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Unit4
Induction Motors
Objectives: After completing this Unit4, you will be able to:
• Explain why an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed.
• Describe the construction of two types of rotors for an induction motor.
• Determine slip for a given speed of the motor.
• Derive an expression for the emf induced in the rotor.
• State how the induction motor differs from a transformer.
• Draw and explain the power flow diagram for an induction motor.
• Draw the equivalent circuit of an induction motor.
• Draw and explain the torqueslip characteristic of an induction motor.
• Explain how the starting torque can be increased in a phasewound induction motor by inserting more resistance.
• Derive the condition for obtaining maximum torque.
• Derive an expression for the ratio of torque τ for any s to the maximum torque
m
τ .
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The ac synchronous motor has limited practical applications. An alternative is the asynchronous motor which we usually call
induction motor. Most motors that we meet in the home and in industry are induction motors. These motors are more rugged, they
need less maintenance, and they are less expensive than the synchronous motors or dc motors
1
Induction motors are available both for threephase and singlephase operation. Threephase induction motors are used for high
power and industrial applications such as lifts, cranes, pumps, exhaust fans, lathes, etc. Singlephase induction motors
.
2
4.2 PRINCIPLE OF WORKING
find use in
domestic electric appliances such as fans, refrigerators, washing machines, pumps, hairdriers, etc.
The stator of an induction motor (Fig. 4.1a) is similar to that of a synchronous machine. It has threephase windings, P poles,
sinusoidal mmf and flux distribution. For simplicity, the stator slots and windings are omitted in the figure. When threephase currents
flow through the stator windings, a magnetic flux is produced that rotates at synchronous speed given by Eq. 14.8, repeated here for
convenience,
120
s
f
N
P
=
...(4.1)
The rotor is an iron laminated cylinder with large embedded conductors in the form of copper or aluminium bars in the semi
closed slots. The slots are usually not made parallel to the axis, but are given a slight twist. The rotor is then known as skewed
3
rotor.
The bars are shortcircuited at each end by a conducting ring or plate (Fig. 4.1b). The bars and the shorting rings look like a squirrel
cage, as shown in Fig. 4.1c. The airgap between the rotor and the stator is uniform and is made as small as possible mechanically.
(a) Front view. (b) Side view. (c) Squirrelcage rotor.
Fig. 4.1 Induction motor
Suppose that the stator is wound for two poles. Let the distribution of magnetic flux due to stator currents at a particular instant be
as shown in Fig. 4.1a. Assume that the stator flux rotates anticlockwise. With respect to this flux, the rotor conductors move in
clockwise direction. The emfs are thus induced
4
1
We shall discuss dc motors in the next Chapter.
2
We shall discuss singlephase induction motors in Chapter 17.
3
The skewing of the rotor helps in reducing noise, in increasing the starting torque and in eliminating clogging.
This is why this type of motor is called an induction motor. In fact, an induction motor is like a transformer with its secondary winding
shortcircuited. The only difference is that in an induction motor, the secondary winding is free to rotate.
in the rotor conductors, whose directions can be determined by Fleming’s right hand
2
rule, as indicated by crosses and dots in Fig. 4.1a. The emf generated in the rotor conductors is a maximum in the region of maximum
flux density.
Fig. 4.2 Torque generated on the rotor.
Now, consider conductors A and B of the rotor which face the Npole and Spole of the stator, as shown in Fig. 4.2. The emf
generated in these conductors circulates a current, which in turn produces their own flux. The resultant of these two fluxes is such as
to strengthen the flux density on the rightside and weaken that on the left side for the conductor A. Consequently, the conductor A
experiences a force F
1
leftward. Similar action takes place for the conductor B, so that it experiences a force F
2
rightward. These two
forces create a torque
e
τ that tends to rotate the rotor in the direction of the rotating flux.
Once the rotor starts rotating, the relative movement between the stator’s rotating field and the rotorconductors is reduced. As a
result, the induced emf, the current, and its frequency are all reduced. If the motor shaft is not loaded, the machine has to rotate to
meet the mechanical losses. The rotor speed can approach very close to the synchronous speed. But, it can never be the same as the
synchronous speed. If it does, the induced emf in the rotorconductors would become zero and there would be no torque produced.
Hence, the rotor speed always remains slightly less than the synchronous speed.
Now, suppose we put a mechanical load on the shaft. Its immediate reaction is to slow down the rotor. As a result, the relative
speed with respect to the rotating field increases. The induced emf in the rotorconductors increases and hence the torque τ exerted on
the rotor increases. Ultimately, an equilibrium state is attained. The rotor speed adjusts itself to make the torqueτ sufficient to balance
the mechanicalloss torque and the load torque. Obviously, the speed of the motor running under fullload is less than the noload spe
Note that unlike a synchronous machine, the induction motor has field on the stator and armature on the rotor.
Slip of Induction Motor
As discussed above, the rotor speed must always remain less than the synchronous speed N
s
given by Eq. 4.1. The difference between
the synchronous speed N
s
and the actual speed N of the rotor is known as slip speed,
s
N N N
∆
= − . This term is descriptive of the
manner the rotor slips back from the exact synchronous speed. The normalized slip speed, or simply the slip s is usually expressed as
perunit or fraction of the synchronous speed,
s
s s
N N N
s
N N
∆
−
= =
...(4.2)
For a given slip s, the rotor speed is given as
(1 )
s
N N s = −
...(4.3)
The slip can also be expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed, as
100%
s
s
N N
s
N
−
= ×
...(4.4)
When the motor is at standstill (that is, it is not running), the rotor speed N is zero, and hence s = 1. The value of s can never be zero.
Because this would mean that the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed which is impossible.
In practice, the value of slip is very small. At no load, the slip is around 1% only and at full load, it is around 3 %. For large size,
efficient motors, the slip at full load may be around 1 % only. Thus, an induction motor almost has a constant speed.
Thus, we find that 0 1 s ≤ < . Is it possible to make the slip s have a negative value? Yes, if the rotor is made to rotate by a prime
mover at a speed higher than the synchronous speed. The negative slip corresponds to the generator action.
Frequency of Rotor Currents: When the induction motor is at standstill, the frequency of the currents induced in the rotor
winding is the same as the supply frequency. However, when the motor runs, the frequency of rotor currents depends upon the relative
speed or slipspeed. If the rotorspeed N and the synchronousspeed N
s
are expressed in rpm (revolutions per minute), the frequency f
r
of the rotor currents is given by an expression similar to that in Eq. 4.1, as
120
r
s
f
N N
P
− =
Dividing the above equation by Eq. 4.1, we get
F
1
F
2
N
S
A
B
3
or
s r r
s
N N f f
s
N f f
−
= =
r
f s f ∴ = ⋅
...(4.5)
Speed of Rotation of RotorField: The rotor currents produce their own rotating magnetic field. Since the frequency f
r
of the
rotor currents is s f ⋅ , the speed of this rotating field is
s
s N ⋅ with respect to the rotor winding. However, the rotor itself is running
at a speed N with respect to the stator. Hence,
The speed of rotor field in space = Speed of rotor field relative to the rotor + Speed of rotor relative to stator
= (1 )
s s s s
sN N sN N s N + = + − =
Thus, we find that even though the rotor is not rotating at synchronous speed, the rotor field rotates at the synchronous speed. In
fact, the rotor field remains locked with the stator field, irrespective of the rotor speed.
4.3 CONSTRUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR
Like any other rotating machine, an induction motor has a stator and a rotor. The stator has threephase windings which receive energy
form threephase ac supply. The rotor carries windings in which the working currents are induced.
Stator
The stator core is a hollow cylindrical structure. It is made of sheetsteel laminations, each about 0.4 mm thick, slotted on its inner
surface. The slots in large size motors are open type to facilitate the insertion of formwound coils, which are well insulated before
they are slipped into the slots. In small size motors, the slots are partially closed type. This helps in reducing the effective length of the
air gap between the stator and the rotor. The coils are externally wound and are inserted through the narrow openings one wire at a
time.
Rotor
The rotor is an inner cylindrical core. It may be either squirrelcage type or wirewound type.
(1) Squirrel Cage Rotor: About 90 % of the motors in use have this type of rotor (see Fig. 4.1c). This rotor has two main
advantages. First, it is adaptable to any number of poles. Secondly, it is simple in construction, has no sliprings and brushes,
is very rugged, and is very economical in manufacturing. The only disadvantage it has is that its resistance is low (and fixed)
and hence it has low starting torque.
(2) Wire or PhaseWound Rotor: It has threephase double layer distributed windings placed in the slots of the rotor core. It is
wound for the same number of poles as the stator. The windings are usually connected in star, though they may be connected
in delta. The three ends of the windings are brought out and are soldered to the slip rings mounted on the shaft. Carbon
brushes, fixed with the stator, make contact with these moving slip rings. This arrangement makes it possible to connect
additional resistances in the rotor windings to give high starting torque (see Fig. 4.16). The external resistances are gradually
reduced to zero as the motor picks up speed. Under normal running conditions, the wound rotor is shortcircuited like a
squirrel cage rotor.
Example 4.1 A 3phase, 6pole, 50Hz induction motor has a slip of 1 % at no load and of 3 % at full load. Find (a) the
synchronous speed, (b) the noload speed, (c) the fullload speed, (d) the frequency of rotorcurrents at standstill, and (e) the frequency
of rotorcurrents at fullload.
Solution: (a) The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
6
s
f
N
P
×
= = = 1000 rpm
(b) The noload speed, (1 ) 1000(1 0.01)
s
N N s = − = − = 990 rpm
(c) The fullload speed, (1 ) 1000(1 0.03)
s
N N s = − = − = 970 rpm
(d) At standstill, s = 1. Hence, the frequency of rotorcurrents,
1 50
r
f s f = ⋅ = × = 50 Hz
(e) At fullload, s = 0.03. Therefore, the frequency of rotorcurrents,
0.03 50
r
f s f = ⋅ = × = 1.5 Hz
Example 4.2 A 12pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor runs at 485 rpm. What is the frequency of rotorcurrent?
Solution: The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
12
s
f
N
P
×
= = = 500 rpm
500 485
Slip, 0.03
500
Rotor currents frequency, 0.03 50
r
s
f s f
−
∴ = =
∴ = ⋅ = × = 1.5 Hz
Example 4.3 A 6pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply. If the frequency of rotor emf at fullload is 2 Hz, find the full
load slip and speed.
4
Solution: The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
6
s
f
N
P
×
= = = 1000 rpm
The slip at full load,
2
0.04
50
r
f
s
f
= = = = 4%
The fullload speed, (1 ) 1000(1 0.04)
s
N N s = − = − = 960 rpm
Example 4.4 A threephase induction motor is wound for four poles and is supplied from a 50Hz supply. Calculate (a) the
synchronous speed, (b) the speed of the rotor when the slip is 4 %, and (c) the rotor frequency when the speed of the rotor is 600 rpm.
Solution: (a) The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = = 1500 rpm
(b) The speed of the rotor when the slip is 4 %,
(1 ) 1500(1 0.04)
s
N N s = − = − = 1440 rpm
(c) When the speed of the rotor is 600 rpm, the slip is
1500 600
0.6
1500
s
−
= =
∴ The rotor frequency, 0.6 50
r
f s f = ⋅ = × = 30 Hz
4.4 ROTOR EMF, CURRENT AND POWER FACTOR
The analysis of induction motor performance is done under the assumption that the applied voltage V
1
per phase is constant and purely
sinusoidal of constant frequency f. It is further assumed that the flux per pole Ф is sinusoidally distributed in the space around the air
gap and is rotating at synchronous speed N
s
. We define following quantities:
V
1
= applied voltage to stator per phase (V)
N
1
= number of turns in series per phase of the stator
N
2
= number of turns in series per phase of the rotor
Ф = flux per pole (Wb)
f = frequency of the supply (Hz)
E
1
= emf induced per phase in the stator (V)
E
2
= emf induced per phase in the rotor (V)
(when the motor is running)
E
20
= emf induced per phase in the rotor (V)
(when the motor is standstill)
R
2
= resistance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω)
X
2
= reactance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω)
(when the motor is running)
X
20
= reactance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω)
(when the motor is standstill)
L
20
= inductance of the rotor winding per phase (H)
(when the motor is standstill)
k
d1
, k
d2
= distribution factors of stator and rotor windings, respectively
k
p1
, k
p2
= pitch factors of stator and rotor windings, respectively
N
s
= synchronous speed (rpm)
When the rotor is standstill, an emf is induced in both the stator winding and rotor winding. The rotating field produced by stator
threephase currents cuts the stator and rotor conductors at synchronous speed N
s
. Since the rotating field makes N
s
/60 rps (revolutions
per second) and the stator (or rotor) conductors cut total flux PФ per revolution,
Flux cut per revolution
60
s
P N Φ
=
This is also the average value of the emf induced in each conductor. Therefore, if K
f
(= 1.11 for sinusoidal waveshape) is the form
factor, the rms value of induced emf in each conductor of the stator is
1
2 1.11 2 2.22
60 120
s s
f f
P N PN
e K K f f
Φ
= × = × Φ× = × Φ = Φ
In the stator, there are N
1
turns per phase or 2N
1
conductors in series per phase. Therefore, the induced emf per phase in the stator is
given as
1 1 1 1
2 4.44 E e N f N = × = Φ
On taking the distribution factor and pitch factor into account, above expression is modified as
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 4.44
d p
E e N f N k k = × = Φ
...(4.6)
5
Similarly, the induced emf E
20
per phase in the rotor at standstill is given as
20 2 2 2
4.44
d p
E f N k k = Φ
...(4.7)
When the rotor rotates at a slip s, the induced emf also reduces by a factor s. Thus, the induced emf E
2
per phase in the rotor
running at a slip s is given as
2 20 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4.44 4.44( ) 4.44
d p d p r d p
E sE sf N k k sf N k k f N k k = = Φ = Φ = Φ
...(4.8)
The induced emf E
2
is zero when the rotor revolves at synchronous speed (that is, N = N
s
or s = 0). It increases in proportion to the
slip speed because the speed of the rotorconductors relative to the stator flux increases.
Rotor Impedance: The rotor reactance X
2
, when it is rotating at a slip s, is given as
2 20 20 20 20
2 2 ( ) 2
r
X f L s f L s fL sX π π π = = ⋅ = ⋅ =
Therefore, the rotor impedance per phase, under running condition, is given as
2 2 1 20
2 2 2 2 20 2 20
2
( ) tan
sX
R jX R jsX R sX
R
−
= + = + = + ∠ Z
Thus,
2 2 1 20
2 2 20 2
2
( ) and tan
sX
Z R sX
R
θ
−
= + = ∠
...(4.9)
The impedance of the rotor circuit increases with slip speed because of the increase in the frequency of the induced emf E
2
. At very
small slip speeds, the impedance is largely resistive. But at larger slip speeds, the inductive reactance of the rotor dominates.
Rotor Current: The induced emf per phase in the rotor circuit, under running condition, is given by Eq.4.8. The magnitude of the
rotor current is therefore given as
20 2
2
2 2
2
2 20
( )
sE E
I
Z
R sX
= =
+
...(4.10)
For small values of s, on increasing slip speed, the induced emf E
2
increases at a faster rate than the rotor impedance Z
2
. As a result, on
increasing slip speed s, the rotor current I
2
initially
increases, and then tends to approach a maximum value, where the increase in E
2
is
offset by the corresponding increase in Z
2
.
Power Factor: The phase angle between the induced emf E
2
and the rotor current I
2
is same as the impedance angle θ
2
, as given
by Eq. 4.9. Thus, the power factor of the rotor circuit, under running condition, is given as
2
2
2 2
2 20
cos
( )
R
pf
R sX
θ = =
+
(lagging)
...(4.11)
As the slip speed increases, the rotor circuit becomes more inductive and the power factor becomes poorer.
Induction Motor as Transformer
The working of an induction motor resembles in many respect with that of a transformer. The stator winding works as primary. The
rotor winding works as secondary. Under standstill condition, when a 3phase supply is connected to the stator, emfs are induced in
both the stator and the rotor, as given by Eqs. 4.6 and 4.7, respectively. These equations are similar to Eqs. 13.4 and 13.5 for a
transformer. In a transformer, the primary and secondary coils are concentrated. But in an induction motor, the stator and rotor
windings are distributed. Hence, the distribution factor k
d
and pitch factor k
p
are included in Eqs. 4.6 and 4.7 for an induction motor.
When the rotor circuit is closed, a current flows in the rotor winding. This current creates an mmf. The rotor mmf and stator
mmf can be combined just in the same way as in a transformer. In a transformer, the primary and secondary fields remain stationary.
But in an induction motor, the stator and rotor fields keep rotating in space. However, this does not make any difference; these two
fields, though rotating, remain stationary with respect to each other.
In a transformer, a greater secondary current causes an increased primary current. Similarly, in an induction motor, a greater
load on the shaft causes an increased stator current to balance the rotor mmf. If the shaft is held stationary with rotor circuit closed (a
condition known as blocked rotor or locked rotor), the situation becomes same as in a transformer with its secondary shortcircuit.
Under such blocked rotor condition, excessive heating of the induction motor occurs as it draws a very heavy current from the ac
supply.
Differences from a Transformer: An induction motor differs from a transformer in following ways:
1. Magnetic leakage and hence the leakage reactances of stator and rotor are much higher than those in a transformer.
2. Because of the presence of the air gap, the magnetizing current required is much greater than that in a transformer.
3. Because of the distributed windings, the ratio of the stator and the rotor currents is not equal to the ratio of turns.
4. The losses are much greater, and hence the efficiency is lower than that of a transformer.
5. The noload current is about 25 % to 40 % of the rated current, whereas it is only about 2 % to 5 % of the rated current in a
transformer.
6
Example 4.5 The induced emf between the slipring terminals of a threephase induction motor, when the rotor is standstill, is 100
V. The rotor windings are starconnected and have resistance and standstill reactance of 0.05 Ω and 0.1 Ω per phase, respectively.
Calculate the rotor current and phase difference between the rotor voltage and rotor current at (a) 4 % slip, and (b) 100 % slip.
Solution: For starconnected rotor windings, the induced emf per phase is given as
20
100
57.7 V
3 3
L
E
E = = =
(a) At s = 4 % = 0.04:
20 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 20
0.04 57.7
( ) (0.05) (0.04 0.1)
sE E
I
Z
R sX
×
= = = =
+ + ×
46 A
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 20
0.05
cos 0.99
( ) (0.05) (0.04 0.1)
R
R sX
θ = = =
+ + ×
1
2
cos 0.99 θ
−
∴ = = 8.1°
(b) At s = 100 % = 1.0:
20 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2 20
1.0 57.5
( ) (0.05) (1.0 0.1)
sE E
I
Z
R sX
×
= = = =
+ + ×
514 A
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 20
0.05
cos 0.447
( ) (0.05) (1.0 0.1)
R
R sX
θ = = =
+ + ×
1
2
cos 0.449 θ
−
∴ = = 63.4°
4.5 POWER RELATIONS FOR AN INDUCTION MOTOR
The entire power P
in
supplied by the threephase source to the stator of the induction motor is not converted into the mechanical
power at the shaft. As shown in Fig. 4.3, a portion of the input power P
in
is lost in the stator as copper and iron loss, which heats the
stator. The remaining power P
g
is transferred to the rotor via the airgap magnetic field, similar to the power transferred from primary
to the secondary in a transformer. This rotor input power P
g
less the rotor losses P
R
(both the copper loss and iron loss) is the
mechanical power P
d
developed by the rotor. Since the frequency of the rotor currents is very small (say, around 1.5 Hz), the rotor
iron loss is negligibly small. Thus, we can say that the power developed is given as
Rotor copper loss
d g R g
P P P P = − = −
...(4.12)
Out of the mechanical power P
d
developed by the rotor, some power loss occurs due to the friction at bearings and sliprings, and
some due to windage (i.e., due to the air resistance experienced by the rotating shaft). The remaining power P
o
is the net mechanical
output power available at the shaft to meet the external mechanical load.
Fig. 4.3 Power flow diagram for an induction motor.
Let τ (in Nm) be the electromagnetic torque exerted on the rotor by the rotating magnetic field at synchronous speed N
s
(in rpm).
Then the airgap power P
g
(in W) transferred from the stator to the rotor is given as
2
60
s
g
N
P
πτ
=
...(4.13)
This is the input power to the rotor. If the rotor rotates at a speed N (in rpm), the total mechanical power developed by the rotor is
given as
P
in
P
g
P
o
(1 )
d
P s P = −
Stator Rotor
Electrical Mechanical
P
S
Stator Cu
and iron loss
P
R
Rotor Cu
and iron loss
P
m
Friction and
windage loss
o
Output
power at
shaft
7
2
60
d
N
P
πτ
=
...(4.14)
Putting Eqs. 4.13 and 4.14 in Eq. 4.12, we get
2
( )
60
R g d s
P P P N N
πτ
= − = −
...(4.15)
Dividing the above equation by Eq. 4.13, we get
(according to the definition of slip)
s R
g s
N N P
s
P N
−
= =
or The rotor copper loss,
R g
P s P = ×
...(4.16)
Therefore, the power P
d
developed by the rotor, using Eq. 4.12, is then given as
The power developed by the rotor, (1 )
d g R g g g
P P P P sP s P = − = − = −
...(4.17)
We can put the airgap power as
1
(1 )
R
d
d
g g g g g g
R
P
P
P s
P P sP sP s P sP
P s
−
= − + = − + ⇒ =
...(4.18)
This shows that the airgap power divides between the developed power and rotorcopper loss in a ratio that depends only on the
slip speed.
Example 4.6 A threephase, fourpole, 50Hz induction motor has a fullload output power of 5 hp at 1470 rpm. The efficiency of
the motor at full load is 87.5 %. The mechanical losses are 5 % of the total losses. Determine the developed power, airgap power,
rotor copper loss, and stator loss.
Solution: The output power, 5hp 5 746 3730 W
o
P = = × =
∴ The input power,
in
3730
4263 W
0.875
o
P
P
η
= = =
Total losses, 4263 3730 533 W
l
P = − =
∴ Mechanical losses, 0.05 533 26.65 W
m
P = × =
and Electrical losses, 533 26.65 506.35 W
e
P = − =
Developed power, 3730 26.65
d o m
P P P = + = + = 3756.65 W
To determine the airgap power P
g
from the developed power P
d
, we need the slip s. First we calculate synchronous speed,
120 120 50
1500 rpm
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
Therefore, the slip,
1500 1470
0.02
1500
s
s
N N
s
N
− −
= = =
From Eq. 4.17, the airgap power,
3756.65
1 1 0.02
d
g
P
P
s
= = =
− −
3833.3 W
From Eq. 4.16, the rotor copper loss,
0.02 3833.3
R g
P s P = × = × = 76.7 W
Hence, the stator loss, 506.35 76.7
S
P = − = 429.65 W
Note that the stator loss could also be determined by subtracting airgap power from the input power,
4263 3833.3
S
P = − = 429.7 W
4.6 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR
Since an induction motor is similar to a transformer, except that its secondary (i.e., the rotor) is not stationary but rotating at a
speed N. Also, the load on the secondary is not electrical but mechanical.
8
Stator Equivalent circuit
In the perphase stator circuit in Fig. 4.4, R
1
accounts for the stator copper loss, X
1
the stator leakage magnetic flux, and E
1
the induced
emf in the stator winding due to rotating airgap magnetic flux Ф. V
1
is the perphase stator voltage, and I
1
the perphase current
drawn by the stator from the threephase power supply. Obviously, the frequency of stator voltage and current is same as that of the
supply.
Three times the complex power
*
1 1
E I into the stator emf represents the power and magnetic energy leaving the stator and passing
into the air gap. The real power accounts for the rotor copper loss and developed mechanical power. The reactive power accounts for
the stored energy in the air gap and stray magnetic field in the rotor.
V
1
(a) Stator (b) Rotor
(Frequency = f) (Frequency =
r
f s f = ⋅ )
Fig. 4.4 Perphase equivalent circuit for stator and rotor.
Rotor Equivalent circuit
The perphase rotor circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 shows an emf E
2
induced in the rotor circuit due to the rotating airgap flux Ф, a
resistance R
2
to account for rotor copper loss, a reactance X
2
to account for rotor leakage magnetic flux, and a short circuit. The
electrical frequency f
r
of the rotor emf E
2
and current I
2
is s times the stator frequency f. The reactance X
2
is also proportional to slip s,
that is, X
2
= sX
20
. The reactance X
20
is the blocked rotor reactance because the slip is unity when the rotor is stationary. Also, the emf
E
2
= sE
20
, where E
20
is the blocked rotor emf induced. The total rotor copper loss is
2
2 2
3
R
P I R =
...(4.19)
where the factor 3 accounts for the three phases. The rotor iron loss, being very small, has been ignored.
The equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 at present is unable to account for the stored energy in the air gap or for the developed
mechanical power. Let N
1
and N
2
represent the equivalent turns for the stator and rotor, respectively, and let X
ag
represent a reactance
that accounts for the stored energy in the air gap. Then, for the currents only, the coupling between the stator and rotor can be
represented by the ideal transformer shown in Fig. 4.5a. Here,
'
1
I is the rotor current referred to the stator side and is given as
' 2
1 2
1
N
N
 
=

\ .
I I
...(4.20)
The current
ag
I is the current that accounts for the stored magnetic energy in the air gap, and is given as
1
ag
ag
jX
=
E
I
...(4.21)
According to KCL, we must have
' 2 1
1 1 2
1
ag
ag
N
N jX
 
= + = +

\ .
E
I I I I
...(4.22)
Next, we consider coupling between the stator and the rotor, for the voltages only. Since the rotor is rotating with a slip s in the
same direction as the magnetic flux, the rotor emf E
2
has to be reduced by a factor s. This can be achieved by imagining that the rotor
turns N
2
are reduced by the same factor s, so that
1 1
2 2
N
sN
=
E
E
...(4.23)
This suggests the ideal transformer shown in Fig. 4.5b.
I
1
R
1 jX
1
jX
2
R
2
Ф
E
1
E
2
I
2
Short
circuit
9
(a) Current relationship (b) Voltage relationship.
Fig. 4.5 Perphase equivalent circuits.
As per Fig. 4.4b, the rotor current and rotor emf are related through
2 2
2
2 2 2
R jsX
= =
+
E E
I
Z
...(4.24)
Note that the ideal transformer in Fig. 4.5b has different turnsratio from the one shown in Fig. 4.5a. Such a strange transformer
would not obey the basic principle of conservation of energy, and of course, it should not because electrical energy is not conserved in
this device due to the mechanical output.
The strange transformer can be eliminated by scaling up
5
2 2
2
2 2 2
/ /
/ ( / )
s s
s R s jX
= =
+
E E
I
Z
the rotor emf to “impose” the conservation of electrical energy on the
circuit. Thus, dividing both the numerator and the denominator on the right side of Eq. 4.24 by s, we get
...(4.25)
We may now use a normal ideal transformer to make the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 4.6. It gives relationships between the stator
and the scaled rotor circuits.
Fig. 4.6 Equivalent circuit with rotor voltage and impedance scaled by a factor 1/s.
The secondary circuit in Fig. 4.6 now accounts for the entire power passing from the stator to the rotor, including that transferred
to mechanical power. The scaled up resistor R
2
/s accounts for both the rotorcopper loss power (P
R
) and the developed mechanical
power (P
d
). We can therefore determine the developed power by subtracting P
R
from the total airgap power,
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1
3 3 1
d ag R
R
P P P I I R I R
s s
( (  
= − = − = −
 ( (
¸ ¸ \ . ¸ ¸
2
2 2
1
or 3
d
s
P I R
s
− (  
= ×
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
...(4.26)
Here,
2
[(1 ) / ] s s R − × is an equivalent resistance accounting for the developed mechanical power per phase. Thus, we can modify
the equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.6 by dividing resistor R
2
/s into two resistors: (1) R
2
which accounts for the rotor electrical loss, and (2)
2
[(1 ) / ] s s R − × which accounts for the developed mechanical power. The result is shown in Fig. 4.7. The figure also shows resistor
R
1
to account for the stator copper loss, R
i
for iron loss, and X
1
as the leakageflux reactance.
5
This idea of scaling up the rotor emf was first suggested by Carl Steinmetz (18651923).
'
1
I
jX
ag
Stator Rotor + Mechanical
I
1
1
E
I
2
1
E
2
s
E
jX
2
N
1
: N
2
Ideal
transformer
2
R
s
E
1
I
1
E
2
E
jX
ag
N
1:
N
2
I
ag
I
1
'
1
I
N
1:
10
'
2
jX
' '
2
1
L
s
R R
s
−  
=

\ .
Z
Th
V
Th
A
B
Fig. 4.7 Equivalent circuit accounting for developed mechanical power.
We can further simplify the circuit of Fig. 4.7 using the properties of an ideal transformer. If ( )
2 1
/ K N N = is the
transformation ratio, the equivalent impedances as referred to the primary (stator) are given by Eq. 13.8 as
' 2
2 2
/ R R K =
and
' 2
2 2
/ X X K = . Thus, we get the equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.8.
Fig. 4.8 Equivalent circuit with rotor impedance transformed to statorside.
As for a transformer, we could further simplify the circuit of Fig. 4.8 by shifting the shunt branches R
i
and X
ag
to the right of rotor
impedance. However, this simplification cannot be done in an induction motor without incurring considerable error, as the noload
current is about 25 % to 40 % of the rated current.
We can make use of the equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.8 by finding Thevenin’s equivalent of the circuit on the left of terminals AB. In
practice, the core losses in an induction motor are quite small compared to the other powers. We can therefore ignore the resistance R
i
.
Thevenin’s voltage is given as
1
1 1
( )
ag
Th oc AB
ag
jX
R j X X
= = = ×
+ +
V V V V
...(4.27)
Thevenin’s equivalent impedance is given as
1 1
1 1
( )
( )
ag
Th
ag
jX R jX
R j X X
+
=
+ +
Z
...(4.28)
Thus, the equivalent circuit can be represented as in Fig. 4.9
Fig. 4.9 Simplified equivalent circuit using Thevenin’s theorem.
V
1
'
1
I
I
2
1
E
2
E
jX
2
R
2
R
i
jX
ag
N
1
: N
2
P
ag
/3
P
R
/3
P
d
/3
2
1 s
R
s
−  

\ .
Stator
Ideal
transformer
Rotor
Mechanical
I
1
R
1 jX
1
Air
gap
R
1 jX
1
'
2
R
V
1
R
i
jX
ag
Stator
I
1
'
2
jX
Rotor Mechanical
' '
2
1
L
s
R R
s
−  
=

\ .
A
B
11
Example 4.7 A threephase, 25 hp, 400V, 50Hz, fourpole, starconnected induction motor has following impedances per phase as
referred to the stator side:
' '
1 1 2 2
0.641 , 1.106 , 0.332 , 0.464 and 26.3
ag
R X R X X = Ω = Ω = Ω = Ω = Ω
Assume that the core losses are negligible and the rotational losses are constant at 0.34 kW. If the slip is 2 % at the rated voltage and
frequency, determine (a) the rotor speed, (b) the stator current, (c) the power factor, (d) the output and input power, and (e) the
efficiency of the motor.
Solution: The per phase applied voltage,
1
400
231 V
3
V = =
(a) The rotor speed,
120 120 50 (1 0.02)
(1 ) (1 )
4
s
f
N N s s
p
× × −
= − = − = = 1470 rpm
(b) Referring to Fig. 4.9 and taking V
1
as the reference phasor, Thevenin’s equivalent voltage and impedance are given by Eqs. 4.27
and 4.28, respectively, as
1
1 1
26.3
(231 0 )
( ) 0.641 (1.106 26.3)
221 1.34 V
ag
Th
ag
jX
j
R j X X j
= × = ∠ ° ×
+ + + +
= ∠ °
V V
and
1 1
1 1
( )
(26.3 90 )(0.641 1.106)
(059 1.08)
( ) 0.641 (1.106 26.3)
ag
Th
ag
jX R jX
j
j
R j X X j
+
∠ ° +
= = = + Ω
+ + + +
Z
The equivalent resistance representing mechanical load is
' '
2
1 1 0.02
0.332 16.268
0.02
L
s
R R
s
− −    
= = × = Ω
 
\ . \ .
Thus, the stator current is
1 ' ' '
2 2
221.6 1.34
( ) (0.59 1.08) (0.332 0.464) 16.268
Th
Th L
R jX R j j
∠ °
= = = ∠−
+ + + + + + +
V
Ι 12.84 3.79 A
Z
(c) Power factor,
1
cos cos( 3.79 ) pf φ = = − ° = 0.998lagging
(d) Power output,
2 ' 2
1
3 Rotational losses 3 (12.84) 16.268 340
o L
P I R = − = × × − = 7706.1 W
Power input,
in 1 1 1
3 cos 3 231 12.82 0.998 P V I φ = = × × × = 8866.5 W
(e) Efficiency of the motor,
in
7706.1
86.91pu
8866.5
o
P
P
η = = = = 86.91 %
4.7 TORQUESLIP CHARACTERISTICS
The input power to the rotor transferred from the air gap is given by Eq. 4.13, repeated here for convenience,
2
60
s
g
N
P
πτ
=
...(4.29)
The rotor copper loss is given as
20 2
2 2 2 20
2 2 2 2
2 20 2 20
2 2 2 2
20 2 20 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 20 2 20
3 cos 3 ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
( )
R
sE R
P E I sE
R sX R sX
s E R s E R
R sX R s X
θ
 
 = = × × ×

+ +
\ .
= =
+ +
...(4.30)
where, we have made use of Eqs. 4.10 and 4.11. According to Eq. 4.16, we have
R g
P s P = × or
2 2
20 2
2 2 2
2 20
3s E R
R s X +
=
2
60
s
N
s
πτ
⋅
Thus, the electromechanical torque exerted on the rotor is given as
12
2
20 2
2 2 2
2 20
3 60
2
s
sE R
N R s X
τ
π
= ×
+
...(4.31)
The induced emf E
20
is proportional to the airgap flux Ф and in turn, the flux Ф is approximately proportional to the voltage V
1
applied to the stator. That is,
20 1 20 1
or E V E kV ∝ Φ ∝ =
Equation 4.31 can then be modified to
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 20 2 20
60 3 ( )
2
s
s kV R V sR
K
N R s X R s X
τ
π
= × =
+ +
or
2
1 2
2 2 2
2 20
KV sR
R s X
τ =
+
...(4.32)
where, constant K is given as
2
2
60 90
(3 )
2
s s
k
K k
N N π π
= × =
...(4.33)
Thus, the torque for a given machine is seen to depend on two factors: (i) the applied voltage V
1
, and (ii) the slip, s.
Starting Torque
At starting, the rotor is stationary. Hence, s = 1, and Eq. 4.32 reduces to
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 20 2 20
st
KV sR KV R
R s X R X
τ = =
+ +
...(4.34)
However, in practice, the value of X
20
is much greater than that of R
2
(typically, X
20
≈ 1.5 Ω and R
2
≈ 0.2 Ω). We can therefore ignore
2
2
R compared to
2
20
X , so that the starting torque is given as
2
1 2
2
20
st
KV R
X
τ =
...(4.35)
For a given machine, the reactance X
20
is constant. Hence, we find that
2
1 st
V τ ∝ and
2 st
R τ ∝ . Thus, to obtain large starting torque
we should have large rotorresistance R
2
as well as large applied voltage V
1
.
TorqueSlip Characteristic Curve
From Eq. 4.32, we can predict the general shape of the torqueslip characteristic curve. If we keep the applied voltage V
1
constant, Eq.
4.32 can be written as
2
1 2 2 2
2 20
sR
K
R s X
τ =
+
...(4.36)
where, K
1
is another constant.
For Small Values of Slip: For very small values of slip (say, from 0 to 0.1), the term
2 2
20
s X is negligibly small compared to
R
2
. We can therefore rewrite Eq. 4.36 as
2
1 1 2
2 2
sR s
K K
R R
τ = =
Thus,
2
[ being constant] s R τ ∝
Hence, for small values of s, torque is seen to be directly proportional to slip s. The torqueslip curve should be a straight line, as
shown in Fig. 4.10.
For large value of slip: When s is large (say, from 0.2 to 1), the term
2
2
R becomes negligibly small as compared to
2 2
20
s X , so
that Eq. 4.36 can be rewritten as
2 2
1 1 2 2 2
20 20
sR R
K K
s X sX
τ = =
13
Thus,
2 20
1
[ and being constant] R X
s
τ ∝
Hence, for large values of s, torque is seen to be inversely proportional to slip s. The torqueslip curve should be a rectangular
hyperbola, as shown in Fig. 4.10.
Fig. 4.10 Torqueslip characteristic curve for an induction motor.
The overall torqueslip characteristic curve has a shape as shown in Fig. 4.10. We can interpret the values of s in terms of the rotor
speed N. When s = 0, the rotor speed N is same as the synchronous speed N
s
. When s = 1, the rotor speed N becomes zero (i.e., the
motor is standstill).
Three Modes of Operation
Depending on the value of slip s, there can be following three modes of operation of an induction motor (Fig. 4.11): (1) Motor action
(0 1) s < ≤ , (2) Brake action ( 1) s > , and (3) Generator action ( 0) s < .
Fig. 4.11 Three modes of operation of an induction motor.
(1) Motor Action(0 1) s < ≤ : In this mode, the rotor rotates in the same direction as the stator field. The speed is less than the
synchronous speed.
When s = 1, the rotor speed N is zero corresponding to point C on the curve (Fig. 4.10). The torque at zero speed is called starting
torque
st
τ . Point B on the characteristic curve corresponds to a value of slip s for which the torque developed by the motor is
maximum torque
m
τ .
The shaded portion (for 0.01 0.06 s < < ) shows the normal workingrange of the induction motor. Obviously, if the motor is to
start running, the load torque at the shaft must be less than the starting torque
st
τ . The motor will accelerate from standstill, until the
torque developed and the load torque comes to equality at a speed close to but less than the synchronous speed. In the region AB, the
machine has a stable motor action. If the load torque increases (but still remains below the value
m
τ ), the motor develops increased
torque at a slightly reduced speed.
If the load torque is increased beyond
m
τ , the speed decreases and the point of operation goes beyond B. The motor further
decelerates and ultimately comes to a standstill. Thus, the region BC represents an unstable motor action.
(2) Brake Action( 1) s > : There are two ways of making s greater than unity. First, the rotor can be driven by a prime mover in a
direction opposite to the rotating magnetic field. Second, we can reverse any two of the phase supplies while operating the machine as
a motor. The effect of reversing two supplyphases is to make the stator field rotate in the opposite direction. Thus, at the time of
τ
0
0.5
1.0
1.0
s
Motor Generator Brake
14
switchover, the rotor is rotating almost at synchronous speed in one direction and the stator field is rotating at synchronous speed in
the opposite direction. The difference is almost twice the synchronous speed and hence the slip s is almost 2.
The effect is that the rotor now attempts to reverse its direction of rotation. This amounts to braking of the rotor in order to bring it
to a standstill prior to commencing rotation in the opposite direction. This braking effect is known as plugging. As soon as the
machine stops, the power supply is switched off and the machine remains at standstill.
(3) Generator Action ( 0) s < : The slip s can be made negative if with the help of a prime mover the rotor is made to rotate at a
speed higher than the synchronous speed. In such cases, the machine works as a generator. However, induction generators are rarely
used as the most significant generators are synchronous machines.
Condition for Maximum Torque
We have seen that the torque developed depends on the value of slip s. To determine the value of s that gives maximum torque, we
differentiate the expression for τ (Eq. 4.36) with respect to s and equate the differential to zero.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 20 2 2 20 2 2 20
1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 20 2 20
( ) 2 ( )
( ) ( )
R s X R sR sX R R s X d
K K
ds R s X R s X
τ + − ⋅ −
∴ = ⋅ = ⋅
+ +
For τ to have a maximum value, we should have
2 2 2
2 20 2 20
( ) 0 or R s X R sX − = =
...(4.37)
This means that the torque is maximum when the rotor resistance is equal to the rotor reactance under running condition.
For a given machine (i.e., for given R
2
and X
20
), the value of slip s at which the torque is maximum is given as
2
20
m
R
s
X
=
...(4.38)
Maximum Torque
Putting the value of s from Eq. 4.37 in Eq. 4.36, we get the maximum value of the torque as
2
2 20 2 2 1
1 1
2 2 2 2
2 2 20 20 2 20 20
( / ) 1
( / ) 2 2
m
R X R R K
K K
R R X X R X X
τ = = = ⋅
+
...(4.39)
Thus, we find that the maximum torque of an induction motor is inversely proportional to the leakage reactance at standstill X
20
and
is independent of the value of the rotor resistance R
2
.
The ratio of torque τ for any slip s to the maximum torque
m
τ can be determined by dividing Eq. 4.36 by Eq.4.39,
2
1 2 2 2
2 20 2 20 2 20
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
2 20 2 20
20
2 2 ( / ) 2
1
( / )
2
m
m m
sR
K
R s X sR X s R X s s
K
R s X R X s s s
X
τ
τ
+ ⋅
= = = =
+ + +
⋅
...(4.40)
Since s = 1 at the starting, the ratio of starting torque
st
τ to the maximum torque
m
τ is given by putting s = 1 in Eq. 4.40,
2
2
1
st m
m m
s
s
τ
τ
=
+
...(4.41)
Effect of Rotor Resistance on the Starting Torque
For a squirrelcage induction motor, the rotor resistance R
2
is fixed. Such motors are designed to have torqueslip characteristic of the
type shown in Fig. 4.10. For such motors, the starting torque is small and hence they cannot start with heavy loads connected.
However, in case of phasewound induction motors it is possible to include suitable value of resistance in the rotor circuit (see Fig.
4.13) so as to give desired starting torque.
If the impedance of the stator winding is assumed negligible, then for a given supply voltage, the torque is given by Eq. 4.36,
2
1 2 2 2
2 20
sR
K
R s X
τ = ⋅
+
The value of X
20
is far greater than that of R
2
. For simplicity, assume X
20
= 1.0 Ω. Using above equation, we can plot torqueslip
characteristics for four different values of R
2
as 0.1 Ω, 0.2 Ω, 0.6 Ω and 1.0 Ω. The results are shown in Fig. 4.12. Let us see the effect
of doubling the resistance R
2
from 0.1 Ω to 0.2 Ω. In the normal working range (say, s = 0.05) the torque reduces by about 50 %. But,
the starting torque (for s = 1), almost doubles. Hence, if a large starting torque is required, the rotor must have relatively high
resistance. From the characteristic curves given in Fig. 4.12, following observations are made:
15
(i) The starting torque
st
τ increases on increasing the rotor resistance.
(ii) The maximum torque
m
τ is constant for all the curves.
(iii) The slip corresponding to maximum torque is greater for higher values of rotor resistance.
(iv) Maximum starting torque is obtained when R
2
= sX
20
.
Fig. 4.12 Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip characteristic of an induction motor.
Example 4.8 A threephase, 400V, 50Hz, sixpole, starconnected induction motor develops maximum torque at a speed of 940
rpm. If the rotor resistance per phase is 0.1 Ω, determine the standstill rotor reactance.
Solution: The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
1000rpm
6
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
1000 940
Slip, 0.06
1000
s
s
N N
s
N
− −
∴ = = =
Maximum torque occurs at a slip so as to satisfy the condition: R
2
= sX
20
. Therefore,
2
20
0.1
0.06
R
X
s
= = = 1.66Ω
4.8 STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTORS
There are two problems in starting an induction motor: (1) Low starting torque, and (2) Heavy starting current, though for a short
duration.
As can be seen from Fig. 4.13, an induction motor having a lowresistance rotor, such as the usual type of squirrelcage rotor, the
starting torque is small compared to the maximum torque available. On the other hand, if the bars of the cage rotor were made with
sufficiently high resistance to give high starting torque, the slip for fullload torque would be quite large. This would have two adverse
effects. First, the I
2
R loss in the rotor would be high causing excessive heating and reduced efficiency of the motor. Secondly, the
variation of speed with load would be quite large.
Another problem is that the motor draws about four to seven times the fullload current, if it is directly switched to the power
supply. At the instant of starting, the slip is unity, the frequency of induced emf in the rotor is 50Hz
r
f sf = = , and hence a large
emf is induced. The induction motor works as a transformer with its secondary shortcircuited. This results in a large circulating
current in the rotor winding. Such a large current causes a large voltage drops in the lines and thereby produces an objectionable
dimming of the lamps in the vicinity. Therefore, the directonline starting of induction motors is not desirable. Rules laid down by
Electric Supply Companies do not permit the directonline starting of 3phase induction motors above 5 hp. For such heavy duty
motors, we use some method by which either more resistance is included in the rotor circuit in the starting, or a reduced voltage is
applied at the starting.
Starting of WoundRotor Induction Motor
The best (but costly) solution is to use a phasewound rotor induction motor, with a starting arrangement shown in Fig. 4.13. The
motor is designed to have low rotor resistance. External variable resistance is connected across the slip rings. The motor is started with
all the resistance included in the rotor circuit. This gives a high starting torque. As the motor picks up speed, the resistance is slowly
reduced. When the motor attains full speed, all the resistance is cut out.
16
Fig. 4.13 Starting of woundrotor induction motor
Large motors are often fitted with a shortcircuiting and brush lifting device. On attaining full speed, first the threerings are
shortcircuited and then the brushes are lifted off the rings. This eliminates the losses due to the brushcontact resistance and the
brush friction. Also, the wear of the brushes and sliprings is reduced.
Starting of CageRotor Induction Motor
Most induction motors have squirrelcage type rotor. It is usual to start cagerotor motors –except small machines—with a reduced
voltage, using one of the methods given below.
StarDelta Starter: This starter can be used only for those motors whose stator winding is designed for deltaconnection during its
normal operation. All the six terminals of the threephase stator windings are brought out and connected as shown in Fig. 4.14a. Using
the doublethrow triplepole switch, in the starting, the stator windings are connected in star, so that the voltage across each phase is
1/ 3 times the normal value. As the motor picks up speed, the changeover switch disconnected the winding terminals and then re
connected them in delta across the supply terminals. Each phase now gets the normal voltage.
This method reduces the current drawn by the motor to onethird the current it would have drawn if it was directly connected in
delta. However, the starting torque too is reduced to onethird. This method is cheap but is limited to applications where high starting
torque is not necessary, e.g., machine tools, pumps, etc.
(a) Stardelta starter. (b) Autotransformer starter
Fig. 4.14 Two ways of starting a cagerotor induction motor.
AutoTransformer Starter: We use a threephase autotransformer to supply a reduced voltage to the motor at the starting (Fig.
4.14b). Two or three voltagesteps (in the autotransformer) are used during the starting process. The autotransformer is
completely cut out once the motor picks up speed to its rated value.
ADDITIONAL SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example 4.9 A 3phase, 6pole induction motor runs at 960 rpm on fullload. It is supplied from a 4pole alternator running at 1500
rpm. Calculate the fullload slip of the motor.
Solution: The frequency of generated emf by the alternator is
1500 4
50Hz
120 120
NP
f
×
= = =
Therefore, the synchronous speed of the motor is
120 120 50
1000rpm
6
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
17
1000 960
Slip, 0.04
1000
s
s
N N
s
N
− −
∴ = = = = 4%
Example 4.10 A 3phase, 4pole induction motor supplies a useful torque of 160 Nm at 5 % slip. The stator losses are 1000 W and
the friction and windage losses are 500 W. Calculate (a) the rotor input, (b) the motor input, and (c) the efficiency.
Solution: (a) The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
1500rpm
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
∴ Motor speed, (1 ) (1 0.05) 1500 1425 rpm
s
N s N = − = − × =
The output power,
2 2 160 1425
23876 W
60 60
sh
o
N
P
πτ π × ×
= = =
Thus, the power developed by the rotor is given as
23876 500 24376 W
d o m
P P P = + = + =
Therefore, the rotor input power,
24376
25659 W
(1 ) (1 0.05)
d
g
P
P
s
= = = =
− −
25.659kW
(b) The input power,
in
25659 1000
g S
P P P = + = + = 26659W
(c) The efficiency,
in
23876
0.8956
26659
o
P
P
η = = = = 89.56%
Example 4.11 An induction motor has an efficiency of 0.9 when load is 50 kW. At this load, the stator copper and rotor copper loss
each equals the iron loss. The mechanical losses are onethird of the noload loss. Calculate the slip.
Solution: The power input,
in
50
55.56kW
0.9
P = =
Neglecting the rotor iron loss, the total losses,
in
55.56 50 5.56kW
tl o
P P P = − = − =
The noload loss consists of the stator iron loss (P
i
) and mechanical losses (P
m
) (since the stator and rotor copper losses are negligible).
These two losses are independent of the load.
Given, the mechanical loss,
noload loss
3 3 2
i m i
m m
P P P
P P
+
= = ⇒ =
We know that
Total loss = Stator copper loss + Stator iron loss + Rotor copper loss + Mechanical loss
or / 2
tl i i i i
P P P P P = + + +
or 5.56 3 1.59 kW
2
i
i i
P
P P = + ⇒ =
Now, the power developed by the rotor is given as
1.59
50 50.795kW
2
d o m
P P P = + = + =
The rotor input power is given as
Power developed by the rotor + Rotor copper loss
50.795 1.59 52.385kW
g
d R
P
P P
=
= + = + =
Therefore, the slip,
1.59
0.03
52.385
R
g
P
s
P
= = = = 3 %
Example 4.12 The induced emf between the slipring terminals of an induction motor at standstill is 100 V. The rotor windings are
starconnected and have a resistance of 0.4 Ω per phase. Calculate the rotor current when the slipring terminals are shortcircuited and
the rotor is rotating at a slip of 4 %.
Solution: For starconnected rotor windings, the induced emf per phase when the rotor is at standstill is given as
2
20
100
V
3 3
V
E = =
The rotor reactance X
2
= sX
20
is negligible for small values of s, and hence can be ignored. The rotor current is therefore given as
20 2
2
2 2
2
2 20
0.04 100/ 3
0.4
sE E
I
R
R sX
×
= = = =
+
5.77 A
18
Example 4.13 A slip ring induction motor runs at 285 rpm on full load when fed from a 50Hz supply. Calculate (a) the number of
poles, (b) the slip, (c) the slip for fullload torque if the rotor resistance is doubled, and (d) the rotor copper losses with added rotor
resistance if the original value of the rotor losses were 250 W.
Solution: (a) Approximate number of poles,
120 120 50
21.05
285
f
P
N
×
= = = .
There has to be an even number of poles, such that N
s
> N. Thus, the actual number of poles is 20.
(b) With 20 poles, the synchronous speed is given as
120 120 50
300
20
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
Therefore, the slip,
300 285
300
s
s
N N
s
N
− −
= = = 0.05
(c) For small values of s, the reactance sX
20
is much smaller than the resistance R
2
, and hence we can write Eq. 4.31 as
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 20 2 2
sR sR s
R s X R R
τ ∝ ∝ ∝
+
It means that to keep the torque same, the s/R
2
ratio should remain the same. If R
2
is doubled, s also has to be doubled. Thus, new
value of 2 0.05 s = × = 0.1
(d) Since the fullload current remains the same, on doubling the rotor resistance, the copper loss (I
2
R) is also doubled. Hence, the new
copper loss 2 250
R
P = × = 500 W.
Example 4.14 The fullload slip of a 500hp, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor is 0.02. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0.25
Ω/phase. Calculate the slip and the power output, if external resistances of 2 ohm each are inserted in each rotor phase. Assume the
torque to remain unaltered.
Solution: Given:
'
2 2
0.25 ; 0.02; 2 0.25 2.25 R s R = Ω = = + = Ω. If the torque remains the same, the ratio
2
/ s R must also
remain same. Hence,
'
2
2
0.02
' 2.25
0.25
s
s R
R
= × = × = 0.18
Now, if N
s
is the synchronous speed of the motor, the speed of the rotor before inserting the external resistance,
(1 ) (1 0.02) 0.98
s s s
N s N N N = − = − =
and the speed of the rotor after inserting the external resistance,
'
(1 ') (1 0.18) 0.82
s s s
N s N N N = − = − =
Since the torque remains the same, the output is directly proportional to the speed. Hence, the new output of the motor is
'
0.82
500 hp
0.98
s
o
s
N
P
N
= × = 418.4 hp
Example 4.15 A 3phase, 4pole, 50Hz, 7.46kW induction motor, while working at rated voltage and frequency has a starting
torque of 160 % and a maximum torque of 200 % of the fullload torque. Determine (a) the fullload speed, and (b) the speed at
maximum torque.
Solution: (a) Given: 1.6
st fl
τ τ = ; 2.0
m fl
τ τ = .
The ratio
1.6
0.8
2.0
fl
st
m fl
τ
τ
τ τ
= =
Therefore, using Eq. 4.41, we have
2
2
2
0.8 or 1 2.5 2, 0.5
1
m
m m m
m
s
s s s
s
= + = ⇒ =
+
Obviously, s
m
= 2 is not possible. Hence, s
m
= 0.5. Now, using Eq. 4.40,
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 0.5
or 0.5
(0.5)
or 0.125 0 0.8535, 0.1465
fl fl m fl
m m fl fl
fl fl fl
s s s
s s s
s s s
τ
τ
⋅ × ×
= =
+ +
− + = ⇒ =
Since, for stable motor action, s
fl
must be less than s
m
, we have s
fl
= 0.1465. The synchronous speed is
120 120 50
1500 rpm
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
19
Therefore, fullload speed, (1 ) 1500 (1 0.1465)
fl s fl
N N s = − = × − = 1280.25 rpm
(b) The speed at maximum torque, (1 ) 1500 (1 0.5)
m s m
N N s = − = × − = 750 rpm
Example 4.16 A 3phase, 4pole, 50Hz, 18.65kW induction motor has friction and windage losses of 2.5 % of the output, and full
load slip of 4 %. Determine (a) the rotor copper loss, (b) the rotor input, (c) the output torque, and (d) the gross torque.
Solution: The friction and windage losses, 0.025 18650 466.25 W
m
P = × = .
The rotor gross output, 18650 466.25 19 116.25 W
d o m
P P P = + = + =
(a) Using Eq. 4.18, the rotor copper loss is
0.04
19116.25
1 1 0.04
R d
s
P P
s
   
= = =
 
− −
\ . \ .
796.5 W
(b) The rotor input,
796.5
0.04
R
g
P
P
s
= = = 19 912.5 W
(c) The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
1500 rpm
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = =
The rotor speed, (1 ) 1500 (1 0.04) 1440 rpm
s
N N s = − = × − =
The shaft torque,
18 650
2 ( / 60) 2 (1440/ 60)
o
sh
P
N
τ
π π
= = =
×
123.7 Nm
(d) The gross torque,
19 116.25
2 ( / 60) 2 (1440/ 60)
d
d
P
N
τ
π π
= = =
×
126.8 Nm
Example 4.17 A 3phase, 4pole, 1100V, 50Hz, deltaconnected induction motor has a starconnected rotor with a phase
transformation ratio of 3.8: 1. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance are 0.012 Ω and 0.25 Ω per phase, respectively. The motor
runs at 1440 rpm at full load. Neglecting the stator impedance and magnetizing current, determine (a) the rotor current at starting with
sliprings shorted, (b) the rotor power factor at starting with sliprings shorted, (c) the rotor current while running at full load with slip
rings shorted, (d) the rotor power factor while running at full load with sliprings shorted, and (e) the external resistance per phase
required to limit the starting current to 100 A in the stator supply lines.
Solution: The synchronous speed,
120 120 50
1500rpm
4
s
f
N
P
×
= = = .
The slip at full load,
1500 1440
0.04
1500
s
−
= =
The transformation ratio,
2
1
1
3.8
N
K
N
= =
The induced voltage in rotor per phase at standstill,
20 1
1
1100 289.5 V
3.8
E KE = = × =
The rotor impedance at standstill,
2 2 2 2
20 2 20
(0.012) (0.25) 0.25 Z R X = + = + ≈ Ω
The rotor impedance at full load,
2 2 2 2
2 2 20
( ) (0.012) (0.04 0.25) 0.0156 Z R sX = + = + × = Ω
(a) The rotor current at starting with sliprings shorted,
20
20
20
289.5
0.25
E
I
Z
= = = 1158 A
(b) The rotor power factor at starting with sliprings shorted,
1
20
0.25
cos tan cos87.25
0.012
pf
−
 
= = ° =

\ .
0.048(lagging)
(c) The rotor current while running at full load with sliprings shorted,
20 2
2
2 2
0.04 289.5
0.25
sE E
I
Z Z
×
= = = = 742.3 A
(d) The rotor power factor while running at full load with sliprings shorted,
20
2
2
0.012
0.0156
R
pf
Z
= = = 0.769(lagging)
(e) The stator phase current corresponding to starting linecurrent of 100 A is
1
100
57.73 A
3
I = =
1
2
Rotor current per phase, 57.73 3.8 219.4A
I
I
K
∴ = = × =
' 20
2
20
289.5
Rotor total impedance, 1.32
219.4
E
Z
I
∴ = = = Ω
Thus, the rotor total resistance required is
' 2 2 2 2
2 2 20
(1.32) (0.25) 1.296 R r Z X + = − = − = Ω
Therefore, the external rotor resistance required is
1.296 0.012 r = − = 1.284Ω
SUMMARY
1. An induction motor has a distributed threephase field winding on the stator and armature on the rotor.
2. The synchronous speed in rpm is given as
120
s
f
N
P
= .
3. The speed of the rotor of an induction motor always remains slightly less than the synchronous speed.
4. The slip, ( ) /
s s
s N N N = − . At no load s is around 1 % and at full load it is around 3 %. Thus, an induction motor operates at
almost constant speed.
5. Induction motor action is, in many respects, similar to that of a transformer. However, due to the air gap, it has much greater
magnetizing current.
6. The phasor diagram and the equivalent circuit of a threephase induction motor are always drawn per phase basis.
7. The frequency of the rotor current,
r
f s f = ⋅ . Since s is very small, the frequency f
r
is very small. Therefore, the rotor iron
losses are negligibly small.
8. The rotor current is given as
20 2
2
2 2
2
2 20
( )
sE E
I
Z
R sX
= =
+
9. The rotor copper loss,
R g
P s P = × , where P
g
is the airgap power.
10. The power developed by the rotor, (1 )
d g R g g g
P P P P sP s P = − = − = − .
11. The power developed P
d
(in W) and torque developed τ
d
(in Nm) are related as
2 60
(2 ) or
60 2
d d
d d d d
N P
P n
N
πτ
τ ω τ π τ
π
= = = =
12. 1 hp = 746 W.
13. The mechanical load on the shaft of the motor is represented by an equivalent (fictitious) electrical load
2
(1 ) /
L
R R s s = − .
14. The torque exerted on the rotor is given as
2
1 2
2 2 2
2 20
KV sR
R s X
τ =
+
.
15. The starting torque,
2
1 2
2
20
st
KV R
X
τ = .
16. The motor has three modes of operations: (i) Motor Action (0 1) s < ≤ , (ii) Brake Action ( 1) s > , and (iii) Generator Action
( 0) s < .
17. Maximum torque occurs for a value of s, such that
2 20
R sX = .
18. The maximum torque is given as
1
20
1
2
m
K
X
τ = ⋅ .
21
19. The ratio of the torque for any s to the maximum torque is given as
2 2
2
m
m m
s s
s s
τ
τ
⋅
=
+
20. An induction motor draws considerably high current at starting. To limit the starting current, stardelta starter or autotransformer
starter is used.
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
Before you proceed to the next Chapter, take this Test. Give yourself two marks for each correct answer rand minus one for each
wrong answer. If your score is 12 or more, go to the next Chapter; otherwise study this Chapter again.
No Statement True False Marks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
The more poles an induction motor has, the faster it runs.
For maximum torque, the rotor and the stator poles should be spatially orthogonal.
The slip speed is defined as positive in the negative angular direction.
The change in speed of a threephase induction motor from no load to full load is about 98 %.
When a squirrel cage rotor is used in an induction motor, its stator can have any number of poles.
The current in the rotor winding of an induction motor is an induced current.
The frequency of the rotor currents is independent of the speed of the induction motor.
An induction motor has field on the rotor and armature on the stator.
An induction motor develops maximum torque at a speed at which the rotor reactance has the
value same as its resistance.
The reason why most of the induction motors use squirrel cage rotor is that the starting torque is
high.
Your Score =
Answers
1. False 2. True 3. True 4. False 5. True 6. True 7. False 8. False 9. True 10. False
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Explain the principle of working of a threephase induction motor.
2. What is meant by slip of an induction motor? Explain the importance of slip in the operation and performance of an induction
motor.
3. Describe the constructional differences between a squirrel cage rotor and wound rotor of an induction motor. Discuss their
relative advantages and disadvantages.
4. Draw and explain the power flow diagram of a threephase induction motor. Show that the rotor copperloss is slip times the
power input to the rotor.
5. Derive the equation for the torque developed by an induction motor. Draw a typical torqueslip characteristic curve and deduce
the condition for maximum torque.
6. Explain why the starting torque of a squirrelcase induction motor is low, although the current drawn form the line may be quite
high in starting of the motor.
7. What is the effect of introducing extra resistance in the rotor circuit? Under what condition is it done and why?
8. Prove that the frequency of the induced emf in the rotor of an induction motor is slip times its stator supply frequency.
9. Explain why an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed, and why a synchronous motor cannot run at any speed other
than the synchronous speed.
10. Starting from first principles, develop the equivalent circuit of an induction motor and explain how mechanical load is accounted
for in this equivalent circuit.
11. Explain why a starter is needed for starting an induction motor. What are different methods of starting an induction motor?
12. With the help of a circuit diagram explain how a manual autotransformer is used in starting an induction motor.
13. Give the reasons for the following:
(a) The speed of an induction motor can never be the same as the synchronous speed.
(b) The reactance of the rotor varies greatly between starting and running conditions.
(c) The induction motor can be called a generalized rotating transformer.
(d) The rotor coreloss in a threephase induction motor is negligible.
(e) The induction motor is the most commonly used motor.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Here are some incomplete statements. Four alternatives are provided below each. Tick the alternative that completes the statement
correctly:
1. The main reason why threephase induction motors are widely used in industries is that
(a) they are rugged in construction, require less maintenance and are less expensive than other motors
(b) their operating characteristics are superior over other electrical motors
22
(c) their speed can be controlled very smoothly over a wide range
(d) they can be manufactured easily for any hprating
2. In a threephase induction motor,
(a) threephase supply is connected to the stator winding and a dc supply is connected to the rotor winding
(b) threephase supply is connected to both the stator and rotor windings
(c) threephase supply is connected to rotor winding only
(d) threephase supply is connected to stator winding only
3. The speed of a 50Hz, threephase induction motor under fullload condition is 720 rpm. The number of pole in the motor is
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 12
4. In a 50Hz, threephase induction motor, the frequency of the currents induced in the rotor is about
(a) 50 Hz (b) 10 Hz (c) 2 Hz (d) zero
5. In a woundrotor type induction motor, the rotor winding terminals are brought out through slip rings and brushes. This is done
(a) to enable us to connect the rotor windings either in star or in delta as per requirement
(b) to enable us to close the rotor circuit externally
(c) to enable us to connect 3phase supply to the rotor windings
(d) to enable us to connect extra resistances across them while starting the motor
6. The relation between the synchronous speed N
s
(in rpm), stator supply frequency f, and the number of poles P of a threephase
induction motor is given as
(a)
120
s
P
N
f
= (b)
120
s
P
N
f
= (c)
120
s
PN
f = (d)
120
s
N
f
P
=
7. The synchronous speed of an induction motor can be increased by
(a) reducing mechanical friction (b) increasing supply voltage
(c) increasing number of poles (d) increasing frequency of supply
8. When an induction motor is standstill, its slip is
(a) zero (b) 0.5 (c) 1 (d) infinity
9. A threephase, 400V induction motor develops a torque of 200 Nm. If the supply voltage is reduced to 200 V, the torque
developed will be
(a) 50 Nm (b) 100 Nm (c) 200 Nm (d) 400 Nm
10. If an induction motor is made to run at synchronous speed, then
(a) the rotor emf would be zero (b) the rotor current would be zero
(c) the torque developed would be zero (d) all the above
11. The rotor circuit of a threephase induction motor under running condition
(a) is always closed
(b) is always open
(c) is sometimes closed and sometimes open
(d) is neither completely closed nor completely open
12. The number of slip rings in a 3phase wound rotor induction motor is
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 9 (d) 12
13. A 3phase, 50Hz induction motor at standstill, when energized, has a voltage of 50 V between its slip rings. While running at
full load with a slip of 0.04, the voltage between its slip rings would be
(a) 50 V (b) 20 V (c) 4 V (d) 2 V
14. At standstill, the power factor of the rotor circuit of an induction motor is found to be 0.2 lagging. While running at full load, the
power factor of the rotor circuit will be
(a) 0.2 lagging (b) about 0.8 lagging (c) almost unity (d) any of the above
15. If the rotor circuit resistance of a threephase induction motor is increased,
(a) both the starting torque and the maximum value of the torque developed increase
(b) both the starting torque and the maximum value of the torque developed remain unchanged
(c) the starting torque increases but the maximum value of the torque developed decreases
(d) the starting torque increases but the maximum value of the torque developed remains unchanged
16. An induction motor has a starting torque of 600 Nm when started by direct switching. If it is started through an autotransformer
with 50 % tapping, the starting torque will be
(a) 1200 Nm (b) 600 Nm (c) 300 Nm (d) 150 Nm
17. An induction motor has a starting torque of 600 Nm when started by direct switching. If a stardelta starter is used for starting
this motor, the starting torque will be
(a) 1200 Nm (b) 600 Nm (c) 300 Nm (d) 200 Nm
Answers
1. a 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. d 6. c 7. d 8. c 9. a 10. d
11. a 12. a 13. d 14. c 15. d 16. d 17. d
23
PROBLEMS
(A) Simple Problems
1. A 6pole induction motor is fed from a 50Hz supply. If the frequency of the rotor emf at full load is 2 Hz, find the fullload slip
and speed. [Ans. 0.04, 960 rpm]
2. A 3phase, 6pole, 50Hz induction motor has a slip of 1 % at no load and 3 % at full load. Find (a) the synchronous speed, (b)
the noload speed, (c) the fullload speed, (d) the frequency of rotor current at standstill, and (e) the frequency of rotor current at
full load. [Ans. (a) 1000 rpm; (b) 990 rpm; (c) 970 rpm; (d) 50 Hz; (e) 1.5 Hz]
3. A 10pole induction motor is supplied by a 6pole alternator which is driven by a prime mover at 1200 rpm. If the motor runs at
slip of 3 %, what is its speed? [Ans. 698.4 rpm]
4. A 4pole induction motor is energized from a 50Hz supply system. If the machine runs on fullload at 3 % slip, determine the
running speed and the frequency of the rotor currents. [Ans. 1455 rpm, 1.5 Hz]
5. If the electromotive force in the stator of an 8pole induction motor has a frequency of 50 Hz, and that in the rotor is 1.5 Hz, at
what speed is the motor running? What is the slip? [Ans. 727.5 rpm, 0.03]
6. A 3phase, 440V, 50Hz, 4pole induction motor the standstill rotor emf per phase of 115 V. If the motor is running at 1440
rpm, calculate for this speed (a) the slip, (b) the frequency of the rotor induced emf, and (c) the value of the rotor induced emf
per phase. [Ans. (a) 4 %; (b) 2 Hz; (c) 4.6 V]
7. A 3phase, 440V, 50Hz, 4pole, phasewound induction motor at standstill has the induced emf of 157 V between the slipring
terminals. The rotor windings are starconnected and have a resistance of 0.6 Ω per phase. Calculate the rotor current when the
slipring terminals are shortcircuited and the rotor is rotating at a speed of 1455 rpm. [Ans. 4.53 A]
8. A 6pole, 3phase, 50Hz motor with starconnected rotor has the rotor resistance of 0.3 Ω per phase and the rotor standstill
reactance of 1.5 Ω per phase. When the motor is at standstill, the emf between the sliprings on open circuit is 175 V. If the
motor runs at a speed of 950 rpm, find (a) the slip, (b) the rotor emf per phase, and (c) the rotor frequency and reactance.
[Ans. (a) 0.05; (b) 5.05 V; (c) 2.5 Hz, 0.075 Ω per phase]
9. A 500V, 3phase, 6pole, 50Hz induction motor, working at a power factor of 0.87, develops 20 hp inclusive of windage and
friction losses when running at 975 rpm. Calculate (a) the slip, (b) the rotor copper loss, (c) the total input if the stator losses are
1500 W, (d) the current drawn by the motor from the supply, and (e) the frequency of rotor current.
[Ans. (a) 2.5 %; (b) 382.6 W; (c) 16.8 kW; (d) 22.3 A; (e) 1.25 Hz]
(B) Tricky Problems
10. A 3phase, 12pole alternator is driven by an engine running at 500 rpm. The alternator supplies an induction motor which has a
fullload speed of 1455 rpm. Find the slip and the number of poles of the motor. [Ans. 3 %, 4 poles]
11. A 3phase, 400V, 50Hz, 30hp, 2pole induction motor operates at an efficiency of 85 % with a power factor of 0.75 lag.
Calculate the current drawn by the motor from the power mains. [Ans. 50.67 A]
12. The power input to a 3phase induction motor is 60 kW. The stator losses total to 1 kW. Find the total mechanical power
developed and the rotor copper losses per phase, if the motor is running with a slip of 3 %. [Ans. 57.23 kW, 1.77 kW]
13. A 3phase, 50Hz, 4pole, induction motor has a rotor resistance of 0.024 ohm per phase and standstill reactance of 0.6 ohm per
phase. Determine the speed at which maximum torque is developed. [Ans. 1440 rpm]
14. A 3phase, 4pole induction motor runs at a speed of 1440 rpm on 500V, 50Hz mains. The mechanical power available at the
shaft is 20.3 hp. The mechanical losses are 2.23 hp. The stator copper loss and iron loss add up to 1 kW. Calculate (a) the slip,
(b) the rotor copper losses, and (c) the efficiency. [Ans. (a) 4 %; (b) 701 W; (c) 81.8 %]
15. The power input to a threephase induction motor is 50 kW and the corresponding stator losses are 2 kW. Calculate (a) the total
mechanical power developed and the rotor I
2
R loss when the slip is 3 %, (b) the output horse power of the motor, if the friction
and windage losses are 1.0 kW, and (c) the efficiency of the motor. [Ans. (a) 46.56 kW; (b) 61 hp; (c) 91.1 %]
16. The rotor of a 6pole, 50Hz, slipring induction motor has a resistance of 0.2 ohm per phase. It is running at 960 rpm. Calculate
the resistance to be added to the rotor circuit to reduce the speed to 600 rpm, the torque remaining the same. [Ans. 1.8 Ω]
17. A 3phase, 50Hz, 6pole, 18.65kW, slipring induction motor runs at 960 rpm on fullload with a rotor current of 35 A per
phase. Calculate the resistance per phase of the rotor winding, allowing 1 kW for mechanical losses. [Ans. 0.223 Ω/phase]
18. The power supplied to a 3phase induction motor is 40 kW and the corresponding stator losses are 1.5 kW. Calculate (a) the total
mechanical power developed and the rotor copper loss when the slip is 0.04 per unit, and (b) the efficiency of the motor. Neglect
the rotor iron losses. [Ans. (a) 36.96 kW, 1.54 kW; (b) 92.4 %]
(C) Challenging Problems
19. A threephase, 415V, phasewound, 50Hz, 4pole induction motor has a deltaconnected stator with 240 conductors per phase
and a starconnected rotor with 48 conductors per phase. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0.013 Ω per phase and a leakage
reactance of 0.048 Ω per phase at standstill. Calculate (a) the rotor emf per phase at standstill with the rotor on opoen circuit, (b)
the rotor emf and current per phase at 4 % slip, and (c) the phase difference between the rotor emf and current for a slip of 4 %.
[Ans. (a) 83 V; (b) 3.32 V, 252.7 A; (c)
2
8.4 φ = ° ]
20. A 50Hz, 8pole induction motor has a fullload slip of 2 %. The rotor resistance is 0.001 Ω/phase and the standstill reactance is
0.005 Ω/phase. Find the ratio of the maximum to fullload torque, and the speed at which the maximum torque occurs.
[Ans. 5.05, 600 rpm]
21. A 3kV, 24pole, 50Hz, 3phase, starconnected induction motor has a slipring rotor of resistance 0.016 ohm per phase and
standstill reactance of 0.265 ohm per phase. Fullload torque is obtained at a speed of 247 rpm. Neglecting the stator impedance,
calculate (a) the ratio of maximum to fullload torque, and (b) the speed of maximum torque. [Ans. (a) 2.6; (b) 235 rpm]
24
22. A 6pole, 3phase induction motor develops 30 hp including 2 hp mechanical losses at a speed of 950 rpm on 550V, 50Hz
mains. The power factor is 0.88 lagging. Calculate (a) the slip, (b) the rotor copper loss, (c) total input, f stator losses are 2 kW,
(d) the efficiency, and (e) the line current. [Ans. (a) 0.05; (b) 1083.9 W; (c) 23 678 W; (d) 93.18 %; (e) 28.24 A]
EXPERIMENTAL EXERCISE 15 .1
Load Test on a ThreePhase Induction Motor
OBJECTIVES: For different settings of the load,
1. To plot the efficiency versus output power characteristic curve.
2. To plot the torque versus output power characteristic curve.
3. To plot the line current versus output power characteristic curve.
4. To plot the power factor versus output power characteristic curve.
5. To plot the slip versus output power characteristic curve.
6. To plot the torque versus speed characteristic curve.
APPARATUS: A 400V, Threephase supply; One 15A, Threephase variac; Two singlephase wattmeters, (0  10 A), 400 V; One
voltmeter, MI, (0  400 V); One ammeter, MI, (010 A); One threephase, squirrelcage, induction motor with brake and pulley
arrangement.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 4.15.
BRIEF THEORY: The load test on an induction motor helps us to determine its complete performance characteristics. Normal rated
voltage at normal frequency is supplied to the motor and a variable load is applied to its shaft.
Load Torque: The mechanical load of the shaft can be varied by using brake and pulley arrangement. A pulley or a drum (called
brake drum) is attached to the shaft. A belt of suitable length rides over this drum. Two spring balances S
1
and S
2
are attached at each
end of the belt. The other end of the spring balance is fixed to a nut and bolt. If the nut is tightened, the belt presses harder on to the
rotating drum thereby increasing the mechanical load. If S
1
and S
2
are the readings of the two spring balances, the net restraining force
applied to the drum is
1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) kgf ( ) ( ) 9.8N F S S S S g S S = − = − = − ×
If D is the effective diameter of the brake drum, the torque applied to the shaft is given as
1 2
( ) 9.8 Nm
2 2
D D
F S S τ = × = − × × …(i)
Slip: The speed at which the stator magnetic field rotates is called synchronous speed and is given by
120
s
f
N
P
=
Here, the frequency f of the 3phase ac supply is 50 Hz, and the number of poles P can be seen on the name plate of the induction
motor. The actual speed N of the rotor is always less than N
s
. The difference between the two is called slip, which can be defined in
percentage as
100 %
s
s
N N
s
N
−
= × …(ii)
The slip at fullload normally is 2 to 5 %.
Fig. 4.15 Circuit arrangement to conduct load test on a 3phase, squirrel cage induction motor.
25
Output Power: The output power P
o
of the motor is given as
2
watts
60
o
N
P
π τ
= …(iii)
Input Power: The input power P
in
to the motor can be determined from the readings of the two wattmeters connected in the input
circuit (see Fig. 4.15). If P
1
and
P
2
are the readings of the two wattmeters, the input power is given as
in 1 2
P P P = + …(iv)
Note that at low power factors, one of the wattmeters may give negative deflection. If it happens, the connections of one of the coils
(either current coil or pressure coil) should be reversed and the readings should be treated negative.
Input Power Factor: Using the readings P
1
and
P
2
of the two wattmeters, the input power factor angle can be calculated from
following:
1 1 2
1 2
tan 3
P P
P P
φ
−
−
=
+
The power factor is then given as
cos pf φ = …(v)
Efficiency: The efficiency of the induction motor is given as
in
100 %
o
P
P
η = × …(vi)
PROCEDURE:
1. Make the connections as shown in Fig. 4.15.
2. Keep the threephase variac at its minimum position.
3. Release the brake and pulley system so that the shaft is not loaded.
4. Switch on the threephase supply.
5. Gradually increase the position of the variac towards higher voltage. Note the direction of deflection in the wattmeters. If the
deflection is found negative in a wattmeter, bring the variac back to its minimum and reverse the connections of either the
current coil or pressure coil of that wattmeter. The reading of this wattmeter should be recorded negative.
6. Slowly increase variac position to apply rated voltage to the induction motor.
7. Note the readings of all the meters. Measure the speed of the rotor by attaching the tachometer to the shaft. These are noload
readings.
8. Increase the mechanical load by tightening the nut of the springs and note the readings. Repeat this for 6 – 8 settings of the
load.
9. At some stage of the load, one wattmeter may again start reading negative. If so, again repeat step 5.
10. Switch off the threephase supply.
OBSERVATIONS:
See Table 4.1a, (in Excel) attached separately.
CALCULATIONS:
See Table 4.1b, (in Excel) attached separately
RESULTS:
For eight different observations, different characteristic curves can be plotted.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Before switching on the supply, the zero of the ammeter, voltmeter, and wattmeters should be checked.
2. The readings in the ammeter should not exceed the current ratings of the wattmeter.
3. Special care should be taken about the sign of the readings of wattmeters.
4. During the experiment, the mechanical power developed by the motor is dissipated as frictional loss (heat) at the brake and
pulley arrangement. Cooling of the brake pulley should be done properly; otherwise, the belt may wear away in short time.
VIVAVOCE:
1. Q.: What do you mean by the slip?
Ans.: The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor, expressed as percentage, is known as
slip.
2. Q.: Usually, what is the order of slip for an induction motor, while running at no load and running at full load?
Ans.: At no load, it is about 1  2 %, and at fullload it is about 2  5 %.
3. Q.: At what voltage should the load test on an induction motor be performed?
Ans.: At its rated voltage.
4. Q.: Suppose that an induction motor is running on no load. What do you think its power factor will be?
Ans.: At no load, the motor draws very small active power. Therefore, its power factor is very low, of the order of 0.1 to 0.3
lagging.
5. Q.: And when it is running at full load, what would be the power factor?
Ans.: At full load, the power factor is about 0.85 lagging.
26
6. Q.: Under what conditions, one of the wattmeters may give negative reading?
Ans.: If the reading of one wattmeter, say P
2
, is negative, the value of ratio
1 2 1 2
( ) /( ) P P P P − + will always be greater than
unity. Thus,
tan 3 (greater than unity) tan 3 60 φ φ φ = × ⇒ > ⇒ > ° or
cos 0.5 φ <
Hence, if one of the wattmeters reads negative, the power factor has to be less than 0.5.
7. Q.: Approximately, how much is the efficiency of an induction motor while running at full load?
Ans.: It is about 0.75 to 0.85.
8. Q.: What do you mean by ‘pullout torque’ of an induction motor?
Ans.: The maximum torque the motor can develop is also called pullout torque.
9. Q.: Why should it be called pullout torque?
Ans.: If the load on an induction motor is increased beyond the maximum torque it can develop, the motor slows down, the
slip increases and the operation becomes unstable. Ultimately, the machine stops. It pulls out of the motion.
10. Q.: What is meant by plugging of an induction motor?
Ans.: In case of a running motor, if suddenly two of the threephase supply connections to the stator are interchanged, the
stator magnetic field reverses its direction of rotation. As a result, the machine comes to a stop quickly. This amounts to
braking or pluggingof the machine.
11. Q.: What do you mean by singlephasing of a 3phase induction motor?
Ans.: If one of the lines of the threephase supply gets open due to some fault, the 3phase motor continues running as a
singlephase motor. This phenomenon is called single phasing. When this happens, the current drawn by the two remaining
lines increases and the motor gets overheated, and it may even get damaged.
12. Q.: Do you know any other machine whose outputspeed characteristic is similar to that of a threephase induction motor?
Ans.: Yes, dc shunt motor.
13. Q.: In what way, an induction motor is similar to a transformer?
Ans.: (i) Both work on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
(ii) The stator of the induction motor is analogous to the primary of the transformer and the rotor to the secondary of the
transformer.
(iii) Both can be represented by similar equivalent circuits.
(iv) Both machines can be tested through similar tests. The noload test on an induction motor is similar to the opencircuit
test on a transformer.
14. Q.: In what way, an induction motor differs from a transformer?
Ans.: (i) The windings of a transformer are cylindrical, whereas those of an induction motor are distributed.
(ii) The induction motor has an air gap in its magnetic path and hence the magnetizing current of an induction motor is much
higher than that of a transformer.
(iii) Due to mechanical losses (frictional and windage losses), the efficiency of an induction motor is lower than that of a
transformer.
(iv) An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, whereas a transformer transforms the electrical
energy from one voltage level to another.
rule, as indicated by crosses and dots in Fig. 4.1a. The emf generated in the rotor conductors is a maximum in the region of maximum flux density. N F1 A
B F2 S Fig. 4.2 Torque generated on the rotor. Now, consider conductors A and B of the rotor which face the Npole and Spole of the stator, as shown in Fig. 4.2. The emf generated in these conductors circulates a current, which in turn produces their own flux. The resultant of these two fluxes is such as to strengthen the flux density on the rightside and weaken that on the left side for the conductor A. Consequently, the conductor A experiences a force F1 leftward. Similar action takes place for the conductor B, so that it experiences a force F2 rightward. These two forces create a torque τ e that tends to rotate the rotor in the direction of the rotating flux. Once the rotor starts rotating, the relative movement between the stator’s rotating field and the rotorconductors is reduced. As a result, the induced emf, the current, and its frequency are all reduced. If the motor shaft is not loaded, the machine has to rotate to meet the mechanical losses. The rotor speed can approach very close to the synchronous speed. But, it can never be the same as the synchronous speed. If it does, the induced emf in the rotorconductors would become zero and there would be no torque produced. Hence, the rotor speed always remains slightly less than the synchronous speed. Now, suppose we put a mechanical load on the shaft. Its immediate reaction is to slow down the rotor. As a result, the relative speed with respect to the rotating field increases. The induced emf in the rotorconductors increases and hence the torque τ exerted on the rotor increases. Ultimately, an equilibrium state is attained. The rotor speed adjusts itself to make the torque τ sufficient to balance the mechanicalloss torque and the load torque. Obviously, the speed of the motor running under fullload is less than the noload spe Note that unlike a synchronous machine, the induction motor has field on the stator and armature on the rotor. Slip of Induction Motor As discussed above, the rotor speed must always remain less than the synchronous speed Ns given by Eq. 4.1. The difference between the synchronous speed Ns and the actual speed N of the rotor is known as slip speed, N ∆ N s − N . This term is descriptive of the = manner the rotor slips back from the exact synchronous speed. The normalized slip speed, or simply the slip s is usually expressed as perunit or fraction of the synchronous speed,
s =
N∆ Ns − N = Ns Ns
...(4.2) For a given slip s, the rotor speed is given as
= N s (1 − s ) N
...(4.3) The slip can also be expressed as a percentage of the synchronous speed, as
= s
Ns − N ×100 % Ns
...(4.4) When the motor is at standstill (that is, it is not running), the rotor speed N is zero, and hence s = 1. The value of s can never be zero. Because this would mean that the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed which is impossible. In practice, the value of slip is very small. At no load, the slip is around 1% only and at full load, it is around 3 %. For large size, efficient motors, the slip at full load may be around 1 % only. Thus, an induction motor almost has a constant speed. Thus, we find that 0 ≤ s < 1 . Is it possible to make the slip s have a negative value? Yes, if the rotor is made to rotate by a primemover at a speed higher than the synchronous speed. The negative slip corresponds to the generator action. Frequency of Rotor Currents: When the induction motor is at standstill, the frequency of the currents induced in the rotor winding is the same as the supply frequency. However, when the motor runs, the frequency of rotor currents depends upon the relative speed or slipspeed. If the rotorspeed N and the synchronousspeed Ns are expressed in rpm (revolutions per minute), the frequency fr of the rotor currents is given by an expression similar to that in Eq. 4.1, as
120 f Ns − N = r P
Dividing the above equation by Eq. 4.1, we get
2
3 A 6pole induction motor is fed from 50Hz supply.03 ∴ = 500 ∴ Rotor currents frequency. The only disadvantage it has is that its resistance is low (and fixed) and hence it has low starting torque.4 mm thick. the speed of this rotating field is s ⋅ N s with respect to the rotor winding. 3phase induction motor runs at 485 rpm. Under normal running conditions. an induction motor has a stator and a rotor. This rotor has two main advantages. find the fullload slip and speed. What is the frequency of rotorcurrent? Example 4.1 A 3phase. make contact with these moving slip rings.03 × 50 =1. (c) the fullload speed. However. Find (a) the synchronous speed. each about 0. The speed of rotor field in space = Speed of rotor field relative to the rotor + Speed of rotor relative to stator = sN s + N = sN s + N s (1 − s ) = N s Thus.1c). and is very economical in manufacturing. 4. In small size motors. (b) the noload speed. If the frequency of rotor emf at fullload is 2 Hz. (1) Squirrel Cage Rotor: About 90 % of the motors in use have this type of rotor (see Fig. Hence.03) 970 rpm = = (d) At standstill. 4. which are well insulated before they are slipped into the slots. slotted on its inner surface.03. The three ends of the windings are brought out and are soldered to the slip rings mounted on the shaft. Rotor The rotor is an inner cylindrical core.(4. First. It is made of sheetsteel laminations. the frequency of rotorcurrents. f r =s ⋅ f =0. 4. s = 0. The coils are externally wound and are inserted through the narrow openings one wire at a time.03 × 50 =1. Therefore. Since the frequency fr of the rotor currents is s ⋅ f . It may be either squirrelcage type or wirewound type. s = 1. Hence. This arrangement makes it possible to connect additional resistances in the rotor windings to give high starting torque (see Fig. N s = 120 f 120 × 50 = = 500 rpm 12 P 500 − 485 Slip. though they may be connected in delta. 50Hz induction motor has a slip of 1 % at no load and of 3 % at full load.. fixed with the stator.2 Solution: The synchronous speed. The windings are usually connected in star.5) Speed of Rotation of RotorField: The rotor currents produce their own rotating magnetic field. This helps in reducing the effective length of the air gap between the stator and the rotor. has no sliprings and brushes. the rotor field remains locked with the stator field. The slots in large size motors are open type to facilitate the insertion of formwound coils. is very rugged.5 Hz Example 4. the rotor itself is running at a speed N with respect to the stator. 50Hz. It is wound for the same number of poles as the stator.01) 990 rpm = = (c) The fullload speed. Carbon brushes. the wound rotor is shortcircuited like a squirrel cage rotor. N= N s (1 − s ) 1000(1 − 0.16). f r =s ⋅ f = × 50 =50 Hz 1 (e) At fullload. In fact.5 Hz A 12pole. (2) Wire.. Stator The stator core is a hollow cylindrical structure. N= N s (1 − s ) 1000(1 − 0. Secondly. irrespective of the rotor speed. the frequency of rotorcurrents.Ns − N = Ns fr or = s f fr f ∴ fr = s⋅ f . The rotor carries windings in which the working currents are induced. 6pole. Example 4. The stator has threephase windings which receive energy form threephase ac supply.or PhaseWound Rotor: It has threephase double layer distributed windings placed in the slots of the rotor core. The external resistances are gradually reduced to zero as the motor picks up speed. Solution: (a) The synchronous speed. the rotor field rotates at the synchronous speed. it is adaptable to any number of poles. and (e) the frequency of rotorcurrents at fullload.3 CONSTRUCTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR Like any other rotating machine. the slots are partially closed type. (d) the frequency of rotorcurrents at standstill. we find that even though the rotor is not rotating at synchronous speed. 3 . s = 0. N s = 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1000 rpm P 6 (b) The noload speed. f r =s ⋅ f =0. it is simple in construction.
6 × 50 =30 Hz = s 4. above expression is modified as E1 = × 2 N1 = f ΦN1kd 1k p1 e1 4. N s = The slip at full load. kp2 = pitch factors of stator and rotor windings. the rms value of induced emf in each conductor of the stator is e1= K f × PΦN s PN s = K f × 2Φ × = 1. = s 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1000 rpm P 6 fr 2 = = 0. The rotating field produced by stator threephase currents cuts the stator and rotor conductors at synchronous speed Ns. if Kf (= 1.04) 960 rpm = = Example 4. N= N s (1 − s ) 1000(1 − 0. N s = 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1500 rpm P 4 (b) The speed of the rotor when the slip is 4 %.11× 2Φf = 2. respectively kp1. (b) the speed of the rotor when the slip is 4 %. Calculate (a) the synchronous speed.4 A threephase induction motor is wound for four poles and is supplied from a 50Hz supply. Solution: (a) The synchronous speed. Since the rotating field makes Ns/60 rps (revolutions per second) and the stator (or rotor) conductors cut total flux PФ per revolution. an emf is induced in both the stator winding and rotor winding.44 On taking the distribution factor and pitch factor into account.6) 4 . CURRENT AND POWER FACTOR The analysis of induction motor performance is done under the assumption that the applied voltage V1 per phase is constant and purely sinusoidal of constant frequency f. respectively Ns = synchronous speed (rpm) When the rotor is standstill. there are N1 turns per phase or 2N1 conductors in series per phase. f r =s ⋅ f =0. We define following quantities: V1 = applied voltage to stator per phase (V) N1 = number of turns in series per phase of the stator N2 = number of turns in series per phase of the rotor Ф = flux per pole (Wb) f = frequency of the supply (Hz) E1 = emf induced per phase in the stator (V) E2 = emf induced per phase in the rotor (V) (when the motor is running) E20 = emf induced per phase in the rotor (V) (when the motor is standstill) R2 = resistance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω) X2 = reactance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω) (when the motor is running) X20 = reactance of the rotor winding per phase (Ω) (when the motor is standstill) L20 = inductance of the rotor winding per phase (H) (when the motor is standstill) kd1.04) 1440 rpm = = (c) When the speed of the rotor is 600 rpm.11 for sinusoidal waveshape) is the form factor.Solution: The synchronous speed.4 ROTOR EMF.6 1500 ∴ The rotor frequency. Therefore. the induced emf per phase in the stator is given as E1 = × 2 N1 = f ΦN1 e1 4. the slip is 1500 − 600 = 0. kd2 = distribution factors of stator and rotor windings. N= N s (1 − s ) 1500(1 − 0. and (c) the rotor frequency when the speed of the rotor is 600 rpm.. It is further assumed that the flux per pole Ф is sinusoidally distributed in the space around the air gap and is rotating at synchronous speed Ns..(4. Therefore. Flux cut per revolution = PΦN s 60 This is also the average value of the emf induced in each conductor.04 4% = f 50 The fullload speed.44 .22Φf 60 120 In the stator.
Power Factor: The phase angle between the induced emf E2 and the rotor current I2 is same as the impedance angle θ2. Rotor Impedance: The rotor reactance X2. Under such blocked rotor condition. The rotor mmf and stator mmf can be combined just in the same way as in a transformer. Thus. is given as 2 Z 2 = 2 + jX 2 = 2 + jsX 20 = R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 ∠ tan −1 R R sX 20 R2 Thus. the inductive reactance of the rotor dominates.44 f ΦN 2 kd 2 k p 2 E20 .. in an induction motor.(4... Because of the distributed windings. 5 . the stator and rotor fields keep rotating in space. remain stationary with respect to each other.(4. when it is rotating at a slip s. as given by Eq.Similarly.(4.. The losses are much greater. N = Ns or s = 0). under running condition. This current creates an mmf. the magnetizing current required is much greater than that in a transformer. The magnitude of the rotor current is therefore given as = I2 E2 = Z2 sE20 R + ( sX 20 ) 2 2 2 . a greater secondary current causes an increased primary current. In a transformer.8) The induced emf E2 is zero when the rotor revolves at synchronous speed (that is. 13.9) The impedance of the rotor circuit increases with slip speed because of the increase in the frequency of the induced emf E2. the power factor of the rotor circuit.4 and 13. the impedance is largely resistive. 2 Z2 = R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 and θ2 = ∠ tan −1 20 sX R2 .44( 4. Induction Motor as Transformer The working of an induction motor resembles in many respect with that of a transformer. Hence.(4. the primary and secondary coils are concentrated. respectively.4. 4. the stator and rotor windings are distributed. the rotor current I2 initially increases. this does not make any difference.6 and 4. though rotating. 4.(4. excessive heating of the induction motor occurs as it draws a very heavy current from the ac supply. the induced emf also reduces by a factor s. under running condition. whereas it is only about 2 % to 5 % of the rated current in a transformer. 4. The rotor winding works as secondary.44 . the distribution factor kd and pitch factor kp are included in Eqs.. as given by Eqs. Under standstill condition. 4.9. If the shaft is held stationary with rotor circuit closed (a condition known as blocked rotor or locked rotor).7) When the rotor rotates at a slip s. and hence the efficiency is lower than that of a transformer. on increasing slip speed s. 3.. Because of the presence of the air gap. Differences from a Transformer: An induction motor differs from a transformer in following ways: 1. However.. these two fields. where the increase in E2 is offset by the corresponding increase in Z2. the rotor impedance per phase. These equations are similar to Eqs.. the induced emf E2 per phase in the rotor running at a slip s is given as E2 = = sf ΦN 2 kd 2 k p 2 = sf )ΦN 2 kd 2 k p 2 = f r ΦN 2 kd 2 k p 2 sE20 4. when a 3phase supply is connected to the stator. As a result. But in an induction motor. is given by Eq. a current flows in the rotor winding. At very small slip speeds. Rotor Current: The induced emf per phase in the rotor circuit. Magnetic leakage and hence the leakage reactances of stator and rotor are much higher than those in a transformer. the rotor circuit becomes more inductive and the power factor becomes poorer. In a transformer. the ratio of the stator and the rotor currents is not equal to the ratio of turns. 5. But at larger slip speeds.8. is given as = cos θ 2 pf = R2 2 R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 (lagging) . the induced emf E2 increases at a faster rate than the rotor impedance Z2. the induced emf E20 per phase in the rotor at standstill is given as = 4.. In a transformer. The stator winding works as primary.7 for an induction motor.10) For small values of s. under running condition. Thus. Similarly.44 4. and then tends to approach a maximum value. a greater load on the shaft causes an increased stator current to balance the rotor mmf. It increases in proportion to the slip speed because the speed of the rotorconductors relative to the stator flux increases. The noload current is about 25 % to 40 % of the rated current.6 and 4.. is given as X 2 =r L20 =s ⋅ f ) L20 = fL20 = 2π f 2π ( s ⋅ 2π sX 20 Therefore. the situation becomes same as in a transformer with its secondary shortcircuit. But in an induction motor.11) As the slip speed increases. the primary and secondary fields remain stationary. on increasing slip speed. emfs are induced in both the stator and the rotor.5 for a transformer. 2. When the rotor circuit is closed.7.
some power loss occurs due to the friction at bearings and sliprings. If the rotor rotates at a speed N (in rpm).99 8.447 (0.e. and some due to windage (i. Calculate the rotor current and phase difference between the rotor voltage and rotor current at (a) 4 % slip.5 The induced emf between the slipring terminals of a threephase induction motor...0: sE20 cos θ 2 = R2 = 2 R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 = 514 A (0..Example 4.99 (0.1° = = = I2 E2 = Z2 = R + ( sX 20 ) 2 2 2 (b) At s = 100 % = 1. a portion of the input power Pin is lost in the stator as copper and iron loss.1 Ω per phase.1) 2 0. Then the airgap power Pg (in W) transferred from the stator to the rotor is given as Pg = 2πτ N s 60 . Since the frequency of the rotor currents is very small (say.5 POWER RELATIONS FOR AN INDUCTION MOTOR The entire power Pin supplied by the threephase source to the stator of the induction motor is not converted into the mechanical power at the shaft.1) 2 0.5 ∴ = cos −1 0. when the rotor is standstill. 4.1) 2 0. which heats the stator. the induced emf per phase is given as E20 = (a) At s = 4 % = 0.05) 2 + (1. The rotor windings are starconnected and have resistance and standstill reactance of 0.04: EL 100 = = 57.3 Power flow diagram for an induction motor. As shown in Fig. 4. This rotor input power Pg less the rotor losses PR (both the copper loss and iron loss) is the mechanical power Pd developed by the rotor. The remaining power Po is the net mechanical output power available at the shaft to meet the external mechanical load. Electrical Stator Rotor o Mechanical Pin Pg Pd= (1 − s ) P PR Rotor Cu and iron loss Po Output power at shaft PS Stator Cu and iron loss Pm Friction and windage loss Fig. the rotor iron loss is negligibly small.05) 2 + (1. Solution: For starconnected rotor windings.0 × 57.449 63. we can say that the power developed is given as Pd = Pg − PR = Pg − Rotor copper loss .12) Out of the mechanical power Pd developed by the rotor.7 ∴ θ 2 cos −1 0.13) This is the input power to the rotor.0 × 0.04 × 57..04 × 0.05) 2 + (0.(4.7 V 3 3 E2 = Z2 = R + ( sX 20 ) 2 2 2 = I2 cos θ 2 = sE20 R2 = 2 R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 = 46 A (0.3. around 1. the total mechanical power developed by the rotor is given as 6 . Let τ (in Nm) be the electromagnetic torque exerted on the rotor by the rotating magnetic field at synchronous speed Ns (in rpm).05 Ω and 0. similar to the power transferred from primary to the secondary in a transformer.0 × 0.(4.04 × 0. The remaining power Pg is transferred to the rotor via the airgap magnetic field.05 = 0. due to the air resistance experienced by the rotating shaft).5 Hz).05) 2 + (0.4° θ2 = 4. and (b) 100 % slip. is 100 V.1) 2 1.. respectively.05 = 0. Thus.
12.7= 429..Pd = 2πτ N 60 .14) Putting Eqs.35 W Pd = Po + Pm = 3730 + 26. PS = 429.7 W Hence. Therefore.65 W Note that the stator loss could also be determined by subtracting airgap power from the input power. 4. Also. 4.18) This shows that the airgap power divides between the developed power and rotorcopper loss in a ratio that depends only on the slip speed.5 %..(4. the airgap power. fourpole..... PS= 506. the stator loss.(4.14 in Eq. the rotor) is not stationary but rotating at a speed N.05 × 533 = 26.6 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR Since an induction motor is similar to a transformer. using Eq.17.17) We can put the airgap power as (1 Pg = g − sPg + sPg = − s ) Pg + sPg P Pd PR ⇒ Pd 1 − s = PR s .6 A threephase.. the power Pd developed by the rotor. airgap power.13.875 Pl = 4263 − 3730 = 533 W Pm = 0. Determine the developed power. Po = = 746 = W 5 hp 5 × 3730 ∴ ∴ and The input power. Pd 3756.(4. the slip..7 W 4263 − 3833.12.(4. First we calculate synchronous speed.65 = 533 506. 4. is then given as The power developed by the rotor. 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1500 rpm P 4 N s − N 1500 − 1470 = = s = 0. rotor copper loss. 4.65 =3756. and stator loss.e.65 W Pe = − 26. 7 .. = Pg From Eq. 4. we get PR N s − N = = s Pg Ns s × Pg (according to the definition of slip) or The rotor copper loss. except that its secondary (i.16) Therefore. Electrical losses.(4. Developed power.02 × 3833.02 PR = × Pg = s 0.16.35 − 76.3 = 4. Solution: The output power. Total losses. PR = .65 = = 3833.13 and 4.02 1500 Ns From Eq. The mechanical losses are 5 % of the total losses. Example 4. 4.3 W 1 − s 1 − 0. Po 3730 = = 4263 W η 0.65 W = Ns To determine the airgap power Pg from the developed power Pd.. Pd = Pg − PR = Pg − sPg = (1 − s ) Pg .. = Pin Mechanical losses. we get PR = Pg − Pd = 2πτ (Ns − N ) 60 .3 = 76. the load on the secondary is not electrical but mechanical.15) Dividing the above equation by Eq. we need the slip s. The efficiency of the motor at full load is 87. the rotor copper loss. 50Hz induction motor has a fullload output power of 5 hp at 1470 rpm.
. Three times the complex power E1I1 into the stator emf represents the power and magnetic energy leaving the stator and passing into the air gap.21) According to KCL.(4.. a resistance R2 to account for rotor copper loss. where E20 is the blocked rotor emf induced. * I1 R1 V1 jX1 Ф jX2 R2 Short circuit E1 E2 I2 (a) Stator (Frequency = f) Fig.Stator Equivalent circuit In the perphase stator circuit in Fig.4 shows an emf E2 induced in the rotor circuit due to the rotating airgap flux Ф.(4. The total rotor copper loss is 2 PR = 3I 2 R2 . 4. has been ignored. V1 is the perphase stator voltage.. Then. the emf E2 = sE20.20) The current I ag is the current that accounts for the stored magnetic energy in the air gap. The real power accounts for the rotor copper loss and developed mechanical power. and let Xag represent a reactance that accounts for the stored energy in the air gap. the coupling between the stator and rotor can be represented by the ideal transformer shown in Fig. the rotor emf E2 has to be reduced by a factor s.. we must have N E I1 = 1 + I ag = 2 I 2 + 1 I' jX ag N1 .23) This suggests the ideal transformer shown in Fig.. Here. that is. 8 . The electrical frequency fr of the rotor emf E2 and current I2 is s times the stator frequency f. so that E1 N = 1 E2 sN 2 . N ' I1 = 2 I 2 N1 ' I1 is the rotor current referred to the stator side and is given as . the frequency of stator voltage and current is same as that of the supply.19) where the factor 3 accounts for the three phases. X1 the stator leakage magnetic flux. 4. and E1 the induced emf in the stator winding due to rotating airgap magnetic flux Ф.. respectively. X2 = sX20. The rotor iron loss. 4. 4.. and is given as I ag = E1 jX ag .. Obviously. The reactive power accounts for the stored energy in the air gap and stray magnetic field in the rotor. Also. Rotor Equivalent circuit The perphase rotor circuit shown in Fig..(4..5a. we consider coupling between the stator and the rotor. Let N1 and N2 represent the equivalent turns for the stator and rotor. and a short circuit.5b. The equivalent circuit shown in Fig. a reactance X2 to account for rotor leakage magnetic flux. This can be achieved by imagining that the rotor turns N2 are reduced by the same factor s. Since the rotor is rotating with a slip s in the same direction as the magnetic flux.(4. and I1 the perphase current drawn by the stator from the threephase power supply. being very small. The reactance X2 is also proportional to slip s. 4.4 at present is unable to account for the stored energy in the air gap or for the developed mechanical power.4 (b) Rotor (Frequency = fr = s ⋅ f ) Perphase equivalent circuit for stator and rotor. for the voltages only. The reactance X20 is the blocked rotor reactance because the slip is unity when the rotor is stationary. for the currents only. 4.4. R1 accounts for the stator copper loss.(4.22) Next.
(4.6 now accounts for the entire power passing from the stator to the rotor. Ri for iron loss.(4.. The figure also shows resistor R1 to account for the stator copper loss.24) Note that the ideal transformer in Fig. The secondary circuit in Fig.(4. and X1 as the leakageflux reactance. we get = I2 E2 / s E2 / s = Z 2 / s ( R2 / s ) + jX 2 . 4. I1 ' I1 N1: N2 I2 jX2 E1 jXag E1 E2 s Ideal transformer R2 s Stator Rotor + Mechanical Fig.6.7.5b has different turnsratio from the one shown in Fig. 4. dividing both the numerator and the denominator on the right side of Eq. and of course.. or 2 1 2R 2 Pd = Pag − PR = 3 I 2 2 − I 2 R2 = 3 I 2 R2 − 1 s s 2 1 − s = 3 I 2 R2 × Pd s .6 by dividing resistor R2/s into two resistors: (1) R2 which accounts for the rotor electrical loss. 9 . As per Fig. 4. It gives relationships between the stator and the scaled rotor circuits. [(1 − s ) / s ] × R2 is an equivalent resistance accounting for the developed mechanical power per phase. Such a strange transformer would not obey the basic principle of conservation of energy. The result is shown in Fig. 4. 4.5a.6 Equivalent circuit with rotor voltage and impedance scaled by a factor 1/s. it should not because electrical energy is not conserved in this device due to the mechanical output. we can modify the equivalent circuit of Fig. Thus. 4. including that transferred to mechanical power. Thus. 4. 4. and (2) [(1 − s ) / s ] × R2 which accounts for the developed mechanical power.4b..26) Here. 4. the rotor current and rotor emf are related through = I2 E2 E2 = Z 2 R2 + jsX 2 .24 by s... 5 This idea of scaling up the rotor emf was first suggested by Carl Steinmetz (18651923).25) We may now use a normal ideal transformer to make the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. The scaled up resistor R2/s accounts for both the rotorcopper loss power (PR) and the developed mechanical power (Pd)..I1 ' I1 N1: N2 I N1: E1 Iag jXag E1 E2 (a) Current relationship Fig. Perphase equivalent circuits. We can therefore determine the developed power by subtracting PR from the total airgap power.5 (b) Voltage relationship. The strange transformer can be eliminated by scaling up 5 the rotor emf to “impose” the conservation of electrical energy on the circuit. 4.
we get the equivalent circuit of Fig. If K = ( N 2 / N1 ) is the ' R2 = R2 / K 2 transformation ratio. 4. We can further simplify the circuit of Fig. as the noload current is about 25 % to 40 % of the rated current. 4. Thevenin’s voltage is given as VTh Voc VAB V1 × = = = Thevenin’s equivalent impedance is given as jX ag R1 + j ( X 1 + X ag ) . I1 R1 jX1 A ' jX 2 ' R2 V1 Ri jXag 1− s ' ' RL = R2 s B Rotor Mechanical Stator Air gap Fig. We can therefore ignore the resistance Ri.9 Simplified equivalent circuit using Thevenin’s theorem.8.7 Equivalent circuit accounting for developed mechanical power. the core losses in an induction motor are quite small compared to the other powers. the equivalent impedances as referred to the primary (stator) are given by Eq. 10 . We can make use of the equivalent circuit of Fig. we could further simplify the circuit of Fig. this simplification cannot be done in an induction motor without incurring considerable error..(4. 4.. 4.8 by shifting the shunt branches Ri and Xag to the right of rotor impedance.(4. 4. 13. Thus. In practice.8 by finding Thevenin’s equivalent of the circuit on the left of terminals AB. 4. 4. 4.9 ZTh A ' jX 2 VTh 1− s ' ' RL = R2 s B Fig..7 using the properties of an ideal transformer.8 Equivalent circuit with rotor impedance transformed to statorside.8 as and X 2 ' = X 2 / K 2 .28) Thus. However.. the equivalent circuit can be represented as in Fig. As for a transformer.27) ZTh = jX ag ( R1 + jX 1 ) R1 + j ( X 1 + X ag ) .Pag/3 I1 R1 jX1 PR/3 Pd/3 I ' 1 N1: N2 I2 jX2 R2 V1 Ri jXag E1 E2 1− s R2 s Rotor Mechanical Stator Ideal transformer Fig.
29) sE20 3E2 3× ( PR =I 2 cos θ 2 =sE20 ) × R 2 + ( sX ) 2 2 20 2 2 2 2 3s E20 R2 3s E20 R2 = = 2 2 2 2 R2 + ( sX 20 ) R2 + s 2 X 20 R2 × 2 R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 . (b) the stator current.79 A ' ' ZTh + ( R + jX 2 ) + RL (0..6∠1.11.1 (e) Efficiency of the motor. the electromechanical torque exerted on the rotor is given as 11 . X 2 = 0. 4.332 Ω. respectively.106 + 26.. and (e) the efficiency of the motor.79°) 0.106 Ω.7 TORQUESLIP CHARACTERISTICS The input power to the rotor transferred from the air gap is given by Eq.13.268 − 340 = 7706.7 A threephase. 3I ' 3× Po =12 RL − Rotational losses = (12.02) (a) The rotor speed. fourpole.641 + j (1..27 and 4.84∠ − 3. R2 = 0.08) Ω R1 + j ( X 1 + X ag ) 0. According to Eq.(4. starconnected induction motor has following impedances per phase as referred to the stator side: ' ' R1 = 0.1 W Pin = 1 I1 cos φ1 =× 231×12.268 (c) Power factor. pf cos φ1 cos( −3.34 kW.106 + 26.Example 4.82 × 0.34° V jX ( R + jX 1 ) (26. 400V. (d) the output and input power. as VTh = V1 × jX ag R1 + j ( X 1 + X ag ) = (231∠0°) × j 26.332 = 16. we have made use of Eqs.28. If the slip is 2 % at the rated voltage and frequency. V1 = (b) Referring to Fig.3) 1 − s ' 1 − 0.10 and 4.641 Ω.02 ' RL = R2 = × 0.464 Ω and X ag = 26.91 % = Pin 8866.9 and taking V1 as the reference phasor.464) + 16.02 The equivalent resistance representing mechanical load is VTh 221.59 + j1. 25 hp.3 0.91pu 86.30) where.(4. 50Hz.106) ZTh = ag 1 = = (059 + j1.34° = = 12. Thevenin’s equivalent voltage and impedance are given by Eqs. we have PR = s × Pg or 2 3s 2 E20 R2 2πτ N s =s⋅ 2 2 2 R2 + s X 20 60 Thus. N= N s (1 − s ) = (1 − s ) = = 1470 rpm p 4 Solution: The per phase applied voltage. = = η = 86.268 Ω s 0.5 W Po 7706. Pg = The rotor copper loss is given as 2πτ N s 60 ..3 Ω Assume that the core losses are negligible and the rotational losses are constant at 0. (c) the power factor.332 + j 0.16.5 Power input. 400 = 231 V 3 120 f 120 × 50 × (1 − 0.3∠90°)(0. X 1 = 1. 4. 4.998 lagging = = = = Ι1 ' 2 Thus.3) and = 221∠1. 4. the stator current is (d) Power output. 4.08) + (0.998 = 3V 3 8866.641 + j1. 4.641 + j (1. repeated here for convenience.84) 2 ×16. determine (a) the rotor speed.
s.34) However.35) For a given machine....2 to 1). TorqueSlip Characteristic Curve From Eq. Starting Torque At starting. from 0. Thus. E20 ∝ Φ ∝ V1 Equation 4.1). 4. K1 is another constant. If we keep the applied voltage V1 constant.36 as 2 s 2 X 20 is negligibly small compared to Thus.36) For Small Values of Slip: For very small values of slip (say.32) where. we find that τ st ∝ V 2 1 and τ st ∝ R2 . We can therefore ignore 2 2 R2 compared to X 20 . We can therefore rewrite Eq. For large value of slip: When s is large (say.(4. 4. the torque for a given machine is seen to depend on two factors: (i) the applied voltage V1. The torqueslip curve should be a straight line. as shown in Fig. for small values of s. we can predict the general shape of the torqueslip characteristic curve. so sR s = K1 22 K1 τ = R2 R2 τ ∝ s [ R2 being constant] sR R = K1 2 22 K1 22 τ = s X 20 sX 20 12 . Eq..10.32. the term that Eq. X20 ≈ 1.. and Eq.36 can be rewritten as 2 2 R2 becomes negligibly small as compared to s 2 X 20 . torque is seen to be directly proportional to slip s.(4...31) The induced emf E20 is proportional to the airgap flux Ф and in turn.32 can be written as τ = K1 where. 4.(4.. Hence.(4. s = 1.5 Ω and R2 ≈ 0.. That is. 4. constant K is given as K= 60 90k 2 × (3k 2 ) = 2π N s π Ns . from 0 to 0. the value of X20 is much greater than that of R2 (typically. Hence.2 Ω). to obtain large starting torque we should have large rotorresistance R2 as well as large applied voltage V1. Hence. and (ii) the slip.(4..31 can then be modified to or E20 =kV1 V 2 sR K τ = × 2 12 22 =2 1 2 2 2 2π N s R2 + s X 20 R2 + s X 20 or 60 3s (kV ) 2 R τ= KV12 sR2 2 2 R2 + s 2 X 20 . 4. sR2 2 R + s 2 X 20 2 2 . the rotor is stationary. 4..(4. the flux Ф is approximately proportional to the voltage V1 applied to the stator. the reactance X20 is constant.32 reduces to = τ st KV12 sR2 KV12 R2 = 2 2 2 2 R2 + s 2 X 20 R2 + X 20 .33) Thus.. in practice. so that the starting torque is given as KV12 R2 τ st = 2 X 20 .= τ 3sE 2 R 60 × 2 202 2 2 2π N s R2 + s X 20 . the term R2.
If the load torque increases (but still remains below the value τ m ). the rotor speed N is same as the synchronous speed Ns. Second. torque is seen to be inversely proportional to slip s. the region BC represents an unstable motor action. (2) Brake action ( s > 1) .10 Torqueslip characteristic curve for an induction motor. Thus. Three Modes of Operation Depending on the value of slip s. the rotor speed N becomes zero (i. the motor develops increased torque at a slightly reduced speed. 4. (2) Brake Action ( s > 1) : There are two ways of making s greater than unity. the motor is standstill). the rotor can be driven by a prime mover in a direction opposite to the rotating magnetic field. The speed is less than the synchronous speed. First. the speed decreases and the point of operation goes beyond B. until the The shaded portion (for 0. If the load torque is increased beyond τ m . 4. 4.10. When s = 0. The motor will accelerate from standstill.0 s Generator Motor Brake Fig. and (3) Generator action ( s < 0) . 4.11): (1) Motor action (0 < s ≤ 1) .01 < s < 0. When s = 1. the load torque at the shaft must be less than the starting torque τ st . In the region AB. start running.e.5 1. for large values of s. as shown in Fig. Obviously. 4. 4. if the motor is to torque developed and the load torque comes to equality at a speed close to but less than the synchronous speed. (1) Motor Action (0 < s ≤ 1) : In this mode.Thus..0 0 0. We can interpret the values of s in terms of the rotor speed N. the machine has a stable motor action.10).10. The effect of reversing two supplyphases is to make the stator field rotate in the opposite direction. Thus. the rotor rotates in the same direction as the stator field. The torque at zero speed is called starting torque τ st . Point B on the characteristic curve corresponds to a value of slip s for which the torque developed by the motor is maximum torque τ m . we can reverse any two of the phase supplies while operating the machine as a motor. τ 1. The overall torqueslip characteristic curve has a shape as shown in Fig. there can be following three modes of operation of an induction motor (Fig.06 ) shows the normal workingrange of the induction motor. The motor further decelerates and ultimately comes to a standstill. the rotor speed N is zero corresponding to point C on the curve (Fig.11 Three modes of operation of an induction motor. When s = 1. The torqueslip curve should be a rectangular hyperbola. τ∝ 1 s [ R2 and X 20 being constant] Hence. at the time of 13 . Fig.
the rotor must have relatively high resistance. 4..39.40. we get the maximum value of the torque as τ= K1 m ( R2 / X 20 ) R2 R2 K1 1 = K1 2 2 = ⋅ 2 2 2 2 R2 X 20 2 X 20 R2 + ( R2 / X 20 ) X 20 . we differentiate the expression for τ (Eq. if a large starting torque is required. we find that the maximum torque of an induction motor is inversely proportional to the leakage reactance at standstill X20 and is independent of the value of the rotor resistance R2.36 by Eq. 4.0 Ω. s = 0. 0. Condition for Maximum Torque We have seen that the torque developed depends on the value of slip s. If the impedance of the stator winding is assumed negligible. For a given machine (i..39) Thus. From the characteristic curves given in Fig. in case of phasewound induction motors it is possible to include suitable value of resistance in the rotor circuit (see Fig. the value of slip s at which the torque is maximum is given as sm = R2 X 20 ..(4.05) the torque reduces by about 50 %.10.12. Using above equation. Such motors are designed to have torqueslip characteristic of the type shown in Fig.12. To determine the value of s that gives maximum torque.37 in Eq.41) Effect of Rotor Resistance on the Starting Torque For a squirrelcage induction motor.2 Ω. For such motors.(4. In such cases. the starting torque (for s = 1). assume X20 = 1. the ratio of starting torque τ st to the maximum torque τ m . the starting torque is small and hence they cannot start with heavy loads connected.1 Ω. This braking effect is known as plugging. = τ τm K1 sR2 2 2 sR2 X 20 2 s ( R2 / X 20 ) 2s ⋅ s R + s 2 X 20 = = = 2 m2 2 2 2 2 2 K1 1 R2 + s X 20 ( R2 / X 20 ) + s sm + s ⋅ 2 X 20 2 2 Since s = 1 at the starting. Let us see the effect of doubling the resistance R2 from 0. 4. The ratio of torque τ for any slip s to the maximum torque τ m can be determined by dividing Eq. we should have or = sX 20 R2 . the torque is given by Eq..36. 4.38) Maximum Torque Putting the value of s from Eq. 4. The results are shown in Fig.1 Ω to 0. 0. almost doubles. the rotor resistance R2 is fixed. However. ∴ For τ 2 2 2 2 2 ( R2 + s 2 X 20 ) R2 − sR2 ⋅ 2 sX 20 R2 ( R2 − s 2 X 20 ) dτ K1 ⋅ K1 ⋅ = = 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( R2 + s 2 X 20 ) 2 ( R2 + s X 20 ) ds 2 2 ( R2 − s 2 X 20 ) 0 = to have a maximum value. This amounts to braking of the rotor in order to bring it to a standstill prior to commencing rotation in the opposite direction.. Hence. For simplicity. As soon as the machine stops. 4.(4.36. the power supply is switched off and the machine remains at standstill.e. 4. 4.(4..4.2 Ω.0 Ω. 4. the rotor is rotating almost at synchronous speed in one direction and the stator field is rotating at synchronous speed in the opposite direction. τ st 2s = 2 m τ m sm + 1 .(4.37) This means that the torque is maximum when the rotor resistance is equal to the rotor reactance under running condition. we can plot torqueslip characteristics for four different values of R2 as 0..36) with respect to s and equate the differential to zero..switchover. then for a given supply voltage. However.6 Ω and 1.. 4.40) is given by putting s = 1 in Eq. for given R2 and X20). the machine works as a generator. But. (3) Generator Action ( s < 0) : The slip s can be made negative if with the help of a prime mover the rotor is made to rotate at a speed higher than the synchronous speed. induction generators are rarely used as the most significant generators are synchronous machines. The effect is that the rotor now attempts to reverse its direction of rotation.13) so as to give desired starting torque. following observations are made: 14 . In the normal working range (say.. = K1 ⋅ τ sR2 2 R + s 2 X 20 2 2 The value of X20 is far greater than that of R2. The difference is almost twice the synchronous speed and hence the slip s is almost 2..
4. though for a short duration. starconnected induction motor develops maximum torque at a speed of 940 rpm. If the rotor resistance per phase is 0. At the instant of starting. This gives a high starting torque. the slip is unity. 4. The motor is designed to have low rotor resistance.12 Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip characteristic of an induction motor. When the motor attains full speed. Another problem is that the motor draws about four to seven times the fullload current. 15 . or a reduced voltage is applied at the starting. Example 4. Therefore. Maximum starting torque is obtained when R2 = sX20. The induction motor works as a transformer with its secondary shortcircuited. Starting of WoundRotor Induction Motor The best (but costly) solution is to use a phasewound rotor induction motor. First.13. 50Hz. sixpole. with a starting arrangement shown in Fig. determine the standstill rotor reactance. and (2) Heavy starting current.13.8 A threephase. As the motor picks up speed. such as the usual type of squirrelcage rotor. and hence a large = = emf is induced.8 STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTORS There are two problems in starting an induction motor: (1) Low starting torque. the directonline starting of induction motors is not desirable. Solution: The synchronous speed. s = = 0. an induction motor having a lowresistance rotor. if it is directly switched to the power supply. the starting torque is small compared to the maximum torque available. the variation of speed with load would be quite large. the resistance is slowly reduced. On the other hand. As can be seen from Fig. 400V.1 Ω. the frequency of induced emf in the rotor is f r sf 50 Hz . Secondly. The motor is started with all the resistance included in the rotor circuit. Therefore. all the resistance is cut out. 4.06 = 1000 Ns X= 20 R2 0. For such heavy duty motors.1 = = 1.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The starting torque τ st increases on increasing the rotor resistance. 4. we use some method by which either more resistance is included in the rotor circuit in the starting. N s = ∴ 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1000 rpm 6 P N s − N 1000 − 940 Slip. Fig. the slip for fullload torque would be quite large. This would have two adverse effects. The maximum torque τ m is constant for all the curves. This results in a large circulating current in the rotor winding. Rules laid down by Electric Supply Companies do not permit the directonline starting of 3phase induction motors above 5 hp.66Ω s 0. the I2R loss in the rotor would be high causing excessive heating and reduced efficiency of the motor. Such a large current causes a large voltage drops in the lines and thereby produces an objectionable dimming of the lamps in the vicinity. The slip corresponding to maximum torque is greater for higher values of rotor resistance. if the bars of the cage rotor were made with sufficiently high resistance to give high starting torque.06 Maximum torque occurs at a slip so as to satisfy the condition: R2 = sX20. External variable resistance is connected across the slip rings.
ADDITIONAL SOLVED EXAMPLES Example 4. (b) Autotransformer starter Fig. first the threerings are shortcircuited and then the brushes are lifted off the rings. It is supplied from a 4pole alternator running at 1500 rpm. 4.9 A 3phase. the changeover switch disconnected the winding terminals and then reconnected them in delta across the supply terminals. Also. the starting torque too is reduced to onethird.. so that the voltage across each phase is 1/ 3 times the normal value. in the starting.14 Two ways of starting a cagerotor induction motor.14b). This method reduces the current drawn by the motor to onethird the current it would have drawn if it was directly connected in delta. e. Solution: The frequency of generated emf by the alternator is = f = Ns NP 1500 × 4 = = 50 Hz 120 120 Therefore. All the six terminals of the threephase stator windings are brought out and connected as shown in Fig. AutoTransformer Starter: We use a threephase autotransformer to supply a reduced voltage to the motor at the starting (Fig. the synchronous speed of the motor is 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1000 rpm P 6 16 . the stator windings are connected in star. Each phase now gets the normal voltage. 4. the wear of the brushes and sliprings is reduced.Fig. Starting of CageRotor Induction Motor Most induction motors have squirrelcage type rotor. However. StarDelta Starter: This starter can be used only for those motors whose stator winding is designed for deltaconnection during its normal operation. 6pole induction motor runs at 960 rpm on fullload. As the motor picks up speed. Calculate the fullload slip of the motor.14a. 4. This method is cheap but is limited to applications where high starting torque is not necessary. machine tools. On attaining full speed. The autotransformer is completely cut out once the motor picks up speed to its rated value. It is usual to start cagerotor motors –except small machines—with a reduced voltage.g. using one of the methods given below. 4. This eliminates the losses due to the brushcontact resistance and the brush friction. (a) Stardelta starter. etc. pumps.13 Starting of woundrotor induction motor Large motors are often fitted with a shortcircuiting and brush lifting device. Two or three voltagesteps (in the autotransformer) are used during the starting process. Using the doublethrow triplepole switch.
Pg = = = 25659 W 25. Given.03 3 % = Pg 52. s = 0.56 kW tl in Solution: The power input.04 × 100 / 3 = = 5. the total losses.∴ N s − N 1000 − 960 Slip. The mechanical losses are onethird of the noload loss. These two losses are independent of the load. = η Po 23876 = = 0. Calculate the slip.59 = 52. Pm = noload loss Pi + Pm = 3 3 ⇒ = Pm Pi 2 We know that Total loss = Stator copper loss + Stator iron loss + Rotor copper loss + Mechanical loss or Ptl = Pi + Pi + Pi + Pi / 2 or 5.05) × 1500 = rpm (1 (1 1425 ∴ 2πτ sh N 2π ×160 ×1425 The output power. Calculate the rotor current when the slipring terminals are shortcircuited and the rotor is rotating at a slip of 4 %. Po = = = 23876 W 60 60 Thus. P = P − Po = 55. the induced emf per phase when the rotor is at standstill is given as E20 = E2 V2 100 = V 3 3 sE20 0. Solution: For starconnected rotor windings. The rotor windings are starconnected and have a resistance of 0. The stator losses are 1000 W and the friction and windage losses are 500 W.59 Therefore.795 kW 2 Pg = Power developed by the rotor + Rotor copper loss = Pd + PR = 50.385 kW PR 1.56% = Pin 26 659 Example 4. P = Pg + PS = 25659 + 1000 = 26 659 W in (c) The efficiency.10 A 3phase. the rotor input power. 50 = 55. (b) the motor input. Solution: (a) The synchronous speed.77 A R2 0. the mechanical loss. the stator copper and rotor copper loss each equals the iron loss. the power developed by the rotor is given as Pd = Po + Pm = 23876 + 500 = 24376 W Pd 24376 Therefore.8956 89.= = s = 0.9 when load is 50 kW.56 =Pi + 3 Pi 2 ⇒ 1.59 = 50.59 Pi = kW Now. the power developed by the rotor is given as Pd = Po + Pm = 50 + The rotor input power is given as 1.659kW = (1 − s ) (1 − 0. At this load.9 Neglecting the rotor iron loss. N s = 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1500 rpm P 4 Motor speed. 4pole induction motor supplies a useful torque of 160 Nm at 5 % slip.4 The rotor reactance X2 = sX20 is negligible for small values of s. and (c) the efficiency.56 kW 0. and hence can be ignored.795 + 1.4 Ω per phase.05) (b) The input power.04 4% = == 1000 Ns Example 4.12 The induced emf between the slipring terminals of an induction motor at standstill is 100 V. = Pin The noload loss consists of the stator iron loss (Pi) and mechanical losses (Pm) (since the stator and rotor copper losses are negligible).56 − 50 = 5.385 Example 4. Calculate (a) the rotor input. The rotor current is therefore given as = I2 = 2 R + sX 20 2 2 17 . the slip. N =− s ) N s =− 0.11 An induction motor has an efficiency of 0.
98 N s Example 4.98 and the speed of the rotor after inserting the external resistance. Solution: (a) Given: τ st = 1.4 hp 0. if external resistances of 2 ohm each are inserted in each rotor phase. the slip.82 N s × 500 hp = 418. (c) the slip for fullload torque if the rotor resistance is doubled.1465 fl s 2 − s fl + 0.5 = or 0. Solution: Given: R2 remain same. sm = 0. if Ns is the synchronous speed of the motor. the s/R2 ratio should remain the same. 0.1 (d) Since the fullload current remains the same. the actual number of poles is 20. we have = 0. Solution: (a) Approximate number of poles. = or = Ns τ fl τm 2 s fl ⋅ sm 2 × s fl × 0. (b) the slip. 4pole. Now.02) N s = N s (1 − (1 − 0.1465. s =0. Hence. Hence.25 =2. The synchronous speed is 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1500 rpm P 4 18 .125 0 = fl Since. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0. and hence we can write Eq.8 ⇒= 2.25 Ω/phase.6τ fl = 0.41. Calculate (a) the number of poles. such that Ns > N. the synchronous speed is given as 120 f 120 × 50 = = 300 20 P N s − N 300 − 285 Therefore.5 2 sm + s 2 (0. 4. and (d) the rotor copper losses with added rotor resistance if the original value of the rotor losses were 250 W. If the torque remains the same.25 Now.0τ fl . Thus.15 A 3phase. new value of s = 0. ' =0.18 R2 0. Hence. N = s ) N s = 0.5sm sm + 1 Therefore. s = = = 0.05 300 Ns = Ns (c) For small values of s.8 2.18) N s = N s (1 − (1 − 0.13 A slip ring induction motor runs at 285 rpm on full load when fed from a 50Hz supply.40.25 Ω. 50Hz. using Eq. (b) With 20 poles.46kW induction motor. the ratio s / R2 must also s' = s 0. τ m = 2. the speed of the rotor before inserting the external resistance. 4. N 285 There has to be an even number of poles.02 ' × R2 = × 2. Hence.05 . while working at rated voltage and frequency has a starting torque of 160 % and a maximum torque of 200 % of the fullload torque.5 sm Obviously. Calculate the slip and the power output.25 Ω .6τ fl . for stable motor action. the new output of the motor is Po' = 0. 2× 500 Example 4. R2 =2 + 0.82 Since the torque remains the same. the output is directly proportional to the speed. Thus.0τ fl 2 sm 2 sm + 1 or 2 = 2.02. the copper loss (I2R) is also doubled.14 The fullload slip of a 500hp. s also has to be doubled. and (b) the speed at maximum torque. using Eq.31 as τ∝ sR2 sR s ∝ 22 ∝ 2 2 R + s X 20 R2 R2 2 2 It means that to keep the torque same.8535. the new copper loss PR = 250 = W . If R2 is doubled. sfl must be less than sm. = P 120 f 120 × 50 = = 21. 3phase induction motor is 0. sm = 2 is not possible.5. N ' = s ') N s = 0. on doubling the rotor resistance.Example 4. Determine (a) the fullload speed. 50Hz.25 = 0. The ratio st = τ τm 1. Assume the torque to remain unaltered. we have sfl = 0. 0.05 = 2× 0.5) 2 + s 2 fl fl ⇒ s= 0. 4. the reactance sX20 is much smaller than the resistance R2.02. 7.
18.8 120 f 120 × 50 = = 1500 rpm . = = τ sh = 123.3 A Z2 Z2 0.04 × 0.25 pf 20 = cos tan −1 = cos87.5) 750 rpm = ) = Example 4.012) 2 + (0. Neglecting the stator impedance and magnetizing current.04 1500 N2 1 The transformation ratio. The motor runs at 1440 rpm at full load. Pg = = = 19 912. (b) the rotor power factor at starting with sliprings shorted.17 A 3phase.8: 1. determine (a) the rotor current at starting with sliprings shorted.16 A 3phase.65kW induction motor has friction and windage losses of 2. Pm =0.5 W 1− s 1 − 0. = = τd = 126. N = N s (1 − s fl= 1500 × (1 − 0.25 =19 116.012 Ω and 0.25 W .04 PR 796. Solution: The friction and windage losses.5 W 0.25) 2 ≈ 0.5 = = = 742. (c) the rotor current while running at full load with sliprings shorted. 4pole.04 × 289.012) 2 + (0.04 = Pd PR = 19116. Pd = Po + Pm =18650 + 466.25 rpm ) = fl (b) The speed at maximum torque. and fullload slip of 4 %.025 × 18650 =466.1465) 1280.5 = = 1158 A Z 20 0.25° 0.25 Ω Z 20 = 2 2 R2 + X 20 = 2 Z 2 = R2 + ( sX 20 ) 2 = (0. 0.Therefore. respectively. The rotor impedance at full load. (b) the rotor input.8 (0. 4pole. The rotor gross output. 50Hz.5 % of the output.25 (b) The rotor power factor at starting with sliprings shorted. 50Hz. P 4 The induced voltage in rotor per phase at standstill.5 V 3.25) 2 =0. = I 20 E20 289.7 Nm 2π ( N / 60) 2π × (1440 / 60) Pd 19 116. = = K N1 3. and (d) the gross torque.5 (b) The rotor input. and (e) the external resistance per phase required to limit the starting current to 100 A in the stator supply lines. (d) the rotor power factor while running at full load with sliprings shorted.25 (d) The rotor power factor while running at full load with sliprings shorted. the rotor copper loss is s 0. fullload speed.25 W (a) Using Eq. = I2 E2 sE20 0.25 Ω per phase. N N s (1 − s= 1500 × (1 − 0. s = 1500 − 1440 = 0. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance are 0. 1 = 1 = ×1100 = KE 289. (c) the output torque.04) 1440 rpm = ) = Po 18 650 The shaft torque. N s = The slip at full load.18.25 = 796. 4. 19 . deltaconnected induction motor has a starconnected rotor with a phase transformation ratio of 3.04 s 120 f 120 × 50 (c) The synchronous speed.048(lagging) = 0.8 Nm 2π ( N / 60) 2π × (1440 / 60) Example 4. E20 The rotor impedance at standstill. N s = = = 1500 rpm 4 P The rotor speed. Determine (a) the rotor copper loss.25 (d) The gross torque.0156 Ω (a) The rotor current at starting with sliprings shorted. 1100V. N m N s (1 − sm= 1500 × (1 − 0. Solution: The synchronous speed.012 (c) The rotor current while running at full load with sliprings shorted.
the external rotor resistance required is r =1. τ st = KV12 R2 . The frequency of the rotor current. The maximum torque is given as τ= m R2 = sX 20 . similar to that of a transformer.0156 (e) The stator phase current corresponding to starting linecurrent of 100 A is = I1 ∴ 100 = 57.4 Thus. P The speed of the rotor of an induction motor always remains slightly less than the synchronous speed. 5.8 = 219. and (iii) Generator Action 16. 2 2 R2 + s 2 X 20 15. The motor has three modes of operations: (i) Motor Action (0 < s ≤ 1) . 4. due to the air gap. The rotor current is given as The rotor copper loss. However. 8. K1 1 . 13. an induction motor operates at = almost constant speed. 3.012 =1.769(lagging) Z 2 0. Maximum torque occurs for a value of s.296 Ω Therefore. 2 X 20 > 1) . where Pg is the airgap power. 9.296 − 0.pf = R2 0. Therefore.73 A 3 Rotor current per phase.32 Ω I 20 219. The phasor diagram and the equivalent circuit of a threephase induction motor are always drawn per phase basis. = I2 E2 = Z2 sE20 R + ( sX 20 ) 2 2 2 PR = s × Pg .4 A K E20 289. the frequency fr is very small. Pd = Pg − PR = Pg − sPg = (1 − s ) Pg . 17. the rotor total resistance required is R2 += r '2 2 Z 2 − X 20 = 2 (1. The torque exerted on the rotor is given as R2 (1 − s ) / s . 6. 11. The starting torque.73 × 3. The synchronous speed in rpm is given as Ns = 120 f . 2. 1 hp = 746 W. it has much greater magnetizing current. Since s is very small. Induction motor action is. s ( N s − N ) / N s . Z 2 = = = 1.32) 2 − (0. τ= KV12 sR2 . SUMMARY An induction motor has a distributed threephase field winding on the stator and armature on the rotor. such that 18. The slip. (ii) Brake Action ( s ( s < 0) .25)= 1.284Ω 1. in many respects. f r = s ⋅ f .012 = = 0. The mechanical load on the shaft of the motor is represented by an equivalent (fictitious) electrical load= RL 14. At no load s is around 1 % and at full load it is around 3 %. Thus. I 2 = ∴ I1 = 57. the rotor iron losses are negligibly small.5 ' Rotor total impedance. The power developed Pd (in W) and torque developed τd (in Nm) are related as = τ= τ d (2π n) = Pd dω 2πτ d N 60 or = τd 60 Pd 2π N 12. 7. The power developed by the rotor. ⋅ 2 X 20 20 . 10.
Draw a typical torqueslip characteristic curve and deduce the condition for maximum torque. The frequency of the rotor currents is independent of the speed of the induction motor. 8. Show that the rotor copperloss is slip times the power input to the rotor. 3. No 1. For maximum torque. 11. 13. An induction motor has field on the rotor and armature on the stator. To limit the starting current. True False Marks Your Score = Answers 1. 6. go to the next Chapter. The main reason why threephase induction motors are widely used in industries is that (a) they are rugged in construction. Statement The more poles an induction motor has. The reason why most of the induction motors use squirrel cage rotor is that the starting torque is high. (e) The induction motor is the most commonly used motor. 10. What are different methods of starting an induction motor? With the help of a circuit diagram explain how a manual autotransformer is used in starting an induction motor. True 4. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Here are some incomplete statements. 5. True 3. The slip speed is defined as positive in the negative angular direction. Explain why an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed. An induction motor draws considerably high current at starting. 4. Discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. 9. The ratio of the torque for any s to the maximum torque is given as 2s ⋅ s τ = 2 m2 τ m sm + s 20. and why a synchronous motor cannot run at any speed other than the synchronous speed. the rotor and the stator poles should be spatially orthogonal. 12. 6. False 9. Explain why the starting torque of a squirrelcase induction motor is low. Give the reasons for the following: (a) The speed of an induction motor can never be the same as the synchronous speed. (c) The induction motor can be called a generalized rotating transformer. False 8. Explain why a starter is needed for starting an induction motor. 7. Four alternatives are provided below each. although the current drawn form the line may be quite high in starting of the motor. Tick the alternative that completes the statement correctly: 1. What is the effect of introducing extra resistance in the rotor circuit? Under what condition is it done and why? Prove that the frequency of the induced emf in the rotor of an induction motor is slip times its stator supply frequency. 10. False 1. require less maintenance and are less expensive than other motors (b) their operating characteristics are superior over other electrical motors 21 . Draw and explain the power flow diagram of a threephase induction motor. An induction motor develops maximum torque at a speed at which the rotor reactance has the value same as its resistance. False 2. (b) The reactance of the rotor varies greatly between starting and running conditions. 2. 2.19. Derive the equation for the torque developed by an induction motor. CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING Before you proceed to the next Chapter. Give yourself two marks for each correct answer rand minus one for each wrong answer. REVIEW QUESTIONS Explain the principle of working of a threephase induction motor. take this Test. The current in the rotor winding of an induction motor is an induced current. When a squirrel cage rotor is used in an induction motor. 3. 5. If your score is 12 or more. the faster it runs. Describe the constructional differences between a squirrel cage rotor and wound rotor of an induction motor. The change in speed of a threephase induction motor from no load to full load is about 98 %. What is meant by slip of an induction motor? Explain the importance of slip in the operation and performance of an induction motor. Starting from first principles. True 10. False 5. its stator can have any number of poles. 8. (d) The rotor coreloss in a threephase induction motor is negligible. 7. True 7. develop the equivalent circuit of an induction motor and explain how mechanical load is accounted for in this equivalent circuit. True 6. otherwise study this Chapter again. stardelta starter or autotransformer starter is used. 9. 4.
4. d 12. The synchronous speed of an induction motor can be increased by (a) reducing mechanical friction (b) increasing supply voltage (c) increasing number of poles (d) increasing frequency of supply When an induction motor is standstill. the power factor of the rotor circuit will be (a) 0. and the number of poles P of a threephase induction motor is given as (a) Ns = P 120 f (b) Ns = 120 P f (c) f = PN s 120 (d) f = 120 N s P 7.2. 8. 13.5 (c) 1 (d) infinity A threephase. d 1. c 16. the power factor of the rotor circuit of an induction motor is found to be 0. a 10. has a voltage of 50 V between its slip rings. (c) their speed can be controlled very smoothly over a wide range (d) they can be manufactured easily for any hprating In a threephase induction motor. 6. 11. d 8. c 14. If a stardelta starter is used for starting this motor. 16. 400V induction motor develops a torque of 200 Nm. 9. the voltage between its slip rings would be (a) 50 V (b) 20 V (c) 4 V (d) 2 V At standstill. (a) both the starting torque and the maximum value of the torque developed increase (b) both the starting torque and the maximum value of the torque developed remain unchanged (c) the starting torque increases but the maximum value of the torque developed decreases (d) the starting torque increases but the maximum value of the torque developed remains unchanged An induction motor has a starting torque of 600 Nm when started by direct switching. d 4. the rotor winding terminals are brought out through slip rings and brushes. a 11. 17. then (a) the rotor emf would be zero (b) the rotor current would be zero (c) the torque developed would be zero (d) all the above The rotor circuit of a threephase induction motor under running condition (a) is always closed (b) is always open (c) is sometimes closed and sometimes open (d) is neither completely closed nor completely open The number of slip rings in a 3phase wound rotor induction motor is (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 9 (d) 12 A 3phase. threephase induction motor. While running at full load with a slip of 0. 5. If the supply voltage is reduced to 200 V. when energized. (a) threephase supply is connected to the stator winding and a dc supply is connected to the rotor winding (b) threephase supply is connected to both the stator and rotor windings (c) threephase supply is connected to rotor winding only (d) threephase supply is connected to stator winding only The speed of a 50Hz. While running at full load. 10. d 15. a 2. d 17. stator supply frequency f.04. 14. This is done (a) to enable us to connect the rotor windings either in star or in delta as per requirement (b) to enable us to close the rotor circuit externally (c) to enable us to connect 3phase supply to the rotor windings (d) to enable us to connect extra resistances across them while starting the motor The relation between the synchronous speed Ns (in rpm). the starting torque will be (a) 1200 Nm (b) 600 Nm (c) 300 Nm (d) 150 Nm An induction motor has a starting torque of 600 Nm when started by direct switching. 50Hz induction motor at standstill. 12. a 3. c 13. the torque developed will be (a) 50 Nm (b) 100 Nm (c) 200 Nm (d) 400 Nm If an induction motor is made to run at synchronous speed. its slip is (a) zero (b) 0. 15. 3.2 lagging. the starting torque will be (a) 1200 Nm (b) 600 Nm (c) 300 Nm (d) 200 Nm Answers 7.8 lagging (c) almost unity (d) any of the above If the rotor circuit resistance of a threephase induction motor is increased. The number of pole in the motor is (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 12 In a 50Hz. threephase induction motor under fullload condition is 720 rpm. d 6. the frequency of the currents induced in the rotor is about (a) 50 Hz (b) 10 Hz (c) 2 Hz (d) zero In a woundrotor type induction motor.2 lagging (b) about 0. d 22 . c 9. c 5. If it is started through an autotransformer with 50 % tapping.
find the fullload slip and speed.65kW.024 ohm per phase and standstill reactance of 0. 1. 440V. (a) 2. The power input to a threephase induction motor is 50 kW and the corresponding stator losses are 2 kW. 50. (b) the noload speed.05 V.5 Ω per phase. slipring induction motor has a resistance of 0.3 A. and (b) the speed of maximum torque. A 500V. [Ans. [Ans. (a) 1000 rpm. The power supplied to a 3phase induction motor is 40 kW and the corresponding stator losses are 1. [Ans. (d) 22. the torque remaining the same. and (b) the efficiency of the motor.04.7 A. (c) the total input if the stator losses are 1500 W. [Ans. and (e) the frequency of rotor current. 50Hz mains. 252. phasewound.67 A] 12. [Ans. allowing 1 kW for mechanical losses. [Ans. A 3phase. (b) 92. A 3phase.013 Ω per phase and a leakage reactance of 0. Find the slip and the number of poles of the motor.PROBLEMS (A) Simple Problems 1. at what speed is the motor running? What is the slip? [Ans. The rotor windings are starconnected and have a resistance of 0.6 Ω per phase.8 kW. and (c) the phase difference between the rotor emf and current for a slip of 4 %. Calculate the resistance to be added to the rotor circuit to reduce the speed to 600 rpm. [Ans.265 ohm per phase. A 3phase. (a) 4 %. (c) 970 rpm.4 rpm] 4. 0. 50Hz motor with starconnected rotor has the rotor resistance of 0. Calculate (a) the total mechanical power developed and the rotor copper loss when the slip is 0. (b) 990 rpm. determine the running speed and the frequency of the rotor currents. 4pole. A 6pole. 415V. Calculate the current drawn by the motor from the power mains.5 Hz] 3. Neglect the rotor iron losses.23 hp. [Ans. (b) the rotor emf per phase. (a) 83 V.5 %. 1455 rpm. the emf between the sliprings on open circuit is 175 V.075 Ω per phase] 9.016 ohm per phase and standstill reactance of 0. 50Hz induction motor. (b) 5. 1440 rpm] 14.5 Hz.77 kW] 13. 600 rpm] 21. [Ans. what is its speed? [Ans. A 10pole induction motor is supplied by a 6pole alternator which is driven by a prime mover at 1200 rpm. 24pole. A 3phase. Calculate (a) the total mechanical power developed and the rotor I2R loss when the slip is 3 %. 960 rpm] 2.5 rpm. 30hp. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0. if the motor is running with a slip of 3 %. 3phase. The power input to a 3phase induction motor is 60 kW. 6pole.25 Hz] (B) Tricky Problems 10. 57.56 kW. (c) 2.53 A] 8.05. If the motor runs at a speed of 950 rpm.03] 6. and (e) the frequency of rotor current at full load. 50Hz. 50Hz. and the speed at which the maximum torque occurs.5 kW.6 ohm per phase. [Ans. (a) 4 %.75 lag. (a) 46. The mechanical power available at the shaft is 20. 4pole. (a) 0. 50Hz. (b) the rotor copper losses. Determine the speed at which maximum torque is developed. [Ans. 50Hz induction motor has a slip of 1 % at no load and 3 % at full load. A 3phase. (b) the rotor copper loss. [Ans. A 3phase.8 Ω] 17.87.32 V. 400V. (d) 50 Hz. calculate (a) the ratio of maximum to fullload torque. 18. The rotor of a 6pole. (b) the frequency of the rotor induced emf.0 kW.2 ohm per phase. slipring induction motor runs at 960 rpm on fullload with a rotor current of 35 A per phase. 50Hz. (c) φ2 8.5 Hz] 5. and (c) the rotor frequency and reactance. 4pole induction motor runs at a speed of 1440 rpm on 500V. When the motor is at standstill.96 kW. A 6pole induction motor is fed from a 50Hz supply. [Ans. (e) 1. The mechanical losses are 2. 4. 4 poles] 11.6 V] 7. if the friction and windage losses are 1. 1. (b) 701 W. 0. 4pole induction motor the standstill rotor emf per phase of 115 V. and that in the rotor is 1. (d) the frequency of rotor current at standstill. 4pole induction motor has a deltaconnected stator with 240 conductors per phase and a starconnected rotor with 48 conductors per phase. 0. (b) 382. (c) 91. A 3phase.8 %] 15. If the frequency of the rotor emf at full load is 2 Hz. If the motor is running at 1440 rpm.3 hp. [Ans. (c) the fullload speed. If the motor runs at slip of 3 %. and (c) the value of the rotor induced emf per phase. A threephase. 50Hz.3 Ω per phase and the rotor standstill reactance of 1. (b) the output horse power of the motor. 1. (c) 81. phasewound induction motor at standstill has the induced emf of 157 V between the slipring terminals. It is running at 960 rpm. A 3kV. 727.048 Ω per phase at standstill. (a) 2. The rotor resistance is 0. (b) 235 rpm] 23 .4 %] (C) Challenging Problems 19.54 kW.005 Ω/phase. [Ans. Fullload torque is obtained at a speed of 247 rpm. 50Hz. Neglecting the stator impedance. If the electromotive force in the stator of an 8pole induction motor has a frequency of 50 Hz. 6pole. 12pole alternator is driven by an engine running at 500 rpm. 3phase. Calculate the rotor current when the slipring terminals are shortcircuited and the rotor is rotating at a speed of 1455 rpm. (a) 36. 0.223 Ω/phase] 18. If the machine runs on fullload at 3 % slip. [Ans. 1. The stator copper loss and iron loss add up to 1 kW. (b) the rotor emf and current per phase at 4 % slip. and (c) the efficiency.4° ] = 20. find (a) the slip. induction motor has a rotor resistance of 0.5 Hz.001 Ω/phase and the standstill reactance is 0. Find (a) the synchronous speed.6. Calculate (a) the rotor emf per phase at standstill with the rotor on opoen circuit. 698. 440V. 3 %. [Ans. (c) 16.23 kW. calculate for this speed (a) the slip. [Ans. (b) 61 hp. [Ans. Find the total mechanical power developed and the rotor copper losses per phase. Calculate (a) the slip. Calculate (a) the slip.6 W. The alternator supplies an induction motor which has a fullload speed of 1455 rpm. (e) 1. develops 20 hp inclusive of windage and friction losses when running at 975 rpm. 8pole induction motor has a fullload slip of 2 %. Calculate the resistance per phase of the rotor winding. 50Hz. 3phase. 5. A 4pole induction motor is energized from a 50Hz supply system.1 %] 16. starconnected induction motor has a slipring rotor of resistance 0. Find the ratio of the maximum to fullload torque. 2pole induction motor operates at an efficiency of 85 % with a power factor of 0. 6pole. The stator losses total to 1 kW. (b) 2 Hz. (d) the current drawn by the motor from the supply.04 per unit. 50Hz. working at a power factor of 0. A 3phase. and (c) the efficiency of the motor. (c) 4.05. (b) 3. A 50Hz.
squirrelcage. Load Torque: The mechanical load of the shaft can be varied by using brake and pulley arrangement. The actual speed N of the rotor is always less than Ns.88 lagging. To plot the slip versus output power characteristic curve.05. Calculate (a) the slip. BRIEF THEORY: The load test on an induction motor helps us to determine its complete performance characteristics. The other end of the spring balance is fixed to a nut and bolt. MI. 3. Threephase supply.18 %. To plot the torque versus output power characteristic curve. 400 V. 1.9 W.24 A] EXPERIMENTAL EXERCISE 15 . 4. squirrel cage induction motor. (0 . To plot the line current versus output power characteristic curve. 6. (c) total input.10 A). A 6pole. Normal rated voltage at normal frequency is supplied to the motor and a variable load is applied to its shaft. The difference between the two is called slip. f stator losses are 2 kW. the frequency f of the 3phase ac supply is 50 Hz.400 V). induction motor with brake and pulley arrangement. [Ans. Threephase variac. and the number of poles P can be seen on the name plate of the induction motor. 24 . (c) 23 678 W. (b) the rotor copper loss. To plot the torque versus speed characteristic curve.22. The power factor is 0. (d) the efficiency. and (e) the line current. (0 .8 N If D is the effective diameter of the brake drum.8 × Nm 2 2 120 f P …(i) Slip: The speed at which the stator magnetic field rotates is called synchronous speed and is given by Ns = Here. Fig. 3phase induction motor develops 30 hp including 2 hp mechanical losses at a speed of 950 rpm on 550V. MI. (010 A). (d) 93.15 Circuit arrangement to conduct load test on a 3phase. A belt of suitable length rides over this drum. 5. the torque applied to the shaft is given as τ =F × D D =( S1 − S 2 ) × 9. Two spring balances S1 and S2 are attached at each end of the belt. which can be defined in percentage as = s Ns − N ×100 % Ns …(ii) The slip at fullload normally is 2 to 5 %. A pulley or a drum (called brake drum) is attached to the shaft. (b) 1083. To plot the efficiency versus output power characteristic curve.15. One voltmeter. 50Hz mains. One threephase. If the nut is tightened. (e) 28. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. One 15A. the belt presses harder on to the rotating drum thereby increasing the mechanical load. 2.1 Load Test on a ThreePhase Induction Motor OBJECTIVES: For different settings of the load. (a) 0. 4. If S1 and S2 are the readings of the two spring balances. APPARATUS: A 400V. One ammeter. 4. To plot the power factor versus output power characteristic curve. the net restraining force applied to the drum is F = ( S1 − S 2 ) kgf = ( S1 − S 2 ) g = ( S1 − S 2 ) × 9. Two singlephase wattmeters.
4. the input power factor angle can be calculated from following: φ = tan −1 3 The power factor is then given as P − P2 1 P + P2 1 pf = cos φ Po ×100 % Pin …(v) Efficiency: The efficiency of the induction motor is given as = η …(vi) PROCEDURE: 1. If P1 and P2 are the readings of the two wattmeters. If the deflection is found negative in a wattmeter. one of the wattmeters may give negative deflection. Q. the connections of one of the coils (either current coil or pressure coil) should be reversed and the readings should be treated negative.: And when it is running at full load. 3.15). PRECAUTIONS: 1. one wattmeter may again start reading negative. 9. the input power is given as …(iv) Pin P + P2 = 1 Note that at low power factors. 25 .: Usually. 8. 4. the mechanical power developed by the motor is dissipated as frictional loss (heat) at the brake and pulley arrangement. Make the connections as shown in Fig. OBSERVATIONS: See Table 4. the zero of the ammeter. the belt may wear away in short time. If so. Q. Q. 4. Increase the mechanical load by tightening the nut of the springs and note the readings. The reading of this wattmeter should be recorded negative. Repeat this for 6 – 8 settings of the load. it is about 1 . Note the readings of all the meters. Keep the threephase variac at its minimum position. Release the brake and pulley system so that the shaft is not loaded. VIVAVOCE: 1. Q. 2.3 lagging. the power factor is about 0. Input Power Factor: Using the readings P1 and P2 of the two wattmeters. (in Excel) attached separately RESULTS: For eight different observations.: At what voltage should the load test on an induction motor be performed? Ans.1b. 7. Gradually increase the position of the variac towards higher voltage.1 to 0.Output Power: The output power Po of the motor is given as Po = 2π Nτ watts 60 …(iii) Input Power: The input power Pin to the motor can be determined from the readings of the two wattmeters connected in the input circuit (see Fig. Note the direction of deflection in the wattmeters. What do you think its power factor will be? Ans. and at fullload it is about 2 . During the experiment. what is the order of slip for an induction motor. 5. CALCULATIONS: See Table 4. bring the variac back to its minimum and reverse the connections of either the current coil or pressure coil of that wattmeter. 2.1a. The readings in the ammeter should not exceed the current ratings of the wattmeter. and wattmeters should be checked. 6. otherwise. 3.: At no load. Q. 2. Switch on the threephase supply. voltmeter. expressed as percentage.: At no load.: At full load. is known as slip. Cooling of the brake pulley should be done properly. its power factor is very low. what would be the power factor? Ans. 4. 4. 10. of the order of 0. These are noload readings. the motor draws very small active power.85 lagging. (in Excel) attached separately.: What do you mean by the slip? Ans.: The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor. 3. Slowly increase variac position to apply rated voltage to the induction motor. again repeat step 5.2 %. different characteristic curves can be plotted. 5. Switch off the threephase supply. If it happens. Special care should be taken about the sign of the readings of wattmeters. Before switching on the supply. At some stage of the load.5 %. Measure the speed of the rotor by attaching the tachometer to the shaft. while running at no load and running at full load? Ans. Therefore.: Suppose that an induction motor is running on no load.: At its rated voltage.15.
: (i) The windings of a transformer are cylindrical.: In case of a running motor.5 7. Q. whereas a transformer transforms the electrical energy from one voltage level to another. 13. 14.: If one of the lines of the threephase supply gets open due to some fault.: The maximum torque the motor can develop is also called pullout torque. 9. Hence.: If the load on an induction motor is increased beyond the maximum torque it can develop. how much is the efficiency of an induction motor while running at full load? Ans.85. dc shunt motor. (ii) The stator of the induction motor is analogous to the primary of the transformer and the rotor to the secondary of the transformer. 3 × (greater than unity) ⇒ tan φ > 3 ⇒ φ > 60° or 10. It pulls out of the motion.: What do you mean by singlephasing of a 3phase induction motor? Ans. (iii) Due to mechanical losses (frictional and windage losses). one of the wattmeters may give negative reading? Ans. Q. if suddenly two of the threephase supply connections to the stator are interchanged. Q. the efficiency of an induction motor is lower than that of a transformer. tan φ = cos φ < 0. Q.: Why should it be called pullout torque? Ans. Q. Q.: (i) Both work on the principle of electromagnetic induction.: It is about 0.6. (ii) The induction motor has an air gap in its magnetic path and hence the magnetizing current of an induction motor is much higher than that of a transformer. the power factor has to be less than 0. the slip increases and the operation becomes unstable. an induction motor differs from a transformer? Ans.: Yes. the value of ratio ( P − P2 ) /( P + P2 ) will always be greater than 1 1 unity.: Under what conditions. 12. (iii) Both can be represented by similar equivalent circuits. Ultimately. is negative.: If the reading of one wattmeter. 8. (iv) An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. and it may even get damaged. say P2. When this happens. This phenomenon is called single phasing. Q. Q. This amounts to braking or pluggingof the machine. the current drawn by the two remaining lines increases and the motor gets overheated. As a result.5.: In what way. whereas those of an induction motor are distributed.: Do you know any other machine whose outputspeed characteristic is similar to that of a threephase induction motor? Ans. the 3phase motor continues running as a singlephase motor. the motor slows down. the machine stops.: What do you mean by ‘pullout torque’ of an induction motor? Ans. 11. if one of the wattmeters reads negative.: In what way. 26 . the machine comes to a stop quickly. the stator magnetic field reverses its direction of rotation. Thus. Q.: What is meant by plugging of an induction motor? Ans.75 to 0. an induction motor is similar to a transformer? Ans.: Approximately. (iv) Both machines can be tested through similar tests. The noload test on an induction motor is similar to the opencircuit test on a transformer.
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