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12

Network Models
1. Minimum spanning tree problem, 2. Maximum flow problem, 3. Shortest-path problem.
In a network, the points are called nodes (or vertices) and the lines are called arcs. If flow through an arc is allowed in only one direction (e.g., a one-way street), the arc is said to be a directed arc. If flow through an arc is allowed in either direction (e.g., a pipeline that can be used to pump fluid in either direction), the arc is said to be an undirected arc. Nodes Intersections Airports Switching points Pumping stations Work centers Arcs Roads Air lanes Wires, channels Pipes Materials-handling routes Flow Vehicles Aircraft Messages Fluids Jobs

1. MINIMAL SPANNING TREE TECHNIQUE


Connecting all the points of a network together while minimizing the total distance between them is called minimum spanning tree technique. Steps: 1. 2. 3.

Select any node in the network, Connect this node to the nearest node. Cover all grouped nodes with the minimum distance.

Worked-out problem-1: Connect all nodes by using the minimal spanning tree technique.

2 3 1 5 4
Solution:

3 5 3 5 7 2 6 6 1 8 4 7

2 3 2

Step 1: Connect each node to the neatest one.

Step 2: Connect grouped nodes with each other.

Step 3: Sum the distances.

2
3

3 5 3
5 4
3

2 3

3 5
5 4

1
5

2 3
2 7

7 8 6
6

1
5

2 3 2 2 4
6 7

7 8 6 1 2

2 4

13= 2 32= 3 25= 3 34= 2 36= 2 68= 1 87= 2 = 15

Worked-out problem-2: Roxie wants to find a least expensive way to provide water to each facility. Connect all nodes by using the minimal spanning tree technique.

2 10 1 12 4
Solution:

12 18 5 10 6 10 7 8 9 14 13 8

8 3 12

15

Step 1: Connect each node to the neatest one.

Step 2: Connect grouped nodes with each other.

Step 3: Sum the distances.

2 10 1
12

12 5 18 13 9 10 14

2 10 8
12

12
5 18 13 9

10 6

8 3
12

15

10 6 10 7

8 3
12

15

8
14

7 4 8 4 8

13= 8 12= 10 25= 12 56= 10 68= 9 67= 10 7 4= 8 = 67

Worked-out problem-3: Each node is representing a house. Find the total length of wire that connects all the houses.

3 1 1 4 2 5 2 4 5 2 4

3 5 6 7

6 3 7

8 3

7 5

12 4

14 5

6 4 10 3

9 6 3 11 13

Worked-out problem-4: (12.15-Render/page 553) Solve the minimal spanning tree problem in the network given.

4 4 2 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 3 5 3 6 2 3 7 4 5 8 8 1 9 7

Worked-out problem-5: The houses near the university want to make an internet network connection. Find the minimum length of wire to connect all nodes by using minimum spanning tree.

2. MAXIMUM-FLOW TECHNIQUE
The maximum amount of a material that can flow through a network can be found maximum-flow technique. Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Pick any path from the start to the finish with some flow. Find the arc on this path with the smallest flow capacity available. Call this capacity C. For each node on this path, decrease the flow capacity in the direction of the flow by the amount C, and increase the flow capacity in the reverse direction by the amount C. Repeat these steps until an increase in flow is no longer possible.

Worked-out problem-6: Find the number of car that can flow from West to East. 1 West Point 3

2 2
1 1

2 1

6
0

East Point

1 2
10 0 3

0 1

4 1
6 1

3 2

Solution: Step1: Flow through path 126=2


3 1 3

Step 2: Flow through path 1246=1 Step 3: Flow through path 1356=2
4

2 2
1 0 1 1

4 2 1

6
0

31

2 2
1 0 1 2

4 2 21

1 3 0 1 0 3

6
0
8

31

2 2
1 0 1 2

4 2 21

1 3 0 1 3 2 0

6
0

1 2
10 0 3

4 1
6 1

1 2
10

4 10
6 1

1 2
10

4 10
4 6 1 3

3 2

3 2

20

So total capacity from node-1 to node-6 is 5.

Worked-out problem-7 (12-2/Render) Find the maximum amount of fuel that can flow from the node-1 to node-7. 3 3 1 2 0 3 3

4
3 0

0 4 5 8

4 2 5 1 0 4

5
1

Solution: .. 1247=3 157=5 1367=1 13567=1 =10

Worked-out problem-8: (12-8/Render) What is the total number of cars that flow from east to west. 2 1 2 2 2 0 4 0 2

2 2

7
2 2 0 3 4 2

5 1 1

Worked-out problem-9: (12-17/Render) What is the total number of cars that flow from node-1 to node-11. 2 3 0 4 0

2 10 1 88 15 4

9 8 0 11

3 3 15 0 4 8 2 0 5 14 2 8

1 0

7 8 0 10 10

Worked-out problem-10: (12-19/Render) Solve the maximum flow problem presented in the network below. The numbers represent thousands of gallons per hour as they flow through a chemical processing plant.

4 9 3 1 1 0 12 5 0 3 1 10 2 6 4 5 6 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 7 2 6 1 0 2 13 2 0 5 3 0 11 4 1 4 1 8 2 1

0 5 4

1 14 0

3. THE SHORTEST-PATH PROBLEM Determines the route between a source and destination in a transportation network that minimizes the total distance. Worked-out Problem-11: Find the shortest path through the following networks, where the numbers represent actual distances between the corresponding nodes. A 4 (Origin) O 6 1 B 2 C Solution:
Step 1: Go to the nearest node from start.
A 4 O 6 1 B 2 C 5

7 D 5 4 1 E 5 8 6 T (Destination)

Step 2: Check the alternatives. To reach D, ABD=6 is shorter, To reach E, ABE=5 is shorter,

Step 3 : Select the shortest route.


A 4 1 6 B 2 C 5 7 D 5 4 1 E 8 6 T

7 D 5 4 1 E 8 6 T

To reach final point T through D, ABDT=1+5+6=12 To reach final point T through E, ABET=1+4+8=13

or
A 4 O 6 1 B 2 C 5 7 D 5 4 1 E 8 6 T

To reach final point T through E (alternative path) ABEDT=1+4+1+6=12

Worked-out Problem-12: Find the shortest path through the following network. 3 5 6 3 B 4 6 C 5 E 2 2 1 4 2 F 2 5 2 5

Total distance is 4+1+5+6=16.

A 4 (Origin) O

G 2 H 3 I 8

7 T 4 (Destination)

Worked-out Problem-13: One of Speedy Airlines flights is about to take off from Seattle for a nonstop flight to London. There is some flexibility in choosing the precise route to be taken, depending upon weather conditions. The following network depicts the possible routes under consideration, where SE and LN are Seattle and London, respectively, and the other nodes represent various intermediate locations. The winds along each arc greatly affect the flying time (and so the fuel consumption). Based on current meteorological reports, the flying times (in hours) for this particular flight are shown next to the arcs. Because the fuel consumed is so expensive, the management of Speedy Airlines has established a policy of choosing the route that minimizes the total flight time. 3.5 A D 3.4 4.6 3.4 3.6 4.7 3.2 3.6 SE B E LN 4.2 C 3.3 3.5 3.4 T 3.8

Worked-out Problem-14: The network in following figure gives the distances in miles between pairs of cities 1,2, . . ,

and 8. Find the shortest route between the following cities: (a) Cities 1 and 8 (b) Cities 1 and 6 3 (c) Cities 4 and 8 2 (d) Cities 2 and 6
1 1 2 Worked-out Problem-15: 1 2

4 1 2 5 3 5 4 3 6 7 8

6 2 5 6 8

Find the shortest path from node-1(IBU) to node-10 (pekara).

Answer (480 meter) Follow up exercises


1. In 1862, during the second year of the Civil War, General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson fought a brilliant military campaign in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. One of his victories was at the Battle of McDowell. Using the following figure and your imagination, determine the shortest path and how long it will take (in days) for General Jackson to move his army from Winchester to McDowell to fight the battle:

2.

Given the following network with the indicated distances between nodes (in miles), determine the shortest route from node 1 to each of the other six nodes (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7):

3.

The Hylton Hotel has a limousine van that transports guests to various business and tourist locations around the city. The following network indicates the different routes the limousine could follow from the hotel at node 1 to the nine locations (nodes 2 through 10): The values on each branch in the network are the distances, in miles, between the locations. Determine the shortest route from the hotel to each of the nine destinations and indicate the distance for each route.

4.

Several oil companies are jointly planning to build an oil pipeline to connect several southwestern, southeastern, and midwestern cities, as shown in the following network: The miles between cities are shown on each branch. Determine a pipeline system that will connect all 10 cities, using the minimum number of miles of pipe, and indicate how many miles of pipe will be used.

5.

Tech wants to develop an area network that will connect its server at its computer and satellite center with the main campus buildings to improve Internet service. The cable will be laid primarily through existing electrical tunnels, although some cable will have to be buried underground. The following network shows the possible cable connections between the computer center at node 1 and the various buildings, with the distances, in feet, along the branches: Determine a minimal spanning tree network that will connect all the buildings and indicate the total amount of cable that will be needed to do so.

6.

The FAA has granted a license to a new airline, Omniair, and awarded it several routes between Los Angeles and Chicago. The flights per day for each route are shown in the following network: Determine the maximum number of flights the airline can schedule per day from Chicago to Los Angeles and indicate the number of flights along each route.

7.

A manufacturing company produces different variations of a product at different work centers in its plant on a daily basis. Following is a network showing the various work centers in the plant, the daily capacities at each work center, and the flow of the partially completed products between work centers:

Node 1 represents the point where raw materials enter the process, and node 15 is the packaging and distribution center. Determine the maximum number of units that can be completed each day and the number of units processed at each work center.

8.

The traffic management office in Richmond is attempting to analyze the potential traffic flow from a new office complex under construction to an interstate highway interchange during the evening rush period. Cars leave the office complex via one of three exits, and then they travel through the city streets until they arrive at the interstate interchange. The following network shows the various street routes (branches) from the office complex (node 1) to the interstate interchange (node 9): All intermediate nodes represent street intersections, and the values accompanying the branches emanating from the nodes represent the traffic capacities of each street, expressed in thousands of cars per hour. Determine the maximum flow of cars that the street system can absorb during the evening rush hour.