B-GL-385-005/PT-001

WEAPONS VOLUME 5

THE MACHINE-GUN .50 CAL M2
(ENGLISH)

(Replaces B-GL-317-014/PT-001, Mod 3 dated 1991-11-01) WARNING ALTHOUGH THIS PUBLICATION IS UNCLASSIFIED, PUBLIC ACCESS TO ALL OR PART OF IT MAY BE RESTRICTED UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE EXAMINED IN DETAIL TO DETERMINE WHETHER ALL OR PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE DISCLOSED TO THE PUBLIC.

Issued under the authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

B-GL-385-005/PT-001

WEAPONS VOLUME 5

THE MACHINE-GUN .50 CAL M2
(ENGLISH)

(Replaces B-GL-317-014/PT-001, Mod 3 dated 1991-11-01) WARNING ALTHOUGH THIS PUBLICATION IS UNCLASSIFIED, PUBLIC ACCESS TO ALL OR PART OF IT MAY BE RESTRICTED UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE EXAMINED IN DETAIL TO DETERMINE WHETHER ALL OR PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE DISCLOSED TO THE PUBLIC.

Issued under the authority of the Chief of the Land Staff OPI: DAT 3-6 (Inf) 2006-08-01

The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

FOREWORD 1. B-GL-385-005/PT-002, Weapons, Volume 5, The Machine-gun .50 calibre M2, is issued on authority of the Chief of the Land Staff. 2. This publication is effective on receipt.

3. Unless otherwise indicated, the masculine pronouns used in this publication designate both genders. 4. to: Suggestions for changes to this publication shall be forwarded through normal channels

Directorate of Army Training Land Force Doctrine and Training System CFB Kingston PO Box 17000, Station Forces Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2007

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 LESSON 1 CHARACTERISTICS, DESCRIPTION, SAFETY PRECAUTIONS, MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE GUN AND TRIPOD ....................................................................... 1-1

Instructor's Notes................................................................................................................ 1-1 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 1-2 Characteristics .................................................................................................................... 1-3 Parts of the Gun.................................................................................................................. 1-4 Safety Precautions .............................................................................................................. 1-7 Dismount the Gun .............................................................................................................. 1-7 Mounting the Gun .............................................................................................................. 1-8 The Name, Parts and Description of the Traversing and Elevation Mechanism (T&E).............................................................................................................. 1-9 Removing and Fitting the T&E Mechanism .................................................................... 1-10 The Name, Parts and Description of the M3 Tripod ........................................................ 1-11 Dismounting the Tripod ................................................................................................... 1-12 Mounting the Tripod ........................................................................................................ 1-12 Mounting the Machine-Gun in the High Position ............................................................ 1-14 Mounting the Machine-Gun on Sloping Ground ............................................................. 1-14 LESSON 2 NORMAL STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE GUN WITH THE QUICK CHANGE BARREL (QCB).............. 1-15

Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................. 1-15 Preparation for all Stripping ............................................................................................. 1-16 Stripping and Assembling the Barrel Group .................................................................... 1-17 Stripping and Assembling the Backplate Group .............................................................. 1-20 Stripping and Assembling the Driving Spring ................................................................. 1-21 Stripping and Assembling the Bolt Stud and Bolt ........................................................... 1-22 Stripping and Assembling the Buffer Group and Barrel Extension Group...................... 1-25 Function Test.................................................................................................................... 1-28 Operational Stripping ....................................................................................................... 1-29 LESSON 3 DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING .................................. 1-30 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 1-30 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 1-31
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Stripping and Assembling of the Bolt .............................................................................. 1-31 Stripping and Assembling the Buffer Body Group .......................................................... 1-42 Detailed Stripping and Assembling of the Barrel Extension Group ................................ 1-43 Detailed Stripping and Assembling of the Cover Group ................................................. 1-44 Detailed Stripping and Assembling of the Feedway Mechanism........................................................................................................ 1-56 Detailed Stripping and Assembling of the Trigger Bar Assembly ................................................................................................................... 1-57 LESSON 4 CARE, CLEANING AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE................... 1-60 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 1-60 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 1-61 Cleaning Materials ........................................................................................................... 1-61 Normal Daily Cleaning .................................................................................................... 1-62 Inspection for Damage ..................................................................................................... 1-63 Care and Cleaning of Mounts and Accessories................................................................ 1-64 Seven Point Check ........................................................................................................... 1-64 Care and Cleaning Before, During and After Firing ........................................................ 1-66 Special Cleaning After Firing .......................................................................................... 1-67 Care and Cleaning in Cold Climates ................................................................................ 1-67 Care and Cleaning in Hot, Humid Climates..................................................................... 1-67 Care and Cleaning in Hot, Dry Climates.......................................................................... 1-68 LESSON 5 LOADING, UNLOADING, SIGHT SETTING AND MAKE SAFE ............................................................................... 1-69

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 1-69 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 1-70 Description of Ammunition ............................................................................................. 1-70 Other Ammunition ........................................................................................................... 1-71 Care and Maintenance of Ammuntion ............................................................................. 1-71 Belt Configuration............................................................................................................ 1-72 Linking Loose Ammunition ............................................................................................. 1-72 Hand Linking.................................................................................................................... 1-72 Iron Sight.......................................................................................................................... 1-73 Sight Setting ..................................................................................................................... 1-74

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Normal Load .................................................................................................................... 1-75 Command Ready .............................................................................................................. 1-75 Unload .............................................................................................................................. 1-75 Round in the T Slot .......................................................................................................... 1-76 Unload With the Bolt to the Rear..................................................................................... 1-76 Single Shot Loading ......................................................................................................... 1-76 Unload—Clear Gun.......................................................................................................... 1-77 LESSON 6 FIRING DRILLS ................................................................................... 1-77 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 1-77 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 1-79 Types of Targets............................................................................................................... 1-79 Types of Fire .................................................................................................................... 1-80 Rates of Fire ..................................................................................................................... 1-80 Length of Burst................................................................................................................. 1-80 T&E Mechanism .............................................................................................................. 1-81 Holding............................................................................................................................. 1-81 Aiming.............................................................................................................................. 1-82 Indication of the Target .................................................................................................... 1-82 Laying............................................................................................................................... 1-82 Firing the Machine-Gun Single Shots.............................................................................. 1-83 Firing the Machine-Gun Normal Fire .............................................................................. 1-83 Firing the Machine-Gun Rapid Fire ................................................................................. 1-84 Expended Belt .................................................................................................................. 1-84 Change Barrel................................................................................................................... 1-84 Overheating ...................................................................................................................... 1-85 Aiming off for Wind ........................................................................................................ 1-85 LESSON 7 STOPPAGES AND IMMEDIATE ACTIONS ..................................... 1-86 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 1-86 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 1-88 Basic Mechanism ............................................................................................................. 1-89 Immediate Action ............................................................................................................. 1-89 Further Action .................................................................................................................. 1-90 Obstruction Visible .......................................................................................................... 1-90
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B-GL-385-005/PT-001

Obstruction not Visible .................................................................................................... 1-90 Obstruction in Barrel or Separated Case .......................................................................... 1-91 The Gun Cannot be Cocked ............................................................................................. 1-92 Irregular Rate of Fire........................................................................................................ 1-93 Run Away Gun................................................................................................................. 1-93 CHAPTER 2 LESSON 1 DUTIES OF MEMBERS OF A MACHINE-GUN TEAM..................... 2-1 Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 2-1 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 2-2 Organization ....................................................................................................................... 2-2 Duties of the Members of the Detachment or Section ....................................................... 2-3 Hand Signals ...................................................................................................................... 2-4 Hand-Carrying the Machine-Gun and its Equipment ........................................................ 2-5 Moving the Machine-Gun When Mounted on the Tripod ................................................. 2-5 LESSON 2 FIRING DRILLS AND APPLICATION OF FIRE ORDERS................ 2-7 Instructor's Notes................................................................................................................ 2-7 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 2-8 Moving Targets ‘Lead’ Factor ........................................................................................... 2-9 Methods of Firing at Direct Moving and Oblique Crossing Targets ................................. 2-9 Firing Drils at Point Targets............................................................................................. 2-10 Firing Drils at Traversing Targets.................................................................................... 2-10 Firing Drills at Depth Targets .......................................................................................... 2-11 Firing Drills Atoblique Targets ........................................................................................ 2-11 Subsequent Targets .......................................................................................................... 2-11 Reporting Strike and Corrections..................................................................................... 2-12 LESSON 3 RECORDING OF TARGETS AND OBSCURATION DRILL ........... 2-13 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 2-13 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 2-14 Preparation for Recording Target Elevation and Direction.............................................. 2-15 Recording Direction ......................................................................................................... 2-15 Recording Elevation ......................................................................................................... 2-15 Laying the Machine-Gun on a Recorded Target .............................................................. 2-16 Obscuration Drill—Point Targets .................................................................................... 2-16
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Obscuration Drill—Traversing and Oblique Targets....................................................... 2-17 CHAPTER 3 LESSON 1 FIRE CONTROL ..................................................................................... 3-1 Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 3-1 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 3-1 Theory of Fire..................................................................................................................... 3-2 Capabilities and Limitations............................................................................................... 3-3 Engagement of Targets....................................................................................................... 3-3 LESSON 2 ROLE AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN..................................................................................... 3-4

Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 3-4 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 3-5 Role of the Heavy Machine-Gun ....................................................................................... 3-5 Principles of Tactical Deployment ..................................................................................... 3-5 Factors Affecting the Siting of the Heavy Machine-Gun and the Decision to Dismount The Heavy Machine-Gun .......................................................................................................... 3-7 LESSON 3 TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF THE MACHINE-GUN .................... 3-8 Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 3-8 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 3-9 Tasks of the Heavy Machine-Gun...................................................................................... 3-9 General Employment Guidelines ..................................................................................... 3-11 The Defence ..................................................................................................................... 3-14 Offensive Operations........................................................................................................ 3-16 The Withdrawal................................................................................................................ 3-20 Command and Control ..................................................................................................... 3-21 Preparation of Machine-Gun Positions—Vehicle-Mounted Weapons ............................ 3-22 LESSON 4 HEAVY MACHINE-GUN FIRE TRENCH ......................................... 3-23 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 3-23 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 3-24 Preparation of Machine-Gun Positions—Vehicle-Mounted Weapons ............................ 3-25 Occupation of a Machine-Gun Emplacement .................................................................. 3-25 Stages of Construction ..................................................................................................... 3-26 Dimensions....................................................................................................................... 3-27

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Range Card ....................................................................................................................... 3-29 CHAPTER 4 LESSON 1 AIR DEFENCE........................................................................................ 4-1 Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 4-1 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 4-1 Elements of Knowledge Required for Air Defence ........................................................... 4-2 Air Defence Weapon Control States .................................................................................. 4-4 Rules of Engagement ......................................................................................................... 4-5 Target Direction Lines ....................................................................................................... 4-5 Rules for Aim-Off .............................................................................................................. 4-7 Methods of Engagement and Target Range Estimation................................................... 4-10 Firing Technique During Engagement ............................................................................. 4-12 LESSON 2 MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN ON THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT MOUNT M63 ........... 4-16

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 4-16 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 4-17 M63 Mount Technical Information.................................................................................. 4-18 Mounting and Dismounting the M63 Anti-Aircraft Mount ............................................. 4-19 Mounting and Dismounting of the M63 Anti-Aircraft Mount ......................................... 4-20 Mounting and Dismounting the Machine-Gun on the M63 Mount ................................. 4-22 LESSON 3 MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING, LOADING THE MACHINE-GUN M2 ON THE M109 .................................................. 4-24

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 4-24 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 4-24 Mounting the Machine-Gun on the M109........................................................................ 4-25 Loading............................................................................................................................. 4-26 Method of Firing .............................................................................................................. 4-27 Dismounting ..................................................................................................................... 4-27 CHAPTER 5 LESSON 1 ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE .50 CAL HMG IN THE ONE METER TURRET ............................................................ 5-1

Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................... 5-1 Conduct of the Lesson........................................................................................................ 5-2

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Basic Description of the One Meter Turret ........................................................................ 5-3 Description of Additional Components.............................................................................. 5-4 LESSON 2 MOUNT, DISMOUNT AND MOUNTED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ...................................................................................... 5-7

Instructor’s Notes ............................................................................................................. 5-17 Prepare the HMG for Mounting ....................................................................................... 5-19 Gas Bag Installation ......................................................................................................... 5-22 Mounted Safety Precautions............................................................................................. 5-24 Dismount the HMG .......................................................................................................... 5-24 LESSON 3 HANDLING DRILLS ........................................................................... 5-25 Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 5-25 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 5-26 Ammunition Feed System ................................................................................................ 5-27 Load.................................................................................................................................. 5-30 Ready................................................................................................................................ 5-30 Fire Electrically ................................................................................................................ 5-31 Fire Manually ................................................................................................................... 5-31 Make Safe......................................................................................................................... 5-32 Unload .............................................................................................................................. 5-32 Hot Barrel Unload ............................................................................................................ 5-33 Clear Weapon ................................................................................................................... 5-33 Change Barrel................................................................................................................... 5-34 LESSON 4 IMMEDIATE ACTIONS AND STOPPAGE DRILLS FOR THE .50 CAL HMG IN THE ONE METER TURRET ........................ 5-35

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 5-35 Conduct of the Lesson...................................................................................................... 5-36 Classification of Stoppages .............................................................................................. 5-37 Common Stoppages.......................................................................................................... 5-37 Causes of Stoppages......................................................................................................... 5-37 Immediate Action on Stoppage ........................................................................................ 5-38 Immediate Action (Initial Burst) ...................................................................................... 5-40 Immediate Action on Subsequent Bursts ......................................................................... 5-41

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CHAPTER 6 LESSON 1 WEAPON HANDLING TESTS.............................................................. 6-1 Instructor's Notes................................................................................................................ 6-7 Conduct .............................................................................................................................. 6-8 Dress................................................................................................................................... 6-8 Definition of Standards ...................................................................................................... 6-8 Weapon Handling Tests ..................................................................................................... 6-9 LESSON 2 PREPARATORY WORK—INSTALLING THE AUXILARY TRIPOD MOUNT M3 PINTLE ...................................... 6-10

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 6-10 Installing the Auxiliary Tripod Mount M3 Pintle ............................................................ 6-10 Remove the Auxiliary Tripod Mount M3 Pintle.............................................................. 6-11 LESSON 3 PREPARATORY WORK—DETAILED MECHANISM AND CAUSES OF STOPPAGES................................................................... 6-12

Instructor's Notes.............................................................................................................. 6-12 The Eight Steps of the Mechanism .................................................................................. 6-12 Causes of Stoppages......................................................................................................... 6-24

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

TABLE OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1-1: Heavy Machine-gun .50 Cal M2.............................................................................. 1-3 Figure 1-2: Safety catch .............................................................................................................. 1-5 Figure 1-3: Rear leaf sight .......................................................................................................... 1-5 Figure 1-4: Front sight, cover and blade..................................................................................... 1-6 Figure 1-5: Cover latch ............................................................................................................... 1-6 Figure 1-6: Mounting the machine-gun and its pintle on the tripod mount................................ 1-8 Figure 1-7: Installing the elevating and traversing mechanism .................................................. 1-9 Figure 1-8: Elevating and traversing mechanism ..................................................................... 1-10 Figure 1-9: Tripod mount M3 ................................................................................................... 1-12 Figure 1-10: Mounting the rear legs of the tripod..................................................................... 1-13 Figure 1-11: Mounting the front leg of the tripod..................................................................... 1-14 Figure 1-12: Location of the release stud inside the barrel mounting ...................................... 1-17 Figure 1-13: Barrel guideway for the release stud.................................................................... 1-18 Figure 1-14: Incomplete thread and barrel extension ............................................................... 1-18 Figure 1-15: Installing the barrel .............................................................................................. 1-19 Figure 1-16: Removable barrel carrying handle unlocked ....................................................... 1-19 Figure 1-17: Removable handle locked into the barrel recess.................................................. 1-20 Figure 1-18: Removing the backplate....................................................................................... 1-21 Figure 1-19: Position of the driving spring group inside the receiver ...................................... 1-22 Figure 1-20: Removing the bolt stud ........................................................................................ 1-23 Figure 1-21: Removing the bolt from the receiver ................................................................... 1-23 Figure 1-22: Inserting the bolt into the receiver ....................................................................... 1-24 Figure 1-23: Bolt clearing the accelerator tips.......................................................................... 1-24 Figure 1-24: Alignment of the bolt hole and the stud clearance hole....................................... 1-25 Figure 1-25: Removing the buffer group and barrel extension group ...................................... 1-26 Figure 1-26: Separating the buffer assembly from the oil buffer body group .......................... 1-26 Figure 1-27: Separating the buffer assembly from the buffer body group ............................... 1-27 Figure 1-28: Differences between buffers ................................................................................ 1-27 Figure 1-29: Joining the barrel extension group and the buffer group ..................................... 1-28 Figure 1-30: Replacing the barrel extension groups, buffer group and the bolt together......... 1-29 Figure 1-31: Parts of the bolt .................................................................................................... 1-32 Figure 1-32: Removing the extractor........................................................................................ 1-32 Figure 1-33: Removing the bolt switch .................................................................................... 1-33 Figure 1-34: Removing the cocking lever and the cocking lever pin ....................................... 1-33 Figure 1-35: Removing the accelerator stop lock ..................................................................... 1-34 Figure 1-36: How to free the accelerator stop .......................................................................... 1-35 Figure 1-37: How to remove the accelerator stop..................................................................... 1-35 Figure 1-38: Removing and replacing the sear slide ................................................................ 1-36 Figure 1-39: Removing the sear and sear spring ...................................................................... 1-36 Figure 1-40: Removing the firing pin extension assembly and firing pin ................................ 1-37 Figure 1-41: Replacing the firing pin and extension assembly................................................. 1-37 Figure 1-42: Bolt guide slot for inserting the sear .................................................................... 1-38 Figure 1-43: Replacing the sear and sear spring in the bolt...................................................... 1-38 Figure 1-44: Replacing the sear slide........................................................................................ 1-39 Figure 1-45: Replacing the accelerator stop ............................................................................. 1-39
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Figure 1-46: Replacing the accelerator stop lock in the central recess...................................... 1-40 Figure 1-47: Position of the cocking lever to replace it............................................................ 1-40 Figure 1-48: Replacing the cocking lever and the cocking lever pin ....................................... 1-41 Figure 1-49: Replacing the bolt switch..................................................................................... 1-41 Figure 1-50: Replacing the extractor ........................................................................................ 1-42 Figure 1-51: Parts of the buffer body group ............................................................................. 1-42 Figure 1-52: Replacing the accelerator into the oil buffer body group..................................... 1-43 Figure 1-53: Parts of the barrel extension group ...................................................................... 1-44 Figure 1-54: Parts of the cover group ....................................................................................... 1-45 Figure 1-55: Removing the cover from the weapon ................................................................. 1-45 Figure 1-56: Aligning the belt feed lever with the slide slot .................................................... 1-46 Figure 1-57: Removing the belt feed lever ............................................................................... 1-46 Figure 1-58: Removing the belt feed lever and spring ............................................................. 1-47 Figure 1-59: Drifting out the belt feed pawl ............................................................................. 1-47 Figure 1-60: Removing the belt feed pawl and arm ................................................................. 1-48 Figure 1-61: Disengaging the belt feed pawl arm..................................................................... 1-48 Figure 1-62: Removing the cover latch spring ......................................................................... 1-49 Figure 1-63: Removing the cover extractor spring ................................................................... 1-49 Figure 1-64: Replacing the cover extractor spring ................................................................... 1-50 Figure 1-65: Replacing the cover latch spring.......................................................................... 1-51 Figure 1-66: Inserting the belt feed pawl arm........................................................................... 1-51 Figure 1-67: Position of the belt feed pawl spring.................................................................... 1-52 Figure 1-68: Inserting the belt feed pawl pin............................................................................ 1-53 Figure 1-69: Inserting the belt feed pawl in the cover slide ..................................................... 1-53 Figure 1-70: Position of the belt feed lever plunger ................................................................. 1-54 Figure 1-71: Inserting the belt feed lever.................................................................................. 1-54 Figure 1-72: Fully inserting the belt feed lever inside the cover .............................................. 1-55 Figure 1-73: Replacing the cover group ................................................................................... 1-55 Figure 1-74: Parts of the belt feed pawl.................................................................................... 1-56 Figure 1-75: Cartridge stop assembly, front cartridge stop, and belt holding pawl pin ........... 1-57 Figure 1-76: Trigger bar and hinged lock ................................................................................. 1-58 Figure 1-77: Removing the trigger bar assembly ..................................................................... 1-58 Figure 1-78: Rear location of the trigger bar ............................................................................ 1-59 Figure 1-79: Forward location of the trigger bar ...................................................................... 1-59 Figure 1-80: I llustration of ammunition for the heavy machine-gun ....................................... 1-71 Figure 1-81: Rounds correctly seated within the belt ............................................................... 1-73 Figure 1-82: Front sight, cover and blade................................................................................. 1-74 Figure 1-83: Rear leaf sight ...................................................................................................... 1-74 Figure 1-84: Clearing plug........................................................................................................ 1-91 Figure 1-85: Ruptured cartridge case extractor aligned with the T-slot of the bolt.................. 1-92 Figure 2-1: Two-man carry......................................................................................................... 2-6 Figure 3-1: Culminating point .................................................................................................... 3-2 Figure 3-2: Grazing fire .............................................................................................................. 3-3 Figure 3-3: Dimensions of the heavy machine-gun trench....................................................... 3-29 Figure 3-4: Machine-gun range card......................................................................................... 3-31 Figure 4-1: Target direction terminology illustrated .................................................................. 4-5

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Figure 4-2: Target direction lines ............................................................................................... 4-7 Figure 4-3: Volume fire .............................................................................................................. 4-8 Figure 4-4: Point of aim for targets diving directly at weapon position..................................... 4-8 Figure 4-5: Point of aim for oblique high-speed targets ............................................................. 4-9 Figure 4-6: Point of aim for slow crossing targets...................................................................... 4-9 Figure 4-7: Point of aim for hovering targets ........................................................................... 4-10 Figure 4-8: Reference point procedure ..................................................................................... 4-11 Figure 4-9: Fixed aiming point procedure ................................................................................ 4-11 Figure 4-10: Superimposition ................................................................................................... 4-13 Figure 4-11: Illusion of curvature ............................................................................................. 4-13 Figure 4-12: Localized vision ................................................................................................... 4-14 Figure 4-13: Line and lead information based on tracer observation ....................................... 4-15 Figure 4-14: Off-line tracer observation ................................................................................... 4-15 Figure 4-15: A hit...................................................................................................................... 4-16 Figure 4-16: M63 anti-aircraft mount ....................................................................................... 4-18 Figure 4-17: Outer view of the sideplate trigger assembly....................................................... 4-21 Figure 4-18: Inner view of the sideplate trigger assembly ....................................................... 4-21 Figure 4-19: Sideplate trigger assembly installed..................................................................... 4-22 Figure 4-20: M2 machine-gun installed on the M63 anti-aircraft mount ................................. 4-23 Figure 4-21: Machine-gun mount, cradle and ammunition tray ............................................... 4-26 Figure 4-22: Machine-gun mounted on the cradle.................................................................... 4-27 Figure 5-1: M113A3 CDN with turret, ECC 114330 ................................................................. 5-3 Figure 5-2: Mobile Tactical Vehicle Engineer (MTVE), ECC 114350...................................... 5-3 Figure 5-3: Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light (MTVL), ECC 114375 ........................................... 5-4 Figure 5-4: Solenoid and Bracket Assembly .............................................................................. 5-5 Figure 5-5: Block Link................................................................................................................ 5-5 Figure 5-6: Bell Mouth Shute ..................................................................................................... 5-6 Figure 5-7: Gas Bag .................................................................................................................... 5-6 Figure 5-21: (Diagram 1 of 2) Ammunition Feed System, Machine-gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB ..................................................................... 5-29 Figure 6-21: Locking—recoiling groups forward - MG not locked ......................................... 6-23

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1PREFACE AIM 1. The aim of this publication is to provide instructors with the information and documentation necessary to train candidates, and to provide them with a reference work to accompany them as they learn how to handle the weapon on operations. LAYOUT 2. The pamphlet is written in lesson plan format and divided into 6 chapters. The chapters are progressive. The chapters are as follows: a. Chapter 1—Basic Drills. This chapter contains the drills and information to allow the user to operate the gun safely and effectively in the ground role. This includes: maintenance, weapon handling, firing drills and stoppages. This chapter should be taught before progressing to other chapters; Chapter 2—Tactical Handling. This chapter contains information required to effectively and safely act as a gun team in the ground role. This include duties and responsibilities, firing and correction and recording of targets. Chapter 1 must be taught prior to this chapter; Chapter 3—Tactical Employment. This chapter contains information such as: Fire control, the role and deployment of the gun and tactical employment in the ground role; Chapter 4—Special to Role. This chapter contains the drills and information to allow the user to operate the gun safely and effectively in special to role situations. This includes: Air Defence and vehicle borne mounts. Chapter 1 should be taught prior to this chapter; Chapter 5—Turret Mounted Weapons. This chapter contains the drills and information to allow the user to operate the gun safely and effectively from a turret. This includes: handling drills and stoppages. Chapter 1 should be taught prior to this chapter; and Chapter 6—Additional Information for Instructors. This chapter contains additional information for the instructor such as: preparatory work, weapon handling tests, fitting of the blank firing attachment and zeroing.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL 3. The information contained in Chapters 1 to 6 is presented in the form of lesson plans which are based on best-practices within the military learning sequence. The lessons are progressive, relevant and simple.

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4. Throughout the publication candidates are encouraged to work as a team where applicable. Unless specified (i.e. …the gunner will…) the tasks taught can be executed by any team member. In brackets will be the suggested team member to execute a particular responsibility, these suggestions are only a guide. Most figures will have an arrow pointing to a part and a letter indicator. The letters on the illustration will correspond with the relevant letters and names beneath the figure and not necessarily the sub-paragraph within the text. 5. Instructors will prepare their lessons in accordance with the approved teaching methods used by the Canadian Forces so as to instruct progressively. The instruction must include frequent, clever checks of the knowledge acquired. Maximum physical participation of candidates is required in all lessons dealing with weapons. The candidates’ interest must be captured in order to motivate them. The candidates’ motivation increases when they are given the results of their tests and shooting scores. MISUSE OF WEAPONS, AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES 6. This order outlines Canadian Forces (CF) Policy governing the use or misuse of weapons, ammunition and explosives. WEAPONS 7. Firing or attempting to fire locally manufactured weapons, obsolete service or foreign weapons or weapons used for display, ceremonial or trophy purposes in museums, messes, parade grounds, armouries or suchlike areas is prohibited except when specifically authorized by National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ). 8. Attention is also drawn to the following references which concern offences connected with the use or misuse of weapons: a. b. c. National Defence Act, Section 117; Criminal Code of Canada, Sections 82 to 106; and QR&O 103.59.

AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES 9. Tampering with or use of service and commercial operation or explosives for other than their designated purpose is prohibited. 10. Except as prescribed in para 11, the modification, breakdown or sectioning of live ammunition for experimental, instructional or any other purchase, or manufacture of explosives is forbidden. This prohibition includes: a. b. unauthorized interchange of fuzes or primers or both; experiments with blank ammunition to alter the powder charge or to introduce any other substance into the cartridge case or into the weapon with the approved cartridge;

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c. d. e. f. g. h. 11.

experiments involving the use of altered propelling charges or bursting charges with ammunition of any type; the use of any non-service or obsolete ammunition; the use of foreign ammunition other than that received through normal supply channels or supplied in accordance with NATO Standardization Agreements; the manufacture and use of locally fabricated explosive training devices, battle simulators, saluting charges, etc; any alteration to the design of ammunition or explosive devices; and rendering live ammunition inert for use as museum or instructional items.

The prohibition in para 10 does not apply to: a. b. authorized experiments, modifications, etc carried out by experimental, research, proof or inspection establishments; authorized breakdown, modification, repairs, proof, testing, etc, carried out as normal functions of a Canadian Forces ammunition depot or base ammunition facility; personnel employed at Canadian Forces School of Aerospace and Ordnance Engineering (CFSAOE) as instructors or trainees under supervision, when breaking down is carried out as part of a course training standard and in accordance with an approved course training plan; the use for its designed role of commercial pattern ammunition, which is obtained for local purchase as specified in CFP 137 or as authorized by NDHQ in accordance with CFAO 3004-0; the use for its designed role of commercial pattern ammunition which is taken into service and catalogued; hand-loading small arms ammunition in accordance with CFAO 50-18; and other cases, when specifically authorized by NDHQ.

c.

d.

e. f. g.

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TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN 12. Technical details: a. b. c. d. calibre—12.5 mm; length of barrel—114 cm; length of machine-gun—165 cm; weight: (1) (2) (3) (4) e. f. g. h. i. receiver group—25 kg; barrel group—13 kg; tripod (complete)—20 kg; and machine-gun (complete)—58 kg;

sight range—100 - 2600 yards / 90 - 2400 metres; system of operation—short recoil; cyclic rate of fire—450 to 600 rounds/minute; muzzle velocity (C44 round) —approximately 860 m/s; rates of Fire: (1) (2) normal rate of fire—40 rounds/minute; and rapid rate of fire—100 rounds/minute; and

j.

maximum range—6,800 m.

13. Data on ammunition. The following information applies to the 0.50 Cal M2 Ball Cartridge: a. b. c. d. e. length of round—14 cm; length of ball—6.3 cm; weight of round—184 g; weight of ball—42.6 g; and weight of 100-round belt (estimated)—16 kg.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

1CHAPTER 1 LESSON 1 CHARACTERISTICS, DESCRIPTION, SAFETY PRECAUTIONS, MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE GUN AND TRIPOD INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 1. 2. Aim. Introduce the students to the .50 Cal Heavy Machine-Gun. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 3. 4. 5. characteristics; named parts and description of the gun and tripod; safety precautions; and mounting and dismounting the gun and tripod.

Time. Two x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete. Mounted on M3 tripod—1 per 3 students. Tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun. Tool box with accessories—1 per machine-gun. Drill ammunition—5 per machine-gun. Filled sandbags—3 per machine-gun.

6.

Preparation: set up teaching area: a. b. c. The guns on tripod should be mounted on a non-slip surface prior to lesson commencing. For this and every lesson in this chapter, when setting up teaching area ensure the cocking handles of the guns are facing the students. Traverse and elevation mechanisms (T&E) should be fitted to all tripods. For ease of instruction the T&E on the instructor’s demonstration gun should be unlocked. Ensure that the guns are level and all the T&E are zeroed correctly; Check that the machine-guns are operating properly. For this and every lesson in this chapter ensure the guns are assembled for left hand feed. Ensure the auxiliary tripod mount pin is fitted (see Chapter 6 Section 2 lesson 1).

d. e. f. g.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

7.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. e. f. Instructor is to carry out safety precautions and inspect the drill rounds at the start of the lesson in front of the students. Where appropriate the students should be encouraged to work as a team. At this stage the students are not expected to memorize all the subject matter taught during this lesson. When teaching the T&E do not go into detail about recording readings. The remote method of instruction is suggested for teaching the T&E. Utilise the name parts and description stages and demonstrate certain weapon functions i.e.) cocking gun, safety catch etc. Mention during the lesson that the gun can be mounted and dismounted with or without the barrel fitted. At this stage only practice mounting and dismounting with the barrel fitted. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: (1) (2) “FOR INSPECTION CLEAR GUNS” “GUN CLEAR” to prove the weapons for safety precaution; and “MOUNT GUN” “DISMOUNT GUN” “MOUNT TRIPOD” “DISMOUNT TRIPOD” to mount and dismount the gun and tripod.

g.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 8. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. check all student equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches. explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson: (1) (2) 9. Review. briefly describe the task of the number one and two; and action on word of command “No 1s OUT…CHANGE”. N/A

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10. Introduction. The .50 Cal Browning machine-gun was developed by the US Air Force. It was officially adopted in 1923. After a number of changes were made to the weapon it was renamed M2 in 1933. In order to improve its reliability and reduce the amount of maintenance required, the mass of the barrel was increased and the oil buffer was replaced by a new type of buffer. This new version, the M2 HB (Heavy Barrel), is still in use today, both vehicle and ground mounted. The latest version of the Quick Change Barrel (QCB) now in use in the Canadian Forces was adopted in the mid-90s. The .50 Cal Browning machine-gun remains one of the most reliable and widely used machine-guns in the world. CHARACTERISTICS. Explain. 11. The .50 Cal M2 Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) is a belt fed, air-cooled and recoil-operated weapon: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. It is a crew served weapon system which can be man-portable into action over a short distance. It is capable of both semi-automatic and automatic fire. The gun has a sight setting range of 100 to 2600 yards (90 to 2400 metres). The gun is effective up to 1800 metres. It has a cyclic rate of fire of between 450 to 500 rounds per minute (rpm). The normal rate of fire is 40 rpm and the rapid rate of fire is 100 rpm. The gun is fitted with a QCB for effective handling drills. It can be fitted with a traverse and elevations (T&E) mechanism which facilitates amongst other things the effective engagement of pre-recorded targets. The ammunition is issued in boxes containing belts of 100 rounds of disintegrating link.

a. receiver b. barrel support c. barrel group d. tripod mount M3 e. traversing & elevating mechanism

Figure 1-1: Heavy Machine-gun .50 Cal M2

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

12.

Confirm by Questions.

PARTS OF THE GUN. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 13. Point out and briefly describe the following parts on the gun (figure 1-1): a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 14. the QCB barrel; the barrel carrying handle; the barrel support; ejection opening and link ejection opening; cocking handle (demonstrate cocking the gun—leave the working parts to the rear); bolt stud and clearance hole; and receiver.

Confirm by questions. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. backplate (Turn gun so rear of guns faces the students); backplate latch and back plate latch lock; spade firing handles; recoil buffer; bolt latch release (operate bolt latch—working parts forward under control); bolt latch release lock (demonstrate locking and unlocking); trigger (try to operate trigger with safety catch on); and safety catch (place safety to fire and operate the trigger) (figure 1-2).

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a. safety catch
Figure 1-2: Safety catch

15.

Confirm by questions. a. Sights (Raise the barrel to allow the students to see the top of the gun). The machine-gun has a leaf-type rear sight graduated in both yards (from 100 to 2,600) and in mils (from 0 to 62 mils). (figure 1-3 and 1-4)

Figure 1-3: Rear leaf sight

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-4: Front sight, cover and blade

b.

The top cover and catch. Lift top cover by rotating the cover latch (figure 1-5) (raise top cover and indicate the following): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) extractor and ejector; bolt assembly; feedway; trunnion block; belt feed lever; cartridge stop; ‘T’ slot and bolt assembly; and firing pin.

a. cover latch b. top cover

Figure 1-5: Cover latch

16.

Confirm by Questions.

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. Explain and demonstrate. 17. Drills on the machine-gun can only be carried out correctly with the gun mounted. Before using the machine-gun, the gunner or user will “prove” the weapon. On receiving the order “FOR INSPECTION CLEAR GUNS” from the gun controller the following actions are to be carried out by the gunner: a. b. c. d. e. Engage the safety (figure 1-2). Check that the bolt latch release is unlocked. Rotate the cover latch forward and raise the cover (figure 1-5). Grasp the cocking handle and pull the action fully to the rear ensuring the cocking handle returns to the fully forward position. Examine the chamber and the face of the bolt (T slot) to ensure that they are free of rounds (during an instructional or range period this inspection will also be carried out by the instructor or the I/C safety). Once the gun has been “CLEARED” pull the cocking handle fully to the rear, operate the bolt latch release and allow the bolt assembly to go forward under control. Close the cover. Place safety catch to ‘fire’. Operate the trigger and return the safety catch to ‘safe’.

f.

g. h. i.

18. At this point during an instructional period spare barrels, drill rounds and pouches will be checked to ensure that no live rounds are present. If live munitions are present, they will be immediately removed and handed over to the officer or NCO in charge of the training period for return to the issuing authority. NOTE To prevent damage to the bolt switch or the bolt feed lever: when the cover is raised and the bolt is to the rear, the cover must never be closed and the bolt released. The extractor must always be down before the cover is closed. 19. Confirm by practice.

DISMOUNT THE GUN. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 20. The machine-gun is connected to the M3 tripod mount by a pintle. This pintle is semipermanently attached to the machine-gun. The gun should also be attached to the tripod by a quick release pin (QRP) on the traverse and elevation mechanism (T&E). The machine-gun can be dismounted with or without the barrel fitted. To dismount the gun with the barrel fitted: on the command “DISMOUNT GUN” the gunner is to clear the gun and report “GUN CLEAR” and then with the assistance of the No.2 proceed as follows: a. remove the QRP (No.1) (figure 1-7);

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

b. c.

unlock the pintle latch (No.1); and lift the gun clear of the tripod (No.2) (figure 1-6).

MOUNTING THE GUN. Explain and demonstrate(where necessary). 21. The machine-gun can be mounted with or without the barrel fitted. To mount the gun with the barrel fitted: on the command “MOUNT GUN” the gunner, assisted by the No.2 is to: a. Lower the gun onto the tripod (No.2) so that the mounting tripod pintle goes into the hole on the tripod head and locks into position. (They are to check that it is secured by trying to separate by lifting the gun.). Position the rear mounting lug into the yoke of the T&E mechanism; when they are lined up, push the QRP fully home (No.1). The gunner will carry out safety precautions on the gun. Check spare barrel (No.2). Stamp in and sandbag the tripod spade (No.2) bases to prevent excessive movement during firing, ensuring that the tripod head remains level. Zero and centralize the T&E mechanism (No.1). Position the ammunition to the left of the gun (No2) with the spare parts wallet and tool bag.

b. c. d. e. f. g.

22. The gunner should be directly behind the gun with his hands on the spade hand grips. The No.2 is to take up a position to the left of the gunner. Dependant on the height of the cover available the team should adopt either the prone or sitting position behind the gun.

a. yoke b. mounting lug c. mounting tripod pintle d. pintle lock assembly e. mount tripod head

Figure 1-6: Mounting the machine-gun and its pintle on the tripod mount

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a. quick release pin

Figure 1-7: Installing the elevating and traversing mechanism

23.

Confirm by practice (leave gun dismounted).

THE NAME, PARTS AND DESCRIPTION OF THE TRAVERSING AND ELEVATION MECHANISM (T&E). Explain. 24. The T&E gives the machine gun an added degree of stability on laid targets and allows readings to be recorded and applied. It also facilitates different types of fire application such as traversing fire. The T&E mechanism contains the following features: (figure 1-8): a. b. c. d. e. f. g. upper elevating screw; traversing indicator; traversing mechanism scale; traversing hand wheel; upper elevating screw yoke; quick release pin assembly; traversing screw;

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. upper elevating screw b. traversing indicator c. traversing mechanism scale d. traversing handwheel e. upper elevating screw yoke f. quick release pin assembly g. traversing screw h. lower elevating scale j. traversing bar with scale (5 mils between small lines) k. traversing slide lock lever m. traversing mechanism sleeve n. lower elevating screw p. elevating indicator

Figure 1-8: Elevating and traversing mechanism

h. i. j. k. l. m. n. 25.

lower elevating screw; elevating indicator; traversing bar with scale; traversing slide lock lever; traversing mechanism sleeve; lower elevating screw; and elevating indicator.

Confirm by questions.

REMOVING AND FITTING THE T&E MECHANISM. Explain and demonstrate(where necessary). 26. The T&E is correctly fitted when the locking bar is to the rear, the traversing hand wheel is to the left and the quick release pin to the right. When the traversing slide is locked to the traversing bar, the micrometer on the screw assembly should be set to zero and central. This will allow the gunner greater flexibility in making deflection changes. To zero and centralize carry out the following: a. b. screw the traversing hand wheel fully to left hand side; and then with it on zero rotate 2 complete turns through zero until central.

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27.

To remove the T&E: a. b. grasp the T&E with one hand and rotate the traversing slide lock lever anticlockwise with the other; and lift the T&E clear of the traversing bar.

28. 29.

To fit the T&E is the complete reverse. Confirm by practice. (leave removed).

THE NAME, PARTS AND DESCRIPTION OF THE M3 TRIPOD. Explain and demonstrate. 30. The M3 mount is the standard ground mount for the .50 Cal Machine-gun. (figure 1-9): a. The two rear legs of the mount are joined together and given further rigidity by the traversing bar. The traversing bar serves as a support for the T&E, which in turn supports the rear of the machine-gun. The tripod head, which is stabilized by the short front leg, furnishes front support for the mounted machine-gun. When the tripod is placed on flat ground, with all extensions closed, the adjustable front leg should form an angle of about 1 100 mils with the ground. To raise the tripod higher from the ground, the front leg should be extended, as well as the telescopic trail legs, to keep the tripod level and to maintain the stability of the mount.

b. c.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. leg clamping lever b. leg clamping catch c. traverse and elevating mechanism d. traversing bar e. rear right leg and sleeve f. tripod head g. pintle h. pintle bolt j. pintle latch k. rront leg clamp handle

Figure 1-9: Tripod mount M3

d.

To extend any of the tripod legs, the leg clamping handle should be unscrewed; the indexing lever should be pressed down and the leg extended to the desired length. The stud on the indexing lever should be aligned with one of the holes in the tripod leg extension. Pressure on the indexing lever should then be released, allowing the stud to fit in the desired hole; the leg clamping handle is tightened.

31.

Confirm by questions.

DISMOUNTING THE TRIPOD. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): 32. On the command “DISMOUNT TRIPOD” the gun controller is to proceed as follows: a. b. c. d. e. when the gun has been cleared and dismounted lower the pintle latch; undo the T&E mechanism by releasing the slide locking bar; release the traversing bar catch and close the rear legs; release the front leg clamp handle and fold front leg; and if the legs have been extended it is recommended that they are collapsed before dismounting the tripod, although this is not essential.

MOUNTING THE TRIPOD. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): 33. On the command “MOUNT TRIPOD” the gun crew are to proceed as follows (figures 1-10 and 1-11): a. Move the tripod into the area it is required to be used.

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b. c. d. e. f. g.

Release the front leg clamp handle and adjust the front leg downwards. Lock the front leg clamp handle. The rear legs can now be positioned by forcing the rear legs apart until the right end of the traversing bar is fully forward and locked into position by its catch. The tripod should be positioned so that the front leg is pointing towards the centre of the arc of fire (the legs may be extended to ensure the tripod head is level). Raise the T & E mechanism to the vertical position. Remove the QRP and centralize and secure the mechanism on the traversing bar. Support the tripod with filled sand bags where applicable. Undo the pintle latch.

Figure 1-10: Mounting the rear legs of the tripod

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-11: Mounting the front leg of the tripod

34. The gun and tripod can be mounted and dismounted sequentially. Team members should be encouraged to assist each other wherever possible. When carrying out the actions of dismounting the gun and tripod as a team, it is important that the gun controller or No. 2 does not go forward of the gun position until the gun has been cleared by the gunner. 35. Confirm by practice (leave dismounted).

MOUNTING THE MACHINE-GUN IN THE HIGH POSITION. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 36. The presence of obstacles, such as high vegetation, may require that the machine-gun be raised above its normal low position. Before leaving the last available cover, No. 1 prepares the tripod for the high position by extending all three legs. 37. Confirm by practice (leave dismounted).

MOUNTING THE MACHINE-GUN ON SLOPING GROUND. Explanation and demonstration (where necessary). 38. When the machine-gun position is located on a slope, the tripod is levelled by: a. b. 39. 40. extending one or two of the legs; and cutting ground away from beneath the high leg(s).

Confirm by Questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. questions from the students on the entire period; confirm by questions and practice; carry out safety precautions;
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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

d. e.

pack the stores; and review: (1) (2) It is important to be fully familiar with the characteristics and technical specifications of the weapon to maximize the effectiveness of its use. It is essential to carry out the safety precautions at all times before handling the weapon.

LESSON 2 NORMAL STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE GUN WITH THE QUICK CHANGE BARREL (QCB) INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 41. Aim. To teach students how to strip and assemble the .50 Cal machine-gun fitted with a QCB. 42. Main teaching points: a. b. 43. 44. 45. normal stripping and assembling; and test after assembly.

Time. Two x 40 minute period. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. .50 Cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; box with accessories—1 per machine-gun; rags—as required; tool role and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; screw driver and drift—1 per machine-gun; and filled sandbags—3 per machine-gun.

46.

Preparation: a. b. set up teaching area; and position the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly.

47.

Miscellaneous: a. b. Name and describe all the parts the students have not seen as you handle them. Ensure that during the duration of the lesson that all students conduct normal stripping and assembling the machine-gun fully.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

c. d. e. f.

During stripping, ensure that the parts are placed in a clean, dry location, in sequence from left to right. Emphasize that stripping and assembling the machine-gun must be done with all the care required using the correct tools. Stripping and assembling should never be carried out against time. This lesson is laid out to progress through stripping and assembling by teaching the removal and replacement of weapon groups. Later on in the lesson these weapon groups may be taught and practiced linked together. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: for control during the lesson “STRIP THE GUN FOR NORMAL DAILY CLEANING” and “ASSEMBLE THE GUN”.

g.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 48. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 49. Check all students’ equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson: Action on word of command “No 1’s OUT…CHANGE”.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. d. characteristics; named parts and description of the gun and tripod; safety precautions; and mounting and dismounting the gun and tripod. Leave gun mounted.

50. Introduction. To be able to maintain the gun correctly the gun team must have a thorough knowledge of how to strip, clean, assemble and carry out all after-assembly tests. There are two main types of stripping and assembling: normal and detailed. Normal stripping and assembling can be defined as the removal of groups from the machine-gun to the extent required for daily cleaning or replacement of groups. Detailed stripping and assembling can be defined as the removal of all component parts from each group for cleaning, minor repairs or replacement of parts. Any part, pin or screw which has been staked or lock-wired will be removed only by a weapons technician. PREPARATION FOR ALL STRIPPING. Explain. 51. Prior to stripping any part, ensure the gun has been unloaded and safety precautions carried out, leave the top cover up.

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STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE BARREL GROUP 52. To remove the QCB carry out the following: a. b. Grasp the cocking handle and rotate it anti-clockwise from 12 to 9 o’clock. Using the carrying handle rotate the barrel 1/4 turn in an anti-clockwise direction to free it. When the barrel has been disconnected from the barrel extension it should be fully removed from the gun. Allow the cocking handle to go forward.

c.

a. release stud Figure 1-12: Location of the release stud inside the barrel mounting

53.

To replace the QCB carry out the following: a. b. c. d. Ensure the serial number on the barrel matches the gun. Ensure that there is no obstruction in the barrel. Pull the cocking handle to the rear to unlock the bolt. Replace the barrel ensuring the release stud is inside the barrel mounting (figure 1-12) and the barrel guideway allows the barrel to be inserted correctly into the barrel extension (figure 1-13). Ensure the incomplete thread at the rear of the barrel inserts into the barrel extension (figure 1-14).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-13: Barrel guideway for the release stud

e.

To lock the barrel turn it 1/6 of a turn clockwise (figure 1-15). Holding the barrel in position, allow the cocking handle to go forward. Check that it is locked.

a. locking spring

Figure 1-14: Incomplete thread and barrel extension

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Figure 1-15: Installing the barrel

54. The QCB barrel is equipped with a removable carrying handle which slides onto the barrel and locks into a recess on the barrel (figure 1-16) and (figure 1-17). To remove the barrel handle carry out the following: a. b. grasp the handle and press the release catch; and slide the handle off of the barrel.

Figure 1-16: Removable barrel carrying handle unlocked

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-17: Removable handle locked into the barrel recess

55.

To replace is the complete reverse ensuring the handle is securely locked into position.

56. Once the handle is fitted to the barrel there is no requirement to remove it prior to firing. If the machine gun is issued with one handle per 2 barrels the handle remains on the barrel attached to the gun. 57. Confirm by practice. (Leave the QCB stripped with handle on).

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE BACKPLATE GROUP. Explain and demonstrate. 58. Prior to stripping the backplate group ensure the working parts are fully forward both looking into the body of the weapon and by operating the trigger. Ensure that the bolt latch release lock is disengaged. To remove the backplate carry out the following: a. b. pull the lock and place the latch in the vertical position; and lift the backplate up to remove it (figure 1-18).

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a. backplate latch lock b. backplate latch

Figure 1-18: Removing the backplate

59.

To replace the backplate carry out the following: a. b. Ensure that the bolt latch release lock is disengaged. Hold the backplate with the latch down and the trigger up; place the backplate guides in their guideways. Hold out on the latch lock and tap the backplate into position until the latch snaps into place. Release the latch lock, and pull up on the backplate group to ensure it is firmly seated.

c. 60.

Confirm by practice. Leave stripped.

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE DRIVING SPRING. Explain and demonstrate. 61. The inner and outer driving springs and driving spring rod are located inside the receiver next to the right sideplate (figure 1-19). To remove the driving spring carry out the following: a. b. Push in on the head of the driving spring rod and push to the LEFT to remove the driving spring rod retaining pin from its seat in the RIGHT sideplate. Pull the driving spring group to the rear and out of the bolt and receiver.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. driving spring group

Figure 1-19: Position of the driving spring group inside the receiver

62.

To replace the backplate carry out the following: a. b. place the end of the driving spring rod in its hole above and to the right of the bolt and press the rod of the driving spring group forward; and press in and to the RIGHT on the head of the driving spring rod and place the retaining pin in its seat in the RIGHT sideplate. CAUTION Never attempt to cock the gun while the backplate is off and the driving spring group is in place. If the backplate is off and the driving spring group is compressed, the retaining pin on the driving spring rod can slip from its seat in the sideplate and could cause serious injuries to anyone behind the machine-gun.

63.

Confirm by practice. Leave stripped.

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE BOLT STUD AND BOLT. Explain and demonstrate. 64. To remove the bolt stud carry out the following: a. b. grasp the retracting slide handle and give it a quick jerk, freeing the bolt from the barrel extension; and align the shoulder collar on the bolt stud with the clearance hole in the bolt slot on the RIGHT sideplate and remove the bolt stud (figure 1-20).

65. If the bolt is accidentally moved all the way to the rear, the bolt latch will engage in the bolt latch notches in the top of the bolt. If this occurs, raise the bolt latch (left of the trigger bar) forward to align the bolt stud with the clearance hole.

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a. bolt stud b. collar c. clearance hole

Figure 1-20: Removing the bolt stud

66.

To remove the bolt carry out the following: a. after freeing the bolt, slide it to the rear and out of the receiver (figure 1-21); and

a. bolt b. bolt latch

Figure 1-21: Removing the bolt from the receiver

b. 67.

place the bolt down on its right side, with the extractor arm down, so that the extractor will not fall from the bolt.

To replace the bolt and bolt stud carry out the following: a. b. c. Ensure the serial number stamped on the bolt matches the gun. Place the bolt in the receiver, with the top of the cocking lever forward (towards the barrel mounting) and the extractor down. Push the bolt forward into the receiver. Pushing upwards on the bolt latch to engage it in the receiver (figure 1-22).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. Bolt latch b. Bolt

Figure 1-22: Inserting the bolt into the receiver

d.

As the front end of the bolt approaches the tips of the accelerator, look in the sideplate of the receiver, press down on the rear end of the bolt to ensure the front end of the bolt clears the accelerator tips (figure 1-23). Once the bolt is above the accelerator tips without disengaging them, push on the rear of the bolt until the hole in the bolt shank is aligned with the shank clearance hole.

e.

a. accelerator tips

Figure 1-23: Bolt clearing the accelerator tips

68. If they disengage, withdraw the bolt and push back on the barrel extension from inside the receiver, which will re-engage the accelerator tips. 69. To replace the bolt stud insert the stud into hole ensuring that the shank collar is inside the sideplate (figure 1-24).

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Figure 1-24: Alignment of the bolt hole and the stud clearance hole

70. To complete the assembly press up on the bolt latch and push the bolt all the way forward by pushing on the bolt stud only. At this time, the oil buffer tube should be completely inside the buffer group. If not, the oil buffer body spring is not properly seated. 71. Confirm by practice. Leave stripped.

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE BUFFER GROUP AND BARREL EXTENSION GROUP 72. To remove the buffer group and barrel extension group carry out the following: a. b. insert the drift of a combination tool, or other pointed instrument, through the hole in the lower rear corner of the RIGHT sideplate; push in on the buffer body spring lock (figure 1-25);

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-25: Removing the buffer group and barrel extension group

c. d. e.

at the same time, place one hand in the receiver and push the barrel extension group and oil buffer group to the rear; remove the buffer group and barrel extension group from the receiver; and separate the two groups by pushing forward on the tips of the accelerator (figure 1-26).

a. tip of the accelerator Figure 1-26: Separating the buffer assembly from the oil buffer body group

73. There are 3 different buffer groups currently in-service (figure 1-28). To strip the buffer group carry out the following: a. b. hold the buffer group with one hand; and pull on the buffer to separate the two parts (figure 1-27) with the other hand.

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Figure 1-27: Separating the buffer assembly from the buffer body group

Figure 1-28: Differences between buffers

74.

To assemble the buffer assembly and buffer body group carry out the following: a. Replace the buffer assembly in the buffer body group, with the key on the spring guide to the RIGHT. This key must fit in its slot on the RIGHT side of the buffer body. Push the buffer assembly fully forward.

b.

75. To assemble the buffer group and barrel extension group, join the two groups together by carrying out the following: a. b. Hold the buffer group in the RIGHT hand, with the index finger supporting the accelerator. Join the notch on the shank of the barrel extension group with the cross-groove in the piston rod of the buffer assembly. At the same time, align the breech lock
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

depressors with their guideways in the sides of the barrel extension, ensuring that the tips of the accelerator are against the rear of the barrel extension (claws against the shank) (figure 1-29). c. Push the groups together. As the accelerator rotates to the rear, press down on its tips to ensure positive locking of groups.

a. barrel extension shank b. accelerator tips c. accelerator claws d. breech lock depressor e. guideway Figure 1-29: Joining the barrel extension group and the buffer group

76.

To replace buffer group and barrel extension group carry out the following: a. b. c. d. ensure the serial number stamped on the barrel extension matches the gun; push the buffer group and barrel extension group into the receiver; continue to push them forward until the buffer body spring lock snaps into position; and when the parts are properly locked in place, the oil buffer tube should protrude about 2 1/2 centimetres from the rear of the buffer body group.

77.

Confirm by practice. Leave assembled.

FUNCTION TEST. Explain and demonstrate. 78. The function test should be carried out after form of stripping and assembly. The procedure is as follows: a. b. c. d. Ensure that the machine-gun is correctly mounted. Engage the safety catch on ‘SAFE’. Lock the bolt release latch. Cock the gun several times to check that the parts slide forwards and backwards properly. The barrel should move rearwards slightly every time the guns is cocked. (if it does not, check to ensure the barrel is fitted correctly).

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e. f. g. h. i. j.

With the working parts forward operate the trigger. The mechanism should not fire (if it does, see a weapons technician). Then release the safety catch ‘FIRE’ and operate the trigger. Open the cover and check whether the firing pin has emerged from the bolt. Unlock the bolt release latch. Cock the machine-gun; the bolt should remain to the rear. To control the forward movement of the bolt, grasp and pull the cocking handle to the rear, check that the bolt latch locks the bolt to the rear, press the bolt release latch, the bolt should return forward. (If not, see a weapons technician.)

79.

Confirm by Practice.

OPERATIONAL STRIPPING. Explain. 80. During operations it may not be practical or wise to strip and assemble the gun fully or sequentially as taught. The gun can be stripped in any order and should only be stripped to the part required. Groups can be removed and replaced together, for example when investigating the cause of a stoppage the bolt and driving spring could be removed and replaced together; for speed and to avoid the accelerator tips disengaging, the barrel extension groups, buffer group and the bolt (figure 1-30) and driving spring could be placed into the receiver together. If removing the barrel, it must always be fully removed from the barrel support.

Figure 1-30: Replacing the barrel extension groups, buffer group and the bolt together

81. When time is critical, a broken part can be replaced by substituting a complete group containing the part. If the receiver bolt is replaced, the group must be checked by a weapons technician. 82. 83. Confirm by Questions. Conclusion:

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. b. c. d. e.

questions from the students on the entire period; confirm by questions and practice; carry out safety precautions; pack the stores; and Review: (1) (2) For effective functioning of the weapon system it is important to ensure all serial numbers match the gun. During operations it may not practical or wise to strip and assemble the gun fully or sequentially as taught. The gun can be stripped in any order and should only be stripped to the part required. Remember if the barrel is removed it must always be fully removed from the barrel support. LESSON 3 DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING

INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 84. Aim. To teach students the detailed stripping and assembling of the main component parts of the machine-gun in preparation for cleaning or maintenance. 85. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. f. 86. 87. 88. stripping and assembling the bolt; stripping and assembling of the buffer group; detailed stripping and assembling of the barrel extension group; detailed stripping and assembling of the cover group; detailed stripping and assembling of the feedway; and detailed stripping and assembling of the trigger bar assembly.

Time. Three x 40-minute period. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. .50 Cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; box with accessories—1 per machine-gun; rags—as required; tool role and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; screw driver and drift—1 per machine-gun; and

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g. 89.

table—1 per instructor.

Preparation: a. b. set up teaching area; and position the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly.

90.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. Name and describe all the parts the students have not seen as you handle them. Bensure that during the duration of the lesson that all students conduct detailed stripping and assemble of all parts. During stripping, ensure that the parts are placed in a clean, dry location, in sequence from left to right, and that the students use the appropriate tool for the task correctly. Emphasize that stripping and assembling the machine-gun must be done with all the care required using the correct tools. Stripping and assembling should never be carried out against time. When a variety of parts are used, the instructor will name them and describe the function of each. However, at this stage, students are not expected to memorize the names of all the parts provided.

d. e. f.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 91. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 92. Check all students’ equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on word of command “No. 1s OUT…CHANGE”.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. normal stripping and assembling. Leave gun stripped; and test after assembly.

93. Introduction. The machine-gunner must know how to strip and assemble the bolt group and the buffer group, so as to be able to clean and maintain the weapon correctly. STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE BOLT. Explain and demonstrate. The parts of the bolt are illustrated in (figure 1-31), to Strip the bolt group carry out the 94. following:

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. firing pin extension b. firing pin c. cocking lever pin d. e. sear spring f. sear g. bolt switch h. extractor assembly j. accelerator stop k. accelerator stop lock l. cocking lever Figure 1-31: Parts of the bolt

a.

To remove the extractor, rotate it upward and remove it from the bolt. This will free the bolt switch. The ejector and ejector spring must not be disassembled from the extractor (figure 1-32).

Figure 1-32: Removing the extractor

b.

To remove the bolt switch and bolt switch stud. Lift out the bolt switch and pull out the bolt switch stud (figure 1-33). If the stud is staked, it cannot be removed from the bolt.

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Figure 1-33: Removing the bolt switch

c.

To remove the cocking lever pin and cocking lever. Rotate the top of the cocking lever towards the rear of the bolt and remove the cocking lever pin. Lift out the cocking lever (figure 1-34).

Figure 1-34: Removing the cocking lever and the cocking lever pin

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

NOTE The rounded nose of the cocking lever is down and to the rear of the bolt. d. to remove the sear stop and pin carry out the following: (1) Using a screwdriver or the cocking lever, pry the accelerator stop lock into the centre recess (figure 1-35), turn the breach crosswise, while covering the central cavity with one hand and shaking to remove the accelerator stop lock.

Figure 1-35: Removing the accelerator stop lock

(2)

Use a tool to press on the accelerator stop (figure 1-36), turn the bolt over and pull on the base of the accelerator stop (figure 1-37). If the accelerator stop does not come out easily, insert a tool or the thin end of the cocking lever under the base of the accelerator stop and pry it out of the bolt.

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Figure 1-36: How to free the accelerator stop

a. base of the accelerator stop b. accelerator stop lock Figure 1-37: How to remove the accelerator stop

e.

To remove the sear slide press down on the sear and withdraw the sear slide. Withdraw the square end first. (figure 1-38).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-38: Removing and replacing the sear slide

f.

To remove the sear and sear spring and to prevent loss of the sear spring, insert the thin end of the cocking lever between the coils of the sear spring. Lift out the sear and remove the sear spring. Leave the spring on the cocking lever (figure 1-39).

Figure 1-39: Removing the sear and sear spring

g.

To remove the firing pin extension assembly and firing pin, raise the front end of the bolt and allow the firing pin extension assembly and firing pin to fall into your hand (figure 1-40). Separate the firing pin from its extension. This completes detailed stripping of the bolt.

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Figure 1-40: Removing the firing pin extension assembly and firing pin

95.

To assemble the bolt carry out the following: a. To replace the firing pin and extension assembly, engage the rear end of the firing pin in its seating groove in the front end of the firing pin extension assembly. Insert the firing pin and extension assembly in the bolt, striker first, sear notch down as shown (figure 1-41). Push the extension assembly into the bolt, and tilt the front end down until the striker protrudes through its aperture in the face of the bolt.

Figure 1-41: Replacing the firing pin and extension assembly

b.

To replace the sear spring and sear, with the sear spring still wedged on the cocking lever, replace the spring, and insert the sear in its slot (figure 1-42), stud up, and notch to the front. Make sure the sear spring is properly seated in its recess in the bolt, and the bottom of the sear (figure 1-43).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-42: Bolt guide slot for inserting the sear

Figure 1-43: Replacing the sear and sear spring in the bolt

c.

To replace the sear slide press down on the sear and replace the sear slide in its guideways. The slide may be inserted from either side, unless the machine-gun is to be fired by the sideplate trigger; in that case, the square end must be to the LEFT (figure 1-44).

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Figure 1-44: Replacing the sear slide

d.

To replace the accelerator stop and lock by pressing on the base of the accelerator stop under the bolt, to force it back into place (figure 1-45). Reinsert the accelerator stop lock into the central recess in the bolt (figure 1-46).

Figure 1-45: Replacing the accelerator stop

e.

To replace the cocking lever and cocking lever pin, place the cocking lever with the rounded nose downward and to the rear. The top of the cocking lever must be above the sear (figure 1-47). Replace the cocking lever pin from the LEFT side of the bolt (figure 1-48). To test for correct assembly, cock the firing pin by rotating the top of the cocking lever forward to the front of the bolt, then rotate it to the rear and depress the sear; this should release the firing pin.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-46: Replacing the accelerator stop lock in the central recess

Figure 1-47: Position of the cocking lever to replace it

f.

To replace the bolt switch and bolt switch stud, place the bolt switch stud with the small end up. Place the bolt switch over the bolt switch stud, so that the groove marked “L” is continuous from the LEFT-HAND feed (figure 1-49). The wider portion of the bolt switch will be to the front.

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Figure 1-48: Replacing the cocking lever and the cocking lever pin

g.

To replace the extractor by placing the extractor arm vertical, replace the extractor stud in the extractor pivot hole of the bolt. Rotate the extractor forward. Ensure that the collar is engaged in its slot in the bolt (figure 1-50).

Figure 1-49: Replacing the bolt switch

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-50: Replacing the extractor

96.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled).

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING THE BUFFER BODY GROUP. Explain and demonstrate. 97. To strip the principal components of the buffer body group (figure 1-51) carry out the following:

a. Accelerator pin b. Accelerator c. Breech lock depressor Figure 1-51: Parts of the buffer body group

a.

To remove the accelerator pin and accelerator, use a tool and from either side, press on the accelerator pin to disengage the accelerator.

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

98. To assemble the principal components of the buffer body group (figure 1-51) carry out the following: a. b. to replace the accelerator pin and accelerator place the accelerator with the tips up and the claws to the rear; and replace the accelerator pin (figure 1-52).

Figure 1-52: Replacing the accelerator into the oil buffer body group

99.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled).

DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE BARREL EXTENSION GROUP. Explain and demonstrate. 100. The main parts of the barrel extension group are illustrated in figure 1-53. To strip them carry out the following:

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. shank b. breech lock recess c. breech lock pin d. breech lock e. barrel locking spring lug Figure 1-53: Parts of the barrel extension group

a.

To remove the breech lock pin and breech lock, drift the lock pin out and remove the breech lock from the bottom of the barrel extension group. The top of the breech lock has a double-bevelled edge and a slot for use with the accelerator stop and lock. The barrel locking spring should already be staked to the barrel extension; it should not be removed. This completes detailed stripping of the barrel extension group.

b.

101. The main parts of the barrel extension group are illustrated in figure 1-53. To assemble them carry out the following: a. To replace the breech lock from the bottom of the barrel extension, the breech lock will be correctly positioned in its slot when the bevelled edge is up and to the front, and the hole for the breech lock pin is toward the bottom of the barrel extension. Replace the breech lock pin so that the ends of the pin are flush with the sides of the barrel extension. This completes assembly of the barrel extension group. Ensure that the number on the rear face of the breech lock is identical with the number stamped beside the serial number on the bolt.

b. c. 102.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled).

DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE COVER GROUP. Explain and demonstrate. 103. The main components of the cover group are shown in figure 1-54. To strip the cover group carry out the following:

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

a. cover latch spring b. cover latch shaft lever c. cover extractor cam d. cover lock spring stud e. belt feed lever plug f. belt feed lever plunger & spring g. belt feed lever retaining pin h. toe j. cover extractor spring stud k. cover pin l. cotter pin m. belt feed pawl pin n. belt feed slide p. belt feed pawl spring q. belt feed pawl r. belt feed pawl arm s. cover extractor spring Figure 1-54: Parts of the cover group

a.

To remove the cover pin ensure the cover is closed and remove the cotter pin and drift the cover pin out of the receiver. Unlatch the cover and rotate it up and forward (figure 1-55). Place the cover group upside down on a clean, dry surface, preferably flat and firm. Ensure that the cover latch shaft lever is at the top left, as illustrated (figure 1-54).

Figure 1-55: Removing the cover from the weapon

b.

To remove the belt feed lever and lock pin, remove the belt feed retaining pin (cotter pin) Push the belt feed lever to the RIGHT, until the toe end of the belt feed lever (engaging the slide) is in line with the slot in the cover (figure 1-56). Lift the belt feed lever off its pivot stud. Ensure the belt feed lever plunger and spring do not fly out (figure 1-57).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. belt feed lever b. toe c. slot Figure 1-56: Aligning the belt feed lever with the slide slot

a. belt feed lever retaining pin b. belt feed lever plunger Warning! NB. Hold the belt feed lever plunger. Figure 1-57: Removing the belt feed lever

c.

To remove the belt feed lever plunger, remove these from their seat in the side of the belt feed lever (figure 1-58).

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

a. belt feed lever spring b. belt feed lever plunger

Figure 1-58: Removing the belt feed lever and spring

d.

To remove the belt feed slide from either side carry out the following: (1) drift the belt feed pawl pin out, maintaining pressure on the belt feed pawl to prevent the pin from flying out (figure 1-59); and

Figure 1-59: Drifting out the belt feed pawl

(2)

slowly release pressure, and remove the belt feed pawl and arm (figure 1-60);

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1-47

The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. projecting oval of belt feed pawl spring drift the belt feed pawl arm (figure 1-60). remove the belt feed pawl spring Figure 1-60: Removing the belt feed pawl and arm

e.

To remove the cover latch spring pry the hooked end of the spring out of its recess in the cover and shift it to the left until it rests on the cover extractor spring. Press down on the cover latch spring and slide it away from the cover latch. Make sure that it rides on top of the cover extractor spring. When the enlarged hole in the spring meshes with the cover latch spring stud, remove the spring from its stud (figure 1-62).

Figure 1-61: Disengaging the belt feed pawl arm

1-48

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

a. cover extractor spring b. cover latch spring stud c. cover latch spring d. cover latch

Figure 1-62: Removing the cover latch spring

f.

To remove the cover extractor spring press down on the cover extractor spring and pry the end of the spring out of its recess in the cover extractor cam (figure 1-63). This spring, if not handled carefully, can cause injury. Disengage the opposite end of the spring from the cover extractor spring stud. This completes detailed stripping of the cover group.

Figure 1-63: Removing the cover extractor spring

104. The main components of the cover group are shown in figure 1-64. To assemble the cover group carry out the following: a. To replace the cover extractor spring place the cover in the same position as for detailed stripping. Hook the slotted end of the spring under the cover extractor stud with the projection pointing in the direction of its recess. Exercising caution, press down and seat the projection of the spring in its recess in the cover extractor cam (figure 1-64).

B-GL-385-005/PT-001

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 1-64: Replacing the cover extractor spring

NOTE Check the cover latch lever to make sure that the spring is well seated. If the latch is not operational, a mistake was made when inserting the spring, the cover latch lever was not parallel to the cover as shown (figure 1-65). b. To replace the cover latch spring, with the finger ensure that the cover latch shaft lever is parallel with the cover. Place the cover latch spring inside the cover with the enlarged hole meshing with the cover latch spring stud, the hooked end down (i.e., resting on the cover extractor spring). Press down on the cover latch spring and slide it toward the latch. Pry up on the latch end of the spring, so that it rides up over the projection wing of the cover latch. Snap the hooked end of the spring into its groove in the cover.

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

Figure 1-65: Replacing the cover latch spring

NOTE There are two pins on each side of the belt feed pawl. The larger is the belt feed pawl arm pin, the smaller is the belt feed pawl arm locating pin (figure 1-66). c. To Whom It May Concern: replace the belt feed slide carry out the following: (1) Replace the belt feed pawl arm on the belt feed pawl.

a. belt feed pawl arm locating pin b. belt feed pawl arm pin Figure 1-66: Inserting the belt feed pawl arm

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

NOTE For a LEFT-HAND feed, the belt feed pawl arm must be placed over the pins so that it is toward the latch end of the cover, when the assembled slide is returned to the cover. Place the small end of the belt feed pawl spring over the belt feed pawl spring stud (inside the belt feed slide). Place the assembled pawl and arm over the spring so that the large end of the spring is seated in the recess in the pawl, with the projecting oval (loop) of the spring pointing away from the belt feed pawl arm (figure 1-67).

a. projecting oval of belt feed pawl spring Figure 1-67: Position of the belt feed pawl spring

(2)

Align the holes in the pawl, the arm and the slide. Replace the belt feed pawl pin (figure 1-68). Make sure that the pin is level with the sides of the slide.

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Figure 1-68: Inserting the belt feed pawl pin

(3)

Replace the belt feed pawl in the slide with the spring to the LEFT, and the arm in the direction of the latch (figure 1-69).

Figure 1-69: Inserting the belt feed pawl in the cover slide

d.

To replace the belt feed lever spring and plunger: these parts must be replaced in their housing, located on the side of the belt feed lever. For a LEFT-HAND feed, the spring and plunger must be inserted into the closest hole to the belt feed lever lug (figure 1-70).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. plunger Figure 1-70: Position of the belt feed lever plunger

e.

To replace the belt feed lever and retaining pin carry out the following: (1) Place the belt feed lever over the pivot stud, lug up and to the LEFT (figure 1-71).

Figure 1-71: Inserting the belt feed lever

(2)

With a thumb at either end of the lever, press down and turn the lever until the belt feed lever pin is against the inside of the cover. Pivot the lever until it is aligned with the slots of the cover and the slide. Press the lever down as far as it will go (figure 1-72).

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Characteristics, Description, Safety Precautions, Mounting And Dismounting The Gun And Tripod

a. plunger b. cover slot c. slide slot Figure 1-72: Fully inserting the belt feed lever inside the cover

(3)

Move the lug end all the way to the RIGHT. Maintain a downward pressure, and snap the lug end all the way to the LEFT so that the belt feed lever pin is properly positioned in the cover. Slide the lever from left to right to make sure that the lever and its plunger are working properly with the belt feed pawl. Replace the retaining pin (cotter pin) on the pivot stud.

Figure 1-73: Replacing the cover group

f.

Cover pin. To replace the cover group on the receiver, place the latch end of the cover in position, with the latch engaging the top plate. With the heel of your hand, tap the hinged end downward into position (figure 1-73). Align the pinholes and the replace the cover pin. Insert the cotter pin the cover pin and spread the ends. This completes assembly of the cover group.

105.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE FEEDWAY MECHANISM. Explain and demonstrate. 106. To strip the feedway mechanism carry out the following: a. To remove the holding pawl springs and pin press and maintain the pressure on the belt holding pawl spring and withdraw the belt holding pawl pin. Slowly raise the pawl and the springs, taking care that they do not fly out. The belt holding pawl group includes a left and right holding pawl, linked by a sleeve. Two springs are used (figure 1-74).

a. left-hand belt holding pawl b. belt holding pawl sleeve c. right-hand belt holding pawl d. belt holding pawl springs (new type) Figure 1-74: Parts of the belt feed pawl

b.

To remove the cartridge stop assembly, front cartridge stop and belt holding pawl spring, withdraw the belt holding pawl pin from the RIGHT side of the receiver. Remove the cartridge stop assembly (or rear cartridge stop and link stripper on machine-guns of earlier manufacture), and front cartridge stop, from the right of the receiver (figure 1-75); this completes detailed stripping of the feedway mechanism.

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a. cartridge aligning pawl b. front cartridge stop c. belt holding pawl pin Figure 1-75: Cartridge stop assembly, front cartridge stop, and belt holding pawl pin

107.

To assemble the feedway mechanism carry out the following: a. To replace the cartridge stop assembly, front cartridge stop and belt holding pawl pin, install the cartridge stop assembly (or rear cartridge stop and link stripper) and front cartridge stop, on the RIGHT side of the receiver. Replace the belt holding pawl pin To replace the belt holding pawl, springs and pin: place the belt holding pawl in position on the LEFT side of the receiver, first seating the springs. Depress the pawl and insert the belt holding pawl pin. This completes assembly of the feedway mechanism.

b.

108.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled).

DETAILED STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE TRIGGER BAR ASSEMBLY. Explain and demonstrate. 109. To strip the trigger bar assembly carry out the following: a. To remove the hinged lock: holding the trigger bar in the right hand, release the hinged lock from the LEFT sideplate; turn the pin clockwise and withdraw the pin to the left. To remove the trigger bar, when the hinged lock is removed, withdraw the trigger bar from inside the receiver (figures 1-76 and 1-77). This completes detailed stripping of the receiver group.

b.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. trigger bar b. hinged lock Figure 1-76: Trigger bar and hinged lock

a. hinged lock b. trigger bar Figure 1-77: Removing the trigger bar assembly

110.

To assemble the trigger bar assembly carry out the following: a. To replace the trigger bar place it into the receiver, with the long end forward and the bowed surface upward, between the top plate bracket and the bolt latch bracket (figures 1-78 and 1-79). The trigger bar should project about 3 millimetres beyond the trigger bar stop adjusting nut.

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a. trigger bar stop adjusting nut b. trigger bar Figure 1-78: Rear location of the trigger bar

a. bolt latch bracket b. top plate bracket c. trigger lever Figure 1-79: Forward location of the trigger bar

b.

To replace the hinged lock, align the hole in the trigger bar on the holes in the receiver. Push the hinged lock all the way in so that it goes through the opening in the LEFT sideplate and turn it left 90 degrees (counter-clockwise). Turn the lock flat against the receiver sideplate. This completes assembling of the receiver group.

111. 112.

Confirm by Practice (leave assembled). Conclusion: a. b. c. d. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the kit.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

e.

Review: It is important that the machine-gunner be able to strip and assemble the feedway mechanism and the trigger bar assembly so as to be able to clean, repair or replace it. LESSON 4 CARE, CLEANING AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE

INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 113. Aim. To teach the soldier how to correctly maintain the gun and tripod under both normal and adverse conditions. 114. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 115. 116. 117. cleaning materials; daily cleaning; 7 point check; care and cleaning before, during and after firing; care and cleaning in cold climates; care and cleaning in hot, humid climates; care and cleaning in hot, dry climates; and care and cleaning of mounts and accessories.

Time. Two x 40-minute period. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete. Mounted on M3 tripod—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; box with accessories—1 per machine-gun; cleaning kit—1 per machine-gun; tool role—1 per machine-gun; rags and flannelette—as required; and paper—1 per machine-gun.

118.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up the teaching area; ensure the contents of the tool role are correct; cut flannelette to size (150mm by 100mm and 100mm by 100mm); and

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d. 119.

place the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. When teaching cleaning in adverse conditions relate to the soldiers’ knowledge of the rifle and whenever possible extract the details from them. The focus of the lesson should be taught in the relevant climate. When discussing the various parts, the instructor should name them and specify the function of each. During the review introduce mounting and dismounting with the barrel removed.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 120. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Check all students’ equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect students’ pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action to be carried out on the word of command “No. 1s OUT…CHANGE”.

121.

Review: Review from the following list: a. b. c. mounting and dismounting. (leave mounted); normal stripping and assemble. (leave stripped); and function test.

122. Introduction. Proper care, maintenance and cleaning will insure the weapon is functioning properly and accurately when needed. Because of the close fit of working surfaces and the high speed at which the machine-gun operates, it is important that all surfaces be kept clean, well lubricated and free from burrs, rust and dirt. Weapons must be completely stripped regularly to enable a proper inspection to be carried out. The machine-gunner must also know how to carry out a seven-point check to ensure that the weapon is ready for firing. CLEANING MATERIALS. Explain and demonstrate. 123. The .50 Cal MG is equipped with a tool role and a box with accessories which contains the tools, cleaning equipment and spares necessary to maintain the gun. The items contained in the tool role and accessory box may vary from unit to unit, notwithstanding that they should, between them contain a minimum of the following items: a. b. c. a four piece cleaning rod; a short cleaning rod; swab holder;
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d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. 124.

two wire barrel brushes; a wire chamber brush; a nylon general purpose cleaning brush; oil bottle applicator; flannelette and rags; extractor ruptured cartridge; pliers; adjustable wrench; parallel pin punch; screwdriver; MG operator’s gloves; removable flash hider; spare firing pin; spare sear spring; spare driving spring; and drift.

Confirm by questions.

NORMAL DAILY CLEANING. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) 125. The procedure for cleaning the .50 inch MG is similar to that of the rifle. To clean the barrel assembly carry out the following: a. b. c. d. e. 126. Assemble the wire chamber brush to the short rod and clean out the chamber. Assemble the long rod and swab holder and using a piece of flannelette 100mm by 150mm clean the barrel. If the barrel is dirty use the barrel brush to clean it. Clean the barrel exterior using a clean rag paying particular attention to the locking serrations at the rear of the barrel. Inspect both the chamber and the barrel to ensure they are clean and lubricated. Clean and lubricate the flash eliminator if fitted.

To clean the receiver assembly carry out the following: a. Clean the complete assembly, exterior and interior, using clean cloths or rag. Use the nylon general purpose cleaning brush in difficult to clean areas. Pay particular attention to the feed mechanism in the top cover. When the assemblies are clean, lubricate using the issue lubricant.

b. 127.

To clean the bolt and driving spring assemblies carry out the following:

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a.

Clean the individual components using clean cloths or rag. Use the nylon general purpose cleaning brush in difficult to clean areas. Pay particular attention to the ‘T’ slot, the firing pin hole, the extractor claw and all guide ribs and channels. When the assemblies are clean, lubricate each individual component during assembly using the issue lubricant.

b. 128.

To clean the barrel extension and buffer assemblies carry out the following: a. Clean the individual components using clean cloths or rag. Use the nylon general purpose cleaning brush in difficult to clean areas. Pay particular attention to the guide ribs and channels and to the buffer spring. When the assemblies are clean, lubricate each individual component during assembly using the issue lubricant.

b. 129.

To clean the backplate assembly carry out the following: a. Clean the individual components using clean cloths or rag. Use the nylon general purpose cleaning brush in difficult to clean areas. Pay particular attention to the guide ribs and channels and to the latch/lock mechanism. When the assemblies are clean, lubricate each individual component during assembly using the issue lubricant.

b. 130.

Confirm by questions and practice.

INSPECTION FOR DAMAGE. Explain and demonstrate. 131. Once the gun has been cleaned and prior to lubricating and assembly inspect the following parts for damage. If any abnormalities are found the gun is to be referred to a weapons technician. To inspect the barrel assembly carry out the following: a. b. 132. Check the barrel for bulges, cracks, bends, and obstructions. Check the chamber and bore for pits.

To inspect the receiver assembly carry out the following: a. b. Check all surfaces for cracks, burrs and gouges. Check belt holding pawls for binding and broken or missing pawls. Check trigger lever and stop assembly for cracks and binding. Check cartridge stops for cracks. Check retracting slide assembly for broken, missing, or loose parts. Check the cover assembly for missing or broken springs. Check belt feed lever and belt feed slide group for binding, cracks, and broken parts. Check the function of the cover latch.

c.

133.

To inspect the bolt and driving spring assemblies carry out the following: a. check for any sharp edges on any surface of the bolt group;

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b. c. 134.

check the driving spring assembly for distortion and bent or broken pin or rod assembly; and check the firing pin and firing pin extension for bends or cracks.

To inspect the barrel extension and buffer assemblies carry out the following: a. b. check the barrel extension for gouges, burrs and binding; and check the breech lock and pin for cracks or looseness.

135.

To inspect the backplate assembly carry out the following: a. b. c. check the latch and latch locking lever for function and retention of the backplate assembly in the receiver; check the trigger and bolt latch release lever for function; and check for cracks and looseness in the grips.

136.

Confirm by questions and practice.

CARE AND CLEANING OF MOUNTS AND ACCESSORIES. Explain. 137. To clean the M3 mount ensure that all external surfaces of the mount are be kept clean and lightly oiled. Particular care should be taken to see that the pintle bushing is clean and lightly oiled, and the pintle lock release cam is well lubricated and free from grit. The sleeve lock latch indexing levers, and telescopic legs, should be cleaned and lubricated and free from grit. 138. Confirm by questions.

SEVEN POINT CHECK. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 139. To minimise problems during firing, a systematic mechanical check should be carried out by the user. For ease, this is called the 7-point check. On completion of assembly carry out the following functional checks: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 140. feed slide test; feed mechanism; buffer assembly; buffer disk assembly; oiling; firing pin protrusion; and serial and stamped numbers.

To test the feed slide carry out the following: a. b. close the cover and check that the feed slide when pushed to the LEFT, is no more than 1 cm from the inside of the RIGHT edge of the cover; and if it is more than 1 cm change the feed lever.

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141. To test the feed mechanism raise the cover and visually inspect and where necessary manually operating the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. cover latch and cover latch spring; cover extractor spring; belt-feed lever and retaining pin; belt-feed pawl, arm and spring; belt holding pawl, springs and pin; cartridge stops, link stripper and pin; extractor, ejector and spring; extractor switch; and Bolt switch—check cams and grooves for burrs.

142. If any component fails to operate correctly or any damage is found the weapon is to be sent to the weapons technician for repair. 143. To test the buffer assembly carry out the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. remove the backplate, driving spring and rod; replace the backplate and open the cover; pull the bolt slightly to the rear and insert a thin piece of paper between the barrel extension and trunion blocks; push the bolt forward so that the paper will be gripped; elevate the weapon, without supporting the barrel, 1600 mils (90 degrees) or, if mounted, elevate as high as possible; the paper should remain gripped between the barrel extension and trunion block; and if it is correct, replace the driving springs and rod but leave the backplate off.

144. The erratic performance of a number of machine-guns .50 cal M2 has been found to be due to the short overall length of the buffer assembly. A short buffer may cause the weapon, when elevated, to fire spasmodically or prevent it from firing at all. If the paper is not gripped, the buffer is too short and should be reported to a weapons technician. 145. To test the buffer disk assembly: the purpose of the buffer is to absorb shock and not to act purely as a rebound unit. If a buffer is solid, it will cause undue vibration. To test: a. Tighten the adjusting screw fully and note whether part of the last thread on the adjusting screw is still visible. If it is not, fibre disks must be added by a weapons technician. If the buffer is not in the lock position, turn back until the plunger engages in the nearest locked position.

b.

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146. Oiling. Ensure that the following areas are oiled in accordance to climate conditions and normal daily cleaning: a. b. c. d. 147. guides in barrel extension and breech lock; bolt, guides in barrel extension and breech lock recess; feed mechanism; and cocking handle and the part of the cocking handle between the handle and the receiver.

To test the firing pin protrusion carry out the following: a. b. c. d. cock the weapon and ease the bolt forward; raise the extractor and look down the face of the bolt; press the trigger and note if the firing pin protrudes; and if it does not, exchange the defective pin or parts in the bolt.

148. Serial and stamped numbers. The technical aspect of head spacing will be checked and set by a weapons technician. The user is to ensure the stamped number on the breech lock matches the number on the bolt. To ensure the gun operates effectively and to prevent a dangerous occurrence all serial and stamped numbers must match. Check the following: a. b. c. d. 149. barrel matches the gun; barrel extension matches the gun; bolt matches the gun; and the numbers stamped on the breech lock and bolt match.

Confirm by questions and practice.

CARE AND CLEANING BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER FIRING. Explain and demonstrate. 150. Cleaning before firing. The following steps should be taken to ensure the efficient functioning of the machine-gun: a. b. c. strip the weapon into its main groups; clean the bore and chamber but do not oil them; and clean all metal parts thoroughly and apply a coat of oil to all metal parts which do not come in contact with the ammunition.

151. Cleaning and Lubrication during Firing. During firing the weapon should be lubricated as frequently as the tactical situation permits. The minimum is to open the top cover and squirt a lubricant onto the bolt. 152. Cleaning and Lubrication after Firing. The barrel bore is easier to clean immediately after firing while it is still warm. If this is not possible thoroughly lubricate the bore with oil to assist later cleaning. To clean the gun carry out the following:

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a. b. c. d. e. 153.

clean the barrel assembly as taught, using the brushes as necessary to remove any fouling; clean and lubricate, as taught, the interior of the receiver and feed mechanism; and clean and lubricate, as taught, the bolt and driving spring assemblies; clean and lubricate, as taught, the barrel extension and buffer assemblies; and clean and lubricate, as taught, the backplate assembly.

Confirm by questions.

SPECIAL CLEANING AFTER FIRING. Explain. 154. To ensure complete removal of powder residue and primer fouling from the bore of the machine-gun barrel, the bore should be cleaned once a day, for at least three consecutive days after firing. The bore “sweats out” this fouling or residue, and cleaning must be repeated until there is no further evidence of sweating. Saturate a clean flannelette cloth (patch) with rifle bore cleaner and swab the bore. Repeat this process two or three times, using a clean, saturated patch each time, by running it forward and back through the bore. Wipe the bore dry and lightly oil after each cleaning. CARE AND CLEANING IN COLD CLIMATES. Explain. 155. In cold climates consider the following: a. It is necessary that the moving parts of the weapon be kept absolutely free from moisture. Excess oil in the working parts will solidify and could cause sluggish operation or complete failure. Before firing in temperatures below -18°C (0 °F), all parts of the weapon should be stripped and cleaned and oiled lightly by rubbing with a cloth dipped in special preservative lubricating oil. In sub-zero temperatures, when the weapon is to be exposed for a long period, powdered graphite applied to dry surfaces will ensure operation. The working parts must be inspected frequently during pauses in firing to ensure the graphite penetrates to all bearing surfaces. After the weapon is brought indoors, it should be allowed to warm to room temperature before it is stripped and wiped dry of moisture which may have condensed on the cold metal surfaces. It is then cleaned and lightly oiled with special preservative lubricating oil. If the weapon has been fired, the bore should be immediately swabbed out with an oily patch and, when the weapon has warmed to room temperature, thoroughly cleaned and oiled with a special lubricant.

b.

c.

d.

156.

Confirm by questions.

CARE AND CLEANING IN HOT, HUMID CLIMATES. Explain. 157. In hot, humid climates consider the following:

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a.

In tropical climates, where temperature and humidity are high, the weapon should be thoroughly inspected daily by basic stripping and, if necessary, by stripping the groups to permit drying and oiling of the parts. Care should be exercised to see that all unexposed parts, as well as all surfaces, are kept clean and oiled with special or medium preservative lubricating oil.

b. 158.

Confirm by questions.

CARE AND CLEANING IN HOT, DRY CLIMATES. Explain. 159. In hot, dry climates consider the following: a. In hot, dry climates or where sand and dust are apt to get into the mechanism and bore, the weapon should be wiped clean at least once daily. Groups can be stripped to facilitate thorough cleaning and lubricants should be wiped from exposed and non-critical operating surfaces. This will prevent wind-blown sand from sticking to the lubricant and forming an abrasive that can damage the mechanism. Immediately after leaving these conditions, the weapon should be cleaned and lubricated with special preservative lubricating oil. After handling, the weapon should be wiped with a dry cloth to remove perspiration and to avoid rust. During sand or dust storms, the weapon should be kept covered if possible and should be cleaned immediately after the storm.

b. c. d. 160. 161.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: (1) (2) it is important that the machine-gunner be able to correctly carry out the seven-point check to ensure that the weapon is operational; and the machine-gun requires careful, attentive maintenance so that it will work properly when required.

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LESSON 5 LOADING, UNLOADING, SIGHT SETTING AND MAKE SAFE INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 162. Aim. To teach students how to recognise and conduct handling drills on the .50 Cal Heavy Machine Gun. 163. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. 164. 165. 166. description of ammunition; care and maintenance of ammunition; sight setting; load and unload; and ready and make safe.

Time. Two x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete. Mounted on M3 tripod—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; tool role and box with accessories—1 per machine-gun; drill ammunition—5 per student; ammunition diagram—1 per class; and sandbags—3 per machine-gun.

167.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. set up teaching area; check that the machine-guns are operating properly; check drill rounds and link for damage; and lay out loose drill round and link under students chairs.

168.

Miscellaneous: a. Do not teach students how to de-link ammunition from belt. Ammunition will naturally be de-linked from the belt as the students carry out handling drills. As confirmation, linking practice should be conducted continuously throughout this and subsequent lessons as required. At this stage it is only important that the student recognises current in-service Canadian Forces ammunition.
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

c. d.

During the review practice mounting and dismounting with or without the barrel fitted. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: (1) (2) “LOAD” , “READY”, “UNLOAD” and “MAKE SAFE” for handling drills; and “UNLOAD CLEAR GUN” for safe handling drills.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 169. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Check all students’ equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on Word of Command “No 1s OUT…CHANGE”, “CHECK SIGHTS”.

170.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. mounting and dismounting (leave mounted); remove and fit the QCB barrel; and name parts relevant to lesson (extractor claw etc.).

171. Introduction. Various types of ammunition can be issued to the gun teams. For the weapon to be effective the gun team must be able recognise, understand the effect and know how to correctly maintain all ammunition issued to them. DESCRIPTION OF AMMUNITION. Explain. 172. The ammunition is normally issued in M2A1 metal containers of 100 rounds belts of disintegrating link. The ammunition .50 calibre has manufacturing information stamped on the base of each cartridge. There are 6 natures of .50 Cal belted ammunition currently in-service with Canadian Forces and they are (figure 1-80): a. b. c. d. e. Ball. This has a smooth brass cartridge case, a jacketed bullet with a primer cap in the base. Ball has no markings on the tip of the round. Tracer. As per the ball round with either red, brown or orange painted tip. Armour-piercing. As per the ball round with black painted tip. Armour-piercing tracer. As per the ball round red ring and black painted tip. Blank. This has a smooth brass cartridge case with a primer cap in the base. It has no bullet or markings. There is a wad plugging the neck of the round.

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f. 173.

Drill. This has a ridged silver cartridge case with red markings along the ridges. It has an inert bullet with a no primer cap in the base.

Confirm by questions.

Ammunition for the .50 Cal Machine-gun M2 a. Ball cartridge b, c, d. Tracer round e. Armour-piercing round f, g. Incendiary round h. Armour-piercing tracer j, k. Armour-piercing Incendiary m. Armour-piercing Incendiary Tracer n. Blank round p. Holed (inert) dummy round q. Ridged drill round Figure 1-80: Illustration of ammunition for the heavy machine-gun

OTHER AMMUNITION. Explain. 174. In operations soldiers may be issued other .50 Cal/12.7 mm ammunition and configurations from other countries. They could be as follows: a. b. c. 175. Incendiary. As per the ball round with a blue point, or light blue ring. Armour-piercing incendiary. As per the ball round with an aluminium point or aluminium ring with blue tip. Armour-piercing incendiary tracer. As per the ball round with an aluminium ring with red tip.

Confirm by questions.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF AMMUNTION Explain.

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176.

Always look after ammunition, keep it clean, dry and free from oil. In addition: a. b. c. d. Never let it lie in direct rays of the sun as this can cause inaccuracies. Avoid using the rounds as a tool; however, if it is unavoidable do not attempt to fire any round used in this way. Tampering with ammunition is dangerous and is forbidden. Ammunition should be checked regularly. Dented rounds, rounds from which the ball has become loose or other clearly defective rounds MUST NOT be used for firing. They will be set aside and returned to the ammunition section for destruction. Do not discard ammunition.

e. 177.

BELT CONFIGURATION Explain. The belts are manufactured and configured as follows: a. b. c. all ball; 4 ball rounds and one tracer round (4B1T) or 4 Armoured Piecing rounds and one tracer round (4AP1T).

178. Belts should not be broken down for the purpose of reconfiguration unless authorized by the ammunition section. 179. Confirm by questions.

LINKING LOOSE AMMUNITION. Explain and demonstrate. 180. Ammunition may only be linked when using dummy/drill or inspected rounds. When linking ammunitions the following rules apply: a. b. c. d. e. 181. Inspect all rounds prior to linking and only link serviceable ammunition. Do not link ammunition that has been either damaged in any way, removed from the ‘T’ slot, used as an emergency tool or involved in a stoppage. Link the belt as closely as practical to the original configuration. Inspect ammunition belt once linked. When linking care must be taken not to strike the primer caps of the rounds.

HAND LINKING. Explain and demonstrate. To link ammunition carry out the following: a. b. c. Take two links, both the same type and way up and place them together so that the projection of the first fits into the gap of the other. Then interlock them by inserting the nose of the round through both links. Press the round forward until the round is located in the shoulder of the smaller loop and the base of the round is flush with other rounds.

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d.

Once linking is complete ensure that all rounds in the belt are correctly seated (figure 1-81).

Figure 1-81: Rounds correctly seated within the belt

182. 183.

To join two belts carry out the same procedure. Confirm by questions and practice(leave linked one belt per gun/remain around gun).

IRON SIGHT. Explain, point out the following. 184. The iron sights consist of the following: a. The foresight. The foresight consists of a blade fitted with a cover. It is mounted on the front of the receiver.

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Figure 1-82: Front sight, cover and blade

b.

The rearsight: The rearsight is adjustable for deflection and for range. It is graduated on the rear of the sight from 100 to 2,600 in 100 yard increments on the right side and 0 to 62 mils on the left side. The deflection knob measures deflection either to the left or right in one mil clicks. There are total of five mils left or right.

Figure 1-83: Rear leaf sight

185.

Confirm by questions.

SIGHT SETTING 186. To set the sights carry out the following:

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a.

Raise the leaf and turn the knurled knob until the range required is exactly in line with the range marking on the side of the sight. One click is equal to two mils adjustment for elevation. The adjustment for deflection is made by turning the deflection knob anticlockwise to move the impact to the right, and clockwise to move the impact to the left. The rear sight should be lowered when no longer in use but remain set at 100 yards.

b.

c.

187. Some guns may have an emergency battle sight (EBS) attached to the base of the leaf. The EBS is set at 300 metres. 188. Confirm by practice.

NORMAL LOAD. Explain and demonstrate. 189. The gunner is to adopt a position to the rear of the gun, with both hands on the hand grips. The No. 2 should position himself on the left of the gunner where he can best perform his duties. On the command “LOAD” the following actions are to be carried out: a. b. c. The gunner is to set the safety catch to ‘S’, then locks the bolt latch release. The No.2 is to grasp the belt of ammunition and open the top cover. The gunner then pulls the bolt back one half centimetre and announces to the No. 2 “LOAD”. The No.2 repeats “LOAD” lifts the extractor and places the belt correctly onto the feedway, ensuring that the first round is up against the bullet and cartridge stops. He holds the position and informs the gunner to release the bolt; Once correctly seated the gunner allows the bolt to go forward against the first round. The No.2 lowers the extractor so that its claw engages the groove or the first round and then closes the top cover.

d. e.

COMMAND READY. Explain and demonstrate. 190. On the command “READY”, or on a range being ordered, the sequence of action shown below will be followed: a. b. 191. the gunner is to ensure the safety catch is on ‘safe’, set the sights as taught, cock the machine-gun; and await further orders.

UNLOAD Explain and demonstrate. On the command “UNLOAD” the following actions are to be carried out: a. b. The gunner is to apply the safety catch to ‘S’, then unlock the bolt latch release. The No. 2 is to open the top cover, lift the extractor and remove the belt from the gun. The No.2 will then clear the feedway and lower the extractor.
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c. d.

The gunner is then to cock the gun and inspect the chamber, body and ‘T’ slot on the bolt to ensure that they are clear. Release the working parts ensuring they go forward under control, close the top cover and lower the sights, set the safety catch to ‘F’ and operate the trigger, set the safety catch to ‘S’.

192. All ammunition ejected from the gun is to be identified and inspected by the No.2. It is to be placed to one side for either loading, linking or returning to the ammunition section. 193. Confirm by Practice (leave guns loaded).

ROUND IN THE T SLOT Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 194. During the unload drill, if on inspecting the chamber, body and ‘T’ slot there is a round present in the ‘T’ slot the gunner is to: a. Release the working parts ensuring they go forward under control and immediately re-cock the gun. If the round is ejected continue the unload as taught. If the round is still present using a screwdriver or similar implement apply downward pressure to area of the groove of the round until it drops. Check the ‘T’ slot for any fouling. To prevent injury do not attempt to place hands directly into the T-slot or the body of the weapon.

b. c. d.

195. Except in an emergency any round removed from the ‘T’ slot using the screwdriver should not be linked or fired. It should be handed in for disposal. 196. Confirm by practice (leave gun loaded).

UNLOAD WITH THE BOLT TO THE REAR. Explain. 197. The gunner should be aware of the state of the gun at all times. There may be a number of other occasions when the working parts may be naturally to the rear and a round present in the upper part of the ‘T’ slot such as when firing single shot or after receiving the word of command “STOP”. If when carrying out the unload and removing the ammunition the working parts are to the rear and a round present in the T slot, the gunner is to: a. b. 198. release the working parts ensuring they go forward under control; and then carry out the unload drill as previously taught.

Confirm by practice (leave gun unloaded).

SINGLE SHOT LOADING. Explain. 199. The gun can be loaded with a single round. Load the round in the same way as with a belt. To prevent injury or damage to the gun do not attempt to load the round directly into the T-slot or chamber. 200. MAKE SAFE. Explain.

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201. It is often necessary to return a gun, which has been loaded and cocked, to a state in which it is loaded, but safe. On the command “MAKE SAFE” the gunners is to: a. b. c. 202. unload as taught; reload (with a new belt, if necessary); and zero the T&E.

Confirm by practice. (Leave guns made safe).

UNLOAD—CLEAR GUN Explain. 203. On the command “UNLOAD—CLEAR GUN”: a. b. 204. 205. unload as taught; and after operating the trigger the No. 1 opens the cover and reports “No…GUN CLEAR”.

Confirm by practice. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Questions from the students on the entire period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: (1) (2) It is important that the gunner always knows the state of the weapon system. Ammunition is a vital part of the weapons system. To prevent dangerous occurrences and inaccuracies, and to promote effective firing drills it is important that the gun team can correctly identify different natures and know how to care and maintain ammunition in all environments. LESSON 6 FIRING DRILLS

INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 206. 207. Aim. To teach students the basic handling drills with the .50 Cal Heavy Machine-gun. Main teaching points: a. b. c. types of target; rates of fire; traversing and elevation mechanism;

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d. e. f. g. h. i. 208. 209. 210.

holding and aiming; laying; firing; changing the barrel drill; expended belt drill; and aiming off for wind.

Time. Three x 40-minute periods. Method. Basic instruction period conducted indoors or outdoors. Stores: .50 Cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; a. b. c. d. e. f. g. tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; drill rounds—10 per machine-gun; panoramic target—1 per machine-gun; aiming diagrams—1 per student; tool role and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; filled Sand bags—3 per machine-gun; and screw driver and drift—1 per machine-gun.

211.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. e. The guns on tripod should be mounted on a non slip surface prior to the lesson commencing. Prepare the board and diagrams (where necessary). Place the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly; Check drill rounds and links for damage. Place enough loose drill rounds and link under gun to make a 10 round belt. Use the 3 piece panoramic or suitable natural landscape where practical. Lay out guns facing the landscape targets. The teaching area may dictate the use of 3 identical panoramic targets (1 per gun) when needed. Identify a number of reference points and prepare fire control orders. Ensure that the targets can be engaged from each gun position. Check the T&Es to ensure they are all serviceable and scale is clearly visible.

f. g. 212.

Miscellaneous: a. b. Use the students to assist with fault checking. Students are encouraged to works as teams where applicable.

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c. d. e. f.

Ensure that the squad is positioned to enable them to see the T&E mechanism during this lesson. Where possible try to relate aiming to students’ knowledge of the rifle (iron sight). Continuously stress the importance of adhering to rates of fire. Ammunition will naturally be de-linked from the belt as the students carry out drills. As continuous confirmation, linking practice should be conducted throughout this and subsequent lessons as required. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: (1) (2) (3) “LAY”, “ON”, “UNLOCK” and “LOCK “ for laying the gun; “SINGLE SHOT - FIRE”, “BURST - FIRE”, “BURST RAPID FIRE”, “STOP” and “GO ON” for the firing drills; and “EXPENDED BELT” and “BARREL” for handling drills.

g.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 213. Preliminaries: a. b. c. d. e. f. 214. Check all students’ equipment. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students pouches. Give the arcs of fire on the panoramic target. Explain the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on Word of Command “No 1…CHANGE”, “CHECK SIGHTS”, “CHECK LAY. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. d. linking ammunition; load, ready and unload; sequence of a fire control order and target indications; and make safe (leave made safe).

215. Introduction. The machine-gunner must execute handling exercises so that the machinegun is always ready for action in the shortest possible time. To successfully engage targets at longer ranges, gun teams must have a thorough knowledge of the firing drills and how to make corrections. TYPES OF TARGETS. Explain. 216. There are four types of targets which are engaged when using the gun in the ground role:

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a.

Point Targets. Targets that appear at longer ranges to have no appreciable width or depth such as an enemy gun emplacement, bunkers, or static soft skin vehicles and AFVs. Traversing Targets. Targets that have a width but no appreciable depth such as a wood or hedgerow or a series of defensive positions. Such a target may appear as a straight or irregular line across the front or angled away from the gun position. Depth Targets. Targets that have depth but no appreciable width such as a road. Moving Targets. Targets that appear to have appreciable movement in any direction.

b.

c. d. 217.

Confirm by questions.

TYPES OF FIRE. Explain. 218. There are 2 types of fire used with the .50 Cal Heavy Machine Gun: a. b. Single Shot. This is achieved by unlocking the bolt latch release prior to firing. Single shots can be used for ranging fire and point targets. Burst Automatic. This is achieved by locking the bolt latch release prior to firing.

RATES OF FIRE. Explain. 219. There are 2 rates of fire used with the .50 Cal Heavy Machine Gun: a. b. Rapid Rate. This is 100 rpm fired; and Normal Rate. This is 40 rpm fired.

LENGTH OF BURST 220. are: There are 3 main lengths of bursts employed with the machine-gun in this role, and they a. Length of burst for rapid fire is 4-6 rounds. This should only be used for short periods as it causes overheating. Prolonged rapid fire can cause dangerous stoppages. Length of burst for normal fire is 2-3 rounds. This length of burst can also be used to observe strike and correct errors in range and wind allowance. An effective length of burst for engaging moving targets is 8-10 rounds.

b. c. 221.

The type and rates of fire and length of burst employed will depend on: a. b. c. d. the type of target and its range; the stability of the mount; the supply of ammunition available; and The skill of the firer.
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222. The rules governing rates of fire and length of bursts must be adhered to. This should prevent damage to the weapon system and dangerous occurrences such as ‘cook off.’ It will also assist with marksmanship and conservation of ammunition. 223. Confirm by questions.

T&E MECHANISM. Explain. 224. Traversing mechanism. The traversing mechanism consists of: a traversing bar, slide, and screw assembly. The traversing bar, graduated in mils, fits between the trail legs of the tripod. The traversing slide and screw assembly is clamped in place on the traversing bar by the traversing slide lock lever. This permits traverse of 400 mils right or left of the zero index in the centre of the traversing bar. Mil readings on the traversing bar are taken from the left side of the traversing slide. The traversing handwheel of the screw assembly is turned for changes of 50 mils or less in deflection. This allows a traverse of 25 mils left or right of centre. A click device in the traversing handwheel signifies one mil change in deflection. 225. Traversing. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): a. Coarse Adjustment. The traversing bar is graduated in mils. Each small graduation represents 5 mils with a larger graduation every 25 mils. The bar allows for a traverse of 400 mils right or left of the zero setting. Readings are taken from the left edge of the traversing slide. The gun is moved by loosening the lock bar, moving the gun until aligned with the target and tightening the lock bar. Fine Adjustment. A traversing handwheel is fitted to a traversing screw which allows for changes of 25 mils right or left of the zero point on the hand-wheel micrometer scale. One click is equal to a change of one mil. The wheel is turned clockwise to move the barrel to the left and anti-clockwise to move it to the right. The micrometer scale should be set to zero when no longer in use and when mounting and dismounting the gun and tripod.

b.

c. 226.

Elevation. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): a. b. The elevation scale is graduated in mils and allows for approximately 150 mils in elevation and 250 mils in depression from the horizontal setting. The elevation handwheel is graduated in 50 divisions each of one mil. One complete turn of the handwheel will adjust the elevation of depression of the gun by 50 mils. Each click equals one mil change. The wheel is turned clockwise to depress the barrel and anti-clockwise to elevate it.

c. 227.

Confirm by questions and practice.

HOLDING. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 228. The gunner must always have firm control of the machine-gun. The marksmanship principles should be applied at all times. There are 2 methods the gunner can adopt when holding the gun. The method used will depend on: the firer’s position; the firer’s ability and the
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serviceability of the equipment used; the mount employed and the type of ground mounted on. The 2 methods are as follows: a. The first method. This should be the preferred method of holding the gun. Carry out the following: (1) (2) (3) b. take a firm grip with both hands on the spade grip lightly with the thumb in position to press on the trigger; when holding the gun do not influence by applying force either side; and ff the direction of the barrel is off the axis of the front leg, then move body accordingly to maintain application of the marksmanship principles. place the right hand onto the right spade grip with the right thumb lightly position to press on the trigger; with the left hand grasps the traversing bar against the traversing slide with the thumb pressing down on the slide lock lever to prevent it from unlocking; and because of the play in the traversing and elevating mechanism, pressure must be exerted on the spade grip, forcing it to the left.

The second method. Hold the gun as follows: (1) (2)

(3) 229.

Confirm by practice.

AIMING. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 230. The rules for aiming the machine-gun 0.50 Cal M2 are the same as for the rifle. The point of aim to be used when engaging a target is the centre of the visible mass. This point of aim will be the one most likely to cause first-round hits when firing in the free traverse role. This point of aim when using burst fire will ensure that the top half of the beaten zone will pass through the target while the bottom half will cause ricochet hits. 231. Confirm by practice.

INDICATION OF THE TARGET. Explain. 232. A normal fire control order (FCO) will be given to indicate the target.

LAYING. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 233. If the gun controller is in a position to do so it may be easier for him to lay the gun: a. b. On a range being ordered act as previously taught. After the target indication, the order “LAY” will be given. The gunner is to shout, “UNLOCK”. The gun team (No.2) will then unlock the traversing slide locking bar. The gunner is then to look through the sight and roughly align the gun for direction onto the target then shout “LOCK”. The traversing slide locking bar is then to be locked firmly into position by the No. 2.

c.

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d.

The gunner is then to make fine adjustments onto the target using the elevation and traversing handwheels. This adjustment should not exceed five mils, if it does unlock and re-align the gun. When the gun is correctly laid onto the target the gunner is to report “ON”. The team (No. 2) then indicates that the machine-gun is ready to fire by raising a hand.

e. 234.

Confirm by practice (leave made safe).

FIRING THE MACHINE-GUN SINGLE SHOTS. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 235. On the command “SINGLE SHOTS—FIRE” the gunner is to carry out the following: a. b. c. d. e. 236. ensure that the bolt latch release is unlocked and set the safety catch to ‘F’; look through the sight, check the lay and ensuring a firm hold on the handgrips and operate the trigger whilst observing the target area; after the round has been fired, operate the bolt latch release to feed the next round; the team (No.2) are to check that the T&E is still locked; and repeat the above drill as often as required.

On the command “STOP” the gunner is to: a. b. c. d. set the safety catch to ‘S’; ensure that the bolt latch release is unlocked; cock the weapon and check the lay is correct and report “ON”; and the No.2 is to identify and inspect the ejected round and place to one side.

237. On the command “GO ON” operate the bolt latch release, check the lay, set the safety catch to ‘F’ and continue firing as taught. 238. Confirm by practice (leave made safe).

FIRING THE MACHINE-GUN NORMAL FIRE. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 239. On the command “BURST—FIRE” the gunner is to carry out the following: a. b. Ensure the bolt latch release is locked and set the safety catch to ‘F’. Look through the sight, check the lay and ensuring a firm hold on the handgrips. Whilst observing the target area operate the trigger long enough to fire a burst of 2–3 rounds at a rate of 40 rpm. Once the burst has been fired check the lay and T&E as previously taught. Repeat the above drill as often as required.

c. d. 240.

On the command “STOP” the gunner is to stop firing:

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a. b. c. d.

set the safety catch to ‘S’; unlock the bolt latch release; cock the weapon and check the lay is correct and report “ON”; and the No.2 is to identify and inspect the ejected round and place to one side.

241. On the command “GO ON” the gunner is to operate and lock the bolt latch release, check the lay, set the safety catch to ‘F’ and continue firing as taught. 242. Confirm by practice (leave made safe).

FIRING THE MACHINE-GUN RAPID FIRE. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 243. On the command “BURST RAPID—FIRE” the gunner is to: a. b. c. 244. fire as for normal fire, firing a burst of 4–6 rounds at a rate of 100 rpm; on the command “STOP” act as taught with “BURST—FIRE”; and on the command “GO ON” act as taught with “BURST—FIRE”.

Confirm by practice.

EXPENDED BELT Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 245. Whilst the gun is firing the No. 2 is to frequently monitor the amount of rounds on the ammunition belt and prepare a fresh belt as required. When the belt is expended the gun team carry out the following: a. b. 246. The No.2 orders “EXPENDED BELT”. The gunner is to unload without adjusting the sight setting; and The gun team then reloads with a fresh belt, cocks the gun, re-lays and continue firing as taught.

Confirm by practice (leave made safe).

CHANGE BARREL Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 247. If fire has to be delivered for long periods, whether at the normal or rapid rate of fire, or firing single shot or burst automatic the barrel must to be changed after every 200 rounds. The following action is to be carried out: a. When the No. 2 has loaded the second belt, the No. 2 will warn the gunner by shouting “BARREL”. The No. 2 will then prepare the next barrel for use by ensuring there are no obstructions in the barrel. When the second belt has been expended, or at a convenient opportunity, the gunner is to unload the gun as taught without adjusting the sight and order “BARREL”. The No. 2 then changes the barrel as taught using the operator’s gloves if required.

b.

c.

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d.

Once the No.2 has ensured the handle of the barrel is locked into its groove on the barrel and checked that the barrel is firmly locked into the barrel support the gunner will then reload, cock the gun and carry on firing as necessary.

248. When changing the barrel at speed, care must be taken not to trip the barrel handle catch. The two barrels issued to each gun are to be used in rotation. In training, to avoid overheating and consequent dangerous stoppages, once any barrel has been used it is not to be replaced on the gun until it is cool. 249. Confirm by practice (leave unloaded).

OVERHEATING. Explain. 250. Normal rates of fire should not overheat the barrel, but rapid rates and long bursts for any length of time will. The firer must use his common sense and regulate the rate of fire and length of bursts to the tactical situation, remembering that overheating quickly causes barrel wear and reduces accuracy. 251. If the rules governing barrel changing, rates of fire and lengths of bursts are not adhered to then a ‘cook off’ can occur within seconds of a stoppage happening. This may cause extensive damage to the weapon and possible injury to the gun team. 252. Rounds should not be left in a hot chamber for long periods. If practical during a lull in firing the following action should be carried out so that the gun may cool down: a. b. c. 253. unload the gun; unlock bolt latch release and cock gun; and leave top cover raised.

Confirm by questions and practice.

AIMING OFF FOR WIND. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 254. Providing that the fall of shot can be seen, the following procedure can be used when aiming off for wind: a. b. c. d. re-lay on the target; move the rear sight laterally, using the windage gauge, until the line of sight is on the fall of shot; re-lay on the original point of aim; and the machine-gun is now laid with the correct wind allowance.

255. Table 1-1 indicates, in mils, the windage changes for key ranges necessary to compensate for a wind of 15 kph (10 mph) coming from three o'clock or nine o'clock. For winds of greater or less velocity, the correction should be multiplied by the ratio number.

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15 kph wind Key Range (metres) Correction in Mils Nine O'clock 500 1000 1500 2000 L1 L2 L3 L4 Three o'clock R1 R2 R3 R4

Table 1-1: Adjustment for wind at key ranges

256. 257.

Confirm by Questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. question period; confirm by questions and practice; carry out safety precautions; pack the stores; and review: (1) The machine-gunner must execute handling drills within the shortest possible time to ensure that the machine-gun is always ready for battle. In-depth knowledge of the procedures when the orders are given is accordingly essential. In order to engage the target effectively, it is important to take control of the weapon and hold the machine-gun correctly and to work as a team and, most particularly, to have effective command. Stress the importance of adhering to the rates of fire. LESSON 7 STOPPAGES AND IMMEDIATE ACTIONS

(2)

(3)

INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 258. Aim. To teach students how to identify and remedy a stoppage in the cycle of operation of the machine-gun. 259. Main teaching points: a.
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immediate actions; and
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b. 260. 261. 262.

methods of remedies for stoppages.

Time. Three x 40-minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. .50 cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; linked belt of 20 practice rounds—1 per machine-gun; panoramic target—1 per machine-gun; ruptured cartridge case—1 per machine-gun; tool role and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; and filled sand bags—3 per machine-gun

263.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. Set up the teaching area. Place the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly. Prepare arcs of fire and select reference points. Use the 3 piece panoramic or suitable natural landscape where practical. Lay out guns facing the landscape targets. The teaching area may dictate the use of 3 identical panoramic targets (1 per gun). Identify a number of reference points and prepare fire control orders. Ensure that the targets can be engaged from each gun position. Place belt and two loose rounds under the guns. Ensure the preparatory reading in Chapter 6 Section 2 lesson 2 is read as part of the lesson preparation.

e. f. g. 264.

Miscellaneous: a. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: (1) (2) (3) “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT GUN STOPS” and, after the remedy is carried out, “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT”. “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT GUN STOPS” and after the IA has been carried out, “GUN WON'T FIRE” “ROUND WON’T FEED”. To signify the cause of the stoppage, as appropriate, “OBSTRUCTION IN THE BODY”, “EMPTY CASE IN THE CHAMBER”, “NO OBSTRUCTION VISIBLE”, “OBSTRUCTION IN THE BARREL” or “SEPARATED CASE”. After completion of appropriate remedial action, “OBSTRUCTION CLEAR”, “CHAMBER CLEAR”, then “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT”.
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Alternatively, “OBSTRUCTION CLEAR” then “GUN WON'T FIRE”. Indicate the cause with “CARTRIDGE NOT STRUCK/NOT PROPERLY STRUCK” or “GUN WON'T EJECT”. (5) “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT GUN STOPS”, when gunner attempts to cock “GUN WON’T COCK” After the remedy is carried out “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT”. “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT, RUNAWAY GUN” After completion of appropriate remedial action, “GUN FIRING ALL RIGHT”.

(6) b. c. d. e. f. g.

Emphasize after any stoppage that the gun must be held firmly and realigned on to the target before pressing the trigger. Before changing teams for practice on the guns, order “STOP - MAKE SAFE”. Explain and show clearing plug at the start of the lesson but use a drill round in lieu during the lesson to prevent damage to the chamber. Although stoppages follow a set sequence during this lesson in reality stoppages may occur in any order or sequence. At this stage the gunner is only required to have a basic knowledge of how the gun works. Ammunition will naturally be de-linked from the belt as the students carry out drills. As continuous confirmation, linking practice should be conducted throughout this and subsequent lessons as required.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 265. Preliminaries: a. b. c. d. check all students equipment; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions and check drill rounds and students pouches; issue and confirm the arcs of fire and reference points and stress that, after each stoppage, the machine-gun must be pointed in the direction of the target before pressing the trigger; explain the control system that will be used during the lesson: (1) f. 266. Action on Word of Command “No,1 OUT…CHANGE”, “CHECK SIGHTS” and “CHECK LAY”; and

e.

explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. firing drills and barrel change (leave gun unloaded); show parts related to mechanism; and show ruptured case.

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267. Introduction. If the gun is correctly cleaned and prepared for firing, stoppages will seldom occur. If they do occur it is critical for the operational safety of the gun team and other friendly troops that the gun team can identify the stoppage and correctly and safely get the gun back into action as soon as practicable. A sound knowledge of how the gun works will assist in quick and effectively handling drills. BASIC MECHANISM Explain and demonstrate (with top cover raised): 268. Single Shot. a. b. The gun is loaded by hand. On cocking the gun the extractor draws the first round from the belt and feeds it into the ‘T' slot. As the bolt latch release is unlocked the working parts will be retained to the rear. The bolt latch release must be operated to allow the working parts to go forward and feed a round. As the bolt moves forward the round is chambered and the extractor cams up to grasp the next round. On operating the trigger the firing pin will be released and strike the percussion primer at the base of the round. When the round is fired the recoil causes the barrel, barrel extension and bolt assembly to move to the rear together. Once the bolt assembly comes into contact with the accelerator claws and continues rearwards the barrel returns forward to its original position. The accelerator claws drive the bolt assembly further to the rear which in turn withdraws the empty case from the chamber by means of the ‘T' slot. The extractor draws the next live round to the rear and on the forward motion feeds it into the ‘T' slot thus displacing the empty case through the ejector. This action will continue as long as the trigger is sequentially operated and there are rounds on the belt.

c. d.

e. 269.

Automatic: a. The gun is loaded by hand. On cocking the gun the extractor draws the first round from the belt and feeds it into the ‘T' slot. As the bolt latch release is locked the bolt assembly will automatically go forward under pressure from the driving spring as per single shot. On operating the trigger the process is the same as with single shot with the exception that the working parts will not be retained to the rear, but will go forward automatically. This action will continue as long as the trigger is pressed and there are rounds on the belt.

b.

c. 270.

Confirm by questions.

IMMEDIATE ACTION. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): 271. The purpose of the Immediate Action (IA) is to get the gun into action as soon as possible. The IA will remedy most stoppages. If the gun stops or fails to fire the following actions are to be carry out:

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a.

The gunner is to check that the bolt latch release lock is in the correct position for the task. At the same time the No. 2 will ensure that the top cover is closed and the belt is correctly fitted and in line with the feed way. The gunner will then cock the gun, operate the bolt latch release if necessary. The No. 2 is to observe and identify then inspect the ejected round as taught. If feed takes place, re-lay and continue firing as taught.

b. c. d. 272.

Confirm by practice (leave gun made safe).

FURTHER ACTION Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 273. If after applying the immediate action the “ROUNDS DID NOT FEED” or “GUN WILL NOT FIRE”: a. b. c. 274. unload as taught, do not lower the sights; unlock the bolt latch release, raise the top cover, cock the gun and inspect the interior of the gun; and subsequent action will depend on what is seen in the body.

OBSTRUCTION VISIBLE Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). When inspecting the body, if an obstruction is visible: a. b. c. remove obstruction with a suitable tool; when the obstruction is clear inspect the chamber, if the chamber is clear, do not close the top cover, allow the bolt to go forward under control; and reload as taught, cock the gun. Re-lay and continue firing as taught.

275. Remember that to prevent injury do not attempt to place hands directly into the body of the weapon. 276. Confirm by practice.

OBSTRUCTION NOT VISIBLE Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 277. If when inspecting the body, no obstruction is visible carry out the following actions: a. b. allow the bolt to go forward under control; and check the ammunition.

278. If the No. 2 informs that after the IA the round was either not ejected or the “CAP STRUCK” the ammunition or feed was the cause: a. b. reload and cock the gun; and re-lay and continue firing as taught.

279. If the No. 2 informs that after the IA the round was “CAP NOT STRUCK” remove the bolt and examine the following:

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a. b. c. d. e.

firing pin; driving rod and spring; feed mechanism; trigger and sear release lever; and inspect the barrel through the body of the weapon for separated cases or obstruction.

280. If a broken part is found replace it and assemble the gun then ensuring the bolt latch is locked: a. b. reload and cock the gun; and re-lay and continue firing as taught.

281. If the barrel extension or the bolt lock is broken, the weapon must be checked by a weapons technician. 282. Confirm by practice.

OBSTRUCTION IN BARREL OR SEPARATED CASE Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 283. If on looking through the barrel of the gun an obstruction or a separated case is present, te following action should be taken. 284. Obstruction. The barrel is not to be used until the obstruction is removed. Obtain the assistance of an armourer if necessary.

Figure 1-84: Clearing plug

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a. tip of extractor b. ruptured cartridge case extractor c. end of ruptured cartridge case extractor (seated in T-slot of bolt) d. barrel extension e. chamber Figure 1-85: Ruptured cartridge case extractor aligned with the T-slot of the bolt

285.

Separated Case. Assemble the gun and: a. Place the ruptured cartridge extractor (clearing plug) (figure 1-84) onto the (1-85) feed way in the same manner as loading a single round. Ensure it is held in position by the extractor. Cock the gun and allow the bolt to travel forward under its own momentum. Cock the gun to extract the separated case. The No. 2 then checks that the separated case has been extracted. Allow the bolt to go forward, reload, cock the gun, re-lay back on to target then continue firing as taught.

b. c. d.

286. The separated case should be removed from the clearing plug and the clearing plug returned to the gun hold all when time permits. 287. Confirm by practice.

THE GUN CANNOT BE COCKED. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 288. If on attempting to carry out the IA the gun cannot be cocked the team are to: a. b. c. d. ensure the top cover is closed and unlock the bolt latch release; dress back 10 metres and wait 5 minutes in case of ‘cook off’; once 5 minutes has lapsed or the gun fires carry out the further action drill; and inspect feed arm before loading.

289. During operations it may be considered an acceptable risk to forego the 5 minute waiting period. 290. Confirm by practice.

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IRREGULAR RATE OF FIRE. Explain. 291. If after carrying out the IA or at any time during firing the rate of fire drops or becomes irregular then the following are to be considered: a. If the cyclic rate of fire is too low, initially relubricate the working parts as previously taught. If this fails to correct the problem unload, strip, clean and lubricate the gun, reload and carry on firing. Check the ammunition belt to ensure that it is feeding smoothly and that it is clean and undamaged, particularly the links. If this fails to correct the fault obtain the assistance of a weapons technician.

b. c. 292.

Confirm by practice.

RUN AWAY GUN Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 293. If the machine gun continues to fire after the trigger has been released: a. b. c. d. e. 294. 295. 296. the gunner is to engage the safety catch and unlock the bolt latch release; when the gun stops firing unload; remove the bolt and trigger bar and examine and repair or replace the damaged or defective part, as necessary; reassemble the machine-gun; and reload, cock the gun, re-lay back on to target and continue firing.

During a lull in battle clean and oil the gun. Confirm by questions or practice. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. question period; confirm by questions and practice. carry out safety precautions; pack stores; and review: (1) if the machine-gun stops firing in battle, it is essential that the machinegunner know how to identify and remedy the problem as quickly and as safely as possible.

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2CHAPTER 2 LESSON 1 DUTIES OF MEMBERS OF A MACHINE-GUN TEAM INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 1. Aim. To teach the responsibilities of the individual members of the gun team and handling in the field. 2. Main teaching points: a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. organization and responsibilities of the gun team; hand signals; and carriage of the gun.

Time. Two x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete. Mounted on M3 tripod—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; tool role box with accessories—1 per machine-gun; drill ammunition—5 per machine-gun; filled sandbags—3 per machine-gun; ammunition container—1 per machine-gun; and rifle—1 per student.

6.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up teaching area; for this and every lesson in this chapter, when setting up the teaching area ensure the cocking handles of the guns are facing the students; and for this and every lesson in this chapter ensure the guns are assembled for left hand feed.

7.

Miscellaneous: a. b. Where appropriate the students should be encouraged to work as a team. The term “gun controller” will be used to describe the person that controls an individual gun.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

c.

All procedures in this lesson are taught as a guide. Procedures should be adapted to fit the tactical situation. All members of the gun team must be well versed in all procedures.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 8. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 9. Check all students’ equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson. Inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

Review from the following suggested list: a. b. c. mount and dismount the gun and tripod (leave mounted); tasks of the No. 1 and No. 2; and conventional hand signals.

10. Introduction. Although the gun can be operated by one person, it is more effective when operated by a team. For safety, economy of effort and efficient drills in a tactical situation it is important that every crew member is conversant with the others’ tasks and works as a team. ORGANIZATION. Explain. 11. The organization of the machine-gun fire unit will be decided by the unit. The machine gun can be organised in the following ways: a. The Detachment: the detachment will normally consist of the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) b. (1) (2) the detachment commander; No. 1—the machine-gun operator; No. 2—the loader; and No. 3—the driver/ammunition number; and the section commander—appointed from one of the two detachments; and two detachments—as described above, but excluding one of the detachment commanders.

The Section: the section will normally consist of the following:

12. The composition of the fire unit will be dictated by the task and the availability of manpower. The machine-gun fire unit can be configured as above or other functional

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permutations. Whichever configuration is used the term gun controller will be defined as the person who controls the gun. 13. Confirm by questions.

DUTIES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE DETACHMENT OR SECTION. Explain. 14. What follows lists the duties of the various members of the machine-gun team, detachment and section. 15. Duties of the detachment or section commander. The team, detachment or section commanders are normally appointed by the company commander and will be responsible to him for the execution of the following duties: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Deployment. The move to and occupation of a new position, and sighting of the machine-guns to execute the unit fire plan. Camouflage and protection. The digging in and concealment of the weapon emplacement. Fire control. The issuance of concise and accurate fire orders to the weapon crews for the engagement of authorized tasks. Observation. Ensuring that the arc of responsibility for each weapon is kept under constant observation. Range card. The preparation of range cards on occupation of a fire position in the defence. Relief. Ensuring that a relief schedule is established which permits men of the section to receive adequate rest. Ammunition. Keeping a check on ammunition expenditure and ordering replenishment when required. Inspections. Ensuring that equipment is complete and in good working order before and after deployments. Maintenance. Ensuring that the equipment on charge to the detachment, including that allotted for the purposes of fire control, ie, compass, binoculars, map and map board, is properly maintained.

16.

Duties of No. 1. The No. 1 is responsible for the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. laying and firing the machine-gun; clearing stoppages; reporting “ON” to No. 2 when laid on a target; ensuring that the machine-gun is properly mounted; carrying out other duties as detailed by the gun controller; carrying out the duties of the gun controller in his absence;

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g. h. i. 17.

ensuring that, in addition to his normal equipment, he has a flashlight and range card; applying corrections; and applying correct rates of fire.

Duties of the No 2. The No. 2 is responsible for the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. ensuring that the barrel is properly locked before firing begins; repeating all fire orders to No. 1; ensuring that the ammunition is correctly position at the feedway; observing and reporting strike; assisting in mounting and dismounting the machine-gun; maintaining a continuous supply of ammunition at the machine-gun; reporting “ON” to the gun controller; inspecting all ejected rounds; ensuring T&E mechanism is locked when required; and carrying out other duties as detailed by the gun controller.

18.

Duties of the No. 3. The No. 3 is responsible for the following: a. b. c. d. maintaining a continuous supply of ammunition to the No. 2; properly positioning and camouflaging the vehicle when the machine-gun is in action; supervising the maintenance of the vehicle in accordance with the maintenance schedule; and using his personal weapon to provide limited local protection of the secondary arcs when the detachment is in action.

HAND SIGNALS Explain and demonstrate. 19. In a tactical situation it may not always be practical to communicate in the normal manner. The following hand signals can be given by the gun controller: a. b. c. d. “MOUNT GUN.” Both arms bent in front of the body with palms up; forearms are raised and lowered rapidly two or three times. “DISMOUNT GUN.” Both arms are bent in front of the body with palms down; forearms are lowered and raised two or three times. “DIRECTION.” Right arm is extended horizontally with the hand closed and the forefinger pointing in the direction of the target. “FIRE.” The right arm, which is raised fully above the head, is cut quickly to the side.

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e. f. 20.

“STOP.” Either arm is waved horizontally in front of the body with the palm flat to the ground. “AMUNITION.” The right is extended horizontally from the shoulder with the fist clenched.

Confirm by practice.

HAND-CARRYING THE MACHINE-GUN AND ITS EQUIPMENT. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 21. On the command “DISMOUNT GUN AND TRIPOD” the following actions are taken: a. b. c. d. 22. 23. the Detachment Commander carries the ammunition box and range card; No. 1 carries the gun; No. 2 carries the tripod; and No. 3 carries the spare barrels, the tool bag and ammunition.

The above is a guideline and can be adapted to suit the unit formation. Confirm by questions.

MOVING THE MACHINE-GUN WHEN MOUNTED ON THE TRIPOD Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). Ensure unloaded. 24. When the machine-gun is mounted on the tripod, it can be moved for short distances by dragging or using a two or three-man carry. For ease in the carry, men should move in step. Where the tactical situation allows the gun should be unloaded. The following are suggested methods of moving when mounted on the tripod: a. b. Dragging. Nos. 1 and 2 drag the mounted gun to the desired position. Two-man Carry. No. 1 takes a position on the RIGHT and No. 2 on the LEFT of the machine-gun. Each grasps the front leg with his forward hand the trail leg with the rear hand, just above the traversing bar (figure 2-1-1).

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Figure 2-1: Two-man carry

c.

Three-man carry. No. 1 is behind the tripod with a trail leg in each hand. No. 2 is FORWARD on the left and grasps the extra barrel with his left hand. No. 3 is FORWARD right of the machine-gun and carries the ammunition in his right hand. Nos. 1 and 2 grasp the front leg of the tripod with their free hands. Nos. 2 and 3 pick up the weapon on the command of No. 1.

25. Care must be taken when lifting and lowering the machine-gun to prevent damage to the barrel extension. 26. 27. Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. question period; confirm by questions and practice; carry out safety precautions; pack the stores; and review:

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(1)

it is important that the machine-gunners check their equipment frequently and at all times obey the safety rules regarding the carrying of the heavy machine-gun.; and the members of a detachment must be familiar with the duties of each member of a machine-gun section to maximize the effectiveness of teamwork.

(2)

LESSON 2 FIRING DRILLS AND APPLICATION OF FIRE ORDERS INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 28. 29. Aim. To teach students the guidelines for engaging a variety of targets. Main teaching points: a. b. 30. 31. 32. methods of engaging targets; and reporting strike and corrections.

Time. Two x 40-minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. .50 cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; linked belt of 20 practice rounds—1 per machine-gun; panoramic target—1 per machine-gun; tool bag and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; and filled sandbags—3 per machine-gun.

33.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. e. The guns on tripod should be mounted on a non-slip surface prior to the lesson commencing. Prepare the board and diagrams (where necessary). Place the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly. Check drill rounds and links for damage. Place enough loose drill rounds and link under gun to make a 10 round belt. Use the 3 piece panoramic target or suitable natural landscape where practical. Lay out guns facing the landscape or targets. The teaching area may dictate the use of 3 identical panoramic targets (1 per gun).

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f. g. 34.

Identify a number of reference points and prepare fire control orders. Ensure that the targets can be engaged from each gun position. Check the T&Es to ensure they are all serviceable and scale is clearly visible.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. e. use the students to assist with fault checking; students are encouraged to works as teams where applicable; ensure that the squad is positioned to enable them to see the T&E mechanism during this lesson; where possible try to relate aiming to students knowledge of the rifle (iron sight ); and the following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: (1) (2) “TRAVERSE LEFT/RIGHT, FIRE’, “RIGHT/LEFT LIMIT ON”, “STOP - NEW TARGET” for application of fire; “STRIKE ON TARGET”, “NO STRIKE”, “STRIKE 100 SHORT (or OVER)”, “STRIKE TEN MILS RIGHT (or LEFT)” for reporting strike; and “ADD (or DROP) FOUR MILS”, “NO…(Gun)ON”, “GO RIGHT (or LEFT) TWENTY MILS (GO ON)”, “TRAVERSE LEFT (or RIGHT) - GO ON”, “NOTE POINT OF AIM”, “SAME POINT OF AIM, GO ON” “RE-LAY NOTED POINT OF AIM”, “STOP, GO RIGHT TWENTY MILS, ADD FOUR MILS, GO ON” for corrections.

(3)

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 35. Preliminaries: a. b. c. d. Check all students’ equipment. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and check drill rounds and students’ pouches. Give the arcs of fire on the panoramic target and stress that, after each stoppage, the machine-gun must be pointed in the direction of the target before pressing the trigger. Explain the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on word of command “CHANGE” “CHECK SIGHTS” “CHECK LAY”. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

e. f. 36.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. fire control orders; firing drills (leave gun unloaded); and

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c.

methods of carriage.

37. Introduction. Those elements of fire control that are drills carried out by the machinegunners are explained in this chapter. Wherever possible, the gun controller will lay the machine-gun on the target himself, and give a brief description of it and the point of aim to the machine-gun crew. In certain circumstances, the gun controller may be at a separate location from the machine-gun and on those occasions it will be necessary for him to transmit fire control orders to the detachment. MOVING TARGETS ‘LEAD’ FACTOR. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 38. When a shot is fired at a moving target, the target continues to move during the time of flight of the bullet. To allow for this movement it is necessary to aim in front of the target otherwise the shots will fall behind it. This aiming in front, to anticipate the movement of the target, is known as ‘lead’: a. The amount of lead necessary will depend on the speed, range and direction of movement. A fast moving target requires more lead than a slow mover. A target moving obliquely across the front will require less lead than a direct crossing target. The further the target is away the greater the lead required. It will be more difficult to gauge speed, range and direction of travel at longer ranges.

b.

39. Not all movement will be appreciable; gunners must acquire the feel for the correct lead to be effective at ranging moving targets under various conditions. Only with frequent practice can this be achieved. 40. Confirm by questions.

METHODS OF FIRING AT DIRECT MOVING AND OBLIQUE CROSSING TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 41. There are two methods of firing the gun at moving targets: a. The Ambush Method: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) b. (1) (2) the gunner estimates the range, sets the sights, cocks the gun; elevate or depress the gun onto the target line selecting a point well ahead of the vehicle, lay the gun onto that point; the gunner fires at the selected point of aim with bursts of 8–10 rounds when the target reaches two targets’ width from that point of aim; the gun team are to observe for tracer and strike; the gunner adjusts his fire until the fire is effective; and continue as required. the gunner estimates the range, sets the sights, cocks the gun; elevate or depress the gun onto the target line;
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

(3) (4) (5)

select a point of aim at least two targets’ width ahead of the target and fire in burst of 8–10 rounds; the gun team are to observe for tracer and strike; and the gunner should continue to track the target while firing, adjusting until the fire is effective.

42. The method used will depend on the situation such as engagement time, direction and speed of target etc. 43. Confirm by practice.

FIRING DRILS AT POINT TARGETS Explain and demonstrate(where necessary). 44. When the order “FIRE” is given, the gunner will hold and fire the weapon as taught. The firing procedure is as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. 45. Check the aim through the sight. Fire a length of burst or single shot as required. The gunner, No. 2 and gun controller should all observe for strike and the gunner will make corrections when ordered by the gun controller. Repeat this procedure until ordered to “STOP”. On the command “STOP” act as taught. Note the point of aim, make corrections as necessary and report “ON”. On the command “GO ON” continue the engagement as taught.

Confirm by practice.

FIRING DRILS AT TRAVERSING TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate(where necessary). 46. The gun controller will order the machine-gun to be aimed on a specific point on the target and give a direction of traverse. An amount of traverse may also be given in mils or by indicating a limit on the ground. 47. When a traversing target is indicated, e.g., a hedgerow, the right and left limits are defined. The gunner will be ordered to lay the gun on either of these, e.g., “GUNNER, 800, HOUSE RIGHT EDGE OF HOUSE RIGHT LIMIT, LEFT 50 MILS END OF HEDGEROW LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT LAY”. He acts as previously taught. 48. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary): On the order “TRAVERSING RIGHT/LEFT, FIRE”: a. b. c. d. Check the aim through the sights. Fire the length of burst required. Traverse two clicks in the direction ordered. Repeat the procedure, checking the aim for elevation and correcting as necessary before firing the next burst.

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e.

Continue the drill until the second limit is reached. Report “NO. . . . (GUN), RIGHT/LEFT LIMIT, ON”. The gunner is then to go on firing, traversing back across the target until the order “STOP” is given or original limit is reached. On the command “STOP” or “GO ON” act as previously taught.

f. 49.

Confirm by practice.

50. If it is apparent to the No. 1 that the target is wider than the amount of traverse available on the traversing bar, he will: a. b. c. 51. engage the target normally until the limit of traverse is reached; zero the scale then unlock the slide lock lever and lay the machine-gun by rough alignment onto the point of aim for the last burst fired; and make fine adjustment to aim, traverse two mils and continue to fire as normal.

Confirm by practice.

FIRING DRILLS AT DEPTH TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate(where necessary). 52. When a depth target is indicated the near and far limits are defined. Fire is moved by altering the sight setting in the direction required and using the elevation hand wheel to relay the gun back onto its original point of aim. 53. Confirm by practice.

FIRING DRILLS ATOBLIQUE TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 54. An oblique target is one whose longitudinal axis lies at an angle (other than a right angle) to the line of fire. Oblique targets are engaged with the same drill as traversing targets. The No. 1 must ensure that the correct elevation is maintained over the width of the target if corrections for elevation are not being given. 55. Confirm by practice.

SUBSEQUENT TARGETS 56. There may be a requirement to engage subsequent targets. The gun controller will give the command “STOP NEW TARGET”. The gunner is to carry out the “STOP” drill as taught. Once the new target has been identified the gunner is to carry out the following: a. b. c. d. e. set sights for new target; zero the T&E traversing scale on the hand wheel; lay the gun onto the new target as taught; operate the bolt release latch; and carry on firing as previously taught.

57. If the command “STOP” has not been given, the gunner must carry out the “STOP” drill before unlocking the gun.

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58.

Confirm by practice.

REPORTING STRIKE AND CORRECTIONS. Explain. 59. Reporting strike. The No. 2 will report the strike of rounds that he can observe, as follows: a. b. c. d. “STRIKE ON TARGET”; “NO STRIKE”; “STRIKE 100 SHORT (or OVER)”; or “STRIKE TEN MILS RIGHT (or LEFT)”.

60. Corrections. The No. 1 will apply corrections to the lay of the machine-gun when he observes the strike to be off-target, in response to a report of strike of target made by the No. 2 or in response to a correction ordered by the fire controller. The No. 1 must ensure that the barrel actually moves in the required direction. The detachment commander will direct corrections by ordering “STOP” followed by the appropriate word of command: a. b. “ADD (or DROP) FOUR MILS.” The No. 1 will alter the lay by four mils using the elevating hand wheel, and report “NO…(Gun)ON” and await further orders. “GO RIGHT (or LEFT) TWENTY MILS (GO ON).” The No. 1 will unlock the traversing slide and move the barrel the required amount to the right (or left), lock the traversing slide, and report “NO…(Gun)ON” and await further orders or continue to fire as taught. “TRAVERSE LEFT (or RIGHT- GO ON.” The No. 1 will engage the target as a traversing target. “NOTE POINT OF AIM.” Check and note the point of the target being fired at; “SAME POINT OF AIM, GO ON.” Continue to fire as taught. “RE-LAY NOTED POINT OF AIM.” The No. 1 will re-lay on the noted point of aim and report “NO…(Gun)ON”. The noted point of aim is the point of aim held by the No. 1 when the target is first hit by a burst of fire.

c. d. e. f.

61. With a well trained gun team it is possible to combine some of the commands, for example “STOP, GO RIGHT TWENTY MILS, ADD FOUR MILS, GO ON.” 62. 63. Confirm by practice. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: In order to engage a target effectively, the gunner must be familiar with the various types of targets and ways to engage them. Supervision on the part of
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No. 2 is also essential to enable the detachment to change its aim correctly if required. LESSON 3 RECORDING OF TARGETS AND OBSCURATION DRILL INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 64. Aim. To teach students how to record a target for elevation and direction, apply readings and how to engage targets effectively when visibility is reduced. 65. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 66. 67. 68. recording targets for elevation and direction; laying the machine-gun on a recorded target; obscuration drill—point targets; and obscuration drill—traversing and oblique targets.

Time. Two x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. .50 cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3—1 per 3 students; tripod protective boots—3 per machine-gun; linked belt of 20 practice rounds—1 per machine-gun; panoramic target (three set)—1 per machine-gun; tool bag and accessory box—1 per machine-gun; and filled sandbags—3 per machine-gun.

69.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. e. The guns on tripod should be mounted on a non-slip surface prior to the lesson commencing. Prepare the board and diagrams (where necessary). Place the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly. Check drill rounds and links for damage. Place enough loose drill rounds and link under gun to make a 10 round belt. Use the 3 piece panoramic target or suitable natural landscape where practical. Lay out guns facing the landscape or targets. The teaching area may dictate the use of 3 identical panoramic targets (1 per gun). Identify a number of reference points and prepare fire control orders. Ensure that the targets can be engaged from each gun position.

f.

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g. 70.

Check the T&Es to ensure they are all serviceable and scale is clearly visible.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. use the students to assist with fault checking; students are encouraged to work as teams where applicable; ensure that the squad is positioned to enable them to see the T&E mechanism during this lesson; where possible try to relate aiming to students’ knowledge of the rifle (iron sight); the following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: “STOP, MARK AND RECORD TARGET”, for recording; and “LEFT AND RIGHT FOUR MILS, GO ON”, “STOP, RE-LAY” for obscuration drill.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 71. Preliminaries: a. b. c. d. Check all students’ equipment. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and check drill rounds and students pouches. Give the arcs of fire on the panoramic target and stress that, after each stoppage, the machine-gun must be pointed in the direction of the target before pressing the trigger. Explain the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on Word of Command “CHANGE” “CHECK SIGHTS” “CHECK LAY”. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

e. f. 72.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. firing drills; methods of engaging targets; and reporting and correction.

73. Introduction. All fire tasks should be adjusted and recorded in order that targets can be engaged during periods of poor visibility. This is accomplished by recording the setting on the traversing and elevating mechanism after adjustment of fire is complete. The machine-gunner must have the capability to engage targets that have been obscured by smoke, mist or heavy rain. This can only be done when the weapon is ground mounted, and when it is possible to record the direction and elevation to a target using the traversing and elevation scales. If more than one machine-gun is laid on the target, the obscuration drill will be carried out in such a way that while one weapon is preparing, another can provide fire. If it is obvious that obscuration will be of short duration, fire will be continued at the target through the obscuration without disturbing the lay of the weapon.
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PREPARATION FOR RECORDING TARGET ELEVATION AND DIRECTION Explain. 74. Using the traversing and elevating mechanism. Before an accurate reading to a target can be obtained, draw attention to the importance of installing the hand wheel on the traversing bar in line with one of the engraved lines, and not between two lines, as this makes recording direction impossible; the following steps must be taken before an accurate reading to a target can be obtained: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. stamp in the tripod; set the wind scale to zero; centralize and zero the traversing mechanism; select the target and estimate the range; set the range on the right; traverse and elevate until the correct aim is obtained; ensure that the traversing slide is set to one of the graduations on the traversing bar.

RECORDING DIRECTION Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 75. The reading on the traversing bar is taken by noting where the left edge of the traversing slide crosses the engraved scale. This reading and the direction in which the barrel is pointing relative to the centre of the tripod is recorded, e.g.: “Right 330 (R330)”: a. When recording and firing, the machine-gunner must note the discrepancy between the traversing and elevating mechanism and the machine-gun by holding it firmly, applying pressure to the right on the directing slide locking lever with the traversing bar with the right thumb, exerting pressure to the left on the right handle of the backplate, checking that he is still on the target, marking and recording the direction. The number of clicks applied on the traversing hand wheel during laying and corrections to fire, and the direction of movement of the barrel is recorded, e.g., “Left four mils (L 4)”. The number of clicks applied to the traversing hand wheel and direction of movement of the barrel during the laying and correcting process must be noted by the No. 1. This will ensure that recordings can be made accurately and fast. Should the No. 1 forget the number of clicks on the traversing hand wheel, he may take the readings direct from the micrometer scale. Should he forget the direction the barrel moved, he must note the reading on the micrometer scale, set the scale at zero, then apply the reading again. As he turns the scale to apply the reading, the direction of barrel can be determined.

b.

c.

d.

RECORDING ELEVATION. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary).

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76. To record elevation, it is necessary to observe the engraved elevation scale just above the hand wheel. Read the first line and whether it is a plus, minus or zero reading is noted. This figure is recorded followed by an oblique stroke. a. b. 77. Without moving the hand wheel, note the figure at which the indicator points. Record this figure after the oblique stroke. An example of a complete elevation reading is: “+50/15”.

Confirm by practice.

78. Using the above examples, the direction recorded would be entered on the target report card as “R330/L4”. 79. The following key points must be considered: a. b. c. the readings to a target only apply to one specific weapon, its tripod and T&E mechanism; the reading on the engraved scale must not be related to the reading on the elevating hand wheel; in order to engage a target effectively at night, it may be necessary to elevate or traverse, therefore No. 1 must remember how many clicks have been used from the original lay; silent registration (i.e., registration which is not confirmed by actual fire), although not accurate, may have to be carried out in circumstances where surprise, security or time are primary considerations; and the readings are not bearings.

d.

e. 80.

Confirm by practice.

LAYING THE MACHINE-GUN ON A RECORDED TARGET. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 81. The following steps will be carried out when laying on a recorded target: a. b. c. d. e. f. 82. centralize and zero the traversing mechanism; position and lock the traversing slide on the recorded reading on the traversing bar; ensure the barrel is pointing in the direction recorded relative to the tripod centre; apply the number of clicks recorded to the traversing hand wheel (check the micrometer scale is necessary); apply the recorded elevation reading to the elevating screw and hand wheel; and hold the machine-gun as taught.

Confirm by practice.

OBSCURATION DRILL—POINT TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary).

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83. When it is likely that the target will become obscured, the fire controller will give the orders necessary to ensure that the machine-guns are providing effective fire on the target and then order “STOP- MARK AND RECORD”: a. b. c. The No. 1 will check his point of aim, record the direction and elevation and report “ON”. The fire controller will then order “LEFT AND RIGHT FOUR MILS, GO ON”, to ensure effective engagement of the target. The No. 1 will engage the target as he would a traversing target. Should the order “STOP, RE-LAY” be given, he will stop firing and lay on the recorded direction and elevation. If, in the opinion of the detachment commander, the target can be effectively engaged without traversing, only the order “FIRE” need be given. In that case, the No. 1 will fire on the recorded direction and elevation.

d.

84.

Confirm by practice.

OBSCURATION DRILL—TRAVERSING AND OBLIQUE TARGETS. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary). 85. When it is likely that the target will become obscured, the detachment commander will issue the orders to ensure that the machine-guns are laid effectively on a specific point of the target, e.g., the centre, left or right limit, or any point between the limits. The number of mils LEFT and RIGHT will always be given as an even number: a. When he is satisfied with the fire effect, the detachment commander will order “STOP—MARK AND RECORD”. On receipt of this order, the No. 1 will carry out the drills laid down for the point target obscuration drill. After the No. 1 has reported “ON”, the detachment commander will give the applicable order to ensure an effective engagement of the target: (1) He may issue the same order as for an obscured point target engagement. In this case, the No. 1 carries out the firing drill as taught, ie, he adjusts left and right four mils. He may order “LEFT AND RIGHT ... MILS - GO ON”. In this case, the No. 1 will traverse left at two mils, firing bursts at two-mil intervals until he reaches the limit ordered by the detachment commander. He will then re-lay the machine-gun on the recorded direction and repeat the sweep to the right. After the right limit has been reached, he will relay on the recorded position and report “ON”.

b.

(2)

c.

The section commander may, if one machine-gun is laid on the LEFT limit and another laid on the RIGHT limit, or both are laid on the target centre, order “NUMBER 1 GUN TRAVERSING RIGHT ... MILS; NUMBER 2 GUN TRAVERSING LEFT ... MILS—GO ON”. Where two or more weapons are being used and are being laid on different points on the target, the section commander may simply order “FIRE”. On this order,

d.

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the No. 1 will fire on the recorded direction and elevation at the normal rate until the order “STOP. e. The section commander may wish to increase or decrease the range of the beaten zone in relation to the first burst to ensure an oblique target is effectively covered with fire. Before obscuration occurs, he must decide the corrections required and include the corrections in the order to the machine-gunners, e.g., “NUMBER 1 GUN—TRAVERSING RIGHT ... MILS, DROP ... MILS—NUMBER 2 GUN—TRAVERSING LEFT ... MILS, ADD ... MILS - FIRE”. The No. 1 will fire the first burst as normal, then traverse in the direction indicated, apply the correction for elevation and fire the next burst. Subsequent drills for traversing and re-lay are as already taught. Should the fire controller wish to give corrections in elevation during an engagement, he must order, “STOP—ADD (or DROP) ... MILS—GO ON”. If necessary, he will give the machine-gun number in this order. The range of the beaten zone can be increased or decreased by 50 metre increments as shown in Table 2-1. Mils 1 mil 2 mils 3 mils

Range Up to 800 metres 800-1200 metres Over 1200 metres

Table 2-1: Adjusting the range to the beaten zone by increments of 50 metres

86. 87.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. question period. confirm by questions and practice; carry out safety precautions; pack the stores; and review: (1) The machine-gunner must be able to engage targets effectively even when obscured by smoke, fog or heavy rain. The fire controller must direct the fire of the weapons so that the targets are effectively engaged. The machine-gunner must know how to take the reading on the traversing bar and the traversing slide and to use the readings correctly at night or in smoke or fog.

(2)

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3CHAPTER 3 LESSON 1 FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 1. 2. Aim. To teach students the capabilities and limitations of the machine-gun. Main teaching points: a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. theory of fire; capabilities and limitations; and engagement of targets.

Time. One x 40-minute period. Method. One period of basic instruction. Stores: a. b. multimedia projector; and diagrams.

6.

Preparation: a. b. c. prepare the board; check the diagrams; and set up the classroom and check the projector.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 7. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 8. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

Review. N/A.

9. Introduction. Section and detachment commanders, as well as machine-gun crew numbers, must have a detailed knowledge of the characteristics, capabilities and limitations of machine-gun fire.

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THEORY OF FIRE Explain. 10. The following are some theoretical data on fire: a. b. Muzzle velocity. A muzzle velocity of about 890 metres (2,900 feet) per second is imparted to the 0.50 cal round on firing. Culminating point. The highest point in the trajectory is called the culminating point. It is reached at a point approximately two-thirds of the distance from the machine-gun to the target (figure 3-1).

Figure 3-1: Culminating point

c.

Beaten zone and effective beaten zone. Where the cone of fire strikes the ground, it forms a long cigar-shaped pattern: this is called the beaten zone. It has been found that 82% of the falling rounds are uniformly grouped around the centre of the area of impact; this area is known as the effective beaten zone. At 1,000 metres, the beaten zone is approximately 200 metres in length. Range and slope of the ground affect the beaten zone. Grazing fire. This occurs when the slope of the ground closely approximates the trajectory of the cone of fire and results in the beaten zone attaining its maximum length for any given range. On level or uniformly gently sloping ground, the 0.50 cal machine-gun produces grazing fire up to 1,000 metres. The relatively flat trajectory of the round ensures that up to this range the lowest bullet of the cone of fire will not rise above the height of a standing man (figure 3-2).

d.

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Figure 3-2: Grazing fire

11.

Confirm by questions.

CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS. Explain. 12. The following are some data on the capabilities and limitations of fire: a. Observed shoots. Observed shoots for the machine-gun are those in which the fire on the target can be observed up to the limit of tracer burn-out (1,200 metres) or by noting the strike of the round on the ground. The machine-gun should be fired at ranges exceeding 1,200 metres only when the ground surrounding the target offers good observation in the strike area. Obscured shoots. The firing of the 0.50 cal machine-gun on fixed lines in the anti-armour role is of minimal value. If, during a period of low visibility, the weight of an attack against a position is such that the weapon must be so employed, a very much higher rate of fire will have to be used. Indirect fire. The special sights required for the accurate engagement of targets using indirect fire are not a standard item of issue with the 0.50 cal machine-gun. The machine-gun will not be employed therefore in the indirect fire mode.

b.

c.

13.

Observation of fire up to tracer burn-out: a. During each burst that is fired, tracer rounds are present; these must be observed at the point of strike. When visibility is good it will be relatively easy to observe strike up to 1,200 metres, the range at which the 0.50 cal tracer round burns out. At distances greater than 1,200 metres, no reliance can be placed on tracer. The section commander or machine-gunner must be able to observe the strike of the burst on the target area.

b.

14.

Confirm by questions.

ENGAGEMENT OF TARGETS. Explain. 15. Engagement of targets: a. General. When employed in the anti-personnel role, the 0.50 cal machine-gun is governed by the same basic rules and procedures as the general purpose machinegun. These are given in detail in this chapter. Details governing the engagement

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of moving, traversing and oblique targets are given in Chapter 2 of this publication. b. Point targets. The point of aim will always be the centre base of the target, except in the case of armoured targets when the point of aim will be the centre of the visible mass.

16. 17.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: It is important that machine-gunners are thoroughly familiar with the fire characteristics of the machine-gun and with the correct way of engaging the various types of targets in order to maximize the effectiveness of their weapon. LESSON 2 ROLE AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN

INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 18. Aim. To teach students where to position machine-guns and the factors that influence the choice of a site. 19. Main teaching points: a. b. c. 20. 21. 22. role of the heavy machine-gun; principles of tactical deployment; and factors affecting the sitting of the heavy machine-gun and the decision to dismount the heavy machine-gun.

Time. One x 40-minute period. Method. One period of basic instruction. Stores: a. b. multimedia projector; and diagrams.

23.

Preparation: a. b. set up the classroom; prepare the board; and

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c.

check the diagrams and the projector.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 24. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 25. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

Review. N/A

26. Introduction. The object of this chapter is to describe the tactical employment of the 0.50 heavy machine-gun M2 in its primary and secondary roles. The heavy machine-gun will be employed frequently in pairs when dismounted with single detachment being combined to form sections. On occasion, because of the nature of the target and the ground, the 0.50 cal machinegun may be paired with the 7.62mm general purpose machine-gun with due consideration being given to the optimum range and capabilities of each weapon. While the 0.50 cal machine-gun can fulfil the same roles as the 7.62mm machine-gun, it excels over the latter in range and penetrating power and fulfils one role that the lighter weapon cannot fulfil—that of an antiarmour weapon against personnel carriers. This lesson will outline the tactical employment of the heavy machine-gun in mounted operations and dismounted operations as it pertains to its primary role of an anti-APC weapon. ROLE OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN. Explain. 27. Roles: a. b. Primary role. The primary role of the heavy machine-gun (HMG) is to provide anti-APC fire up to 800 metres; and Secondary roles. The secondary roles of the HMG are to deliver: (1) (2) (3) 28. anti-aircraft fire; long-range point fire against soft targets; and direct and indirect area neutralizing fire.

Confirm by questions.

PRINCIPLES OF TACTICAL DEPLOYMENT. Explain. 29. General. Machine-guns should be employed with the anticipated target foremost in mind. Sitting should attempt to gain maximum effect from the characteristics of the weapon's fire in relation to each anticipated target. The physical characteristics of the gun are also factors to be considered during sitting.

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30. Characteristics of machine-gun fire. The general characteristics of machine-gun fire affecting employment are: a. b. c. d. e. f. 31. are: trajectory; beaten zone; volume; range; accuracy; and penetration.

Characteristics of machine-guns. The characteristics of machine-guns affecting sitting a. b. c. d. silhouette; mobility; flexibility; and weapon signature.

32. Principles of employment. The following principles guide the tactical employment of machine-guns: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. mutual support; coordination of fire; interlocking fire between machine-gun positions to obtain a high concentration of fire in a killing zone; sited in pairs to increase volume and ensure continuity of fire; sited in defilade to protect the gun from enemy fire; sited to produce enfilade fire in order to achieve maximum effort on target; protection and concealment; and economy.

33. Deployment procedure. The sitting of machine-guns must be target-oriented. The local commander will normally plan the deployment of his machine-guns in the following sequence: a. during his battle appreciation, he will attempt to deduce anticipated ground and air targets to determine the enemy's location or routes, composition and configuration; he will designate killing zones; he will decide on the density and type of coverage necessary to deal with the anticipated threat in each killing zone; he will task his machine-guns to cover each killing zone;

b. c. d.

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e. f. 34.

machine-guns will be sited according to the principles of the gun's fire; and the commander will check the sitting and adjust it, if necessary.

Confirm by questions.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SITING OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN AND THE DECISION TO DISMOUNT THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN. Explain. 35. Choice of sitting. Within a company area, the commander will task and deploy the heavy machine-guns in a manner consistent with the battalion armour defence plan. The following factors will affect the choice of site for the weapons: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. the overall armour defence plan; probable enemy approaches; type of target to be engaged (e.g.: effective range is 800 m against APCs and 1,200 m (tracer “burn-out”) against personnel; availability of concealment from ground and air observation, and cover from direct fire weapons; ability of the detachment or section commander to observe the primary arc of fire and to control by means of verbal orders; the ability to apply the characteristics of the weapon to the ground with maximum effect (paragraph 13 refers) when engaging area targets; the requirement of alternate sites and their locations; the ability to observe the movement of own troops; the availability of covered access routes into, and out of, the position; adequate space to accommodate the fire unit, whether a detachment or a section; the necessity of local infantry protection; and a requirement to dismount.

36. Factors affecting the decision to dismount the heavy machine-gun. The decision to dismount the heavy machine-gun will most often be taken in protracted defensive operations. In operations of a more fluid nature, whether defensive or offensive, the heavy machine-gun is more likely to be kept mounted on its vehicle. Commanders will always have to balance the advantage of dismounting against the disadvantages. The principle factors influencing the decision to dismount the weapon are: a. b. c. d. the weight of the weapon, its tripod and ammunition; the relatively greater accuracy and lower silhouette of the weapon when mounted on the M3 tripod; availability of manpower to crew the weapon, and to deploy and maintain it in action; the requirement to move the weapon into position without being detected;

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e. f. g. 37. 38.

the availability of good hull-down positions; the requirement to dig-in the weapon carrier if it is desirable to keep the weapon mounted, e.g., when early movement is anticipated; and troop safety considerations that may impose restraints on the use of vehiclemounted weapons for fire support.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Pack the stores. Review: The machine-gunner must be able to consider the characteristics of the machine-gun and of firing, the principles of employment and the factors affecting the choice of sitting in order to master the tactical employment of the machinegun. LESSON 3 TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF THE MACHINE-GUN

INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 39. Aim. To teach students the main teaching points and confirm by questions and practice that they have mastered the content of this lesson. 40. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 41. 42. 43. tasks of the heavy machine-gun; general employment guidelines; the defence; offensive operations; the withdrawal; command and control; and preparation of machine-gun positions—vehicle-mounted weapons.

Time. Three x 40-minute periods. Method. Three periods instruction. Stores: a. b. multimedia projector; and diagrams.

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44.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up the classroom; prepare the board; and check the diagrams and the projector.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 45. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. 46. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson; and draw the students' attention to the enormous quantity of theoretical material that they must absorb in the course of this lesson.

Review. N/A.

47. Introduction. The 0.50 calibre heavy machine-gun M2 may be used in a variety of roles in every phase of war. The tasks given to machine-guns vary mainly in priority, method of employment, and degree of emphasis, depending on the type of gun and the phase of war. When tasking machine-guns, a commander should be conscious of the roles of the HMG and the principles of employment. He must also consider machine-guns not integral to his own organization, which can fire in support of his plan. TASKS OF THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN. Explain. 48. The HMG may be given the following tasks: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 49. to provide defensive fire; to neutralize an enemy position; to cover movement; to provide self-defence against aircraft; to destroy targets of opportunity; to provide speculative fire; to provide harassing fire; and to assist in target indication.

To provide defensive fire:

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a.

Because of their range and high volume of fire, both machine-guns (HMG and GPMG) are well suited for this task. They may be tasked to provide defensive fire in any of the phases of war. The fire of machine-guns must be coordinated with that of other weapons. When providing defensive fire, each machine-gun is assigned a primary and possibly a secondary arc of fire. The machine-gun is assigned specific target areas to cover within its arc of fire. The machine-gunner must be aware of other machine-guns tasked to cover the same arc(s) of fire or target area(s). All target areas should be registered as soon as possible to allow the machine-gunner to cover his task despite obscuration. A machine-gun position should not be sited to defend its immediate front but should fire in defence of another position. Conversely, the machine-gun position should be defended by fire from another weapon. This will normally produce optimum effect from the gun's fire and minimize the possibility of neutralization and force an assaulting enemy to neutralize both his objective and the positions mutually supporting it. A defensive fire task may include the provision of indirect fire in support of a flanking position or an outpost or to cover an obstacle. Machine-guns employed in this task can provide anti-personnel area neutralization. They should not be used in isolation but to supplement the fire of other weapons. Indirect machinegun fire must be closely coordinated with the supported sub-unit and registered under observation. The GPMG will usually be preferred for this task; however, because of range limitations, there are occasions when the HMG will be used. A machine-gun providing defensive fire should be dismounted in a prepared and well-protected position. It may, however, be left mounted on the APC: (1) (2) (3) when there is little time available to prepare the position; to provide a vantage point to cover dead ground or fire over friendly troops immediately to its front; or when it is anticipated that the machine-gun will have to move quickly.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

When tasked to provide defensive fire, the HMG will normally be deployed to cover likely APC approaches and be an integral part of the battalion's anti-armour fire. The GPMG will be primarily employed to provide anti-personnel fire. The HMG may also be used to engage soft targets when GPMG coverage is insufficient or when the target area is beyond their effective range.

50. 51.

Confirm by questions. To neutralize an enemy position: a. The aim of this task is not necessarily to destroy the enemy occupying the position but to prevent him from operating effectively (preventing him from returning effective fire or from moving). In any of the phases of war, machineguns may be assigned a neutralization task such as to neutralize: (1) an objective during an assault;
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(2) (3) (4) (5) b.

a position capable of mutually supporting our objective; the enemy's fire base while he is assaulting; a position from which the enemy could interfere with our movement; or to immobilize a counter-attack force or reinforcements; and

Neutralizing fire is expensive in ammunition. Because of the availability of ammunition and a greater dispersal of rounds, the GPMG is usually a more suitable weapon than the HMG, which is primarily an anti-APC weapon. HMGs deployed in numbers, however, fulfil this task well and may have to do so when the target is beyond GPMG range or GPMG coverage is insufficient.

52. To cover movement. Movement on the battlefield should always be covered by fire. Machine-guns are one of the resources which can be used to partially provide that cover. Machine-guns best cover movement from a static position. Mounted machine-guns with the moving element must also be ready to contribute to their own protection. 53. To provide self-defence against aircraft. Because of their high rate of fire, the availability of tracer ammunition and their range, machine-guns are the most effective small arms against aircraft. The commander must therefore make provision to use machine-guns for self-defence against aircraft. 54. To destroy targets of opportunity. The machine-gun's accuracy, range, volume of fire and preparations make it an effective weapon to destroy targets of opportunity. Depending on the battle plan and the parameters governing engagement, the machine-gunner will normally have to request clearance to engage such targets. 55. To provide speculative fire. Machine-guns may be tasked to engage likely occupied enemy areas to invite a reaction from the enemy should it be occupied. Speculative fire is a valuable aid to reconnaissance but does not replace it. Failure to draw a reaction from a position engaged by speculative fire does not prove that the area is not occupied. This can be established only by physical reconnaissance of the area. 56. To provide harassing fire. Harassing fire tasks are aimed at demoralizing the enemy. They rarely produce major results and are used mainly in static situations. Harassing fire tasks will not often be given to machine-guns. They will normally be planned at brigade level and involve the use of indirect fire. It will be normal for machine-guns to move outside their position to fire a harassing fire task. Harassing fire tasks may involve any number of machine-guns. As the fire will have to be predicted, the target should be a large area that is likely to be used by the enemy. 57. To assist in target identification or to provide navigational aid. Tracer fire from machine-guns may be a useful means to indicate a direction (axes, boundaries, location of objective) when keeping direction is difficult. This task is not a common one for HMGs. Because of the expenditure of ammunition involved, the GPMG is normally used for this task. 58. Confirm by questions.

GENERAL EMPLOYMENT GUIDELINES. Explain.

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59.

General. The HMG will normally be employed to: a. b. c. d. e. provide anti-APC fire; engage hardened targets, such as firing positions built above the ground; provide point engagement of soft targets beyond GPMG range; produce area-neutralizing fire where GPMG coverage is insufficient, either because of range or number of guns available; and provide air defence.

60. Coordination with other weapons. As machine-guns are only one of the weapons supporting an operation, their employment must be coordinated with other weapons' fire. 61. Manpower. During operations, troops are either moving, defending or attacking. In each case, the commander must consider the manning effect the machine-gun will have on his sub-unit. 62. Moving. While moving in the APC, infantrymen cannot directly influence the battle. The machine-gun is therefore manned at no sacrifice to manpower. With infantry moving on foot, it will be normal for the gunner and driver to remain with the APC. 63. Defending. Very often a commander will have to choose which weapons he will deploy on his defensive position. Machine-guns require manpower. They are much more useful in the defence than a soldier's individual weapon; the commander should not hesitate to deploy all his machine-guns in the defence. 64. Attacking. Balancing the bayonet requirement of the assault element with the needs of the fire support element is a prime consideration for the commander to make. In determining the number of machine-guns he will deploy with the fire support element, the commander must consider: a. b. c. d. enemy strength on the objective; enemy strength on other positions supporting the objective; other positions which may require to be neutralized should the enemy occupy them; and other fire support weapons available, such as tanks, anti-tank weapons, artillery, mortars, air defence artillery and close air support.

65. Employing every machine-gun. Not withstanding the manpower consideration, when the situation permits it, a commander should endeavour to employ all of his machine-guns to contribute to an operation: a. In the attack, this contribution need not necessarily be exclusively for the neutralization of the objective; it can be for: (1) (2) flank protection; cutting off withdrawal routes;

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(3) (4) (5) b.

immediate protection of the assault element; air defence; and/or protection of the initial move into the reorganization position; and

As an example, instead of having APC-mounted machine-guns withdraw after the assaulting troops have dismounted, the commander should arrange for the APCs to withdraw to protected firing positions from which mounted machine guns could perform one of the tasks mentioned above (especially true for the GRIZZLY APC).

66. Firing from static positions. In all operations, machine-guns can perform their role much better when sited in a static position, preferably ground-mounted, than on moving vehicles. There is, however, a requirement for some machine-guns to remain mounted on the APCs for immediate self-protection. 67. Mount/dismount criteria. The machine-gun is a much better weapon when dismounted and sited in a well-prepared position. A commander will normally dismount the maximum number of machine-guns possible considering this situation. Factors affecting this choice are: a. b. c. d. mobility; time available for the preparation of the position; fields of fire; and threat.

68. Registration. During battle, there is always a possibility that a target will become obscured. The machine-gunner must therefore register all potential targets within his arc of fire as soon as possible. The registration may be silent but it is preferable that it be proven by fire. The need to register all targets exists in a hastily occupied position as well as in a well-prepared position. Whenever the machine-gun mount is moved, all targets should be registered. 69. Adjustment at night. It is sometimes desirable to adjust a position at night. When this is done, all targets must be re-registered. This is particularly important because of the importance firing on a fixed line will have during a night battle. Registering night positions may be done by positioning the guns on tripods during light or using a night sight. It must be remembered that one night sight may be used to register many machine-guns. 70. Siting in pairs. To increase the volume of fire and to ensure continuity of fire, machineguns will normally be sited in pairs covering one target area from approximately the same direction. A machine-gun position will therefore normally include two or more machine-guns sited 25 to 100 metres apart, covering the same target area. A pair of machine-guns may include one HMG and one GPMG; the HMG normally providing anti-APC fire, the GPMG engaging personnel dismounting from damaged APCs. 71. Overhead fire. Overhead fire is possible and may be used with care in view of the flat trajectory of the weapon, when the situation demands it. 72. Firing in front of friendly troops. The distance at which friendly fire can be brought in front of friendly troops is a command decision based on:
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a. b. c. d. e. 73.

range; visibility; size of beaten zone; whether troops are mounted or dismounted; and tactical requirements.

Confirm by questions.

THE DEFENCE. Explain. 74. Introduction. The anti-armour plan is of central importance in defensive operations against a mechanized or armoured threat. Range, accuracy, penetration power and availability in large numbers make the HMG an important anti-APC weapon in the anti-armour plan. Its high volume of fire makes the GPMG the primary direct area neutralizing weapon available to the infantry. 75. The defensive battle. The defence may be divided into three stages: a. b. c. 76. the protection and delay stage; the containment stage; and the counter-attack stage.

The protection and delay stage.

77. General. Machine-guns deployed with the covering force may be employed in the following tasks: a. b. c. d. supporting a delaying position; sniping; forming part of a flank protection force; or providing local protection.

78. Supporting a delaying position. Machine-guns supporting a delaying position are employed in the same manner as when supporting a defensive position during the blocking phase. The following additional considerations apply: a. The delaying position will often be more isolated than a defensive position on the FEBA. When deploying machine-guns, the commander will therefore be required to placed more emphasis on: (1) (2) (3) (4) flank protection; cutting by-pass routes; all-around defence; and mutual support within his position.

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79. Sniping. The purpose of sniping is not to hold ground but to reduce the enemy's forces, to impose caution upon him, break up his formation and force a reaction from him. This will often result in delaying the enemy's advance and his action may provide us with useful information: a. b. on a sniping task, machine-guns may be employed alone or with other weapons; and machine-gunners must engage the enemy at long ranges, avoiding a decisive engagement that would hinder their making a clean break.

80. Flank protection. In this task, machine-guns are employed in the same manner as when fighting a mobile delaying battle, with the exception that the timing of the withdrawal must conform to the requirement of the main body. The covering force flank-protection element may be a large organization and occupy delaying positions of its own. Machine-guns would then be employed in the same manner as when supporting a delaying position: a. b. the HMG will usually be deployed to provide anti-APC and anti-aircraft coverage; and the use of the GPMG will usually be limited. It may, however, be used to cover areas where the enemy may dismount.

81. Local protection. Because of the fluidity of the battle and the low density of friendly troops in the covering force sector, machine-guns will play an important role in providing local protection to different elements of the covering force. When deploying small groups of support weapons, a commander may find it useful to attach some machine-guns for local protection, specifically: a. b. c. movement; defence of a position; and air defence.

82. The containment stage. For simplicity, the containment stage has been divided into three phases: a. b. c. the screen phase; the blocking phase; and the counter-penetration phase.

83. The screen phase. Machine-guns deployed with a screen may be given the same tasks as in the covering force stage. Most guns will be employed for local and flank protection. All other tasks will be secondary. 84. The blocking phase. This is the phase of the defence where machine-guns play their most important role. The HMG may be given any of the following tasks during the blocking phase: a. to cover approaches;

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b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. 85.

to cover obstacles; to provide mutual support inside a sub-unit position and, using direct or indirect fire, support other positions; to cover gaps between blocking positions; to assist in providing all-around defence; to cover likely landing and drop zones; to protect the preparation of the position; to provide anti-aircraft fire; to provide the commander with an immediate reserve of fire; to support a local counter-attack; to cover movements towards battle positions; and/or to engage targets of opportunity.

Confirm by questions.

86. The counter-penetration phase. Machine-guns may be either part of a counterpenetration force or may support its deployment. They may be employed: a. b. c. d. in the same manner as during the blocking phase, once they occupy a counterpenetration position; to cover the movement of the counter-penetration force; to interdict with fire enemy withdrawal and by-pass routes; and/or to interdict reinforcements.

87. The counter-attack stage. Machine-guns with the counter-attack force, or supporting the counter-attack, are employed in the same manner as in the assault. The following particular points apply: a. b. 88. the operation is usually pre-planned and conducted rapidly; the commander may be required to adjust his plan to the situation; and usually more emphasis is placed on preventing the enemy from withdrawing than is done during the assault.

Confirm by questions.

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Explain. 89. General. During any phase of the offence, a commander has a continuing requirement to cover the movement of his troops. a. He must be ready to: (1) (2) neutralize enemy positions he intends to by-pass or assault; resist enemy counter-penetration or counter-attacks; and

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(3) b. (1) (2) (3) (4) 90.

use any opportunity offered to exploit his gains or pursue the enemy. the advance to contact; the attack; the exploitation; and the pursuit.

The offence can be divided into four types of operation:

Advance to contact. During the advance to contact, machine-guns may be employed to: a. b. c. d. cover movement; provide flank protection; picket by-passed positions; and/or provide self-defence against aircraft.

91. Covering movement. The techniques of covering movement using machine-guns have been discussed. Considerations of particular importance to the advance are: a. The disposition of the enemy is generally not known. Machine-gunners with the covering and the moving element must continuously observe their arc of fire and be ready to engage any enemy position. As the move progresses, gunners must adjust the arcs of fire of machine-guns to suit the terrain and threat. During the advance, speculative fire may be used more frequently than in other types of operations.

b. c.

92. Providing flank protection. Machine-guns providing flank protection during the advance are employed in the same manner as during the covering force battle in the defence. 93. Picketing by-passed positions. When picketing a position, machine-guns must maintain contact with the enemy position and prevent it from interfering with the advance. They should be deployed to: a. b. c. 94. prevent the enemy from engaging troops by-passing his position; cut off withdrawal routes; and support an eventual attack on the position.

The attack: During the attack, machine-guns may be employed to: a. b. c. assist in securing the start line; assist in covering movement to intermediate objectives; and/or assist in covering the assault element during the assault, the capture of the objective and the move to the reorganization position, to include: (1) neutralization of the objective;

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(2) (3) (4) (5) 95.

neutralization of enemy positions supporting the objective; flank protection; air defence; and Support of the reorganization.

Confirm by questions.

96. Assisting in securing the start line. The coordination of support from one sub-unit securing the start line to the attacking sub-unit is done by the commanding officer: a. b. machine-guns securing the start line may be placed in direct support of the attacking sub-unit; and the machine-guns of the sub-unit securing the start line may cover the movement of the attacking sub-unit to an intermediate objective.

97. Covering the move to intermediate objectives. Because they will usually be required to move on short notice, machine guns will normally remain mounted. The APC should be sited in a hull-down position. 98. Supporting the assault: a. b. Although machine-gun overhead fire may be used to neutralize the objective, the firebase should ideally be situated at a 90-degree angle to the axis of assault. Machine-guns deployed on the firebase to provide air defence to the assaulting element will be limited by range and crossing angle. It must be remembered that, because of its static position and the safety distance involved, the firebase is more vulnerable to air attack than the assault element. Machine-guns on the firebase should be dismounted and sited in protected positions. The attacking unit commander must strike a balance between the number of machine-guns deployed with the support element and those required for the immediate protection of the assaulting element. The assaulting element will require some machine guns to deal with unforeseen circumstances. Machine-guns with the assaulting element may: (1) Contribute to the neutralization of the objective by assisting the firebase in winning the initial firefight. This can be done by firing on the objective from a static position before beginning the assault. Be used to increase the volume of fire on the objective when stopped to dismount the assaulting troops. In this case, the machine-guns are particularly valuable and this is a very vulnerable phase of the assault. They may be required to neutralize an enemy engaging the assault element from an unforeseen position that cannot be effectively engaged by the fire support element

c. d.

(2)

(3)

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(4) 99.

After troops are dismounted, the machine-guns with the assaulting element are employed as discussed in paragraph 27-b.

Supporting the reorganization: a. Machine-guns must be moved forward quickly under the control of the fire base commander. The order of priority of guns to be moved forward will be dictated by the situation. Normally, the guns that can support the reorganization position from their present location will be moved last. The move forward will be affected by the following factors: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) b. c. d. enemy situation; vulnerability of the reorganization position; location of the firebase; ammunition levels; continuity of coverage; and vulnerability of machine-guns moving forward;

Machine-guns being moved forward will re-join their sub-unit and be sited in predesignated positions to be adjusted later. It may, however, be necessary to establish a rendezvous to guide the machineguns to the position. Initially, the element establishing a quick defence (reorganization) may be solely responsible for: (1) (2) (3) its own flank protection; their own mutual support; and/or linking their position with that of other friendly troops.

e.

Once it reaches the reorganization phase, the assaulting element may be low in ammunition. The original attack plan must include provision for rapid replenishment during reorganization.

100. The exploitation. The employment of machine-guns during the exploitation is similar to the advance to contact or the attack, depending on the situation. 101. The pursuit. As pursuit operations are characterized by their fluidity, the employment of machine-guns must be flexible. Machine-guns will be used primarily to: a. b. c. d. e. 102. cut withdrawal routes; isolate positions; support assaults; cover air defence; and provide air defence.

Confirm by questions.
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THE WITHDRAWAL Explain. 103. General. The tasks which may be given to machine-guns during the withdrawal are: a. b. c. d. e. f. to cover the abandonment of the original position; to support the intermediate position; to support a new defensive position; to support a demolition guard; to form part of a rear-guard; and/or to form part of the flank protection element.

104. Covering the abandonment of the original position. Machine-guns will already be deployed in the original position. To cover the abandonment of his position using machine-guns, the commander should consider the following: a. b. APCs with mounted MGs remain on the position and cover the withdrawal of troops on foot. The APCs then make a quick clean break. APC-mounted troops withdraw using leap-frog movement to the rear until a clean break is created.

105. Supporting the intermediate position. When supporting an intermediate position during the withdrawal, machine-guns will normally be employed as follows: a. Machine-guns supporting the intermediate position are normally integral to the sub-unit tasked to occupy the position. A commander may, however, decide to augment the sub-unit with machine-guns from elements passing through the position. When the intermediate position withdraws, machine-guns will provide support in the same manner as if supporting the abandonment of the original position.

b.

106. Supporting the new position. Machine-guns are employed in the same manner as in the defence. 107. Supporting a demolition guard. When supporting a demolition guard, machine-guns are generally employed as follows: a. Machine-guns will usually be sited on the near side covering target areas in depth on both sides of the obstacle. Their deployment is aimed at preventing enemy APCs and personnel from approaching the demolition area within the effective range of their weapons. When machine-guns are sited on the far side of the obstacle, arrangements must be made for their crossing to the near side once the demolition is blown. When the guard withdraws, machine-guns will normally cover the withdrawal in the same manner as it covers the abandonment of the original position during withdrawal operations.

b. c.

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d. e.

Machine-guns require alternate positions not only to avoid neutralization but also to attempt to continue covering their target area should the enemy use smoke. Machine-guns may be deployed to provide air defence of the demolition. They are also a useful weapon to engage helicopters landing troops on the near side of the demolition.

108. Part of a rear-guard. While operating as part of a rear-guard, machine-guns will be employed as a covering force: a. b. c. HMGs may be positioned to cover APC approaches and routes the enemy may use in an attempt to out-flank or by-pass the rear-guard; during rear-guard operations, machine-guns are particularly useful to provide local protection, including air defence, to other elements of the rear-guard; and provision must be made for the replenishment of ammunition during the rearguard.

109. Flank protection. When part of a flank protection element in the withdrawal, machineguns will be employed in the same manner as when providing flank protection to a covering force. 110. Confirm by questions.

COMMAND AND CONTROL. Explain. 111. General. Machine-guns represent a substantial amount of the firepower at the disposal of an infantry commander. He must therefore be intimately involved in their employment. Within a rifle company, the company commander will assist, deploy and verify the siting of his machine-guns. In this task, he is assisted by his platoon commanders. 112. Armour defence plan: a. At battalion level, machine-guns firing outside a company area or in mutual support of another company are coordinated by the armour defence command post. The battalion commander may often task a company's machine-guns to be prepared to fire in support of another position. In his orders, he will specify the number of guns and the target area that must be covered. These guns will be placed in support of the other position. Targets in support of another position are numbered and registered. The target number is recorded at the armour defence command post. Requests for engaging the target will be passed directly between sub-units. The armour defence command post will exercise negative control in the same manner as the Fire Support Coordination Centre (FSCC) does for artillery fire missions.

b.

113. Anti-aircraft plan. Machine-guns providing anti-aircraft fire remain under command and control of the sub-unit to which they belong. Control of their fire, however, must be within the parameters set by the air defence cell of the FSCC and the commander's open fire policy.

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114. SOPs. Machine-guns are provided as an integral infantry section weapon, yet their use must nonetheless be coordinated. Each unit and sub-unit should develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the grouping, coordination and control of machine-guns. They may include the following: a. The semi-permanent forming of machine-gun sections within a platoon. One section can include two HMGs while the other has two HMGs and one GPMG. Machine-guns remain with their infantry section but normally work together. The following personnel may be tasked to control one section: (1) (2) (3) b. an infantry section second-in-command; the weapons master corporal; or one of the machine-gunners;

The procedures for the coordination of the machine-guns within a platoon must also be established in SOPs. The responsibility rests with the platoon commander but the task of technical coordination may be given to: (1) (2) the platoon second-in-command; or the weapons master corporal;

c.

When machine-guns are detached from a platoon to occupy a different position such as a fire base, the command of the machine-guns may be given to: (1) (2) (3) the company transport sergeant; one of the platoon's seconds-in-command; or one of the platoon weapons master corporals;

d.

Responsibility for the coordination of machine-gun fire within the company rests with the company commander. He may, however, appoint the company sergeant major to do the detailed coordination; and Standard operating procedures should also specify who in a section will normally man the gun when: (1) (2) (3) the section and gun are mounted on the APC; the section dismounts but the gun remains on the APC; and/or both the section and the gun are dismounted.

e.

115.

Confirm by questions.

PREPARATION OF MACHINE-GUN POSITIONS—VEHICLE-MOUNTED WEAPONS. Explain. 116. The selection and preparation of sites for vehicle-mounted weapons will present special problems, although the desirable characteristics of concealment, cover from fire, ease of control, etc, remain the same. The likelihood of finding suitable hull-down positions will be rare. 117. In selection or preparing of positions, the aim, in addition to meeting the criteria outlined in lesson 2, paragraph 19 of this chapter, will be to ensure that the machine-gun and the machine-

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gunner, who is highly exposed (except on the GRIZZLY APC) are able to maintain as low a profile as possible consistent with being able to fulfil the allotted tasks. 118. Mechanical resources. The use of a bulldozer or backhoe to prepare the position, as opposed to the use of manpower, will have to be determined in light of such factors as: the extent of the work involved, time available, available manpower resources, nature of the soil and the possibility of revealing the position's location to the enemy as a result of undue noise and activity. When time and the tactical situation permit, the position can be surveyed during the day and preparation of the position conducted under cover of limited visibility. 119. If it is not possible to manually dig-in the vehicle and a bulldozer is not available and the tactical situation does not permit the normal alternative of ground-mounting, it may be possible to leave the weapon mounted and move it forward from cover to execute its fire missions. This will be particularly applicable to the engagement of armoured targets. 120. Alternate positions. If alternate positions are necessary to cover the arc of fire allotted to the detachment or section, they should be as thoroughly prepared as the main position. This is equally applicable whether the machine-gun is vehicle-mounted or dismounted. 121. 122. Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. Answer students' questions regarding the entire lesson Confirm by Questions. Review: The essential training for members of a machine-gun section is based on the knowledge they acquire of its employment in all phases of war. The content of this lesson will give a trained machine-gunner the knowledge to be pro-active in selecting the options for the employment of the machine-gun. It is essential for the machine-gunner to master knowledge of the employment of the machine-gun in the various operations. LESSON 4 HEAVY MACHINE-GUN FIRE TRENCH INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 123. Aim. To teach students the stages of construction and how to construct a heavy machinegun fire trench. 124. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. occupation of a machine-gun emplacement; stages of construction; dimensions; and range card.

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125. 126. 127.

Time. Two x 40-minute periods. Method. One period of basic instruction and practical drill. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. multimedia projector—as required; diagrams—as required; 0.50 cal machine-gun complete—1 per class; shovel and pick—5 per machine-gun; and sandbags—20 per machine-gun.

128.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. set up teaching area; prepare the board (as required); check the diagrams and the projector (as required); and contract HMG fire trench.

129.

Miscellaneous: a. b. there is no requirement for the students to construct the HMG fire trench; and second half of the lesson is to demonstrate all subject matter taught in first half using a pre-constructed fire trench.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 130. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

131. Review. List the principles governing the use of machine-guns and the factors influencing the choice of a machine-gun emplacement. 132. Introduction. Protecting members of a machine-gun crew is important. The dimensions are much larger than in the case of a two-man trench and it accordingly requires more time, with the machine-gunners detailed to perform the digging without leaving the gun unmanned. Additional human resources are necessary if both tasks are to be carried out simultaneously and the importance of the heavy machine-gun trench means that it will be one of the first tasks to be completed.

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PREPARATION OF MACHINE-GUN POSITIONS—VEHICLE-MOUNTED WEAPONS Explain. 133. The selection and preparation of sites for vehicle-mounted weapons will present special problems, although the desirable characteristics of concealment, cover from fire, ease of control, etc, remain the same. The likelihood of finding suitable hull-down positions will be rare. 134. In selection or preparing positions, the aim, in addition to meeting the criteria outlined in lesson 2, paragraph 18 of this chapter, will be to ensure that the machine-gun and the machinegunner, who is highly exposed, able to maintain as low a profile as possible consistent with being able to fulfil the allotted tasks. 135. Mechanical resources. The use of a bulldozer or backhoe to prepare the position, as opposed to the use of manpower, will have to be determined in light of such factors as: the extent of the work involved, time available, available manpower resources, nature of the soil and the possibility of revealing the position's location to the enemy as a result of undue noise and activity. When time and the tactical situation permit, the position can be surveyed during the day and preparation of the position conducted under cover of limited visibility. 136. If it is not possible to manually dig-in the vehicle and a bulldozer is not available and the tactical situation does not permit the normal alternative of ground-mounting, it may be possible to leave the weapon mounted and move it forward from cover to execute its fire missions. This will be particularly applicable to the engagement of armoured targets. 137. Alternate positions. If alternate positions are necessary to cover the arc of fire allotted to the detachment or section, they should be as thoroughly prepared as the main position. This is equally applicable whether the machine-gun is vehicle-mounted or dismounted. 138. Confirm by questions.

OCCUPATION OF A MACHINE-GUN EMPLACEMENT Explain. 139. Every effort must be made to occupy a machine-gun position without the enemy being aware of it. To achieve this, all members of the detachment must maintain a low profile, and be capable of concealment and speed. The procedure for occupying a position is as follows: a. b. c. The section commander will receive mission orders and the general position of his section from the company (or platoon) commander. The section commander will give his section a warning order and specify a rendezvous for the weapon controllers. The section commander will reconnoitre the ground and then return to the rendezvous point, where he will brief the weapon controllers. He will advance with them to show them precisely the position they are to occupy and will assign arcs of fire to each machine-gun, as well as the exact position where the tripods are to be installed. The weapons controllers will return to their detachments and advance with them.

d. 140.

When the detachment reaches the position, the weapons controller will:

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a. b. c. 141.

specify the position of the tripod and then give the command “MOUNT WEAPON AND TRIPOD”; brief the detachment on the arcs of fire, targets and special commands; and complete a range card and record the targets.

Confirm by questions.

STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. Explain. 142. Construction. The ends of battle trenches are rounded to make them as resistant as possible to the effects of backblast. Leaves on the curved shelter roof share this characteristic and should accordingly be used as a revetment if possible. The trench will be constructed in the following stages: a. Stage 1—Scrape. A scrape measures 2 metres long and 0.75 metres wide. It is deep enough so that an occupant lying on his stomach is protected and is facing the enemy. A scrape is dug when in contact with the enemy or when it is not expected that the position will be improved (for example, an improvised defence). If the scrape is intended to be improved, the scrape should be dug facing the centre of the arcs of fire. Stage 2—Fire trench. A fire trench is a hole 1.6 metres long, 0.75 metres wide and 1.4 metres deep, or at least to armpit height. Stage 3—Fire trench revetment. The fire trench revetment will be installed together with an elbow rest 0.25 metres wide. This allows the occupants to be lower to the ground when firing. Stage 4—Reinforced shelter cover. The shelter is constructed on the basis of the scrape by enlarging one end of the fire trench by 2.4 metres in length and 1.2 metres in depth. The shelter revetment is added and covered with 0.5 metres of packed earth. Stage 5—Cover. Cover is then added to the fire trench. Stage 6—Improvements. As required, ammunition holes, grenade sumps and communications trenches are added. Hoses, communications trenches and section shelters are described in detail in B-GL-320-007/PT-001.

b. c.

d.

e. f.

143. When mechanical aids or explosives are used for excavation, stages 1 to 4 are normally carried out at the same time. a. Parapets. Parapets are constructed to conceal crew-served weapon positions, reduce silhouette by creating a background where there was not one before or to create ramparts in places where digging is either impossible or extremely difficult. In order to reduce the need for parapets as far as possible, the emplacement of positions must be selected with care and maximum use of ground. Works above ground level are highly exposed to backblast and draw enemy fire. Cover. Cover consists of materials that are light and easy to remove and must not be confused with reinforced cover, which will be dealt with in the next paragraph. As a general rule, it is used to protect shelters until reinforced cover becomes
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available or to protect fire trenches or weapon scrapes in cases where reinforced cover would hamper the operation of weapons or equipment. Cover provides the following functions: (1) (2) (3) (4) c. Protection against the thermal effect of nuclear weapons. Protection against liquid chemical agents. Concealment, especially against air observation. Protection against the elements.

Reinforced cover. Reinforced cover is used primarily to provide protection against fragments generated by indirect fire. To be effective, it must be at least 0.3 metres thick and above the section of the trench that corresponds to the shelter. It is desirable to place a layer of earth or sand 0.5 metres thick. Grenade sump. This is a small hole excavated near the bottom of the trench, into which any grenades entering the trench are thrown to reduce blast and shrapnel effects. Dimensions are 0.5 metres deep, 0.3 metres in diameter, at 45 degrees into the ground, and oriented so as to direct blast and shrapnel directly onto the back wall of the trench. Drainage. Drainage is by means of a sump. The most basic sump consists of a hole dug into the bottom of the scrape and filled with materials that drain easily, such as stones or pieces of brick. The minimum volume of the hole must be 0.3 cubic metres for a battle trench. The largest stones that can be used are fistsized, with smaller ones placed on top of them. If no stones are available, any materials can be used that will not block the sump, e.g., food cans or brushwood. The sump will be dug at the lowest part of the scrape. In large-scale excavations, digging channels is useful for leading the water to the sump. Sumps are not very effective in soil that drains poorly, such as heavy clay: in such cases, a raised floor should be laid, consisting of brush, wood or any similar material. If mechanical aids are used for excavation or if sufficient time is available, a trench or shelter, or part of them, can be made 0.5 metres deeper and the entire space thus created can be used as a sump. Sandbags or rocks can be used as fill. Camouflage. Prior to the start of excavation, all natural materials, such as grass, leaves, forest humus or snow must be removed and set aside: they will be used later to return the ground to its natural appearance. The debris must be placed on a carpet of soil or other appropriate material, removed and camouflaged. Communications trenches. A network of communications trenches can be excavated to link the section and platoon battle trenches. If there is time, reinforced cover will be installed at key spots in the communications trench. This will provide soldiers with places where they can take cover if they are surprised between two trenches by artillery or mortar fire or air attack.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

144.

Confirm by questions.

DIMENSIONS. Explain.

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145. The heavy machine-gun fire trench is an adaptation of the two-man battle trench. The differences are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. the shelter is increased to 2.8 metres long, with five curved shelter sections instead of four, as there is more ammunition; the fire trench is placed on the right of the shelter (ammunition is fed from the left; a section is added one metre by 0.60 metres for access to the supply level; the parapet is transformed into a machine-gun position capable of housing the tripod; and the length of the fire trench is increased to 2.5 metres.

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a. ground sheet or individual shelter construction equipment b. rubble c. g. k. turnstile trench 3.4 metres x 0.3 m deep d. turnstile trench 2.4 metres x 0.3 metres deep e. direction of enemy threat h. shelter and ammunition j. fire trench m. turnstile trench Figure 3-3: Dimensions of the heavy machine-gun trench

146.

Confirm by questions.

RANGE CARD. Explain. 147. To enhance the effectiveness of the defence, a range card will be prepared for every machine-gun trench to record the reference points in the arc of fire, the ranges and potential future targets. Range cards will be prepared using a full 6400 mil circle or a 3200 mil half-circle, depending on the nature of the defensive position and the depth of the defence. When preparing a range card, include only reference points that are clearly apparent and easy to identify. This will avoid information overload, thus eliminating confusion in the heat of action as well as orientation problems for replacements. The following information will be included on a range card: a. b. c. d. The primary and secondary arcs of fire, as assigned by the section commander, in the form of dotted lines. Clearly apparent reference points, i.e., a brief description and the range of each. The location of neighbouring trenches, to prevent positions from firing on each other accidentally and to ensure that the arcs overlap. An indication of the probable location of targets within the designated arcs; this is indicated as follows: (1) (2) (3) e. f. evaluate the range to each object; draw a small, numbered circle, together with the target, at the appropriate location on the range card; and draw a straight line from the numbered circle to the position.

The location from which the sketch was drawn: e.g., central front trench, Section 3, 2 Platoon. The method used to evaluate distance; map, halving, framing, laser telemetry.

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g. h. i. j.

The name of the individual who produced the range card. Indicate north so that the range card can be used for orientation purposes at platoon level. Ensure that the range card is clean, clearly illustrated and protected from the elements, so that everyone can read it. When a range card is prepared (figure 3-4), the information included must be accurate, legibly written and readily understandable, since others may use it. A range card is a representation of the ground seen from each trench; it makes it easier for the section comd to coordinate fire.

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RANGE CARD

HEAVY MACHINE-GUN

NORTH:

AZ L _______

AZ R ________

GR POINT OF ORIGIN:

____________________ ____________________

METHOD OF ESTIMATING DISTANCE: PREPARED BY: GR FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRE: TARGET INFORMATION SHEET Target no. Range Elevation

____________________________________________ ___________________

Azimuth

Rate of fire

Time From To

GR

Comments

Location: ___________________________ Date: ____-____200___ Time ___________ Location: ___________________________ Date: ____-____200___ Time ___________

MG No. ____ Section: _____

Platoon:_____

Coy:_____

Signature: ______________________________________ MG No. ____ Section: _____ Platoon:_____ Coy:_____

Signature: ______________________________________

Figure 3-4: Machine-gun range card

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148. 149.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. question period; confirm by questions and practice; pack up stores; and review: (1) successful construction of a trench depends on the following factors: (a) (b) (c) (d) (2) exact dimensions of the excavation; solid foundations; fortification; and camouflage.

an accurate range card will make it easier for new arrivals to understand their responsibilities more clearly, as well as the defensive system of the position.

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4CHAPTER 4 LESSON 1 AIR DEFENCE INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 1. Aim. To teach students about air defence and the guidelines governing anti-aircraft gunnery. 2. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 3. 4. 5. elements of knowledge required for air defence; air defence weapon control states; rules of engagement; target direction lines; rules for aim-off; methods of engagement and target range estimation; firing technique during engagement; and anti-aircraft training.

Time. Four x 40-minute periods. Method. Four periods of basic instruction. Stores: a. b. c. multimedia projector (as required); diagrams(as required); and flip chart board(as required).

6.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up the teaching area; prepare the board if required; and check the diagrams and the projector if required.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 7. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns (as required); carry out safety precautions on all the weapons to be used within the lesson;

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d. e. 8.

explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

Review. N/A.

9. Introduction. Air defence can be described as active or passive. The principal active air defence resources are those of the artillery and air, but every major unit, using its integral small arms weapons, does have a self-defence capability. Because of the difficulty of recognizing fastflying aircraft, varying restrictions will be placed on the engagement of aircraft in the battle zone by varying the air defence “weapon control states.” Passive air defence measures include the use of cover, concealment, camouflage, dispersion and protective construction. 10. General. The 0.50 cal machine-gun M2 is most effective against low, slow-flying aircraft within a range of 1,000 metres. It can be most readily fired in the air defence role when mounted on the M63 anti-aircraft mount: a. The 7.62 mm machine-gun is effective as an anti-aircraft weapon only when aircraft are within a range of 350 metres and flying at altitudes of 150 metres, or less, above ground level. Self-defence measures, to be effective, must be coordinated. The platoon/troop is the lowest practical level. The person controlling the fire should assess whether he can bring effective fire to bear if his position is adjacent to one being attacked. If he cannot, he should not risk giving his own position away.

b.

ELEMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR AIR DEFENCE Explain. 11. Successful air defence is based on the following drills and knowledge: a. b. Aerial targets must be within machine-gun range. In order to hit a moving target, the gunner must aim at a point on the apparent trajectory of the target. This method is called aiming in front of the target. Every gunner must be able to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) detect and identify an enemy aircraft; determine the range to the target; estimate the speed and direction of the target; correctly align the sights on his machine-gun and apply the appropriate aim-off to the targets he wishes to engage; track the target continuously after establishing the exact aim-off; engage an aircraft according to the aim-off of systematic fire technique; and engage the target quickly by maintaining a continuous fire.

12. Aircraft recognition. The machine-gunner must be able to recognize, quickly and accurately, current models of aircraft which allied and enemy forces are likely to use. The speed

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with which a high performance jet aircraft attacks leaves very little time for locating, identifying and engaging an enemy aircraft. Whenever possible, it is important to determine whether an aircraft is friendly or hostile while weapons are aimed at it, so that it can be engaged without delay if declared to be hostile. If this is not done, it is likely that an opportunity to engage the target effectively will be lost. Enemy aircraft must not, however, be engaged if the rules of engagement set out at paragraph 22 of this lesson have not been complied with. 13. Target range estimation. The machine-gunner must be able to estimate range accurately when engaging an aircraft. This is an essential attribute. Range tells him when to open fire. It is essential to the equation used to calculate lead. The relative dimensions of the aircraft and the details that the gunner can see are, however, the only base data he can use to estimate the range to the aircraft when using a 0.50 calibre or 7.62 mm machine-gun. The drill consists of observing a variety of aircraft types flying at known ranges until the gunner can instinctively estimate the range to the aircraft on the basis of their relative size. The range of 1,000 metres is stressed, since this is the opening range of the 0.50 calibre machine-gun. Table 4-1 provides a useful guide. Memorizing this table is the first stage in the process of learning designed to teach the machine-gunner to correctly estimate the range to aerial targets. Distance (metres) 200 500 700 1000 Above 1000 Detail seen by unaided eye Symbols, numbers and letters on the aircraft. Small projections from the fuselage, such as guns and aerials. The rudder and the cockpit. The general outline of the aircraft (opening range). The general shape gradually disappears and becomes only an elongated form in the sky.

Table 4-1: Visible details at various ranges.

14. Speed estimation. There is no substitute for the actual use of aircraft in the training of men to estimate the speed of aerial targets. Students should observe the aircraft as it flies various courses at known speeds until they become capable of estimating speeds with reasonable accuracy. The maximum and, in the case of fighters, the optimum attacking speeds of various types of aircraft are given during aircraft recognition training. 15. The position exercise. The position exercise teaches the machine-gunner to assume the anti-aircraft firing position quickly and accurately. The instructor must ensure that the assumed position is stable. Speed is gained by practice. The position of each machine-gunner can be tested by having him move a free machine-gun (i.e,, with elevation and traverse locking mechanism disengaged) through a wide traverse at high elevation without reference to any target. The ability to engage a target effectively in the anti-aircraft role is dependent on wellcoordinated movements that permit smooth, accurate tracking. This is acquired only with

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practice. The machine-gunner must track moving aerial targets frequently with the machine-gun mounted on the mount he normally uses. 16. Tracer observation. Instruction on tracer observation is designed to teach the machinegunner the fundamentals and to develop the ability to properly interpret the relationship of target and tracer, under varying conditions of line and lead. Graphic illustrations similar to those in figures 4-13 to 4-15 of this lesson are effective aids. Instruction in tracer observation is conducted concurrently with all phases of anti-aircraft training. 17. Demonstration firing. A demonstration firing is necessary to familiarize the machinegunner with the appearance of the tracer path with its apparent curve, and demonstrates the methods of adjusting the tracer path onto the target. The demonstration consists of the following: a. A free machine-gun is traversed while being fired, but without reference to a target. Attention must be called to the need for keeping the head high above the weapon so that the tracer path can be observed through the smoke. Aerial targets that are flying incoming and crossing courses are engaged. The application of lead is demonstrated with a moving reference point in the sky, the target, introducing the apparent curvature in the tracer path. The student must be conveniently located behind the machine-gun in order to correctly observe the effect of tracer. The instructor will stress the principles of tracer observation. The student's ability to observe tracers correctly is tested by the instructor.

b.

c. d.

18. Tracking exercises. Tracking exercises teach control of the free weapon and test the machine-gunner's ability to estimate and apply initial leads. Machine-gunners should track and simulate continuous fire on aerial targets flying various types of courses. 19. Rates of fire. The main rate of fire used in anti-aircraft engagements is the continuous rate of fire. This rate of fire consists of firing a complete ammunition belt without stopping. The barrel must be changed as soon as possible after using continuous fire. 20. Confirm by questions.

AIR DEFENCE WEAPON CONTROL STATES Explain. 21. Air defence weapons normally operate in one of the following states: a. “WEAPONS TIGHT”. Fire is directed only at aircraft that have been positively identified as hostile or which are acting in a hostile manner as defined in the Rules of Engagement (paragraph 22). This will be the normal air defence state that will apply to 0.50 cal and 7.62 mm machine-guns in the battle group. “WEAPONS FREE”. Fire may be directed at any aircraft not identified as friendly nor designated as such by an air situation report. “WEAPONS FREE” will not apply normally to 0.50 cal or 7.62 mm machine-gun fire.

b.

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c.

“WEAPONS HOLD” or “HOLD FIRE”. Machine-gunners will not open fire or, if firing has commenced, they will cease firing on receipt of the order “WEAPONS HOLD” or “HOLD FIRE”. “WEAPONS HOLD” may, in an emergency, be imposed at short notice within the battle group to safeguard friendly aircraft on the battle group area. “WEAPONS HOLD” will be imposed normally for a specified time.

22.

Confirm by questions.

RULES OF ENGAGEMENT Explain. 23. The rules of engagement for opening fire on hostile aircraft will be as follows: a. High performance aircraft. Fire will not be directed against a high performance aircraft unless it is attacking a position. Only the position attacked or those immediately adjacent to it should retaliate. All other aircraft. Fire will not be directed against an aircraft, other than a high performance aircraft, unless it has been identified as hostile by an officer or senior NCO.

b.

24.

Confirm by questions.

TARGET DIRECTION LINES Explain. 25. Terminology. To properly understand the theory of anti-aircraft fire, the machinegunner must be familiar with the following terms that refer to and explain the meaning of “Target Direction Lines.” This terminology is illustrated diagrammatically in figure 4-1 and described as follows:

a. and c. receding leg b. mid-point d. course line e. angle of approach 1600 m f. approaching leg Figure 4-1: Target direction terminology illustrated

a.

Direction line. The line along which the aircraft is flying.

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b. c. d. e.

Mid-point. The point along the direction line at which an aerial target is nearest the machine-gun position. Approaching leg. The part of the DIRECTION LINE along which the aircraft is flying towards mid-point. Receding leg. The part of the direction line along which the aircraft is flying AWAY FROM the mid-point. Angle of approach. The angle formed by a line joining the machine-gun and the position of the target and a line joining the machine to the mid-point. The angle of approach at mid-point is always 1,600 mils.

26. Types of direction lines. Aircraft may fly along any of the following types of direction lines, see figure 4-2: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Level. Target flying at a constant altitude. Diving. Target flying along a descending flight path. Climbing. Target flying along an ascending flight path. Incoming. Target flying towards and over the machine-gun position. Outgoing. Target flying away from the machine-gun. Crossing. Target flying any course other than incoming or outgoing. Directly at the machine-gun. Target flying toward the muzzle of the machinegun. Mixed flights. Combinations of the above types of lines can be used to describe the target line, e.g., “incoming diving,” “crossing level,” “diving directly at the machine-gun.”

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a. incoming level course b. crossing level course c. crossing diving course d. directly at the gun course Figure 4-2: Target direction lines

27.

Confirm by questions.

RULES FOR AIM-OFF Explain. 28. Estimation of aim-off. The amount of aim-off applied will depend on aircraft speed and heading, as well as the range of the aircraft and speed of the bullet. Without special sights to compensate for the above factors, a quick and simple of method of estimating aim-off or lead is required. It is also important that volume fire be employed, to compensate for those weapons for which too much or too little aim-off is applied (figure 4-3): a. The following paragraphs provide rules of thumb which, when applied with the technique of volume fire, will bring effective small arms fire to bear on attacking aircraft. The amount of aim-off applied depends on whether the attacking aircraft is: (1) (2) (3) diving directly at the firer; approaching at an oblique angle to the firer; or hovering.

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Figure 4-3: Volume fire

b.

Rule one. Diving targets. When an aircraft is diving directly towards troops on the ground, only the head-on aspect of the aircraft will be seen and none of the fuselage length will be visible. The line of aircraft flight and the line of sight to the target will be the same. However, the aircraft will pull up immediately after weapon release, so the troops being attacked should aim their weapons just above the centre of the target (figure 4-4).

Figure 4-4: Point of aim for targets diving directly at weapon position

c.

Rule two. Oblique targets. When the target aircraft is approaching at an oblique angle to the firer, the amount of aim-off to be applied is more difficult to judge. As the amount of lead is fixed according to the speed of the aircraft, it must be

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easily recalled to mind and visualized by the soldier. For this purpose, a football field (100 metres) is used as the fixed amount and is applied as follows: (1) High-speed aircraft. The point of aim is four football fields (400 metres) ahead of the aircraft along its apparent line of flight (figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5: Point of aim for oblique high-speed targets

(2)

Low speed aircraft (including helicopters). The point of aim is half a football field (50 metres) ahead of the aircraft along its apparent line of flight (figure 4-6.

a. crossing course b. ½ football field c. overhead course Figure 4-6: Point of aim for slow crossing targets

d.

Rule three. Hovering targets. Helicopters may on occasion hover to fire rockets, missiles and guns, or to dismount troops and supplies. In this case, they are engaged as a stationary ground target. Weapons should be aimed directly at the target, preferably at the cockpit or engine/transmission area (figure 4-7). Where

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an enemy helicopter is seen to execute a shallow diving attack at speed, then rules one and three apply.

Figure 4-7: Point of aim for hovering targets

29.

Confirm by questions.

METHODS OF ENGAGEMENT AND TARGET RANGE ESTIMATION. Explain. 30. Engagement procedures using aim-off. There are three aim-off procedures which can be used effectively to engage aircraft. They are: a. b. c. fixed lead procedure; reference point procedure; and fixed aiming point procedure: (1) Fixed lead procedure. With this procedure, the firer maintains a fixed lead in front of the aircraft throughout the engagement. Maintaining a fixed lead by tracer observation takes a great deal of training and is relatively ineffective due to the time it takes for corrections, particularly when a tracer-to-ball mix of less than one-to-one is used. When using the fixed-lead procedure, the following sequence should be applied: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (2) aim the weapon at the aircraft; swing the weapon with the aircraft; apply the correct lead ahead and on the line of flight of the aircraft; keep firing and keep swinging; and observe the tracer and correct aim-off;

Reference point procedure. This procedure relies for its effectiveness on the massed fire of at least a section and preferably a platoon. The commander selects a known reference point, which should, if the unit's elevated weapons are fired in the general direction of that reference point at the correct time, cause the aircraft to fly through some or all of the fire (figure 4-8). This procedure is as follows:

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a. reference point 4 b. beference point 2 c. reference point 3 Figure 4-8: Reference point procedure

(a)

The section or platoon commander alerts his soldiers by ordering, “AIR DEFENCE REFERENCE POINT ... PREPARE TO FIRE”. All firers point their weapons at the reference point ordered and raise their weapons to 45 degrees. As the aircraft approaches the reference point, the section/platoon commander orders, “REFERENCE POINT ... FIRE”.

(b) (c) (3)

Fixed aiming point procedure. A variation of the above procedure occurs when the section/platoon fires all of its weapons at a fixed point in the sky in front of the aircraft so that it is forced to pass through the fire. In this case, a GPMG with a high tracer-to-ball mix of ammunition fires at a point well in front of the aircraft along its apparent path. The remaining weapons use the tracers as an aiming mark. This procedure works well where it is well established as a unit standard operating procedure (figure 4-9).

Figure 4-9: Fixed aiming point procedure

31. Target range estimation. Targets should not be engaged unless they are within the estimated ranges for opening fire shown below: a. b. fast target (450 km/h): 1500 metres; slow targets (250 km/h): 1200 metres; and

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c.

helicopters (100 km/h): 1200 metres.

32. The range card normally produced in defensive positions can be used to assist in estimating the opening range to attacking aircraft. However, the position of an aircraft relative to the ground is difficult to judge. Factors affecting this estimation include: a. b. c. 33. aircraft speed; aircraft aspect; and ambient light conditions.

Confirm by questions.

FIRING TECHNIQUE DURING ENGAGEMENT. Explain. 34. Firing technique. The technique of firing during engagement which is described in this lesson is equally applicable to both the 0.50 cal and the 7.62 mm machine-guns. The machinegunner should fire continuously throughout an anti-aircraft engagement. Because the large amount of smoke created by continuous fire tends to restrict visibility, the machine-gunner should keep his head and eyes high above the sights to observe the tracers. When there is doubt as to the position of the tracer rounds, he should increase his lead. It is important that the machine-gunner initially open fire with an adequate lead and, once established, not reverse his tracking. If his initial lead is too great, the tracking rate should be slowed until the target catches up with the tracers. 35. Tracer observation. To make adjustments during firing, the machine-gunner must know the location of the rounds with respect to the target. Tracer ammunition provides this information. To produce a hit, however, the machine-gunner must be trained to correctly interpret the position of the tracer rounds. The secret of tracer observation is to stand directly behind the machine-gun and to look at the target. 36. Superimposition. When observing tracer, the machine-gunner will utilize the principle of superimposition, i.e., by aligning the tracer with the target. Because of the common tendency of machine-gunners to attempt to judge lead when tracers are not aligned with the target, the first basic principle of tracer observation must be stressed, i.e., the line requirement must be fulfilled before attempting to judge lead. When engaging an aircraft which is within range for the weapon, the machine-gunner should only concern himself with achieving a visual superimposition of the tracer on the target to fulfil the requirement for a hit (figure 4-10).

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a. out of line b. tracer superimposed c. behind target Figure 4-10: Superimposition

37. Localized vision. The tracer is normally seen as a single spot in the sky, moving directly away from the machine-gunner's eyes. In practice, the tracer does not appear as a spot, but rather as a curved path as shown in figure 4-11. a. The apparent curvature of the tracer path is called the illusion of curvature. When fired, the bullet moves in a straight line directly away from the machine-gun. Gravity causes the trajectory to curve downward but, except for the effects of wind or drift, the bullet does not move to the left or right. The illusion of curvature then takes place.

a. apparent tracer path b. hracer hump Figure 4-11: Illusion of curvature

b.

The point of maximum apparent curvature is described as the tracer hump. Here, the tracer path appears to curve sharply in a direction opposite to that in which the target is moving. The machine-gunner must focus his attention in the immediate vicinity of the target, as if he were looking through a telescope with a restricted field of view (figure 4-12). The machine-gunner's vision must be localized in the immediate vicinity of the target.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 4-12: Localized vision

38. Lead—Nose to tail. In certain types of target courses, particularly incoming and outgoing, the tracer may intercept the machine-gunner's line of vision to the target in two places. The machine-gunner may first see the tracer passing the target in an apparent tail to nose direction. This is the result of the illusion of curvature. Lead information cannot be based upon an observation of a tracer that appears to pass the target in this direction. The target actually crosses the tracer path only once, entering the path nose first, and leaving the tail last. The machine-gunner must read the tracer when it passes the target “nose to tail”: a. Line information. For level and non-level crossing courses, the tracer indicates that the rounds are: (1) (2) (3) high when the tracer is above the target direction line (figure 4-13a); low when the tracer is below the target direction line (figure 4-13b); and in-line when the tracer intersects a line from the machine-gunner's eyes, through the target to infinity (figures 4-13c and d).

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a. high b. low c. ahead d. astern Figure 4-13: Line and lead information based on tracer observation

b.

For courses which are incoming, outgoing, flying directly toward or away from the machine-gun, and for very steep diving courses, off-line tracer observations change from high or low to left or right (figure 4-14). Lead information. The tracer path which is on the target direction line indicates that the lead: (1) (2) is ahead of the target when the tracer path disappears behind the target (figure 4-13c); is behind the target when the tracer path is silhouetted along the length of the target (figure 4-13d); and

c.

Figure 4-14: Off-line tracer observation

Left

Right
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

(3)

is correct when the tracer path terminates in the target (figure 4-15).

Figure 4-15: A hit

39. 40.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: The success of effective air defence is based on the exercises and knowledge contained in this lesson.

LESSON 2 MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE HEAVY MACHINE-GUN ON THE ANTIAIRCRAFT MOUNT M63 INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 41. Aim. To teach students how to mount and machine-gun on the anti-aircraft mount preparatory to firing. 42. Main teaching points: a. M63 anti-aircraft mount technical information;

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b. c. 43. 44. 45.

mounting and dismounting the M63 anti-aircraft mount; and mounting and dismounting the machine-gun on the M63 mount.

Time. Two x 40-minute periods. Method. Explanation, demonstration, imitation. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. f. .50 cal machine-gun without tripod—1 per section; protective boots for mount—3 per mount; anti-aircraft mount M63—1 per section; ammunition box—1 per machine-gun; diagrams—as required; and filled sandbags—4 per mount.

46.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up teaching area; prepare diagrams as required; and position the machine-guns and mounts, check that they are operating properly.

47. Miscellaneous: the following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: a. b. c. “MOUNT THE M63 MOUNT” and “DISMOUNT THE M63 MOUNT”; “MOUNT THE MACHINE-GUN ON THE M63 MOUNT” and “DISMOUNT THE MACHINE-GUN FROM THE M63 MOUNT”; and “MOUNT THE M63 MOUNT AND THE MACHINE-GUN” and “DISMOUNT THE M63 MOUNT AND THE MACHINE-GUN”.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 48. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 49. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson.

Review. N/A

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

50. Introduction. The M63 Anti-aircraft mount is a rigid, low-silhouetted portable mount with four detachable legs and is used for anti-aircraft fire. It consists of four assemblies: the leg assembly, the base assembly, the elevator assembly and the cradle and yoke assembly. The cradle and yoke assembly includes the trigger frame assembly. The mount requires only slight adjustment to the trigger control mechanism and linkage in order to provide proper contact with the sideplate trigger, which is mounted on the machine-gun. The sideplate trigger must be removed from the machine-gun before it is mounted. M63 MOUNT TECHNICAL INFORMATION Explain. 51. Weight of assemblies: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. trigger frame assembly—7.7 kg; cradle and yoke assembly—12.7 kg; elevator assembly—5.9 kg; base assembly—24.9 kg; leg assembly—13.6 kg; M2 ammunition box adaptor—4.5 kg; and total weight of mount—71.3 kg.

a. cradle and yoke b. trigger frame c. elevator d. base e. legs Figure 4-16: M63 anti-aircraft mount

52.

Dimensions, elevations and traverse of the mount: a. b. c. d. height of mount—1.1 m; diameter of legs—1.4 m; maximum elevation—84º (1430 mils approx.); maximum depression—29º (570 mils approx.); and

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e. 53.

traverse—360º (6400 mils).

Confirm by questions.

MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE M63 ANTI-AIRCRAFT MOUNT Explain and demonstrate. 54. Mounting: a. Leg assembly: (1) There are detachable legs that are affixed to the base. The spade at the end of each leg ensures greater stability when embedded into the ground. The legs are sandbagged to further increase stability. A stud on the top of the inner portion of each leg allows positive locking in position. The legs are locked in place by the leg clamping caps and toggle bolts. The legs must be clamped securely to the base, but must never be forced or hammered into place. Should a clamp be broken, the large cotter key may be used as a temporary measure to hold the leg in place; the base assembly consists of the backplate, ball-bearing housing, leg clamping socket and carrying handle; the four holes drilled in the baseplate allow the mount to be bolted to a solid foundation; and the ball-bearing housing provides a seal for the ball-bearing assembly and bearing sleeve; The elevator assembly consists of the cradle locking clamp, the mounting yoke, the elevator, and the elevator spring plunger lock assembly. The last-named item is used to lock the elevator on positions of 45 and 90 degrees in relation to the axis of the leg. Should a 6400 mil traverse be designed, the elevator spring plunger lock must be set in the raised position. To join the elevator assembly to the base: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the elevator is inserted into the base; the sleeve bearing locking plunger is depressed (this prevents the ball-bearing assembly from turning in the bearing sleeve); lift the spring plunger bolt (preventing the elevator from being screwed all the way in); tighten the elevator, taking care not to damage the threads and not to force it; and release the sleeve bearing locking plunger;

(2)

b.

Base assembly: (1) (2) (3)

c.

Elevator assembly: (1)

(2)

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

d.

Cradle and yoke assembly: (1) The cradle and yoke assembly consists of the pintle, cradle, cradle mounting yoke, pivot, front and rear mounting pins, cradle locking pin and ammunition bracket. The machine-gun is held by the front and rear mounting pins. The cradle locking pin holds the cradle in either the horizontal or vertical position when travelling. To join the cradle and yoke assembly to the elevator: (a) (b) (c) the cradle mounting yoke pintle is inserted so that the cradle is on the same side and in line with the bend in the elevator; the mounting yoke cradle locking clamp is tightened; and the pintle moves with the elevator when the machine-gun is traversed; and

(2)

(3)

e.

trigger frame assembly: (1) This assembly is composed of the trigger frame, H-frame, firing grips, trigger control mechanism and sideplate trigger with container. The Hframe is normally carried in the “up” position. The upper firing grip is used for high angle firing but the machine-gun may be fired by either grip when in the “up” position. When the H-frame is folded under and held by the spring retaining clip, only the lower firing grip may be used. The Hframe is locked in position by the sliding locking sleeves. To join the trigger frame assembly to the cradle and yoke assembly, the screws provided must be inserted through the trigger frame body and cradle on each side and tightened. The sideplate trigger container is fixed to the trigger frame. The trigger spring plunger lock assembly of the trigger control mechanism is located on the LEFT side of the trigger frame assembly. In the “SAFE” position, this assembly extends through a hole in the upper firing lever; this locks the linkage and prevents operation of either firing grip.

(2)

(3)

55. 56.

Dismounting. Proceed in reverse sequence. Confirm by questions and practice. After the check, leave the M63 mount mounted.

MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING OF THE M63 ANTI-AIRCRAFT MOUNT Explain and demonstrate. 57. Mounting: a. install the sideplate trigger: (1) (2) remove the assembly from its container and take the cotter pin from the bolt; unscrew the castle nut half-off the bolt;

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Figure 4-17: Outer view of the sideplate trigger assembly

(3)

insert the dovetailed lugs of the housing into the slots in the LEFT side of the receiver and slide the assembly forward until seated flat on the sideplate of the receiver;

Figure 4-18: Inner view of the sideplate trigger assembly

(4) (5)

tighten the castle nut until the pinhole and two slots of the nut are in line; and insert the cotter pin and spread the prongs flat around the nut.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 4-19: Sideplate trigger assembly installed

58.

Testing the assembly: a. The slide must operate back and forth with the sideplate trigger spring properly seated at both ends and the lug on the bolt parallel with the slide lug on the housing. The bolt must be prepared by positioning the sear slide with the square end to the LEFT.

b. 59.

Trigger control mechanism adjustment: a. b. c. The trigger control mechanism must be adjusted to ensure proper contact with the sideplate trigger. Adjustment is made possible by the elongated boltholes in the trigger control mechanism, which permit the mechanism to be moved forward or backward. Care must be taken to adjust the linkage between the slide of the trigger control and the firing grips at the same time, in order to compensate for the shift and to maintain proper throw of the firing levers.

60.

Confirm by questions.

MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE MACHINE-GUN ON THE M63 MOUNT Explain and demonstrate. 61. Mounting the machine-gun: a. b. c. carry out the safety precautions on the M2 machine-gun; pull on the front and rear mounting pins of the M63 anti-aircraft mount; place the machine-gun on the cradle so that the cradle holes align with the horizontal holes in the pintle and push on the front and rear mounting pins; and

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d.

carry out the operating test with the upper and lower firing grips. NOTE

If the round does not fire, check the sideplate trigger assembly and the trigger control mechanism. If the problem cannot be corrected, see a weapons technician.

Figure 4-20: M2 machine-gun installed on the M63 anti-aircraft mount

62. 63. 64.

Dismounting. Proceed in reverse sequence. Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pick up stores. Review: Mastery of the procedure for mounting and dismounting the M2 machine-gun on the M63 anti-aircraft mount will allow the machine-gunner to deploy quickly in the field to maximum effect. In order to guarantee proper operation, it is essential to carry out the function test immediately after mounting.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

LESSON 3 MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING, LOADING THE MACHINE-GUN M2 ON THE M109 INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 65. 66. Aim. To teach students how to operate the machine-gun mounted on a vehicle. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 67. 68. 69. mounting the machine-gun on the M109; loading; method of firing; and dismounting.

Time. One x 40 minute period. Method. One period of basic instruction. Stores: a. b. c. d. complete machine-gun—1 per machine-gun; machine-gun cradle—1 per machine-gun; ammunition box—1 per machine-gun; and drill rounds—10 per machine-gun.

70.

Preparation: a. b. position the vehicles without mounting the machine-guns; and divide up the students depending on the number of vehicles available.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 71. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. 72. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students into teams and allocate guns; carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds and students’ pouches; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on word of command “No 1s OUT…CHANGE.”

Review. Hand carry the machine-gun.

73. Introduction. The machine-gun mounted on the M109 will provide the crew with close fire support against troops and light armoured vehicles.

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MOUNTING THE MACHINE-GUN ON THE M109. Explain and demonstrate. 74. Using the figure as a reference, perform the following steps when mounting the machinegun on the M109: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Insert the cradle pintle in the machine-gun mount and check that it is locked in place. Slide the ammunition tray into the cradle guides and lower the tray bolt. Check that the bolt holds the tray against the cradle. Remove the pintles from their housing in front of and behind the cradle. Place the machine-gun on the cradle so that all the holes on the cradle coincide with the horizontal holes on the pintle. Align the holes on the cradle with the holes on the machine-gun and insert the front cradle pin. Align the front holes on the cradle with the holes on the machine-gun and insert the rear cradle pin. Ensure that the link guide is properly aligned with the link ejection aperture. Check that the guide is at the same level and lined up with the ejection aperture, otherwise the following problems may occur: (1) if the guide is sloping towards the rear of the machine-gun, the bolt stud may hit it before the moving parts are fully forward, causing a stoppage; or NOTE Due to the enormous vibrations generated by tracked vehicles, the hinge pins must be inspected regularly during movements, depending on the wear, as they have a tendency to come loose from their housing. (2) the guide may swing forward and block the links.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. ammunition tray b. tray lock c. cradle d. rear pin e. elevation transport pin f. mount Figure 4-21: Machine-gun mount, cradle and ammunition tray

75.

Confirm by questions.

LOADING. Explain and demonstrate. 76. Loading is carried out as follows: a. b. Raise the ammunition holding shoe attached to the ammunition tray and place the ammunition box in the tray, with the points of the rounds facing forward. The belt must protrude from the box sufficiently to facilitate loading. Then lower the ammunition holding shoe.

77. When the machine-gun is mounted on the vehicle, the gun is loaded and unloaded by one gunner, using the method explained in Chapter 1. 78. To facilitate loading, remove the transport pin. This allows the rear of the machine-gun to rest on the mount crossbar; it also allows the gunner to position himself above, rather than

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behind, the weapon during loading and unloading. It is easier to cock the weapon in this position, as the sliding handle can be pulled back directly with no danger of trapping it. 79. Confirm by questions.

METHOD OF FIRING. Explain and Demonstrate. 80. The machine-gunner will execute the following manoeuvres in preparation for firing: a. b. c. 81. remove the elevation transport pin, which allows the machine-gun to be raised and lowered; clear the traversing transport bolt from its housing to allow the machine-gun to rotate on the pintle; and grasp the rear plate handles and move as far back as possible, pulling the machine-gun with him.

The machine-gunner can raise or lower the weapon with a simple up or down movement.

82. To fire, the machine-gunner must lean his head forward when using the elevation. He will aim at the target, fire and correct his fire by observing the tracer rounds. 83. Confirm by questions.

Figure 4-22: Machine-gun mounted on the cradle

DISMOUNTING. Explain and Demonstrate. 84. The machine-gun is dismounted using the following stages: a. pivot the machine-gun until the traverse transport bolt can be inserted to stabilize the cradle, align the holes on the bolt with the holes on the pintle and insert the pin to maintain the cradle bearing; unload the machine-gun; remove the ammunition box from the tray;
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b. c.

The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

d. e. f. g. h. 85. 86.

replace the elevation transport pin; remove the front cradle pin; remove the rear cradle pin; lift the machine-gun out of the cradle; and replace the cradle pins.

Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by practical drills. Carry out safety precautions. Pack up stores. Review: In order to be effective, using the machine-gun mounted on a vehicle requires greater dexterity than when mounted on a tripod mount. Fire and movement demand a great deal of practice on the part of the machine-gunner and should be avoided, except in an extreme emergency.

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5CHAPTER 5 LESSON 1 ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE .50 CAL HMG IN THE ONE METER TURRET INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 1. Aim. Introduce the students to the .50 Cal Heavy Machine-Gun mounted with in the one metre turret. Training and qualification for this configuration is obtained from the One Meter Turret Operators Course. Additional procedures affecting the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 calibre, M2HB, QCB not mentioned in this section may be found in C-71-325-000/MB-001 One Meter Turret Operations Manual. 2. Main teaching points: a. b. c. 3. 4. 5. basic description of the one meter turret; additional gun components unique to the one-meter turret; and description of the additional components.

Time. One x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic classroom and crew bays instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete, mounted in one turret; interactive classroom; drill ammunition; and trouble light or flash light.

6.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. Set up teaching area. The guns should be mounted in turret with solenoid, feed shoots, and bags in place. Ensure that the gun is mounted correctly. For this lesson the gun and dummy ammo must be checked and cleared by the instructor. This is the first lesson for the 50 Cal MG mounted in the one meter turret. Safety precautions for the turret will be taught in a later lesson. The instructor must understand that most of the drills introduced in this and up coming lessons are very closely related to the dismounted operation of the HMG but because of confined space and that all drills will be done by just one operator (No. 2) there will be some differences. Check that the machine-guns are operating properly.

e.

f.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

g. h. 7.

For this lesson ensure the guns are assembled for right hand feed. Student to instructor ratio is 3 to 1.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. e. Instructor is to carry out safety precautions and inspect the drill rounds at the start of the lesson in front of the students. Where appropriate the students should be encouraged to work as a team. At this stage the students are not expected to memorize all the subject matter taught during this lesson. Utilise the name parts and description stages and demonstrate certain weapon functions i.e., right hand feed, cocking handle, solenoid, safety catch etc. Mention during the lesson that the gun with be setup to a right hand feed, and that all safety precautions have been completed by the instructor.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 8. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students 1 through 3; inform students that all safety precautions have already been carried out by the instructor; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson: (1) (2) 9. briefly describe turret safety; and action on word of command “STILL”.

Review. Turret safety: a. b. c. d. e. Safety is every soldier’s responsibility in the CF. Before mounting any AFV make sure that your intentions are clearly known to both the driver and the crew. Whenever possible mount the AFV by the drivers hatch or if turret is live from the rear. Watch for moving parts. The turret can traverse 6400mils and body parts may get caught either inside or outside of the turret. Know the state of your weapons system at all times and if not sure carry out safety precautions.

10. Introduction. This chapter addresses the operation of the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB,QCB when mounted in the Cadillac Gage One Meter Turret.
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BASIC DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE METER TURRET 11. The one metre turret is an updated version of the mid 1990’s depot level inspection and repair (DLIR) Grizzly turret, which incorporates a protection enhancement system as well as an updated multi-barrel grenade discharger (MBGD) system and an updated fire control system. The one metre turret is mounted with both a 7.62mm co-ax machine gun in the left side and a .50 calibre heavy machine gun in the right side of the turret. It is designed for a single operator and is mounted as a gunnery station on the following track light armoured vehicle (TLAV) variants: a. b. c. M113A3 CDN with turret, ECC 114330 (fig 5-1-1); Mobile Tactical Vehicle Engineer (MTVE), ECC 114350(fig 5-1-2); and Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light (MTVL), ECC 114375(fig 5-1-3).

Figure 5-1: M113A3 CDN with turret, ECC 114330

Figure 5-2: Mobile Tactical Vehicle Engineer (MTVE), ECC 114350

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 5-3: Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light (MTVL), ECC 114375

12. Additional Gun Components unique to the one-meter turret. (Have each student identify each of the following components inside the turret.) 13. Point out the following parts on the gun: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 14. soleniod and bracket assembly; block link; retracting slide assembly; ammo trays and feed rollers; bell mouth chute; cocking handle (demonstrate cocking the gun); and gas bag.

Confirm by having students name and point out parts.

DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS 15. The Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 calibre, M2HB, QCB when mounted in the Cadillac Gage One Meter Turret must be configured for right hand feed, and requires the installation of the following additional components: a. Solenoid and bracket assembly. The solenoid and bracket assembly is added to allow remote firing of the weapon. When used in this configuration, it is mounted on the left side of the weapon. (Fig 5-4).

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Figure 5-4: Solenoid and Bracket Assembly

b.

Block link. The block link is mounted on the left side of the feed-way in the belt holding pawl recess, this block permits the links to be guided into a link chute which empties into a spent casing/link bin located on the turret floor. (fig 5-5).

Figure 5-5: Block Link

c.

Retracting slide assembly. The retracting slide handle utilized is shorter in length than the dismounted version found on the HMG. This allows the weapon to be cocked in all angles of elevation without being fouled by the ammunition boxes or the turret ring. Bell mouth chute. The bell mouth chute is mounted on the right side of the feedway of the gun to align the ammunition with the feed-way prior to entering the weapon, it is secured in place by the belt holding pawl pin. (Figure 5-6). Gas bag. The gas bag is a vinyl constructed enclosure that encases the gun to facilitate proper operation of the fume exhaust fan. (Figure 5-7). Ammo trays and rollers. The ammo trays that are attached to the right side of the turret are designed to hold two ammo boxes with a roller system that feeds the gun.

d.

e. f.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 5-6: Bell Mouth Shute

NOTE When mounted in the one meter turret, the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 calibre, M2HB, QCB handling and immediate action (IA) and stoppage drills differ from the dismounted role due to confined space and the addition of a fire control system and gun laying instruments within the turret.

Figure 5-7: Gas Bag

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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

NOTE: Due to space limitations within the turret mantlet, the blank firing attachment CANNOT be fitted. 16. 17. Confirm by questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Questions from the students on the entire period. Confirm by questions and identifying the additional components. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: It is important to be fully familiar with the additional components of the weapon to maximize the effectiveness of its use inside the one meter turret. It is essential to carry out the safety precautions at all times before handling the weapon. LESSON 2 .50 CAL HMG PREPARATION FOR TURRET OPERATION (CONVERSION TO RIGHT HAND FEED) INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 18. Aim. Introduce the students to the .50 Cal Heavy Machine-Gun mounted with in the One Metre Turret. Training and qualification for this configuration is obtained from the One Meter Turret Operators Course. Additional procedures affecting the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 calibre, M2HB, QCB not mentioned in this section may be found in C-71-325-000/MB-001 One Meter Turret Operations Manual. 19. Main teaching points: a. b. c. 20. 21. 22. Converting the Receiver Group and Bolt to right hand feed. Converting Cover Group to right hand feed. Installing the Block Link, Bell Mouth Feed Clute, and Solenoid.

Time. Two x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic classroom instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete with tools box and spare parts. Inter active classroom. Six foot table (tripod with T & E are not apart of weapon EIS for mounted HMGs but maybe used for this lesson if available).
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

23.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. e. Set up teaching area. The guns should be dismounted on a table for stripping. Ensure that the guns are assembled correctly with bolt in receiver and operating properly. For this lesson the gun must be checked and cleared by the instructor. The instructor must understand that most of the drills introduced in this lesson are very closely related to the dismounted operation of the HMG but because of confined space and that all drills will be carried out by just one operated (no #2) there will be some differences. For this lesson ensure the guns are assembled for left hand feed. Student to instructor ratio is 3 to 1.

f. g. 24.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. e. Instructor is to carry out safety precautions and inspect the drill rounds at the start of the lesson in front of the students. Where appropriate the students should be encouraged to work as a team. At this stage the students are not expected to memorize all the subject matter taught during this lesson. Utilise the parts names and demonstrate certain parts functions within the gun system. Mention during the lesson that the gun must be setup for right hand feed, and to work properly in the One Meter Turret.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 25. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. Check all students equipment required for this lesson. Number off students 1 through 3. Carry out safety precautions and inspect any drill rounds that may be in the classroom. Safety precautions on the HMG may have to be carried out on a table. To insure that the gun does not fall off the table while safety precautions are carried out a second person maybe employed to hold the receiver while the gun is being cocked. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. ie: Action on Word of Command “STILL”

e. f.

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26.

Review. Safety Precautions. (Explain and demonstrate).

27. Because the HMG is dismounted from the One Meter turret and there is no restrictions of space. The drill for clearing the machine-gun is the same as what was previously taught in dismounted operations. Note that machine-guns that are assigned for turret operations may not have a tripod as part of their EIS and may have to be clear while setting on a table or other flat surface. To clear the machine-gun the gunner will carryout the following steps: a. b. c. d. Engage the safety. Check that the bolt latch release is unlocked. Rotate the cover latch forward and raise the cover. Grasp the cocking handle and pull the action fully to the rear ensuring the handle returns to the fully forward position. Note: because the gun is not mounted on a tripod a second person maybe employed to hold the upper receiver. The barrel will move rearward when machine-gun is cocked. Examine the chamber and face of the bolt (t slot) to ensure that they are free of rounds. Once the gun has been “CLEARED” pull the cocking handle fully to the rear, operate the both latch release and allow the bolt assembly to go forward under control. (Again the machine-gun may have to be secured by a second person) Close the cover. Place safety catch to “fire”. Operate the trigger and return the safety catch to “safe”.

e. f.

g. h. i.

INTRODUCTION 28. General. Before preparing the machine-gun for turret operation by converting to a right hand feed and the adding of the Bell Mouth Feed Chute and Solenoid the gunner must know how to detail strip the machine-gun. (Detailed stripping of the machine-gun is taught in earlier chapters). Remember that detailed stripping of the machine-gun will require the handling of small part. In garrison the gunner must work on a table or other flat surface. During field operations the gunner must prepare machine-gun on a ground sheet or other such surface. This will help eliminate the chance of losing parts. CONVERTING THE RECEIVER GROUP AND BOLT TO RIGHT HAND FEED 29. To position the belt feed components from left and right hand feed proceed as follows: a. .50 Cal, HMG, Belt Holding Pawl Assembly conversion (Figure 5-8). To remove the belt holding pawl assembly from the left hand belt holding pawl bracket and install it on the right bracket, proceed as follows: (1) Remove the rear right hand cartridge stop assembly and front cartridge stop from the right side of the receiver.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

(2) (3) (4) (5)

Remove the belt holding pawls assembly from the left side taking care to apply pressure to the belt holding pawls as they are spring loaded. Position the belt holding pawl springs in their holes on the right side of the feed tray. Position the belt holding pawl assembly (1) on the springs; apply pressure to the pawls, maintaining alignment of the axis pin holes. Install the belt holding pawl pin (2) from the rear.

Figure 5-8: .50 Cal, HMG, Belt Holding Pawl Assembly Removal

b.

.50 Cal, HMG, Link Stripper and Cartridge Stops Conversion (Figure 5-9). To convert the cartridge stop assembly and link stripper to right hand feed, proceed as follows: (1) After removing the right hand cartridge stop assembly from the right side, you must replace the right hand cartridge stop assembly with the link stripper (1) and rear cartridge stop (2) that are found with your spare parts. NOTE

The right hand cartridge stop assembly is not to be used when converting to right hand feed. (2) (3) Move the front cartridge stop (3) and reposition it in the left belt holding pawl bracket. Reposition the link stripper and the rear cartridge stop in the left belt holding pawl bracket with the link stripper forward of the rear cartridge stop.
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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

(4)

Install the pin from the rear.

Figure 5-9: Relocating the Link Stripper and Cartridge Stops

c.

Converting the bolt to right hand feed requires the repositioning of the bolt switch. (Figure 5-10 (1) (2) (3) Remove the extractor (1). Reposition the bolt Switch (2) in alignment with the right-hand belt feed lever cam slot (3) Replace the extractor.

Figure 5-10: Repositioning the Bolt Switch

30. Confirm by having students convert the receiver and bolt to right hand feed and name parts.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

CONVERTING THE COVER GROUP TO RIGHT HAND FEED.

NOTE The cover group does not need to be removed from the machine-gun to change the direction of feed. 31. When converting the cover group to right hand feed the cover latch shaft assembly is converted for the left side to the right side. To prepare the HMG for One meter Turret configuration, the moving of the cover latch shaft assembly to the right side is not required and not recommend because of the position of the HMG mounting brackets in the turret. The cover group does not need to be removed from the HMG to convert feed direction. To position the cover group to right hand feed proceed as follows: a. b. c. d. Remove the belt feed slide lever as taught in detailed stripping. Remove the belt feed slide assembly. Disassemble the belt feed slide assembly as taught in detailed stripping. Reassemble the belt feed slide assembly (figure 5-11). Ensure the open coil of the spring (1) is seated in the seat provided in the pawl assembly (2) and the belt feed pawl arm (3) is assembled on the left side of the pawl assembly.

Figure 5-11: Belt Feed Slide Assembly for right Hand Feed

e.

Once the belt feed slide is reassembled install the belt feed slide assembly back in the receiver group with the belt feed pawl arm up, see Figure 5-12.

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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

Figure 5-12: Installing the Belt Feed Side Assembly

f. g.

To convert the Belt Feed Lever remove the spring loaded plunger and spring from the belt feed lever. Reposition both parts in the forward hole of the Belt feed Lever, see Figure 5-13.

Figure 5-13: Repositioning the Belt Feed Lever Return Spring and Plunger

h.

To reinstall the belt feed lever on to the receiver group, position the belt feed lever on the pivot and align the forward end of the lever with the slot in the belt feed slide guide of the cover. Using the blade of a screwdriver to compress the belt feed lever plunger return spring (figure 5-14), push the belt feed lever down onto the pivot, ensuring the forward end of the lever is properly engaged in the slide. Secure the lever with the spring clip or a new cotter pin.

i.

j.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 5-14: Installing the belt feed lever

k.

To reverse the cover latch shaft assembly (Which is not required for One Meter Turret Operation) see Figure 5-15 and proceed by sliding the cover latch spring (1) from beneath the cover latch (2). Remove the cotter pin (3) and thrust washer (4) from the cover latch shaft assembly (5). Holding the cover latch in position, reverse the cover latch shaft assembly and reinstall it from the right side. Replace the thrust washer and secure the assembled cover latch shaft assembly with a cotter pin.

l. m. n.

Figure 5-15: Reversing the Cover Latch Shaft Assembly

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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

32.

Confirm by having students convert HMG cover group to right hand feed and name parts.

INSTALLING THE BELL MOUTH FEED CLUTE, BLOCK LINK, AND SOLENOID. 33. In preparation for operation inside the One Meter Turret the HMG will require the adding on of EIS that is unique to that gun system. The installation of these components is done after the HMG has been converted to right hand feed. To install these components follow these steps: a. Bell Mouth Feed Chute Installation. (figure 5-16) (1) (2) (3) b. (1) (2) (3) Remove the pin (2) on the right side of the HMG making sure to hold down on the belt holding pawl assembly (spring loaded). While holding the belt holding pawl assembly in place insert the bell mouth feed chute (1) on the right of the weapon. Secure it with the pin (2). Remove the pin (2) on the left side weapon. Insert the block link (3) on the left side of the weapon. Secure it with the pin (2).

Block link installation. (figure 5-16)

Figure 5-16: Bell Mouth Feed Chute and Block Link installation

c.

Side Mounted Solenoid installation (figure 5-17): (1) (2) Install the solenoid (2) and Adaptor (3) on the left of the weapon. Secure with T bolt (1).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

Figure 5-17: Side mounted Solenoid Installation

34.

Confirm by having students demonstrate and name parts.

35. Test after Assembly. Must be completed after switching to right hand feed. This will ensure the weapon is working properly. The test after assembly is carried out in the same sequence as taught in earlier stripping lessons.

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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

Figure 5-18: Belt Feed Assembly for Left Hand and Right Hand Feed

36.

Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question from the students on the entire period. Confirm by Questions and identifying the additional components. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review the important right-hand feed in preparing the HMG for One Meter Turret operations. LESSON 3 MOUNT, DISMOUNT AND MOUNTED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 37. Aim. Teach the students to mount, dismount, install the gas bag and perform mounted safety precautions on the .50 Cal heavy machine-gun in the one meter turret. Training and qualification for this configuration is obtained from the One Meter Turret Operators Course. Additional procedures affecting the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

not mentioned in this section may be found in C-71-325-000/MB-001 One Meter Turret Operations Manual. 38. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 39. 40. 41. prepare the HMG for mounting; mount the HMG in the one meter turret; mounted safety precautions; and dismount the HMG from the one meter turret.

Time. Three x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. .50 Cal Machine with EIS—1 per 3 student crew; one meter turret—1 per crew; and trouble light or flash Light—1 per crew.

42.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. set up teaching area; ensure all guns are converted to right hand feed; ensure all gun cradles have the necessary retaining pins; and student to instructor ratio is 3 to 1.

43. Miscellaneous: instructor is to carry out safety precautions and inspect the drill rounds at the start of the lesson in front of the students. 44. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students 1 through 3; carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds; explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations; and explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson: (1) (2) 45. briefly describe turret safety; and action on word of command “STILL”.

Review. Pre-fire check and conversion to right hand feed.

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46. Introduction. You as the operator must be able to mount the HMG in the one meter turret, in order to fire your HMG. This knowledge and skill will be applied whenever you are to fire the HMG from the 1m turret. PREPARE THE HMG FOR MOUNTING 47. The following preparation is required to ready the .50 Cal QCB Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) for mounting in the one meter turret: a. b. c. d. ensure the weapon has been pre-fire checked by a weapons technician to ensure headspace and timing adjustments are within tolerance; ensure the gun is converted to right hand feed as taught; ensure that the user pre-fire check has been completed as taught; and ensure that the following components are attached to the gun or available for installation after the gun is mounted: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) solenoid and bracket assembly (attached); block Link (installed); retracting slide assembly with shortened handle (installed); bell mouth chute (available); and gas bag (available).

WARNING Ensure all personnel are clear of the area before operating the 1m turret. Failure to do so could cause injury or death to personnel by moving the turret.

48.

Mount THE HMG. Mounting the HMG requires the assistance of another person: a. b. c. Prove weapon. Remove the barrel. Traverse the turret so that the mantlet is over the vehicle top deck and positioned so that the gun cradle is in line with the cage door. This will allow the machine gun to be installed from inside the turret by allowing the rear of the HMG to extend into the crew compartment prior to positioning the HMG in the cradle. Ensure the power traverse switch is in the “OFF” position. Ensure that the weapon selector switch is in the “OFF” position. Ensure all cradle retaining pins are removed, and there are no obstructions in the gun cradle or in the mantlet aperture. With the elevation hand wheel, elevate the cradle to 530 mils.

d. e. f. g.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

h. i. j. k. l. m.

Position the prepared .50 Cal machine gun into the cradle (a second person to help is preferred but can be done individually). With the elevation hand wheel depress the cradle to the 0 mils position (horizontal). Install the rear mounting retaining pin through the HMG and rear of the cradle mount. Install the front mounting retaining pin. Position the cradle charger arm such that it can be connected to the HMG cocking handle. Press the clip into place over the cocking handle. Install the barrel. NOTE: the barrel retracting carrying handle cannot be utilized as the mantlet depth prevents its use. The operator retracts the bolt approximately ½ inch, reports “Bolt Retracted” and the assistant inserts and locks the barrel, then reports “release bolt”, the operator allows the action to go forward, then the assistant checks that the barrel is locked by attempting to rotate it counter clockwise to ensure the barrel is locked. Connect the solenoid wire connection to the firing switch electrical source wire connector.

n.

49. Confirm by questions, there will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course. .50 CAL FIRING SOLENOID ADJUSTMENT. WARNING Adjusting the .50 Cal firing solenoid has the same effect as adjusting the timing of the machine-gun. Ensure the .50 Cal HMG firing solenoid is adjusted correctly. A firing solenoid that is too far out of adjustment can be the cause of a runaway machine gun. Whenever the solenoid adjustment is in doubt, the procedure to carry out solenoid adjustment must be completed prior to operation. 50. To adjust the .50 Cal, M2HB firing solenoid, see Figure 5-19 and proceed as follows: WARNING The solenoid adjustment must be made with no ammunition in the weapon. Injury or death to personnel could result if adjustment is made with live ammunition in the weapon. a. b. c.
5-20

Ensure weapon is unloaded. Adjust the solenoid (4) by loosening the screw (2) with a flat tip screwdriver. Turn the solenoid adjustment knob (1) completely clockwise.
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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

d. e.

Charge the weapon by pushing the cocking handle (3) completely down, ensuring the action is allowed to go forward. Move the arming switch on the weapon control assembly to the .50 Armed position, then while depressing the electrical firing switch (5), rotate the solenoid adjustment knob counterclockwise until the weapon fires. Turn the solenoid adjustment knob an additional one-quarter turn counterclockwise and tighten the screw. Recharge the weapon and using the electrical firing switch, ensure the weapon will fire.

f. g.

Figure 5-19: .50 Cal, M2HB Firing Solenoid Adjustment

51. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

GAS BAG INSTALLATION

WARNING Exhaust blower switch must be in the ON position for proper fume extraction.

52. The gas bag is an integral component of the fume extraction system within the one meter turret. Fumes from the weapons within an enclosed area can be harmful or fatal if the gas bag is not properly installed and utilized. The procedure to install the gas bag is as follows, some users

WARNING Proper sealing of the gas bag is crucial to safe and effective exhaust blower operation. may use differing methods to install due to individual physical size and dexterity. a. b. c. d. e. Install the HMG in its cradle. Remove the belt holding pawl pin, belt holding pawl, belt holding pawl springs and the bell mouth chute (3) from the HMG. Place the feed-way opening of the gas bag (C) [Not exactly as illustrated] around the rear of the bell mouth chute (3). Install the belt holding pawl springs, belt holding pawl , belt holding pawl pin and the bell mouth chute, to the HMG. Completely open all hook and loop (Velcro) pile fastened flaps. Also open the zipper such that the gas bag will lay open. Be sure that the gas bag interior is facing up and that the window (H) is at the left rear of the weapon. Remove the .50 calibre spent cartridge ejection chute hose (1) at the ejection chute (2). Align and place the cocking handle hole (B) over the cocking handle (4). Place the elastic opening (A) over the spent cartridge ejection chute (2). Replace and secure the ejection chute hose (1) to the ejection chute. Secure snap fastener (D) on the front of the gas bag to the top front of the .50 calibre mount. Secure the hook and loop pile fastener material around the front of the .50 calibre mount in a counter clockwise direction pulling it tightly around the cradle. Attach and secure the gas bag snorkel (E) over the exhaust tube (5).

f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

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Additional Components of the .50 Cal HMG in the One Meter Turret

m.

Engage the zipper halves and completely zip the gas bag closed by moving the zipper toward the rear of the weapon. Cover the zipper by securing flap (F). Close the rear flap (G). As a final check, ensure all hook and loop pile fasteners are sealed at the flap locations and around the gun cradle. Ensure exhaust blower is switched to the “ON” position prior to firing the weapon.

n. o.

1. Ejection chute hose 2. Ejection chute 3. Bell mouth chute 4. Cocking handle 5. Exhaust tube

A. Ejection chute elastic opening B. Cocking handle hole C. Bell mouth chute opening D. Snap fastener E. Gas bag snorkel F. Gas Bag securing flap G. Rear flap H. Window Flap J. Rear Flap

Figure 5-20: Gas Bag Installation

p.

To remove the gas bag reverse the procedure.

53. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

MOUNTED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. Explain and Demonstrate. 54. The one meter turret consists of three weapon systems, C-6 MG, .50 HMG and the MBGDs. It is the operator’s responsibility to know the state of your weapons system at all times and if not sure carry out the following safety precautions as required: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Ensure that traverse power is off and the .50 cal electrical firing circuit is powered down. Ensure the bolt latch is unlocked. Engage the manual safety. Ensure that the turret is pointed in a safe direction and elevate the gun to approximately 500mils. Rotate the cover latch forward and raise the cover. Grasp the charging handle and bring the action fully to the rear. Examine the chamber and the face of the bolt to ensure that they are free of rounds (checked by the instructor and gunner). Once it is determined the weapon is clear, Report “HMG Clear” and allow the action to go forward under control by, pushing down on the bolt latch release and easing the bolt forward with the cocking handle. Ensure extractor is down, close the cover and depress the gun to level. Disengage the manual safety. Manually fire the action. Check the extra quick change barrel to ensure there are no obstructions. During training check all drill rounds to ensure that no live rounds are present. If present, they will be immediately removed and handed over to the officer or NCO in charge of the training period for return to the issuing authority.

i. j. k. l. m.

55.

Confirm by practice.

DISMOUNT THE HMG 56. To dismount the HMG from the one meter turret an assistant should be utilized. To dismount use the following procedure: a. b. c. d. e. f. ensure the gun is safe or the turret is made safe; ensure turret is facing in a safe direction; turn the traverse power and weapon selector switch off; open the gas bag, the bag only needs to be opened not totally removed; carry out safety precautions; unlock the bolt latch release;

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g. h. i. j. k. l. m.

remove the barrel; disconnect and remove the solenoid; disconnect the cradle charger arm; elevate the cradle to 530 mils; remove the front mounting pin; remove the rear mounting pin; and remove the HMG from the cradle and turret.

57. Confirm by questions, there will not be enough time for all students to practice at this tim, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course. 58. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Questions from the students on the entire class. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: It is essential to carry out the safety precautions at all times before handling the weapon. It is important to be fully familiar with the procedure for preparing the HMG for installation, and the correct procedure for mounting and dismounting the HMG as well as installing the gas bag. LESSON 4 HANDLING DRILLS INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 59. Aim. To teach students how to recognise and conduct handling drills on the .50 Cal heavy machine gun mounted in the one meter turret. Training and qualification for this configuration is obtained from the One Meter Turret Operators Course. Additional procedures affecting the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB not mentioned in this section may be found in C-71-325-000/MB-001 One Meter Turret Operations Manual. 60. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. e. f. ammunition preparation; load; ready; fire; make safe/ready from make safe; unload/hot barrel unload;

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

g. h. 61. 62. 63.

clear weapon; and single shot/semi-automatic fire.

Time. Three x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. .50 Cal machine-gun complete with EIS, mounted in the one meter turret—1 per 3 students; drill ammunition—100 rds per crew; .50 Cal ammo cans—2 per crew;and trouble light or flashlight—1 per crew.

64.

Preparation: a. b. c. set up teaching area; check that the machine-guns are mounted and operating properly; and check drill rounds and link for damage and place 50 rds in each box.

65.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. ensure link and spent casing chutes and bins are properly installed; at this stage it is advised to practice the drills without the gas bag installed, all subsequent practices will have the gas bag installed; during the review practice mounting and dismounting with or without the barrel fitted; and the following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: “LOAD”, “READY”, “UNLOAD”, “MAKE SAFE”, “UNLOAD, CLEAR WEAPONS” and “CHANGE BARREL”.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 66. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. 67. check all students’ equipment required for this lesson; number off students for rotation Ratio 1:3.; carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds; and explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

Review. Review from the following list: a. have students perform safety precautions on all the turret weapons taught to this point.

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68. Introduction. It is of utmost importance that the one meter turret operator be able to properly and quickly perform handling drills for the HMG mounted in the one meter turret. AMMUNITION FEED SYSTEM. Explain and demonstrate. 69. Due to the .50 HMG being right hand feed and the confined space within the turret the following procedures have been adopted to prepare ammunition for the one meter turret ammunition feed system. To prepare the ammunition, see Figure 5-4-1, and proceed as follows:

NOTE Due to the fact the .50 cal HMG has been converted to right hand feed, the ammunition belt will have to be fed into the machine-gun with the single loop of the links leading. Increased stoppages will occur if the ammunition belt is fed into the machine-gun with the double loop of the links leading. a. b. c. Traverse the turret until the .50 Cal, M2HB (9) is over the vehicle top deck. Ensure the TURRET POWER switch (21) is in the OFF position. Open a .50 Cal, ammunition box (18) and remove the top cover. Remove the ammunition belt from the box and grasp the end of the belt that has the single loop leading. Allow the rest of the belt to hang down. Turn the belt around so that the rounds will go back in the box with the projectiles pointing inward to the turret. Drape the last few rounds of the belt over the rear of the ammunition box and then place the rest of the belt back in the box in overlapping rows. When the belt is correctly installed in the ammunition box, the first round will be positioned at the top forward corner with the single loop in the links leading and the projectiles pointing inward. The last rounds will be hanging over the rear of the ammunition box. Lower the ammunition tray lever (15) and place an ammunition box into the rear compartment of the ammunition tray (13) with projectiles facing inward toward the operator. Prepare a second box of ammunition like the first one. Place the second ammunition box in the front ammunition tray compartment with the projectiles facing inward toward the operator. Position the last rounds at the rear of the forward box over the roller guide between the boxes.

d.

e. f.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

WARNING Use only hand pressure to install a live round of ammunition into the ammunition belt. Using a tool or instrument to install a round could cause the round to fire. Failure to follow this warning could cause injury or death to personnel. g. h. i. Secure both ammunition boxes by lifting the two locking levers on the ammunition trays. Remove the last round (12) of ammunition from the forward ammunition box; Install the round through the double looped end link (11) from the forward box and through the single looped end link (10) from the rear box. Ensure the round is installed at the same depth into the ammunition belt as are the other rounds. Pull the linked ammunition from the forward box over the front roller guide and around the front ammunition bracket roller (8) to the feed-way of the .50 Cal, M2HB, QCB.

j.

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Figure 5-21: (Diagram 1 of 2) Ammunition Feed System, Machine-gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB
1. Cover Latch (not as illustrated, the cover latch will not be changed to the right side) 2. Cover 3. Feed-way 4. Belt Holding Pawl 5. Bell Mouth Chute 6. Bolt 7. Extractor 8. Cartridge Stops 9. Machine Gun Heavy Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB 10. Front Ammunition Bracket roller 10. Front Ammunition Bracket roller 11. Double Looped End Link 12. Single Looped End Link 13. Round 14. Ammunition Tray (2) 15. Ammunition Tray Lever (2) 16. .50 Calibre, Ammunition Box 17. Front Roller Guide 18. .50 Calibre, Ammunition Box 19. Cocking Handle 20. Elevation Quadrant 21. Turret Power Switch

Figure 5-22: (Diagram 2 of 2) Ammunition Feed System, Machine-gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

70. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice ammunition preparation throughout the course. LOAD. Explain and demonstrate. 71. On the command “LOAD” or when the operator decides to load the HMG the following drill is used: a. b. Engage the manual safety, lock the bolt latch release down, open the cover and with the cocking handle, retract the bolt back 1/2 centimetre (1/4 inch). Lift the extractor and place the belt on the feed-way, ensuring that the first round is up against the bullet and cartridge stops and holds the belt in position. Then allow the bolt to go fully forward under control against the first round. Ensure that the extractor is fully down and grasps the rim of the first round and close the cover.

c.

72. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course. READY. Explain and demonstrate.

WARNING If the Firing Relay ON indicator lamp on the weapon control panel illuminates when the turret power switch is moved to the ON position, A SAFETY HAZARD EXISTS. In this case either machine gun will fire if they have been made ready. If this condition exists, immediately move the turret power switch to the off position and notify maintenance personnel. Failure to follow this warning could result in injury or death. 73. On the command “READY”, a range being ordered, or the operator decides the HMG is to be made ready the following drill is used: a. b. c. Confirm weapon selector switch is in the “OFF” position and that the manual safety is on. Cock the machine-gun. Observe the target area through the sights. Await further orders if under a crew commander, or if operating independent (no crew commander) the decision to fire.

74. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course.

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FIRE ELECTRICALLY. Explain and demonstrate. 75. There are two methods of firing the HMG in the one meter turret, manually and electrically. The HMG may also be fired automatic or single shot, this is accomplished by utilizing the bolt latch. When the bolt latch is locked down, the weapon fires automatic; if the bolt latch is released the HMG will fire single shot. We will first address firing electrically. On the command “FIRE” or the decision to fire has been made the following drill is used: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Hold the weapon controls as taught. Carry out proper aiming procedures. Select .50 on the weapon selector switch (manual safety stays in the on position and only needs to be released when firing manually). To “FIRE”, press the red firing button (trigger) on the elevating hand wheel long enough to fire the prescribed length of burst. Observe the target area for fall of shot. Make any necessary burst on target (BOT) corrections as previously taught, Relay and continue firing until the desired affect on the target has been achieved. On the command “STOP”, relay and report “ON”, If under the control of a commander. On the command “GO ON”, continue the firing procedure if under the control of a commander.

76. Confirm by questions, there will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice handling drills throughout the course. FIRE MANUALLY. Explain and demonstrate. 77. In the event of electrical power failure or if for other reasons the HMG must be fired manually, the following drill is used: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Open the rear flap on the gas bag and move the manual safety to the “OFF” position, leave the flap open. While looking through the sights and using both hands on the gun controls apply the appropriate point of aim onto the target. Using the right hand press down on the manual trigger on the HMG long enough to fire the prescribed length of burst. Observe the target area for fall of shot. Using both hands make any necessary BOT corrections, re-lay and continue firing until the desired effect on the target has been achieved. On the command “STOP”, relay and report “ON”, If under the control of a commander. On the command “GO ON”, continue the firing procedure if under the control of a commander.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

78. Confirm by questions, there will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course. MAKE SAFE. Explain and demonstrate. 79. The one meter turret has the ability to fire both electrically and manually, to “MAKE SAFE” the following drill is used: a. On the command “MAKE SAFE” or on the decision to “MAKE SAFE” the operator will ensure the manual safety is “ON” and the weapon selector switch is in the “OFF” position. Then verbally report “HMG SAFE” this will allow the crew commander and or crew know the weapon is safe. To go back to “READY” from the “MAKE SAFE” simply move the weapon selector switch to “.50 Cal” if firing electrically, or move the manual safety to the “OFF” position if firing manually.

b. c.

80. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice mounting and dismounting throughout the course. UNLOAD. Explain and demonstrate. 81. The one meter turret is primarily used as a defensive weapons platform, and due to confined space within the turret there are two methods to unload the HMG: unload and hot barrel unload. The difference between the two methods depends on if the barrel is hot; a hot gun is defined as “A gun that has had more than 150 rounds fired in a two-minute period”. We will first learn the normal unload for a cold gun, upon hearing the command “UNLOAD” or when the operator decides to unload the HMG the following drill is used; a. b. c. d. If firing electrically move the weapon selector switch to the “OFF” position, if firing manually, move the manual safety to the “Safe” position. Open the gas bag and ensure the manual safety is ON. Unlatch the bolt catch release, and open the body cover. Lift the extractor and remove the belt from the feed-way. Ensure that the extractor is fully down and close the cover (these actions are carried out as quickly as possible). Cock the machine-gun, the bolt will stay to the rear. Examine the receiver and chamber to ensure it is clear of rounds, if there is a round clear it from the face of the bolt or chamber as required. Press the bolt latch release and allow the bolt to go forward under control. Ensure that the extractor is down and close the cover. Disengage the manual safety.

e. f. g. h. i.

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j. k.

Fire the action by pressing the manual trigger. Report “HMG CLEAR”.

82. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice handling drills throughout the course. HOT BARREL UNLOAD. Explain and demonstrate. 83. There is a danger of cook-off (cook-off. The deflagration or detonation of ammunition caused by the absorption of heat from its environment) when the gun is hot, and as such we follow a slightly different drill for hot barrel unload to prevent personal injury or unnecessary damage to the weapon system. If there is any doubt as to weather a gun is hot or cold the hot barrel unload drill will be followed. On hearing the command “HOT BARREL UNLOAD”, or if not under command of a crew commander and a “HOT BARREL UNLOAD” is necessary, the following actions will be taken: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. repeat the command “HOT BARREL UNLOAD”; open the rear flap on the gas bag; unlock the bolt latch release; ensure that the turret is pointed in a safe direction i.e., down range; fire the round in the chamber; if fired electrically move the weapon selector switch to “OFF” position, if firing manually engage the manual safety; open the cover; remove the belt from the feed-way; remove the live round from the “T”-slot on the bolt, examine the chamber and receiver to ensure that there are no rounds; press the bolt latch release; allow the bolt to go forward under control; ensure the extractor is down and close the cover; select .50 Cal on the weapon selector or move manual safety to fire; fire the action; move the weapon selector switch to the “OFF” position or move the manual safety to the safe position; and report “HMG CLEAR”.

Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this 84. time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice handling drills throughout the course. CLEAR WEAPON. Explain and demonstrate. 85. The order “UNLOAD” “CLEAR WEAPONS” may be ordered to ensure all weapons are unloaded and clear, with the one meter turret the HMG is one of three weapons that must be cleared, this procedure in its entirety will be taught in a later lesson:

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

conduct the appropriate unload as taught; once the action has been fired, open the body cover and cock the action, leaving the bolt to the rear until the crew commander or RSO has cleared the weapons; once the weapon has been pronounced clear by the appropriate authority, report “CLEAR”; press the bolt latch release; allow the bolt to go forward under control; ensure the extractor is down and close the cover; select .50 Cal on the weapon selector or move manual safety to fire; fire the action; move the weapon selector switch to the “OFF” position or move the manual safety to the safe position; and once all turret weapons are clear, elevate to maximum elevation and report “WEAPONS CLEAR”.

86. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice handling drills throughout the course. CHANGE BARREL. Explain and demonstrate. 87. The barrel is changed every 200 rounds to preserve the life of the barrel and ensure all barrels wear evenly and improve accuracy. On the word of command from the crew commander or if independently the operator needs to change barrels the order “CHANGE BARREL”, will be given and the following drill is used: NOTE Use the driver or other personnel to assist.

a. b. c. d.

Ensure all turret weapons are unloaded. Ensure the weapon selector switch is in the “OFF” position the mantlet over the hull, then ensure the power traverse switch is in the “OFF position. Ensure the spare barrel being installed is not fouled. The assistant wearing heat protective gloves orders the operator to “RETRACT THE BOLT” the operator retracts the bolt approx 2 cm and reports “BOLT RETRACTED” the assistant then removes the barrel and replaces it with the spare barrel. The assistant then orders “RELEASE THE BOLT” and the operator allows the bolt to go forward under control. The operator then attempts to remove the barrel to insure it is properly installed. Stow the used barrel, and clean ASAP when cool.

e. f. g.

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88. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice handling drills throughout the course. 89. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. Questions from the students on the entire period. Confirm by questions and practice. Pack the stores. Review: (1) (2) It is important that the gunner always knows the state of the weapon system. It is equally important that the operator be able to quickly and efficiently conduct handling drills the HMG in the one meter turret in order to maintain a high standard of readiness.

LESSON 5 IMMEDIATE ACTIONS AND STOPPAGE DRILLS FOR THE .50 CAL HMG IN THE ONE METER TURRET INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 90. Aim. To teach students how to recognise and conduct immediate actions (IAs) and stoppage drills on the .50 Cal heavy machine-Gun mounted in the one meter turret. Training and qualification for this configuration is obtained from the One Meter Turret Operators Course. Additional procedures affecting the Machine Gun, Heavy, Flexible, .50 Calibre, M2HB, QCB not mentioned in this section may be found in C-71-325-000/MB-001 One Meter Turret Operations Manual. 91. Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 92. 93. 94. causes of stoppages; immediate action drill on initial burst; immediate action on subsequent bursts; and secondary actions.

Time. Three x 40 minute periods. Method. Basic indoor or outdoor instructional period. Stores: a. b. c. d. .50 Cal Machine-gun complete with EIS; mounted in the one meter turret—1 per 3 students; drill ammunition—100 rds per crew; .50 Cal ammo cans—2 per crew; and
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

e. 95.

trouble light or Flashlight—1 per crew.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. Set up teaching area. Check that the machine-guns are mounted and operating properly. Check drill rounds and link for damage and place 50 rds in each box. The instructor must understand that most of the drills introduced in this and up coming lessons are very closely related to the dismounted but because of confined space and that all drills will be done by just one operator (No. 2) there will be some differences. Student to instructor ratio is 3 to 1.

e. 96.

Miscellaneous: a. b. c. d. The students are to carry out mounted safety precautions and inspect the drill rounds at the start of the lesson. At this stage it is advised to practice the drills without the gas bag sealed, all subsequent practices will have the gas bag sealed. The students are expected to conduct all handling drills as previously taught at this point. The following words of command are suggestions for use during this lesson: “LOAD”, “READY”, “FIRE”, “GUN FAILS TO FIRE ON INITIAL BURST”, “GUN FIRES OK, GUN STOPS”, “GUN FIRES OK”, “GUN FAILS TO FIRE”, “UNLOAD”, and “ CLEAR WEAPONS”.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 97. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. 98. number off students for rotation Ratio 1:3; students carry out safety precautions and inspect drill rounds; and explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

Review. Review from the following list: a. b. c. safety is every soldier’s responsibility in the CF; have each student conduct safety precautions at the beginning of each rotation; and have each student carry out the load, ready, fire, make safe, unload, hot barrel unload and clear weapon as appropriate throughout each student rotation.

99. Introduction. It is of utmost importance that the one meter turret operator be able to properly and quickly perform immediate actions and stoppage drills for the HMG mounted in the one meter turret.

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CLASSIFICATION OF STOPPAGES. Explain and demonstrate. 100. Due to the .50 HMG being right hand feed, and the confined space within the turret and the addition of a fire control system the following procedures have been adopted to remedy stoppages for the HMG when mounted in the one meter turret. WARNING Failure to follow procedures may result in damage to the weapon or injury or death to personnel. 101. Stoppages are classified as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Failure to feed. A stoppage that prevents the new round from being positioned approximately in the rear of the barrel. Failure to load. A stoppage that prevents the new round entering the chamber. Failure to lock. A stoppage that prevents the breech lock from correctly entering its recess in the bolt. Failure to fire. A stoppage that prevents the primer of the cartridge being struck. Failure to unlock. A stoppage that prevents the breech lock moving out of its recess in the bolt. Failure to extract. A stoppage that prevents the extraction of the empty case from the chamber. Failure to eject. A stoppage that prevents the ejection of the case from the receiver. Failure to cock. A stoppage that prevents the firing pin extension from being engaged with the sear.

COMMON STOPPAGES. Explain. 102. The most common type of stoppages with the machine gun .50 cal M2, QCB mounted in the one meter turret are: a. b. c. d. e. failure to feed; failure to load; failure to fire; weapon selector switch not in proper position; and attempting to fire in a fire inhibit zone.

CAUSES OF STOPPAGES. Explain.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

103.

The table below lists the causes of stoppages. (Table 5-1) COMMON CAUSES Defective ammunition belt. Defective feed mechanism. Defective extractor. Broken part, obstruction in T-slot or chamber. Separated (ruptured) case. Incorrect headspace adjustment. See a technician. OTHER CAUSES Improperly loaded belt. Short round. Thick rim or thin rim, bulged round Broken parts. Damaged breech lock. Rough breech lock cam. Faulty breech lock cam adjustment (loose)

NATURE OF STOPPAGE Failure to feed

Failure to load

Failure to lock

Failure to fire

Defective part in firing mechanism. Defective ammunition. Incorrect timing. Broken part in receiver. Worn breech lock cam. Faulty breech lock cam adjustment (loose) Defective cartridge case. Burred or fouled T-slot. Broken cocking lever.

Failure to unlock

Failure to extract Failure to eject Failure to cock

Dirty or oily chamber. Defective extractor. Defective ejector. Broken sear. Worn sear notch. Weak sear spring. Worn hooked notch on firing pin extension.

Table 5-1: Causes of Stoppages

104.

Confirm by questions.

IMMEDIATE ACTION ON STOPPAGE. Explain.

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WARNING If the firing relay ON indicator lamp on the weapon control panel illuminates when the turret power switch is moved to the ON position, A SAFETY HAZARD EXISTS. In this case either machine gun will fire if they have been made ready. If this condition exists, immediately move the turret power switch to the off position and notify maintenance personnel. Failure to follow this warning could result in injury or death. 105. When a stoppage occurs, the primary aim is to get the weapon firing again as soon as possible. The immediate action (IA) are broken into two categories: a. b. initial burst, are the actions taken to get the weapon into action when the gun does not fire on the first attempt; and subsequent burst are the IAs carried out when the weapon has been firing and stops.

106. The following are definitions of ammunition related incidents which may occur with machine gun ammunition, which are of particular importance due to the size of the .50 Cal cartridge: a. b. Cook-off—the deflagration or detonation of ammunition caused by the absorption of heat from its environment. Hang-fire—ammunition malfunction in which cartridge ignition takes place between a fraction of a second and several seconds after the primer has been struck. WARNING A hang-fire or cook-off can cause injury to personnel or damage to the weapon, to avoid this the operator must take the following precautions. 107. Because of the previously mentioned incidents which may occur, the following basic rules must be considered when conducting the appropriate IA: a. b. Always keep the round locked in the chamber the first 5 seconds after a stoppage occurs. This prevents an explosion outside of the gun in the event of a hang-fire. If the barrel is hot, the round must be extracted within the next 5 seconds to prevent a cook-off. When more than 150 rounds have been fired in a two-minute period the barrel is hot enough to produce a cook-off. If the barrel is hot and the round cannot be extracted within the 10 seconds, it must remain locked in the chamber for 5 minutes to guard against cook-off. Keep the body cover closed during the waiting periods.
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

108.

Confirm by questions.

IMMEDIATE ACTION (INITIAL BURST). Explain and demonstrate. 109. We are now going to address the procedure for a immediate action on initial burst. If the following procedures are followed, most stoppages can be corrected with a minimum loss of time; (Table 5-2)
1. If the .50 Cal should fail to fire on the initial burst the operator shall; Count five seconds aloud and simultaneously, ensure weapon selector switch is in the “.50 Cal position”, and the red indicator lamp is illuminated and; b. check to insure you are not in an inhibit zone. NOTE * These checks should take approximately 5 seconds, this time will permit a hang-fire to expend. 2. Cock the machine gun. a. a. if .50 Cal is not selected, move the selector switch to “.50 Cal “ check that indicator light is illuminated, relay and attempt to fire; if the red indicator light is not illuminated, report “Firing Circuit” relay and attempt to fire manually;and if in an inhibit zone either traverse out of the zone, or if in battle engage the battle over-ride, relay and attempt to fire.

b.

c.

a. b. c.

while cocking, observe for feeding of the belt; if the belt feeds at this time relay and attempt to fire; and if the gun still fails to fire, go to Para 3 of this table. NOTE

If in battle switch to the secondary armament at this time and continue the engagement.
3. If the gun again fails to fire, Report “Prolonged Stoppage”, and conduct the turret make safe drill and continue with the secondary actions. NOTE At any time a fault is found and repaired, reload and attempt to fire. a. b. c. d. make the turret safe; open the gas bag; unload the .50 Cal; inspect the belt for miss-aligned rounds or obstructions, remove, inspect and discard the first round from the belt; e. inspect the components of the body cover for obstructions or faulty components replace/repair components as necessary; f. inspect the gun body for obstructions or faulty components replace/repair components as necessary; g. check for separated casing; h. check link and cartridge chutes for blockages; i. check if spent casing/link bin is full if so empty j. re-oil; k. go back to “Action” or “Start Mode”; l. re-lay and attempt to fire; and m. if weapon still fails to fire report to a technician.

Table 5-2: Immediate Action—Initial Burst

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110. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice IAs and Stoppages throughout the course. IMMEDIATE ACTION ON SUBSEQUENT BURSTS. Explain and demonstrate. 111. We are now going to address the procedure for a immediate action on subsequent burst. If the following procedures are followed, most stoppages can be corrected with a minimum loss of time:
1. If the .50 Cal should fail to fire on subsequent bursts or during an engagement the operator shall; Count five seconds aloud and simultaneously, a. Check to insure you are not in an inhibit zone; and b. ensure the .50 Cal indicator lamp is illuminated. NOTE * These checks should take approximately 5 seconds, this time will permit a hang-fire to expend. a. if in an inhibit zone either traverse out of the zone or engage the battle override, relay and attempt to fire; and if the red indicator light is not illuminated, report “Firing Circuit” relay and attempt to fire manually.

b.

2.

Count to five seconds aloud. During the second period of a. if the belt feeds at this time, relay and five seconds while simultaneously cocking the machine attempt to fire; and gun observe for feeding of the belt b. if the belt does not feed, go to Para 3 of this table. NOTE If, during the second period of five seconds, the gunner NOTE is unable to cock the weapon within the 5 seconds, and If in battle switch to the secondary armament at the barrel is HOT , report “Prolonged Stoppage”, Make this time and continue the engagement the turret safe and unlock the bolt latch release , then the crew will withdraw at least 10 metres to the rear and wait for FIVE MINUTES

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2 3. If the gun again fails feed, report “Prolonged Stoppage”, and conduct the turret make safe drill and continue with the secondary actions. NOTE At any time a fault is found and repaired, reload and attempt to fire. a. b. c. d. make the turret safe; open the gas bag; unload the .50 Cal; inspect the belt for miss-aligned rounds or obstructions, remove, inspect and discard the first round from the belt; e. inspect the components of the body cover for obstructions or faulty components replace/repair components as necessary; f. inspect the gun body for obstructions or faulty components replace/repair components as necessary; g. check for separated casing; h. check link and cartridge chutes for blockages; i. check if spent casing/link bin is full if so empty; j. re-oil; k. go back to “Action” or “Start Mode”; l. re-lay and attempt to fire; and m. if weapon still fails to fire report to a technician.

Table 5-3: Immediate Action—Subsequent Bursts

112. Confirm by questions. There will not be enough time for all students to practice at this time, ensure all students get an opportunity to practice IAs and Stoppages throughout the course. 113. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. Questions from the students on the entire period. Confirm by questions and practice. Pack the stores. Review: It is important that the operator knows how to properly and quickly perform the IA and stoppage drills in order to get the gun back into action as quickly as possible, the drills are very closely related to the dismounted but because of confined space, addition of a FCS and that all drills will be done by just one operator there are differences.

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6CHAPTER 6 LESSON 1— BLANK FIRING ATTACHMENT (BFA) INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 1. 2. Aim. To teach students how to install the Blank Firing Attachment (BFA). Main teaching points: a. b. c. d. 3. 4. 5. General description. Installation and removal of the attachment. Installation and removal of the attachment on the machine-gun. Testing and adjustment.

Time. One x 40-minute period. Method. Explanation, demonstration, imitation. Stores: a. b. c. d. e. .50 cal machine-gun mounted on tripod mount M3: 1 per 3 students. blank firing attachment: 1 per machine-gun. tripod protective boots: 3 per machine-gun. ammunition box: 1 per machine-gun. diagrams: as required.

6.

Preparation: a. b. c. d. e. Set up the teaching area. Prepare all training aids. Check the diagrams as required. Position the machine-guns and check that they are operating properly. Check the blank firing attachments.

CONDUCT OF THE LESSON 7. Preliminaries. The suggested preliminaries are as follows: a. b. c. d. Check all students equipment required for this lesson. Number off students into teams and allocate guns. Carry out safety precautions and inspect students pouches. Explain and demonstrate (where necessary) any instructional formations.

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

e. f. 8.

When the blank firing attachment is used, live ammunition must never be taken into the exercise area. Explain and practice (where necessary) the control system that will be used during the lesson. Action on Word of Command “No 1s OUT…CHANGE”.

Review. N/A

9. Introduction. The machine-gun is equipped with a blank firing attachment which can be installed on all the mountings currently in service without modifying its basic configuration. GENERAL DESCRIPTION. Explain. 10. The components of the blank firing attachment are: a. b. The discriminator. The discriminator, which is installed in the cartridge feedway of the machine-gun, prevents the accidental use of live ammunition. Blank firing attachment assembly. The attachment is fixed to the barrel support by three screws and three hooks (figure 6-1). The inside of the front of the attachment is threaded so that the cap cover can be screwed on. When the blank firing attachment is mounted on the turret of the Grizzly APC, the assembly is held in place by three screws and one adaptor. Muzzle piece. The muzzle piece traps the expanding gasses on firing blank rounds. It consists of six openings around its circumference and two vents on its front surface. The latter allow gasses not needed to operate the mechanism to escape, while the six openings allow the remaining gas to escape after the recoil process has ended. Two disks are machined onto the front surface to fit a oneinch screw wrench (figure 6-2).

c.

a. Muzzle piece b. Lock assembly c. Stop d. Hooks Figure 6-1: Blank firing attachment assembly

6-2

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. Muzzle piece b. Catch Figure 6-2: Muzzle piece disk gripped by a screw wrench

d.

Positioning sensor on the barrel. The positioning sensor on the barrel is used for initial adjustment of the muzzle piece. When the kit is issued, it is fixed to the adjustment gauge ring for safety reasons.

11.

Confirm by Questions.

INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL OF THE ATTACHMENT. Explain and demonstrate. 12. Installation: a. b. c. d. Insert the three hooks into the bracket with the hooked part toward the bolt. Install a flat disk and nut on each hook. Screw the muzzle piece fully in with a screw wrench, and then back it off as far as the closest blocking groove. Place the lock assembly at the upper front end of the attachment and fix it with two internal wrenching bolts. Place the stop and fix it with two internal wrenching bolts.

13. Removal. The parts can be removed in any sequence, except for the muzzle piece, which must be removed as follows: a. b. 14. Insert a screwdriver or other similar tool between the lock and the attachment to disengage the lock from the muzzle piece. Using an appropriate wrench, unscrew the muzzle piece and remove it from the attachment.

Confirm by Practice.

INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL OF THE ATTACHMENT ON THE MACHINEGUN. Explain and demonstrate. 15. Installation:

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a.

The discriminator. Open the feedway cover, slide the belt holding pawl pins rearward until the pins clear the area forward of the belt holding pawl. Then place the beating blocks and rod assemblies in the holding pawl bracket (figure 6-3) with the rounded shoulders on the top portion of the discriminator facing the rear of the machine-gun. Fix the discriminator by pushing the two ends of the pawl all the way forward and close the feedway cover. NOTE

It is possible that the two rivet heads on the pawl grooves interfere with the installation of the discriminator. If so, the heads can be filed to accommodate the discriminator.

a. 2 pawl groove rivet heads b. Discriminator Figure 6-3: Position of the discriminator

b.

Blank firing attachment assembly. If the barrel is equipped with a carrying handle, remove it before installing the blank firing attachment. Install the blank firing attachment assembly on the barrel, ensuring that the part marked “TOP” is upward. Engage the three hooks in the front holes of the gun bracket and tighten the assembly cap screws evenly to hold the blank firing attachment on the machine-gun (figure 6-1-4), making sure that the hooks are centred in the holes and inserted fully.

6-4

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Figure 6-4: Blank firing attachment installed on the machine-gun

16.

Removal: a. Blank firing attachment assembly. Loosen the three hook bolts holding the blank firing attachment assembly on the barrel support. Remove the hooks and remove the blank firing attachment assembly from the barrel. Discriminator. Pull the two belt holding pawl pins rearward until the rod is released. Remove the rod, and reinsert the two pins into the pawl, pushing them all the way in and close the feedway cover.

b.

17.

Confirm by Practice.

TESTING AND ADJUSTMENT. Explain. 18. Operating principle: a. When the blank round is fired, gasses are imprisoned in the barrel. The excess pressure escapes through the two vents on the front of the muzzle piece, and the remaining pressure pushes the barrel rearward, simulating the mechanism recoil action. When it recoils, the barrel uncovers the six side openings in the muzzle piece, allowing the remaining gasses to exit the barrel. Any residual gas is released through the side of the receiver when the empty case is ejected.

b.

19. Rate of fire. Although the theoretical rate of fire can be maintained between 450 and 600 rounds a minute, no more than 40 rounds a minute may be fired with blank ammunition. A higher rate can generate temperatures at the muzzle in excess of 800 degrees C, which causes

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

premature wear of the muzzle piece and the barrel. Such wear reduces the possibility of adjusting the rate of fire, as well as the lifespan of the muzzle piece and the barrel. Excessive rates of fire also cause the rivets to loosen prematurely. 20. Adjustments—introduction. When the blank firing assembly is installed for the first time on the machine-gun or the turret of the Grizzly APC, or when the muzzle piece is removed and replaced, the theoretical rate of fire must be re-established using the barrel positioning gauge. This gauge shows the initial adjustment of the muzzle piece in relation to the barrel, which provides the desired theoretical rate of fire, at an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C. WARNING When firing commences, the temperature of the muzzle of the blank firing assembly increases quickly. To avoid danger, personnel will use a flat head – screwdriver or other similar tool to release the muzzle piece lock, use a screw wrench to turn the muzzle piece and wear gloves or mittens when handling the blank firing attachment. 21. Initial or primary adjustment. The initial adjustment of the muzzle piece is established as follows: a. b. c. Ensure that the parts are all the way forward. Insert the narrow end of the positioning gauge on the barrel, in one of the two vents in the muzzle piece. With the end of the gauge supporting the muzzle of the barrel, the front surface of the muzzle piece must be between the two shoulders in the centre of the gauge. Free the muzzle piece lock and, using a screw wrench, tighten or loosen the muzzle piece until the desired position is obtained. Release the lock and turn the muzzle piece to the right until the lock engages in the closest groove on the muzzle piece.

d.

22. Adjustment for ambient temperature. It may be necessary to readjust the muzzle piece for the ambient temperature and/or the degree of wear present between the inside of the front surface of the muzzle piece and the exterior diameter of the muzzle. a. Firing the machine-gun when the blank firing attachment is at the preliminary setting according to the gauge indicates the direction of the adjustment required in order to balance the gas pressure and obtain the desired theoretical rate of fire. If the machine-gun does not fire in bursts and the ejected casings are crushed, the gas is insufficient. The space between the muzzle of the barrel and the inside of the front surface of the muzzle piece must be reduced until the gun fires correctly. Screw the muzzle piece tighter, clockwise, one half-turn at a time, until bursts are obtained. If the rate of fire is too high, the gas pressure is too strong. Increase the space between the muzzle and the muzzle piece, by unscrewing it one half-turn at a time, until the rate of fire is normal.
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b.

c.

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Weapon Handling Tests

WARNING Prolonged fire at too high a rate produces unnecessary pressure on the hooks attached to the barrel support, which may damage the support and injure the machine-gunners. A visual inspection for wear is essential before, during and after using the blank firing attachment. 23. Adjustment for cold-weather firing. Low temperatures reduce the energy of the gasses produced by firing blank ammunition. The space between the muzzle of the barrel and the front of the muzzle piece must be reduced accordingly. Screw the muzzle piece one turn for every 10 degrees C of ambient temperatures below 20 degrees C. 24. 25. 26. Repairs. Repairs to the blank firing attachment are limited to replacing defective parts. Confirm by Questions. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by Questions and Practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack the stores. Review: Live ammunition must never be taken into an area where the blank firing attachment is to be used. Machine-gunners must be thoroughly familiar with the operation and adjustment of the blank firing attachment, both for their own safety and in order to minimize damage and wear to the equipment. LESSON 2 WEAPON HANDLING TESTS INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 27. General. The purpose of weapon handling tests (WHTs) is to provide a measure of personal weapon handling skill throughout the forces in line with operational safety and handling requirements. Mandatory testing ensures that handling skills of all personnel using a specific infantry weapon system are monitored accurately and rectified if necessary. It is an indication of a unit’s operational readiness. 28. 29. Time. One x 40 minute period. Stores. The following stores will be required: a. b. c. 30. 0.50 cal machine-gun and tripod M3—3 per section; spare parts box—1 per machine-gun; and drill ammunition—10 per gun.

Preparation. Carry out the following:
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. b. c.

carry out safety precautions; position the machine-guns and check they are operating properly; and lay out all equipment.

31. Testing and Results. Soldiers who are issued with the HMG are to be tested at the following times: a. b. every six months in regular and reserve units; and prior to initial live firing.

32. All results are to be recorded on soldiers’ personal shooting records and on unit computer systems. CONDUCT 33. The following rules are to be adhered to: a. b. DRESS 34. Tests are to be carried out wearing full fighting order. the testing staff must be a NCO who is qualified, current and competent on the weapon system and qualified to deliver skill at arms periods including WHTs; and the tests are to be completed consecutively using drill ammunition.

DEFINITION OF STANDARDS 35. Handling standards—handling standards achieved in WHTs are defined as: a. b. c. Skilled—Pass in test 1 and skilled standards in all other tests. Average—Pass in test 1 and a minimum of average standard in all other tests. Fail—fail in any test.

36. Training Performance Standards. All HMG gunners and No. 2s need to attain an average standard in the HMG WHT. If they fail to meet this criteria they are to receive further training before being tested again.

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Weapon Handling Tests

WEAPON HANDLING TESTS 37.
1

Listed below is the sequence of the WHTs:
Stores Conditions Marking The soldier is awarded ‘Fail’ if the safety actions are not carried out correctly. Safety HMG with 1. Order the soldier to prepare Tripod the gun for inspection. (As unit issue) 2. The soldier is to carry out normal safety precautions on the gun. As for Test 1. Order the gun team to strip No.1 plus tool the gun for daily cleaning. roll. 2. Order the gun team to assemble the gun. As for Test No.1 plus belt of 0.50 drill rounds. 1. Gunner seated behind the gun. Belt on the ground/deck to the left of the gun. Order “Load” 2. Instructor to order a range and give a target indication ending in “Lay”. 3. Check correct range applied to the sight and alignment of the gun. Order “Bursts Fire”. 1. Gunner behind the gun; gun loaded and firing. Order “Gun Stops”. 2. On completion of the IA and operation of the trigger order “Gun fails to fire”. 1. The gunner is to carry out further action drill. On completion order “Obstruction not visible”. 2. The gunner is to examine the percussion cap if the ejected round, order “Cap not struck”. 3. The gunner is to allow bolt to go forward under control. Strip the gun and examine: a. firing pin; b. extractor arm and claw; c. driving rod and spring; d. feed mechanism; and e. barrel 4. Order “Broken part fixed”. 5. Once the gun is assembled and trigger is operated. Order “Stop”.

Test No. Subject

2

Stripping and Assembling

Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1-3 mistakes. Fail—More than 3 mistakes. Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1-3 mistakes. Fail—More than 3 mistakes.

3

Loading and Laying

4

Immediate Action

As for Test No. 3

Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1 mistake. Fail—More than 1 mistake. Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1-2 mistakes. Fail—More than 2 mistakes.

5

Further Action

As for Test No. 4

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2 Test No. Subject 6 Unloading Stores As for Test No. 5 Conditions 1. Gunner seated behind the gun. Order “Unload”. Marking Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1 mistake. Fail—2 or more mistakes. Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1-2 mistakes. Fail—More than 2 mistakes. Standard: Skilled—All actions correct. Average—1-2 mistakes. Fail—More than 2 mistakes.

7

Dismounting Gun and Tripod

As for Test No. 6

1. Order “Dismount gun and tripod”. 2. Gun team to carry out NSPs and dismount gun and tripod. 1. Order “Mount gun and tripod”. 2. Gun team to mount gun and tripod and carry out NSPs.

8

Mounting Gun and As for Test Tripod No. 6

Table 6-1: Sequence of the weapon handling tests

LESSON 2 PREPARATORY WORK—INSTALLING THE AUXILARY TRIPOD MOUNT M3 PINTLE INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 38. Aim. To inform the instructor how to install and remove the auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle. 39. Main teaching points: a. b. 40. Stores: a. b. auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle (complete)—1 per machine-gun; and adjustable wrench—1 per machine-gun. installing the auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle; and removing the auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle.

INSTALLING THE AUXILIARY TRIPOD MOUNT M3 PINTLE 41. To install the auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle to the gun carry out the following: a. b. c. align the holes on the pintle arms with the holes on the front pintle mount on the gun and place the bolt through (Figure 6-5 step 1); attach the slotted hexagon nut to the bolt and tighten until hand tight (Figure 6-5 step 2); and insert the cotter pin into the slot of hexagon nut, ensuring it is placed in from the top (Figure 6-5 step 3).

6-10

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Weapon Handling Tests

REMOVE THE AUXILIARY TRIPOD MOUNT M3 PINTLE 42. To remove the Auxiliary Tripod mount M3 pintle carry out the following: a. b. c. remove the cotter pin from the slot in the hexagon nut; unscrew the slotted hexagon nut from the bolt; and remove the bolt from the pintle arms and front pintle mount on the gun.

43. Once the auxiliary tripod mount M3 pintle has been removed from the gun, replace the bolt through the holes on the pintle and attach the nut for transit.

a. pintle spigot b. bolt c. slotted hexagon nut d. cotter pin Figure 6-5: Installing the tripod mount M3 pintle

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

LESSON 3 PREPARATORY WORK—DETAILED MECHANISM AND CAUSES OF STOPPAGES INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 44. Aim. To give the instructor a sound understanding of the mechanism of the HMG and causes of stoppages. 45. Main teaching points: a. b. the eight steps of the mechanism; and causes of stoppages.

46. Introduction: This lesson is not designed to be taught to students but as preparatory work by instructors for Chapter 1 Lesson 7. Every instructor should have a practical working knowledge of the mechanism of the machine-gun; this will enable the instructor to identify and remedy most of the stoppages which may be encountered. THE EIGHT STEPS OF THE MECHANISM. Explain. 47. The machine-gun will function automatically, as long as ammunition is fed into the feeding group and the bolt latch release and trigger are depressed. Every time a round is fired, the parts of the machine-gun work in a pre-determined sequence. The movements of these parts are controlled by various springs, cams and levers. The cycle of operation is broken down into eight basic steps. However, more than one step may occur at the same time. The eight steps are explained, listed below in sequence; they are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 48. Step one—Feeding. Feeding is the act of placing a cartridge in the receiver approximately in rear of the barrel, ready for loading. Step two—Loading. A new round is placed in the chamber. Step three—Locking. The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension. Step four—Firing. The firing pin is released, striking the primer and causing the round to fire. Step five—Unlocking. The bolt unlocks from the barrel extension. Step six—Extraction. The empty cartridge case is withdrawn from the chamber. Step seven—Ejection. The empty cartridge case is thrown out of the bottom of the receiver. Step eight—Cocking. The firing pin is returned to the cocked position.

Step one—Feeding: a. The recoiling groups of the 0.50 calibre machine-gun must be manually operated to place the first round in the chamber. The cycle of operation begins with the first round positioned over the belt-holding pawl and the recoiling groups in the forward position.

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Weapon Handling Tests

b.

Feeding is described in two phases. The first phase describes the feeding of the first round of a new belt of ammunition into the machine-gun, while the second phase describes the feeding of subsequent rounds. The phases in detail are as follows: (1) First phase. The first phase consists of the following: (a) When the bolt is fully forward, the belt feed slide is in the cover. The ammunition belt is held in the feedway by the belt-holding pawl (figure 6-6).

a. belt feed lever b. bolt c. belt feed slide Figure 6-6: Feeding—bolt fully forward

(b)

As the bolt moves to the rear, its cam groove guides the belt feed lever lug, pivoting the lever and moving the slide out the side of the cover (as shown in figure 6-7).

a. bolt b. belt feed lever c. belt feed slide Figure 6-7: Feeding—belt slide moving out of the side of the cover

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

(c)

The belt is held stationary by the bolt holding pawl, while the belt feed pawl pivots, compressing its spring, and rides up over the link holding the first round (figure 6-8).

a. belt feed pawl arm b. belt feed slide Figure 6-8: Feeding—belt feed pawl behind the first round

(d)

When the bolt is all the way to the rear, the belt feed slide moves out far enough to allow the belt feed pawl spring to force the belt feed pawl down behind the first round (figure 6-9).

a. belt feed pawl arm b. belt feed slide c. belt holding pawl Figure 6-9: Feeding—the belt feed pawl behind the first round

(e)

As the bolt moves forward, the belt feed lever moves the slide back into the receiver. The belt is pushed in by the belt feed pawl. The next round rides over the belt holding pawl, compressing its spring and forcing the pawl down until the round has passed (figure 6-10).

6-14

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. belt feed pawl b. belt holding pawl Figure 6-10: Feeding—Belt slide moving inside the cover with the belt feed pawl behind the first round

(f) (g)

When the bolt is fully forward, the slide is back in the cover; the first round is engaged by the extractor. Double-feeding. If, for any reason a round is not extracted from the belt, the belt feed pawl arm will ride up over that round, holding up the belt feed pawl to prevent double-feeding.

(2)

Second phase. This phase consists of the withdrawal of a new round from the belt: (a) The extractor grips the first round in the feedway and as the recoiling parts move to the rear, withdraws it from the ammunition belt. Initially, the grip of the extractor is held secure by the downward pressure of the cover extractor spring (figure 6-11).

a. belt feed pawl arm b. belt holding pawl Figure 6-11: Feeding—withdrawing the first round from the feedway

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

(b)

As the bolt continues its movement to the rear, the cover extractor cam forces the extractor down, causing the cartridge to enter the Tslot in the bolt (figure 6-12).

a. bolt b. cover extractor cam c. extractor d. base of cartridge entering T-slot Figure 6-12: Feeding—cartridge entering the T-slot

(c)

As the bolt moves to the rear and the extractor is forced down, the extractor lug, riding along the top of the extractor switch, forces the rear of the extractor switch downward. Near the completion of the rearward movement, the extractor lug overrides the end of the switch and the switch snaps back up into position.

49.

Step two—Loading. a. As the bolt moves forward, the new round is held by the T-slot and extractor assembly. The extractor stop pin (on the left side of the bolt) permits the extractor assembly to go down only far enough to align the new round with the chamber (figure 6-13).

6-16

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. extractor switch b. cover extractor spring c. extractor cam d. ejector e. extractor Figure 6-13: Loading—new round aligned with the chamber

b.

As the bolt continues forward, the new round is chambered, the extractor lug rides up the extractor cam, compresses the cover extractor spring, and through the pressure of the spring, snaps into the groove in the base of the next cartridge.

50.

Step three—Locking. a. Initially, the bolt is forced forward by the energy stored in the driving spring group and the compressed buffer disks. At the start of its forward movement, the oil buffer body tube keeps the accelerator tips from bounding up too soon and catching in the breech lock recess in the bolt. However, after the bolt travels forward about 13 cm, the lower rear projection of the bolt strikes the tips of the accelerator, rotating the accelerator forward; this unlocks the barrel extension from the oil buffer group and releases the oil buffer spring. The oil buffer spring expands, forcing the piston rod forward. Since the cross-groove in the piston rod is engaged in the notch on the barrel extension shank, the barrel extension and barrel are also forced forward by the action of the buffer spring. Some of the forward motion of the bolt is transmitted to the barrel extension through the accelerator. As the accelerator rotates forward, its curved portion restrains the forward motion of the bolt. Locking begins three centimetres before the recoiling groups are fully forward. The breech lock in the barrel extension rides up the breech lock cam into the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt, locking the recoiling groups together. The recoiling groups are completely locked together two centimetres before the groups are fully forward.

b.

c.

d. 51.

Step four—Firing. a. As the trigger is pressed, it pivots on the trigger pin. This causes the trigger cam on the inside of the backplate to engage and raise the rear of the trigger bar which pivots on the trigger bar pin, causing the front end to press downward on the sear

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

stud. The sear is forced down until the hooked notch of the firing pin extension is disengaged from the sear notch. The firing pin and firing pin extension are driven forward by the firing pin spring; the striker of the firing pin hits the primer of the cartridge, firing the round (figures 6-14 and 6-15).

a. trigger b. trigger bar pin c. trigger bar d. firing pin extension e. sear f. firing pin spring g. firing pin h. cartridge Figure 6-14: Firing—ready to fire

a. trigger b. trigger bar pin c. trigger bar d. firing pin extension e. sear f. firing pin spring g. firing pin Figure 6-15: Firing—round fired

b.

For automatic firing, the trigger is kept depressed. The bolt latch release must be locked or held depressed to ensure that the bolt latch will not engage in the notches in the top of the bolt and hold it to the rear. Each time the bolt travels forward in counter-recoil, the trigger bar automatically depresses the sear, releases the firing pin extension and the firing pin, and fires the next round. The machinegun should fire about 1.5 mm before the recoiling groups are fully forward. At the instant of firing, the parts are locked in the proper position.

6-18

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Weapon Handling Tests

c.

When the sideplate trigger is used, as with the M63 mount, the action is the same, except that the sideplate trigger cam presses against the sear slide when the recoiling groups are locked in the forward position.

52.

Step five—Locking. a. At the instant of firing the bolt is locked by the breech lock to the barrel extension and against the rear end of the barrel in the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt. When the cartridge is fired, the bullet travels out of the barrel and the recoil drives the recoiling group rearward. During the first two centimetres, the recoiling groups are locked together. As this movement takes place, the breech lock is moved off the breech lock cam step, allowing the breech lock depressors, acting on the breech lock control pin, to force the breech lock down, out of its recess in the bottom of the bolt (figure 6-16).

b.

a. accelerator b. bolt c. breech lock d. breech lock pin e. breech lock cam f. breech lock depressor Figure 6-16: Unlocking—breech lock being forced out of its recess in the bolt

c.

Thus, at the end of the first two centimetres of recoil, the bolt is unlocked and free to move to the rear, independent of the barrel and barrel extension (figure 6-17).

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. accelerator b. bolt c. barrel extension d. breech lock Figure 6-17: Unlocking—bolt unlocked from breech block

d.

As the recoiling groups move to the rear, the barrel extension causes the accelerator to rotate backward by acting on the curved surfaces of the accelerator. The accelerator tips strike the lower rear projection of the bolt, speeding up the movement of the bolt to the rear (figure 6-18).

a. driving spring group b. bolt c. accelerator d. barrel extension shank e. cross groove piston rod head Figure 6-18: Unlocking—accelerator tips accelerating the movement of bolt to the rear

e.

The barrel and barrel extension continue to travel to the rear an additional one centimetre, or an approximate total distance of three centimetres, until they are stopped by the oil buffer group (figure 6-19).

6-20

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. buffer assembly b. barrel c. barrel extension Figure 6-19: Unlocking—barrel and barrel extension stopped by the oil buffer group

f.

During this recoil, the buffer spring is compressed by the barrel extension shank. The notch on the shank is engaged in the cross-groove in the piston rod head. The spring is locked in the compressed position by the claws of the accelerator, which engage the shoulders of the barrel extension shank (figure 6-20).

a. buffer assembly b. buffer spring c. barrel extension shank d. accelerator e. accelerator claw Figure 6-20: Unlocking—oil buffer spring compressed and locked

g.

The bolt travels an additional 16.2 cm to the rear after it is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension. During this movement, the driving springs are compressed. The rearward movement of the bolt is stopped as the bolt strikes the buffer plate. Part of the recoil energy of the bolt is stored by the driving spring group and part is absorbed by the buffer disks in the backplate.

53.

Step six—Extraction. a. The empty case, held by the T-slot, has been expanded by the force of the explosion, and fits snugly in the chamber. If the case is withdrawn from the

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

chamber too rapidly, it could split. To prevent this, and to ensure slow initial extraction of the case, the top forward edge of the breech lock and the forward edge of the breech lock recess in the bolt are bevelled. Therefore, as the breech lock is unlocked, the initial movement of the bolt away from the barrel and the barrel extension is gradual. b. The slope of the locking faces facilitates locking and unlocking and prevents sticking. The leverage of the accelerator tips on the bolt speeds extraction, after it has started, by kicking the bolt to the rear (figure 6-21).

54.

Step seven—Ejection. a. As the bolt starts its forward movement, the extractor lug rides below the extractor switch, forcing the extractor assembly farther down until the new round is positioned in the T-slot. The new round, gripped by the extractor, pushes the empty case from the T-slot. The last empty casing of an ammunition bolt is pushed out by the ejector.

b. 55.

Step eight—Cocking. a. When the recoiling groups are fully forward, the top of the cocking lever rests on the rear half of the V-slot in the top plate bracket (figure). As the bolt moves to the rear, the top of the cocking lever is forced forward; the lower end pivots to the rear on the cocking lever pin. The rounded nose of the cocking lever, which fits through the slot of the firing pin extension, forces the extension to the rear, compressing the firing pin spring against the sear stop pin, or, in some models, the accelerator stop. As the firing pin extension is pressed to the rear, the hooked notch of the extension rides over the sear notch, forcing the sear down. The sear spring forces the sear back up after the hooked notch of the firing pin extension has entered the sear notch. The pressure of the sear and firing pin springs holds the two notches locked together. There is a slight over-travel of the firing pin extension in its movement to the rear to ensure proper engagement with the sear (figure 6-21).

b.

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. top plate bracket b. cocking lever c. bolt Figure 6-1: Locking—recoiling groups forward - MG not locked

c.

As the bolt starts forward, the over-travel is taken up and completed when the cocking lever enters the V-slot of the top plate bracket, and is cammed towards the rear. Thus, pressure on the cocking lever is relieved as the bolt starts forward (figures 6-22 and 6-23).

B-GL-385-005/PT-001

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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

a. sear b. cocking level c. sear stop pin Figure 6-22: Locking—hooked notch of the firing pin extension engaged by the sear notch

Figure 6-23: Locking—recoiling groups forward—MG locked

CAUSES OF STOPPAGES. Explain. 56. A stoppage is an interruption in the cycle of operation caused by the faulty action of the weapon or of the ammunition. Stoppages are classified as follows:

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Weapon Handling Tests

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 57. are:

Failure to feed. A stoppage that prevents the new round from being positioned approximately in the rear of the barrel. Failure to load. A stoppage that prevents the new round from entering the chamber. Failure to lock. A stoppage that prevents the breech lock from correctly entering its recess in the bolt. Failure to fire. A stoppage that prevents the primer of the cartridge being struck. Failure to unlock. A stoppage that prevents the breech lock moving out of its recess in the bolt. Failure to extract. A stoppage that prevents the extraction of the empty case from the chamber. Failure to eject. A stoppage that prevents the ejection of the case from the receiver. Failure to cock. A stoppage that prevents the firing pin extension from being engaged with the sear.

Common stoppages. The most common stoppages with the machine-gun .50 cal M2 a. b. c. failure to feed; failure to load; and failure to fire.

58.

Causes of stoppages. The table below lists the causes of stoppages: NATURE OF STOPPAGE COMMON CAUSES Defective ammunition belt Defective feed mechanism Defective extractor Broken part, obstruction in T-slot or chamber. Separated (ruptured) case Incorrect headspace adjustment OTHER CAUSES Improperly loaded belt Short round Thick rim or thin rim, bulged round Broken parts Damaged breech lock Rough breech lock cam Faulty breech lock cam adjustment (loose) Faulty ammunition batch

Failure to feed

Failure to load

Failure to lock

Failure to fire

Defective part in firing mechanism Defective ammunition Incorrect timing
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The Machine-Gun .50 Cal M2

NATURE OF STOPPAGE Failure to unlock

COMMON CAUSES Broken part in receiver

OTHER CAUSES Worn breech lock cam Faulty breech lock cam adjustment (loose) Defective cartridge case Burred or fouled T-slot Broken cocking lever

Failure to extract Failure to eject Failure to cock

Dirty or oily chamber Defective extractor Defective ejector Broken sear Worn sear notch Weak sear spring Worn hooked notch on firing pin extension

Table 6-1: Causes of stoppages.

59. 60.

Confirm by questions or practice. Conclusion: a. b. c. d. e. Question period. Confirm by questions and practice. Carry out safety precautions. Pack stores. Review: if the machine-gun stops firing in battle, it is essential that the machinegunner know how to identify and remedy the problem as quickly and as safely as possible.

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