# Ed Leedskalnin – Ion-Valve Oscillator (Magnetic Current

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Ed Leedskalnin – Ion-Valve Oscillator (Magnetic Current)

Ed Leedskalnin – Ion-Valve Oscillator (Magnetic Current)

This is a picture of the Alfred Hubbard Device – Coil Generator. See Figure 2 – On page 1. Looks similar to this device.

This is a picture of Ed Leedskalnin wheel generator at Coral Castle. See Figure 4 – On page 1. Looks similar to this device.

A perfect description of the objects flying by, is in a Book - I Rode A Flying Saucer by George Van Tassel pages 38-39.

1 February 1995

A collection of essays by Bruce DePalma

The Secret of the Faraday Disc "Primary causes are unknown to us; but are subject to simple and constant laws, which may be discovered by observation, the study of them being the object of natural philosophy." - Fourier

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The Faraday disc is a magnetised wheel. A wheel is an intrinsically self-defining object. It becomes itself only when rotating. The properties of the wheel are determined by the experiments which involve it. The statement: "wheels within wheels" is the philosophical interpretation. Through the Faraday Disc we can connect the forces of magnetism and electricity to the inertial properties of space and time. An interesting problem is the inertial frame sense of the Earth moving through space. The Laws of Inertia govern the material objects resting on the surface of the earth. But what of the space surrounding the Earth. Would it be the electric, magnetic, or gravitational field which stabilised the inertial frame or can we posit an inertial field of matter. It is clear that the properties of phenomena occurring within matter are conveyed to the space surrounding without matter. Because of the confusion and ambiguity created by Einstein's "Principle of Equivalence", inertia and gravitational forces have been linked. The search for a purely inertial field has been proscribed. If a field exists around matter which conveys the inertial condition of that matter to the surrounding space then the general principle would be: a transport mechanism exists which serves to communicate the internal condition of matter to the surrounding space. Let us call the inertial condition conveyed to surrounding space by matter the od field. The od field of matter can be manipulated through rotation, creating the anisotropic inertial effects observed in rotating gyroscopes. Forced precession of the rotating gyroscope creates such a strong interaction with the local inertial, od, field that the precessing gyro can be said to "lock in space" with respect to the local inertial frame. The motion of a mass point in the rotor of a precessing gyroscope is unique and is known as streptoid, (Gk. twisting), and is not a combination of rotation and translation which are supposed to describe all mechanical motions. Trinics, the calculus of three dimensional motion is in its infancy. The inventor of this calculus is John Sohn Wolfe, now deceased, and his book is: Neo-Principia Mathematica, as yet unpublished. It is now recognised there are three classes of motion, i.e. translation, rotation, and streptation. Streptation includes precession, nutation, and higher orders of three dimensional motion. In order to extend the science of mechanics the following experiments are suggested: 1) F = MA is not obeyed by an object in streptation. What are the laws of force for such

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an object? 2) Momentum is not conserved in an elastic collision of an object undergoing streptation with a non-moving control. What are the laws of elastic collisions of streptating objects? 3) What are the laws of inertia for a streptating object. Would the idea of variable inertia including positive and negative values be appropriate? 4) The idea of an od field that could alter the mechanical and inertial properties of material objects is not part of the knowledge of contemporary mechanics. Should it be, or should the ideas of mechanics end at the surface of all mechanical objects?

The limits of scientific conception which emerged in the 19th century can be expressed in the "action at a distance" and wave propagation hypotheses requiring some sort of spatial medium or aether. Twentieth century particle physics and the hypothesis of the neutrino opened the way to a conceptualisation of space filled with a sea of particles. A space filled with a sea of particles interpenetrating matter and possessing a relaxation time such that the internal condition of matter was impressed on them and was thus conveyed to the surrounding space could be the mechanism for a transport process wherein the internal condition of matter; electric, magnetic, gravitational, heat, charge, radioactivity, inertial et al. was conveyed to the surrounding space. I call the particle whose condition is an impression or memory of its passage through matter, a psion. Thus the basic condition of empty space is a psion field. Radiation laws of emissivity vs temperature and intensity drop off with distance, i.e. 1/r, 1/r2, and 1/r3 dependencies are related to the relaxation time of the impression created on the particles by their passage through matter. One could assume these particles, psions, travel at the speed of light. The term psion is meant to imply an atom of consciousness which retains an impression of the internal condition of matter through which it has passed. The Faraday Disc The Faraday Disc [reference 1] is generally thought to be a two piece machine consisting of a conducting disc rotating proximate to the north or south pole of an axially suspended fixed magnet. It can be said that this invention was in part suggested by the earlier work of Arago and Barlow. The truly unique invention made December 26, 1831 consisted of the discovery that the magnet and disc could be cemented together, rotated jointly, and the same voltage could be obtained by sliding contacts touching the centre and edge of the conducting disc as was obtained when the magnet was fixed and the disc rotated alone. Ideas of flux line cutting and induced voltages were brought forward to explain the mechanism of voltage generation in the rotating disc but when these were applied to the two situations of disc rotating independently or together with the magnet, they lead to contradictory interpretations. The true discovery of Faraday was that relative motion was not necessary for the generation of electricity. If rare earth or superconducting magnets had been available in the days of Faraday and Maxwell the one-piece homopolar machine might have become an article of commerce. Comparisons of the energy efficiency of this construction with two-piece Faraday or induction machines would have been made. The future we now live in would have been energised by the one-piece machine and the mechanical equivalent of heat would no longer square with the electrical equivalent of heat. What this would mean in terms of contemporary theories can only be guessed at. Because the Faraday discovery, now known as the N-machine Space Power Generator is not perfect, it will never be possible to reduce the drag of such a machine to zero in the production of an arbitrarily large quantity of electrical power. The reason drag is intrinsic is because the same space whose polarisation elicits electrical power also contains the inertial frame reference for the machine.

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Experiments [ref. 2] performed by the author have directly demonstrated the dragging of a purely mechanical rotating reference frame against a fixed one. The force relationship existing between magnetised objects directly illustrates the interaction of separate inertial frames linked magnetically. It is possible to infer N-machine drag will be reduced in outer space remote from the inertial influence of the sun and planets. In the Faraday disc experiment the instrumentality of evocation of the magnetic field partakes in the inertial frame-sense. Yet the magnet does not partake in any reaction torque. The output torque of the disc is referenced to the local inertial frame. Thus the magnet only connects the generated torque to the local inertial frame. This suggests that if the magnet were to rotate with the disc the torque output of the machine would be with respect to the rotating inertial frame of the magnet, although there would still be no nett torque reaction of the disc against the attached rotating magnet. In the Faraday disc, the torque is relative to the reference frame of the instrumentality which is the evocateur of the magnetic field. Unlike the repulsion of the hysteresis or eddy current drag machines, the generator drag of a Faraday disc must be an intrinsic drag manifestation of the precipitation of electricity. Consequently allowing the magnet to rotate with the disc will increase the electrical power output by not letting the drag appear twice. Once with respect of the electrical power generation drag - akin to the locking in space of the precessing inertial gyroscope and twice by the coupling of such drag to the inertial plane of the Earth via the instrumentality of the magnet. If the magnet rotates then the inertial reference is no longer to the Earth but to the rotating reference frame of the magnet. In the Faraday disc, part of the drag arises from the intrinsic drag of electron collection relative to the local frame, what I call non-reactive drag. The balance of the drag derives from direct, action-reaction, drag of the rotating polarised member against the Earth reference frame coupled through the instrumentality of the magnet. In the two piece machines, (either induction or Homopolar), the reactive drag coupling is accentuated by the proximity of the mass of the stator. This cannot be changed in the induction machines but the one-piece Homopolar geometry avoids excessive stator drag by eliminating the stator. What remains is the reactive rotor coupling to local space without the presence of ferrous matter, to which the rotor magnetic field could couple, and the intrinsic electron collection drag referenced to the local space reference frame. The principle of equivalence exhorts the equivalency of gravitational and inertial forces, but gravitation is not a relative force, i.e. it exists independently of relative motion. Although the voltages derived from homo-polar and induction machines may be equal, the drags resulting from the processes are unequal. ___________________________________________________

Copper is an insulator for the recombination of male-female energies. i.e. internal resistance = zero, with perfect insulation. I had always been taught that although the voltage in a magnetically linked circuit was Blv the current which could be drawn was limited by the series resistance of the circuit. Since the voltage developed across the terminals of moving wire arises from space why should the current being drawn be limited by the internal resistance of the wire connecting the terminals? The situation resolves itself when we regard what is developed across the terminals of the moving magnetically linked wire as a male-female polarisation and that recombination of the developed potentials is resisted by the insulating action of the copper or silver "conductor".

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The reason copper and silver are good conductors is because they resist the recombination of the male-female polarisations and can conduct these polarisations to the point where they are merged to recombine in some socially useful manner. The electrical metals are useful because they can be used to convey the electrical potentialities from point to point while at the same time they insulate them from recombination, the state of neutralisation ultimately resulting in heat. ___________________________________________________

The simplest machine for the mechanical extraction of electrical potentials is a rotating, magnetised, electrically conducting spiral.

For simplicity the voltage pickoff points are indicated as brushes. In practice both contacts are liquid metal in a symmetrical circumferential arrangement where the current flow is wholly radial into and out of the machine. Since it has not been noted that electrical solenoids or coils commence to rotate when energised, it is clear that application of voltage to the sliding contacts will not cause the machine to commence rotation. On the other hand if the conducting spiral is caused to rotate at high speed and an electrical load is connected between the terminals of the rotating spiral a voltage is quickly developed. This effect can be initiated by a small "inducer" coil or permanent magnet brought in proximity to the rotating spiral. The flux from this magnet initiates the current buildup in the rotating spiral. For short term experiments currents of 25-50 Kilo-amperes can be developed in a load of sufficiently low resistance. What is important about this experiment is its non-reciprocity, i.e. the rotating spiral can produce voltage and power when energised but a spiral conductor is not known to rotate when a current is caused to flow in it. What force or influence governs the local reference frame? When the precessing gyroscope locks in space because of its streptoid (twisting) motion does it lock into the space through which the Earth is moving at 5 miles/second, or does it lock into the local (Earth) frame, but why? The magnetic field produced by current flow through the spiral is a distortion of the local space. Thus we can say the magnetic field links the rotating frame of the spiral with local space. The characteristic of a rotating inertial frame (generated by a rotating real mechanical object) is an inertial anisotropy such that for axial measurements the inertia increases but for radial motions the inertial mass decreases. This distortion of inertial isotropy existing in the space around a rotating object is called an od field. Although the magnetic field links the local inertial frame the space of the local frame is distorted and modified by the inertially anisotropic od field created by the rotation of a real mechanical object. The result of this is to reduce the dragging action of an electrically polarised rotating spiral for motions in the plane of rotation. Since the plane of the spiral is the rotational plane it can be expected that there would be a

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reduction in drag of such a machine in comparison with an induction machine producing the same amount of power. A fact borne out by experiment. It is clear from this that the space of the local inertial frame can be distorted magnetically and odically. The inertial anisotropy of the od field reduces the reaction forces generated by the extraction of electrical current from the rotating conducting spiral. If inertial dragging can be eliminated in this way, then the remaining drag must be due to the creation of the condition of precipitation of the male-female polarities and their resistance to depolarising effects, i.e. electrical loading. In such machines it is easy to compensate magnetic field distortion through current withdrawal by a proximate fixed compensation disc wherein the output current is caused to flow in the opposite direction. Thus polarisation created in the rotating spiral can be made independent of the flow of current since no magnetic field disturbance is noted in the compensated machine with the withdrawal of current. Under these conditions can it be said that polarisation (male-female) alone can invoke the flow of electrical current and that the magnetic field itself results from male-female recombination within conductors? What is precipitated is quantised electrical charge with the evolution of heat substances give off heat when they crystalise, and the recombination of the polarities with the evolution of heat. Whether it be the generation of the polarities or the merging of the polarities, heat is evolved in both processes. In the cosmic cycle of generation, preservation and destruction, heat is evolved in generation and destruction and equilibrium is saved in preservation. The heat of evolution of electrons is reflected in the spatial drag of the primitive rotating spiral N machine. The balance of the drag is contributed from the linkage of inertial frames through magnetism, i.e. a polarised conducting disc is linked to the local space frame through the spatial distortion of magnetism which can be accentuated by the near presence of ferrous (paramagnetic) objects, magnetically permeable structures - stators -, for magnetic flux path closing. Mass is coupled to the local inertial frame through the mechanism of inertia. Magnetic linkages to ferromagnetic stators contribute additional drag. The contributions from the different sources can be itemised thus: 1) heat of electronic creation of polarities. (heat of evolution of electrons) 2) intrinsic spatial drag of a magnetised rotating polarised conducting disc. 3) increase of intrinsic spatial drag through magnetic interaction with a proximate ferromagnetic object, i.e. a stator*.

* The stator presents a modification of the space in which the rotor must operate. Under this condition the intrinsic drag would be greater in comparison with free space.

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In general, the primitive machine is the rotating magnetised spiral. This is an antenna which reduces the spatial magnetised energy to a form utilisable by mankind, i.e. the positive and negative polarities of electricity. As with all antennas, field distortions introduced by the close proximity of ferro-magnetised objects, stators, upset the symmetry of energy withdrawal and interfere with the operation of the antenna.

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Higher orders of symmetry are employed in the cylinder machines. The rotating magnetised spiral is in relation to the cosmical time energy as the dipole antenna is to electromagnetism. Rotation and magnetism are combined in a material object constructed from an element wherein the recombination of the permitted polarities is minimal. That is the N machine. We are definable by our thoughts and our thoughts have reached the limit of resolution. The heats of electronic precipitation and recombination cannot be said to be equal since the difference between the two rates must account for the presence of electrons in the Universe, while at the same time the Universe is neither getting hotter or colder. Thus in most cases one could safely say the heats of generation and recombination are equal. Ohm's Law can be said to apply, but one cannot rule out the possibility of a special condition, i.e. superconductivity, where different Laws apply. For an N machine with a superconducting rotor is the heat of electronic generation 0 or is a superconductor a special state of matter with a zero heat of electronic generation and recombination. If there is a connection between heat of electronic liberation and N machine drag then a superconducting rotor should be tested in comparison with a similar machine constructed of "normal", i.e. non-superconducting materials. ___________________________________________________

The Secret of the Faraday Disc

All science consists of the elaboration of principles whose manipulation attempts to describe the continuous palate of Nature. So when I speak of the Faraday Disc I can look upon it as a powerful magical spell or I think I can understand it in terms of the causality of logic. Does understanding something remove the mystery? The gyroscope is a totally mysterious object. Attempts to understand it mathematically have failed to explain anomalous inertial and gravitational behaviour. Do we understand electricity? On deep examination electrical laws can be shown to be inconsistent with Newton's Laws. We have a working relationship with magnets and wires in electrical machines, is more necessary? It seems to me that thinking in the abstract, and the formation of theories is helpful because the existence of these theories can posit new experiments. In Reality anything can be done, but of all the things which can be done, which are the significant experiments? And why are they significant? The implicit circularity of logic closes it and brings us back to significance in terms of the principles on which our theories are based. So do we know anything except the defined concepts of relationships between elementary experiments? We accept a self-organising principle in Nature which defines itself. In terms of written memorabilia logic defines itself as a self-organising principle in Nature. If we leave the world of the printed page we enter the realm of music and subtler vibrations not susceptible to logic. Is that where our science ends? The tree becomes once more the tree and the forest the forest. We do not get the world we think we want, we get the world that is going to happen. Bruce DePalma References: 1) Faraday, Michael, Experimental Researches in Electricity. 3 vols. London: Richard and John Edward Taylor, 1839-1855. 2) DePalma, Bruce, Pendulum Experiment Data (The Force Machine), 1975; available from DePalma Institute.

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Next Paper Back to Homepage

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Tesla's Electric Car #1 - 01/09/98
This file was originally posted on the KeelyNet BBS on January 30, 1993 as TESLAFE1.ASC. This file was inspired by a newspaper article in the local Dallas Morning News. It was in a column called "Texas Sketches" written by A.C. Greene. I called Mr. Green and Mr. Langkop who both courteously sent the additional source material. Both also expressed an interest in more Tesla information as well as Texas experimenters, we are sending them material in return. There is also a second file with my thoughts on the Tesla power box, that file is listed on KeelyNet as TESLAFE2.ASC.

from January 24th, Sunday - Dallas Morning News Texas Sketches column The Electric Auto that almost triumphed Power Source of '31 car still a mystery by A.C. Greene

Not long ago, Texas Sketches told the story of Henry "Dad" Garrett and his son C.H.'s water-fueled automobile, which was successfully demonstrated in 1935 at White Rock Lake in Dallas. Eugene Langkop of Dallas (a Packard lover, like so many of us) notes that the "wonder car" of the future may be a resurrection of the electric car. It uses no gasoline, no oil - just some grease fittings - has no radiator to fill or freeze, no carburetor problems, no muffler to replace and gives off no pollutants. Famous former electrics include Columbia, Rauch & Lang and Detroit Electric. Dallas had electric delivery trucks in the 1920s and 30s. Many electric delivery vehicles were used in big cities into the 1960s. The problem with electrics was slow speed and short range. Within the past decade two Richardson men, George Thiess and Jack Hooker, claimed to have used batteries operating on magnesium from seawater to increase the range of their electric automobile from 100 miles to 400 or 500 miles. But it is a mystery car once demonstrated by Nikola Tesla, developer of alternating current, that might have made electrics triumphant. Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. and General Electric in 1931, he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternatingcurrent electric motor with no external power source.

At a local radio shop he bought 12 vacuum tubes, some wires and assorted resistors, and assembled them in a circuit box 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high, with a pair of 3-inch rods sticking out. Getting into the car with the circuit box in the front seat beside him, he pushed the rods in, announced, "We now have power," and proceeded to test drive the car for a week, often at speeds of up to 90 mph. As it was an alternating-current motor and there were no batteries involved, where did the power come from? Popular responses included charges of "black magic," and the sensitive genius didn't like the skeptical comments of the press. He removed his mysterious box, returned to his laboratory in New York - and the secret of his power source died with him. A.C. Greene is an author and Texas historian who lives in Salado.

The original article from which Mr. Greene gleaned the above info was from a Packard Newsletter. Mr. Gene Langkopf

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Tesla's Electric Car #2 - 01/09/98
This file was originally posted on the KeelyNet BBS on January 31, 1993 as TESLAFE2.ASC. This file is a Sysop commentary on the Tesla Power Box as described in the original file TESLAFE1.ASC on KeelyNet. These are my own thoughts on the Tesla Power Box, I welcome your constructive comments regarding this device......Jerry W. Decker/KeelyNet

The following are the details as removed from the file TESLAFE1 : "The standard internal combustion engine was removed and an 80-H.P. 1800 r.p.m electric motor installed to the clutch and transmission. The A.C. motor measured 40 inches long and 30 inches in diameter and the power leads were left standing in the air - no external power source!

He then went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of tubes (12), wires and assorted resistors. A box measuring 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high was assembled housing the circuit. The box was placed on the front seat and had its wires connected to the air-cooled, brushless motor. Two rods 1/4" in diameter stuck out of the box about 3" in length." The mention of this experiment in a local paper kind of blew me away but it did give "some" detail of what was in this mysterious power box. We know that T.H. Moray had probably the best known version of such a device. In his case he used a special "valve" which appeared to be basically a diode. Except this diode worked more like a Triac. That is, any electrical wave, both positive AND negative going currents, was picked up by an antenna and passed through this diode with minimal loss of energy. As far as we know, this valve was based on a composite substance with GERMANIUM as the host material. From there it went through a tuned circuit based on vacuum tubes and capacitors to build and discharge the energy as demanded by the load. The tuned circuits were resonant with one or more earth or cosmic frequencies and the vacuum tubes acted as harmonic constructive interference amplifiers of the input signals. We will note that Moray's resonant circuits used CAPACITORS, COILS and RESISTORS. Experiments done during Moray's heyday showed an output up to 50,000 Watts of high frequency energy. It is believed that the energy was high frequency because 100 watt light bulbs burned cool to the touch. One other CRITICAL POINT about Moray's converter was that it would ONLY energize RESISTIVE loads and NOT INDUCTIVE loads. This is because inductive loads imply coils of wire which are heated more so by HYSTERESIS (interferring electro-magnetic fields) rather than simple resistance from the flow of current through molecular/atomic patterns. This type of interferring field caused an energy backup and subsequent de-tuning of Moray's generator. Since it was essentially a TUNED device, it could not compensate for any frequency changes or distortions ONCE TUNED. As a result, any attempt to hook up an inductive load would cause the device to stop generating electrical energy. To restart it, all inductive loading must be removed, the device re-tuned and restarted. Moray also used an unusual mode of operation for a vacuum tube in that he operated with a "cold cathode." This did not require a heated plate for the "thermionic emissions" deemed necessary to successful vacuum tube operation. There is also mention of radioactive elements in the antenna circuit which leads one to think he might have been tuning into the continual radioactive decay processes of nature, rather than cosmic or earth energies.

Now to the Tesla Power Box We will first of all note the use of an AC coil motor. This alone tells us that the Tesla device was superior and not so dependent on tuning as was Moray's machine which could only power RESISTIVE loads. All universal energy moves in WAVES and so is essentially for alternating current (AC). That is why Moray called his book "THE SEA OF ENERGY IN WHICH THE EARTH FLOATS". The entire universe is continually bathed in these AC energies and they cover the entire frequency spectrum. What intrigues the hell out of me was how Tesla could use "off-the- shelf" vacuum tubes and other components, put them together in the correct configuration and make it work. Another point we should note is the list of components :
• • • •

1) 12 Vacuum Tubes (70L7-GT rectifier beam power tubes) 2) Wires 3) Assorted Resistors 4) 1/4" diameter rods 3" in length

NOTE, NO CAPACITORS! The wires could have been simply for connection or wound as coils. The 1/4" rods were either BUS BARS for power output taps OR more likely ANTENNAS! Resonant circuits can be constructed using several techniques. You can achieve the same effect from :
• • •

1) Resistors AND capacitors 2) Capacitors AND coils 3) Coils AND resistors

So, in the case of the Tesla Power Box, he either wound his own coils or simply used the wire to connect the resistors with the vacuum tubes. I am of the opinion that he used the wire ONLY for connection and DID NOT USE COILS! I also think he used a DIODE somewhere in the circuit in order to tap ONLY one polarity. We have no specifications for the AC motor that Tesla used in the auto, so we have no idea if it was single or polyphase. In the case of a single phase motor, it only requires a single winding which projects a magnetic field that rotates according to the increase or decrease of the alternating current. A polyphase (poly = two or more) motor uses multiple windings which are fed by phased input currents that alternate in such a manner as to reinforce each other. In the case of a 3 phase motor, the currents are phased 120 degrees apart. This gives much greater torque to the motor but requires 3 times the current because it uses 3 times the input energy. Since the box powered an AC (coil) motor, it is probable it was TUNED to one or more frequencies, most likely polyphased frequencies.

So, if the 3" long rods were in fact ANTENNAS, we can calculate their frequency by using the following :
(I cannot express Lambda here so we will use w for wavelength) w = wavelength v = velocity of propagation f = signal frequency a short example : w = v / f = wavelength in feet w = 984,000,000/1,500,000 = 656 feet f = 984,000,000/656 = 1,500,000 or 1.5 MHZ 3 inches * 4 = 1 foot 984,000,000/1 = 984,000,000 984,000,000/4 = 246,000,000 or 246 MHZ

This would indicate the 3" rods (if they were truly 3" in length and functioning as antennas) would resonate at 246 MHZ. Because of the parts list description, I am of the opinion that it was a DUAL circuit. That is, 6 vacuum tubes and one 1/4" diameter 3" rod along with assorted resistors were to pick up and "pump" ONLY the positive going signals, while the other 6 vacuum tubes, rod and resistors did the same for the negative going signals. Such a scheme could either use PARALLEL or SERIAL connections of the vacuum tubes. Since current conduction is proportional to surface area, one would think that a parallel arrangement of the 70L7-GT rectifier beam power tubes with all INPUTS connected to one antenna source and all OUTPUTS connected to a common terminal attached to the load, would provide for the MAXIMUM current flow from incoming energy waves. The nature of these "energy waves" is the question here. Are they cosmic rays, electrostatic, Schumann peaks, magnetic force, something "other" or Aether flow into the neutral centers of mass as per Keely. Vacuum tube construction takes several forms. Of these, the simplest is two plates separated by a grid wire. When the bottom plate is heated, thermally induced ions (thermionic emissions) are emitted by the bottom plate. The grid can be biased by the application of voltage to increase, decrease or halt the flow of these ions to the upper plate. Other forms include more plates with more grids to allow better control of the ion flow. By proper biasing, vacuum tubes can be operated as switches, modulators or amplifiers among other uses. Vacuum tubes operate primarily with high voltages that control the ion flows. Modern transistors are equivalent to vacuum tubes except that they operate using CURRENT instead of voltage. Transistors equate to Vacuum tubes by the following comparisons :
Operates from Vacuum Tube Voltage Transistor Current Polarity

lower plate grid upper plate

emitter base collector

negative - cathode neutral positive - anode

In the case of the Tesla Power Box, the vacuum tube appears to function as a "pump", collecting incoming current in the form of ion intensification. Once this "compressed" ion field reaches a certain density, the pump allows it to be released into the next stage of the circuit, be it the actual load or another vacuum tube. So if the circuit is 6 vacuum tubes in parallel, all fed from a common antenna, outputting to a common load terminal, then the common antenna input would feed all vacuum tubes with the same wave. This would give the greatest CURRENT accumulation because of the EXPANDED SURFACE AREA of the paralleled tubes. Note, these vacuum tubes most likely operate in the "cold cathode" mode since the heaters of the vacuum tubes were not fed by any outside voltage to provide the heat for the more orthodox therionic emission. If the vacuum tubes are hooked in series, then one "pump" would feed another "pump" to get successively higher densities of electrons. This would give higher VOLTAGES because of increased PRESSURE. Keep in mind that electricity is much like air or water. We can think of voltage as pounds per square inch (PSI) and current as cubic feet per minute (CFM). That is PSI is pressure, CFM is flow. Another analog is comparing a river to electricity. In such a comparison, the speed of the river is the VOLTAGE or pressure while the width of the river is the CURRENT or rate of flow. Such a comparison shows WHY current requires THE GREATEST SURFACE AREA for the maximum flow. Fuses function on just this principle, when the current flows over the surface of the fuse, it creates heat. If too much current flows, it creates too much heat causing the fuse to melt and separate. The more surface area the fuse, the greater the amount of current can flow, another reason to not place a penny in a fuse socket. So we have two antennas (1/4" diameter, 3" long rods), two sets of 6 vacuum tubes connected together by wire and assorted resistors. As the waves of energy are collected by the 3" rods, positive on one, negative on another, the energy builds up in the form of increased ions in each of the paralleled vacuum tubes. As in Moray's generator, the circuit will feed whatever load is attached as long as it does not EXCEED the current carrying capacity of the circuit components. What we have is an energy pumping system. I made a drawing of the box with some idea of the circuit. My electronics knowledge is on IC's and transistors with almost nothing in regard to vacuum tubes so there won't be much technical concept of the circuit per se. Perhaps after some study, either I or someone else will come up with some testable or useable circuits.

The Parallel Version

The Serial Version

Tesla's Electric Car - another version Subject : Telsla's Electric Car Date : Mon, 07 Apr 1997 02:15:31 GMT This is an excerpt from the book, "Secrets of Cold War Technology - Project HAARP and Beyond", by Gerry Vassilatos. - ISBN 0-945685-20-3 For more information please email, write or call: info@borderlands.com or click on the Borderlands website. Borderland Sciences Research Foundation Post Office Box 220 Bayside, California 95524-0220 U.S.A. Phone: (707) 825-7733 / FAX: (707) 825-7779

Tesla's Electric Car - from page 91

Tesla had already considered the condition of charged particles, each representing a tightly constricted whorl of aether. The force necessarily exerted at close distances by such aetheric constrictions was incalculably large. Aetheric ponderance maintained particulate stability. Crystalline lattices were therefore places within which one could expect to find unexpected voltages. Indeed, the high voltages inherent in certain metallic lattices, intra-atomic field energies, are enormous. The close Coulomb gradient between atomic centers are electrostatic potentials reaching humanly unattainable levels. By comparison, the voltages which Tesla once succeeded in releasing were quite insignificant. In these balanced lattices, Tesla sought the voltages needed to initiate directed aetheric streams in matter. Once such a flow began, one could simply tap the stream for power. In certain materials, these ether streams might automatically produce the contaminating electrons, a source of energy for existing appliances. One could theoretically then "tailor" the materials needed to produce unexpected aetheric power with or without the attendant detrimental particles. Tesla did mention the latent aetheric power of charged forces, the explosive potentials of bound Ether, and the aetheric power inherent in matter. By these studies, Tesla sought replacement for the 100,000,000 volt initiating pulses which natural law required for the implementation of space Ether. Tesla had long been forced to abandon those gigantic means by other, less natural laws. Thereafter, Tesla shifted his attentions from the appreciation of the gigantic to an appreciation of the miniature. He sought a means for proliferating an immense number of small and compact aether power receivers. With one such device, Tesla succeeded in obtaining power to drive am electric car. But for the exceptional account which follows, we would have little information on this last period in Tesla's productive life, one which very apparently did not cease its prolific streams of creativity to his last breath. The information comes through an unlikely source, one rarely mentioned by Tesla biographers. It chanced that an aeronautical engineer, Derek Ahlers, met with one of Tesla's nephews then living in New York. Theirs was an acquaintance lasting some 10 years, consisting largely of anecdotal commentaries on Dr. Tesla. Mr. Savo provided an enormous fund of knowledge concerning many episodes in Tesla's last years.

Himself an Austrian military man and a trained aviator, Mr. Savo was extremely open about certain long-cherished incidents in which his uncle's genius was consistency made manifest. Mr. Savo reported that in 1931, he participated in an experiment involving aetheric power. Unexpectedly, almost inappropriately, he was asked to accompany his uncle on a long train ride to Buffalo. A few times in this journey, Mr. Savo asked the nature of their journey. Dr. Tesla remained unwilling to disclose any information, speaking rather directly to this issue. Taken into a small garage, Dr. Tesla walked directly to a Pierce Arrow, opened the hood and began making a few adjustments. In place of the engine, there was an AC motor. This measured a little more than 3 feet long, and a little more than 2 feet in diameter. From it trailed two very thick cables which connected with the dashboard. In addition, there was an ordinary 12 volt storage battery. The motor was rated at 80 horsepower. Maximum rotor speed was stated to be 30 turns per second. A 6 foot antenna rod was fitted into the rear section of the car. Dr. Tesla stepped into the passenger side and began making adjustments on a "power receiver" which had been built directly into the dashboard. The receiver, no larger than a short-wave radio of the day, used 12 special tubes which Dr. Tesla brought with him in a boxlike case. The device had been prefitted into the dashboard, no larger than a short-wave receiver. Mr. Savo told Mr. Ahler that Dr. Tesla built the receiver in his hotel room, a device 2 feet in length, nearly 1 foot wide, a 1/2 foot high. These curiously constructed tubes having been properly installed in their sockets, Dr. Tesla pushed in 2 contact rods and informed Peter that power was now available to drive. Several additional meters read values which Dr. Tesla would not explain. Not sound was heard. Dr. Tesla handed Mr. Savo the ignition key and told him to start the engine, which he promptly did. Yet hearing nothing, the accelerator was applied, and the car instantly moved. Tesla's nephew drove this vehicle without other fuel for an undetermined long interval. Mr. Savo drove a distance of 50 miles through the city and out to the surrounding countryside. The car was tested to speeds of 90 mph, with the speedometer rated to 120. After a time, and with increasing distance from the city itself, Dr. Tesla felt free enough to speak. Having now become sufficiently impressed with the performance of both his device and the automobile.

Tesla had already been the victim of several manipulations, deadly actions entirely sourced in a single financial house. For this reason, secrecy and care had become his only recent excess.
2. Thomas Moray From the book The Sea Of Energy In Which The Earth Floats - 4th Edition by Thomas Moray

No one can say that in all space, including that of the Earth's atmosphere, all matter is not being bombarded by high speed particles. Therefore is it too far wrong to say that throughout space there is energy and this energy is kinetic in nature and can be harnessed and used by man by oscillatory means without a mechanical prime mover? Not alone on the earth but in all the Universe. It has been proven that this oscillatory energy will drive special constructed electric motors at a speed heretofore never dreamed possihle. Tesla had a glimpse of the idea in his one wire motor. Also by this means of oscilliatory action the clockwise vortex of the pull of gravity in the Northern Hemisphere can be made to rotate counter-clockwise and the counterclockwise pull of gravity in the Southern Hemisphere can be made to rotate clockwise.This is a complete reversal of the vortex of the earth's magnetic pull, or call it what you will. Watson Davis, director of Science Service, Washington, D.C. in his book "The Advance of Science," 1934 writes "Cosmic Rays bombard the earth from outer space every second of the day and night. They penetrate everything including our own bodies. They carry the mightiest packet of energy yet known to science. They give rise to burst of material particles. —" "Of all radiant energy rushing about the universe, the Cosmic Rays are thought to be by far the most important. Science deduces with astronomical accuracy that the universe's total radiant energy in the form of cosmic rays is from 30 to 300 times greater than that existing in heat, light, and all other forms combined. Of the imports of energy received by the earth, the cosmic rays equal approximately one-half of the total energy coming in from the stars, excepting the sun." The important purpose for the quotations which have been given is to arouse attention to the fact that there are tremendous energies coming to the earth from outer space. These energies are only different manifestations of the energies we see in operation all around us. In many cases we are not even consciously aware of their existence. As Mr. Davis states, "They penetrate everything including our own bodies. "Everyone of us is actually alive by virtue of these energies. Every part and particle of the Universe is alive with them. The generators that now furnish our electric power do not create or originate any power or electricity; they merely direct "pump" the existing energy or electricity. In other words, so far as this is now concerned, electricity has always existed. Vibrational waves of frequencies above the normal range of human ear perceptions are catalogued as ultrasonics. These are waves of frequencies of over 20 k.c. up to 500 m.c. Vibrations above and below these ranges act essentially the same.

Motion is manifest in everything in the universe. In other words, as in a musical note of a high or low C the vibrational rate, the frequency, is different but all "C" notes are essentially the same, differing only in harmonic and range frequency. This is the foundation upon which much of Moray's investigation of vibration is based. All matter possesses a natural rate of vibration. Moray's research in ultrasonics did not end at 500 m. c. but he took the harmonic of certain frequencies and utilized them for various results from breaking objects by vibrations to bringing down birds out of the air, from throwing the natural vibratory rate of living cells out of balance to the shearing off of animal, mineral and vegetable matter. Sometime it has required several frequencies to be transmitted over a media at the same time. Any material that has elasticity can propagate this type of ultrasonics research. The propagation takes the form of a displacement of oscillations. The universe is singing and this symphony or frequency is what keeps every part of the universe and every atom in its proper orbit. We can see this in studies beyond the microscope or beyond the telescope, either instrument telling us the same story. Science agrees that all form of matter is vibrating at its particular rate of frequency and so it is with the various forms of energy, heat, light, magnetism and electricity, these are but forms of vibratory motion connected with and emanating from the same source, the great generator of the universe; or, in other words, all matter, energy or force in the evolution of matter and the evolution of forces manifests a rate and degree of vibration entirely of its own. Matter, vibrating at a certain rate of its individual character, may be transmitted into other substances by lowering or raising its rate of frequency. If the frequency is raised high enough its molecules will separate and the atoms are freed. Raise the vibration of the atoms still higher and higher and they will resolve themselves into the original elements of which all matter is constituted. Matter then becomes a form of energy. Frequencies may be developed which will balance the pull of gravity to a certain degree of neutralization of the forces of gravity. One then goes beyond those of gravitation. The understanding then of the principle of vibration or frequency is to grasp the secret of energy, i. e. vibrations, in which lies the secret of all things.

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ALCHEMIST 1956 by Gaston Burridge Excerpt Radiant energy will heat electric flat irons and other electrical heating devices. It is claimed heating capacities are reached much more quickly with radiant energy than with commercial currents, and are considerably hotter than when powered with ordinary electric energy.

The high frequency of radiant energy is responsible for this. Moray SAYS HE HAS LEARNED THE EXACT FREQUENCY OF RADIANT ENERGY but he will not disclose it. Further, he says voltmeters and ammeters used to measure commercial alternating currents will not measure radiant energy. Electric motors wound to turn on commercial electricity will not operate on radiant energy. He says, "Motors wound to accept the frequency of radiant energy will operate." However, I learned elsewhere, that while such motors will operate they are not as efficient as motors running on ordinary commercial currents. Moray says when his motors are running in the dark they glow with a violet aura. His motors run cold! The speeds of the radiant energy motors, as reported, are fantastic. Moray wrote me they turn over better than 36,000 revolutions per minute, more than 600 per second! When I asked where he gets bearings to withstand such phenomenal speeds, Moray replied that he makes them. Thus I learned about his metallurgical work. What sort of an apparatus is Moray's Radiant Energy Device? Briefly, it would appear to be similar to a radio receiving set of power proportions. It is composed of two coils of wire, or inductancies. It contains several condensers, or capacitors, of different sizes. There is a detector tube, or electronic valve, and two oscillator tubes. Added to this is a "bar of silver and a bar of copper", a starting device, and a step down electrical transformer, reported to be 1000-to1, primary to secondary. All of this is enclosed in a box measuring about 30 inches long by 16 inches wide by 16 inches high. It weighs about 50 pounds. There are no moving parts. Moray says there are no dangerous radiations surrounding the box when it is in operation.

3. Lester Hendershot

4. John Keely From the book Keely and His Discoveries Aerial Navigation The suspension and propelling of an atmospheric navigator of any number of tons weight can be succesfully accomplished by this exciting the molecular mass of the metal it is constructed of; and the vibratory neutral negative attraction evolved, will bring it into perfect control, commercially, by keeping it in sympathy with the earth's triune polar stream. There is enough of this latent power locked up in the embrace of the iron ore, that is contained in our planet, which, if liberated and applied to proper vibratory machinery, would furnish force enough to run the commercial power of the world: leaving millions of times more to draw upon, as the needs increase. The velocity of the vibration governing the flow of the magnetic stream, comes under the head of the first inter-atomic, and ranges from 300,000to 780,000 vibrations per second; the first order above odour permeating the molecules, of the glass plate of the compass (with the same facility that atmospheric air would go through an ordinary sieve through which it passes), to arouse sympathetically in the needle the concordant condition that harmonizes with its own. The course of this sympathetic flow is governed by the full harmonic chord; and, consequently, moves in straight lines; thus transmitting itws sympathy free of molecular interferences.

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Fate Magazine July 1956 - The Hubbard Energy Transformer by Gaston Burridge Flying Saucers Farewell - Chapter 3 Space Ships And Gravity Pgs 33-41 - George Admaski From Outer Space by Howard Menger - pages 172-175 The High Bridge Incident by Howard and Connie Menger page 145 I Rode A Flying Saucer Pages 38-39 by George Van Tassel John Keely - Frequencies Inter-Atomic, Atomic, Inter-Molecular, Molecular, Inter-Etheric, and Ether Morals and Dogma by Albert Pike - page 775 Notes on the Faraday Disc Pentagon Aliens by William Lyne - pages 283-285 Radio Craft Magazine November 1944 - The Magnetic Motor (Felix Ehrenhaft) - pages 78-79 (HQ) Rosicrucian Fundamentals by Khei - pages 184-186 Shape Power by Dan Davidson The Universal One by Russell Walters - page 67 T-FIELD ENERGY RESEARCH (Recent Free Energy Information} by Dan Davidson page 4