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Dantes, Clarissa A.

BSN 1-A

Philippine Dance Terms


DANCE TERMS bow or saludo hands on waist hands holding skirt arms in lateral position hayon-hayon abrasete kumintang bilao arms in reverse "T" position brush clockwise counter clock wise curtsy do-si-do folded arms free foot free hand "hapay' inside hand/foot "Jaleo" "Kewet" link elbows/hook elbows outside hand/foot stamp "panadyak" "place" point "salok" "sarok" slide star with left hand star with right hand

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PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCE HISTORY


Mountain or Igorot Dances Long before the Spaniards, the indigenous people in the mountainous regions had already their folk dances which reflect their worship, their celebrations, their wars and even their everyday lives. Scholars refer to them as mountain dances which consisted of different mountain tribes. When Spaniars came, they called them Igorots. They dance to appease their ancestors and gods to cure ailments, to insure successful war-mating activities,or to ward off bad luck or natural calamities. They dance to congregate and socialize, for general welfare and recreation, and as an outlet for repressed feeling. They also dance to insure bountiful harvests, favorable weather, and to mark milestones in the cycle of life. So the dances evolve as they need them to express their feelings, their sadness and their anger. Muslim and Moro Dances Mindanao and Sulu were never conquered by Spain. Islam was introduced in the Philippines in the 12th century before the discovery of the islands by Magellan in 1521. The dances in Muslim however predated the Muslim influence. Like Ipat which was a dance to appease ancestral spirits. Before Islam, the Maguindanaons held the view that diseases are caused by tonong (ancestral spirits).Thus, a folk healer performs the pag-ipat while being possessed by the tinunungan (spirit).

Another is the dance baluang which creates the illusion of an angry monkey, and is always performed by male dancers. The popularity of this dance comes naturally, since the baluang, or monkey, enjoys an affectionate place in Asian folklore. Singkil was introduced after the 14th century. It was based on the epic legend of Darangan of the Maranao people of Mindanao. It tells of the story of a Muslim Princess, Gandingan who was caught in the middle of a forest during an earthquake caused by the diwatas, or fairies of the forest. Tribal Dances The cultural minorities that live in the hills and mountains throughout the Philippine Archipelago considered dances as basic part of their lives. Their Culture and animistic beliefs predated Christianity and Islam. Dances are performed essentially for the gods. As in most ancient cultures, unlike the Muslim tribes in their midst, their dances are nonetheless closely intertwined with ceremonials, rituals and sacrifices. The only dance that is believed to have evolved during the Spanish colonization is the Talaingod dance which is performed to the beat of four drums by a female, portrays a virgin-mother bathing and cradling her newborn baby, named Liboangan. She supposedly had a dream, or pandamggo, that she was to bear such a child. This concept of a virginbirth may have been derived from the Catholic faith. Maria Clara Dances The history of the Philippines is that of a country constantly melding its culture with that of outsiders, a narrative that is exemplified well by Filipino folk dance history. For example, the 300-year Spanish occupation of the Philippines profoundly influenced folk dancing. The Maria Clara style of dance is named after a Spanish-style dress, and its performance includes Spanish footwork with Filipino modifications such as bamboo castanets and Asian fans. Contact with ancient Indian civilization is also evident through Indian-influenced dance, which thrives particularly in the South. Numerous other influences including Muslim and Indonesian can be found throughout the Philippines. The coming of the Spaniards in the 16th century brought a new influence in Philippine life. A majority of the Filipinos were converted to Roman Catholicism. European cultural ideas spread and the Filipinos adapted and blended to meet the local conditions. These dances reached their zenith in popularity around the turn of the century, particularly among urban Filipinos. They are so named in honor of the legendary Maria Clara, who remains a symbol of the virtues and nobility of the Filipina woman. Maria Clara was the chief female character of Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere. Displaying a very strong Spanish influence, these dances were, nonetheless, "Filipinized" as evidence of the use of bamboo castanets and the abanico, or Asian fan. Typical attire for these dances are the formal Maria Clara dress and barong tagalog, an embroidered long-sleeve shirt made of pineapple fiber. Rural and Barrio Perhaps the best known and closest to the Filipino heart are the dances from the rural Christian lowlands: a country blessed with so much beauty. To the Filipinos, these dances illustrate the fiesta spirit and demonstrate a love of life. They express a joy in work, a love for music, and pleasure in the simplicities of life. Typical attire in the Rural Suite include

the colorful balintawak and patadyong skirts for the women, and camisa de chino and colored trousers for the men. The dances developed during the three hundred years of Spanish colonization. A good example of rural or barrio dances is Sinulog. It is a ceremonial dance performed by the people of San Joaquin, Iloilo, during the feast of San Martin. It originated in a barrio of San Joaquin called Sinugbahan. It was believed that the image of San Martin was found at the edge of a beach, and that it could not be removed until the people dance the Sinulog. Folk Dance Steps Combinations in 3/4 Time Touch Step - touch R (cts. 1,2); close R (ct. 3) or touch R (ct. 1); close R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Step Point - step R (cts. 1,2); point L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); point L (cts. 2,3) 1 M Step Swing - step R (cts. 1,2); swing L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); swing L (cts. 2,3) Step Hop - step R (cts. 1,2); hop R (ct. 3) 1 M Close Step - step R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3); step R (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Slide Step - slide R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3) or slide R (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Bleaking - place R heel (cts. 1,2); close R to L (ct. 3) or place R heel (ct. 1); close R to L (cts. 2,3) 1 M Waltz - step R (ct. 1); close L to R (ct. 2); step R again (ct. 3) 1 M Three-step turn step R (ct. 1) turn and step L (ct. 2); turn and step R (ct. 3); close L to R (ct. 1); pause (cts. 2,3) 2 M All Sway Balance The first step is usually done obliquely forward, cts. 1,2, the crossstep is done sideward (ct. The succeeding step is done obliquely backward (ct. 2) and the last two counts are done infront, in place. Arms open from the first position to the fourth position R or L arms high. Kumintang R (L) hand when pointing with L (R) foot on cts. 2,3 of the second measure.

Sway balance with a point step R, cross step L/step R, point L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a brush step R, cross stepL/step R, brush L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a close step R, cross stepL/step R, close L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a hop step R, cross stepL/step R, raise L, hop// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a raise step R, cross stepL/step R, raise L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a waltz step R, cross stepL/step R, close L, step R// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2 3

Hand Positions: First position- raise arms to a circle in front of the chest. Second position open up arms sideward, raised below shoulder level with a graceful curve. Third position raise one arm overhead while other arm remains in 2nd position. Fourth position raise one arm in front of chest in a half circle, while one arm remains overhead. Fifth position raise both arms overhead in a graceful curve.

Feet Positions: First position bring heels close to touch; toes apart. Second position bring feet apart sideward.

Third position bring the heel of one foot to touch the instep of the other foot. Fourth position bring one foot in front of the other foot to walk strike. Fifth position bring the heel of one foot to touch the toe of the other.

MANALILI, JEM RICH P. BSN -!A

HISTORY OF FOLK DANCE


The term folk dance describes dances that share some or all of the following attributes: They are dances performed at social functions by people with little or no professional training, often to traditional music or music based on traditional music. They are not designed for public performance or the stage, although traditional folkdances may be later arranged and set for stage performances. Their execution is dominated by an inherited tradition rather than by innovation (although like all folk traditions they do evolve) New dancers often learn informally by observing others and/or receiving help from others.

More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional performances. Natural spontaneous behaviour on festive occasions has been the source of song, music and dance since time immemorial. Through years of performance English Folk Dance has become an established and recognised part of local tradition. Local inventiveness has developed its special characteristics so that the dance, like language, comes in many varieties. There have been several main strands to its development, social dancing (men and women together); Step dancing; Morris dancing; Sword dancing - and each of these strands can be further subdivided.

In Medieval times people would 'carole' i.e. link hands in a line or a circle and sing as they danced to provide their own accompaniment. The introduction of musicians enabled them to save their breath somewhat! Other dance formations developed and social dances, even from Tudor times, have been preserved. Also available are many of the printed dance collections from the mid-seventeenth century onwards. Needless to say, at the time of the Commonwealth the Puritans considered dancing a sin and tried to stamp it out altogether. However, it is known that even Oliver Cromwell danced until the early hours of the morning at his daughter's wedding! We can read descriptions of certain country dances in the works of writers such as Jane Austen, Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy. Although the Victorian era saw a shift towards couple dances brought in from the continent eg the waltz and the polka, there was a strong revival of interest in traditional English folk dance, song and music in the late nineteenth/early twentieth centuries with the work of Cecil Sharp and Mary Neal being of particular importance. Until relatively modern times folk dances (or Country Dances) were a part of Court life, just as much as of peasant life. Continental influences were successfully assimilated, just as some aspects of folk dancing have, in turn, been incorporated into other later forms of dance. Anyone joining in the 'Conga' or the 'Hokey Cokey' is simply reflecting the activities of the medieval carollers, whether they know it or not! English Folk Dancing is still around, with a sizeable minority of the population interested and regularly involved. A much greater proportion comes into occasional contact with it - as shown by the regular demand for bands and callers to run barn dances, hoedowns, knees-ups and ceilidhs. Charities, schools, churches, social groups and wedding parties are frequent 'customers'. Besides belonging to a local folk dance club one has the opportunity to attend Saturday night dances, day and residential courses, and there are longer folk dance holidays on offer for those who seek the winter sunshine of the Mediterranean. Some groups of people also come together to share in 'special interest' types of folk dancing such as Historical Dance; the dances from John Playford's 'English Dancing Master' of the seventeenth century; dances from the collections of dancing masters such as Walsh and Kynaston, and dances done to the tunes of Henry Purcell. Costumed Balls held at appropriate venues such as the Ashton

Memorial, Lancaster; Towneley Hall, Burnley and Tatton Park, Knutsford have become a popular feature. Dedicated devotees regularly travel much further afield to such places as Bath, Norwich and Bury St Edmunds. Morris, Sword, Clog and Step dancers are often to be seen at festivals, fairs and fetes - and town-twinnings have brought an unexpected boost to many.

Folk Dance Steps Combinations in 3/4 Time


Touch Step - touch R (cts. 1,2); close R (ct. 3) or touch R (ct. 1); close R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Step Point - step R (cts. 1,2); point L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); point L (cts. 2,3) 1 M Step Swing - step R (cts. 1,2); swing L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); swing L (cts. 2,3) Step Hop - step R (cts. 1,2); hop R (ct. 3) 1 M Close Step - step R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3); step R (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Slide Step - slide R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3) or slide R (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M Bleaking - place R heel (cts. 1,2); close R to L (ct. 3) or place R heel (ct. 1); close R to L (cts. 2,3) 1 M Waltz - step R (ct. 1); close L to R (ct. 2); step R again (ct. 3) 1 M Three-step turn step R (ct. 1) turn and step L (ct. 2); turn and step R (ct. 3); close L to R (ct. 1);

pause (cts. 2,3) 2 M All Sway Balance The first step is usually done obliquely forward, cts. 1,2, the cross-step is done sideward (ct. The succeeding step is done obliquely backward (ct. 2) and the last two counts are done infront, in place. Arms open from the first position to the fourth position R or L arms high. Kumintang R (L) hand when pointing with L (R) foot on cts. 2,3 of the second measure. Sway balance with a point step R, cross step L/step R, point L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a brush step R, cross stepL/step R, brush L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a close step R, cross stepL/step R, close L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a hop step R, cross stepL/step R, raise L, hop// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a raise step R, cross stepL/step R, raise L// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2, 3 Sway balance with a waltz step R, cross stepL/step R, close L, step R// 2M 1, 2 3 1 2 3

Hand Positions: First position- raise arms to a circle in front of the chest. Second position open up arms sideward, raised below shoulder level with a graceful curve. Third position raise one arm overhead while other arm remains in 2nd position. Fourth position raise one arm in front of chest in a half circle, while one arm remains overhead. Fifth position raise both arms overhead in a graceful curve.

Feet Positions: First position bring heels close to touch; toes apart. Second position bring feet apart sideward. Third position bring the heel of one foot to touch the instep of the other foot. Fourth position bring one foot in front of the other foot to walk strike. Fifth position bring the heel of one foot to touch the toe of the other.