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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
by Edward R. Rosset
Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Diseno Irunes
© Editorial Stanley
Apdo. 207-20302IRUN-SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 0412 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 email@example.com www.gentedellibro.com ISBN: 84-7873-282-9 Dep. Leg.: Bl- 8804-03 First edition / Primera edicion 1992 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1995 Reprinted / Reimpresion 1998 Reprinted / Reimpresion 2000 Third edition /Tercera edicion 2003 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza
how 31 Can .would you like? 26 When . for.. yet. like? _ 82 35 Present perfect tense: for and since 36 Verbs with two objects 37 Question words as subjects 38 Reported or Indirect Speech 84 86 88 90 10 Personal pronouns as subjects and objects 20 11 Possessives: possessive 's and s' _ 24 12 Adjectives: Attributes .what .Hospital /the hospital 7 Some.So do I . already.INDEX 1 The present of BE 2 The present of HAVE 3 There is . any 8 To Have (Past tense) . a . from 17 Prepositions of distance and descriptions 18 The present continuous 19 The simple present tense 20 "Going to" form 21 The future simple 22 The imperative 26 28 30 36 38 40 42 44 46 50 52 39 So am I .to be able 74 76 32 Be with ages and measurements _ _ 78 33 Comparative and superlative adjectives: comparison 80 4 A/an -the 5 The.. at 15 Prepositions of time: on. look like. since.could .Neither/nor am I 92 40 Some and something in offers and requests 41 Infinitive of Purpose 42 Conditional Structures 43 Structures with get 94 96 98 102 44 Still. in.predicatives 13 Interrogative and negative sentences in present 14 Prepositions of place: on.there are 2 4 6 30 What a/an . what is . in.Omission of articles 6 School/the school . that/those 28 Both and all 29 Say and tell 58 62 64 66 68 72 .To Be (Past tense) 9 The plural of nouns 8 10 12 14 16 18 34 Good at. during. since. at 16 Prepositions of time: for.clauses 27 Demonstratives: this/these. an. during 104 45 Questions tags 46 Passive voice 47 Interrogative pronouns 48 Relative pronouns Appendix 106 108 110 112 115 23 Adverbs of frequency and degree _ 54 24 The past simple tense 25 Like .
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset .
En ingles hay que poner siempre el sujeto en todas ias frases (pero solo un sujeto. vosotras y ustedes (en plural). thank you How do you do? Hola Buenos dfas Buenas tardes Buenas tardes (a partir de las seis) Buenas noches (se usa para despedirse) Adios ^Como estas? ^Como esta usted? Muy bien. Los objetos y los animates son. You tambien signified vosotros. Recuerde You se puede traducir por tu o usted (en singular). por regla general. neutros. gracias Tanto gusto (solo para presentarse) Recuerde El pronombre "I" siempre se escribe con mayuscula.UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The present of Be Affirmative I am/I'm You are/you're He is/he's She is/she's It is/it's We are/we're You are/you're They are/they're Saludos Hello/Hallo Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good night Goodbye How are you? Very well. Negative I am not/I'm not You are not/you're not/you aren't He is not/he's not/he isn't She is not/she's not/she isn't It is not/it's not/it isn't We are not/we're not/we aren't You are not/you're not/you aren't They are not/they're not/they aren't Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they? 2 STANLEY . no dos).
It is 11 p. This dog 2. "Are you going home. in the garden. they tall. Escriba estas frases con el verbo contraido. "This is Mr Jones. it those people doing? eating the meat. where white.m. they you?" "We in the garden. They are tall boys 1. The houses 3. I 5. They are not here. What 10. John. not very big. En este ejercicio hay que poner el verbo be en la forma correcta. It is 3 o'clock. Example: The house is very nice. Mr Jones?" boys. 9. very big tables. very nice gardens. here. You're a man. The door 8. 4. They the gardens nice? Yes. " . 2. a very big door. interesting books. 3 STANLEY . You are not at home. Mr Brown 5. a white dog. It green." 13. at home. Good 6. Rellene las frases con el saludo apropiado. . green houses." 2. The boys are tall. 3. here." "How 2. 1. They are here. David and Jane in the sitting-room?" "No. "Boys. at home here. 4. I am going home. Mr Jones?" "Yes. and how are ? you do. The dog and the cat 12. Good 7. " kitchen. At breakfast: "Good 3. How are you? fine. thank you.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The dog 11. He not small. Mr Johnson. It is a nice house. Hello. They these books interesting? Yes." 8. . Peter. She is not a girl. in the a very tall man. a girl. Example: You are a man. Example: How are you? Very well. they big. 7. It is 7pm. a girl. 4. 3. The tables 6. It the house very big? No. 1.
etc. aunque muy comun." actividades diferentes.UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The present of Have Affirmative I have/I've You have/you've He has/he's She has/she's It has/it's We have/we've You have/you've They have/they've Negative I have not/haven't/don't have You have not/haven't/don't have He has not/hasn't/doesn't have She has not/hasn't/doesn't have It has not/hasn't/doesn't have We have not/haven't/ don't have You have not/haven't/don't have They have not/haven't/don't have Interrogative Have l?/Do I have? Have you?/Do you have? Has he?/Does he have? Has she?/Does she have? Has it?/Does it have? Have we?/Do we have? Have you?/Do you have? Have they?/Do they have? • A veces se dice "I have got" o "I've got". • El verbo TO HAVE puede ir seguido de un com"Have you got an ice-cream?" 'Yes.• Sin embargo. I plemento para referirse a un gran numero de have. You have a bath / a shower / a nap. she doesn't have a holiday.Does he have a car? / Has he got a car? • En estos cases no se puede usar haven't got. I don't usually have anything to eat in the morning. Sin embargo. 4 STANLEY . etc. She has a shower every day. cuando el verbo have se puede de reemplazar por eat o drink. Es completamente opcional. spend. • Notese tambien que en la forma afirmativa no se anade "got". drink. etc: I have tea at five o'clock. Have a look at this book! Jim. se puede hacer de una manera: He has coffee for breakfast. Es decir. El significado depende de la expresion: en algunos cases have se pue. no se anade en respuestas cortas o en las "coletillas": • Cuando el verbo have significa "tener" la interrogacion y negation se pueden hacer de dos formas: Do you have many brothers? / Have you got many brothers? . take." "Does she have a holiday?" "No. se anade la palabra "got" sin que por ello se altere el significado. have a wash! "Do you have breakfast in the morning?" "No. I have breakfast / lunch / dinner." • Se suele ahadir got al verbo have en presente. entonces la forma negativa e interrogativa solo take. The boys have a swim every day in summer. receive. en otros por reemplazar por otro verbo: eat.
They have a day off very often. We have a quarrel every day. . 5. 2. 5 STANLEY .EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. . Does Mr Smith have a large house? 2. 4. He has a glass of wine with his dinner. 11. I have an intelligent dog. 12. 7. We have a good time on Saturday nights. She has a bath in the evening. Example: They have dinner at 7. They have a house in the country. My father has a cup of coffee after lunch every day. 7. En este ejercicio tiene que poner las frases en la otra forma de interrogacion o negacion. Have you got a sister in New York? 6. 8. We haven't got a new car 4. The children don't have time to play. . 2. 3. 1. 15. Have a rest! 13. . We have a walk every evening. We have a meal in a restaurant. 10. Ponga estas frases en forma negativa. 14. . We have trouble understanding him. They have dinner early. . They don't have dinner at seven. She hasn't got a friend at school. The dog hasn't got a little house in the garden. She often has a glass of wine. 5. She has a good husband. 19. 16. 9. Have a look at this book! 18. 17. Has Jimmy got a cat? 3. Example: Have you got a dog? Do you have a dog? 1. We have coffee after lunch. 6. We have many difficulties. I have a shower every day.
la negacion se pone en tercer lugar: There are not many people at the concert today." (aren't) 6 STANLEY . el presente del verbo impersonal "haber". Ejemplos de frases en singular "Is there any tea in the teapot?" "Yes. there is not" (isn't) "Is there any water in the glass?" "Yes. cuando la frase es singular. tiene dos formas: there is." "Are there any lamps on the wall?" "Yes. there is!" "Is there anybody in the house?" "No.there are • En ingles.UNIT 3 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 There is ." (aren't) "Are there any glasses on the table?" "No. Is there? • La negacion se pone en tercer lugar. There is a woman. there is!" "Is there any time?" "No. there are. there are not. "hay". there is. • Por regla general." "Are there many cats in the house?" "No. there are not. There's a little dog in the garden. There is a sandwich. there are. There are not many things to do in this place. • En la forma interrogativa se cambia el orden: Are there many flowers in this park? Are there any glasses in the kitchen? • En cuanto a la forma negativa. Ejemplos de frases en plural "Are there many trees in the park?" "Yes. • There is se puede contraer a There's siempre que la frase continue: There's a tall man in the sitting-room. Is there a dog? Yes. es decir. there are cuando la frases es plural: There is a man. There are some children playing in the park. usamos esta estructura cuando nos referimos a algo que no conocemos todavfa: • En forma interrogativa se cambia el orden. There is not. • Pero no se puede contraer cuando la frase termina ahf. there is not!" (isn't) • Usamos there are cuando la frase es plural: There are many houses in this street.
1. Robert." 10. There few students. 8. "Do we have much time?" "No. There is not a good restaurant in this town. En este ejercicio tiene que poner there is o there are. There are two men.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. any windows open?"" any free time left?" "Yes. " 9. Ahora va a poner las frases siguientes en plural. " 5. There"s a tall woman. "Constable James. a group of girls talking in the playground. 3. many cars using this road today. There Brown's garden. Example: There is a man. I don't like it. and it's closed." 3. there much coffee in the coffee-pot? No. In my school there classrooms. 3. there very much. there a lot of grass in this garden. 2. 3. 6. I'm afraid. " a lot of whisky in the bottle. Let's go Peter. There is not a good country road. There"s a big house. there 5. 1. There 7. but there much in Mr there much traffic today along Elm Avenue?" "Yes. There is a big tree in this street. There is a hill over there. time to play another game?" "Yes. There are two women in the garden. there 2. many boys playing football. many chairs in the dining-room?" "Yes. there many girls in your class?" "There there many people at the concert today? any time left. Example: There is a man in the room." . something I want to do today." many teachers. " 7. There 8. Is there a good magazine? 7. En este ejercicio hay que poner there's siempre que se pueda. Is there a window in this room? 9." plenty of time. a lot of noise in this place. Example: There's a lot of water in the jar 1." only one girl. There 6. 7 STANLEY ." only one window. 2. 5. any tea in the tea-pot? Yes. However. 2. " 6. . Is there a telephone in this place? 4. I'm going to make some. also many 4. 4.
The boy had short dark hair. • Asumimos que los que nos escuchan saben a que libros y manzanas nos referimos: • Otros ejemplos: There was a boy holding hands with a girl in the park. earth. universe. cinema. theatre.the police the post office. I saw a play last night. and the apples in the fridge. Usamos the cuando esta clara la situation de la persona o cosa a que nos referimos: The doctor came this morning to see Grandpa. Usamos el artfculo the con radio. (este tren en particular en la estacion de esta ciudad): •Tambien con: the navy the army . I had a meal in a restaurant. 5. (no sabemos que coche) Mary sat on a chair. 2. (no sabemos cual) We stayed at a nice hotel in Benidorm. There are a carpet and a lamp in this room. I never go to the theatre. We always watch the news on TV. 4. The earth goes round the sun. No solemos usar el artfculo the con las comidas: What time is dinner? What are you going to have for breakfast? Are we going to have lunch? •Tampoco usamos the con watch.UNIT 4 ENGLISH GRAMMAR A/an . The play was about a man who loved a woman but the woman didn't love the man. television: She never watches television. She had a very nice dog. (la luz de esta habitation) The bank opens at nine.. . tambien con sun. moon. (este banco en particular) I took the train at the station. si los oyentes saben a que nos referimos usamos el articulo determinado: I left the books on the table. Usamos a/an cuando nuestro interlocutor no sabe a que nos referimos: I am looking for a book. A spaceship is going to the moon. etc: I often listen to the radio. The carpet is new but the lamp is old.. (no nos dice que libro) He bought a car.the • Usamos a o an cuando es la primera vez que hablamos de un objeto: He had an apple in his bag. 8 STANLEY 3. (su medico de cabecera) The light was on all night. etc. • Sin embargo. and the girl had long fair hair.
" most beautiful girl in town.1 had 12. it was the best restaurant in town.30 cinema half past eight.00-12.30 I listened 2. Conteste estas preguntas segun el ejemplo. ponga un guion. 5. He spends the afternoon watching — television.30 television 8. 3. on small village in dinner they went for television in island in the Mediterranean. I don't like listening to first country to send a man to big breakfast and I'm not hungry now. top of sun is shining in television or at cinema? radio." best hotel in London.00-4.30 .S. it is large house?" "Yes. From ." 1. I don't like going to 3. "Have you got 10.00 6.00 until 9. At 7. she is good hotel?" "Yes. "Was it 3. After 4." longest trip I have ever made. Escriba una frase para cada una de ellas. Why don't you invite your boyfriend to 14. 1.00-9.00-10.00 lunch evening: 7. Estas son algunas de las cosas que hizo ayer. 10. film. page. Where did you see 9. . At 1.00 walk/sea . theatre. We had a nice meal in a good restaurant. He is a seaman.30 radio 3. ENGLISH GRAMMAR Example: "Was it a good restaurant?" "Yes. capital is Valetta. "Is she 5. Si no hacen falta. sea. largest house in the village.A. What is 6. Malta is 7. on country. it was most expensive in the gallery. . The U. mornings. Morning: 8. walk. She wrote her name at nice day. 13. From 10. "Was it 4. cinema.00 I 4. I don't like watching 5.EXERCISES 1. From 9.00 dinner Example: I had breakfast at 1. From 3. "Was it expensive picture?" "Yes.00-to 4.30 breakfast afternoon: 1. sky. it was beautiful girl?" "Yes. 9 STANLEY . En este ejercicio hay que poner a/an o the.00 till 12." 2. it is long trip?" "Yes. Examples: She always goes to the best restaurant in town.00 I was walking by 9. He lives in 2. I prefer going to radio?" "No. longest river in world? dinner? sea. He spends most of his life at 15. "Is it 2. It is 8." moon. was 11. right. When I was a boy I used to live near 3.
Crime doesn't pay. • Usamos el articulo the con ciencia y tecnologia: I like the telephone. an. • Tambien suprimimos el articulo con most: Most people like pop music. a . .The whale is the biggest animal on earth. .an idea an airfield •Tambien nos referimos a los instrumentos musicales de esta manera: I like playing the guitar. Doctors are very well paid.an elephant . I love collecting stamps. He will play the trumpet tonight. She is afraid of dogs. Galileo invented the telescope. Most dogs are faithful to their owners. The dolphin is a mammal. pero no con plurales: .I have a cat I have some cats /1 have cats • No se debe omitir el articulo delante de profesiones: My daughter is studying to be a doctor. Generalmente ponemos an en vez de a cuando la palabra siguiente empieza por vocal: . 10 STANLEY . Solemos omitir el uso de the antes de un sustantivo cuando nos referimos a alguien o algo en general: Children are nice. • Usamos the con algunos adjetivos para refe• Sin embargo.UNIT 5 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The. 2.Omission of articles 1. Life is very difficult nowadays. depende de la pronunciation de rirnos a clases de personas: the rich las palabras que siguen a los artfculos: the dying a uniform the blind a university the English an hour anMP an honest man an heir a unique vase • El articulo indefinido a/an se usa siempre con sustantivos en singular.She likes music.
Do you like the skiing / skiing? 8. The hunting / Hunting is very cruel sometimes. China 14. were taken to 3. 3.A. This old house is going to be used as a shelter for 4.poor .wounded Example: This is a traffic control system for the blind.blind . Complete las frases usando the con estos adjetivos. 6. the cries of and 11 STANLEY . Portugal 11. 2. France S. In this country the coffee / coffee is cheaper than the tea / tea.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. After the battle. Most / The most people hate violence / the violence. Fruit / The fruit is good for you. to give the money to were buried and . Switzerland 7. 1. 9. 7. Scotland 10.dead . Look at the fruit / fruit on that stand. iComo se llama la gente que vive en los pai'ses que se mencionan a continuacion? Example: I. 8. 5. After the plane crash. They got married last year but the marriage / marriage wasn't successful.injured . Women / The women are more sensitive than men. 4. 2. Japan 12. .Germany 4. 12. Spain S.Italy 6. dying . Meals / The meals are terrible. Examples: I love animals /the animal 1. Don't go to that restaurant. Ireland Britain The British.England 2. En este ejercicio tiene que elegir la forma correcta. con o sin the. They say that Dick Turpin robbed 2.rich . Russia 3. hospital. U. All pictures / All the pictures on that wall belong to my father. filled the night air. How nice it looks! 11. The cheese/ cheese we had after the meal was delicious. My sister is very interested in the art/ art. Wales 9.S. 10.needy . 13.
They've been at sea for a week / I was on my way to work. 2. • Con los verbos be. • Se dice: go to sea as sailors. Let's stay at home. town. and he was taken to hospital. They arrived home late. • En otras palabras. I'll take you to court if you don't pay. si ingresas en el hospital como paciente: you go to hospital o are taken to hospital. I'm tired. We were in town last Wednesday.UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 School/the school . She takes her children to school every day. prison. Mr Kent went to the school to speak to the maths teacher. • De igual forma decimos: The injured are in hospital. The whole family were in/at church. stay. etc. Algunas palabras de uso frecuente suelen suprimir el artfculo cuando se usan para lo que han sido disehadas. church. and she is at the hospital now. . . He was sent to prison for robbery.Mr Carter had an accident yesterday.I go to church on Sundays. He is in bed resting. • Usamos todas estas palabras con el artfculo the cuando se visitan o se usan por otras razones: I went to the church to see the new altar. To be at sea. My children are at school now. • Si vas de visita: you go to the hospital o you • La palabra home no lleva preposition con verbos de movimiento: are at the hospital visiting somebody. • Suprimimos el artfculo delante de todos estos sustantivos cuando les damos un sentido de uso: .At the moment he is still in hospital. court.He is studying at Bristol University. . school. 12 STANLEY .Mrs Carter went to the hospital to visit him. bed. university. Let's go home. college. work. 3. sea. These people are hard at work. They are joining the navy and soon will go to sea.Hospital/the hospital 1. • Se suele omitir el the con town cuando se trata de la ciudad del que habla: We often go to town to do some shopping. home. • Estudiemos esta situation: . He often goes to the prison to give lectures. / I am going to bed. se usa at: The children are at home.
I'm staying 9. There's a lot of traffic this morning. Little Jimmy doesn't like school / the school. I always go home / to home. she wants to study medicine 3. My wife likes to read in bed / in the bed before going to sleep. Our neighbour had an accident and is still 4. college. bed. where would you go to speak to him? 3. If a thief was arrested and you wanted to speak to him. After work / the work. prison. Example: The children are already in bed In the bed. En este ejercicio hay que elegir la forma correcta con o sin the. 6. 3. I'm going to church / to the church. My husband never goes to church / to the church. where would you go? To the church. 8. 1 . 5. Are you going out? No. where would you go? 13 STANLEY . My wife and I always go 7. 4. at the 2. 3. sea. 9. church. school. 5. All those students are still 8. I want to talk to the priest. 1. Old Mc Donald is still ill in hospital / in the hospital. 1. on Sundays. If your friend had an accident. home. Tache la que este mal. The lawyer had to go to prison / to the prison to see his client. At the end of the course parents are invited to school / to the school to meet the teachers. 2. university. When my daughter leaves school. Responda con respuestas cortas a las siguientes preguntas. My son left university / the university without taking his final exams. That man robbed a bank. college. where would you go to see him? 2. Everybody seems to be going same time.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Example: If you wanted to see the priest about a wedding. Complete estas frases usando las palabras siguientes: hospital. If your son's teacher wanted to see you. All these children go 6. 7. but was caught and sent only in the morning. Jim has joined the Navy and within two months he will be 2. Example: Children. drink your milk and go to bed. work.
UNIT 7 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Some. any • Los artfculos partitives some y any se traducen por algo de. algunos. haven't got anything to do. I haven't got any books to read. She hasn't got any tea. algun. Frases negativas They haven't got any children. 14 STANLEY . My sister hasn't got any friends. We haven't got any beer. • En general some se usa para frases afirmativas mientras que any se usa para frases interrogativas y negativas. I've got some books to read. nada de. Any dictionary will give you the meaning of this. You haven't got any good ideas. There is some beer in my glass. He's got some interesting ideas. Despues de if/whether signified alguna. Do you want some wine? . If there is any doubt let me know. There is something on your plate. Prases interrogativas Have you got any wine? Has she got any champagne? Is there any tea in the tea-pot? Are there any books on the table? Have we got any coffee? Have you got anything to tell me? Have they got anything to do? Importante * A veces usamos some en preguntas cuando nos referimos a algo rnuy concreto. unos. My sister has got some coffee. There aren't any trees in this garden.Can you give me some water? Can you cook some rice? * Any a veces tiene el sentido de cualquiera. alguien.Anybody can tetl you that. un poco. Frases afirmativas There are some girls in the park. He's got some papers to read. He hasn't got any paper.Can I have some sugar? . There isn't any milk in the glass. +1 don't know whether anybody will come or not. I've got something to tell you. . etc.
Where's it? you want from here. I've got 3. there are aspirins in the bar? No. Can you see it? in the water. to tell you. money on you? Sorry. they haven't got help if you want. There's 7. 3. came to see you this morning. Have you got more. I can't see 8. is interested. 1. can see that that is wrong! could have taken the car. Complete estas frases usando: somebody/nobody/anybody/anyone/someone. sorry. animals in the farm? Yes. 3. Is there 6. Has 5. can come with me. 2. Can go with you to the party? No. 7. 1. He's at the door. You can take in my eye. Peter. 1. You can cash this cheque at 4. Complete estas frases con: some/any/something/anything. I don't want tea left. Have you got 10. There is hardly 9. What is it? information about this place. lt"s all yours. Darling. I can do for you? in the river. 2. I've got 5. 6. interested in buying that piano? No. I haven't got to eat? No. bank. they have four. wants to see you. but she has seen 2. I don't have of these pictures. when she came home. 15 STANLEY . It's important. You left the car door unlocked. Have the Browns got 6. thanks. Example: I have bought some new books. She didn't say 4.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Please. Is 4. on the table. give me 3. Have you got 7. He didn't want to tell me anything. There is children? Yes. 1 can give you 12. more coffee? No. Would you like 8. any questions to ask? I'll be pleased to answer them. Have they got 1 1 . We are not going to do this afternoon. 2. I haven't seen of them. 5. Complete estas frases con: something/anything.
I wasn't.UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The past of Have and Be Past tense of Have (tener) Affirmative I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Negative I hadn't/I did not have You hadn't/You did not have He hadn't/He did not have She hadn't/She did not have It hadn't/It did not have We hadn't/We did not have You hadn't/You did not have They hadn't/They did not have Interrogative Had l?/Did I have? Had you?/Did you have? Had he?/Did he have? Had she?/Did she have? Had it?/Did it have? Had we?/Did we have? Had you?/Did you have? Had they?/Did they have? Recuerde El past tense ingles equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido. I had a dog when I was a child." TO BE (past tense) SER o ESTAR Affirmative I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Negative I was not (wasn't) You were not (weren't) He was not (wasn't) She was not (wasn't) It was not (wasn't) We were not (weren't) You were not (weren't) They were not (weren't) Interrogative Was I? Were you? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were we? Were you? Were they? • El past tense equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido. asf pues: lhad=Yotenia/tuve. I was in London yesterday. "Were you at the concert last night?" "No. We had a house in the country many years ago." 16 STANLEY . Little Jim was very good last week. "Did you have a storm last night?" "No." "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" "I was at the cinema. Did you have to do that yesterday? La forma interrogativa y negativa del have tambien se puede formar con la particula did. we didn't have a storm. asi pues: I was = yo era / estaba / fui / estuve.
Why was/were Mrs Smith's daughters out so late? 3. did they? in your pocket last night? James have time to do it last Sunday? any coffee after lunch?" "Yes." much time. " 3. Complete las frases con was o were. it raining when you left?" "No. it ." at the cinema. I it very cold last winter?" "No." anything to eat!" have 3. it you reading?" "I raining." 5. "Where 2. 1. Why was/were the police asking for our papers? 17 STANLEY . waiting for you all night. "Did you coffee. didn't. The children 10. had. What did you 6. did. " 4. "Did you the students have any time to play?" "No." anything to drink during the marathon?" "No." not a very cold winter. they 4. She 13. "Where day. " 6. What time 8. thank you. Elija la forma correcta. she so angry with me? shopping all morning. I didn't. "Did they have anything to eat?" "No." the students doing when the teacher arrived? you going to do it? working at the factory? doing their homework when I arrived. Why 12. How many women 9. it Mrs." at home all quite hot. What 7.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. We 11." reading a very interesting book. I a cup of 8. they 2. When was/were the school master going to give us the diplomas? 4. 2. Rellene los huecos con: have. Example: Where was /were Peter's mother all day yesterday? 1. 7. they anything to do last night?" "No. " time!" 2. Sandra and Jill was/were in bed until ten o'clock. 1. "What the children yesterday?" "They you at the concert last night?" "Yes." 3." 14. They didn't 5. "Did the runners nothing to drink. Evans last Wednesday?" "She the tea hot enough?" "Yes.
family.. Algunos sustantivos forman el plural de forma distinta al singular: man men child children foot . 7. houses • Las demas palabras que terminan en f o fe ahaden una s: safe cliff safes cliffs chief chiefs 2.boys . Algunas otras palabras tampoco cambian: quid aircraft counsel hundredweight o stone (con significado de peso). sh. days cat.feet goose geese woman ox tooth mouse women oxen teeth mice • Sin embargo. cuyo plural cambia en ves. ch. Estos sustantivos son: wolf wife thief shelf sheaf self loaf life leaf knife half calf shelf . o x forman el plural ahadiendo es: potato brush box potatoes brushes boxes kiss kisses pouch .UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The plural of nouns 1. crew. los sustantivos que terminan en y despues de una vocal forman el plural anadiendo una s: toy boy monkey toys . • Sin embargo. Our team is the best. etc. Generalmente se forma el plural de los sustantivos ahadiendo una s al singular: day. 4. cuando se trata de peces vivos. «> Our team are wearing the new shorts. Los nombres que terminen en o. pero no es muy corriente. las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en o solamente ahaden una s: kilo kimono piano photo soprano solo kilos kimonos pianos photos sopranos solos 6. police. ss. pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural. There are a lot of fish in the sea. segun el sentido que le demos a la frase: Our police is very efficient. cats house.shelves calf calves wife wives 18 STANLEY . Los sustantivos que terminan en y siguiendo a una consonante forman el plural cambiando la y por ies: lady city ladies cities country countries • El plural de fish puede ser fishes. mackarel plaice 3. The police are looking for the thief. Los nombres colectivos. team. Algunos animales no cambian en plural: sheep deer trout cod salmon duck squid carp partridge.pouches 5. Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en f o fe.monkeys 8.
. . Estos sustantivos colectivos pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural segun el sentido que les demos. It's autumn. Example: The average family (which only consists of four member nowadays) is / are a great deal smaller than in the old days. tooth. for emergencies. fly. knife. The police is/are looking for the two fugitives. 7. louse. of Dover are famous all over the world. 3. loaf. three times a day. She bought three 7. Jimmy. 4. quid. mouse. The white of bread for tea. He gave me a couple of 10. goose. in the attic. The leaves are falling from the trees. It's very easy to be compassionate with other people's 4. squid. Our team has/have played one of their best games this season. by the river. I'm sure there are 13. They are all helping me. The hospital had two 5. leaf. 3. . Tache el verbo que crea que esta mal. The hunter could see several 3. 1. The team is/are at the bottom of the second division. The two soldiers dropped their rifles and ran for their 5. 6. in the distance. wolf. Algunos cambian en plural por ves. for the night. The hooligans were brandishing in the mountains this winter. of bread for dinner. The little girl was dirty and her hair was full of 12. My mother bought two 2. Rellene con la palabra apropiada en plural: dynamo. attacked the frogman squirting their black ink on him. There are many 2. buzzing around. Example: The Pope has published two new briefs. 19 STANLEY . Two men approached us riding on two incredibly old 2. you must clean your 8. It was hot and there were a lot of for the job. cliff. Several 11. I have a very bad cold so I've taken a couple of 14. o subraye el que este bien. loaf. 3. otros no: brief. grief.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. life. The shepherd's dog was rounding up all the 4. donkey. handkerchief. 1. 2. I can hear them squeaking. My family is/are wonderful. He needed a safe to keep money and documents in. after meals. Todos estos sustantivos terminan en f o fe. In the shop they had two models of and he chose the bigger one. deer. 1. tomato. She cut up three large 6. The goose-boy was looking after the 9. for the salad. safe. as they approached him. sheep.
we. 20 STANLEY . etc. her. I saw it. she. • Con las expresiones it was me/I hay dos posibilidades: objeto directo + that (muy informal): It was me that posted the letter." none. some. any. us. Henry likes them. John? But it was he who told me that! • Me. They live in Bristol. pueden ser complementos directos de un verbo: I saw her. they • It y you tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos: "Did you see the bird?" "Yes.: • Aunque es mas corriente usar el complemento: "Who is it?" "It's me. they son siempre sujetos de oracion: I went to London. • Excepto I que puede ser complemento del ver• Esta regla no es aplicable a one." "Did it see you?" "Yes. si el complemento directo es un pronombre personal es mas usual colocarlo directamente detras del verbo seguido de to o for: I sent them to her. • Si el pronombre va seguido de una oracion." "Where's Jim?" 'That's him over there. he/she/it sujeto we you • Pueden ser complementos circunstanciales: with her for him without us (plural) 1 persona 2 persona 3 persona a a a to them us you them LA POSICION • El complemento indirecto se pone delante del directo: I sent her/Mary the letters. She made it for him." He brought one for Mary/He brought Mary one. She made him/John a cake. • Sin embargo. John found her a job. usamos el sujeto he: Who. bo to be: "Who is it?" "It is I." • Los pronombres personales I. him. He knows Mary. them.UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 and Personal pronouns as subjects a objects FORMA (sing. it saw me.) 1a persona 2a persona 3 persona a sujeto objeto I you me you him/her/it objeto • 0 complementos indirectos: Jim gave me a book. he.
It never occurred to Fred that perhaps Tony was lying. . Nobody could do it except 8. It was Peter who lent John and me the money. it's 4. Let's go for a walk. 7. Yes. It was very kind of you to give Peter and me a hand.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1." a sweet each. at football. Example: Go with John and Mary to visit Frank and Mark. They knew all about my friend and 10. It is very small. not you. Bill found Peter a job. Mary went with Henry to the theatre. Did the boys give you something for Sandra? 21 STANLEY . "Did Jane come with you two?" "Yes. (her/them) 1. "Where did you leave the book?"" hall. left came with that likes sugar. I think you're prettier than these girls. "She likes sugar. Just you and 6. "Did he give you a sweet?" "Yes. 6. Mary told Bob and Jim. he gave Peter and 12. . We are much better than 9. 3. 1. 4. 2. 3. 2. . Rellene los espacios en bianco con los pronombres personales que crea conveniente. Help (to) carry . I came with Jeff and 11. not are prettier than on the table in the _. 8. 5. . Reemplace las palabras subrayadas por pronombres personales. Example: That's Mary's baby. and I didn't want to." 5." "Exactly. An old man asked my friend and what time it was. "Did you come with SUsan?" "Yes. "Did Janet tell Bob and Jim about the accident?" "Yes. It struck both men that everyone was unusually silent." 2." 7. the poor girl has fainted.
I was the one (or the person) who posted the letter. • En ingles coloquial se usan mucho mas los complementos (me. • Se puede evitar el uso de cualquiera de estas dos formas cambiando la estructura: . entonces el pronombre debe ser sujeto.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 • Sujeto + who (muy formal). tambien para bebes: Where's my book? I left It on the chair. o un animal cuyo sexo no conocemos." • It puede introducir frases: It was Jim who came to see you. It frightens me.UNIT 10(cont. Look at that snake. It's Frank. etc. • Sin embargo. him. It is only two days old. 22 STANLEY .). por supuesto: She's not as good as I am. Usos de IT • It se usa generalmente para cosas. It is today that she's coming. It was I who posted the letter. Robert / This is Robert. I'm not as bad as he is. si despues del pronombre ponemos un verbo. This is my baby. not tomorrow. • Cuando as y than van seguidos de pronombres personales." * "Is that Jerry?" "No. • Al telefono se dice asi: "Who is that/it?" "It is me. se pueden usar tanto la forma de sujeto como la de complemento: He is not as clever as I/me. She understands the question better than I/me.
3. lt"s me/I. 6. Pauline. "Who's that speaking?" "It's I/me. She/Her sent it to he/him. Peter is not as stupid as we are. 8. "Who is speaking" "Oh. I/me sent they/them to he/him by post last week. 12. We are not as clever as they are. 1. Janet?" 2. I am not as fast as they are. 6. this is Robert. This letter is for she/her and these are for we/us. She/Her gave it to he/him. I made it for she/her. It's two months since I/me last saw he/him. She eats as much as I do.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1." 9. Robert!" 2. 7. 3. We aren't as tall as they are. 8. over there. 9. 7. He is not as good as she is. 5. Pauline is not as pretty as I am. Silly Bill! It was he/him who chose the wallpaper. They/Them sent the letter to him /he. 5. Example: She is not as pretty as I am. 11. 10. Elija entre el pronombre personal en nominative (sujeto) y el acusativo (objeto). can you ring / me tonight? 1. 2. 4. 23 STANLEY . "Where's Tim?" "That's he/him. I am not as bad as he is. 4. She is not as pretty as me. Example: Jim. I/Me haven't seen he/him for three years. The books? Oh. She is not as clever as I am. He/Him bought it for us/we. Estas frases se pueden poner con dos complementos cambiados como en el ejemplo. How are you.
en caso de nombres propios o apellidos que terminen es s hay dos opciones: I live in St. se convierte en . John's (College) St. . se usa lo que se llama el genitive sajon o caso posesivo: La manzana de Pedro (the apple of Peter) se convierte en: Peter's apple. . The Prince of Wales's country house.UNIT 11 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Possessives: possessive ( s and (') ') • Cuando un ser viviente (persona o animal) posee algo. The Jones's dog is very noisy. James's Square. • Con expresiones de tiempo tambien es admisible el uso del genitive sajon: today's paper a month's holiday tomorrow's weather twenty minutes' break o two hours' delay o in two months' time I Recuerde * Si el poseedor es plural y termina en s. B) despues la preposicion de bajo el aspecto de's. • Si son extranjeros o clasicos. The VIP's bodyguard.Mary's house. se convierte en . This is Pythagoras' Theorem. Paul's (Cathedral) The hobby of those families. catedrales y firmas comerciales se escriben con's: Barclays' (bank) St. • Es muy corriente usar el genitivo sajon con tiendas (la palabra shop se sobreentiende): My wife is at the hairdresser's. on the corner. (las del gato) • Con nombres compuestos o largos el apostrofo se pone al final: My brother-in-law's guitar. iglesias.The legs of the dog. • Tambien hospitales. C) por ultimo la cosa posefda sin artfculo: apple.My mother's kitchen. Is there a butcher's near here? The house of the boys. 24 STANLEY • Cuando hablamos con algun conocido a veces omitimos la palabra house: We are going to Peter's. solo se anade el apostrofo: Cervantes' works are interesting. • Tambien se puede poner 's despues de iniciales: The MP's secretary. (la de Jane) The dog's legs are black. and the cat's are white. se convierte en The boys' house. se convierte en .The Jones' dog. se convierte en * The girls' apples. se convierte en • The cats' legs. • Sin embargo. This is Mary's house and that one is Jane's. A) Primero se traduce el poseedor: Peter.Those families' hobby.The kitchen of my mother. se convierte en . . se aftade solamente el apostrofo: The apples of the girls.The dog's legs. St James' Square. the Evans' house. The legs of the cats. The house of Mary. She's staying at the Brown's. That is the Evans's house. .
1 didn't see the wife of your brother last night. con tiendas. Example: The room of the children is upstairs. They went to the Hospital of St. The eyes / the dog 3. medida. The coference / last year / was terrible 2. Lea la frase y escriba otra usando el genitivo sajon. 2. The children's room is upstairs. Examples: The window / the room / The window of the room The mother / Peter / Peter's mother 1. 25 STANLEY . con o sin s. otras veces la preposition of. 8. 1. Ahora vamos a usar el genitivo sajon con expresiones de tiempo. We went to visit the Cathedral of St. The head of that bird is black. The birthday / my father 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. etc. This river is / 20 miles / long 5. 3. How heavy is it? About two pounds / weight 4. The mother of my cousin is my aunt. Paul. The name / my husband 6. The newspaper / today 8. 6. The house of Mr and Mrs Carter is new. 1. A veces hay que usar el apostrofo. Example: The weather / yesterday / was very good Yesterday's weather was very good. distancia. The country house / my uncle and aunt 10. 7. The daughter / Bernard 9. 7. The house is / two hours / walk / from here 3. The house / Tom 2. The tail of our cat is black and white. The husband of my friend is very tall 4. The door/ the room 4. The toys / the children 7. Peter. The name / this town 5. The friends of my sister are very pretty. En este ejercicio hay que unir dos sustantivos. We went to the shop of Woolworth to do some shopping. 6.1 received the letter of Uncle George last night 5. 3. peso.
predicatives • Los adjetivos que se colocan delante de los sustantivos se llaman atributos: a beautiful song . iron goes rusty.) She looked calm. upset. sound. look. blue with cold. sheer. feel. lie. and smell pueden ir seguidos de un adjetivo predicative o de un adverbio: She looks angry.UNIT 12 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Adjectives: Attributes . (adv. smell. deaf.) She is looking at you angrily. The leaves of the book go yellow with age. • Go tambien se usa con adjetivos en muchos casos cuando las personas o las cosas cambian a peor: & People go crazy. green with envy.a tired expression a typical meal • El verbo come se suele usar con expresiones que tienen un final feliz: All my dreams have come true.you look beautiful he feels strong • Los adjetivos principal. milk goes off. • Con ciertos verbos.He is a poor man. tired y old). seem. (adj. • El significado de late y early depende de su posicion. blind. • Turn se puede usar tambien con todas estas expresiones: She turned purple with rage. feel. horses go lame. (adv. main son atributos que se ponen delante de los sustantivos a los que califican: The main road of the town is closed to the traffic. • Los verbos look. (adj. taste. tales como: be. machines go wrong.) • Cuando poor significa "sin dinero" puede ser atributo o predicado: .) The doctor felt my leg carefully. • Algunos verbos como sit. asleep van siempre siguiendo al verbo. (Sin embargo go no se suele usar con ill. (adj. por lo que son predicados: She is still alive. Everything will come out all right in the end. • Algunos verbos se usan para mostrar como el sujeto de la frase cambia: People go pale. red. appear. 26 STANLEY . taste. alive. a menudo ponemos un adjetivo detras. • Sin embargo. y los adjetivos en esta posicion se llaman predicatives: she is nice . white with anger. stand. This man is poor. The train arrived/was early. chief.) You must be careful. pueden ir seguidos de adjetivos predicativos. alone.Meat goes bad. (adv. mad. Estos verbos se llaman verbos copulatives. afraid.) She looked calmly at the two men. • Cuando poor significa "desgraciado" debe ser atributo: The poor child had an accident. bread goes stale. . We caught an early train. bald.
(impatient/impatiently) in the kitchen. / That man is alone. She didn't seem to be at the angry mob. en una frase usamos el adjetivo como atributo. (well/good) . This is an afraid girl. o un adverbio. En este ejercicio tiene unas parejas de frases. tAdjetivos o adyerbios? Algunas palabras pueden ser las dos cosas. It goes very 5. (high/highly) . (good/well) .) She was driving slowly. be careful and drive slowlyl (slow) 1. (beautiful/beautifully) . (angry/angrily) I can't stand it! (terrible/terribly) as time passed.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMAR 1. This is a slow train (adj. (free/freely) . That is an alone man. (suspicious/suspiciously) to me. 3. This train is a road goes from one place to another. He turned 6. You can eat 9. He tasted the soup 2. Please. Una de las dos frases no tiene sentido. (horrible/horribly) 1. bien un adjetivo predicative. This is the main street. She is a 4. (calm/calmly) on the man behind him. / My mother is upset. Something smells 9. Go to the station and take the train that goes London. She looked (nervous/nervously) 4. 3. (straight) . That music sounds 7.) Go slow! (adv. 2. Incluso algunos adverbios se pueden escribir de dos formas diferentes. (terrible/terribly) . (calm/calmly) 2. 6. This is an alive man. / These girls are alike. cut 3. This engineer is the chief. / She is ashamed of it. She is an ashamed girl. I haven't been to the theatre very much 7. These are alike girls. (happy/happily) . en la otra como predicado. / This street is the main. / This is our principal client. Tachela. A 2. (direct/directly) 6. (late/lately) in my restaurant if you want. Mary grew 8. 8. (late/lately) 27 STANLEY . / This man is alive. 7. We'll be there singer. That is my upset mother. Example: He is the chief engineer. She looked 5. En las frases que vienen a continuacion tiene que ahadir. 4. This exercise looks 3. 5. I hate arriving 8. This client is our principal. /This girl is afraid. (short) . He can jump very . She sings . He made her 10.) Example: Please. (fast) to all the explanations. Example: The food tasted horrible. (adv. 1. She sings very train.
they read a lot of books. my brother doesn't work very much. • En forma negativa el do not se suele contraer en don't. Do the children go to school by bus? Yes. ought to. they don't.UNIT 13 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Interrogative and negative sentences in the present Affirmative I play golf You play golf He/she/it plays golf We play golf You play golf They play golf I Recuerde que para interrogar y negar. I do. he does. he doesn't. No. he works quite a lot. must. I don't come every day. Does Peter go swimming every day? Yes. Does he drink wine? No. sin s. • No se debe confundir el verbo to do (hacer) con la particula do. What do you do on Sundays? I don't do anything. he doesn't drink wine. para formar frases interrogativas y negativas en presente de indicative con la mayoria de los verbos (exceptuando to be y los defectives can. Do your children read many books? No. Yes. solo se utiliza para la tercera persona singular. Does your brother work very hard? No. es decir. Respuestas cortas • Es muy corriente en ingles usar respuestas cortas usando las particulas do y does: Do you go to the cinema very often? Yes. Yes. o doesn't. might. y el does not en doesn't. Solo se usan para indicar que la frase esta. No. que tambien se llaman auxiliary verbs. they don't read books. No. Negative I do not play golf You do not play golf He/she/it does not play golf We do not play golf You do not play golf They do not play golf Interrogative Do I play golf? Do you play golf? Does he/she/it play golf? Do we play golf? Do you play golf? Do they play golf? Ejemplos: Do you come here every day? No. 28 STANLEY . • Estas particulas no se traducen. es decir. could. should) se usan las particulas do y does. they do. • Does. • Cuando se usa la particula does. may. el verbo se pone en infinitive. I don't. o bien en forma interrogativa o bien en forma negativa.
I don't. he teaches very well. Mr Smith's wife do the shopping in this supermarket? go to many concerts. Mrs Brent. Yes. Responda estas preguntas usando respuestas cortas. Does Peter's uncle come to see him often? 4. Does your brother's friend like swimming? 2. Example: No. 7. Do you listen to the news on the radio? 8. they don't do their homework. 10. old Mr Rock. do his homework every day. Does Mrs Evans go shopping every morning? 3. 9. Yes. Aqui tienes unas respuestas. I don't speak French. Rellene los huecos con las particulas do. 6. Example: Do you go to the beach every day? Yes. Yes. 3. my friend's mother cooks very well. Do you go every day? 1. I don't go every day. you friend do in the mornings? come here very often. does. 1. do they? your friend's mother cook well? you do your homework? these people go to the beach every day in summer? hear very well. 8. No. I do. Fred's friend 4. No. 2. 1. Mr Smith goes to work by bus. My teacher. does she? speak to us. 5. The headmaster? Yes. Tu tienes que hacer las preguntas. They 3. These people 6. 9. Do the children drink water with their meals? 5. 29 STANLEY . 2. That old woman. I do. Yes. 5. No. No. No. we don't play tennis very often. Does Mr Smith like playing golf? 7. 7. 4. What 2. my father doesn't smoke. Example: Do you go to school every day? Yes.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. my friends like dancing. When 8. Do they cut the grass very often? 6. my friends like running. don't o doesn't. Do you go to see the doctor when you have a cold? 3.
o algo parecido a una li'nea. I was at the theatre last night. and at university from 1971 to 1974. no estamos interesados en el hecho de que sea fuera o dentro. sino que consideramos a la estacion como un sitio de encuentro.UNIT 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of place: on. We'll eat at MacDonald's. On (lines) • Usamos on para decir que algo esta tocando o cercano a una Ifnea. There's something on the sole of my shoe. y entre in the corner (rincon) y at/ on the corner (esquina). in High Street. • A menudo usamos at con el nombre de un lugar cuando estamos interesados en la actividad que se desarrolla alii. I was at school from 1960 to 1971. Put the picture on the other wall. (es solo un punto en el viaje) At the two-mile mark. 30 STANLEY .A. usamos at: I live in Linster. They spend the morning in a boat on the lake. at At • Cuando consideramos un sitio como un punto (sin tamano real). (es importante para mf) The trains don't stop at Linster. after that I worked at Barnard's Enterprises. Bath is on the road to Bristol. A menudo usamos at cuando hablamos de cafes. in. no en la forma exacta o dimensiones del lugar. • Tambien usamos at con nombres de actividades de grupo: at a meeting/at the theatre/at a concert/ at a lecture/at a match/at the cinema • Fi'jese en la diferencia entre in Oxford (en la ciudad) y at Oxford (en la universidad). On (surfaces) • Usamos on cuando algo esta tocando una superficie: The book is on the table. Nos encontramos con alguien at the station. o sitios donde se estudia o trabaja: I'll be at the club at 8. restaurantes. frontera. he was leading the other runners. (no. We stopped for an hour at Orly airport. He had a beer at that little pub round the corner. carretera): We have a house on the river. There's a stain on the ceiling.S. Tijuana is on the frontier between Mexico and the U.
that field. a small island off the coast of Florida. The book was II. this photograph.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR I. 9. the back. Don't use the front entrance. the ground floor. Complete estas frases con in. the corner of the street. There is a path the door. She lives above us. I was stuck in a traffic jam 13. or at con una de las frases dadas a continuation: the second floor London the east coast the Pyrenees the window the back of the envelope my way to work the right the back of the class the traffic lights the shelf the back of the cinema Example: The main office of the company is in London. The young couple was watching the film sitting looking at the passers-by. There's another entrance the coast. The second door Stratford Boston twenty years ago. 31 STANLEY 4. There was no name 2. the crossroads last night. The man had a scar 3. My office is 6. Shakespeare was born 7. I can't see you 16. the end of this street. I don't like spending the day sitting . I have a friend who lives 10. Complete estas frases usando in. I stopped there 7. She was 3. Write your name and address 5. 1. We have a little house 8. There is a herd of sheep 15. so we knocked. on. On the continent people drive 2. my way here. his left cheek. 2. I'll meet her 12. 1. There were many cars parked 11. The sports results are 9. at. It's a little fishing village 6. a small village this street. They lived 5. the right. a desk. 17. the back page of the newspaper. They got married 8. The car was stopped 10. Examples: The policeman was standing on the corner of the street. Jimmy was sitting 4. Avon. on. There was an accident 14.
The boys are in the garden/in the park/ in the building. She's in a field/in the car park. avionetas.UNIT 14(Cont. taxis. (pero on a desert island) Parts of the body • Generalmente decimos on cuando se trata de la superficie del cuerpo: He had blood on his forehead/his cheeks.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 In • Se usa cuando los alrededores son tridimensionales: The table is in the room/in the shop/in the kitchen. regiones. motos y bicicletas: I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus. caballos.: I saw him in a new Mercedes. • Con grandes superficies (pafses. etc. (pero on the beach) Means of transport • Usamos on con transportes publicos. • Usamos in con coches. The money is in your bag/in your purse/ in your drawer. 32 STANLEY . islas grandes) decimos in: She lives in Yorkshire/ in the Sahara/in the British Isles. • Usamos in en las cavidades: He hit me in the eye/mouth/ribs/ stomach. • Hablando de heridas decimos in: He was wounded in the shoulder/in his head. She's swimming in the water/in the sea/ in the river.
They were 3. It was a long voyage. They always go to the Sunday Service. Freddy's parents live 7. We had a party Frank's house last night. Utilice in. the party. It stopped 9. Mike's wedding. She's still 4. He was jailed for ten years. He's still 9. the Albert Festival Hall tonight. There is a nice play tonight.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. for half an hour. were you? work today. home. 1. he is still 5. at. He speaks good Spanish. they are still 7. I was brought up in the country. There's a concert 6. Example: There were a lot of young people at the concert. 4. You weren't 10. He had a bad accident last month and he's still 11. We had to wait 2. every little station. Don't come to see me tomorrow. It was a slow train. Has Jim got up yet? No. 8. 2. Complete estas frases con in y at. I'll be until 6 in my office. 1. 2. for two months. Our train was delayed. She hasn't gone to university yet. Madrid for a year. Manchester. She was 33 STANLEY . He studied 8. I won't be I'll be John's. Please. on con una de las palabras de esta lista. meet me at the airport. 6. I haven't seen Jane for a long time. Mary and Jean are students Harvard University. sea hospital theatre church a farm bed prison work the station the cinema the airport school Example: My plane lands at 3. Complete estas frases. 10.00. My secretary wasn't home ill bed. Where were you last night? I was watching a film. I last saw her 5. 3.
UNIT 14 (Cont. etc.. Recuerde Decimos arrive in con pai'ses y ciudades: When did you arrive in England/in London? • Decimos arrived at con iugares comunes: He arrived late at school. at work at the hotel at the park • No usamos preposicidn con verbos de movimiento y home: He arrived home. otras con at: in bed in hospital in court in church/at church in prison in American English in school in college in university at school at university at work at college Addresses • At se usa con el numero de la calle: She lives at number 27. in hospital..) ENGLISH GRAMMAR At church. • Hay algunas expresiones que no usan artfculo. pero. 34 STANLEY . • Con los pisos siempre decimos on: I live on the third floor/on the ground floor. She lives in Boston Road. algunas con in. • Si usamos el numero y el nombre de la calle decimos at: She lives at 27 London Avenue.
My son is studying medicine 3. He is 4. bed.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 1. My husband always arrives 2. Use estas palabras con una preposicion (cuando sea necesario) para completar las frases: prison. What time do you usually arrive 6. . hospital. The children are already 2. They arrived home very early. Let's go 8. in your car. . London early in the morning. We arrive 14. He is 10. Take the children 5. . to speak to the convict. . to speak to the vicar. to speak to the headmaster. 35 STANLEY . the airport 2 hours late. the cinema they joined the queue. Majorca 7 hours late. He is on his way asleep. 2. school. It's late. He arrived 11. the office in the morning? home from school? the hotel? 5. New York? work early for once. My father has gone to his office. My mother is coming 7. 1. church. I had a strange feeling when I first arrived 3. Darling. Complete estas frases con una preposicion cuando sea necesario. university Example: The convict is in prison. When did she arrive 10. I want to go to the Sunday Service. Mr Smith is in his office. the meeting. work. I'll be arriving platform 8. What time are we expected to arrive 8. . home late today. this country. When the two boys arrived 4. Example: At what time did you arrive at the airport? 1. We are getting married and we have to go 6. This train arrives 9. Mr Brown had an accident. The plane arrived 13. What time do the boys arrive 7. They arrived late 12. The lawyer went 9.
On time. on 21st April in (the) spring in (the) winter) Siglos: in the 17th century in the 19th century Perfodos de tiempo: in that era. • No usamos ninguna preposition delante de last y next: . The book will be ready in ten days' time. in 1885 • Expresiones de tiempo: at six at the weekend at present at Christmas at about/around at the age of at lunch time • Tambien empleamos at con las siguientes expresiones: at the beginning at first at the end at last On • Usamos on con: Dfas de la semana: on Monday on Sundays on Monday morning Partes del dfa: on Saturday nights on Christmas Day Festividades: on New Year's Day on his birthday Aniversarios: on her wedding day Ocasiones especiales: on that day on that evening Dfa + fecha: on Tuesday.UNIT 15 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of time: on.I'll see you next Sunday. in. • On + gerundio (on arriving. at At • Usamos at con: In Usamos in para: Partes del dfa: Meses: Ahos: Estaciones: in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in April in October in 1992. in 1912. • Decimos in time o in time for cuando se llega con un margen razonable de tiempo: All passengers arrived in time for the train. etc. . a menudo con horarios de trenes: In this country trains always arrive on time.) se traduce por al llegar. 36 STANLEY . in the Middle Ages In • Usamos in en expresiones como: I'll be there in ten minutes. I can run a mile in five minutes. June 2nd Fechas: on June 16th. On hearing that. etc. in time • Usamos on time cuando nos referimos a la puntualidad. she was suddenly afraid.I went to Spain last year. on hearing. al oi'r.
Come on! The train is leaving 20. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases. two minutes.1 like going for a walk 12. in. The Titanic sank 6.the same time .the 20's . He always comes home 11. She got married 2.the age of 18 Example: Many things were invented in the 19th century. Would you like to come to the cinema ten minutes. We usually go for a walk 5.12th April 1912 .the moment . 5. the morning.the 19th century . It's impossible for me to go 9. It was a short story and I wrote it 5.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. o in con cada una de las frases siguientes. our wedding anniversary. Christmas. on. a couple of years ago. the moment. 5. Little Jimmy started school 7. She went to bed morning. Both horses arrived 4.30 the next 1564. 1. on. 22. I always take my wife out 3.30. Usa at. 10.Sundays about ten minutes . 1. The "Charleston" was a very popular dance 8. 2. He'll probably retire 2. 14. This course begins 21. and sometimes Saturday night? night. They are going to get married 9. Petrol is going up 15. 1492 . Wait for me. Pon la preposicion correcta: at. Sunday mornings I usually cut the grass in the garden. Can you come Monday morning. If everybody speaks nobody will understand. weekends. Shakespeare was born 1990. and relax 6. the 11 o'clock. January. 10th June. 8th March and ends midnight and got up Stratford . There's very little work in the area 16. America was discovered 7. The old man died 17. New Year's day. Example: The match begins at 4. We always have a party 13. a couple of hours. My father is 59. I'll probably be busy afternoon? 18. I can't sleep 4. summer. the same time. 30th June.night . I work hard during the week. I'll be there 8. 37 STANLEY a few years" time. the age of 91. under the moonlight. I'll come to see you 19. I'll be there 3.
It has been raining since two o'clock. We met many people during our stay in Paris. Production stopped during the strike. Opening hours are from 9 to 1 and from 3 to 7. He studied the piano from the age of five.UNIT 16 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepositions of time: for. I haven't been home for a year.) For • Tambien puede significar durante cuando va seguido de un periodo de tiempo: We have already been in Miami for a week. We watched television for two hours. since. He has worked here for six months. We came out for a drink during the interval. nunca como preposicion de lugar: She has been here since Monday. Mother will be away from Monday to Friday. We've lived in four different places since last year. From • Puede ser preposicion de lugar: Where do you come from? • Pero tambien puede ser preposicion de tiempo: Many people work from nine to five. • (Generalmente during va seguido del artfculo the o algun adjetivo posesivo. from During + sustantivo • Usamos esta formula para decir cuando sucede algo: It must have rained during the night. 38 STANLEY . . I haven't seen her since we quarrelled.I haven't been feeling well since last Saturday. Since • Se usa siempre como preposicion de tiempo. during. The course goes on from June to September. He didn't feel well during the examination. The ground is wet.
June 1990. many years. I like watching TV 5. 1. nine to five. Most people work 7. When I was ill I couldn't eat anything 8. half an hour in the rain. I haven't seen her 9. two hours last night. I haven't seen you 6. We are going away a long time. The production of the factory stopped 7. My brother has been out of work 3. What have you been doing 2. nine to ten. seven o'clock. Where have you been? the week. nine o'clock this morning? one to three. the strike. Complete con for o since. six months. Example: I was there from three to four but nobody came. En este ejercicio tiene que poner for o during. two to four but she didn't come. We haven't seen each other 5. It is two years 8. He lived in South America 6. We'll be back on 8th September. I've known her 8. 1980. Christmas. I last saw Jim. several days. My lunch time is 3. That house has been empty 6. But it didn't rain during the night. My wife hasn't spoken to me 4. 1.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. six years. 5 o'clock. We only go out at weekends. I've been waiting 4. breakfast. a long time. Example: I was studying for two hours. I haven't seen Jim 9. We never go out 2. a week. That house has been empty 7. 2. I fell asleep 9. I have been waiting the film. ages. We watched television 2. She waited for you 5. 1. we met in Paris a year ago. 3. Complete con from o since. Example: It has been raining for three days. I've been here since three o'clock but nobody's come. I waited 39 STANLEY . It has been raining since four o'clock. a week. We have been watching television 3. I haven't eaten anything 4.
on foot Get on the bus. When are they coming back from South America? They are coming all the way from Chicago. Decimos in my car. Into • Usamos into en vez de to cuando entramos dentro de algun sitio: They went into the room. The dog ran into the house. We are going to fly to New York. quick! Let's get on the train. Let's go to a concert tonight.on the 5.in my car . on the train.in a taxi By • Usamos by para decir como viajamos: by train by car by rail by bus by road by sea by underground by bicycle by plane by air by ship by land I always go to Paris by plane. A bird flew into the room. He sometimes goes to work by bicycle. • Usamos in para coches y taxis: . • Si usamos by no podemos decir my car / the bus / a taxi.on a plane . We never go by air. 40 STANLEY .UNIT 17 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepositions of direction and manner From • Indica procedencia: The train is coming from Paris. We prefer to go by train.30 train . The old man walked into the shop.in a car . etc. She's never been to a football match. It's 200 miles from London to Bristol. On • Usamos on para ir a pie y en transposes publicos: on the bus . To • Indica direction a o estado en: I've been to Paris five times.
Your mother is coming back 4. No. o in. o into. Complete con by. "Are you going 12. they have never been to Australia. the 7. Is that the train coming here home at 15. I've never been to Portugal. The passengers were already seated 3. Seville? Paris the car and drove off. They're arriving 10. On the 6 o'clock train. to. 5. sea. He got 3. That man is going to be sent 5.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1." the train. I've come to work 5. I don't like travelling 11. 9. the room and sat down. Quick! Get 2. She walked quietly 9. underground. I'll take you to the station 3. No. 1.30 train from Manchester. your father's car. I have never been to Africa. No. 41 STANLEY . taxi this morning. prison. my daughter has never been to Rome. the church in five minutes. He got 8. 3. Example: No. air?" "No. 2. the plane. 1. Get 7. No. a taxi. He often goes to work 6. the shops. It's leaving. "We'll probably go on holiday the bus. New York Washington. Rome. We'll go to the station 4. Haga preguntas como en el ejemplo. I have never been to the United States. No. 4. Example: The plane has arrived from Paris. they have never been to Swede. I can run 7. He ran away 8. on. Example: They are coming by train. 2. Have you been to Africa? 1. my car. They have cycled 2. bicycle in summer. He travels every day 6. Complete con from. hurry up! his motorcycle and rode off.
We are not studying maths this term. Una forma corriente de expresar las ideas de future planeado: He is taking me to the cinema tonight. 5. 2. Your French is definitely getting better." I'm having dinner with your sister on Saturday. 42 STANLEY . 3. He's going to the doctor on Monday. What are you doing? I'm watching TV.UNIT 18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The present continuous • El presente continue se forma con el presente del verbo auxiliar to be + el gerundio: Affirmative I am working You are working He is working We are working You are working They are working Negative I am not working You are not working He is not working We are not working You are not working They are not working Interrogative Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Usos del presente continuo 1. The Smiths are building their own house. A menudo usamos el presente continuo cuando hablamos acerca de un perfodo presente. "Are you doing anything tomorrow morning?" "I'm playing tennis with Janet. por ejemplo: today. I'm meeting John at seven this evening. He's learning French. etc. this term. Para una accion actual pero que no necesariamente esta sucediendo en el momento en que se habla: I'm reading a very interesting book. 4. this season. Para una accion que esta sucediendo actualmente: It is raining. Robert is not playing tennis this season. We are sitting at the table for dinner.: She is working very hard these days. Tambien usamos el presente continuo para hablar sobre situaciones cambiantes: The standard of living is rising in this country.
What language 2. I think. Where 9. Can you tell me the way? (look) a lot of noise. We 3. I 7. 1. (try) again. / am listening to the radio. Example: Keep quiet. change / wear / rise / fall / get / lose / work Example: Things are changing very fast in this country. (drink) 1. (rain) for the station. (play) their anniversary dinner on Friday. (arrive) . (speak) 6. Don't make a noise. I at 43 STANLEY . 1. (make) ? I can't understand a word. (have) you tomorrow? (come) after lunch. Go to play in the garden.(bathe) tennis on Sunday morning. (not work) your raincoat? It is not raining. 7. Complete las frases con "presente continue con proyeccion al future". Life is impossible! a lot of money in this business! very hard these days. sorry. isn't she? (get) your boyfriend? (meet) you this evening?" "Nothing. darling? It was written by Shakespeare. Why this month. since the rain stopped three days ago. you 10." (do/stay) married next month. They you fast in some European countries. Why 3. It is not raining now." (work) 6. Look at those boys! They 5. We 3. We 6. the play. Look! It 8. I 9. (drive/drink). What time 5. "What home. Children. "Are you coming tomorrow?" "No. very expensive. Complete estas frases usando uno de estos verbos. Excuse me. They the baby at seven o'clock. (wear) stones at people again. They 4. Ponga el verbo en la forma correcta. We are on holiday. I 2. (not rain) anything tonight. I 2. (listen) Let's go to play football. (enjoy) to concentrate. (throw) 4. I have to drive after the party. Example: I am driving after the party so I'm not drinking. Things 5. 3. The standard of living 2. a coat? It's very hot today.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The level of the water 4. Your friend 8.
For regla general se suele usar con adverbios o f rases adverbiales tales como: always. 44 STANLEY . often.UNIT 19 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The present simple • La forma afirmativa del presente de indicative tiene la misma forma que el infinitive. he fishes • Con algunos verbos siempre se usa la forma habitual. o ahaden es en la tercera persona del singular: I kiss. I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work I play you play he/she/it plays we play you play they play I watch you watch he/she/it watches we watch you watch they watch Los verbos que terminan en ss. cambiamos la y en i. he plays I obey. She feels very well. She never tells me what to do. We play football every day. he copies I try. On Sunday afternoons we stay at home. usually. occasionally. y ahadimos es: I copy. She likes me. x. He hates you. he kisses I watch. he boxes I go. he goes I do. he does I fish. I often speak to her on the phone. los verbos que terminan en y detras de una vocal siguen la regla general: I play. I want a little more. he tries • Con verbos de actividad mental se suele usar tambien la forma habitual: know mean expect assume agree feel realize suppose recognize remember see understand think • Sin embargo. in winter. he watches I rush. every day. sh. he obeys I say. & I always go to Miami in summer. he rushes I box. • Cuando un verbo termina en y detras de una consonante. excepto que normalmente la tercera persona ahade una s. he says • El present simple se usa para expresar una accion habitual. on Sundays. ch. She adores him. never. I believe you. He admires her. pues no admiten la continua: I love you. I hear noises at night.
A mother 7. My father 2. 3. like. Elija entre la forma habitual y la forma continua. (go) to this place every week. She has good memory. but not very often. getting up early on Monday mornings. (understand) 8. This cake 9. early every day. going for a walk in the country in spring. My parents 6. to study at Oxford next year. agree. Example: I see Mr Evans every morning on his way to work. (kiss) orders. (watch) in summer. very beautiful. Complete las frases con el verbo en la forma correcta. Example: Children often go to school by bus. I 3. 1. (speak) out to dinner on Saturdays. smell. very lonely when I am alone. I everything. This soldier never 8. We always 5. (get up) lunch early today. You are right. She 5. (have) Shakespeare at school. My daughter 4. Peter and David are playing tennis at five. love. These people to work late. with you about that. Example: 1. Peter and David play tennis every Saturday. She 2. We 4. hate. her children very much. (know) in Manchester. My father sometimes 3. I 6. and the earth round the sun. We 5. The moon I'll make the tea. (boil) round the earth. see. (read) what to do. We 3. very good. Jonathan never 2. Mr Brown 9. Mrs Green usually 7. It occasionally 4. My grandparents 7. Complete las frases usando uno de los verbos que damos a continuacion: feel.(rain) English in the English class. (obey) to New York about two or three times a year. (read) one of Shakespeare's plays at school every day. look. That young girl 8. (go) television in the mornings. (live) you them? (go) 45 STANLEY . She never 6. remember. 1. I don't understand these people. The water 9.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. want. (go) her children good night. (come) 2.
We are going to have a nice trip. • Podemos expresar un sentimiento de seguridad del que habla. When are you going to get married? I'm going to think about your proposal. • Going to se puede usar con expresiones de tiempo: I'm going to be a doctor when I grow up. El going to expresa la intention del sujeto para llevar a cabo una accion en el future. y 2. pero la accion se espera que suceda en el future inmediato: I think it is going to rain tonight. I'm sure she is going to like it. 1. I'm going to meet Janet at the airport at five. 2. 46 STANLEY .I'm meeting Janet at the airport at five. I am afraid she is going to faint. Quiza Janet se lleve una sorpresa.UNIT 20 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Going to • La forma going to se usa: 1. Una posibilidad de que se lleve a cabo la accion aunque no de una forma tan definitiva como el presente continue: . Mientras que I'm going to meet significa que no ha hecho ningun arreglo. • I'm meeting Janet signified que ya ha hecho los arreglos necesarios y ha quedado con ella. Para predecir algo. Esta intention es siempre premeditada e indica una cierta preparation. Cuando se tiene intention de hacer algo. Be careful! You're going to fall into that hole. • El tiempo generalmente no se menciona. El going to para prediction.
En este ejercicio tiene que hacer preguntas con going to. "Have you cooked the meat?" "No. 11." "When ?" (wear) 2. "Has she made the tea?" "No. he 7." "Who ?" (marry) 47 STANLEY . I 4. "Have you done the ironing?" "No. "He has written a book. "Has she spoken to the teacher?" "No. En este ejercicio debe decir cuando vas a hacer algo. "Has Tony posted the letter?" "No. 14. "Have you had breakfast?" "No. 8. "Has Sue washed the dishes?" "No. 2. I'm going to read it now. "I have written a letter. she 3. "Has little Jimmy gone to school?" "No.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR I. "I have been invited to a party tonight." "When ?" (post) 6. "I have painted a new picture. "Have the Browns painted the house?" "No. "Have you bought the book?" "No. 12. 1. "They have sold the house." "Where : 3. Example: Have you read the letter? No. "We have bought a little table." "What is she going to do with the money? 1. 13." "Where ?"(hang) 4. I 2. "Have you bought the drinks?" "No. "I have bought a pullover." "When ?" (publish) 7. "Have you typed the letters?" "No. I 6. 10." "Who ?"(put) ?" (go) 5." "Where ?" (live) 8. "Have you washed your hands?" "No. 9. "Have the boys washed the car?" "No. Example: "She's won the football pools. "She has divorced Frank. she 5. 15. "Have you done your homework?" "No.
) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 I Recuerde * Comparemos ei going to (prediction) con will usado para probable futuro. Cereals will be expensive this year. ei que habla: it will probably be hot tomorrow. cree. Going to se usa con un futuro relativamente inmediato. . Going to implica que hay sehales que sucedera algo. • significa que sucedera en algun tiempo en el futuro (quiza tarde mucho en averiarse.) De forma parecida: • My father is going to get better Diferencias • 1. pero no da idea de que vaya a mejorar en el proximo futuro. • 2. espera.UNIT 20 (Cont. • significa que esta dando senates de mejorar. • Will es una manera comun de expresar lo que piensa. This old car will break down. • indica confianza y quiza una eventual recuperation. 48 STANLEY . • significa que hace ruidos raros y que nos va a dejar tirades en el camino. etc. Will implica que el que habla cree que sucedera. My father will get better. • Will y going to son muy parecidos en este tipo de frases y cualquiera de los dos se puede usar: It will take us a long time to get there. will no implica ningun tiempo en particular y podrfa referirse a un futuro remoto. * This old car is going to break down.It is going to take us a long time to get there.
I get you some. Little Jim is playing with the fire. "Dad. (break down) It 5. 1. Example: "I haven't got my calculating machine. I think I to write that story?" "I don't know. I can't finish painting the room. He is very clever and works hard. The little girl is playing with the scissors. I know. his hand. Ahora tiene que decir lo que piensa que va a suceder en estas situaciones." 2. her finger. the TV doesn't work. I 4. "When month." to London?" "I don't know. We 2. (burn) He 7. (late for work) She 6. Frank is running in a race. (fall) He is going to fall into the hole." "Don't worry. I 5. (win) He 4. I'll lend you mine. I think 3." 1." "Don't worry. Tiene que elegir entre going to y will. I think I 49 STANLEY ." "Yes. "I haven't got any more paint. and I'm going to take an exam in five minutes. It is nine o'clock. The car is making strange noises. Mary is still in bed." next paint the kitchen?" "I don't know." down for you!" by train. He trains a lot." repair it in a minute. "What colo(u)r I paint it blue. "Dad. We are working very hard to succeed. (rain) It 3." have a look at it this evening. He is very good. my bike is broken. Example: A man reading the paper is walking near a hole. The sky is full of dark clouds. (pass) He 2. Jim is taking his exams. "How 7. "I don't know her address!" "Okay. She 8. I 6." "Is it? All right.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1.
Nations will get together in the end and save humanity. 3. • En forma afirmativa se suele decir coloquialmente: I'll it'll you'll we'll he'll they'll she'll Usos del futuro 1. If you give me the letter. I am sure he'll pass his driving test. We'll go out if it doesn't rain. suppose.UNIT 21 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The future simple Affirmative I shall/will play You will play He will play We shall/will play You will play They will play Negative I shall/will not play You will not play He will not play We shall/will not play You will not play They will not play Interrogative Shall/will I play? Will you play? Will he play? Shall we play? Will you play? Will they play? • El shall tiene poco uso en practica. Para expresar opiniones. believe. o sugerir alguna cosa: Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow? (sugerencia) Shall I open the window? (oferta) <* Shall I carry that case for you. know. It's such an old car! I think they'll wait for us there. Solo se usa para ofrecerse a hacer algo. I'll post it. Se puede usar con verbos tales como: think. boys? (sugerencia) 2. I suppose they'll sell it. madam? (oferta) Shall we go to the disco. El futuro se usa tambien para acciones habituales que suponemos tendran lugar: Summer will come eventually. wonder. 50 STANLEY . I'll drink the milk if it is warm. • Shall not se abrevia a shan't y will not se abrevia a won't. El futuro tambien se usa en frases que tengan idea de condition: If you come early. we'll go to the cinema. especulaciones acerca del futuro. Others will come after these. be sure.
I steak. You would like to go to the theatre. You have a common friend in hospital. "Is it going to rain tonight?" "Yes. When she comes home she 3. "Are you going out?" "Yes. o sugiera alguna cosa. 3. You're going on holiday." an aspirin 51 STANLEY . Ofrezcase para hacer algo. "What are you going to eat? Make a decision!" "Okay. go to the beach. En cada frase tiene una situacion. It's very cold. "There has been an accident on the road!" "Oh. We 9. "I've got a headache. You can go by car or by plane. Complete con will o going to Example: "Are you going to the cinema tonight?" "I don't know. You're going out tonight." call an ambulance. then. get the job. He hasn't done any work. You and your friends are talking about going to the disco tonight? 3. Example: we will probably know the result next week. go there. Example: The window is open." have wine. I am sure he 7. notice many changes." 1. We 4. Can you get me something?" "All right.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. wine or beer?" "I 6. "Do you think we probably soon." to the theatre. Shall I close the window? 1. 4. /'// probably go. Don't worry about the injection. 5. You would like to ask Carol to go to the cinema with you. we 5. If you don't come here I 8." 4. You want to visit him. no! I 7. 5. "What would you like to drink. Complete las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo. I 6. He's got experience. please. 2. If it gets warmer. 1. but you'reundecided. go by train. I for you. Jim pass his examination. it 2. I expect they probably go to South America next year. we go out if it rains. hurt you. His name is Jerry. (car) 2. 2." !" have a get there in time?" "Of course you 3.
• En el imperativo. Don't let them play. Aunque cuando estudiemos las formas enfaticas veremos que podemos hacerlo si queremos dar entasis a la frase. incluyendo la primera. Sit down here and eat this! > "Nelly is coming. • Normalmente. 52 STANLEY . Don't let me see you do that again. cosa que en espanol no existe. the children are sleeping. Don't let him/her/it play. • En ingles se conjugan todas las personas. Don't let them play with you. • Fijese tambien. aunque tambien podemos usar el imperative como sugerencia o consejo.UNIT 22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The imperative • El imperative suele tener el sentido de una orden. que da lo mismo decir let us que let's." "Okay. Don't let's speak about that again / Let's not speak about that again. Jesus said: "Let the children come to me!". Imperativo ven tu que venga el que venga ella que venga (ello) vengamos venid que vengan ellos/ellas let me come come let him come let her come let it come (animal) let us (let's) come come let them come Recuerde que en la primera persona del plural se admiten dos formas de negacion: Don't let us go too early. Don't make so much noise. let her come. / Let us not go too early. Don't play. Don't let us play. no existe la forma interrogativa. en el imperativo no se usa la palabra you. Don't let Peter go with you." • El imperative negative se forma poniendo do not (don't) delante de todas las personas: & Don't let me play. Come on boys! Let's play a game of football. (let us not play) Don't play. Cuando traducimos let me come recurrimos a dejame venir.
You don't mind."" 4. They inform you that Diana is going to post the letters." "Okay. You must not leave anything on the plate. So you say: All right.SH GRAMMAR 1. 4." a picture of me with the baby. So you say to your wife: at this hotel. Esther. You like the hotel. Pongalas en forma negativa. We have plenty of time. 1. Mary. I don't want to see you do that again. Example: Mary. 6. Let us speak to the Jones. Estudie la situacion y forme una frase en imperativo para cada una de ellas. Don't let Peter come with us. "I want to go to the cinema. but you don't want to see her. You want to stay there. 1. darling. 8. let's take a taxi. "He is waiting for you. so you say to your wife: 2. They tell you that Charles is going away. 2.K. Have a look at this. (take) come." see you do that again! Charles that I want to see him. go if he wants to." 2. 3. let me see you do that. two tickets at the Odeon. 7. 7. 1. Please. They can work. Your friend: "Nelly is waiting for you. You want to see your children. children. You don't want to give charity to lazy people. 6. (buy) 2. 53 STANLEY . 5. stay 3. Let the children come with us 3. Example: Let Peter come with us. A continuation tiene unas frases en imperativo. Example: Nelly is waiting for you. So you say: Okay." "O.EXERCISES ENGL. try on these jeans. Mary. Here is the camera. Eat vegetables." "All right." 4. "The children are coming. Margaret. 5. "We don't need to hurry." You: "Let her wait!" . You agree to that. Complete las siguientes frases en imperativo. hurry. them.. Let's go to the cinema tonight." wait. 8. 5. finish your soup. So you say: work! 3. (to tell) anything on the plate.
I always arrive on time for work. repeatedly. They go to Italy very frequently. frequently.We sometimes go to see them. I have seen them in the park quite often.She is always late for work. • Los adverbios de los dos grupos se colocan normalmente: 1. 2. Entre el sujeto y el verbo. My father is often wrong. Despues del verbo ser o de un verbo defective: . twice. You had never spoken like that before. 54 STANLEY . We must never criticize other people. Frases negativas never hardly rarely seldom ever hardly ever • Tambien al final de una frase encontramos: once.UNIT 23 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Adverbs of frequency and degree Adverbios de frecuencia • Los adverbios de frecuencia son los siguientes: Frases afirmativas often always once twice usually continually occasionally frequently sometimes repeatedly periodically Often • A veces encontramos la palabra often al final de una frase junto con very o quite: He comes to see us very often. 3. I've been there once. Con los tiempos compuestos. I can never understand these people. . el adverbio se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: I have always done my duty. en los tiempos simples: They never come to see us.
11. 10. always/she/is/telling/us/what/to/do. I . 2. Tiene que poner las f rases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de frecuencia. I . 2. seldom/we/go/dancing/on Saturdays. (continually) 55 STANLEY . (twice) 4. you people like that. Very occasionally/meet/you/people/like that. Have you ever been to South America? Yes. occasionally/have/l/been/to Madrid. (seldom) 2. Responda como en el ejemplo: Example: Do you go to Spain very often? Yes. 7. I /often/have/told/you/not/to/do/that. sometimes/they/work/all/night. Have you ever done things like that? Yes. (never) 3. I to New York. 5. 4. rarely/they/come/to Spain/on holiday. once/only/have/l/been/there. 8. never/we/can/be/sure/of/his/reaction. Example: never/we talk/ about that/ at home We never talk about that at home. very often/we/come/here. Have you ever been to New York? No. Have you ever met anybody like that? Well. I often go to Spain 1. 1. 6. 9. 3.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. frequently/very/we have/travel/to Canada.
etc. Un adverbio de grado modifica a un adjetivo o a otro adverbio. I haven't got much.I am just going. just.how + adjetivo o adverbio Adverbs of degree •Son: . She doesn't walk fast enough. nearly. .really . big.absolutely hardly barely .She can hardly speak. enough va a continuation: This house is not big enough for us. really. Generalmente se coloca delante: You are quite right. • Sin embargo. excepto much. . How + adjetivo o adverbio • How combina con gran variedad de adjetivos y adverbios tales como: deep. . scarcely. wide. Se prefiere usar a lot o lots: Have you got much money? No. much.nearly fairly . • How many se usa para cosas contables (frases en plural): How much sugar do you want? How many trees are there? 1. Yes. I really enjoyed the film.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Much .We are almost ready. I have got a lot of money / lots of money. far. • Todos.almost extremely only far .: How far is it to the station? How big is this town? How often do you come here? How wide is this road? How long is this river? How well can you swim? 2. a little.UNIT 23 (Cont. old. Los siguientes adverbios de grado pueden modificar a los verbos: almost. They have nearly finished. rather. How long?: time • La expresion how long se puede usar para preguntar cuanto tiempo: How long do you take to do this? How long ago did he live? • Con el verbo ser y con los verbos defectives se colocan detras: . 56 STANLEY .scarcely very etc.much completely just enough quite entirely rather Much so too • En frases afirmativas much tiene un uso limitado. hardly. se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo: I nearly fell into the river. quite. "How" para preguntar • How much se usa para cosas incontables (frases en singular). • Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have just arrived. long. enough.
1. Ponga las frases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de grado.
almost - is - ready - dinner Example: Dinner is almost ready. 1. fell/the old man/ nearly/as/he crossed/the road. 2. I have/enjoyed/really/the film. 3. could/she/hardly/speak/when/she/came/out/of/the/water. 4. hardly/we/spoke/to/each/other/during/the/meal. 5. quite/l/liked/the/old man's speech. 6. that/car/enough/is/for/us/not/big. 7. The Evans/arrived/have/just/home. 8. she/hardly/can/speak/the accident/after.
2. A continuacion tiene una serie de adverbios y adjetivos para que los combine con how.
deep, big, far, long, quickly, well, often, much, many, wide Example: How much does this cost? 1. How 2. How 3. How 4. How 5. How is the sea in this place? is the Mississipi river? is the Post Office? are you going to take, darling? It's late. people were there at the concert?
did you pay for it?
7. How 8. Let's see how 9. Let's see how 10. "How 11. How 12. How 13. How 14. How
does the bus pass this way? you can swim. you can do this addition. is the corridor?" "About 20 metres!" is the station? I'm in a hurry. do you come to this place? was the river you swam across? have you been working in this company?
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The past simple tense
• En ingles el past tense comprende el imperfecto y el indefinido, por lo tanto hay que traducir segun el sentido de la frase.
• Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado de forma distinta. Por ejemplo el verbo go: 1 went
you went he went we went you went they went
• Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se ahade ed:
I worked you worked he worked we worked you worked they worked
• Como se vera, la tercera persona del singular no anade una s.
• Si el verbo ya termina en e solo se ahade la d: I lived. • Los verbos monosflabos, y los bisilabos que terminan en consonante, con acento en la ultima silaba, duplican la consonante final: stop • stopped
admit prefer confer - admitted preferred conferred
• Que ios verbos regulares que terminan en t o en d, como count, visit, add, collect, want, pretend, accept, etc., al anadir la ed se pronuncian como en castellano: counted visited added collected wanted pretended accepted • Los demas verbos regulares que terminan en otras letras, no pronuncian la e que se anade:
seem walk play live wash seemed walked played lived washed [seemd] [walkd] [playd] [livd] [washd]
• Los verbos que terminan en y detras de una consonante cambian la y por i al anadir la ed:
try cry carry study hurry
tried cried - carried - studied hurried
1. Responda a estas preguntas, primero en forma afirmativa y despues en negativa.
Example: Did you drink the milk? Yes, / drank it. No, / didn't drink it. 1. Did he eat the potatoes? Yes,
2. Did you finish your drink? Yes,
3. Did you speak to her? Yes,
4. Did she buy the book? Yes,
5. Did the little girl cry? Yes, she
6. Did the boys run in the race? Yes,
7. Did Jane win the match? Yes,
8. Did you work hard? Yes,
2. Ponga estas frases en pasado. Todos los verbos son regulares.
Example: I stop on my way to work. / stopped on my way to work.
1.1 try to do that every day 2. He collects all the exam papers 3. These babies cry a lot 4. The children play in the park 5. I admit it's my fault 6.1 prefer to travel alone 7.1 always travel alone 8. We always hurry to get home 9. I always study in the evenings
I met Peter yesterday. el verbo se pone en infinitive: "Did you phone Tony?" "No." "Did you like the film?" "No. I last saw him two years ago.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR Use of the past tense • Se usa para acciones que se completaron en el pasado. Formation de la interrogation y negacion: Affirmative I went You went He went We went You went They went Interrogative Did I go? Did you go? Did he go? Did we go? Did you go? Did they go? Negative I did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go He did not (didn't) go We did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go They did not (didn't) go • Cuando usamos una partfcula de interrogation o negacion (did. I didn't have breakfast today." "Did you see him?" "No. I didn't. do." "Did you speak to my teacher?" "No.UNIT 24 (Cont. She phoned me last Sunday. I didn't. I didn't invite her." "I had breakfast yesterday." "Did the children have school yesterday?" "No." "Did you have breakfast this morning?" "No." • Ei verbo have para interrogar y negar en pasado usa la partfcula auxiliar did: "Did you have a dog when you were a child?" "No." "Did you invite Mary to the party?" "No. does)." Para la formation del verbo to be en pasado vease UNIT 7 60 STANLEY . We went to Paris last year. I didn't like it. I didn't have a dog. I didn't. they didn't have school." "They had the day off. I had a cat.
1. 9 2. Example: She had a baby yesterday. We had something in common. We played tennis yesterday. Did you go to London on Monday? I didn't go to London on Monday. ? 5. She opened the shop at 9. We had a shower in the evening. ? 2. Example: I went to London on Monday. ? 6. 9 3. Las frases que tiene a continuation debe ponerlas en forma interrogativa y negativa.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. ? 3. The train left at seven ? 2. ? 7.I saw your friend in the station. ? 4. The car stopped at the traffic lights. Did she have a baby? She didn't have a baby. 9 61 STANLEY . He broke a plate. Ponga estas frases en interrogativa y negativa. ? 8. They had a villa Mexico. She wrote a book. It rained last night. 1.
I love to walk in the country. • El would like se puede usar seguido del infinitive compuesto: I would have liked to have been here when that happened. a ti te gusta. (No necesariamente disfruto lavando el coche. Like • Aunque normalmente aceptamos tanto el gerundio como el infinitive detras del verbo like. She dislikes working with him. Hay que olvidarse de la forma reflexiva a mi me gusta. .I prefer working alone. una ligera diferencia entre los dos usos. junto con hate. sin embargo. • Generalmente decimos: I like running cuando disfruto haciendolo: Do you like cooking? (iDisfrutas cocinando?) I don't like driving.) She likes to do the housework first thing in the morning." • Pero si usamos el verbo like. I would like to be a champion. hate: . etc. sino de preferir. love. Would like • El condicional del verbo like va siempre seguido de infinitive: I would like to be very tall. enjoy. she doesn't like it. she doesn't like it very much. entonces usamos el infinitive detras: I like to wash the car on Saturdays. tambien se acepta el infinitive con like. I like her very much. (No disfruto conduciendo.: "Do you like Marian?" "Yes. Verbs + gerund • El verbo like. I prefer coming here. I prefer to come here. dislike. hay. no en el sentido de disfrutar.. mind." "Does your mother like cooking?" "No. • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos love.I'd love to accompany you on your travels. prefer. etc.UNIT 25 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Like .She enjoys reading at night.would you like? • En ingles el verbo like es exactamente igual que los demas verbos en cuanto a la conjugation. I don't mind obeying orders. ." "Does Mark like running?" "Yes. love. I don't like people smoking here." "Does she like fish?" "No. prefer. hate: I love walking in the country. he likes it quite a lot. • De todas formas. • Tambien podemos usar would you like + noun + gerund: I would like these people to stop smoking in my office. prefer. va a menudo seguido del gerundio: 1 hate flying.) 62 STANLEY .
Example: Why do you go to the beach every day? (love/swim) Because I love swimming. I wouldn't have liked to spend Christmas there. I would have liked to see that new play. Why do you watch TV so often? (enjoy/watch) 5. I would have liked to win the match. I don't mind 2. 1. Cambielas como en el ejemplo. please? 1. Responda estas preguntas usando los verbos que se le dan a continuacion. (walk) to the dentist twice a year. I love 4. My sister likes 3. Why don't you wash your hair in the evenings? (like/do/mornings) 2. I wouldn't like 5. Example: I enjoy playing tennis. I like 7. I would have liked to go on that trip. Ponga el verbo en gerundio o infinitivo. Would you like to speak English. Why don't you take a shower? (like/have/bath) 2. I like to school every day. Las frases que vienen a continuacion se pueden escribir de dos formas. I would like to have gone to the party.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Why do you go to the country every Sunday? (enjoy/walk) 3. 2. (live) with us to the cinema? (come) the washing-up in the mornings. (walk) (walk) but hates people. 1. 63 STANLEY . (spend) to cycling. l"d hate 9. I would have liked to be lying on the beach all day. (meet) on the 20th floor. Why do you get up late on Sundays? (like/stay/bed/late) 4. 4. (do) in the country? (live) Christmas alone. (go) (run) 3. 5. Would you like 6. He prefers 10. Do you enjoy 8. Example: / would have liked to go to the party. 3.
• Tambien usamos as para acciones paralelas: He sang as he walked. Cuando vaya a Madrid. before.. Se puede usar when en preterite perfecto del subjuntivo espahol. 2. ya que el subjuntivo ingles esta en desuso. Before you leave you must come to have dinner with us. until. • Por supuesto no podemos usar when en futuro: no podemos decir when I will arrive..I will give it to you when I have finished it. as soon as: You can have it as soon as I finish with it/have finished with it. • Esto significa que me acorde de las ventanas antes de salir de la casa. When I go to Madrid. A menudo se usa en castellano la conjuncion cuando para introducir oraciones de subjuntivo..We will let you know when she comes. • En este tipo de frases indicamos que la accion estara acabada antes de que tenga lugar la segunda parte. • Para un desarrollo paralelo: As the sun rose the clouds dispersed. "When" y "as" • Se usa when cuando una accion ocurre al mismo tiempo que otra o en el mismo perfodo de tiempo que la otra: When it rains the buses are crowded. Si decimos when I left dan'a la impresion que el hecho de salir se habia ya completado y que la puerta estaba cerrada detras de mi.. • En ingles este tipo de frases se pone en indicative. You will feel better after you have something to drink. • Lo mismo sucede con while. .UNIT 26 ENGLISH GRAMMAR When .I will call you when I arrive. probablemente estaba todavia en el umbral. • As se usa cuando la segunda accion ocurre antes de que se haya acabado la primera: As I left the house I remembered the windows were open. You can phone your friend when we have finished dinner. • Tambien se usa cuando una accion sigue a otra: When he pressed the brake the car stopped. . • A menudo se usa este tipo de frases subordinadas de subjuntivo con una oracion de future: .clauses 1. 64 STANLEY . que equivale al preterito perfecto del indicative ingles: . after.I'll send you a postcard when I am in Benidorm. es decir la oracion subordinada de subjuntivo: You can post the letter when I have written it.
(get) you a postcard. I will finish. You 9. I 6. When the police (see) him he was still living in London. I'm going to finish reading the paper. Then I'll get the tea ready. 5. 1. (grow) him again. I will make my decision. a teacher. . when you her. Ahora tiene que formar una frase de las dos que se le dan. We will talk about it I first met him. How can you expect the children to be truthful 65 STANLEY . I 4. Example: When it stops raining I'll go out to play. as soon as 6. Example: You are leaving soon. We'll find a flat in Bristol. 1. When I (send) 5. When I last 2. The fog dispersed 6. he comes to see us. the sun rose. 3. I go shopping. He had just won the lottery 2. they asked a lot of questions. You will read the book. as soon as 5. When I 7. I'll buy that for you 3. You must come and see us then. (see) (come). you tell lies yourself? he left the house he remembered the key. when 4. (see) Mary again. when 3. Then you will see it clearly. you you (phone) when I (be) on holiday next month. . You must visit us before that. . (recognize) home from work. You must visit us before you leave. Just 7. En este ejercicio tiene que poner when o as. Then I will come. He was very well known 4. En las frases siguientes debe poner el verbo en el tiempo correspondiente. I (get) the book when I (finish) reading it you (need) any help when I (recognize) him. (go) have it. You will be in Spain next month. When you 3. Then I will let you know.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. . 1. when . when 2. to the library. Then we'll give you our address. Example: He was panting as he climbed the stairs. (can) up. I 8. . 2.
aquellas. estas. and that is milk. THOSE • Se traduce por esos. not that one. (pronombre) Those glasses there have water in.UNIT 27 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Demonstratives: this/these. aquellos. The photos I want are those. aquello THESE • Se traduce por estos. esa. Son los unicos adjetivos que hacen esto. • Que los demostrativos que se usan como There's a table in that room there. aquella. refiriendose a una persona. this man these men that woman those women Pronombres THIS • Se traduce por este. Estan'a mal I know this. THOSE • Pero no despues de these o those: • Se traduce por esos. esas. concuerdan con su sustantivo en numero. esa. esta. I know this boy (adjetivo). • A menudo usamos one despues de this. no a gente: Those girls there have nice dresses. Todos los demas adjetivos son invariables. aquellos. aquel. There's a tree in this garden. These glasses here have beer in. This man here is very tall. estas. but those are stupid. • Cuando se usan como adjetivos. o that: THESE The picture I'm talking about is this one • Se traduce por estos. THAT • Se traduce por ese. here. esto. aquel. that/those • Pueden ser adjetivos demostrativos y pronombres demostrativos. eso. Recuerde That woman there has a little dog. eso. These children are very clever. esto. I found this inside the wallet. and that is butter. • Los pronombres demostrativos despues de what se refieren a cosas: What is that? What are those? • Los pronombres demostrativos this y that despues de who se refieren a personas: Who is this? Who's that? 66 STANLEY . THAT • Se traduce por ese. Adjetivos THIS • Se traduce por este. This is bread. se refieren a coThese boys here are very tall. aquella. esas. aquellas: This is water. pronombres normalmente. esta. sas.
"Look at the photos!" "Which photos?"" 6." 4. The picture I am referring to is 7. over there are the veterans. but I prefer 5. Do you like this coat? No. 3. Example: This one here is the best in the shop. school children over there are playing football. Go and tell him now. Do you see that man? Well. but what about 6. "Which socks do you like best. instant! man over there. 6. are the men and women who are waiting for 9. 4. 7. here. the class. Look at these children here! 8. classrooms here are very old. here? 67 STANLEY . Example: This man is very tall. Those houses on the hill are beautiful. This is my umbrella. Pongaselo. 3. who were wounded were taken to hospital. I'll sit on over there. 5. in your hand?"" is a tropical fruit. I don't like . Ahora vamos a usar los demostrativos junto con one/ones. woman here is very beautiful." over there. are the children I want you to lookafter. I prefer 2. 3. the green socks or the blue socks?" "I prefer the blue ones here. That chair is too low. Do you see the two girls by the window? Well. birds at the top of the tree? pigeon on the roof? man is Tom Smith". Can you see people there. 1. who wish to go now. These pullovers are very nice. 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. These men are very short. Look at the top of the hill. 1. are the mostintelligent in over there. 1. 4. "Who's 8. Those are the most difficult. 2. are the biggest in the park. Do you see 9. "What's one is yours. you. A continuacion vamos a usar los pronombres demostrativos. here. Look. 5. 3. A las frases que tiene a continuacion les falta un adjetivo demostrativo. man over there?" "Oh. siempre que sea factible. here are the new boys." is the man I want you to meet. Example: These are the easy ones. 2. are listening to trees here. 7. stand up.
we all (sujeto) us all (objeto) all of you se reemplaza por you all all of them they all (sujeto) them all (objeto) 68 STANLEY . all the village all (of) Peter's friends all her life both (of) the villages all (of) these both (of) his parents 2. They were all there.UNIT 28 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Both and all 1. all of it both of them I Recuerde • que hay una construccion alternativa: pronombre personal + all/both: all of it se reemplaza por it all all of us . el of no se puede omitir: • De la misma forma: both of us we both . pero solamente con formas en plural. They drank all/both the bottles.them both All of them were there. Con all/both + of + pronombre personal. All/Both of us came. This is my friend Jeff. We all/both came.us both both of them . All (pronombre) puede ir seguido de of + the / this / these / that / those / posesivos y sustantivos. They drank all/both of them. especialmente con all + un sustantivo o pronombre en singular. BOTH (pronombre) + of: • Se puede usar de la misma manera. All of us knew the answer to the question. El of aquf se omite a menudo.they both . They drank them all/both. We are both volunteers. Do you see those boys? Well. all of them speak French.
Unalas usando both o all. Both the pianos need tuning up. He has won the long jump too. 3. He has broken a saucer too. 5. 2. Example: Jim was late. 3. He has won the 100 m. The children were both too young. Both girls are very intelligent. 6. Both of the cats were sitting on the carpet. 4. 7. 8. Jennifer went to the party too. 69 STANLEY . 8. 1. 4. He has written too. He has written a play. 2. A continuacion tiene dos frases. 1. They sound terrible. James went. Both cars are very fast. He closed the window too. Both the houses need painting. He has also written a novel. En este ejercicio tiene que cambiar la frase tal como se hace en el ejemplo. 2. Example: Both the children were too young. 5. Both Jim and Jack were late. 6. race. Both planets are very similar. She plays the piano. The boy has broken a plate. She speaks French. Jack was late too.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. She sings too. 7. She can also speak Italian. Both pairs of trousers are very dirty. He closed the door. Both of the women were talking for hours over a cup of tea. He has telephoned.
se puede poner en la misma position que los adverbios de tiempo. The girls were both very pretty. • Hay varias construcciones posibles con both: Both dogs were asleep.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 "Both" y "both of" • Both se puede usar de dos maneras en la misma frase: . My parents have both been invited to the party. Both looked the same to me. The girls both looked English. entre el sujeto y el verbo: We both like beer. The dogs were both asleep.Both of the children have been to Paris. • Both puede usarse como adjetivo: She had burns on both hands.UNIT 28 (Cont. please. I bought both (of) these vases in Greece. Give me both. • o detras del verbo ser: You are both too young. • Both con una frase sustantivada: Both (of) the bikes broke down soon after the start. Both are very similar. "Both" como pronombre We'll buy both. 70 STANLEY . Both the dogs were asleep. Both of the dogs were asleep. Both (of) my sons are very tall. • En preterite perfecto se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have both been to the same school. . • Si both se refiere al sujeto de la frase.The children have both been to Paris. es decir.
7. All of you are wrong 6. They are all very thirsty 13. Cambie el sustantivo por un pronombre personal. 3. 3. They all enjoyed the party. 1. Example: All my friends like riding. 2. All of them like riding / They all like riding. All whisky is expensive. 5. 12. All those children are adorable. All these people are right. They are all here. 10. All cakes have sugar.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. She broke all of it 8. I drank all of it 4. 6. 2. Reemplace la frase que se le da con otra que signifique lo mismo. 71 STANLEY . All these girls are beautiful. 2. All Shakespeare's plays are good. I bought them all. Use all. We ate all of it. 11. 9. All the oranges are bad. Example: All of them enjoyed the party. They all came late to work. All of us are very tired. 1. We sent them all 5. All of them are very interesting. 4. 7. All of us were tired. We are all very intelligent.
Don't tell her anything yet. Did she say that. What did Peter say last night? He said that it is going to rain today. He told the truth. nobody is listening to you. narrar un cuento. Don't say that! It is terrible! • En algunos casos tell signified contar.UNIT 29 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Say and tell Tell • Significa "decir". relatar. really? Say what you want. es decir. Did the girls tell you what they intend to do? They never told us the whole truth. He told me the truth. He told me a story. She told us that she was coming. El verbo tell se usa generalmente cuando detras hay un complemento indirecto. They said to him that it was very difficult. la diferencia radica en el uso. 72 STANLEY . please. What did he tell the children? Say • Se usa generalmente cuando no hay un complemento indirecto detras del verbo. She didn't tell her mother what she had seen. She said to us that she was coming. I will tell you the truth tomorrow morning. tell a story. Recuerde • que en algunos casos tell equivaie a say to. es decir. They told him that it was very difficult. He told me a lie. En estos casos el verbo tell puede no llevar complemento indirecto: He told a story. no hay nadie que reciba la accion del verbo: What did you say? I didn't say anything. Mary said that she is going to get married. Mum. please. • Lo mismo ocurre con las palabras truth y lie: He told a lie. igual que say. John told his father that he was going to do it. tell us a story. Mum. una persona que recibe la accion del verbo: Tell me something about that.
Example: She told the truth at the trial. I'm afraid she 5. Ponga el verbo tell o say. 3. Example: She didn't say anything.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. He 13. I'm afraid she didn't want to 11. Example: What did you tell him? What did you say to him? 1. She is not going to tell us anything. She was too fat. 1. He told her that he had just heard the news. You didn't 8. My grandmother used to a lie. stories. came with you last night? me anything. He didn't tell me that. me to go there by underground. he was going to do it today? 2." James told me. that she is going to have a shower. 4. Did Mr Brown you last night? me that he hasn't got any money. lies. you when she expects to finish? next week was Diana's birthday. "Come here. El verbo tell a veces se puede sustituir por say to. she is going to read for a while. Did stie 7. Mum. 5. She 4. He didn't tell me anything. 5. Who did you 10. she was on a diet. What did your cousin 2. My son. En algunas circunstancias se puede usar el verbo tell sin complemento detras. My father likes 3. 73 STANLEY . beautiful stories." he told the girl. He 3. "I'm leaving at once. you must always 4. 1. She 12. Mary 6. that the chicken was delicious. 3. That girl is always 2. the truth. you know! 2. She 9. the children to get up early.
Como sabemos. How long are you going to stay here? 74 STANLEY . pero tambien signified cuanto tiempo. puesto que no es una pregunta. un adjetivo calificativo es un adorno que se le anade al sustantivo para que sepa el oyente como es el sustantivo. What • Se usa con sustantivos en plural y con cosas incontables: What houses! What strange houses! What coffee! What terrible coffee! What weather! What awful weather! What girls! What beautiful girls! What nonsense! What silly nonsense! What men! What horrible men! I Recuerde • que how long signified que largo/cuanto mide de largo. How • Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios: How big! How big this house is! How dark! How dark that tunnel is! How wonderful! How wonderful she is! How stupid! How stupid I was to lose my ticket! How difficult! How difficult that is! How wide! How wide this river is! No confundas: What a long road this is! jQue carretera tan larga es esta! con: How long this road is! !Que larga es esta carretera! • Observa que decimos: What a long road this is y no is this.UNIT 30 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Exclamations: What a/an .what . Esto. por lo tanto. no altera la formation de la oration: what a/an + sustantivo (con o sin adjetivo).how What a/an • Se usa con sustantivos en singular: «> What a girl! What a beautiful girl! What a boy! What a silly boy! What a house! What a strange house! What a book! What an interesting book! What a face he has! What an attractive face he has! • En la columna de mano derecha hemos anadido un adjetivo calificativo.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. we didn't arrive in time! 3. 8. 7. what a. 8. 10. 3. 6. o what an. How terrible this coffee is! 1. What a silly story this is! 75 STANLEY . 7. Example: How difficult this problem is! 1. Example: What terrible coffee this is. Rellene las frases con what. 5. 9. 3. What clever people those are! 6. What a terrible meal this is! 5. 9. Example: What a meal! It's terrible! 1. o what a/an. 4. James! fantastic bargain I found yesterday! long queues there are for the buses! waste of time! lucky you were to win the prize! clever you were to answer the question! stupid fool you are! pity. What a curious story this is! 3. wonderful! We can go to Spain in July! heavy those suitcases are! haircut you've got. 4. 2. What scruffy boys those are! 4. 2. house! It's awful! idiot that man is! untidy room that is! awful weather we are having! beer this is! attractive proposition! scruffy clothes he always wears! a lot of money she's got! horrible men! 2. What a large house this is! 2. Rellene los huecos con how. 6. Ahora va a cambiar la frase tal como en el ejemplo. 5. what.
he can't. No admite la partfcula to ni delante ni detras: We can go tonight. but I didn't want to. 1. they couldn't. * La forma impersonal se puede generalmente se traduce por you can aunque tambien se puede usar la voz pasiva: You can't do that here/That can't be done here. he couldn't. vease pag. we can't. 76 STANLEY . • Para todos los demas tiempos se usa la locution be able (ser capaz.be able • Can es un verbo defective. Will he be able to come in time? 3. Recuerde * Can-Could se pueden traducir a veces por saber cuando expresamos una habilidad de hacer algo: I can swim very well. (podia) I could do it for you. You cannot go there tonight. you can't. 6. No admite la particula do ni para interrogar ni para negar: Can you come? Can they do it? They cannot do it alone. La conjugation completa de este verbo se da en la pagina 126. She could speak four languages. She can do it tomorrow. They can come at any time. 4. you couldn't. we couldn't. I couldn't.UNIT 31 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Can . Preterite perfecto I have been able to finish it in time. 5. La forma negativa se puede contraer: I can't. Could se usa para el pasado y el conditional: I could do it alone. Can solamente se usa para el presente de indicative: She can do it alone. Future I'll be able to go tonight. I can go tonight. No anade una s en la tercera persona del singular: He can come with you. they can't. Eso no se puede hacer aqui. (podria) 2. El infinitive del verbo poder es to be able: They long to be able to live in freedom. 126). I suppose.could . 7.
4. 9. . 2. . 2. 7. to use it yet. I 5. That little girl can type very well. . 8. type very well. 77 STANLEY . I'm afraid I can't come today. Rellene los espacios con un tiempo apropiado. I 9. Emilio. Tiene unas frases en forma afirmativa. 1. . We'll do it tomorrow. I 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1./ will be able to do it tomorrow. Example: You can speak four languages. 1. Mum. 7. We could go to that supermarket. I could fill in the form. They couldn't do it properly. You can type this letter. to do it yet. I 8. Can you do that for me? 4. Examples: I can do it now. Sorry. you speak English when you were a child? probably to have a shower tomorrow." 1. 5. 4. 3. do my homework last night. We buy the car because it was very expensive. you come to the races this afternoon? 6. y de pasado a preterite perfecto. ? ? ? ? ? 2. I'm afraid. you 3. 5. I'm afraid. You can have this film developed at the chemist's. you can speak to the teacher. Oebe ponerlas en interrogativa y negativa. Can you speak four languages? You can't speak four languages. to come tomorrow. She can speak several languages. We 3. sir. I 10. I could go shopping with you this afternoon. If you pass your exams. I could do it yesterday. They couldn't tell me what happened. We can go on holiday to Salou. Could they go shopping yesterday? 3. . Example: "Can you come with me?" "I don't know if / will be able to./ have been able to do it this morning. go away. Ahora vamos a cambiar el tiempo de las frases de presente a futuro. 6.
How old was David? He was twenty-one. What shoe size are you? What is the length of. How high is Everest? It is 8. What's the width of this cloth? It is two yards wide... Measurements • Tambien se usa el verbo to be para medidas.. es decir. Tambien se puede decir: What is the height? What is the colour of. she is eighteen.. asi se puede decir.? What is the width of. the age of: How old are you? I am fifteen years old.? • Para responder tambien se usa el verbo ser. Alice was ten yesterday. How big is the town? It is quite big. o at How wide is the river? It is 200 yards wide. y se responde I am fifteen years old. asi: I am very tall. How small is an atom? It is very small. How old will you be tomorrow? Tomorrow I will be fourteen. etc. How old was she when she died? She was ninety-one. I am twenty..? What colour are his eyes? She is the same age as me." What is the length of the river? It is about 1.000 kms long.with ages and measurements • Para preguntar la edad se usa la formula how old are you?. • Opcionalmente se pueden suprimir las palabras years old.848 metres high." "What's the height of the building?" "What size is it?" "It is size 8. How old is she? She is twenty-two. it is very long. 78 STANLEY . How tall are you? I am six feet tall. How old is your mother? She is forty.. • Tambien se puede usar years of age.? "What's the colour of her eyes?" "Her eyes are blue. se usa el verbo to be. • Para traducir cumplir ahos tambien se usa el verbo to be: Little Jimmy is five today. She died at the age of ninety-one.UNIT 32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Be . Asi se dice: How tall? How big? How long? How wide? How small? How high? How deep is the . I am the same weight as you...
What shoe size 5. The sea is 400 feet deep here. I don't know. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2. How old is she? 1. He 4. . 8. What 9. He started school at the age of five. but it's very small. in length each. She died at the age of eighty. but the room is very large. What colo(u)r 2. 2. He was twenty-one. 9. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con medidas. What 7.How tall is this man? 1. I'll be fifteen next week. ? ? 3. Big Ben is 98 m. 7. Example: This man is six feet tall. The river is 300 kms. Usted tiene que poner la pregunta. 5. What her eyes? just the right height to be a policeman. He was twenty when he went there. Le dan unas respuestas. 6. you? the same age as you. a fat man of medium height. 7. 4. My sister is ten. Ponga el verbo en el tiempo que corresponda. She is five feet six inches tall. 3. He will be twenty tomorrow. This river is twenty yards wide. 3. high. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8. 6. Example: She is twenty years old. I don't know exactly. 5. The corridor is 2 yards wide. 9. 4. long. the width of the river? about 2 km. She 6. 2. My father will be forty on his birthday. This street is 2 km. The two roads 8. the depth of this river? the size of that cloth? 79 STANLEY . Example: What size is that? 1. She is six today.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. long. He 3.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Comparative and superlative adjectives; comparison
• Para formar el grade comparative de los adjetivos y adverbios cortos (monosilabos y bisflabos), se afiade er, y para el superlative se anade est:
tall - taller small - smaller - tallest smallest
good bad far - old - better worse farther further - older elder - best worst farthest further oldest - eldest
• El que de comparacion se escribe con n (than).
Peter is taller than Andrew. Our house is bigger than yours.
• Con comparativos se puede poner much o a bit.
This is much bigger than that, (mucho mas grande) - This is a bit smaller than that, (un poco mas pequeno)
- She is the tallest girl in her class. - This is the smallest diamond.
Comparativos de igualdad
as as (tan come)
He is as rich as his brother. My watch is as good as yours.
• Para la formation del grado comparativo de un adjetivo largo se antepone el adverbio more, igual que en castellano. Para formar el superlative se antepone the most:
difficult - more difficult - the most difficult
• Para frases negativas se puede usar so o as en la primera parte de la comparacion: • not so/as as (no tan como)
This car is not as/so fast as mine.
This lesson is more difficult than that one.
- This is the most comfortable chair that I have ever seen.
• Para adverbios que terminan en ly usamos more:
You must drive more slowly.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el adjetivo en el grado que corresponda. Todos son adjetivos cortos.
Examples: Our house is bigger than yours. This house is the biggest. 1. Diana is 2. Peter is much 3. Our fridge is 4. My home town is 5. This girl is a bit 6. It's a bit 7. June 21 . is 8. Everest is 9. Summer is much 10. This exercise is much 11. That exercise is
girl in her class, (pretty) than John, (tall) than yours, (noisy) in Spain, (nice) than that one. (thin) today than it was yesterday, (warm) day of the year, (long) mountain in the world, (high) than spring, (hot) than that one. (good) of all. (bad)
2. Ahora va a hacer los mismo pero con adjetivos largos.
Example: She is the most beautiful girl in this town. This book is more difficult than that one. 1. This boy is 2. That problem is much 3. She has the (beautiful) 4. This book is 5. This room is 6. My father is in this class, (intelligent) than this one. (difficult) eyes that I have ever seen. in the library, (interesting) than ever, (untidy) man in the world, (understanding)
3. Tiene ahora dos frases. Va a formar una frase en grado comparativo de igualdad.
Example: Peter is tall. Mary is also tall. Mary is as tall as Peter. 1. This mountain is high. That mountain is not very high. 2. My car is fast. Your car is also fast. 3. This problem is difficult. That problem is also difficult. 4. Diana is pretty. Janet is not very pretty. 5. My book is interesting. Your book is also interesting.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Good at / look like / what is ... like?
• La expresion good at puede ir seguida de un sustantivo, o de un gerundio: Peter is very good at maths. Those boys are very good at playing games.
What is like?
• Esta expresion se usa para preguntar como es fulano, no como esta de salud. "What is the new teacher like?" "I think he's very strict." "What is your boyfriend like?" "Oh, he is very nice." "What are the new boys like?" "Well, they look very fit." "What are the recruits like?" 'They don't look very clever to me." • Nota bien la diferencia entre: What is he like?
• Esta expresion se puede traducir por parecer, tener el aspecto de. Puede ir seguida de un sustantivo o una frase sustantivada: He looks like a boy of spirit. It looks like rain. That looks like cheese to me. The picture doesn't look like him. He looks like his brother. She looks like her mother. • Tambien puede ir seguido de gerundio: The festival looks like being lively. He looked like biting. It looks like being wet all day. He looked like beating the champion.
y How is he?
What is he like? iComo es? "How is he?" "Very well, thank you." "I Que tal esta?" "Muy bien gracias."
Look + adjetivo
• Generalmente usamos esta expresion cuando queremos decir que alguien o algo tiene un aspecto triste, cansado, alegre, etc: «> You look very tired today. A sad-looking little boy stood in front of him. The countryside looked beautiful in the sunshine. Pauline looks very excited today. • Con el mismo sentido se puede usar el presente progresivo: You are looking very unhappy today. What's the matter? She is looking very happy today.
The dress was beautiful. 1. Gamble ahora estas frases usando look like. Usted tiene que cambiar las frases usando look + adjetivo. The little girl looked excited. He can't play tennis. 4. The weather is good. Example: There are a lot of clouds. Is that tea or coffee? Well.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The grass was very green. 3. 3. Our teacher is very strict. The apparatus seemed to be complicated. My little dog is very sweet. She wore a new dress. 1. ? ? ? ? 83 STANLEY . It complicated. Emily is good at tennis. .What's your boyfriend like? 1. tea to me. My daughter spends the whole winter skiing. The teacher had an angry expression that morning. it looks like rain. The tall boy runs very well. That boy can't hold the racket properly. She had a sad expression on her face. it 4. 2. It was beautiful. My son understands all the maths problems. My new secretary is beautiful and clever. it doesn't 3. 2. A continuation encontrara varias frases. It is butter. I am sure it's butter. 4. 1. to me. Example: Emily plays tennis very well. 2. 4. It looks 2. 4. Example: The girl was excited. 5. Cambielas usando good at o bad at. Usted tiene que poner las preguntas. 3. It had a terrible appearance. . Ahora tiene unas frases explicando que aspecto tiene algo. It's going to be sunny this weekend. He is tall and intelligent. He can run long distances. 2. Tiene ahora unas respuestas. Well. 3. Example: My boyfriend is very nice.
o I've been waiting for hours.How long is it since you came to live here? How long is it since you last saw her? For (durante) • Se usa para decir durante cuanto tiempo se ha estado haciendo algo.UNIT 35 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Present perfect tense: "for" and "since" • El preterite perfecto de indicative se forma igual que en espahol: Affirmative I have played You have played He has played We have played You have played They have played Interrogative Have I played? Have you played? Has he played? Have we played? Have you played? Have they played? Negative I have not played You have not played He has not played We have not played You have not played They have not played • A menudo usamos el preterito perfecto para hablar de situaciones o acciones que continuan hasta el momento en que hablamos (o poco antes): I have lived in this country for many years. va seguido de una referencia de tiempo (por ejemplo. How long + for • Esto se emplea para preguntar durante cuanto tiempo: How long have you been waiting for? • El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con since y for. I have been reading since five o'clock. • Este tipo de frases se puede traducir al castellano de dos formas: Ha estado trabajando aqui durante 20 anos (literal). Lleva 20 ahos trabajando aqui (libre). • En este tipo de preguntas a menudo suprimimos el for: How long have you been living in Los Angeles (for)? How long + since • Se emplea para preguntar cuanto tiempo hace desde que ocurrio algo: . 84 STANLEY . I have studied the piano since I was five. Since (desde) • Se usa para decir cuando empezo algo: She has worked there since 1990. It has been raining since Monday. I have always liked English people. two months): She has worked here for twenty years.
It's ages since we last met. She's been studying English for two years. We got married ten years ago. It's been raining early this morning. . It's three months since I last saw her. My parents have been married 25 years. He bought his car in January. En este ejercicio tiene que poner since o for. 3. How long is it since you last had a holiday? 1. He went on holiday three weeks ago. I've been doing that job for twenty years. . They haven't . 7. He has been 3.. / have known him for two years. Listed tiene que poner las preguntas. We've been celebrating all night. 85 STANLEY . 1. The last time they came to see us was around Christmas. She's been learning French October last year. Old Bronson has been a sergeant twenty years. I haven't had a holiday 1980. I have been doing that lor two years.? Example: It's two years since I last had a holiday. ? 2. Ahora usa la estructura How long is it since . 4. ? 3.. How long have you been living in New York (for)? 1. ? 4. We have 4. 8. 2. Examples: It started raining at three o'clock. We haven't 6. 1. I've had it years. He has had his car 2. Ahora tiene que formar una nueva frase tal como en los ejemplos. It's six months since I last had a good meal. My father hasn't had a holiday ages. 5. She has lived in this town since 1990. . 3. 3. 6. This is a very old bicycle. . It has been raining since three o'clock. Old Mr and Mrs Johnson have been married 1950. I met him two years ago. We last met when they arrived from Spain. 9. 2. Example: I've been living in New York for ten years. Ahora tiene unas respuestas. We've been learning English a very long time.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. She went shopping at ten o'clock. She has 5. Example: 2. .
I'll cook something for you. Posicion de los complementos • El complemento indirecto a menudo se refiere a una persona y se suele poner delante del directo: I gave Peter the book. 86 STANLEY . etc: . Esta construction es posible con los verbos: build. Give me it. order. Buy your sister a present. I'll get a drink for you. He threw the ball.Peter I am reading the paper. buy.UNIT 36 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbs with two objects • Complemento directo se refiere a una persona o cosa que recibe la accion del verbo: They ate the cake. I showed Fred the letter. • Se llama verbo transitive el que lleva complemento directo. • El complemento indirecto se refiere generalmente a la persona que se beneficia de la accion expresada por el verbo: Throw me the ball. . I showed the letter to Fred. cook. He gave me the knife. I sent Jane the letter. I bought him a book. I met Peter this morning. I sent the letter to Jane. He gave the knife to me. Show me what you've got in your pocket. .I'll get you a drink. i.She dropped the paper. keep.Que estas leyendo? . Give it to me. The girl runs very fast. book.The plane landed in New York.a quien? o ^que? Si se puede responder. Tell me the whole story. get. La mejor forma de averiguar si un verbo es transitive es hacerse la pregunta i. make. o detras con to I gave the book to Peter.the paper • De la misma forma I'll find a job for Tom podria expresarse I'll findTom a job. I bought a book for him. Don't annoy me. leave. • Los verbos transitivos se pueden poner en voz • La construction sin preposition se prefiere pasiva: cuando el objeto directo es una oration: The dog eats the meat. el verbo es transitive. The meat is eaten by the dog. • Se llama verbo intransitivo el que no lleva complemento directo y no se puede poner en voz pasiva: . find.A quien encontraste? . I'll cook you something. reserve.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 7. /'// get a drink for you. Hand me your exams. . 9. . . I'll fetch you the plate. . Cambie la frase que hace de complemento directo por un pronombre y pongalo en las dos formas que sabe. Example: Give the book to John. Show the map to your father. . . Show me it. . He gave me a very nice present. ? . Send him the letter. 6. 4. She made her daughter a dress. . usted tiene que poner la otra. He offered her the best job in the office. A continuacion encontrara unas frases con un complemento directo largo. 1. 1. A continuacion se le da una. She bought Jane a present. give it to me. She bought him the book he wanted to read. She showed me a wonderful photo. I'll find the money for you. 5. I'll prepare something for you. Please. Can you pass the sugar to your sister? 4. . . . 8. 4. Bring the bill to me. 2. Example: I'll get you a drink. 87 STANLEY . 3. 6. . Show it to me. Con muchos verbos se pueden poner los complementos de dos formas. She got the change for me. They'll build a house for us. 2. 2. 5. . Show me the photos. He'll find a job for me. 3. 3. I'll cook you a meal. Lend me the newspaper. I bought a book for Mary. . 2. 1. 10. I'll offer him more money. . Ahora vamos a hacur lo mismo usando for. 9. 3. I'll lend you the best book in the library. 5. Example: Show me what you've got in your hand. 8. . . 7. Give John the book.
es decir.UNIT 37 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Question words as subjects • Who puede hacer el of icio de sujeto y de complemento del verbo. sin partfculas de interrogation: Who came yesterday? (sujeto) o Who spoke at the meeting? (sujeto) Who pays the bills? (sujeto) • Who. • Cuando hace el oficio de sujeto el verbo se pone en forma afirmativa. whom como complementos del verbo: Ingles coloquial: Who did you see? Who did she talk to? Ingles gramatical: Whom did you see? Whom did she talk to? • Whose como sujeto: Whose car broke down? Whose horse arrived first? Whose ship sank? • Whose como complemento de un verbo: Whose book did you borrow? Whose pen did you use? Whose umbrella did you lose? • Which como sujeto: Which finger hurts you? Which car won the race? Which horse broke its leg? • Which como complemento: Which hand do you use? o Which of these books do you prefer? Which horse do you think will win? • What como sujeto: What caused the fire? What happened last night? • What como complemento: What paper do you read? What did he say? What do you want? • How many + sustantivo puede ser sujeto de oracion y por lo tanto ir sin partfculas de interrogacion: How many dogs ran in the race? How many cars crashed on the bridge? How many people went to Madrid? • How many como complemento: How many things did you buy? How many people did you see? How many children did they have? 88 STANLEY .
4. This motor makes the noise. usted tiene que hacer las preguntas. 2.1 don't know what caused the rebellion. 3. She didn't speak to anybody. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. They ate fish and chips.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 5. My father paid the bill. 2. 5. A veces el who es sujeto y a veces complemento. Your friend spoke at the meeting. He didn't see anyone.1 didn't say anything. 9. 2. About ten girls came to the party. 6. She didn't see anything. 4. 6. Example: I didn't see anybody. He reads the "Daily Mail". Example: Nothing happened yesterday.I didn't tell anybody.Who/Whom did you see? Peter came with me. What y which a veces son sujetos de oracion y a veces complementos. Example: About twenty people went to Madrid. The explosion was caused by gas. 8. My brother ran in the marathon. 5. 2. 7. 6. My mother bought the book. . Only six dogs run in each race. A continuacion tiene unas respuestas. 4. . What happened yesterday? 1. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con how many.Who came with you? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. How many people went to Madrid? I bought ten books.1 had seven students in my class yesterday. 8. Forme preguntas para las siguientes respuestas con what y which. 3. This horse arrived first. 3. 7. . The Evans had six children. Robert saw it. How many books did you buy? ? ? ? ? ? ? 89 STANLEY 1. Two union leaders spoke at the meeting. She didn't give it to anybody. I posted ten letters.
Indirect speech Pasado He said (that) he never went there. • Hay que tener en cuenta que al pasar a estilo indirecto algunas expresiones de tiempo cambian: Direct today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/month/year last week/month/year a week ago 90 STANLEY Indirect that day the day before two days before the next/following day in two days' time the following week/month/year the previous week/month/year the week before/the previous week . he said. "I went to London last week". La tabla que va a continuation indica estos cambios. Direct speech Presente "I never go there". • En la forma directa repetimos las palabras exactas del que habla: He said. • Cuando convertimos el estilo directo en indirecto tenemos que hacer algunos cambios. he said. Condicional "I would like to go". Future "I will go tomorrow". • En forma indirecta se da el sentido exacto de lo que se dice pero sin necesidad de usar las palabras exactas del que habla: He said (that) he had gone to London the previous week. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had gone there the day before. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had done it. he said. Condicional He said (that) he would go the next day.UNIT 38 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Reported or Indirect Speech • Hay dos formas de relatar lo que dice una persona: la forma directa e indirecta. he said. Pasado "I went there yesterday". Condicional He said (that) he would like to go. Preterite perfecto "I have done if. he said.
He said that he never ate bread. "I always get up early." Jim said." she said. 7." he said." he said. Example: He said that he never ate bread.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. "We have found a flat." he said." she said. 7. Peter said that he had done it in the morning." he said. 1." he said. Ahora vamos a hacer lo contrario. He said that he always spoke English in class. 4. 5. 5. 3. 2." he said. 91 STANLEY . "I would like to go to New York."/ never eat bread. 2. Example: "I never eat bread. Las frases de estilo indirecto paselas a directo. He said that he was writing a letter. 2. 3. They said they were going to Paris on business. 6. She said that she would like to go with him. 6. "I have spoken to him. 8. She said that she had spoken to him. He said that he had found the book he wanted. 1. "I will go to Mexico on Sunday. Gamble de estilo directo a indirecto. "I have eaten too much. 8. "I spoke to him yesterday." he explained. Jim said he would speak to her. "I like to stay at home. 4.
did." "So did we!" • En caso que la frase sea negativa y queramos anadir." "Neither/Nor are we!" "I haven't got a dog.. en ingles hay varias posibilidades." "Neither/Nor can I!" "He couldn't come in time." "So can I!" "I could drive a car when I was 14. yo tambien etc." "Neither/Nor did I!" "She won't speak to us. thanks. • En caso de que haya un verbo auxiliar en la frase. would: "I come every day. does." "Neither/Nor have I!" • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos defectives: "I can't speak French. did." "Neither/Nor did she!" "She didn't come in time. usamos neither o Con los demas verbos usamos las particulas do." "So would I!" 'They went to England last summer." "So does he!" "I will go tomorrow.So do I ." "Neither/Nor am I!" 'They are not very tall." "So are we!" "I have a dog." "So am I!" "We are going to school. tambien se repite este verbo: "I can speak French. would: "I don't speak French." "Neither/Nor would he!" nor: "I am not a man. will. este verbo se repite: "I am a man.Neither/nor am • Cuando queremos anadir una adicion afirmativa." "So can mine!" • En los demas casos usamos las particulas do." "So will I!" "I would like to go." "So have I!" • Si el que usamos es un verbo defectivo. yo tampoco.UNIT 39 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 So am I . does." "Neither/Nor would I!" "She wouldn't tell me anything." "So have I!" "She has a nice house." "Neither/Nor will I!" "I wouldn't like to go." "Neither/Nor am I!" "She is not a woman." "So could I!" "My mother can cook very well." "So do I!" "She speaks French." "Neither/Nor do we!" "He didn't buy the book." "Neither/nor could we!" 92 STANLEY . will." "Neither/Nor do I!" "I don't want any more." "Neither/Nor will he!" 'They won't do it tomorrow.
Anada una observacion afirmativa a las siguientes frases: Example: "She is very intelligent. "They speak perfect French."" 4. "That girl is very pretty." " 11."" 15.Neither/Nor am I! 1."" 13." " 7."" 12. "We came as soon as we could. "We won't go on holiday this year. "I will buy it tomorrow. "They won't stop in this village. "He speaks good English. "He wasn't injured. "She never goes to concerts."" 7."" 8. "I can run very fast. "I wouldn't buy that. "I can't speak Italian. "She can dance well." "So am I!" 1."" 13.."" 15."" we!" I!" I!' we!" her sister!" the others!" we!" she!" I!" we!" I!" she!" I!" you!" I!" 2."" we!" we!" we!" I!" he!" I!" I!" I!" we!" you!" we!" we!" I!" we!" we!" 93 STANLEY ." " 4. "I was very tired. "We didn't get paid. "You didn't come in time."" 3. "I didn't see him. "I would go there tomorrow. "They haven't done anything yet." " 8. "We couldn't pay so much." " 12." " 14. "I didn't think about it. "She is not very pretty."" 6.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1."" 9." " 3. "I would like to speak many languages. "You could find a better job." " 2."" 10." " 9. "I would like to have another drink. "He buys the paper every day. "They are very tall" " 2." " 5. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con frases negativas." " 10. Example: I am not a tall man. "They didn't speak French. "I will go to Paris next summer."" 6."" 11. "They haven't got a big house."" 14."" 5.
The woman on the phone was neither Rose nor her mother. ni. se traduce por ni.. y se espera que la respuesta sea afirmativa: ^ Would you like some wine? Could you do something for me? Can I have some of those sweets? Have you got some glasses you can lend me? Why don't you give her some flowers? Didn't you borrow some books from the library? Would you like some more milk? Why don't you give him something to drink? • La estructura neither.. se traduce por o .: Both Jim and Jane were late.... Both... We can go either by plane or by train. She is either French or Italian... The girl was neither pretty nor intelligent.. The room was neither large nor bright. como. I like both John and Peter.UNIT 40 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Some and something in offers and requests • Normalmente some se usa con verbos afirmativos: They bought some cakes. The man on the phone was neither Peter nor John. and Either ..: She can speak neither French nor Spanish. and... or..o... Linking words both . • Las tres estructuras sirven de union.... We'll go there either on Saturday or on Sunday. • Pero tambien se suele usar some en frases interrogativas cuando la frase indica una oferta. nor.: * You can have either biscuits or cakes. 94 STANLEY ..... • La estructura either.. o peticion. sugerencia....... • Las frases negativas como Ese hombre no era ni Pedro ni Juan se pueden traducir de dos formas: The man on the phone wasn't either Peter or John. or Neither. They were both hungry and thirsty. se traduce por tanto.. nor . He loved both Susan and Sandra...
She can't read. She didn't telephone. He needed more money... too. 7. too. Can I have 5.. 6.. What are you looking for? Have you lost 7. 9. neither. 95 STANLEY . She didn't write. 5. either.. She can't write. Would you like to take 9. The doors need painting.. He emigrated because he needed a change. The play was very boring. The restaurant wasn't good. You can leave now or you can leave this afternoon. Is that girl's name Jane? Or is it Julia? It's one of the two. Would you like 4. Can I have 8. Why don't they give them 6.. Jill was late too. and . 3. The windows need painting. Complete estas frases con some/something. 4. please? to eat? ? information about this town? money? more milk in my coffee. 2... 8. 1. Example: Can you give me some sugar. Why doesn't she put up to eat? to drink. Could you give me 2. too. nor.. And we haven't got time. And it wasn't very cheap.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. She neither telephoned nor wrote. Both Bob and Jill were late. or Example: Bob was late. It was very long. I don't drink. Esta vez tiene que hacer frases con: both . And I don't smoke. We haven't got any money to go to Disneyworld. please? of these biscuits? chocolates? to cover that hole in the wall? 2.. please? 1. Why don't you give her 10. Why don't you send him 3..
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Infinitive of Purpose
• La idea de proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitive. Es decir, usamos to + infinitive para hablar acerca del proposito de hacer algo (para + infinitive):
She went to Paris to learn French. He shouted to warn us of the danger. Mary telephoned to invite us to her wedding. The secretary went out to post the letters.
• Para que el pueda...:
Give him my phone number so that he can phone me. He wears glasses so that nobody can recognize him.
• Infinitivo + sustantivo + preposicion:
He wants a case to keep his tapes and records in. I need a tin opener to open this tin of asparagus with.
• Tambien usamos to + infinitivo cuando nos referimos acerca del proposito de alguna cosa, o el porque alguien necesita o quiere algo:
I need something to open this tin. The rich Arab had six bodyguards to protect him. This fence is to keep people out of my property. This generator is here to produce electricity.
• Esto es cuando hablamos de algo en particular, pero si nos referimos a algo con un sentido en general usamos for + gerundio:
This is a box for keeping old books in. - This is a tool for cutting wood.
• Tambien podemos usar in order to/so as + to + infinitivo con un infinitivo negativo:
He pulled out his knife in order/so as to frighten them. - She walked on tiptoe in order/so as not to wake her children.
• Con to be y to have:
She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time for her family. She got up early in order/so as to have a big breakfast. She left work at four in order/so as to be home early.
• Con can y could se usa el so that... (para poder):
She is learning French so that she can study in Paris. He moved to Boston so that he could see his girlfriend more often.
1. Use las palabras en parentesis para responder a estas preguntas.
Example: Why are you going out? (buy/some/milk) I'm going out to buy some milk. 1. Why did you go to Jim's school? (speak/Jim's teacher)
2. Why are you wearing boots? (keep/feet/warm)
3. Why is she going into hospital? (have/operation)
4. Why are they saving money? (get/married)
5. Why did you shout? (warn/you/danger)
6. Why are you going to the bank? (change/money)
2. Ahora va a completar estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. keep, hang, solve, buy, wear, climb, read, celebrate, sit
Example: There was no furniture, not even chairs to sit on. 1. We haven't got enough money 2. I'm going to buy a picture 3. Get me a box 4. We must get together and try 5. He was too afraid 6. I need a new dress 7. I have no time 8. They are having a party a new house. in the hall. these old books in. the problem. the mountain. at the wedding. books. the end of the course.
3. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir frases con so that.
Example: I'll give you her address. I want you to write to her. I'll give you her address so that you can write to her.
1. He locked his door. He didn't want to be disturbed.
2. I spoke loud. I wanted everybody to hear.
3. She arrived early. She wanted to get a good seat.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
• El condicional se forma igual que el future, anteponiendo al infinitive las particulas would o should.
I should/would go you would go he would go we should/would go you would go they would go
should/would I go? would you go? would he go? should/would we go? would you go? would they go?
Negative I should/would not go you would not go he would not go we should/would go you would not go they would not go
• La particula should solo se usa en ingles muy formal:
I thought they would give me a diploma. They expected that the plane would arrive on time. She hoped they would come to the party.
Condicional compuesto • Affirmative
I would have gone. You would have gone. He would have gone. We would have gone. You would have gone. They would have gone.
• El condicional se suele abreviar, sobre todo en conversacion: I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, you'd, they'd.
I'd go if I could. I'd go to Paris if I spoke French. She'd buy the house if she had money. I'd speak louder if I had to.
Would I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he have gone?
I wouldn't have gone. You wouldn't have gone, etc.
• El condicional negative tambien se puede abreviar: I wouldn't, you wouldn't, he wouldn't, etc.
I wouldn't go if I were you.
2. if she changed clothes. if he invited Martha. it 6. Perhaps one day someone will insult you. Are you going to see this horror film? (not sleep). ? 6. Perhaps one day someone will ask you to marry him/her. Example: Are you going to leave at 5? (we/arrive/too/early) If we left at five. Is your brother going to apply for the post? (not/get it). Perhaps one day you will meet your favourite film star. if I saw this horror film. ? 8. ? ? 3. Are you going to take Mary's necklace? (be angry). Perhaps one day you will lose your money in Mexico. he 4. if I sold my car. No. she 7. she 5. Is Mary going to change clothes? (be late). we would arrive too early. he 2. I 3. ? 7. Ahora responds como en el ejemplo. ? 5.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Perhaps one day hooligans will rob you. No. Are you going to sell your car? (have to walk/to work). Is John going to invite Martha? (he have to/invite Marian/too). Perhaps one day somebody will hit you. Haga preguntas. 1. Example: Perhaps one day you will meet a nice girl. if I left the car unlocked. Are you going to leave the car unlocked (be stolen). if he applied for the post. Perhaps one day a pretty girl will say she loves you. What would you do if 2. ? 4. 99 STANLEY . "Perhaps one day somebody will ask you to go out with him". No. What would you do if you met a nice girl? 1. No. No. No. if I took her necklace. No.
we would have gone for a picnic. el verbo principal se pone en condicional compuesto. • Con las frases del tipo 2. If you had run. No importa el orden: If you run. 100 STANLEY . If the weather had been good. we will go for a picnic.UNIT 42 (Cont. If the weather was good. They would have gone without you if you hadn't hurried. The boys will play football if the teacher lets them.If the weather is good.They would go without you if you didn't hurry. y la frase subordinada en pluscuamperfecto. we would go for a picnic. They will go without you if you don't hurry. you would catch the train. • What would you have done if it had rained? if + past perfect + perfect conditional If it had rained. y la frase subordinada en presente. The boys would have played football if the teacher had let them.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR Types of conditional sentences • Las frases condicionales en ingles moderno se suelen dividir en tres tipos: Type 1: • What will you do if it rains? if + present + future If it rains. we would stay at home. y la frase subordinada en pasado: If you ran. you would have caught the train. • Con las frases condicionales del tipo 1. . . you will catch the train. el verbo principal se pone en futuro simple. • Con las frases del tipo 3. Type 3: Type 2: • What would you do if it rained? if + past + simple conditional If it rained. el verbo principal se pone en condicional simple. we would stayed at home. The boys would play football if the teacher let them. we will stay at home.
If I had known she was ill. If I found money in the street. Example: If you sold the house. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. (rain) (send) (catch) 101 STANLEY . 7. I would go to the party if you 2. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el verbo en la forma correcta. (understand) a word. 3. you 2. The boys will play football if it 6. I gone with you. (stop) smoking. 5. I 5. I 7. you time. Example: If he had been taller. I will catch the train if it 4. (have) time. I will eat (eat) something. They would telephone if they (invite) me. I 5. (win) the lottery? (arrive) on time. (give) it to you. (open) the window. 1. If it is hot. (give) it to him. If she found the key. Example: If I am hungry. 2. If you are clever. Tipo 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 1. (keep) it. he would have been a policeman. If I had known you were coming. I will ring you up if I (solve) the problem. You would feel better if you 6. Tipo 1. (rain). I her some flowers. Little Jim would lose the money if you 4. 6. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. I (go) to the airport to meet you. she 7. We would have stayed at home if it 3. Tipo 3. (earn) more. What will you do if you 3. 1. You would have been accepted if you the form. you would get a lot of money. If you had come by car. (fill) in (go) (save) . (can). If you had asked me. 4. 2. We would have arrived earlier if we the 9 o'clock train. If you spoke good English. you 3. If you don't write better.
sin embargo. De nuevo. se mueven de sitio. adverbio). El participio got se usa con algunas formas habladas con el verbo have. (is invited) 3. comienzan otras actividades. relaciones u obligation: I've got a friend who lives in Paris. infinitive. 102 STANLEY . significa algo asf como recibir. get tiene un significado parecido a become: . Cuando se usa con cualquier otra cosa (adjetivo. get generalmente sugiere algun cambio o movimiento. 2. You can get your hands warm in front of the fire. • Cuando lo que sigue a get es cualquier cosa menos un simple complemento directo. infinitive. I can't get Peter to arrive on time. Con un adjetivo. cuando se refiere a posesion. conseguir. el significado es "causar un cambio": Get him to stop doing that. • Hay que observar. 1. quiza. What have you got in your hand? We haven't got any news yet. etc. y algunos profesores opinan que el usar get en el lenguaje escrito es "mat ingles". no obstante. Cuando se usa con un complemento directo. participio. Cuando detras del get hay un complemento directo seguido de un adjetivo. preposicion o adverbio. (was caught) He gets invited to all parties. 4. (were damaged) The thief got caught by the police. obtener. mucho menos en el lenguaje escrito. preposicion. El significado exacto depende de la clase de palabra que vaya detras del get. • Cuando el get va seguido de un participio. el sentido exacto depende del resto de la frase.That woman is getting old. Get tiene cuatro significados. y del resto de la frase. El significado exacto depende de la frase: Did you get the parcel? Can you get the tickets for tonight's concert? Can you get a pound of sugar and a sack of potatoes in the supermarket? I'll come and get you at the airport tomorrow.UNIT 43 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Structures with Get • Get es. coger. participio. He got a punch on his nose. el verbo que mas se usa en el lenguaje coloquial ingles. a menudo tiene el mismo sentido que to be: The goods got damaged in transit. casi siempre se refiere a un cambio de estado: las cosas o las personas que se hacen diferentes. He got a punch on his nose. que esto solamente ocurre en presente de indicative. Se usa.
The picture got damaged on the way here.Yes. The Evans had a house in the country. en otras no. Haga lo mismo con el tipo 3. Example: She got the tickets at the Odeon Cinema.EXERCISES 1. 3. The poor woman got very ill. 2. The prisoner is trying to get his hands free. Example: She wants to get her feet warm. I'll get you home in my car. My friend got hit by a golf ball. When you get to New York send me a post card. 3. not only on Mondays. Robert has very good marks at school.I am going to get my hair cut. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. She bought the tickets at the Odeon Cinema. 5. I've got a nice little dog. 2. Anada el got. Have you got any news from your boyfriend? 6. 1. Did you get my letter? 2. Cambie el verbo get por otro verbo con el mismo significado. 5. please? 3. She wants to warm her feet. I'll get a glass of beer for you. 1. 4. When people become old they forget things. 3. 4. The boys will have many things to do next Sunday. 4. They have to come early every day. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con el tipo 2. Example: When people get old they forget things. 4. I'll get some information about this company. 3. Try to get her to stay with us for dinner.I want to get the car going. 1. siempre que se pueda. 2. 2. 103 STANLEY . Can you get some apples at the shop. Example: Have you got a dog? . Jill and Jane have had a lot of work this year. 4. En algunas de las siguientes frases se puede afiadir el got.
for. Generalmente lo solemos poner al final de la frase: I haven't finished the job yet. I learned a lot during my stay with you. during Always . Yet (todavi'a) • Se usa para frases con sentido negative. already. Ago (hace) • Se pone al final de la frase. She hasn't written the letter yet. We haven't done anything for the last three hours. Nota: • Con la expresion the last se usa for: I haven't seen him for the last two weeks. He already knows the truth.It was very cold during the winter. Already (ya) • Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia. He knows it already. aunque tambien puede ir al final: This machine is already too old. Still (todavia) • Se usa para frases afirmativas e interrogativas. Se refiere a algo que sucedio algun tiempo atras sin idea de continuidad. Suele ir seguido del artfculo indeterminado a. o She has been on the phone for an hour. . Since (desde) • A menudo se usa para expresiones de tiempo con preterito perfecto o pluscuamperfecto: I haven't seen him. For (durante) • Se usa para marcar la duration de un periodo de tiempo. Have you finished washing the car yet? During (durante) • Suele ir seguido del artfculo determinado the.UNIT 44 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Still. since. 104 STANLEY . o de un numeral. I studied Latin years ago. a menudo en preterite perfecto. Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia: Mr Evans is still in bed.Always tell me the truth. Never go jogging alone. . Normalmente se usa un verbo en pasado (past tense): I went to London six months ago.Never throw stones at people. Always ask for advice.never • Los adverbios always y never se pueden usar en los comienzos de frase con oraciones de imperative: Always pay the money you owe. I've already read the newspaper.Never say that again. yet. I hadn't seen her since 1990. o I spoke to him during the interval. A menudo se usa con preterites perfectos o pluscuamperfectos: I haven't seen her for six months. o un adjetivo posesivo: . Are you still waiting for an answer? Jimmy still works for that company. . I met her last week.
I've just spoken to him on the phone a few minutes 3. Ahora tiene que poner bien since o bien ago. They emigrated to Australia years 4. en las frases que vienen a continuacion. The Wilsons lived here 7. 7. He hasn't finished studying German 4. He hasn't decided what to do 7. She's been doing the same thing 3. She's been waiting 2. He's . studying it. We met during the rehearsal of the last play. segun convenga a la frase. thinking about it. I haven't 6. We haven't finished . The Browns have been living in Spain the summer. A continuacion tiene que diferenciar entre for y during. five or six years. Jews have been emigrating to Israel 5. She is run faster than you. 3. News has been arriving 6. Example: Mum hasn't finished doing the washing up yet. "Have you finished washing the car finished 2. our stay with you.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. We've got many things to do. Example: We haven't seen each other for years. the last twenty years. a couple of years. It was very hot 5. five o'clock this morning. the race. doing their . 1990. . The weather was terrible 3. Are you still reading that book? 1. 1. 5. 1. We met two years ago. The children haven't gone to bed homework. They're . He's ?" "No. I last heard of him ten years . Example: I haven't seen him since January. three months. 105 STANLEY . We haven't had any news from him 4. I started working at Lloyds six months 2. in hospital. . I can 2. She hasn't come out . 1947. . We were very happy 6. Use still o yet.
would she? Con el verbo impersonal there is/there are: There is a lot of money. Con los demas verbos se usan las particulas do. is he? » She isn't a girl. has he? We haven't got a son.verdad? 1 . en presente: You come every day. Si la frase es afirmativa la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa/negativa.UNIT 45 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Question Tags • Las coletillas o question tags son preguntas que se ponen al final de una frase afirmativa: . wouldn't they? She wouldn't tell you. does she? 3. is there? There aren't many trees. was there? 106 STANLEY . didn't you? She spoke at the meeting. couldn't she? He can't speak Italian. En condicional se usa would: They would come if they could. la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa solamente: You are a man. haven't we? He hasn't got a dog. doesn't she? You don't speak Chinese. have we? You can speak French. could she? She could cook. aren't you? She is a woman. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectives forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. is she? He has a dog. hasn't he? We have a son. can't you? She couldn't run fast. En futuro se usa la parti'cula will. isn't there? There are many people. isn't she? He isn't a boy. does. don't you? She plays tennis very well. can he? 2. En pasado se usa did: You went to Madrid. didn't she? 4. Recuerda que will not = won't: You will go tomorrow. Si la frase es negativa. will they? 5. are there? There wasn't anny coffee. do you? She doesn't cook very well. aren't there? There isn't much time. won't you? They won't come tomorrow.
would etc. He has been an engineer for 20 years. 11. didn't you? 1. You will come with us. will. We will get our pay tomorrow. 9. 7. They must take him to hospital. She wouldn't like that to happen. 2. 9. 8. It will rain tonight. You aren't going to leave me here. did. Your friend can't speak French. That girl is not coming with you. 5. That TV set doesn't give a good picture. 12. isn't it? 1. You can't drive a car without a licence. 2. does. There weren't many people at the concert. 4. Ahora va a hacer lo mismo pero usando las particulas do. 6. 8. 10. You learned a lot. Complete las frases poniendo la coletilla con los verbos auxiliares o defectives. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2. She speaks English very well. He is going by car. 12. You've got a German car. 4. There are many things to do. 10. 14. Example: Her birthday is on the 23rd. You won't go swimming tomorrow. They didn't buy the video. 11. 6. 13. Example: You went to Mexico. They weren't in New York yesterday.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Mr Brown wasn't at work yesterday. You are very clever. You would like to do that. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 107 STANLEY . 3. 3. You can help us with this. 5. She won't pass her driving test. 7. The hotel was very expensive. 14. He has borrowed money from you. You haven't given the fish to the cat. There is a lot of time. 13. 15.
The player threw the ball. The dishes will be washed by Alice.. The ball was thrown by the player. The medicine will have been taken by her. It is thought. Two books have been written by him this year. This artist had painted the picture. The picture had been painted by this artist. The cake would be eaten by them. Se usa a menudo para traducir formas impersonales: se dice. • La preposicion espanola por se traduce por by. Alice will wash the dishes. That would have been broken by me. She had made a delicious cake.. A delicious cake had been made by her. igual que en castellano. It is said. This book is studied by these boys. They will have stolen the money. My mother would do it better. The cat drank the milk.. would have broken that. She will have taken the medicine. It would be done better by my mother. They would eat the cake. These boys study this book. 108 STANLEY . The jar has been broken by me.. The milk was drunk by the cat. He has written two books this year. y el participio del verbo que se conjuga. I have broken the jar. The money will have been stolen by them. se forma con el auxiliar to be. Pasiva The bread is eaten by the dog.UNIT 46 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Passive Voice • La voz pasiva inglesa.. The book will be read by Susan.. Activa Presente The dog eats the bread. Pasado Future Condicionai Preterite perfecto Pluscuamperfecto Future perfecto Condicionai compuesto Recuerde • La voz pasiva en ingles se usa mucho mas que en castellano. Susan will read the book. se piensa.
Ponga estas frases en voz activa. Example: The milk was drunk by the cat. 8. 109 STANLEY . 10. A goal was scored by the centre forward. Ahora va a hacer todo lo contrario. That film is going to be seen by all the children. My colleague will do the job. The cook has prepared a good meal. 1.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 12. The centre forward scored a goal. 4. The dishes were washed by my wife. 2. My mother will open the window. 6. Many things are broken by children playing at home.The cat drank the milk. 7. 9. This man wrote this book. This sweater will be worn by Peter tomorrow. 5. 5. 3. Ponga las siguientes frases en voz pasiva. 1. He has said many things. 2. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. The money was stolen by the thieves. Many writers were influenced by Cervantes. The government bought that company. 7. This horse won the race. The children will do this exercise. 6. 8. 2. 9. 11. Jean was taken out by Jeff. 13. . They would buy many things. 4. My brother has repaired the TV set. 3. The work has been done by the children. My wife washed the dishes. Example: My father built this house. 10. -This house was built by my father. Jim will write the letter.
A quien hablaste? Whom did they go with? iCon quien/quienes fueron? Whom are you talking about? iDe quien estais hablando? (acerca de) Whom did he tell? iA quien se lo dijo? • Ffjese que colocamos la preposicion al final de la frase. • En ingles coloquial a veces se suprime la m de whom: Who are you going with? Who were you talking to? Whose (de quien) • Es un complemento determinative. Indica posesion: Whose is this car/Whose car is this? quien es este coche? What (que) • Se usa para cosas: What did you say last night? iQue dijiste ayer noche? Which (cual) • Se usa para cosas y personas y es mas selectivo que what: Which is the cheapest? Which is the best? We have two Susans here. Which one do you want to see? Why (por que?) "Why was he late?" "Because he missed the train.UNIT 47 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Interrogative Pronouns Who (quien) • El pronombre interrogative who es sujeto de oracion: Who was that woman? Who is going to do it? Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirecto o circunstancial.With whom are you going? pero eso ha caido en desuso. Antiguamente se colocaba al principio ." How (como) "How did you come?" "I came by train." I Recuerde que cuando los pronombres who y what son sujetos de oracion no se usan particulas de interrogacion: Who came yesterday? Who told you that? Who ate all the bread? Who spoke at the meeting? What happened last night? What caused the fire? 110 STANLEY ." When (cuando) "When do you come here?" "I come here every day. y a menudo va acompahado por una preposicion: Whom did you see last night? A quien viste ayer noche? Whom did you speak to? ." Where (donde) "Where do you live?" "I live in New York.
" is that dog?" "It's ours. Ponga el pronombre interrogative apropiado. To whom are you going to get married? 5. With whom are you going to run the marathon. I was talking to Jim. A continuation se le dan unas frases de relative con la preposicion al principio. Steve told me that. I didn't say anything. 2. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. Usted tiene que poner la preposicion al final." 2." came with you last night?" are you going to make the cake with?" was she with?" "She was with her friend. 7. We saw that woman." 7.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 6. With whom was she when you met her? 4. About whom are you talking. Estas son las respuestas. Usted tiene que hacer las preguntas." 5." 6." 3. Who came with her? 1." are you going to run with?" happened in your school last week?" one do you like?" "I like the one on the left. Example: To whom were you talking? Who were you talking to? 1." 4. boys? 2. I went with my friend. 4." 2. 3." were you talking about?" "I was talking about Jim. Fred? 111 STANLEY . We are going to the cinema with Fred. A short circuit caused the fire." 8. Example: Whom did you see this morning? 1. With whom did you have dinner on Sunday? 3. The dog? It's ours." were you talking to?" "I was talking to Tom. Example: Peter came with her. 5." 9. 8.
• Which no se suele usar detras de all. This is the girl with whom he fell in love. That • Puede ser sujeto de una frase de relative detras de all. with whom. much. Se usa para personas: This is the man who came. everything. about whom. Cuando hacemos esto generalmente usamos who en vez de whom: This is Mr Carter. no. is interested in your plan. told me to come back today. se usa para personas: This is the man whom I saw. The girl I asked. Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirect© o circunstancial. none. Solemos usar that o lo omitimos: Everything (that) you say will be taken • La forma whom se considera muy formal. Which or that (el cual) • Generalmente se usa para cosas. And this is what he said. a menudo ponemos la preposicion detras del verbo en la oracion de relative. Nobody who/that saw the accident will forget it. o despues de superlatives. nobody and those: & Everybody who/that knew her liked her.UNIT 48 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Relative Pronouns Who (quien. little. y todavia es mas corriente omitir el proWhat (lo que) nombre: The girl whom I asked. etc. • Sin embargo. everybody. pero a veces tambien para personas: The car (which/that) I bought last week. no one. 112 STANLEY . told me to come back today. ingles coloquial generalmente usamos who o This is the best hotel (that) I know. Those are the boys who said that.: Mr Jones. broke down yesterday. el cual) • Es el sujeto de la frase subordinada de relative. Asf que se puede decir to whom. Is that what you wanted? • Cuando el sujeto es una mezcla de personas y cosas usamos that: Those are the men and the carts that we saw on the way. Whose (cuyo) This is the man whose son is so tall. The girl who I asked. to whom I spoke on the phone last night. that. en ingles coloquial. • En las oraciones que proporcionamos una informacion extra se puede usar la preposicion antes de whom (para personas) y which (para cosas). que. told me to come back today. told me to come back today. En down. who I was telling you about. for which. The girl that I asked. everyone.
(He has worked for the company all his life. o what. who. con that. A vegetarian is a person.Tiene que unir estas dos frases en una usando un pronombre relativo. I can't agree with 6. (It is always on time. 2. happened last night. A dictionary is a book. Example: Did you hear what she said? Everything (that) I say is true. I say. cuando sea necesario. The police have caught the man who/that stole my car. but this is you want and I'll see what I can do. The woman answered the phone. I don't know. 1. Examples: Jim's father goes running every day. 4. you've just said. En los casos en los que se pueda escribir that u omitirlo.) 3. I can't give you any money. The Boston train was late this morning. 1. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir estas frases de nuevo uniendolas con una oracion de relativo. My friend speaks French and English fluently.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. she wants. She told me you were away. My sister always disagrees with everything 9. All 5. Don't blame me for everything 8. Example: The police have caught the man.) 3. 113 STANLEY .) 4. escribe (that).) 2. (His mother is French. He stole my car. Mr Smith is retiring now. who is 80. She gives her daughter everything 4. I've got is a few coins. goes running every day. What was the name of the boy? He won the race. It is used to look up words. people say. Don't tell anyone 7. (She always wears a red dress. He/She doesn't eat meat. Complete estas frases. understands me. Tell me 2. My mother is the only person 3. 3. goes wrong. 2. 1. (Jim's father is 80) Jim's father. That woman is an artist.
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tomar -decir. contar ate fell felt found got gave went grew had heard kept knew to sit to sleep to speak to spend to stand to swim to take to tell to think sat slept spoke spent stood swam took told thought spoken -hablar swum -nadar thought -pensar. permitir been begun blown broken brought built bought caught Infinitive Past Past participle lain made met paid put read rung run said seen sold sent -yacer -hacer -encontrarse -pagar -poner -leer -llamar (al timbre) -correr -decir -ver -vender -enviar to be to begin bo blow to break to bring to build to buy to catch to come to cost to cut to do to draw to drink to eat to fall to feel to find to get to give to go to grow to have to hear to keep to know to lead to leave to let to lie to make to meet to pay to put to read to ring to run to say to see to sell to send to shine to show to shut lay made met paid put read rang ran said cut did drew drank saw sold sent shone showed shut shone -brillar shown -mostrar shut sat slept spent stood taken told -cerrar -sentarse -dormir -gastar. pasar -ester de pie -coger. dejar let -dejar. creer understood -entender woken -despertarse worn won -llevar puesto -ganar to understand understood to wake to wear woke wore led left let to win to write won wrote written -escribir 116 STANLEY . tomar heard -oir kept -guardar known. -saber. ester -empezar -soplar -romper -traer -construir -comprar -coger. conocer led -conducir left -salir.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Irregu lar verl)S Infinitive Past was/were began blew broke brought built bought caught came cost Past participle -ser. atrapar come -venir cost -coster cut -cortar done -hacer drawn -dibujar drunk -beber eaten -comer fallen -caer felt -sentir found -encontrar got -conseguir given -dar gone -ir grown -crecer had -tener.
Pron.000. my your his her its our your their Possessive Pron.000 sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty Ordinals twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a hundred a hundred and one two hundred five hundred a thousand 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 200th 500th eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth a hundredth a hundred and first two hundredth five hundredth 1. who? whom? whose? which? what? when? where? how? why? Relative Pron. mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs Personal pronouns (object forms) me you him her it us you them Months of the year January February March April May June enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio .July August September October November December Julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre Interrog.000th a millionth 117 STANLEY .000th two thousandth 1.000th a thousandth 2. who whom whose which that what Numbers Cardinals one 21 two 22 three 23 four 30 40 five six 50 seven 60 eight 70 nine 80 ten 90 eleven 100 twelve 101 thirteen 200 fourteen 500 fifteen 1.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR The days of the week Sunday .Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday domingo lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado Possessive Adj.
serfamos/estariamos vos. hubimos sido/estado vos. habreis sido/estado ellos habran sido/estado Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese sido tu hubieras o hubieses sido el hubiera o hubiese sido nos. hemos sido/estado vos. seremos/estaremos vos. fueramos o fuesemos vos. estuvieramos o estuviesemos vos. seamos/estemos vos. hubieramos o hubiesemos estado vos. habeis sido/estado ellos nan sido/estado Presente yo sea/este tu seas/estes el sea/este nos. eramos/estabamos vos. sois/estais ellos son/estan Subjuntivo P. seais/esteis ellos sean/esten Imperfecto yo era/estaba tu eras/estabas el era/estaba nos. hubisteis sido/estado ellos hubieron sido/estado Imperfecto (estar) yo estuviera o estuviese tu estuvieras o estuvieses el estuviera o estuviese nos. sereis/estareis ellos seran/estaran Futuro Perfecto yo habre sido/estado tu habras sido/estado el habra sido/estado nos. fuerais o fueseis ellos fueran o fuesen Indefinido yo fui/estuve tu fuiste/estuviste el fue/estuvo nos. estuvierais o estuvieseis ellos estuvieran o estuviesen Preterite perfecto yo haya sido/estado tu hayas sido/estado el haya sido/estado nos. habiamos sido/estado vos. habremos sido/estado vos. habrfamos sido/estado vos. erais/estabais ellos eran/estaban Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a sido/estado tu habias sido/estado el habia sido/estado nos. Perfecto yo he sido/estado tu has sido/estado el ha sido/estado nos. habiais sido/estado ellos habian sido/estado Imperfecto (ser) yo fuera o fuese tu fueras o fueses el fuera o fuese nos. hubierais o hubieseis estado ellos hubieran o hubiesen estado Compuesto yo habri'a sido/estado tu habrias sido/estado el habri'a sido/estado nos.Appendixt ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo ser-estar Indicativo Presente Yo soy/estoy tu eres/estas el es/esta nos. fuisteis/estuvisteis ellos fueron/estuvieron Anterior yo hube sido/estado tu hubiste sido/estado el hubo sido/estado nos. serfais/estarfamos ellos serian/estarfan Imperativo jse tu! jsea el! jseamos nosotros! jsed vosotros! isean ellos! jesta tu! jeste el! jestemos nosotros! jestad vosotros! jesten ellos! Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese estado tu hubieras o hubieses estado el hubiera o hubiese estado nos. habrfais sido/estado ellos habrian sido/estado Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado ser estar siendo estando sido estado haber sido estado 118 STANLEY . hubieramos o hubiesemos sido vos. hayamos sido/estado vos. hayais sido/estado ellos hayan sido/estado Futuro yo sere/estare tu seras/estaras el sera/estara nos. fuimos/estuvimos vos. hubierais o hubieseis sido ello hubieran o hubiesen sido Condicional Presente yo serfa/estaria tu serias/estarias el seria/estaria nos. somos/estamos vos.
Ej: "si yo fuera rico" -If I were rich. Future 1 shall/will be you will be he will be we shall/will be you will be they will be Future perfect tense 1 shall/will have been you will have been he will have been we shall/will have been you will have been they will have been Conditional Present I should/would be you would be he would be we should/would be you would be they would be Imperative let me be! be! let him be! let us (let's) be! be! let them be! Past conditional I should/would have been you would have been he would have been We should/would have been you would have been they would have been Infinitive Gerund to be being Participle been Past participle have been 119 STANLEY .Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbo to be Indicative Present 1 am you are he is we are you are they are Subjuntive Present perfect tense 1 have been you have been he has been we have been you have been they have been Past tense if if if if if if I were you were he were we were you were they were Past tense 1 was you were he was we were you were they were Past perfect tense 1 had been you had been he had been we had been you had been they had been Nota: El imperfecto de subjuntivo del verbo SER (TO BE) es el unico que se usa en la practica.
hubieramos o hubiesemos habido vos. habeis habido/tenido ellos han habido/tenido Presente yo haya/tenga tu hayas/tengas el haya/tenga nos. hubisteis/tuvimos ellos hubieron/tuvieron Anterior yo hube habido/tenido tu hubiste habido/tenido el hubo habido/tenido nos. hayais/tengais ellos hayan/tengan Imperfecto yo habia/tenia tu habias/tenias el habia/tenia nos. hubimos/tuvimos vos. habiamos/tem'amos vos. habfamos habido/tenido vos. habrfamos habido/tenido vos. habeis/teneis ellos han/tienen Subjuntivo P. hemos/tenemos vos. habiais habido/tenido ellos nab fan habido/tenido Imperfecto (haber) yo hubiera o hubiese tu hubieras o hubieses el hubiera o hubiese nos. habremos habido/tenido vos. hemos habido/tenido vos. Perfecto yo he habido/tenido tu has habido/tenido el ha habido/tenido nos. habreis habido/tenido ellos habran habido/tenido Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese habido tu hubieras o hubieses habido el hubiera o hubiese habido nos. habremos/tendremos vos. hubierais o hubieseis habido ello hubieran o hubiesen habido Condicional Presente yo habrfa/tendria tu habrias/tendrias 61 habria/tendria nos. habiais/teniais ellos habian/tenian Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a habido/tenido tu habfas habido/tenido el habia habido/tenido nos. tuvierais o tuvieseis ellos tuvieran o tuviesen Preterite perfecto yo haya habido/tenido tu hayas habido/tenido el haya habido/tenido nos. hayamos habido/tenido vos. hubierais o hubieseis tenido ellos hubieran o hubiesen tenido Compuesto yo habria habido/tenido tu habn'as habido/tenido el habria habido/tenido nos. habreis/tendreis ellos habran/tendran Future Perfecto yo habre habido/tenido tu habras habido/tenido el habra habido/tenido nos. hayamos/tengamos vos. tuvieramos o tuviesemos vos. habriais habido/tenido ellos habrfan habido/tenido 120 STANLEY Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado haber tener habiendo teniendo habido tenido haber habido tenido . hubisteis habido/tenido ellos hubieron habido/tenido Imperfecto (tener) yo tuviera o tuviese tu tuvieras o tuvieses el tuviera o tuviese nos. habrfamos/tendriamos vos. hubieramos o hubiesemos tenido vos. hubimos habido/tenido vos. habriais/tendriais ellos habrian/tendrian Imperativo ihe tu! jhaya el! jhayamos nosotros! jhabed vosotros! jhayan ellos! jten tu! jtenga el! itengamos nosotros! jtened vosotros! jtengan ellos! Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese tenido tu hubieras o hubieses tenido el hubiera o hubiese tenido nos.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo haber-tener Indicative Presente yo he/tengo tu has/tienes el ha/tiene nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos vos. hubierais o hubieseis ellos hubieran o hubiesen Indefinido yo hube/tuve tu hubiste/tuviste el hubo/tuvo nos. hayais habido/tenido ellos hayan habido/tenido Future yo habre/tendre tu habras/tendras el habra/tendra nos.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verb to have Indicative Present I have you have he has we have you have they have Present perfect tense I have had you have had he has had we have had you have had they have had Past perfect tense I had had you had had he had had we had had you had had they had had Future perfect tense I shall/will have had you will have had he will have had we shall/will have had you will have had they will have had Past tense I had you had he had we had you had they had Future I shall/will have you will have he will have we shall/will have you will have they will have Conditional Present I should/would have you would have he would have we should/would have you would have they would have Imperative let me have! have! let him have! let us (let's) have! have! let them have! Past conditional I should/would have had you would have had he would have had we should/would have had you would have had they would have had Infinitive Gerund To have Having Participle Had Past participle Have had 121 STANLEY .
amais ellos aman Subjuntivo P. habfamos amado vos. hemos amado vos.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbo amar Indicative Presente yo amo tu amas el ama nos. amarfais ellos amarfan Imperativo iama tui iame el! jamemos nosotros! Iamad vosotros! Iamen ellos! Compuesto yo habrfa amado tu habrias amado el habrfa amado InfinitJVO Amar nos. amareis ellos amaran Futuro Perfecto yo habre amado tu habras amado el habra amado nos. hayamos amado vos. amabais ellos amaban Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a amado tu habfas amado el habi'a amado nos. amamos vos. hubisteis amado ellos hubieron amado Preterite perfecto yo haya amado tu hayas amado el haya amado nos. habfais amado ellos habfan amado Imperfecto yo amara o amase tu amaras o amases el amara o amase nos. amaramos o amasemos vos. habreis amado ellos habran amado Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese amado tu hubieras o hubieses amado el hubiera o hubiese amado nos. hubierais o hubieseis amado ellos hubieran o hubiesen amado Condicional Presente yo amarfa tu amarias el amarfa nos. amabamos vos. hubieramos o hubiesemos amado vos. habrfais amado ellos habrfan amado Gerundio Participio Participio pasado Amando Amado Haber amado 122 STANLEY . hubimos amado vos. habremos amado vos. Perfecto yo he amado tu has amado el ha amado nos. amarfamos vos. amasteis ellos amaron Anterior yo hube amado tu hubiste amado el hubo amado nos. amamos vos. habeis amado ellos nan amado Presente yo ame tu ames el ame nos. habriamos amado vos. hayais amado ellos hayan amado Futuro yo amare tu amaras el amara nos. ameis ellos amen Imperfecto yo amaba tu amabas el amaba nos. amaremos vos. amarais o amaseis allos amaran o amasen Indefinido yo ame tu amaste el amo nos. amemos vos.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verb to love Indicative Present I love you love he loves we love you love they love Present perfect tense I have loved you have loved he has loved we have loved you have loved they have loved Past perfect tense I had loved you had loved he had loved we had loved you had loved they had loved Future perfect tense I shall/will have loved you will have loved he will have loved we shall/will have loved you will have loved they will have loved Past tense I loved you loved he loved we loved you loved they loved Future I shall/will love you will love he will love we shall/will love you will love they will love Conditional Present 1 should/would love you would love he would love we should/would love you would love they would love Imperative let me love! love! let him love! let us (let's) love! love! let them love! Past conditional I should/would have loved you would have loved he would have loved we should/would have loved you would have loved they would have loved Infinitive Gerund Participle Past participle To love Loving Loved Have loved 123 STANLEY .
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verb to love Indicative Present Interrogative do 1 love? do you love? does he love? do we love? do you love? do they love? Subjuntive Present perfect tense Interrogative have I loved? have you loved? has he loved? have we loved? have you loved? have they loved? Nota. For regla general se usa el mismo tiempo que en indicative.. Conditional Present Interrogative should/would I love? would you love? would he love? should/would we love? would you love? would they love? Negative I do not love you do not love he does not love we do not love you do not love they do not love Negative I have not loved you have not loved he has not loved we have not loved you have not loved they have not loved Past tense interrogative did I love? did you love? did he love? did we love? did you love? did they love? Past perfect tense Negative I should/would not love you would not love he would not love we should/would not love you would not love they would not love Interrogative had I loved? had you loved? had he loved? had we loved? had you loved? had they loved? Negative I did not love you did not love he did not love we did not love you did not love they did not love Negative I had not loved you had not loved he had not loved we had not loved you had not loved they had not loved Past conditional Interrogative should/would I have loved? would you have loved? would he have loved? should/would we have loved? would you have loved? would they have loved? Future Interrogative shall/will I love? will you love? will he love? shall we love? will you love? will they love? Future perfect tense Negative I should/would not have loved you would not have loved he would not have loved we should/would not have loved you would not have loved they would not have loved Interrogative shall/will I have loved? will you have loved? will he have loved? shall we have loved? will you have loved? will they have loved? Imperative Negative do do do do do do not not not not not not let me love! love! let him love! let us love! (let's not love!) love let them love! Negative I shall/will not love you will not love he will not love we shall/will not love you will not love they will not love Negative I shall/will not have loved you will not have loved he will not have loved we shall/will not have loved you will not have loved they will not have loved 124 STANLEY .: "Cuando yo vaya"-When I go.Salvo muy raras excepciones. el modo subjuntivo no se usa en ingles. Ej.
haber (impersonal) Indicative Present there is there are hay Present perfect tense there has been there have been ha habido Past tense there was there were habia/hubo Past perfect tense there had been habia/hubo habido Future there will be habra Future perfect tense there will have been habra habido Conditional Present There would be Habria Imperative Let there be! jHaya! Past conditional There would have been Habria habido Infinitive Gerund There to be Haber There being Habiendo Participle Past participle 125 STANLEY .Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo "there to be" .
pudo podiamos. pudieron Pluscuamperfecto I had been able you had been able he had been able we had been able you had been able they had been able habfa podido habias podido habia podido habiamos podido habiais podido habian podido Futuro I shall/will be able you will be able he will be able we shall/will be able you will be able they will be able podre podras podra podremos podreis podran Futuro perfecto I shall/will have been able you will have been able he will have been able we shall/will have been able you will have been able they will have been able habre podido habras podido habra podido habremos podido habreis podido habran podido Conditional Condicional I could/would be able you could/would be able he could/would be able we could/would be able you could/would be able they could/would be able podria podrias podria podriamos podriais podrian Condicional compuesto I should/would have been able you would have been able he would have been able we should/would have been able you would have been able they would have been able habria podido habrias podido habria podido habriamos podido habriais podido habrian podido 126 STANLEY . pudisteis podian. podeis ellos pueden I have been able you have been able he has been able we have been able you have been able they have been able he podido has podido ha podido hemos podido habeis podido han podido 1 can/I am able you can/you are able he can/he is able we can/we are able you can/you are able they can/they are able Pasado I could/l was able you could/you were able he could/he was able we could/we were able you could/you were able they could/they were able podia. pudimos podiais. podemos vos. pude podias.Appendix Verbo ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 "to be able". pudiste podia.poder Indicative Presente Preterite perfecto yo puedo tu puedes el puede nos.
1-BY1-C CLAVES GRAMATICA ESPANOLA LOS VERBOS ESPANOLES DIFERENCIAS ENTRE SER 0 ESTAR CLAVES DIFERENCIAS SER 0 ESTAR FILL IN THE GAPS • NIVELES 1.2. 4 Y 5 TRANSLATIONS • TRADUCCIONES • NIVELES 1. 4Y5 FRANCES 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS •NIVELES 1.LIVRE DU PROFESSEUR ENTRAINEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS-ELEVE ENTRAlNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS .GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS ENGLISH GRAMMAR • NIVELES 1.2. 2 Y 3 DICTADOS EN ESPANOL • NIVELES A. 2 Y 3 ESPANOL TESTS ESPANOL •NIVELES 1.com • Apdo. 4Y5 CLAVES TESTS ESPANOL CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS • NIVELES 1. 2 Y 3 KEYS FILL IN THE GAPS DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS NIVEL 1 (EDICI6N FOTOCOPIABLE) NEW GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS EXERCISES . 3. 2. A TO ZEE A GUIDE TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH GUlAS PARA VIAJAR GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-INGLES GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-FRANCES GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-ALEMAN GUlA DEL VIAJERO GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-ITALIANO ESPANOL-PORTUGUES EVERYDAY IDIOMS IN BUSINESS EL INGLES PROHIBIDO FALSOS AMIGOS-FALSE FRIENDS FRONT LINE ENGLISH GRAMMAR SERIES: MODAL VERBS PREPOSITIONS PHRASAL VERBS REPORTED SPEECH GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-INGLES (USA) GUlA DE CONVERSACION FRANCES-ESPANOL -L'ESPAGNE EN PARLANT GUlA DE CONVERSACI6N INGLES-ESPANOL GUlA DE CONVERSACI6N ALEMAN-ESPANOL GUlA DE CONVERSACION ITALIANO-ESPANOL EDITORIAL STANLEY • www.000 LEGUAS VIAJE SUBMARINO EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA NIVEL 2 LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS UN CAPITAN DE 15 ANOS MIGUEL STROGOFF URDANETA. 3 Y 4 ENTRAtNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS .000 LIEUES SOUS LES MERS LE COMTE DE MONTE-CRISTO NIVEL 2 LES TROIS MOUSQUETAIRES UN CAPITAINE DE QUINZE ANS MICHEL STROGOFF CONVERSATION IN ACTION NEW GUIDE TO BUSINESS LETTERS A TO ZED.CAHIER D'ACTIVITES LECTURAS GRADUADAS EN ESPANOL NIVEL o LA FAMILIA PEREZ iQUIEN SABE? LA CLASE DE YOGA NIVEL 1 LA ISLA MISTERIOSA 20. 2. 3. 2. 3. 207 • 20300 IRUN • Tel. EL TORNAVIAJE KEYS ENGLISH GRAMMAR GUIDE TO PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH TO SPANISH USING PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS MY ENGLISH TELLTALE DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH • NIVELES 1 Y 2 LECTURAS GRADUADAS EN FRANCES NIVEL o LAFAMILLELENOIR QUISAIT? NIVEL 1 L'lLEMYSTERIEUSE 20. B Y C KEYS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS GRAMATICA ESPANOLA EN MARCHA 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES • PRASES BILINGUES • NIVELES 1. 943 64 38 63 . 943 64 04 12 • Fax. 3 Y 4 NOUVEAU GUIDE DE CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALS MOTS CROISES-NIVEL 1 MONBILAN GRAMMATICAL DICTEES EN FRANQAIS • NIVELES 1-A. 2 Y 3 CLES POUR LES TESTS EN FRANQAIS TRADUIREAUJOURD'HUI • NIVELES 1.gentedellibro.FONDO E D I T O R I A L S T A N L E Y INGLES 3000 TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL KEYS 3 0 TESTS 00 2 0 TESTS ADVANCED LEVEL 00 KEYS 2000 TESTS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS • NIVELES 1.
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