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Key features of a chromosome: centromere (where spindle attaches), telomeres (special structures at the ends), arms (the bulk of the DNA). Chromosomes come in 2 forms, depending on the stage of the cell cycle. The monad form consists of a single chromatid, a single piece of DNA containing a centromere and telomeres at the ends. The dyad form consists of 2 identical chromatids (sister chromatids) attached together at the centromere. Chromosomes are in the dyad form before mitosis, and in the monad form after mitosis. The dyad form is the result of DNA replication: a single piece of DNA (the monad chromosome) replicated to form 2 identical DNA molecules (the 2 chromatids of the dyad chromosome).
upward Q=long arm.Anatomy of a Chromosome p -arm centromere q-arm chromatids telomere Centromere . downward Telomere-tips of chromosome .point where sister chromatids are joined together P=short arm.
Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.More Chromosomes Diploid organisms have 2 copies of each chromosome. The two members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues. one from each parent. 4 pairs of chromosomes. its haploid number n. . Humans have n=23. that is. we have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Drosophila have n=4.
G1. Monad chromosomes G2 (also ³gap´). S. That is. The 4 stages are: G1. but this is where the cell spends most of its time. the time between mitoses .Cell Cycle The cell cycle is a theoretical concept that defines the state of the cell relative to cell division. before mitosis there is 1 cell with dyad chromosomes. G2. Dyad chromosomes. S. and G2 are collectively called ³interphase´. G1 = ³gap´. performing its tasks as a cell. and M. Chromosomes go from monad to dyad. The chromosomes go from the dyad (2 chromatid) form to the monad (1 chromatid) form. where the cell divides into 2 daughter cells. cell getting ready for mitosis. Nothing visible in the microscope. M = mitosis. and after mitosis there are 2 cells with monad chromosomes in each. S = DNA synthesis.
end with 46 monads in each of 2 cells. . During mitosis the chromosomes are divided evenly. metaphase. so that each of the two daughter cells ends up with 1 copy of each chromosome. anaphase. telophase. For humans: start with 46 dyad chromosomes in 1 cell.Mitosis Mitosis is ordinary cell division among the cells of the body. Stages: prophase.
Stages of Mitosis Prophase: --chromosomes condense --nuclear envelope disappears --centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell --spindle forms Metaphase: --chromosomes are lined up on cell equator. attached to the spindle at the centromeres .
Stages of Mitosis. Now chromosomes are monads --the monad chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles by the spindle. 2 Anaphase: --centromeres divide. pt. Telophase: --cytokinesis: cytoplasm divided into 2 separate cells --chromosomes de-condense --nuclear envelope re-forms --spindle vanishes .
Takes 2 cell divisions. with no DNA synthesis between. Only occurs in specialized cells. After M1. . start with 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in dyad state. After M2 there are 4 cells with 23 monad chromosomes each. M1 and M2. there are 2 cells with 23 dyad chromosomes each. In humans.Meiosis Meiosis is the special cell division that converts diploid body cells into the haploid gametes.
Main event in prophase of M1 is ³crossing over´. Several crossovers per chromosome. This is the basis for linkage mapping. and exchange segments by breaking and rejoining at identical locations. In crossing over. with a number of sub-stages. . homologous chromosomes pair up. with random positions. also called ³recombination´.First Meiotic Division (M1) Prophase of M1 is very long.
Telophase of M1: cytoplasm divided into 2 cells. and the chromosomes remain dyads. each of which has 1 haploid set of dyad chromosomes . pairs of homologous chromosomes line up together.More M1 Metaphase of meiosis 1 is very different from metaphase in mitosis (or M2). In mitosis and M2. the centromeres don¶t divide. chromosomes line up as single individuals. However. Anaphase of M1: the spindle pulls the two homologues to opposite poles. In metaphase of M1.
the chromosomes condense and the spindle forms. Telophase: cytoplasm divided into 2 cells.Second Meiotic Division (M2) Meiosis 2 is just like mitosis. Anaphase of M2: centromeres divide. After M2: total of 4 cells from the original cell. In prophase. Metaphase of M2: dyad chromosomes line up singly on the cell equator. chromosomes are now monads which get pulled to opposite poles. Each contains one haploid set of monad chromosomes .
in male mammals. . through changes in the cytoplasm. sperm production is continuous from puberty until death. or sperm cells.Gametogenesis in Mammals Gametogenesis is the creation of the sperm and egg cells from the products of meiosis. All 4 meiotic products remodel their cytoplasm and grow a long flagellum to become spermatozoans.
the oocyte finishes meiosis 1. and a diploid polar body. During both meiotic divisions. so the final meiotic products in human females are a haploid egg. a haploid polar body. After ovulation. the division of the cytoplasm is asymmetric: one cell gets nearly all of the cytoplasm. the first polar body divides so there are a total of 4 meiotic products. ovarian cells start meiosis 1 before birth. A small number of oocytes (cells undergoing meiosis) are shed from the ovary during a human female¶s menstrual cycle.Gametogenesis in Female Mammals in female mammals. This cell becomes the egg. Meiosis 2 only occurs after fertilization. In some mammals. In humans. the first polar body never undergoes M2. and another in M2. but other mammals produce higher numbers. Usually only 1 oocyte is shed in humans. but the process is arrested in prophase of M1. The other cell in both divisions is called a ³polar body´. Meiosis resumes after puberty. . under hormonal control. 1 egg plus 3 polar bodies. One polar body is created in M1.
All eukaryotes alternate between a diploid phase and a haploid phase. and there is no haploid cell division. In angiosperms and most other land plants. consists of 8 haploid nuclei. These 8 nuclei are derived from one of the meiotic products. These nuclei are derived from one haploid meiotic product. this phase is prominent. In plants. In lower plants. the pollen grain. the gametophyte stage is quite short and small. But in angiosperms. the haploid phase is a single cell. Specifically. The plant haploid phase is called the gametophyte. the ovule. . the sperm or the egg.Angiosperm Life Cycle Angiosperms are flowering plants. In animals. The female gametophyte. the sporophyte is the large visible plant body that we see. consists of 3 haploid nuclei. by mitosis. Two of the nuclei are ³sperm nuclei´ and the other controls the metabolism of the pollen grain. there is a distinct haploid organism which has cell divisions and a life of its own. the male gametophyte. such as club mosses. The plant diploid phase is called the sporophyte.
the endosperm. The 2 sperm nuclei migrate down the pollen tube into the ovule. The seed contains a multicellular embryo and a multicellular endosperm. When the pollen grain lands on the stigma of a flower. The endosperm thus contains 2 maternal haploid genomes plus one paternal haploid genome. The seed is a resting stage. After a while. development arrests and the seed dries out and forms a hard coat. 2 sperm (pollen) nuclei fertilize the ovule. both embryo and endosperm grow and develop into a seed. . The ovule also has 2 nuclei in the center. This fertilized cell is diploid. It is a major defining characteristic of angiosperms. When conditions are right. After fertilization. In double fertilization. Each ovule has a cell at one end that is pollinated by one of the sperm nuclei. which contains the ovules. the seed germinates: the embryo eats the endosperm until photosynthesis begins.Double Fertilization All angiosperms undergo ³double fertilization´. which join with the other sperm nuclei to form a triploid tissue. The endosperm develops into a nutritive tissue used by the germinating seed. which grows down the style to the ovary. and it grows into the embryo and ultimately into the sporophyte plant body. it germinates a long ³pollen tube´.