. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN RANDO GALVEZ J. TERRASSA C.C. SABADELL 1:54. SANT ANDREU 1:00.MAIRENA ALJARAFE 1:58.92 E 31/07/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 1990 C.03 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 100 m.24 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 100 m.45 E 27/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 8 . METROPOLE C. B 1 ALVAREZ CARABALLO MELQUIADES 1988 C.MIGUEL SANCHEZ TORRES ELOY 1 1986 C.2 LEÑADOR RIVAS CARLOS 1987 C.N.87 M 19/07/2009 3 1979 28. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN REGUEIRA SUAREZ RUFINO RANDO GALVEZ J.MIGUEL 1 1986 C.00 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 200 m. CADIZ 25. FINAL LLIGA COMARCAL TERRASSA 2 27. E WILDEBOER FABER ASCHWIN RANDO GALVEZ J.N.38 E 01/07/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 2 1988 53. SABADELL C. SANT ANDREU C.N.78 E 24/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.N.
SABADELL 2:01.C.N. SANT ANDREU 1 1981 2:00.C. SABADELL 4:17.32 E 08/06/2008 MONTECARLO 200 m. B 1 ALVAREZ CARABALLO MELQUIADES 1988 C. SABADELL 2:10.N. S CABELLO FORNS BRENTON C. SANT ANDREU 2:09.18 E 22/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.C. SANT ANDREU CLUB DE TENIS ELCHE 1 NUÑEZ MOLANO JAVIER 1983 4:16.2 GONZALEZ CABRERA ADZUBENAM 1990 C. 200 m. HOSPITALET 1:01.39 E 23/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.15 E 23/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.D. HOSPITALET 2:12.N.C.C. SANT ANDREU C.43 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 3 GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO 1989 C.N.66 E 21/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.N. 400 m.98 E 04/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 2 VIVES GOMIS CARLOS 1988 4:17.N. 3 GONZALEZ CABRERA ADZUBENAM 1990 C.38 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 2 CABELLO FORNS ALAN 1988 2:00. L Name Year CLUB recording CRONO date place 1 HERRAEZ DE LA CALLE ARACELI 1983 REAL CANOE N.82 E 22/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.49 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 9 . S C.69 E 29/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 2 GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO 1989 C. ZAMORA 1:01. 3 IRADIER AGUIRREZABALAGA BORJA 1980 A.57 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA Females RK 50 m.N. 25.C.N.N. 3 GARCIA ORTIZ SERGIO 1989 C.
N. MIJAS CN. 3 1989 C. SANT ANDREU C.2 PALOMO JIMENEZ ANA BELEN ROUBA BIENIARZ TATIANA 1977 C.N. BIDASOA XXI 16:00. SABADELL CN. L 1 VILLAECIJA GARCIA ERIKA CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA RAMOS PLASENCIA ARANTXA 1984 C. SABADELL 4:09.N.25 E 28/07/2009 ROMA (ITA) 2 1990 16:12.N.PALMA DE MALLORCA 1:59.59 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 4 1985 1:59.70 E 27/07/2007 BARCELONA 100 m.84 E 23/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.19 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 2 1983 55.51 E 04/08/2007 PARIS (FRA) 3 1992 55.C. L 1 CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA COSTA SCHMID MELANIE RAMOS PLASENCIA ARANTXA FUSTER MARTINEZ MARIA 1992 REAL CANOE N.PALMA DE MALLORCA REAL CANOE N. L 1 FUSTER MARTINEZ MARIA ROUBA BIENIARZ TATIANA CASTRO ORTEGA PATRICIA FERNANDEZ RODRIGUEZ LAURA 1985 CN.33 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 2 1989 1:59. SANT ANDREU REAL CANOE N.17 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 3 1988 C. 55.D. SANTA OLAYA 55.54 E 04/03/2004 CADIZ 3 1983 25.PALMA DE MALLORCA 1:58.PALMA DE MALLORCA 25.N.N.84 E 29/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 200 m.C.79 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 1500 m.44 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 2 1992 4:09. CN.PALMA DE MALLORCA CN.N.C. L 1 VILLAECIJA GARCIA ERIKA SANTAMARIA MARIN EIDER 1984 C.82 E 21/03/2008 EINDHOVEN (NED) 400 m. 4:08.00 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 10 .C.12 E 04/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 3 1988 C.
64 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 100 m.C. VALENCIANO C.60 E 28/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 2 1981 C.01 E 09/12/2009 DOHA (QAT) 3 HERRAEZ DE LA CALLE ARACELI SAN JUAN CISNEROS ANGELA GARCIA SANCHEZ MIREIA IGNACIO SORRIBES JUDIT 1983 REAL CANOE N.13 E 24/06/2005 A_INT JME ALMERIA 3 1994 C.C. 27.11 E 23/03/2008 EINDHOVEN (NED) 3 1983 28.N.N. SABADELL 2:06. TORTOSA 27. SABADELL 16:16. M 1 BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA CAMINO ESTUDILLO PAULA IGNACIO SORRIBES JUDIT 1990 C.15 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 200 m. HOSPITALET 1:00. 59. SABADELL 2:10.90 E 01/07/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 2 1991 NAVIAL 2:08.C.N. SABADELL 1:00. 50 m. M 1 1983 REAL CANOE N.96 E 21/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.10 E 03/04/2009 MALAGA 2 1977 C.06 E 21/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G. SANTA OLAYA 28. VALENCIANO 1:00. M 1 1983 REAL CANOE N.78 E 24/07/2007 BARCELONA 2 1993 C. BIDASOA XXI 28.C.D.3 DASCA ROMEU CLAUDIA SAN JUAN CISNEROS ANGELA MARTI ARASA ANNA AÏDA 1994 C.21 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 100 m.C.N.N.N. E 1 PERIS MINGUET MERCEDES ZHIVANEVSKAYA NINA SASETA ESTEBANEZ ANE 1985 C.N.N. E 1 ZHIVANEVSKAYA NINA 1977 C. 26.94 E 04/04/2009 MALAGA 50 m.29 E 21/03/2008 EINDHOVEN (NED) 11 . 3 1994 C.
61 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 200 m. B 1 1994 C.05 E 10/07/2009 PRAGA 2 1990 C.78 E 08/07/2009 PRAGA 100 m. MEDITERRANI 2:25.E.E.N.00 E 06/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 3 PEREZ SALA SARA 1988 C. METROPOLE 1:08.63 E 12/07/2009 PRAGA 2 1993 C. B 1 1994 C.N.C. METROPOLE REAL CANOE N.87 E 26/06/2005 ALMERIA 12 .2 PERIS MINGUET MERCEDES DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE 1985 A. SANTA OLAYA C.14 E 01/07/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 2 1993 31. ATLETICBARCELONETA 2:28. E 1 BERNARD GONZALEZ ESCARLATA DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE MORANT VARO LYDIA 1989 C.N. SANTA CRUZ REAL CANOE N. HOSPITALET 2:27. MEDITERRANI 31.07 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 50 m.88 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 3 BADILLO DIAZ CONCEPCION GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA 1986 NAVIAL 1:09. MEDITERRANI 1:07. ELCHE 2:12.89 E 02/04/2009 MALAGA 3 1990 C. 1:01.C. B 1 BADILLO DIAZ CONCEPCION RIVERA PEREZ ANGELA GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA GARCIA URZAINQUI MARINA ALVAREZ PEREZ EVELYN 1986 NAVIAL C.N.E.75 E 16/07/2009 OURENSE 3 1994 31.N.N.05 E 27/06/2009 PESCARA (ITA) 200 m.D.32 E 05/04/2008 PALMA MALLORCA 3 1988 1:01.58 E 19/03/2008 EINDHOVEN (NED) 2 1988 2:10. 2:10.
67 E 22/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G. SABADELL R.C.N.C.N. 3 1995 4:46.16 E 21/03/2008 EINDHOVEN (NED) 2 1988 2:14.84 E 05/04/2009 MALAGA 400 m.C.200 m. MEDITERRANEO 4:43.26 E 11/12/2009 DOHA (QAT) 13 . C.45 E 24/07/2009 LAS PALMAS DE G.91 E 09/08/2008 PEKIN (CHI) 2 1994 C. S 1 BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA DA ROCHA MARCE DUANE CONCA RUZAFA AINA 1990 C. S 1 BELMONTE GARCIA MIREIA DASCA ROMEU CLAUDIA GARCÍA MAURI CRISTINA 1990 C.C. HOSPITALET REAL CANOE N.N.N. 3 1987 2:14. HOSPITALET 4:37. SANT ANDREU 2:11.
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