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The Company

The head office of A. FRIEDR. FLENDER AG is located in Bocholt. The company was founded at the end of the last century and in the early years of its existence was involved in the manufacture and sales of wooden pulleys. At the end of the 20’s, FLENDER started to manufacture gear units, couplings and clutches, and with the

development and manufacture of one of the first infinitely variable speed gear units, FLENDER became a leader in the field of power transmission technology. Today, FLENDER is an international leader in the field of stationary power transmission technology, and a specialist in the supply of complete

drive systems. FLENDER manufactures electronic, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic components which are offered both as individual components and as partial or complete systems. FLENDER’s world-wide workforce consists of approximately 7,200 employees. Eight manufacturing plants and six sales centres are located in

FLENDER, Bocholt

Germany. Nine manufacturing plants, eighteen sales outlets and more than forty sales offices are currently in operation in Europe and overseas. The eight domestic manufacturing plants form a comprehensive concept for all components involved in the drive train. Core of the entire group of companies is the mechanical power transmission division. With its factories in Bocholt, Penig and the French works FLENDER-Graffenstaden in Illkirch it covers the

spectrum of stationary mechanical drive elements. The product range is rounded off by the geared motors manufactured at FLENDER TÜBINGEN GMBH. The fields of electronics, electrotechnics and motors are covered by LOHER AG which also belongs to the group of companies. FLENDER GUSS GMBH in Wittgensdorf/Saxony put FLENDER in a position to safeguard the supply of semi-finished goods for the FLENDER group and at the same time provide large capacities for

castings for customers’ individual requirements. With its extensive range of services offered by FLENDER SERVICE GMBH, the group’s range of products and services is completed. Thus, FLENDER offers to the full, the expertise for the entire drive train - from the power supply to the processing machine, from the know-how transfer of single components to complete solutions for each kind of application.

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The Drive Train

ELECTRONICS / ELECTROTECHNICS / MOTORS LOHER AG D-94095 Ruhstorf Tel: (0 85 31) 3 90 Three-phase motors for low and high voltage, Special design motors, Electronics, Generators, Industrial motors, Variable speed motors, Service, Repair, Spare parts

GEARED MOTORS FLENDER TÜBINGEN GMBH D-72007 Tübingen Tel: (0 70 71) 7 07 - 0 Helical, parallel shaft helical, worm and bevel geared motors and gear units, Variable speed and friction drive geared motors

COUPLINGS AND CLUTCHES A. FRIEDR. FLENDER AG D-46395 Bocholt Tel: (0 28 71) 92 - 28 00 Flexible couplings, Gear couplings, All-steel couplings, Fluid couplings, Clutches, Starting clutches

GEAR UNITS

GEAR UNITS A. FRIEDR. FLENDER AG Getriebewerk Penig D-09322 Penig Tel: (03 73 81) 60 Standard helical and bevelhelical gear units, Special series production gear units FLENDER-GRAFFENSTADEN S.A. F-67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden Tel: (3) 88 67 60 00 High-speed gear units

A. FRIEDR. FLENDER AG D-46393 Bocholt Tel: (0 28 71) 92 - 0 Helical, bevel-helical and bevel gear units, Shaft- and foot-mounted worm and planetary gear units, Load sharing gear units, Series and special design gear units for specific applications, Mechanically variable speed drives, Radial piston motors and hydraulic power packs

SERVICE FLENDER SERVICE GMBH D-44607 Herne Tel: (0 23 23) 94 73 - 0 Maintenance, repair, servicing and modification of gear units and drive systems of any manufacturer, Supply of gear units with quenched and tempered and hardened gears, Supply of spare parts

CASTINGS FLENDER GUSS GMBH D-09228 Wittgensdorf Tel: (0 37 22) 64 - 0 Basic, low- and high-alloy cast iron with lamellar and nodular graphite

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Helical. The product range covers three-phase motors ranging from 0. Furthermore. in elevator and mechanical engineering. the main emphasis of the FLENDER TÜBINGEN GMBH production is based on geared motors as compact units. bevel-helical and variable speed geared motors are made by using the latest manufacturing methods. as well as in the field of environmental technology. for electric power generation.and off-shore applications. welding and soldering technology. About 650 employees are working in the factory and office buildings located at the outskirts of Tübingen.1 to 10. Today.and high-frequency generators for special applications in the Speed-controlled three-phase motors for hotwater circulating pump drives for long-distance heating supply LOHER three-phase slip-ring motor for high voltage with motor-operated short-circuit brush lifting device (KBAV) MOTOX bevel geared motors driving lifting jacks for the maintenance of the ICE sectors of heat. LOHER AG became a hundred percent subsidiary of FLENDER AG. worm. MOTOX helical geared motor The company FLENDER TÜBINGEN GMBH has its origins in a firm founded in Tübingen in 1879 by the optician and mechanic Gottlob Himmel.000 kW for low and high voltage. in on. the company specializes in the production of motors in special design according to customers’ requirements.Electronics. Apart from the manufacture of standard motors. the product range includes medium. The products are used world-wide in the chemical and petrochemical industries.000 kW. 6 7 . Motors Geared Motors LOHER Ruhstorf FLENDER TÜBINGEN Tübingen In 1991. as well as electronic equipment for controlling electrical drives of up to 6. Electrotechnics.

A wide range of standard gear units. as well as fluid couplings within torque ranges from 10 to 10. With this most modern factory it was aimed at combining all depart-ments involved in a largely independent business sector. The product range comprises mainly gear units.000 Nm. clutches and friction clutches. the Couplings division was separated from the FLENDER parent plant in Bocholt. FLENDER makes torsionally rigid and flexible couplings. worm gear units and variable speed drives.Couplings and Clutches Gear Units FLENDER Kupplungswerk Mussum FLENDER AG Bocholt In 1990.000. FLENDER is world-wide the biggest supplier of stationary mechanical power transmission equipment. high-quality standards and quick deliveries being taken for granted. FLENDER-N-EUPEX coupling Since its foundation in 1899. Innovative developments continuously require new standards in the gear unit technology. FLENDER has been manufacturing couplings for industrial applications within an ever growing product range. With an increasing diversification in the field of power transmission technology the importance of couplings is permanently growing. but also of standardized custom-made gear units for almost all drive problems enable FLENDER to offer specific solutions for any demand. FLENDER-N-EUPEX coupling and FLENDER-ELPEX coupling in a pump drive FLENDER girth gear unit in a tube mill drive FLENDER-CAVEX worm gear unit 8 9 . and newly established in the industrial area BocholtMussum.

Project teams are working on industry-specific solutions to meet customer demands. FLENDER AG has taken that fact into account by setting up industry sector groups. machinery and equipment manufacturers worldwide prefer to consult specialists who have industry-specific knowledge and experience.Power Transmission Technology Power Transmission Technology FLENDER AG Bocholt FLENDER AG Bocholt When placing orders in the field of power transmission technology and for components which go with it. Planetary helical gear unit for a wind power station FLENDER components in a drive of a wind power station Pumping station in Holland with water screw pump drives by FLENDER FLENDER bevel-helical gear unit type B3SH 19 with a RUPEX coupling on the output side in a screw pump drive 10 11 .

assembly. planning. 1990 Getriebewerk Penig has been a hundred percent subsidiary of the FLENDER group. and can be utilized universally for many applications. Furthermore. spare parts deliveries. meets highest technical requirements. special design gear units of series production used for custom-made machines in the machine building industry are manufactured in Penig. FLENDER-GRAFFENSTADEN is an internationally leading supplier of gear units and power transmission elements for gas. After its acquisition. steam.Gear Units Gear Units FLENDER Getriebewerk Penig FLENDER GRAFFENSTADEN Graffenstaden Since April 1. The production of the new FLENDER gear unit series has been centralized at this location. This standard product range which was introduced in 1991 FLENDER bevel-helical gear unit FLENDER-GRAFFENSTADEN has specialized in the development. Customer advice. design and production of high-speed gear units. as well as of power transmission technology for pumps and compressors used in the chemical industry. and after-sales-service form a solid foundation for a high-level cooperation. FLENDER bevel-helical gear unit driving a dosing machine in a brickworks FLENDER-GRAFFENSTADEN high-speed gear unit in a power station drive FLENDER-GRAFFENSTADEN high-speed gear unit 12 13 . and water turbines. the production facilities were considerably expanded and brought up to the latest level of technology.

sup- Mobile gear unit surveillance acc. Charging JUNKER furnaces with pig iron FLENDER castings stand out for their high quality and high degree of precision 14 15 .000 tonnes. The service is not restricted to FLENDER products but is provided for all kinds of gear units and power transmission equipment. using FLENDER know-how and making use of own engineering and processing capacities. machine surveillance. Wittgensdorf is the location of this most modern foundry having an annual production capacity of 60. to the vibration analysis method High-quality cast iron from Saxony . FLENDER succeeded in optimizing customer service even more. repair. SERVICE GMBH provides a comprehensive service programme including maintenance.Engineering & Service Castings FLENDER SERVICE Herne Herne FLENDER GUSS Wittgensdorf With the founding of FLENDER SERVICE GMBH. Data analysis on an ATPC ply of spare parts. as well as planning. FLENDER GUSS GmbH is in a position to provide substantial quantities of high-quality job castings. In addition to the requirements of the FLENDER group of companies. Apart from technical after-sales-service.this is guaranteed by the name of FLENDER which is linked with the long-standing tradition of the major foundry in the Saxonian region. Owing to high flexibility and service at short notice unnecessary down-times of customers’ equipment are avoided.

4 00 D-44607 Herne .Bahnhofstrasse 40. Schlavenhorst 100.0 .: (0 37 22) 64 .28 01 Laboratoriumstrasse 2. eighteen sales outlets and more than forty sales offices in Europe and overseas guarantee that we are close to our customers and able to offer services world-wide. We would be pleased to inform you about the exact locations of our manufacturing plants and sales outlets. D-94099 Ruhstorf Tel. A. D-09228 Wittgensdorf Tel.Manufacturing Plants / Sales Outlets World-wide Since its foundation. FLENDER AG D-46393 BOCHOLT .0.Südstrasse 111. FLENDER AG Kupplungswerk Mussum A.: (0 23 23) 9 40 . Fax: (0 28 71) 92 . FLENDER AG Werk Friedrichsfeld A. D-46395 Bocholt Tel.: (0 28 71) 92 . Fax: (03 73 81) 8 02 86 D-72007 Tübingen .0.com FLENDER GUSS GMBH LOHER AG 16 17 .2 00 Obere Hauptstrasse 228 . D-72072 Tübingen Tel.: (0 28 71) 92 . FRIEDR.FAX: (0 28 71) 92 25 96 DELIVERY ADDRESS: ALFRED-FLENDER-STRASSE 77.Hans-Loher-Strasse 32. FRIEDR. Fax: (0 85 31) 3 94 37 A.: (0 85 31) 3 90.230.0.TEL: (0 28 71) 92 . D-44625 Herne Tel. FLENDER AG Getriebewerk Penig FLENDER TÜBINGEN GMBH FLENDER SERVICE GMBH Industriepark Bocholt. D-46395 BOCHOLT http://www.25 96 Thierbacher Strasse 24.28 00. Nine manufacturing plants. FLENDER has always attached great importance to a world-wide presence. FRIEDR.21 89 D-94095 Ruhstorf . Fax: (0 28 71) 92 .: (0 70 71) 7 07 . In Germany alone there are eight manufacturing plants and six sales centres. Fax: (0 37 22) 64 . FRIEDR. Please contact us. Fax: (0 23 23) 9 40 . D-09322 Penig Tel. Fax: (0 70 71) 7 07 .flender.: (03 73 81) 60.0. D-46562 Voerde Tel.

Title Block. Fit Tolerances Parallel Keys. and Centre Holes Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy. Work. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Section 4 Mathematics/Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Section 5 Mechanics/Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Page 23/24 25-38 39 40/41 43 44 45 46/47 48 50 50 51 51 52 53 53/55 55/56 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 63 64 66 67 68 69 18 19 . Taper Keys. Non-standard Formats Drawings Suitable for Microfilming Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones. Energy Flow. Quantity of Heat Power. Allowances.Contents Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Geometrical Tolerancing Sheet Sizes.

and 12 Page 106/107 108 108-119 119-127 127-130 131-134 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 92 93 94 95 96 97 97 97 98 136 136 136/138 138 139 140 142 143-145 145/146 146/147 148 149-151 151/152 153-155 100 101 102 103 104 20 21 . 11.Contents Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydrodynamics Page 71 72 Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae 74 Speed.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Noise Emitted by Gear Units Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches and Friction Clutches Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Symbols and Units of Translational and Torsional Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations Section 13 Bibliography of Sections 10. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors 75 Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery 76 Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) 77 Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) 78 Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear 79/80 Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin.

Non-standard Formats Sheet sizes for technical drawings Title blocks for technical drawings Non-standard formats for technical drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming General Lettering Sizes of type Lines acc. Explanation of the usual surface roughness parameters 2. included tolerances Tolerance frame Toleranced features Tolerance zones Datums and datum systems Theoretically exact dimensions Detailed definitions of tolerances Sheet Sizes. Rz Examples Production method Any Material removing Non-cutting Centre line average height Ra: maximum value = 0. Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc.2 Position of the specifications of surface texture in the symbol a = Roughness value Ra in micrometres or microinches or roughness grade number N1 to N12 b = Production method. Removal of material is not permitted (surface remains in state as supplied). to DIN 1302 1. Title Blocks.1 Symbols 23 23 24 Symbol without additional indications.25 mm 2. 25 25 26 26 27 27 27-29 29 29-38 Symbol without additional indications. surface treatment or coating c = Sampling length d = Direction of lay e = Machining allowance f = Other roughness values. Ex lanation Explanation 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 22 23 . with specified roughness. The meaning must be explained by additional indications. e. 1. Made without removal of material (non-cutting). symbols.8 µm Mean peak-to-valley height Rz: maximum value = 25 µm Mean peak-to-valley height Rz: maximum value = 1 µm at cut-off = 0. to DIN ISO 1302 Explanation of the usual surface roughness parameters Comparison of roughness values Geometrical Tolerancing General Application. general explanations Kinds of tolerances. with specified roughness. Symbol with additional indications. Any production method. Symbol without additional indications. to DIN 15 Part 1 and Part 2 Ink fountain pens Lettering example with stencil and in handwriting Page 1. to DIN 4768 The centre line average height Ra is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the distances y between the profile heights and the centre line within the measuring length. Symbol with additional indications. Basic symbol.Table of Contents Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Technical Drawings Surface Texture Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc. with specified roughness. Removal of material by machining.1 Centre line average height Ra acc. Symbol with additional indications. without specified roughness. Removal of material by machining. This is equivalent to the height of a rectangle (Ag) with a length equal to the evaluation length lm and with an area equal to the sum of the areas enclosed between the roughness profile and the centre line (Aoi and Aui) (see figure 1).g.

. These compartments contain.the area within a circle. This standard gives the principles of symbolization and indication on technical drawings of tolerances of form.7 See Page 26 5.the space between two coaxial cylinders. The term ”geometrical tolerances” is used in this standard as generic term for these tolerances.8 Tolerance frame The tolerance requirements are shown in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments. measurement or gauging. the general tolerances according to DIN 7168 apply. to DIN 4768 The mean peak-to-valley height Rz is the arithmetic average of the single irregularities of five consecutive sampling lengths (see figure 2).5 1. . In this case no special reference to DIN 7167 is required on the drawing. This value is preceded by the sign ∅ if the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical. general explanations 5. . to DIN ISO 1302 In supplement 1 to DIN ISO 1302 it is recommended not to use roughness grade numbers.3 A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature defines the tolerance zone within which the feature (surface. 3. 4 and 5): .1 The particulars given are in accordance with the international standard DIN ISO 1101.25 1.the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions. form and parallelism are in direct relation with each other. 5. 2.e.the symbol for the characteristic to be toleranced.8 2 N2 0. orientation.4 Roughness grade numbers N. For surfaces which are generated by manufacturing methods of the group ”metal cutting”.2 125 N8 12.5 31.the area between two equidistant lines or two parallel straight lines. General 4. a diagram for the conversion from Ra to Rz and vice versa is shown in supplement 1 to DIN 4768 Part 1. 1 Roughness from to DIN values Rz to in µm 4768/1 24 25 . from left to right. Rmax is stated in cases where the largest single irregularity (”runaway”) is to be recorded for reasons important for function.2 Mean peak-to-valley height Rz acc. Figure 3 Figure 4 500 1000 2000 N10 N11 N12 40 100 80 160 160 250 Figure 5 Suppl.1 4 N3 0. i. axis. b) the envelope requirements according to DIN 7167. 5. according to which the tolerances of size.5 The datum feature is a real feature of a part. Note: An exact conversion of the peak-to-valley height Rz and the centre line average height Ra can neither be theoretically justified nor empirically proved. . and establishes the appropriate geometrical definitions.5 25 50 2.8 32 N6 3. 5. The N-grade numbers are most frequently used in America (see also table ”Comparison of roughness values”).. there is no direct relation between them. which is used to establish the location of a datum.6 Geometrical tolerances which are assigned to features referred to a datum do not limit the form deviations of the datum feature itself.2 8 N4 0. the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the considered feature.e.15 12. .the space within a parallelepiped. 5. acc.4 Unless otherwise specified.if appropriate. to DIN 4768 (see figure 2) The maximum roughness height Rmax is the largest of the single irregularities z occurring over the evaluation length lm (in figure 2: z3). 5.8 4 0.6 63 N7 6. the capital letter or letters identifying the datum feature or features (see figures 4 and 5) Centre line S A oi + S A ui A g + S A oi ) S A ui Figure 1 le = Sampling length lm = Evaluation length lt = Traversed length z1-z5 = Single irregularities Start-up length Run-out length Figure 2 2.the space within a cylinder. 5. The toleranced feature may be of any form or orientation within this tolerance zone.4 2.3 Maximum roughness height Rmax acc.025 0.05 µin 1 N1 0.3 250 N9 25 63 12. Comparison of roughness values DIN ISO 1302 Roughness values Ra Roughness grade number µm 0. based on comparison measurements (see table ”Comparison of roughness values”). in the following order (see figures 3. March 1985 edition.2 Relationship between tolerances of size. 5.the space between two parallel planes. . that the size tolerances limit the form and parallelism tolerances.2 Indicating geometrical tolerances does not necessarily imply the use of any particular method of production.5 6.5 0. . According to the characteristic which is to be tolerated and the manner in which it is dimensioned.1 0. form and position According to current standards there are two possibilities of making indications on technical drawings in accordance with: a) the principle of independence according to DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size. i.1 Geometrical tolerances shall be specified on drawings only if they are imperative for the functioning and/or economical manufacture of the respective workpiece. In this case reference must be made on the drawing to DIN ISO 8015. Otherwise. or median plane) is to be contained. 4.the area between two concentric circles. The form of a datum feature shall be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary to specify tolerances of form for the datum features.3 0.3 20 3. .4 16 N5 1. unless a more restrictive indication is given. form and position must be adhered to independent of each other.6 6. Application.6 0.Technical Drawings Surface Texture Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 4. location and runout. the tolerance zone is one of the following: .

or ”6 x” shall be written above the frame (see figures 6 and 7).11. 5.7 Table 1: Kinds of tolerances. Coaxiality 5. Axial runout Included tolerances – Straightness – Straightness. Figure 17 5. The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame. Figure 13 on the axis or the median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of two features (see figure 14). Circularity Flatness Flatness Flatness – – Straightness. Parallelism. line. Coaxiality Symmetry Runout tolerances Circular runout. included tolerances Tolerances Symbols Toleranced characteristics Straightness Flatness Form tolerances Circularity (Roundness) Cylindricity Parallelism O i t ti Orientation tolerances Perpendicularity Angularity Tolerances of position 1) Position Location tolerances Concentricity. the tolerance specifications are given in tolerance frames one below the other (see figure 8). Parallelism Circularity. the requirement is indicated by the words ”common zone” above the tolerance frame (see figure 17).on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself (see figures 9 and 10). a capital letter enclosed in a frame is connected to a solid datum triangle (see figure 18).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Remarks referred to the tolerance. the points of a geometric feature (point. surface.11 Datums and datum systems Datum features are features according to which a workpiece is aligned for recording the tolerated deviations.9 Toleranced features The tolerance frame is connected to the toler-anced feature by a leader line terminating with an arrow in the following way: .1 When a toleranced feature is referred to a datum. median plane) must lie. The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the feature which is toleranced. this is generally shown by datum letters. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature. Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 5. Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 15 Figure 16 as an extension of a dimension line when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane defined by the feature so dimensioned (see figures 11 to 13). unless the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅ (see figures 15 and 16). for example ”6 holes”. Flatness. Where a common tolerance zone is applied to several separate features. 6 holes 6x 5.10 Tolerance zones The tolerance zone is the zone within which all Symbols Figure 14 Figure 18 26 27 . ”4 surfaces”. To identify the datum. Common zone 1) Tolerances of position always refer to a datum feature or theoretically exact dimensions. Table 2: Additional symbols Description Toleranced feature indications direct direct Datum Dat m indications by capital letter Theoretically exact dimension Note: Whether a tolerance should be applied to the contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or to its axis or median plane. symbols. depends on the functional requirements.

one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle (see figure 21). shown shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.11.13. The datum letters are to be placed in different compartments.2 Datum system A datum system is a group of two or more datums to which one toleranced feature refers in common.12 Theoretically exact dimensions If tolerances of position or angularity are prescribed for a feature.on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line). Indication and interpretation Figure 20 - Figure 21 on the axis or median plane when the datum is: a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder). A common datum formed by two datum features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen (see figures 26 and 28). Primary datum Tertiary datum Figure 27 5. the dimensions determining the theoretically exact position or angle shall not be toleranced. where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority. Datum system formed by one plane and one perpendicular axis of a cylinder: Datum ”A” is the plane formed by the plane contact surface.1 apart in a plane containing the axis. the axis being at right angles with datum ”A” (see figure 30). 29 and 30). larity tolerance specified within the tolerance frame (see figures 31 and 32). In a datum system (see also 5. Datum ”B” is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder. Figure 19 Figure 30 as an extension of the dimension line when the datum feature is the axis or median plane (see figures 20 and 21). Figure 28 Figure 22 If the tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum feature by a leader line. when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (see figure 19). Figure 25 Figure 26 Secondary datum Figure 31 Note: If there is not enough space for two arrows. for example 30 .1 apart. A datum system is frequently required because the direction of a short axis cannot be determined alone. and the datum letter placed first should refer to the directional datum feature (see figures 27. b) the common axis or median plane formed by two features (see figure 22). the datum letter may be omitted (see figures 23 and 24). Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 29 Figure 35 28 29 . Datum formed by two form features (common datum): 5.1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected in a Any line on the upper surface parallel to the plane is limited by two parallel straight plane of projection in which the indication is lines a distance t apart.2) the sequence of two or more datum features is important. A single datum is identified by a capital letter (see figure 25). The corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subject only to the position tolerance or angu- Figure 32 5.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing The datum triangle with the datum letter is placed: .11. Datum system formed by two datums (short axis ”A” and directional datum ”B”): Figure 33 Figure 34 Any portion of length 200 of any generator of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. These dimensions are enclosed.13 Detailed definitions of tolerances Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.

13. Figure 38 5.2 in the horizontal and 0. Figure 50 Figure 51 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 and parallel to the datum line if the tolerance is specified in two planes perpendicular to each other.4 Cylindricity tolerance Indication and interpretation The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel. parallel planes 0. The toleranced axis shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a width of 0. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the vertical direction (see figures 48 and 49).13. The tolerance zone in the considered The circumference of each cross-section of plane is limited by two concentric circles the outside diameter shall be contained a distance t apart. Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and parallel to the datum line. Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 45 5.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.2 Flatness tolerance Figure 39 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. between two co-planar concentric circles 0.08 apart.2 in the horizontal direction.1 in the specified in two directions perpendicular vertical and 0.13.03 apart.13. Figure 42 Figure 43 The circumference of each cross-section shall be contained between two co-planar concentric circles 0.1 in the vertical direction and which is parallel to the datum axis A (see figures 53 and 54).The axis of the bar shall be contained within epiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 if the tolerance is a parallelepipedic zone of width 0.1 apart. to each other. in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. contained between two coaxial cylinders 0. The tolerance zone is limited by two The considered surface area shall be coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. Figure 52 Figure 44 Figure 53 Figure 54 30 31 .The surface shall be contained between two lel planes a distance t apart.1 apart.1 apart. Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 40 5.1 apart.08. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the horizontal direction.3 Circularity tolerance Figure 41 The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. if the tolerance zone is only specified in one direction.5 Parallelism tolerance Figure 46 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The axis of the cylinder to which the tolerof diameter t if the tolerance value is ance frame is connected shall be contained preceded by the sign ∅.

06 apart and perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal hole A (datum line). perpendicular to the datum surface. Figure 68 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅. to which the tolerance frame is connected.13. Figure 62 Figure 61 Figure 63 All the points of the toleranced surface in a length of 100.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A.1 apart. The toleranced surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.01 apart and parallel to the datum surface D (figure 62). Figure 66 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 and perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other. The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.1 ⋅ 0. placed anywhere on this surface. Figure 70 Figure 71 32 33 . Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum plane if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. Figure 67 The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone of 0. Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum line. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0. Figure 59 Figure 60 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and parallel to the datum surface.1 apart and parallel to to the datum line. sign ∅.6 Perpendicularity tolerance Indication and interpretation Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The toleranced axis shall be contained in a of diameter t parallel to the datum line if cylindrical zone of diameter 0.2 which is perpendicular to the datum surface.The toleranced axis of the hole shall be conlel planes a distance t apart and parallel tained between two planes 0. parallel to the datum surface B. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. Figure 57 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line Figure 58 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two planes 0.03 parallel to the tolerance value is preceded by the the datum axis A (datum line). The toleranced axis of the cylinder. the datum axis C of the hole.01 apart and parallel to the datum surface A (figure 63). Figure 69 The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance frame is connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 55 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface Figure 56 Figure 64 Figure 65 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.01 apart and to the datum surface.

face A.13. with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces).The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and inclined between two parallel planes 0.8 Positional tolerance Positional tolerance of a line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered line if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.13. Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.08 apart and perpendicular to the horizontal datum surperpendicular to the datum surface. Figure 75 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder Figure 83 of diameter t the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the Each of the axes of the eight holes shall be considered line if the tolerance value is contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces).08 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line.7 Angularity tolerance Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line Line and datum line in the same plane. Figure 72 Figure 73 Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained parallel planes a distance t apart and between two parallel planes 0.08 apart which at the specified angle to the datum are inclined at 40° to the datum surface A.08 apart and perpendicular to the axis A (datum line). The inclined surface shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0. exact position of the considered hole. Each of the toleranced lines shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. Figure 82 Figure 84 Figure 76 Figure 77 Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface. with reference to the surface A (datum surface).05 apart which are symmetrically disposed about the theoretically exact position of the considered line. The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and inclined at the specified angle to the datum line. 0. surface. Figure 78 Figure 79 Figure 85 Figure 86 34 35 . Figure 74 5. Indication and interpretation Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced face of the workpiece shall parallel planes a distance t apart and be contained between two parallel planes perpendicular to the datum line. Figure 81 Figure 80 The axis of the hole shall be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically preceded by the sign ∅.05 apart and which are symmetrically disposed with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface with reference to the datum surface A and the axis of the datum cylinder B (datum line). The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.08 apart which are inclined at 60° to the horizontal axis A-B (datum line).

2 in any plane of measurement when measuring the toleranced part of a revolution about the centre line of hole A (datum axis).01 concentric with the centre of the datum circle A.08 coaxial with the datum axis A-B.05 in the vertical direction and the axis of which coincides with the datum axis formed by the intersection of the two median planes of the datum slots A-B and C-D. Figure 97 Runout normally applies to complete revolutions about the axis but could be limited to apply to a part of a revolution. axis of which coincides with the datum axis. Figure 92 Circular runout tolerance .1 in any plane of measurement during one the axis by two concentric circles a revolution about the datum axis A-B.9 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance Concentricity tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of The centre of the circle. in a circle of diameter 0. distance t apart. 5.1 in the horizontal and 0. the revolution about the datum axis D.08 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to the actual common median plane of the datum slots A and B. t2.axial The axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0. Indication and interpretation 5. to which the tolerdiameter t the centre of which coincides ance frame is connected.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 .13.1 position by two circles a distance t apart at any position of measurement during one lying in a cylinder of measurement.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about the median plane with respect to the datum feature A.13. Figure 91 Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the datum axis (or datum plane) if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.radial The tolerance zone is limited within any The radial runout shall not be greater than plane of measurement perpendicular to 0. shall be contained with the datum point. Cylinder of measurement Figure 102 Figure 93 Figure 94 Figure 101 36 37 . Figure 88 Figure 95 The axis of the cylinder. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other. which are 0.13. Figure 87 Coaxiality tolerance of an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t. the centre of which coincides with the datum axis.10 Symmetry tolerance Symmetry tolerance of a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically to the median plane with respect to the datum axis or datum plane. The radial runout shall not be greater than 0. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅. shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 90 Figure 98 Plane of measurement The median plane of the slot shall be contained between two parallel planes. The axis of the hole shall be contained in a parallelepipedic zone of width 0. Toleranced surface Figure 96 Figure 89 5. to which the tolerance frame is connected. Figure 99 Figure 100 The tolerance zone is limited at any radial The axial runout shall not be greater than 0.11 Circular runout tolerance Circular runout tolerance .

the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Sheet sizes The DIN 6771 standard Part 6 applies to the preTable 3 Trimmed sheet Sheet sizes acc. A series axb A0 Figure 104 A1 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 584 x 831 410 x 584 287 x 410 200 x 287 625 x 880 450 x 625 330 x 450 240 x 330 The runout in the direction perpendicular to the tangent of a curved surface shall not be greater than 0. the filing margin. Title Block. This standard may also be used for other technical documents. Trimmed drawing sheet Figure 106 Title block 6. 841 x 1189 Drawing area 1) a1 x b1 831 x 1179 a2 x b2 880 x 1230 Untrimmed sheet sentation of drawing forms even if they are created by CAD.88)] 6. Drawing area 6. The runout in the specified direction shall not be greater than 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Sheet Sizes. The sheet sizes listed below have been taken from DIN 476 and DIN 6771 Part 6. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. When necessary they should be created using the dimensions of the short side of an A-format with the long side of a greater A-format. 38 39 .76) and DIN 6671 Part 6 (04. Cone of measurement The runout in the direction indicated by the arrow shall not be greater than 0.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.2 Non-standard formats Non-standard formats should be avoided. etc.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C. the possible sectioning margin. The title block area is in the bottom right corner of the trimmed sheet. For the A4 format the title block area is at the bottom of the short side (upright format).1 Title block Formats w A3 are produced in broadside. Unless otherwise specified the measuring direction is normal to the surface. Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Circular runout tolerance in any direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement. Figure 105 Circular runout tolerance in a specified direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement of the specified angle. Figure 103 A2 A3 A4 1) The actually available drawing area is reduced by the title block. Non-standard Formats Indication and interpretation Technical drawings [extract from DIN 476 (10. to DIN 476.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.

7 0.1 Indian ink drawings and CAD drawings show the best contrasts and should be preferred for this reason. dimension lines and hidden edges. A3. to DIN 6776 Part 1.5 A0 and A1 b 1 0.25 0.1 The minimum space between two lines in a drawing as well as for lettering should be at least once.7 with the pertaining line width according to table 5 may only be used. line group 0. 3H-lead pencils for hatching. b = line width) Paper sizes Application range for lettering g g h Type.7 0. In case of manual lettering the vertical style or sloping style standard lettering may be used according to DIN 6776 Part 1.35 0. symbols 10 5 3.25 0.7 0.1 The type sizes as assigned to the paper sizes in table 4 must be adhered to with regard to their application range.25 0.35 A2.35 0. General In order to obtain perfect microfilm prints the following recommendations should be adhered to: 7. line types and line widths Line group Drawing format Line type Solid line (thick) Solid line (thin) Short dashes (thin) Dot-dash line (thick) Dot-dash line (thin) Dash/double-dot line (thin) Freehand (thin) also permissible.5 2. Larger type heights are 10. 0.7 A1.1 Line groups 0. drawing no. lettering style B. Type heights smaller by approx. 12. 9. but better twice the width of a line in order to avoid merging of letters and lines in case of reductions.35. 9. Texts and nominal dimensions Tolerances.25 8. 0. Technical Drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming 10.especially with stencil .35 40 41 . Recommendation: 2H-lead pencils for visible edges. roughness values.2 Pencil drawings should be made in special cases only. A3 and A4 h 7 3.35 0. 7.5 0.5 0.7 may be used as well. 0. A3 and A2 formats. letters and dimensions.1 Example for formats A4 to A2 11.25 0.25. Assignment to the drawing formats A1 and A0 is prescribed.5 and 0. vertical (ISO 3098). A2 Line width 0. lettering style B (ISO 3098). 8. 0.35 0.5 A4.25 0. For the A4.5 0.Technical Drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming 7. Lettering examples for stenciling and handwritten entries 12.5 b 0.the vertical style standard lettering has to be used acc. Lettering For the lettering . Lines according to DIN 15 Part 1 and Part 2 Table 5: Line groups. 20% will be accepted if this is required in a drawing because of restricted circumstances.35 0.5. 1 mm). Indian ink fountain pen The use of the type sizes according to table 4 and the lines according to table 5 permits a restricted number of 5 different fountain pens (line widths 0. for example for drafts. A0 0.7. Type sizes Table 4: Type sizes for drawing formats (h = type height.

933 20.933 18.353 1.093 34.3 84.271 0.794 0.374 3.013 4.103 64.141 3.587 50.083 1.977 2.436 2.920 1.289 0.850 3.5 0.534 1.402 36.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68 Pitch P mm 0.675 3.505 61.376 18.294 17.706 31.110 3.613 0.7 0.577 0.160 9.727 30.580 4.773 5.072 0.863 12.101 0.466 7.436 2.083 1.368 0.722 0.25 1.108 0.2 20.25 1.491 0.812 0.752 23.134 4.376 10.835 15.866 45.307 0.639 Depth of thread h3 mm 0.677 0.361 0.433 0.613 0.9 36.387 2.353 1.188 9. Taper Keys.252 56.361 0.067 3.319 23. to DIN 13 Part 28 with formula As p 4 d2 ) d3 2 42 43 .722 0. and Centre Holes ISO metric screw threads (coarse pitch threads) following DIN 13 Part 1.051 27.087 0.534 1.706 2. 12.211 29.647 8.587 46.5 2.129 42.670 34.5 2.350 6.144 0.Table of Contents Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) Page 43 44 45 46 Bolt Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones.5 3 3 3.026 10.325 0.677 0.1 28.727 33.546 13.026 10.428 56.077 44.5 4.188 8.402 39.701 14.812 0.534 1.681 3.8 1 1 1.920 0.866 49.3 115 157 193 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 976 1121 1306 1473 1758 2030 2362 2676 3055 1) The tensile stress cross-section is calculated acc.22687 P 0.773 6.5 6 6 Pitch diameter d2 = D2 mm 2.376 20.541 0.866 0.86 edition Nut D1 d2 d3 H H1 h3 R Bolt thread diameter d + 2 H1 D2 d + 0.505 0.046 57.165 2.294 20.977 3.64952 P d + 1.433 0.479 41.794 0. Outside Dimensions (Shafts) Parallel Keys.894 1.0 72.5 5 5 5.61343 P H 6 0. Fit Tolerances.917 5.454 2.433 0.541 0.217 0.180 0.545 4.866 D1 mm 2.103 Core diameter d3 mm 2.639 60.479 39. Nominal thread diameter d=D Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 3 3.428 60.853 11.046 54.252 53.767 0.429 0.106 11.466 8.1 58.294 19.670 37.289 0.5 3.379 0.165 2.361 0.376 9.03 6.577 0.242 3.5 4 4.460 0.505 0.227 1.5 4 4 4.706 28.78 11.454 2.5 1.650 0.701 16.78 8.6 48.3 14.760 3.147 2.248 2 Tensile stress crosssection As 1) mm2 5.752 52.752 48.147 2.706 2.248 3.406 0.227 1.115 0.75 0.681 Round R mm 0.350 7.650 0.374 3.459 2.6 0.353 1.505 H1 mm 0.067 3.760 2.764 3.144 0. Allowances.376 22.840 1.947 1.894 2. Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO Tolerance Zones.86603 P 0.019 4. Fit Tolerances.840 2.5 5. Allowances.835 13.546 14.933 16.253 0.129 40.624 1.077 42.160 9.211 31.14434 P 47 48 Nut thread diameter Diameters of series 1 should be preferred to those of series 2.480 5.180 0.051 25.217 0.54127 P 0.624 1.75 2 2 2.319 25.5 1.647 7.752 26.093 36.688 4.917 6.767 0.074 1. and these again to those of series 3.

5 1.5 1.5 2.5 0.5 58 5.5 1.5 0.25 1.2 2.5 1.5 1.6 0.6 1.5 3 25 26 3 28 3.5 1.4 0.45 0. 10.5 1.5 1.25 0.70 edition Diameter ISO Series toler1 2 zone Cylindrical shaft ends Acc.5 Standardization Cylindrical Shaft Ends Cylindrical shaft ends Acc.5 1.75 0.5 1.5 4.75 2 15 2 17 2.35 0.5 0.25 1 0.25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 1.5 1.Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Selection of nominal thread diameters and pitches for coarse and fine pitch threads from 1 mm to 68 mm diameter.5 1. 5. 5. to DIN 748/1.5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Coarse itch pitch Series thread 3 0.5 10 11 12 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 15 15 18 18 28 28 36 36 36 42 42 58 58 58 58 82 82 82 82 82 82 105 105 105 105 130 130 130 130 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 30 180 190 200 310 35 k6 220 350 240 250 260 410 410 410 470 m6 300 470 470 550 550 550 650 650 650 650 650 650 650 800 800 800 800 k6 40 50 400 n6 280 450 500 550 590 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 60 320 340 70 360 380 80 m6 90 105 120 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 650 690 750 790 140 560 530 600 630 160 44 45 . to DIN 748/1.70 edition Diameter ISO Series toler1 2 zone FLENDER works standard W 0470.82 edition ISO FLENDER works standard W 0470.5 1. 1.25 1.75 0.5 5 50 5 55 5.82 edition ISO tolerDiaLength ance ance meter Long Short zone Length tolerDiaLength ance ance meter Long Short zone Length mm mm 6 7 8 9 mm 16 16 20 20 23 23 30 30 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 80 80 80 80 110 110 110 110 110 110 140 140 m6 140 140 170 170 170 170 mm mm mm mm mm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 mm 210 210 210 250 250 250 300 300 300 350 350 350 mm 165 165 165 200 200 200 240 240 240 280 280 280 330 330 330 380 380 380 450 450 450 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 680 680 680 680 mm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 250 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 mm m6 180 210 240 270 1.5 1.8 2 2.5 1.5 1.7 0.5 32 3.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 1.5 35 4 38 4 40 4.35 0.5 6 65 6 Pitches P for fine pitch threads 4 3 2 1.88 edition Nominal thread diameter d=D Series Series 1 2 1 1.5 1.5 1.25 1.5 1.4 1. following DIN 13 Part 12. 1.25 0.5 1.5 1.3 0.5 3 3.5 0.75 0.5 1.5 2.75 0.8 1 1.5 1.45 0.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.

Fit Tolerances Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO tolerance zones.5 –13 –21 –33 – 52 –130 –20 – 41 – 73 –117 –240 –430 –120 –310 0 0 0 0 0 – 9 – 25 – 50 – 80 –280 –470 –16 –25 –39 – 62 –160 –25 – 50 – 89 –142 –130 –320 –290 –480 –140 –340 0 0 0 0 0 –10 – 30 – 60 –100 –330 –530 –19 –30 –46 – 74 –190 –29 – 60 –106 –174 –150 –360 –340 –550 –170 –380 0 0 0 0 0 –12 – 36 – 72 –120 –390 –600 –22 –35 –54 – 87 –220 –34 – 71 –126 –207 –180 –410 –400 –630 –200 –460 –450 –710 0 0 0 0 0 –14 – 43 – 85 –145 –210 –520 25 40 63 100 250 39 148 245 –25 –40 –63 –100 –250 –39 – 83 –148 –245 –460 –770 –230 –580 –480 –830 –240 –660 –530 –950 0 0 0 0 0 –15 – 50 –100 –170 –260 – 740 29 46 72 115 290 44 172 285 –29 –46 –72 –115 –290 –44 – 96 –172 –285 –550 –1030 –280 – 820 –570 –1100 –300 – 920 0 0 0 0 0 –17 – 56 –110 –190 –620 –1240 –32 –52 –81 –130 –320 –49 –108 –191 –320 –330 –1050 –650 –1370 –360 –1200 0 0 0 0 0 –18 – 62 –125 –210 –720 –1560 –36 –57 –89 –140 –360 –54 –119 –214 –350 –400 –1350 –760 –1710 –440 –1500 0 –20 – 68 –135 –230 –840 –1900 0 0 0 0 –40 –63 –97 –155 –400 –60 –131 –232 –385 –480 –1650 –880 –2050 h6 h9 f7 h7 h8 h11 g6 e8 d9 c11 a11 –17 –42 – 8 –33 0 –62 0 –25 + 7 –18 +10 – 6 +14 –11 +25 0 +39 0 +160 0 +34 + 9 + 59 + 45 + 50 +33 +20 +25 +13 +18 +11 + 43 + 34 + 34 +17 + 9 + 9 + 2 + 2 – 5 + 72 + 53 + 78 + 59 + 93 + 71 +101 + 79 +117 + 92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +190 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 s6 + 54 + 41 + 56 + 43 + 66 + 51 + 69 + 54 + 81 + 63 + 83 + 65 + 86 + 68 + 97 + 77 +100 + 80 +104 + 84 +117 + 94 +121 + 98 +133 +108 +139 +114 +153 +126 +159 +132 r5 + 60 + 41 + 62 + 43 + 73 + 51 + 76 + 54 + 88 + 63 + 90 + 65 + 93 + 68 +106 + 77 +109 + 80 +113 + 84 +126 + 94 +130 + 98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132 r6 +8 –8 Nominal dimensions in mm Nominal dimensions in mm –21 –51 – 9 –39 0 –74 0 –30 + 9 –21 +13 – 6 +18 –12 +30 0 +46 0 +190 0 +40 +10 +39 +24 +30 +15 +21 +12 +9. 11.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 6 – 16 – 32 – 50 – 95 –290 + 28 + 23 + 23 +12 + 7 + 7 + 1 + 1 – 3 –5.5 0 0 0 0 0 –4.5 11 12. 11.5 +31 +17 +17 + 4 + 4 –13 –14.5 13 14. to DIN 7157. Fit Tolerances Outside Dimensions (Shafts) ISO tolerance zones. fit tolerances.90 edition µm + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev.5 – 9 –15 –22 – 36 – 90 f7 g6 – 2 – 8 – 4 –12 – 5 –14 – – – – – – 6 16 10 22 13 28 – – – – – – e8 14 28 20 38 25 47 – – – – – – d9 20 45 30 60 40 76 c11 – 60 –120 – 70 –145 – 80 –170 a11 –270 –330 –270 –345 –280 –370 + 6 – 5 +10 – 8 + 43 + 75 + 93 +120 +205 + 16 + 32 + 50 + 50 + 95 + 39 + 31 + 34 +23 +15 +18 + 9 +12 + 8 +5. DIN ISO 286 Part 2. 1.66 edition. Inside dimensions (holes) acc.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 7 – 20 – 40 – 65 –110 –300 + 35 + 28 + 28 +15 + 8 + 8 + 2 + 2 – 4 –6.5 –33 79 –79 –14 60 –60 0 115 –115 0 46 –46 +13 33 –33 +22 – 7 +30 16 –16 +46 0 +72 0 +290 0 +61 +15 +60 +37 +46 +24 +33 +16 +14. Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7 H11 G7 1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8. Allowances.5 –24 –59 –10 –45 0 –87 0 –35 +10 –25 +16 – 6 +22 –13 +35 0 +54 0 +220 0 +47 +12 +45 +28 +35 +18 +25 +13 +11 +23 +13 +13 + 3 + 3 – 9 –11 –28 –68 68 –12 –52 52 0 –100 100 0 –40 40 +12 –28 28 +18 – 7 +26 –14 14 +40 0 +63 0 +250 0 +54 +14 +52 +33 +40 +21 +28 +14 +12. DIN ISO 286 Part 2.5 –11 –18 –27 – 43 –110 –17 – 34 – 59 – 93 –205 –400 –14 –35 – 7 –28 0 –52 0 –21 + 6 –15 + 8 – 5 +12 – 9 +21 0 +33 0 +130 0 +28 + 7 + 53 + 92 +117 +149 +240 + 20 + 40 + 65 + 65 +110 +280 + 64 +112 +142 +180 +120 + 25 + 50 + 80 + 80 +290 +130 +330 + 76 +134 +174 +220 +140 + 30 + 60 +100 +100 +340 +150 +390 + 90 +159 +207 +260 +170 + 36 + 72 +120 +120 +400 +180 +450 +200 +106 +185 +245 +305 +460 + 43 + 85 +145 +145 +210 +480 +230 +530 +240 +122 +215 +285 +355 +550 + 50 +100 +170 +170 +260 +570 +280 +620 +137 +240 +320 +400 +300 + 56 +110 +190 +190 +650 +330 +720 +151 +265 +350 +440 +360 + 62 +125 +210 +210 +760 +400 +840 +165 +290 +385 +480 +440 + 68 +135 +230 +230 +880 +480 F8 E9 D9 D10 C11 +430 +300 +470 +310 +480 +320 +530 +340 +550 +360 +600 +380 +630 +410 +710 +460 +770 +520 +830 +580 +950 +660 +1030 + 740 +1110 + 820 +1240 + 920 +1370 +1050 +1560 +1200 +1710 +1350 +1900 +1500 +2050 +1650 A11 + 48 + 37 + 41 +28 +17 +21 +11 +15 + 9 +6.5 +27 +15 +15 + 3 + 3 –11 –12. allowances. Series 2 from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to 1 3 3 6 6 10 10 14 14 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 H7 P7 – 6 –16 – 8 –20 – 9 –24 –11 –29 N7 – 4 –14 – 4 –16 – 4 –19 – 5 –23 N9 – 4 –29 0 –30 0 –36 0 –43 M7 – 2 –12 0 –12 0 –15 0 –18 K7 0 –10 + 3 – 9 + 5 –10 + 6 –12 J6 + – + – + – 2 4 5 3 5 4 J7 + – + – + – 4 6 6 6 8 7 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 H8 H11 + 60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 +110 0 G7 +12 + 2 +16 4 +20 + 5 +24 + 6 + + + + + + 20 6 28 10 35 13 + + + + + + 39 14 50 20 61 25 F8 E9 D9 + + + + + + 45 20 60 30 76 40 + + + + + + 60 20 78 30 98 40 +120 + 60 +145 + 70 +170 + 80 D10 C11 Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones. above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8 46 47 . Outside dimensions (shafts) acc. 1. fit tolerances.5 –36 –88 –14 –66 0 –130 0 –52 +16 –36 +25 – 7 +36 –16 +52 0 +81 0 +320 0 +69 +17 +66 +43 +52 +27 +36 +16 +16 +34 +20 +20 + 4 + 4 –16 –16 –41 –98 –16 –73 0 –140 0 –57 +17 –40 +29 – 7 +39 –18 +57 0 +89 0 +360 0 +75 +18 +73 +46 +57 +29 +40 +18 +18 +37 +21 +21 + 4 + 4 –18 –18 – 45 –108 –17 –80 0 –155 0 –63 +18 –45 +33 – 7 +43 –20 +63 0 H7 +97 0 H8 +400 0 +83 +20 +80 +50 +63 +32 +45 +20 +20 +40 +23 +23 + 5 + 5 –20 –20 n6 m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6 ISO Series 1 abbrev. from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to ISO abbrev. to DIN 7157. Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) 1 + 34 3 + 20 3 + 46 6 + 28 6 + 56 10 + 34 10 + 67 14 + 40 14 + 72 18 + 45 18 + 87 24 + 54 24 + 81 30 + 48 30 + 99 40 + 60 40 +109 50 + 70 50 +133 65 + 87 65 +148 80 +102 80 +178 100 +124 100 +198 120 +144 120 +233 140 +170 140 +253 160 +190 160 +273 180 +210 180 +308 200 +236 200 +330 225 +258 225 +356 250 +284 250 +396 280 +315 280 +431 315 +350 315 +479 355 +390 355 +524 400 +435 400 +587 450 +490 450 +637 500 +540 Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) r6 s6 + 20 + 14 + 27 + 19 + 32 + 23 r5 + 14 + 10 + 20 + 15 + 25 + 19 + + + + + + 16 10 23 15 28 19 n6 +10 + 4 +16 + 8 +19 +10 m5 + 6 + 2 + 9 + 4 +12 + 6 m6 + 8 + 2 +12 + 4 +15 + 6 k5 + 4 0 + 6 + 1 + 7 + 1 k6 + 6 0 + 9 + 1 +10 + 1 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm A11 +330 +270 +345 +270 +370 +280 +400 +290 j6 + 4 – 2 + 6 – 2 + 7 – 2 h6 h9 js6 h7 h8 h11 + 3 0 0 0 0 0 – 3 – 6 –10 –14 – 25 – 60 + 4 0 0 0 0 0 – 4 – 8 –12 –18 – 30 – 75 +4.66 edition.5 +20 +11 +11 + 2 + 2 – 7 –9.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones.90 edition µm + 500 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO abbrev. Allowances. allowances.

7 63 100 5 15.67 4.6 1. The tolerance zone for 7. see below l1 DIN 6885/1 6886 l Side fitting square and rectangular keys mm mm mm 6 8 2 8 10 3 10 12 4 12 17 5 17 22 6 22 30 8 30 38 10 38 44 12 44 50 14 50 58 16 58 65 18 65 75 20 75 85 22 85 95 25 95 110 28 110 130 32 130 150 36 150 170 40 170 200 45 200 230 50 230 260 56 260 290 63 290 330 70 330 380 80 380 440 90 440 500 100 Lengths mm I1 or I mm mm mm 2 1. Work.6 5.1 125 400 125 400 10.5 2.9 14 9 5.5 9.4 5. acc to DIN 6885 Part 1.8 3.9 56 220 56 220 keyway acc.7 10 56 12 56 2.4 8 11 15 19 t5 ≈ mm 0.5 6 8 10 12 14 90 100 110 125 from to from to mm mm mm mm mm Parallel key and keyway acc.35 4.2 1.taper keys with gib not 14.0 3 1.4 25 15 10.9 6 36 8 36 1.6 6.9 36 160 40 160 3.4 18 11 7. to DIN 6886 k t 4.4 45 180 45 180 3. mm 12 14 17 21 25 30 37 45 53 63 77 93 105 t3 +1 mm 2.4 32 20 12.4 16 10 6.5 10.4 0.5 10.0 1. The shaft keyway 11. Energy Flow. 11.25 5.2 10 13 M4 3.5 13.4 36 22 14.3 11 7 4.6 12.8 7.4 18 90 20 90 2.3 5.8 4.7 8.5 10 25 2 6. 6886 and 6887 1 Editions: 08.4 6.3 1. Taper Keys.4 28 140 32 140 2.9 1.8 8.1 280 400 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 56 63 70 80 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 320 360 400 Centre holes in h f i shaft ends (centerings) acc. head .3 2.2 44 55 65 d5 mm 5.6 3.5 37 320 500 M42* 37 43 Form B b mm 0.3 25 63 3.1 160 400 largest depth of the hub keyway. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Page 50 50 51 51 52 53 53/55 55/56 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 Depth of keyway in hub t2 DIN 6885/1 6886/ 6887 2) Lengths. P9 9.3 4. to DIN 336 Part 1 48 49 .5 8.4 12 7.5 1.5 3.8 10.3 31.8 12.4 4.3 13 16 M5 4.1 2.2 d3 mm 5 6.83 1) 2) ) * 3) Cutting-off dimension in case of no centering Diameter applies to finished workpiece Dimensions not acc to DIN 332 Part 2 acc. Drill diameter for tapping-size holes acc.1 140 400 140 400 2) Dimension h of the taper key names the largest height of the key.3 8 5 3.7 8.3 0.8 10 6 4.6 10.2 5.5 4. to DIN 6885 Part 1 0. and dimension tz the g g y.8 1.8 0.1 9.4 2.2 1.9 2.4 14 9 5.4 4 2.9 18.5 3.5 0.4 90 360 90 360 with close fit ISO P9.3 8 5 3.4 45 28 17.5 16 18 Minimum dimensions t mm 3.6 13.9 Form B DIN 332/1 4.4 32 20 12.1 23 28.15 10 4 12.2 13 38 50 M16 14 17 50 85 M20 17.7 1.4 40 25 15.3 6 3.8 7 4 3.4 21 24 M8 6.68 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy.3 9 5.2 8 45 10 45 Square and rectangular taper keys 1.5 6 20 6 20 0.6 0.3 6.3 38 48 60 71 t1 +2 mm 9 10 12.3 8 10 12.4 50 31 19.2 4 5 6 7.4 28 17 11.1 200 400 Lengths according to DIN 6887 .7 Keyway Form DS (with thread) DIN 332/1 5.4 80 320 80 320 1) The tolerance zone for hub keyway width b for parallel keys with normal fit is ISO JS9 and 6.1 110 400 110 400 and with close fit ISO P9.4 d2 mm 3.1 220 400 deter6886. Quantity of Heat Power.68 12.4 24 30 M10 8.4 22 110 25 110 2.1 100 400 100 400 shaft keyway width b with normal fit is ISO N9 8.2 0.1 250 400 mined 18.8 2.80 Form DS d4 mm 5.4 70 280 70 280 ) y y 5.3 19.6 0.8 25.4 50 200 50 200 Taper and round-ended sunk key and y 3.3 0.2 6.6 1.4 63 250 63 250 4.4 34.are equal to those of DIN 6886 16.5 30 38 M12 10.6 2.8 8.Standardization Parallel Keys.5 12 15 18 17 22 26 t4 ≈ mm 1.1 180 400 keyway and hub keyway dimensions 13. to DIN 332 P 1 d ( i ) Part Dimensions of 60° centre holes Recommended Bore diameters diameter d 2) d1 a 1) above to mm mm mm mm 6 10 1.3 6.2 14.4 0.2 16.5 21 85 130 M24 21 25 130 225 M30* 26 31 225 320 M36* 31. and Centre Holes Dimensions of parallel keys and taper keys Depth of keyDiameter Width Height way in shaft d b h t1 above to 1) 2) Table of Contents Section 3 Parallel keys and taper keys y p y acc.3 16 21 M6 5 6.4 20 12 8.2 14 70 16 70 2.3 20 Recommended diameters d6 2) d1 d2 d3 3) above to mm mm mm mm mm 7 10 M3 2.4 22 13 9.5 16 19 22 28 36 42 50 60 74 84 t2 min.8 5 3 2.4 8.3 3.

Factor by which the unit is multiplied 10–18 10–15 10–12 10–9 10–6 10–3 10–2 10–1 Prefix Atto Femto Pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Symbol a f p n µ m c d Factor by which the unit is multiplied 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 Prefix Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera Peta Exa Symbol da h k M G T Physics Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Derived SI units having special names and special unit symbols SI unit Physical quantity Name Plane angle Solid angle Frequency. s4)/(kg . m2/s3 1C=1A. An exponent on the unit such a way that the numerical values are symbol also applies to the prefix symbol. Example: 1 cm3 = 1 .1 and 1000. s3) 1 S = 1 Ω–1 = 1 (A2 . 10–6m3 1 µs = 1 .– Combinations of prefixes and the following gram (kg) but with the unit gram (g). Unit of temperature: degree Celsius Basic SI units Basic SI unit Physical quantity Name Length Mass Time Electric current Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Symbol m kg s A Thermodynamic temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Kelvin K Physical quantity Name Symbol Basic SI unit Legal units outside the SI Physical quantity Unit name Round angle Gon Degree Minute Second Litre Minute Hour Day Year Ton Bar Unit symbol 1) gon ° 2) ’ 2) ’’ 2) l min h d a t bar 2) 2) 2) 2) Definition 1 perigon = 2 π rad 1 gon = (π/200)rad 1° = (π/180)rad 1’ = (1/60)° 1’’ = (1/60)’ 1 l = 1 dm3 = (1/1000) m3 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s 1 a = 365 d = 8 760 h 1 t = 103 kg = 1 Mg 1 bar = 105 Pa Plane angle Volume Time Mass Mole Candela mol cd Pressure 1) A symbol for the round angle has not yet been internationally determined 2) Do not use with prefixes 50 51 . s3)/(kg . cycles per second Force Pressure. between 0. s2) 1 J = 1 N .401 kPa 31 ns 1.94 mm 1. quantity of heat Power. m2)/A2 . NOT microkilogram (µkg). Prefixes and symbols are used only in combination with unit names and unit symbols. s 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 (kg .1 . 10–8s instead of instead of instead of instead of – Prefixes are not used with the basic SI unit kilo. s = 1 kg . work. m2)/(A . 10–6s 106s–1 = 106Hz = 1 MHz Example: 12 kN 3. day Milligram (mg). s/A Relation – Prefix symbols and unit symbols are written – When giving sizes by using prefix symbols and without blanks and together they form the unit symbols. the prefixes should be chosen in symbol for a new unit. m2) 1 °C = 1 K 1 H = 1 V .00394 m 1401 Pa 3. year. mechanical stress Energy. m2/m2 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg . minute. units are not allowed: Units of angularity: degree.Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Internationally determined prefixes Decimal multiples and sub-multiples of units are represented with prefixes and symbols. s3) 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 (A2 .2 ⋅ 104N 0. m/s2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/ (m . m2) 1 Ω = 1 V/A = 1 (kg . hour. m = 1 W . (10–2m)3 = 1 . heat flow P E Electric charge Electric potential Electric capacitance Electric resistance Electric conductance Celsius temperature Inductance Radian Steradian Hertz Newton Pascal Joule Watt Coulomb Volt Farad Ohm Siemens degrees Celsius Henry Symbol rad sr Hz N Pa J W C V F Ω S °C H 1 rad = 1 m/m 1 sr = 1 m2/m2 1 Hz = 1 s–1 1 N = 1 kg . second Example: Units of time: minute.

: kHz. γ Plane angle rad (radian) Degree ( o) : 1 o ) p rad 180 o Minute ( ) : 1 ) 1 60 Second ( ) : 1 ) 1 60 Gon (gon) : 1 gon ) p rad 200 N.U.U. mg.A. : Right angle +(L) : 1L ) p rad 2 Centesimal degree (g) : 1g ) 1 gon Centesimal minute ( c) : 1 c ) 1 gon 100 c cc cc Centesimal second ( ) : 1 ) 1 100 Ω.: mm3.: m’’ = m/A L. g/m2.80665 m/s2 ≈ 9.: Note L.A. Periodic frequency Rotational frequency (speed) Velocity Acceleration. µs.U.6 N. : 1 rad ) 1 m (arc) 1m ) ) 1m m 1 m (radius) 1m Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Time and of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of time Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name N.β.U.U. L.: m’ = m/l L.A. Duration s (second) A Area m2 (square metre) m3 (cubic metre) m3 m4 V H Ι Volume Moment of area Second moment of area f Frequency.U.: Note L. d.: moment of a force.81 m/s2 l Length t Time. Mg ton (t): 1 t = 1000 kg N. dm3 litre (l): 1 l = dm3 N.: mg/m. m3/h.U. cm2. cm4 N. dm.U.: mm3.: Units no longer allowed N. m/h. MHz.U. THz Hertz (Hz): 1 Hz = 1/s N. cm3.: mm4. Normal gravity (gn): gn = 9.U.: µm. km/s.: Further legal units N.U.U.U.: ns.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical quantities and units of lengths and their powers Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name m (metre) N. km.: Time-related velocity L.U.U.: Basic unit L. etc. a) L. kg/l 1g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1 Mg/m3 = 1 t/m3 = 1 kg/l m m’ Mass per unit length Mass in relation to the surface Density kg/m m’’ kg/m2 r kg/m3 52 53 .: µg.: g/cm3. : mrad. ks Minute (min): 1 min = 60 s Hour (h): 1 h = 60 min Day (d): 1 d = 24 h Year (a): 1 a = 365 d (Do not use prefixes for decimal multiples and sub-multiples of min.: Further legal units N. Period. ω Solid angle sr (steradian) N. L. h.U.: °/s2 L.: Basic unit L. t/m3.U. linear Gravity Angular velocity Angular acceleration Volume flow rate Hz (Hertz) s–1 n v a g m/s m/s2 m/s2 rad/s rad/s2 m3/s 1 rad 1 degree ) 1 o ) p rad 180 90 o ) p rad 2 ω α .U.: micron (µ): 1 µ = 1 µm Ångström unit (Å): 1 Å = 10–10 m L. mm. In the textile industry: Tex (tex):1 tex = 10-6 kg/m = 1 g/km N.U. etc.: Basic unit L. kg/dm3.A.: formerly: geometrical moment of inertia L. km/h 1 km h ) 1 m s 3. N.U. dm2. GHz.: cm/s2 N.U.: Units no longer allowed N.: cm/s. km2 are (a): 1 a = 102 m2 hectare (ha): 1 ha = 104 m2 L. l/min.: Further legal units N.: Units no longer allowed N. mrad α. ms.: r = m/V L.: min–1 = 1/min L. cm. cm3 N. dm3/s.: Note L. l/h. g/km.A.: Gravity varies locally.: l/s. t/m2 N. : 1 sr ) 1 m 2 (spherical surface) 1 m 2 (square of spherical radius) 2 ) 1 m2 m V Physical quantities and units of mechanics Symbol Physical quantity Mass SI unit Symbol Name kg (kilogram) N. moment of resistance L. g.: mm2. Mg/m3.: g/mm2.: Reciprocal value of the duration of one revolution L.: rad/min L.

K).: Stokes (St): 1 St = 1/10000 m2/s 1cSt = 1 mm2/s J P . MJ/h. etc. kg/s N (Newton) N (Newton) Nm Nm Q η Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Pa .: Nmm.A. t/h L. W Watt) Heat flow m F G M. etc. grd) ≈ 4. etc.: kp/cm2. cm2/s N.: µNm.U.Power .: Weight = mass acceleration due to gravity L. N.: kN.15 K = 0 °C 373.U. kcal/°K L.: kcal.: J Quantity of heat absorbed under certain conditions L.: N/mm2 N.A. kJ/s.A. s L.: mm2/s. s . K) J (Joule) Energy W/(m2 .U. mmHg.: Instead of the former flywheel effect GD2 2 GD 2 in kpm 2 now : J ) GD 4 L. s ν m2/s Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer Symbol Physical quantity Thermodynamic temperature Celsius temperature Heat Quantity of heat SI unit Symbol Name K (Kelvin) N.: Further legal units N.: ∆l / l L.U. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name N.16 W 1 hp = 745. mNm.A.65 N/m2 1 mmHg = 133.: kJ/K N. etc. etc. kpm/s.U. MNm.A. mPa . N.U. L.: dPa .: kg/h.980665 bar 1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 1.: Poise (P): 1 P = 0. N.U. MJ.: kpm.A. Ncm.: Units no longer allowed N.: kp (1 kp = 9. p Pressure Pa (Pascal) T pabs pamb Absolute pressure Ambient atmospheric pressure Pressure above atmospheric Direct stress (tensile and compressive stress) Shearing stress Extension Work Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) Q J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L. kpmm etc. kW.15 K = 100 °C L.6 MJ 36 N. s. Mcal.U.: Bar (bar): 1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 105 Pa µbar.65 Pa = 9806.: mJ. TJ N. MN.: Further legal units N. kJ/(m2 . K)] = thermal conductivity m [kg/m3] = density of the body cp [J/(kg ⋅ K)] = specific heat capacity at constant pressure σ N/m2 τ ε W.A.1868 J.2 kJ/(m2 .: t °C The degrees Celsius (°C) is a special name for the degrees Kelvin (K) when stating Celsius temperatures. grd) kal/(m2 . mN.: kcal/deg. cal. 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 N.A.01325 bar 1 Torr ) 101325 Pa ) 133.322 N/m2 Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics. h .U. W N/m2 m/m L. t ⋅ m2 L.: Note L.U.A. MJ.81 W 1 kcal/h = 1.U.: kpm.: Further legal units N. MW. mW.: kJ. N. The temperature interval of 1 K equals that of 1 °C.: g ⋅ m2.322 Pa = 133.: cal/(cm2 . h . GJ.U. A E. GJ.: µN.: N/mm2 1 N/mm2 = 106 N/m2 H Temperature conductivity m2/s λ [ W/(m .: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 L. GN. TJ.: mJ.U. mbar N.: µm/m.: W/(cm2 . MN. MJ.: PS k m/s kcal/h PS.. etc.U. cm/m.70 W N. 860 kcal = 1 kWh s α.pamb a L.: 1 Pa .Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Mass moment of inertia.A. m2 N.1 Pa .: mK N.: 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L. h .: Note L.A.: µW. T Mb . kcal a) m+ p c pe pe = pabs .: kpm.A.U. kN. kcal 1 cal = 4.A. kJ. pcm. s = 1 Ns/m2 L. K) 54 55 .A. kJ. at.U.: Basic unit 273. N. kpcm.U.U.: Units no longer allowed N. atü. J/K 1 J/K = 1 Ws/K = 1 Nm/K L.322 Pa 760 1 mWS = 9806.U.: cal. kNm etc.: 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s L. pmm.h Enthalpy (Heat content) Entropy Heat transfer coefficient N. etc. s N. kNm. second mass moment Rate of mass flow Force Weight Torque Bending moment SI unit Symbol Name kg . K) N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Note L. kJ/h.U.49875 W 1 kpm/s = 9. 1 PS = 735.U. kWh 1 kWh = 3. mm/m N. L.80665 N) N. Torr 1kp/cm2 = 1 at = 0. mmWS. etc.U. ata.

: m3 / (m3 .: Temperature unit/volume ratio N.: TK TK TK Kelvin K TK 273.01 °C. K).67 + 491.: pA.15 + 273. kA. µA.: Further legal units N.: pC.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics. K) = K–1 N. kC 1 V = 1 W / A = 1 J / (s . K) = K–1 N.67 0. A) = 1 A . The triple point of pure water is the equilibrium point between pure ice. s / W = 1 A 2 .15 5 c 459. kΩ. mV.67 32 ) 9 5 tC Degrees Rankine °R TR TR TR TR 9 5 TK Q 9 t ) 273.U. kcd L. K).: Note L. MV. K) N.U. deg). m / (s . etc.: Units no longer allowed N.: Basic unit 1 cd = 1 lm (lumen)/sr (Steradian) L.00 + 0.A. 1C=1A.: Further legal units N.: cd / cm2. 1 2 N. mA.A.A. Heat Transfer and Electrical Engineering Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Specific heat capacity Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Coefficient of volumetric expansion SI unit Symbol Name J/(K .00 + 459. cm / (m .00 – 459. Quantity of electricity Electric voltage Electric resistance Electric conductance Electrostatic capacitance SI unit Symbol Name A (Ampere) C (Coloumb) V (Volt) Ω (Ohm) S (Siemens) F (Farad) N.02 + 212.: pF. 1 asb p cd m Nit (nt): 1 nt = 1 cd / m2 Stilb (sb): 1 sb = 104 cd / m2 1 Im = 1 cd .: Temperature unit/length unit ratio L. s / (kg .: Apostilb (asb). γ K–1 Φ E lm (Lumen) lx (Lux) Physical quantities and units of electrical engineering Symbol I Physical quantity Current strength Electriccharge.: µS. mcd/m2.00 0.U.: Heat capacity referred to mass N.67 ) t F T R + 459. mS.25 hPa). A2) = 1 N .U. etc. s2/ (N .69 + 671. kV.15 5 t + 32 9 F 5 T + 273. N. deg) Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering.67 + 491.A.15 ) t c 255.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N. kg) N.A. Reciprocal of electric resistance 1 S = 1 Ω–1 = 1 / Ω. mΩ.16 + 373.: Basic unit L.U. Temperature comparison of °F with °C C 56 57 .38 ) 5 9 5 9 TR tF Different measuring units of temperature Degrees Celsius °C tC tC tC tC T K + 273.: klm 1 lx = 1 lm / m2 c I αl K–1 L cd / m2 αv. K) m3 / (m3 .: Note L. A2) L.: cal / (g .U.15 9 R Degrees Fahrenheit °F tF tF tF tF 9 5 T K + 459. µC. etc.U.: µV.37 + 273.78 0.15 – 273.s/V = 1 A2 .s 1 Ah = 3600 As L. m / (s .U. etc. air-free water and water vapour (at 1013. G = 1 / R L. nC. kg) = W .00 + 32. Luminance Luminous flux Illuminance SI unit Symbol Name cd (Candela) N.U. kS 1F=1C/V=1A.67 U Comparison of some temperatures 0.A.U.: Units no longer allowed 1 J/(K . Ω = 1 N .: mcd. etc. mm / (m .01 + 100. etc.: µm / (m . deg). m / (m .: µΩ. sr L.: Units no longer allowed N. nA. kcal / (kg . 1 Ω = 1 V / A = 1 W / A2 1 J / (s . µF. m) L.00 + 255. Different Measuring Units of Temperature Physical quantities and units of lighting engineering Symbol Physical quantity Luminous intensity Luminous density. A) L.00 + 32.15 – 17.U.67 R G 1) 1) 1) The triple point of water is +0. s2 / J = 1 A2 .U.

9863 1 1.25 .001 1 Physics Cubic Measures and Weights. 10–6 kcal 0.4 . 10–6 1 in oz = 0.201 4 – – – 1. 1 thermi (French) = 4. distances to the stars) = 3.0006452 mm2 1 sq line = 0. atmosphere ) = 98.78 .001 1 1 German statute mile = 7500 m 1 geograph.2 l 1 US barrel = 42 gallons = 158.853 10–6 0.0508 1 short ton (US) = – 32000 2000 20 17.01 1 100 10000 – a – – – – – – 0.8 1 0.05 0.12 1 0.047 a 1 acre = 4 rood = 40.8361 – – 0.87 1 0.001 10–6 1kg = 564.87 .8 kg (CIS) 1 quintal or 1 cental = 100 lb = 45.12 1 – 1016 1.5506 l 1 US dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.9 .24 km2 p 1 circular in + sq in + 5. 107 1.0668 km Japan: 1 shaku = 0. 10–7 37.136 4.5396 mm 25.067cm 2(circular area with 1 in dia.00177 – 1 oz (ounze) = 16 1 0.6 10.5522 m2 = 1.196 119.1111 1 – – 0.1 in = 2.2082 0.648 .725 .7 .36 0.02841 l 1 Imp gill = 5 ft oz = 0.5682 l 1 Imp quart = 2 pints = 1.696 cm3 1 US fl oz = 8 fl drams = 0.2 0.1383 0. quantity of heat Work 1 ft lb 1 erg 1 Joule (WS) 1 kpm 1 PSh 1 hph 1 kWh 1 kcal 1 Btu Russia: 1 kwadr.949 m 1 myriametre = 10 000 m Russia: 1 werschok = 44. 10–6 10–7 0.3861 cm2 6.001 1 1000 m3 – 0.e.008929 – – 453. 103 1.3030 m 1 ken = 1.029 m 1 surveyor’s chain = 100 surv link = 20.785 1.4 – – 1 1000 106 m 0.306 m2 = 0.9 202 672.0648 g (GB) 1 solotnik = 96 dol = 4.4 m = 4 arc minutes at the equator (1° at the equator = 111.9464 3.341 1.0625 – – – – 28. 10–3 392.3768 .056 0.953 .273 l 1 Imp peck = 4 pottles = 9.05 19.1183 l 1 US liquid pint = 4 gills = 0. saschen 1 dessjatine 1 kwadr.0616 cm3 (USA) 1 US fl dram = 60 minims = 3.01 1 100 km2 – – – 2.8929 – 907.581 .37 39 370 Foot ft 0.7646 – – – – 106 0.8 .653 . 10–6 0.1336 m 1 arschin = 0.36 36 .2 0.6 kg (USA) 1 hyaku kin = 1 picul = 16 kwan = 60 kg (J) tdw = tons dead weight = lading capacity of a cargo vessel (cargo + ballast + fuel + stores). 106 = 2.03937 39.38 kg (CIS) 1 long quarter = 1/4 long cwt = 12.25 0. 106 = 1.26 l.04014 0.829 m 1 engineer’s chain = 100 eng link = 100 ft = 30.25 1 – 0.152 – – 0.01 sq in = 6.3 1853. 103 = 778.5058 m2 = 4.22 220 cm3 16.75 231 69.409 kg (CIS) 1 pud = 40 funt = 16.7112 m 1 werst = 1. 1015 372.559 . 10–3 23.6214 – – – 0.34 kg (USA) 1 funt = 32 lot = 0. werst = 0.229 168. 1 astronomical unit (mean distance of the earth from the sun) = 1.001 in = 0. 10–6 27.205 0.01 1 100 10000 – – m2 – 0.324 .5 gallons = 119.138 km2 = 3.163 . 10–9 3.003906 – – – – 1.016 1g = 0.014 26.39 – – 946. 103 293 .9917a = 15.9842 106 1000 1 1 grain = 1 / 7000 lb = 0.8326 4 1 3.6 .0833ft lb = 0.7376 . 106 .281 .201 0.3333 1 1760 2027 1.233 = 1.5461 l 1 iImp pottle = 2 quarts = 2.356 0.4 3785 1136 4546 1 1000 106 dm3 (l) 0. Work.8 .35 0.281 3281 Yard yd 0.067 J 58 59 .06452 9.0254 mm 1 line = 0.02778 0.818 m 1 ri = 3.828 km Other measures of length of the metric system France: 1 toise = 1. 10–3 41.8929 0.36 kg (USA) 1 kwan = 100 tael = 1000 momme = 10000 fun = 1 quintal = 100 livres = 48. 109 398.001 1t = – 35270 2205 22.8 0.01732 – 0.376 mm Other measures of length of the Imperial system 1 micro-in = 10–6 in = 0. 103 270 26.7355 0. 10–3 632.108 km Typographical unit of measure: 1 point (p) = 0.3 860 1 0.9 .481 24.142 l 1 Imp pint = 4 gills = 0. 10–9 9. 1012 2. 106 367.02832 0. 109 4186.625 m2 1 Imp minim = 0.811 l 1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 35.51 .05 50802 50.609 1.4732 l 1 US liquid quart = 2 liquid pints = 0.2 0. 1 in lb = 0.02957 l 1 US gill = 4 fl oz = 0.61 – 0.331 1. archin 1 kwadr.0592 cm3 (GB) 1 Imp ft drachm = 60 minims = 3. 10–12 238 .27 2.927 km 1 US minim = 0.804 1.5 1550 – – – sq ft – 1 9 – – 0.01 1 1 dram = 1 0. 106 J.95 kg (F) 3.77 .2 880 Imp gallon – 6.4 304.75 kg (J) (J) 1 kilopound = 1kp = 1000 lb = 453.8684 1 – – 0.1855 .307 km) 1 internat.452 mm2 1 sq surveyor’s link = 0.98 .4 . 10–9 2. 10–6 0. nautical mile 1 German nautical mile (sm) 1 mille marin (French) } =1852 m = 1 arc minute at the degree of longitude (1° at the meridian = 111.101 l 1 US peck = 8 dry quarts = 8.7978 g (CIS) 1 short quarter = 1/4 short cwt = 11.9464 l 1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts = 3.) 4 Other square measures of the metric system Energy.59 – – – – 0.03527 0.252 Btu 1. 10–6 kWh 0.92 807.102 377.0005067mm2 (circular area with 1 mil dia.0254 0. 10–6 37.092 l 1 Imp bushel = 4 pecks = 36.785 l 1 US dry pint = 0.5 . Quantity of Heat Cubic measures Unit 1 cu in 1 cu ft 1 cu yd 1 US liquid quart 1 US gallon 1 imp quart 1 imp gallon 1 cm3 1 dm3 (l) 1 m3 = = = = = = = = = cu in 1 1728 46656 57.102 0.356 .807 1 9.7 kg (GB / USA) 1 berkowetz = 163.35 kg (GB) 1 lot = 3 solotnik = 12.0929 0.301 .88 1057 264. 1 therm (English) = 105.46 .36 277. 10–3 2510 2545 3413 3. 10–15 277. 10–3 94.55 .2642 0.6 – – sq mile – – – 1 – – – – – 0.5643 0.01968 – – 1000 1 0. work.2 m 1 stat league = 3 stat miles = 4.0925 ha = 1.6 0.968 1 Japan: 1 tsubo 1 se 1 ho-ri 1.47 a 1 township (US) = 36 sq miles = 3.y.2659 g (CIS) 1 stone = 14 lb = 6. 106 = 3. 1012 3.002205 – – – – 1 0.12 m 1 furlong = 1000 surv link = 201.7457 1 1.02835 – 1 lb (pound) = 256 16 1 0.03342 0.4 20 1. 10–6 9.8326 0.08333 1 3 5280 6080 3.3002 1 4.087 .094 1094 Stat mile Naut mile – – – 1 1.9 1055 107.01442 29.6 0. 10–3 1. 10–15 1 107 1 0.29 m2 1 sq chain = 16 sq rod = 4.552 cm3 1 Imp ft oz = 8 ft drachm = 0.04464 45359 45.04047 m2 1 sq rod = 1 sq perch = 1 sq pole = 625 sq surv link = 25.01196 1.7376 = 7.02205 0. 106 J Common in case of piston engines: 1 litre-atmosphere (litre .102 .9072 1 long ton (GB/US) = – 35840 2240 22.1076 10.6 erg J = Nm = Ws kpm PSh hph 0.y.772 0.94 l Weights Unit dram oz lb short cwt long cwt short long ton ton g kg t Square measures Unit 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square mile 1 cm2 1 dm2 1 m2 1a 1 ha 1 km2 = = = = = = = = = = sq in 1 144 1296 – 0.3 35. Energy.04536 1 long cwt (GB/US) = 28672 1792 112 1.685 .03531 35.546 0.01639 28.85 .3048 0.5121 . 1 tdw = 1016 kg Other square measures of the Imperial system 1 sq mil = 1 S 10–6 sq in = 0. 10–12 948.807 .0254 µm 1 mil = 1 thou = 0.8 914.344 .505 . 103 1. mostly given in long tons.1337 0.094 .32 764. 1012 2.155 15.37 l 1 Imp quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons = 290.42 km2 ft lb = 1 = 0.1365 l 1 imp gallon = 4 quarts = 4. 107 = 0.48 1 1.057 0.24 l 1 US liquid barrel = 31.072 kpcm.01 0.) 4 p 1 circular mil + sq mil + 0.68 1.45 mm 1 saschen = 2.121 km) Astronomical units of measure 1 light-second = 300 000 km 1 l. 10–3 3.286 .5 641. 107 3.496 .Physics Measures of Length and Square Measures Measures of length Unit 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 stat mile 1 naut mile 1 mm 1m 1 km = = = = = = = = Inch in 1 12 36 63 360 72 960 0.8 l (for crude oil) 1 US cord = 128 cu ft = 3.01 1 100 10000 ha – – – 259 – – – 0.452 929 8361 – 1 100 10000 – – – dm2 0. 10–6 .113 Nm.76 1076 – – sq yd – 0.1012 km 1 parsec (parallax second. i.02 61023 cu ft – 1 27 0.4536 – 1 short cwt (US) = 25600 1600 100 1 0.1 . (light-year) = 9. 106 273.06102 61.48 m 1 rod = 1 perch = 1 pole = 25 surv link = 5.54 mm 1 fathom = 2 yd = 1.29 83. mile = 7420.704 .001 1 1000 km – – – 1.92 7.4 0.31 US liquid US Imp quart quart gallon 0.84 .655 .9144 1609.8 426.0625 0. 10–6 2.1605 – 0.

622 0.7355 0.014 1 0.406 0.12 1 J W W=F. rs .9863 0.055 0. 10–3 10–3 239 .048 0.7501 angle of rotation ϕ = ω .296 .α J J N Ek Ep FF Ek Ek + J 2 weight .9 5.6 0.5 140. 60 61 .0183 1. 10–3 13. angular acceleration N F *) F=m.22 1422 v2 2s a+v+ + t 2s t2 v+a t+ 2 a s p2 2r m+p + + 2 t t 2r p +m v+r p +r t+m 2 t m t 1 kp/cm2=1at = (techn.785 0. 10–7 0.136 .447 m/min 60 1 16.089 0.305 26.1 1 144 – – – 1 2240 2000 – – 1 0.4 .06 1 0.2 1 – – 10197 1 10 – – – – 2.92 inches Hg = 0 mm QS = absolute vacuum.15 . Pressure and Tension.1 1 1000 105 – – 1.0001 0.665 W.55 .9 .95 0. ω2 (rs = centre-of-gravity radius) *) Momentum (kinetic energy) equals half the mass .87 .645 1 87.614 4. 10–3 1.239 0.5 75 1 0. 0 inches Hg = 760 mm QS and 29.609 ft/min 196.02 0.968 1055 107.635 – – – motion accelerated from rest: = 98.6972 745.Physics Power.02 kp/m2.341 1 0. h FF = m . t m+ p2)p1 t2 ) t1 + p t + const.252 1 Physics Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion SI SymSym unit bol Basic formulae Linear motion distance moved divided by time Definition Uniform motion Velocity Angular velocity Angle of rotation Distance moved atm Rotary motion angular velocity = angle of rotation in radian measure/time m/s rad/s rad m/s m v ω r v s v+ s2 ) s1 t2 ) t1 + s + const.4882 – – – 1. accelerating force = mass .04 1. 109 1010 41. 109 7.7 0.6 1.s work in unit of time = force . The specific gravity of mercury is assumed to be 13. 108 10.4 136. second power of velocity.33 .0145 14.1 0.e. **) Kinetic energy due to rotation equals half the mass moment of inertia .36 1.355 .7 – – force .07 = 980.333 0.0064 0. torque = second mass moment .82 km/h 3.341 . Velocity Power.72 3.457 .0005 1. velocity 1 lb/sq in=1 psi = 68948 68.9869 2089 – – 0.102 1.9807 – – 1333 2. 10–12 94.6 0. t p + r2 ) r1 t2 ) t1 + r t + const.84 .001 10.7 76.t acceleration equals change of velocity divided by time r+ r t Pressure and tension Unit 1 µb=daN = 1mbar=cN/cm2 = 1 bar = daN/cm2 = 1 WS at 4 °C 1 p/cm2 kp/m2=1mm mbar µbar = = cN/ dN/m2 cm2 1 1000 106 0.07 106 735.001 1 100 – – – 0.00689 N / mm2 1 N/m2 (Newton/m2) = 10 µb. 10–9 10–10 23.9484 4187 426. 10–3 735.187 1 3.001 1 1000 – bar = daN/ cm2 kp/m2 Torr= kp/cm2 kp/mm2 mm mm p/cm2 = at WS QS – 1. 1 hpz = 100 pz = 1.807 1 13.8 0. second power of the angular velocity.2048 – 0.0102 750. 0.01 1 – – 0. angular velocity Power Non-uniform (accelerated) motion Force In case of any motion Energy W P P+W+F t v P+W+M t p 1 psi = 0.00133 13.01934 s+v 2 t+a 2 2 t2 + v 2a r +p 2 angle of rotation 2 t2 + p 2m = – 1013 1.0689 703.0072 – – – 0.6 W=M.1782 0.0142 14. t angular acceleration equals change of angular velocity divided by time lb sq ft lb sq in long ton {sh ton} sq in – sq in – – Uniformly accelerated motion Acceleration Angular acceleration – 0. heat flow Power 1 erg/s 1W 1kpm/s 1 PS (ch) 2) 1hp 1 kW 1 kcal/s 1 Btu/s = = = = = = = = erg/s 1 107 9.ϕ work in unit of time = torque .67 0. Heat Flow.4788 – 4.434 1.3591 51.8929 – 0. acceleration accel.575 1.92 mile/h 2. distance moved torque .1 1 long ton/sq = in (GB) 1 short ton/sq = in (US) – – – – 154.0114 1 Potential energy (due to force of gravity) Centrifugal force Ep = G . g . angle of rotation in radian measure = 478. motion accelerated from rest: 1 poncelet (French) = 980. atmosph.7356 – – 0. In the USA.279 54.033 – 760 1 2116 14. 10–3 9. 10–6 948. 10–3 2.102 .7457 0.71 – – – 0. h = m .237 0.013 10332 1033 1.804 .0167 0.0703 – – 157. energy flow.) 1 kp/mm2 = Velocity 980. flywheel effect: 1 kgm2 = 3418 lb in 2 v+s t s=v.7 0.31 0. i.7068 1000 102 1.0373 0.0051 0. 1 barye (French) = 1 µb.882 0. 10–3 9. 109 W kpm/s PS hp kW kcal/s Btu/s 10–7 0.595 kg/dm 3.692 5. height p2 Velocity Unit m/s m/min km/h ft/min mile/h = = = = = m/s 1 0.6 1.78 1 – – – 0.7112 – m/s m/s m Circumferential speed Distance moved Uniform motion and constant force or constant torque Work 1 Torr = 1 mm = QS at 0 °C 1 atm (pressure of the atmosphere) 1 lb/sq ft 1. Energy Flow.5 – m/s2 rad/s2 m/s2 a α a v v s a+ v2 ) v1 t2 ) t1 + v + const.a * *) m 2 v2 M=J. 10–12 1 0. 10–9 0.068 152.36 0. 1 piece (pz) (French) = 1 sn/m2 ≈ 102 kp/m2. 107 7.9807 10000 98067 98.278 0.807 . ”inches Hg” are calculated from the top.344 .36 .9678 2048 73556 96.4 137.02 1020 0.9 – – 70.1341 .1758 0.0102 0.00136 2.415 1. 10–6 9.

.785 d2 d r2 m a A h Circular ring U 2rm m Trapezium A m h A m 4 (D 2 + d 2) m (d ) b) b m {a ) b} 2 b {D + d} 2 r2 m o Triangle A a {a 2 {2 h A} h} Circular sector A 360 o {b r} 2 o} {r m b 180 o Equilateral triangle A a2 3 4 a 3 2 Circular segment A r 2 { o m} + sin 2 180 1 [ r(b + s) ) sh] 2 d s h 2 r sin Hexagon 3 A d s 2 3 a a a2 2 3 ^ b 2 a r (1 + cos ) 2 { o m} 180 r ^ {D d m} a 4 {D ) d} m 2 m (a ) b) [ 1 ) 2 s tan 2 4 Ellipse A U b m Octagon A d s 2a 2( 2 ) 1) a 4)2 a( 2 ) 1) 2 U 1 {a + b} 4 {a ) b} {a + b} ) 1 64 {a ) b} 6 4 {a + b} ) 1 256 {a ) b} .Table of Contents Section 4 Mathematics/Geometry Calculation of Areas Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Page 63 64 Square A = area A = a2 a d A U = circumference Polygon A a A1 ) A2 ) A3 h1 ) b h2 ) b h3 2 a 2 Rectangle A d a b Formed area A r 2 (2 3 + m) 2 0. ] 62 63 .16 r2 a2 ) b2 Parallelogram A a h Circle A d2 m 4 0.

189 1 6 r3 p d 3p O 4p r2 d2 Rectangular block V A h Spherical zone V M {p 6 2 r h} (3a 2 ) 3b 2 ) h 2) p h (Cavalier principle) Pyramid V {A 3 h} Spherical segment V {p h} 3 2 s ) h2 4 p h2 r + h 3 6 2 r p h p ( s 2 ) 4h 2 ) 4 M Frustum of pyramid V h (A ) A ) A 2 1 3 1 h A1 ) A2 2 A 2) Spherical sector V O 2 3 {p 2 h r} r2 p (4h ) s) Cylinder V M O d2 p h 4 2 2 r r p p h (r ) h) Cylindrical ring V O D p2 4 d d2 D p2 Hollow cylinder V {h 4 p} (D 2 + d 2 ) Cylindrical barrel V {h p} ( 2D 2 ) d 2 ) 12 Cone V M O m r2 r r p p p 3 h m ( r ) m) d 2 2 Prismatoid V h ( A ) A ) 4A ) 1 2 6 h2 ) 64 65 .Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Volumes Table of Contents Section 5 V = volume Cube V O d a3 6 a2 O = surface M = generated surface Frustum of cone V M {p h} ( D 2 ) Dd ) d 2 ) 12 {p m} (D)d) 2 2p p h {D + d} 2 2 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Page 66 67 68 69 a 3 m ) h2 Parallelepiped V O d a b c 2 (ab ) ac ) bc ) a2 ) b2 ) c2 Sphere V 4 r3 p 3 4.

x1. w1. αA. FB Ι Second moment of area (mm4) (moment of inertia) F 3 f {3E } F 1+ 3 x 1 x ) 2 2 3 {3E } tan m F 2 {2 E } W1 W2 a3 6 1 2 a4 Fp 12 q 4 w(x) {8E } q 1+ 4 x)1 x 3 3 4 f q 4 {8E } tan m q 3 {6 E } W1 W2 bh 2 24 for e hb 2 24 2 h 3 1 2 bh 3 hb 3 36 48 F p w(x) 5 qo 4 x) x 4+5 {120E } qo f qo 4 {30E } tan m qo 3 {24 E } W1 W2 W1 for e 5 3 R 8 0. w2 a. α2. w.1908 r 3 0.625 R 3 1 2 0.5756 r 1 w(x) x r 1+ 4 {3r} [r 8+8 (9 r) r 4 0. x1max. x2 E q. l. b. fm. qo Deflection (mm) Lengths (mm) Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) Line load (N/mm) F 3 w(x) α. αB. Angle (°) Forces (N) F. FA. α1. fmax.5413 R 4 F p 2 F 3 x 1+ w(x) {16E } F 4 x 3 l 2 x F 3 2 f {48 E } tan m F 2 {16 E } 6b 2 ) 6bb 1 ) b 2 1 1 F 36 (2b ) b1 ) h3 A B F 2 F 3 a b 2 x 1 x2 l+ 1 b ab x2 2 ab F 3 x w (x ) 1 1 {6E } 1) 1 a f a 2 b 2 tan m {3E } 1 f 1) 2a b W1 BH 3 + bh 3 6H 1 BH 3 + bh 3 12 x1max a (l ) b) 3a for a > b change a and b for a < b F 3 w (x ) b a 2x 2 2 2 {6E } b F 3 F 1) a + x 2 b fmax f { ) b} 3b ) b 3a tan m 2 f 1) a 2b F A F B F a 2 f w(x) x 2 a W1 W2 r D3 32 D3 {2E } a 1+ a + 1 x 3 F 3 {2E } a l 2 1+ 4 a 3 tan m F 2 1 {2E } F 2 2 {2E } a 1+ a 10 1 2 rD 4 64 D 4 20 x F 3 w(x) a W1 W2 r 32 D4 + d4 D (r ) s 2) rsr 2 1 2 {2E } x 2 x 1+ x + 1 a 3 2 fm F 3 {8E } a 1+ 4 a 3 2 tan m a 1+2 a r ( D4 + d4 ) 64 rsr 3 1 ) (s 2r) 2 a or in case of thin wall thickness s: W1 W2 1 2 FA = FB = F F 3 x 1 a w (x ) 1 1 rsr 3 W1 W2 ra 2b 4 rb 2a 4 ra 3b 4 x {2E } 1 x1 3 3 + a 1) 2 a x1 a 2 a ) 1) 3 tan m f F 2 a a 1) {2E } 3 2 F a 2 a 1) {2E } 3 1 F 2 2 {2E } a 1 2 F 3 2 w (x ) rb 3a 4 r 3 (a 1b 1 + a 3 2b 2 ) 4 2 (b + b2) thin r 2 a (a ) 3b) s 4 2 2 {2E } x2 a x2 1+ F 3 fm a {8E } tan m FA = FB = F F 3 w (x ) a x1 W1 1 a1 1 1 1 {6E } F 3 x2 1+ x1 2 x F 3 1 f a 2 1) a F 2 tan m {3E } A {6E } a l or if the wall thickness is s W1 W1 with e a1 + a2 b1 + b2 2 (a + a 2) 1 w (x ) 2a 2 2 {6E } a q 4 F ) x2 3a x 2 + a 3 2 x F 3 2 a fmax a tan m 9 3E tan m B a 2 tan m A r a (a ) 3b) s 4 1 e F 2 {6E } tan m F A F B F 1) 2)3 a 0.5413 R 3 6b 2 ) 6bb 1 ) b 2 1 12( 3b ) 2b 1 ) 1 3b ) 2b 1 h 3 2b ) b 1 h2 5 16 3 R4 0.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Cross-sectional area W1 W2 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Deflections in Beams Section modulus bh 2 6 hb 2 6 Second moment of area 1 2 bh 3 hb 3 12 12 f.1098 r 4 F {24E } q 1+2 x 2 ) x 5q 4 0 x fm q 3 {24E } {384E } q 2 F axis 1-1 = axis of centre of gravity A B 2 66 67 .

637864 552.1986 0.289 4559.6435 39.0605 19155.079 2827.9347 244.334 104.115 1256.593 1420.000016 0.1748 113.858 320.5559 10.8693 33.6058 673.6056 1637661.000624 0. 30.784 50.185 5.0491 30171.3116 169.327 1.605 7.5906 402.7060 152745.1978 636172.4268 58188.9808 1725.8587 4.767 2. A cm2 0.902 24.667229 348.9109 2485.032 2219.599 47.834 5. 860. 26.195 112.920 360.978 19.050564 0.1554 572.2170 3.509 30.9575 102353.903 9.210 31.456 483. 160.476 70. 804.7410 2169.671947 Mass/ I kg/m 81.1420 104.3934 86858.781 96. 220.531 1661.000410 0.062772 0.643673 0. 680.9787 26.7569 26087. 13.529 298.0212 0.0982 0.893 298. 1134.159807 0.000545 0.782 1.2448 10.233075 1.0576 30.7828 43.566 13.005635 0. 820.4021 0. 44.000001 0.498811 1.0619 221.0719 0. 21.466 2. 240.000081 0.9196 9555.732 143 139 153.1239 441. 27. 32. 175.0322 0.6517 66903.365 554.572 1193.1572 358908.309 5.6972 201.025711 0.0454 1.5890 50. 84.1499 1.982 In case of stresses below the damage curve initial damage will not occur to the material. 250.3442 12271.158 6. 110.3601 4099. 210. 82.504 4300.6994 823549.242443 8.4719 3. 20.571223 0.8760 1198.038370 0.3572 1.1176 1319167.6636 931420. 7.2960 2219347.4406 1895.4100 0. 8.8275 4603.1696 0.499 0. alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1. 130. 60. according to τ = torsional stress the distortion energy theory: α0 = constraint ratio according to Bach Alternating bending.9364 10857.0 Diameter of component d 68 69 Surface number bo Size number bd .1472 6.856 28.9816 9546.648 314.365 47. Rp0.6460 191.521786 4.2894 33673.5597 8.148 355.221 2463.990 8.188152 0.3978 25.9909 3638.8538 30869.062 213.758 211.503 0.6496 130.9761 5.1743 1049555.805345 2.2 .2157 0.495 2123.042156 0.031567 0.5153 0.274 30.637 1385.298767 12.8598 5152.1304 58. 960. 800.112931 285.010 5921.506497 40. 34.038334 207.3740 2155.097 122.4824 54130.4447 66.7188 3216.7393 48.302 0.000352 0.638 2850.010 222.936 13.556905 3.118 1797.253 26.503 45.3737 1. 105.3916 299. 28.442 1520.3217 0.6930 555497.7504 23397.098129 257.000022 0.226 2. 90.557 1693.2354 12.444832 0. 145.510 39.601 d3 32 p d3 16 p d4 64 p d4 32 J/I kgm2/m 0.3084 98174. 12.769 5808.376 static Maximum stress limit: Mean stress: Minimum stress limit: dynamic o m u sch 0 sch 2 alternating o ) w 0 m w u + o m u oscillating m) a v (initial stress) m+ a Ruling coefficient of strength of material for the calculation of structural members: Resistance to Fatigue strength under Fatigue strength under Resistance to breaking Rm fluctuating stresses σSch alternating stresses σW deflection σA Yield point Re.8540 65597.8739 596. 40.011388 0.5724 8362..001607 0. 36.7476 215.495 4.462 2074.877076 129.265 52.505068 0. 10.4971 2443920.715 43.5553 621.184 55.8588 131.485 40.0337 0.617 0. 180.3269 3216.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Values for Circular Sections Mechanics / Strength of Materials Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures p 4 p 4 7.096 19.2 Coefficients of fatigue strength σD Stress-number diagram Stress σ Stress-number curve Damage curve Endurance limit Fatigue limit Fatigue strength under alternating stresses σW Example: Tension-Compression Coefficient of fatigue strength Fatigue strength diagram acc.6629 16286.000008 0.000181 0.255979 0.5116 725331.390153 0. 840.643 61. 780. 85 p d2 l r d2 Diffusion of stress in structural members: loading types Axial section modulus: Polar section modulus: Wa Wp a p Axial second moment of area (axial moment of inertia): Polar second moment of area (polar moment of area): d mm 6.1965 1045.142 3.8573 12. 907.778 7238.000002 0.127 7.5468 269.834 167.8389 1178588.7731 43096.000039 0.004347 1.0133 482.5481 7853.815 199.7662 181.6087 3.374 5447.168391 505.6507 3.5156 kg dm 3 d4 l r 32 J/I kgm2/m 0.722806 0.404 326.000030 0. 74.017 5541.433 3019.079 10.843266 770.159 346.578 1.002889 0.9034 71.4924 1357.961 33.229 7542.015 3945.008721 0.9547 1. 520.336 416.627 138.2608 306796.000003 0.726 5682. 50. 572.335 20.2249 30.237 22.9973 5749.456 43.3326 526.701321 654.9848 1630.8198 490.2750 55. 190.280 986. 185. 200.535 2369. 155.208 1.740 22.205 15.220112 0.131 3376.000808 0.194 3631.344 1667. 19. 230.071 3216.882 78.6734 0.2981 331.2411 19.460 1087.112834 Area: Mass: Density of steel: A m r Second mass moment of inertia (mass moment of inertia): J d mm 115.717 799.2832 7.746 0.028526 0.0201 0.0200 183984. Reduced stress on the member v Alternate area/Area of fluctuation Permissible stress perm. 80.1722 4527664. 260.248 340. 23.4590 17.0145 13736.1945 1.791702 87.385 0. 56.042 9.1551 2. 42.0503 0.008 45.3201 1471962.2655 54.000474 0.7849 482749.023110 0. 480.9462 36643.903 1809.168 4.000005 0. 165.984 3. 46. 720.3748 322.549 6.1018 0.9270 28224.014623 0.1726 98.5155 81542.6173 72.615 271.6612 4580.9167 147.460 4778.630 26.297297 146. 1017.964 7853.114315 1.7854 0.801 4. 14.004091 0.0623 351.264653 315.1680 1533.780267 185.123 6361. 760.340676 0.3401 3516585.016478 0.7854 0.779 449.9830 1816972.3982 909.109269 231.7967 25735.736981 6. 420.007579 0.317 38. 500.540 86.909 5.671 17.338 2685.421 28.874 530.6286 1. 9.458 41. 15.805 6082.2718 13. 400.0336 50265.5414 1017.156656 2.910473 48.0489 2833.002398 0.537 88.034 3196.000011 0. A cm2 103.000216 0.2694 0.1307 0.715 188.126 385.6602 718.033 Wa cm3 0.9092 1.3629 9.7359 28.745 49.3105 2010619. 58.130 176.4475 84.884 631.0460 6283.3807 727. 460.. 140.467 4993.840 4536.438 246.929 Wa cm3 149.0163 19174.752 300.8539 6397.7536 92401. Design strength of the member D bo S ßk bd with: σD = ruling fatigue strength value of the material bο = surface number (≤ 1) bd = size number (≤ 1) ßk = stress concentration factor (≥ 1) S = safety (1.3680 46589.134791 0.3920 268.2485 0. 16.3398 365.2736 8.729202 23.437557 383.9175 2.7820 51471.195 23. 38. 560.3207 2685120.762 35.4910 4169220. 62. 78. alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1.121 3751. 540.034844 0. 86. 150.042 1.821 63.232967 164. 11.001294 0.001973 0.619 18.570 234.9324 2.1551 21.055210 0. 125.6397 0.018504 0.9909 3858.0758 21205. 940. 18. 615.464 3.081081 10.617 1304.902727 1.009988 0. 52.103957 601.000301 0.4421 5387.5726 0.270 2. 580.033 890.227 6165. 740. 920.551 3.5332 82.852 178.4823 0.7 2 ) 3 (m o ) 2 v Alternating bending.617 66.213060 99.293 0.1126 4908738.824 1933.841 129.296061 0. 170.5694 76. 25.0234 2943747. 22.191 32.980968 28.9042 15.854 15. 195.809021 0.888 1.567567 710.973 74.1402 0.170 34.222 0.5120 294.545 2.803 283.853 4.205 16.825 226. 64.0964 46.009 2642.991 3421.944329 16.998 2.123 157.2432 2.077067 0.000123 0.093676 0.6884 p Mass /I kg/m 0. 600. 440.3550 93. 70.879084 113.8908 41.361 380.611 37. 92.0064 0.785 0.046217 0. 980.341 12.012930 0.5638 11499.0118 0.004817 0.3313 0.000064 0.095667 4. 620. 2) Reduced stress σv with: For the frequently occurring case of comσ = single axis bending stress bined bending and torsion. 660.6706 Ιa cm4 0.7113 3220623.938 165.610 6939.069558 19.548 5281. 88.3870 6.020711 0.539 1.7598 22431.000150 0.870 3021.692 201. 706.6 For bending and torsion Surface roughness Rt in µm Surfaces with rolling skin Resistance to breaking of the material Rm for tension compression bd = 1. 900.179 11.001030 0.954 5218.524 4.1107 417392.389 490.9537 785.635 21.885524 34.654 67.1581 15458.364 120.476 452.4225 1401.3571 71569. 120. 640.700 25.7255 1.950 1.387 1.6900 241.334 712.046 14. 880.6072 260576.469 268. 76.2399 82447.313 7.719 2.5804 5.179 188. 68.718 132.3984 21.695490 421.5367 39782.3944 2.348573 65.940 52.721 148.725 6647. 135.000051 0. 66.069 8.6586 399. 24. 700.160 3561.5791 62444.563844 462.876 380. 100.133 415.8739 125663.2058 23.155 4.0716 0.3650 1194.011 2.0491 0.726 6.166997 56.212 36.413 16. 48.1963 163.418 58.528 254.006553 0.8463 13804. 29.6739 36.0172 3.5664 15.636 0. 95.7151 3832492.530667 75.261 3.088 60. to SMITH Resistance to breaking Rm Yield point Re Resistance to deflection σA Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses σSch Mean stress σm Number of cycles to failure N 270.5340 1.555 280.2745 18.5497 63.131 1.003451 0.865 10.1853 7273.8558 39760.9920 17241.810 55.010437 3.590 95.7703 Ιa cm4 858. 72.1886 62.681 3848.395 0.1326 2650.9556 117.2320 219786.599 4350.451 4071. 17. dynamic torsion: α0 ≈ 0.876 11.000100 0.5198 1932.362 5026.840 4145.6796 35.503 1541.1171 7097.835 3.0 Static bending.000256 0.717 2290.912 4774.869 113.980 240.4076 76447. 54. 1000.970 2525.

2. Technische Formelsammlung. Gieck Verlag.and y-axes 70 71 . FV is equal to the weight of the fluid having a volume V located (a) or thought to be located (b) over the surface 1. Ιs = moments of inertia Ιxy = product of inertia of plane A referred to the x. Gieck Verlag. 29th Edition. without consideration of pressure pο. mm Hydrostatic force of pressure on curved surfaces The hydrostatic force of pressure on the curved surface 1. kN ) k density of the body applies: k the body floats in k the body is suspended k the body sinks } a heavy liquid S = centre of gravity of plane A D = centre of pressure Ιx. 2 on the plane perpendicular to FH. 2 is resolved into a horizontal component FH and a vertical component FV. D-7100 Heilbronn) Page 71 p1 72 P2 po ) g h1 p 1 ) g (h 2 + h 1) Pressure distribution in a fluid p1 ) g h Linear pressure Hydrostatic force of pressure on planes The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only i. F yD g g y s A cos p ms mx ys ) y sA y sA hs A . the following applies: FA For > = < g V ( N. Gieck. Buoyance The buoyant force FA is equal to the weight of the displaced fluids having densities and ’. Fv g V (N. The line of application runs through the centre of gravity. 29th Edition. Technische Formelsammlung. kN ) FA If the fluid with density ’ is a gas.e. Gieck.Table of Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydraulics Hydrostatics (Source: K. g V)g V ( N. D-7100 Heilbronn) Hydrodynamics (Source: K. kN) FH is equal to the hydrostatic force of pressure on the projection of the considered surface 1. xD mxy y sA m.

97 for smooth-rounded openings) F: force of reaction . 2 gH r A 2 gH Vessel with small lateral opening Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear (Types of protection) Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear (Gases and vapours) Vessel with wide lateral opening V v s . 2 (gH ) A pü ) pü V 2 (gH ) ) Vessel with excess pressure on outlet v . V 2 r b 2 g (H 2 3 3 2 + H1 3 2 ) Vessel with excess pressure on liquid level v . 2 gH 2 Hh (without any coefficient of friction) r A 2 gH . 2 A pü pü V 2 v: discharge velocity g: gravity : density pü: excess pressure compared to external pressure ϕ: coefficient of friction (for water ϕ = 0.Hydraulics Hydrodynamics Table of Contents Section 7 Discharge of liquids from vessels Vessel with bottom opening Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed.62 for sharp-edged openings) (ε = 0. V F Vv . Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Page 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 v . V : volume flow rate b: width of opening 72 73 .97) ε: coefficient of contraction (ε = 0.

0769 0.3 0.30 1.061 0.20 0.10 43..04 61 7.09 0.73 P U cos 0.069 0.33 0.73 U cos 1.063 0.2066 0.83 4. homog.0278 1. p = 2 n 50 2 60 1500 min +1 Efficiency: r P ab P zu 100 % 1) Example: Efficiency and power factor of a four-pole 1.73 .02083 0. Retort graphite 36 0.32 15.046 0..023 0. .02778 0.43 0.54 Power factor cos ϕ Efficiency η Single-phase alternating current 132-kW motor 1. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors p Speed: m mm 2 m Ohm’s law: U R U R R U Material Power rating: 60 p Output power 1) Direct current: . r Three-phase current: Pab = 1.84 13 6.92 2. .045 0. .85 0. U .0 7.1-kW motor and a 132-kW motor dependent on the load P U P U cos P U cos 30.2 0.50 0.35 1. cos .43 0.015 0.033 0.2 16.5 9.055 0.107 0.32 5.12 n = speed (min -1) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of pole pairs Example: f = 50 Hz.0.15.5 58 22 14.7.962 0.4 18.135 0.0 48 36 18 2. r m m mm 2 n f Series connection of resistors: R R1 ) R2 ) R3 ) ) Rn Direct current a) Metals Aluminium Bismuth R total resistance m Lead Rn individual resistance m Cadmium Iron wire Gold Shunt connection of resistors: Copper 1 ) 1 ) 1 ) ) 1 1 Magnesium Rn R1 R2 R3 R Nickel R total resistance m Platinum Mercury individual resistance m Rn Silver Tantalum Electric power: Tungsten Current consumption Zinc Power Tin P U b) Alloys Aldrey (AlMgSi) Bronze I Bronze II Bronze III Constantan (WM 50) Manganin Brass Nickel silver (WM 30) Nickel chromium Niccolite (WM 43) Platinum rhodium Steel wire (WM 13) Wood’s metal c) Other conductors Graphite Carbon. η Single-phase alternating current: Pab = U .01724 0.1-kW motor Three-phase current P 1. Pab = U .13 0.7 1.0 2.5 8..05556 0.Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Electrical Engineering Speed.014 22 65 70 Resistance of a conductor: l l R A p A R l γ A = = = = = resistance (Ω) length of conductor (m) electric conductivity (m/Ω mm2) cross section of conductor (mm2) specific electrical resistance (Ω mm2)/m) Power output P / PN 1) Pab = mechanical output power on the motor shaft Pzu = absorbed electric power 74 75 .0164 0.9 3.1 0. cos .

wires or similar objects having a thickness above 1 mm Protection against harmful dust covers.Electrical Engineering Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of construction and mounting arrangements of rotating electrical machinery [Extract from DIN/IEC 34. access from housing side – Design/Explanation Fastening or Installation 4 V1 2 end shields without feet flanged at the bottom 5 V3 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields without feet flanged at the top 6 V5 with feet fastening to wall or on substructure V6 with feet – fastening to wall or on substructure 1) For equipment with degrees of protection from 1 to 4. access from housing side mounting flange close to bearing on input side. however. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes or cooling air slots. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 2. protection of persons against contact with live parts Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 12 mm (medium-sized foreign bodies) 1) Keeping away of fingers or similar objects Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 2. feet on LH side when looking at input side wall fastening.80)] Example of designation Design/Explanation Fastening or Installation installation on substructure Explanation General design Type of protection DIN 40050 IP 4 4 Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number B3 – mounting flange close to bearing. 76 77 . Part 7 (4. 2) For degrees of protection 3 and 4. vertical arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings Stator (Housing) Shaft free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top Explanation General design mounting flange close to bearing on input side. however. The ingress of dust is not entirely prevented. 3) Complete protection against contact Protection against the ingress of dust (dust-tight) Complete protection against contact B6 with feet wall fastening. if necessary end shields turned through 180° mounting flange close to bearing. dust may not enter to such an amount that operation of the equipment is impaired (dustproof). Degrees of protection for protection against contact and foreign bodies (first type number) First type number 0 1 Degree of protection (Protection against contact and foreign bodies) No special protection Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 50 mm (large foreign bodies) 1) No protection against intended access. 3) For degree of protection 5. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes. access from housing side B5 flanged An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water.g. access from housing side design B3. uniformly or non-uniformly shaped foreign bodies with three dimensions perpendicular to each other and above the corresponding diameter values are prevented from ingress.5 mm Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm (grain sized foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. by hand. e. if necessary end shields turned through -90° design B3. feet on RH side when looking at input side B7 with feet B8 with feet fastening on ceiling B 35 with feet installation on substructure with additional flange 2 3 Machines with end shields.5 mm (small foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools.83)] Machines with end shields. if necessary end shields turned through 90° design B3. horizontal arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields Stator (Housing) with feet without feet Shaft free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of protection for electrical equipment [Extract from DIN 40050 (7.

The equipment (enclosure) is suitable for permanent submersion under conditions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion). No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (immersion). It may not have any harmful effect (dripping water). It may not have any harmful effect (hose-directed water). Intrinsic safety i Low-voltage engineering: measuring and control devices (electrical equipment and circuits) Potentially explosive atmosphere 78 79 . motors.. Protection against a water jet from a nozzle which is directed on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. Degrees of protection for protection against water (second type number) Second type number 0 1 No special protection Protection against dripping water falling vertically.Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Types of protection for electrical equipment [Extract from DIN 40050 (7. It may not have any harmful effect on equipment (enclosure) inclined by up to 15° relative to its normal position (diagonally falling dripping water). No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (flooding). It may not have any harmful effect (spraying water). Protection against heavy sea or strong water jet. transformers. Protection against dripping water falling vertically. switchgears. Protection against water if the equipment (enclosure) is immersed under determined pressure and time conditions. and other spark generating parts Ex EEx d II B T3 2 Pressurized enclosure p 3 4 Especially for large apparata. measuring and control devices 8 1) This degree of protection is normally for air-tight enclosed equipment. terminal and junction boxes.80)] Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water. transformers q Capacitors 6 e 7 Squirrel-cage motors. however. current transformers. For certain equipment. lighting fittings. switchgear. 1) Degree of protection (Protection against water) Type of protection DIN 40050 IP 4 4 Electrical Engineering Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear Explosion protection of electrical switchgear Example of designation / Type of protection [Extract from DIN EN 50014 . lighting fittings. 50020] Example of designation Symbol for equipment certified by an EC testing authority Symbol for equipment made according to European Standards Type of protection Explosion group Temperature class Types of protection Type of protection Flameproof enclosure Symbol d Gap-s Scheme Application Heavy-current engineering (commutator) motors. Protection against water spraying on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. It may not have any harmful effect (splashing water).. Protection against water falling at any angle up to 60° relative to the perpendicular. generators 5 Oil-immersion enclosure Sand-filled enclosure Increased safety o Switchgears. water may enter provided that it has no harmful effect.

0. Safe area ZONE Potentially explosive atmosphere Existing explos.....Electrical Engineering Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear Table of Contents Section 8 Explosion protection of electrical switchgear Designation of electrical equipment / Classification of areas acc.. to Firedamp protection Explosion protection Classification according to gases and vapours For flame proof enclosures: maximum width of gap > 0.5 mm For intrinsically safe circuits: minimum ignition current ratio referred to methane 1) Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Page 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 96 97 97 97 98 VDE 0170/0171/2.200 G5 from 100..8 mm ≥ 0. Annex A Classification of areas according to gases and vapours Zone 0 Areas with permanent or long-term potentially explosive atmospheres.. 50020 EEx.5 .45 .45 mm 1 2 3a . to gases and vapours [Extract from DIN EN 50014 .450 G3> 200..61 Sch Ex Explosion class EN 50014 .9mm < 0..9 mm ≥ 0. Zone 2 Areas where potentially explosive atmospheres are expected to occur only rarely and then only for short periods..I EEx. atmosphere permanent or long-term probably during normal operation (occasionally) rarely and at short terms practically never Ignition sources (n) additionally 80 81 . see EN 50014.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 1) For definition..0.II Explosion group Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs > 0.. Zone 1 Areas where potentially explosive atmospheres are expected to occur occasionally.8mm < 0..300 G4> 135.135 Permissible limiting temperature °C 360 240 160 110 80 A B C Temperature class Ignition Maximum temperature surface temperature °C °C T1 > 450 450 T2 > 300 300 T3 > 200 200 T4 > 135 135 T5 > 100 100 T6 > 85 85 Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Ignition temperature of gases and vapours in °C Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin. 50020] Designation of electrical equipment Designation acc.... 3n Ignition group Ignition temperature °C G1> 450 G2> 300.

6511 900 1100–1300 800 1000–1200 700 34 CrNiMo 6 1.6τtW – 0.7034 1.1209 1.1181 1. Rp 0.1221 1.7 σW 1.7226 1.2 above 100 up to 160 mm Yield point (0.1223 1.87)] Mechanical properties of steels in quenched and tempered condition (Code letter V) Diameter Steel grade up to 16 mm Yield point (0. R e.45 Rm σSch 1.7227 1.7 Re Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Quenched and tempered steels [Extract from DIN 17200 (3.0601 1.37 Rm 1.44 Rm 1.2 Gr) N/mm2 min. σSch is larger.2 MateGr) rial N/mm2 no.1203 1. for spring steel σdSch ≈ 1.0501 1.0503 1.7 σbW 0.3 ⋅ σSch For grey cast iron σdSch ≈ 3 .7228 350 430 500 550 580 350 430 430 500 500 550 550 580 580 590 550– 700 630– 780 700– 850 800– 950 850–1000 550– 700 630– 780 630– 780 700– 850 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 850–1000 780– 930 300 370 430 500 520 300 370 370 430 430 500 500 520 520 490 500– 600– 650– 750– 800– 500– 600– 600– 650– 650– 750– 750– 800– 800– 650 750 800 900 950 650 750 750 800 800 900 900 950 950 – 320 370 430 450 – 320 320 370 370 430 430 450 450 440 350 400 460 460 510 510 560 560 450 550 550 650 650 700 – 550– 630– 700– 750– – 550– 550– 630– 630– 700– 700– 750– 750– 700 780 850 900 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 400 500 500 550 550 650 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 650– 800 750– 900 750– 900 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 450 450 500 500 550 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 700– 850 700– 850 750– 900 750– 900 800– 950 750– 900 800– 950 900–1100 800– 950 900–1100 1) For polished round section test piece of about 10 mm diameter.1191 1.7220 1. R e. e. Rp 0.0535 1.8159 900 1100–1300 800 1000–1200 700 30 CrMoV9 1.g.41 Rm 1.7 Re – – C 22 C 35 C 45 C 55 C 60 Ck 22 Ck 35 Cm 35 Ck 45 Cm 45 Ck 55 Cm 55 Ck 60 Cm 60 28 Mn 6 38 Cr 2 46 Cr 2 34 Cr 4 34 Cr S4 37 Cr 4 37 Cr S4 41 Cr 4 41 Cr S4 25 CrMo 4 34 CrMo 4 34 CrMo S4 42 CrMo 4 42 CrMo S4 50 CrMo 4 1. min.30 Rm 0.7039 1. R e.1 τtW τF 0.6τtW 0.40 Rm – 0.3 σW 1. Rp 0.25 Rm 1.7218 1.2 above 40 up to 100 mm Yield point (0.2 Gr) N/mm2 min. Re.7 σbW 0.5 σbW 0.6 σW – σbW Bending 1) σbSch σbF 1.7 Re Symbol Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Case harden0.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.36 Rm 0.7033 1.1151 1.2 above 160 up to 250 mm Yield point (0.6580 1050 1250–1450 1050 1250–1450 900 50 CrV 4 1.4 Re – – 0.1170 1.1180 1.7037 1. R e.7006 1.25 Rm Light metal 0. Rm and Re of core material.2 above 16 up to 40 mm Yield point (0.8 σbW 0.40 Rm ing steel 2) Grey cast iron 0. determined on round section test piece of about 30 mm diameter.4τtW 1.30 Rm 1.49 Rm 1. 3) For compression.7003 1. σSch Ultimate stress values Rm Re σW σSch σbW σbSch σbF τtW τtSch τtF Tensile strength Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Yield point Type of load Tension Tension Tension Tension Bending Bending Bending Torsion Torsion Torsion 700 700 780 780 850 850 900 900 690– 840 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 850–1000 900–1100 900–1100 800– 950 900–1100 900–1100 1000–1200 1000–1200 1000–1200 640– 790 600– 650– 700– 700– 750– 750– 800– 800– 750 800 850 850 900 900 950 950 550 800– 950 450 650 900–1100 550 700 900–1100 590 700 900–1100 590 750 950–1150 630 750 950–1150 630 800 1000–1200 660 800 1000–1200 660 700 800 800 900 900 900 900–1100 1000–1200 1000–1200 1100–1300 1100–1300 1100–1300 600 650 650 750 750 780 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 900–1100 900–1100 900–1100 36 CrNiMo 4 1.30 Rm 1.5 Re τtW 0.6 σW 1.41 Rm 1.Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Conversion of fatigue strength values of miscellaneous materials Tension 3) Material Structural steel Quenched and tempered steel σW 0.2 0.0402 1.35 Rm Torsion 1) τtSch 1.7038 1.7707 1050 1250–1450 1020 1200–1450 900 900–1100 600 1000–1200 700 1100–1300 800 900–1100 1100–1300 650 800 800– 950 550 900–1100 600 1000–1200 700 850–1000 600 1000–1200 700 82 83 .7035 1. Rp 0.7225 1.6582 1000 1200–1400 900 1100–1300 800 30 CrNiMo 6 1.2 Gr) N/mm2 min. 2) Case-hardened.1201 1.4 Re 0. Rp 0.

670. C 40... 510 470 To be agreed upon To be agreed upon – 235 225 215 215 215 R St 37-2 1.. untreated 2) This value applies to thicknesses up to 25 mm only C 60 and C 50 lie approximately between Ck 45 and 46 Cr 2. 25 tion 1) Symbol MateMate rial no.... 660 610 590. N Quenched and tempered steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 34 CrNiMo 6 30 CrMoV 4 42 CrMo 4 36 CrNiMo 4 50 CrV 4 34 CrMo 4 28 Cr 4 C 45 C 22 like 30 CrNiMo 8 like 30 CrNiMo 8 like 50 CrMo 4 like 50 CrMo 4 like 50 CrMo 4 like 41 Cr 4 like 46 Cr 2 like Ck 45 like Ck 22 St 60-2 1..0037 U. N St 70-2 1.0070 U. 340 360 340.. 900 830 355 345 335 325 315 St 50-2 1.0144 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength St 52-3 1.80)] Steel grade TreatSimilar steel Tensile strength Rm Upper yield point ReH in N/mm2 ment grades in N/mm2 for product (minimum) for product thickness in roduct roduct condicondi thickness in mm mm EURON. N St 44-3 St 44-3 1. Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating 84 85 . 490.. 410. 470.0035 U.. N 235 225 215 205 195 360. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials General-Purpose Structural Steels General-purpose structural steels [Extract from DIN 17100 (1... N U St 37-2 1. 570. N – – – St 37-2 1. C 35 .. <3 Fe 310-0 – Fe 360-BFU 310... N. U hot-rolled. 580 540 275 265 255 245 235 510.0044 U. 32 Cr 2. 540 ≥3 >16 >40 >63 >80 >100 ≤16 >100 ≤100 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 290 185 175 2) St 33 1..0116 U N Fe 360-C Fe 360-D Fe 430-B Fe 430-C Fe 430-D Fe 510-C Fe 510-D Fe 490-2 Fe 590-2 Fe 690-2 St 44-2 1.. DIN 17200 (in quenched and tempered condition.0036 U......0570 U N U N 430.0060 U.. N 295 285 275 265 255 335 325 315 305 295 365 355 345 335 325 1) N normalized.... 770 710 690.0038 U. 680 630 490. C 30 and C 25 lie approximately between Ck 22 and Ck 45.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of quenched and tempered steels.0050 U. Fe 360-BFN St 37-3 1.

7131 1. Treatment condition C G BF BG Meaning treated for shearing load soft annealed treated for strength treated for ferrite/pearlite structure Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating 86 87 .7149 1. 295 295 355 355 355 440 590 590 685 685 590 590 685 685 635 785 785 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 490– 640 490– 640 590– 790 590– 790 590– 790 690– 890 780–1080 780–1080 980–1280 980–1280 780–1080 780–1080 980–1280 980–1280 880–1180 1180–1430 1080–1330 For dia. 30 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7325 1.5919 1.7139 1. the Brinell hardness is different.7326 1.0401 1.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of general-purpose structural steels.1140 1. Quality specifications to DIN 17210 (12. see DIN 17210 510 635 635 735 735 635 635 735 735 685 835 835 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 640– 790 640– 790 740– 890 740– 890 740– 890 780–1030 880–1180 880–1180 1080–1380 1080–1380 880–1180 880–1180 1080–1380 1080–1380 960–1280 1230–1480 1180–1430 For dia.7321 1.1141 1.6587 1) Dependent on treatment. C 10 Ck 10 C 15 Ck 15 Cm 15 15 Cr 13 16 MnCr 5 16 MnCrS 5 20 MnCr 5 20 MnCrS5 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength 20 MoCr 4 20 MoCrS 4 25 MoCrS4 25 MoCrS 4 15 CrNi 6 18 CrNi 8 1. DIN 17100 (test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials Case Hardening Steels Case hardening steels.7323 1.5920 c) Torsional fatigue strength 17 CrNiMo 6 1. 11 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7015 1. – – – – – – 440 440 540 540 – – – – 540 685 685 640– 940 640– 940 780–1080 780–1080 – – – – 780–1080 1080–1330 980–1280 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 – – – – – Symbol Material no.0301 1.69) from SI tables (2. 390 390 440 440 440 For details. 63 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.1121 1.7147 1.1974) of VDEh Steel grade Treatment condition 1) For dia.

8159 Com arable Comparable grade acc.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of case hardening steels. DIN 17210 (Core strength after case hardening.1221 1.0605 1.7103 1.0446 1.79)] Steel grade Symbol C 55 Ck 55 C 60 Ck 60 C 67 Ck 67 C 75 CK75 Ck 85 CK 101 55 Si 7 71 Si 7 67 SiCr 5 Material no.5029 1. 380 450 520 600 Mean value 1) J min.85)] Cast steel grade Yield point Re Rp 0 2 e.0420 1. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Cold rolled steel strips for springs [Extract from DIN 17222 (8. to EURONORM 132 1 CS 55 2 CS 55 1 CS 60 2 CS 60 1 CS 67 2 CS 67 1 CS 75 2 CS 75 2 CS 85 CS 100 – – 67 SiCr 5 50 CrV 4 Degree of conformity 1) F F F F F F F F F F – – f F Tensile strength Rm 2) N/mm2 maximum 610 620 640 640 670 690 740 800 800 740 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength 50 CrV 4 c) Torsional fatigue strength 1) F = minor deviations f = substantial deviations 2) Rm for cold rolled and soft-annealed condition. for strip thicknesses up to 3 mm Cast steels for general engineering purposes [Extract from DIN 1681 (6. 88 89 . 1) Determined from three individual values each.0552 1.1203 1. 0.0601 1. 35 27 27 27 35 27 22 20 Case hardening steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 25 MoCr 4 like 20 MnCr 5 17 CrNiMo 6 like 18 CrNi 8 GS-38 GS-45 GS-52 GS-60 1.0558 Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating The mechanical properties apply to specimens which are taken from test pieces with thicknesses up to 100 mm.1231 1.2 Symbol Material no. the yield point values also apply to the casting itself. Tensile strength Rm Notched bar impact work (ISO-V-notch specimens) Av ≤ 30 mm > 30 mm N/mm2 min.1248 1.1274 1.0603 1.0535 1.1269 1. in so far as the wall thickness is ≤ 100 mm.0904 1. Furthermore. 1. 200 230 260 300 N/mm2 min.

Part 2 (10.84)] Grade of wire Diameter of wire mm 0. Nodular graphite cast iron [Extract from DIN 1693. 2) Values in the separately cast test piece with 30 mm diameter of the unfinished casting.2 N/mm2 250 240 250 240 300 290 360 340 400 380 90 91 . 100 2) 130 110 95 80 180 155 130 115 225 195 170 155 270 240 210 195 315 280 250 225 Brinell hardness 1) Round steel wire for springs [Extract from DIN 17223.77)] Properties in cast-on test pieces Grade Material Symbol Number 0.6030 960 0.6035 1080 The values apply to castings which are made in sand moulds or moulds with comparable heat diffusibility.7070 Wall thickness of casting mm from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 mm up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 Thickness of cast-on test piece mm 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 390 370 390 370 450 420 600 550 700 650 0.2% proof stress Rp0.6020 720 0.07 0.6015 Wall thicknesses in mm above 5 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 up to 40 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 Tensile strength 1) Rm N/mm2 min.7040 0.85)] D Grade Material Symbol GG-10 GG-15 Number 0.3 1160–1300 GGG-40 GGG-50 GGG-60 GGG-70 GG-35 GG-30 GG-25 0.Materials Round Steel Wire for Springs Materials Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Lamellar graphite cast iron [Extract from DIN 1691 (5.6025 840 0. Part 1 (12.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 – – 1720–1970 1520–1750 1410–1620 1320–1520 1260–1450 1210–1390 1160–1340 1120–1300 1090–1260 1060–1230 – – – – – – – – – – A B C Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 – 2370–2650 1980–2220 1760–1970 1630–1830 1530–1730 1460–1650 1400–1580 1350–1530 1310–1480 1270–1440 1240–1400 1210–1370 1180–1340 1160–1310 1130–1280 1110–1260 1090–1230 1070–1210 1050–1190 1030–1170 1020–1150 – – – 1980–2200 1840–2040 1740–1930 1660–1840 1590–1770 1540–1710 1490–1660 1450–1610 1410–1570 1380–1530 1350–1500 1320–1470 1290–1440 1270–1410 1240–1390 1220–1360 1200–1340 1180–1320 1160–1300 2800–3100 2660–2940 2230–2470 1980–2200 1840–2040 Compressive strength 2) σdB N/mm2 – 600 HB 30 – 225 205 – – 250 235 – – 265 250 – – 285 265 – – 285 275 – – GG-20 1740–1930 1660–1840 1590–1770 1540–1710 1490–1660 1450–1610 1410–1570 1380–1530 1350–1500 1320–1470 1290–1440 1270–1410 1240–1390 1220–1360 1200–1340 1180–1320 GGG-40.7043 0.6010 0.7050 0. 1) These values are reference values.7060 0.

1052.01 2.2381.0940.01 3.2381.1060.2381.62 3.01 2.1093.44 3.61 3.1060.1052.04 2.1098.2581.0975.02 Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting 0.03 2. in N/mm2 260 280 280 280 300 300 260 280 280 270 260 240 270 270 270 220 210 Materials Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1725 (2.03 2.01 2.03 2.2 min.0975.1090.02 2.0970.3241.2211.2381. in N/mm2 Condition on delivery 180 200 200 200 230 250 270 300 300 300 320 400 400 180 200 500 550 550 500 530 600 600 600 700 700 680 680 750 440 450 1) Material properties in the test bar 92 93 .01 3.3241.61 3.61 3.02 2.2371.63 3.0962.86)] Material Symbol G-AlSi 12 G-AlSi 12 g GK-AlSi 12 GK-AlSi 12 g G-AlSi 10 Mg G-AlSi 10 Mg wa GK-AlSi 10 Mg GK-AlSi 10 Mg wa G-AlSi 11 G-AlSi 11 g GK-AlSi 11 GK-AlSi 11g G-AlSi 7 Mg wa GK-AlSi 7 Mg wa GF-AlSi 7 Mg wa G-AlMg 3 Si G-AlMg 3 Si wa GK-AlMg 3 Si GK-AlMg 3 Si wa GF-AlMg 3 Si wa Number 3. in N/mm2 Tensile strength 1) Rm min.01 2.1061.2581.0980.2% proof stress 1) Rp0.2371.01 2.2581.62 3.2211.02 3.2 min.3241.3241.02 2.81)] Material Symbol G-CuSn 12 GZ-CuSn 12 GC-CuSn12 G-CuSn 12 Ni GZ-CuSn 12 Ni GC-CuSn 12 Ni G-CuSn 12 Pb GZ-CuSn 12 Pb GC-CuSn 12 Pb G-CuSn 10 G-CuSn 10 Zn G-CuSn 7 ZnPb GZ-CuSn 7 ZnPb GC-CuSn 7 ZnPb G-CuSn 6 ZnNi G-CuSn 5 ZnPb G-CuSn 2 ZnPb Number 2.81)] Material Symbol G-CuAl 10 Fe GK-CuAl 10 Fe GZ-CuAl 10 Fe G-CuAl 9 Ni GK-CuAl 9 Ni GZ-CuAl 9 Ni G-CuAl 10 Ni GK-CuAl 10 Ni GZ-CuAl 10 Ni GC-CuAl 10 Ni G-CuAl 11 Ni GK-CuAl 11 Ni GZ-CuAl 11 Ni G-CuAl 8 Mn GK-CuAl 8 Mn Number 2.0940.0980.1061.03 2.2581.81 3.Materials Copper-Tin.04 2.04 2.63 Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron annealed and quenched Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting annealed and quenched Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting temper-hardened Sand-mould cast iron as cast annealed Chilled casting as cast annealed Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting temper-hardened High-quality casting temper-hardened Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting temper-hardened Chilled casting temper-hardened Casting method and condition on delivery 0.0970.03 2.45 3.0975.01 2.2% proof stress 1) Rp0.01 3.0970.1086.1096.1060.01 2.01 2.04 2.62 3.03 2.01 2.1052. in N/mm2 140 150 140 160 180 170 140 150 140 130 130 120 130 120 140 90 90 Tensile strength 1) Rm min.01 2.1090.03 2.01 3.02 3.2211.02 3.01 2.2211.1090.01 2.0975.01 Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Condition on delivery 0.1061.2 in N/mm2 70 up to 100 70 up to 100 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 180 up to 260 90 up to 120 210 up to 280 70 up to 100 70 up to 100 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 190 up to 240 200 up to 280 200 up to 260 80 up to 100 120 up to 160 80 up to 100 120 up to 180 120 up to 160 Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 150 up to 200 150 up to 200 170 up to 230 170 up to 230 160 up to 210 220 up to 320 180 up to 240 240 up to 320 150 up to 200 150 up to 200 170 up to 230 170 up to 230 230 up to 310 250 up to 340 260 up to 320 140 up to 190 200 up to 280 150 up to 200 220 up to 300 200 up to 280 1) Material properties in the test bar Copper-aluminium casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1714 (11.04 2.0980.and copper-zinc-tin casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1705 (11.2371.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Copper-tin.1050.2 proof stress Rp0.02 3.0940.03 2.0962.3241.82 3.02 2.01 2.

2 62.3393 2.4 67.2 41.0 83.4 60.3 72.6 54. ASTM E 18-74 (American Society for Testing and Materials) 2) Calculated from HB = 0.4 49.9 47.0 64.8 72.3 66.4 84.3 44.7 38.2 95.1 89.7 85.3 76.3 75.3 75.5 29.2 66.8 74.7 71.6 62.1 49.0 52.0 62.4 65.3 56.6 80.3 61.3 65.0 46.1 20.2 82.9 342 352 361 371 380 390 399 409 418 428 437 447 (456) (466) (475) (485) (494) (504) (513) (523) (532) (542) (551) (561) (570) (580) (589) (599) (608) (618) 1) Material properties in the test bar 67.3 74.0 96. to DIN 50103 Part 1 and 2 Determination of Vickers hardness acc.2 75.4 69.5 63.8 53.2 29.82)] Grade Material Symbol PbSb 15 SnAs PbSb 15 Sn 10 PbSb 14 Sn 9 CuAs PbSb 10 Sn 6 SnSb 12 Cu 6 Pb SnSb 8 Cu 4 SnSb 8 Cu 4 Cd Number 2.8 57.7 69.3 46.7 56.6 44.1 (101) 24.9 63.8 75.5 90.8 57.1 74.7 85.1 81.3 21.8 73.3390 2.3 33.1 70.2 62.1 47.0 78.5 72.9 66.8 58.4 77.2 61.3 73.0 53.8 84.8 50.7 67. and HRD acc.7 69.8 66.g.0 56.8 65.0 24.3392 2.2 65.3 70.3 58.Materials Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Materials Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Vickers Tensile hardstrength ness N/mm2 (F>98N) 255 270 285 305 320 335 350 370 385 400 415 430 450 465 480 495 510 530 545 560 575 595 610 625 640 660 675 690 705 720 740 755 770 785 800 820 835 850 865 880 900 915 930 950 965 995 1030 1060 1095 1125 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 310 320 330 340 350 Brinell hardness 2) F N 0.0 48.7 23.5 93.7 60.2 51.2 59.8 80.3 81.9 The figures in brackets are hardness values outside the domain of definition of standard hardness test methods which.7 63.1 76.4 55.4 50.8 40.8 71.8 (102) 25. HRB.4 76. to DIN 50351 Determination of tensile strength acc.0 77.3 64.6 78.1 61.3 53.8 39.5 91.95 HV (Vickers hardness) Determination of Rockwell hardness HRA.8 78.3 46.2% proof stress 1) Rp 0.4 49.102 + ) 30 D2 mm 2 Rockwell hardness HRC HRA 36.6 26.1 51. however.5 85. in practice are frequently used as approximate values.1 42.0 69. the Brinell hardness values in brackets apply only if the test was carried out with a carbide ball.3 56.0 80.7 81.3791 2.7 76.6 68. Furthermore.4 62.0 61.0 80.2 69.7 40.1 99.3 61.4 83.7 65.6 37.7 61.1 51.7 98.8 59.2 79.7 44.1 76.1 54.5 64.5 94.8 31.4 (104) 27.5 64.6 54.7 55. e.5 79.4 71.8 59.9 79.4 35.0 32. to DIN 50133 Part 1 Determination of Brinell hardness acc.3 60.5 22.0 67.0 99.7 77.5 48.2 in N/mm2 20 °C 39 43 46 39 61 47 62 50 °C 37 32 39 32 60 44 44 100 °C 25 30 27 27 36 27 30 Rockwell hardness HRB HRC HRA HRD 1) Vickers Tensile hardstrength ness N/mm2 (F>98N) 1155 1190 1220 1255 1290 1320 1350 1385 1420 1455 1485 1520 1555 1595 1630 1665 1700 1740 1775 1810 1845 1880 1920 1955 1995 2030 2070 2105 2145 2180 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Brinell hardness 2) F N 0.4 67.3 73.6 41.3 68.1 72.4 78.8 105 109 114 119 124 128 133 138 143 147 152 156 162 166 171 176 181 185 190 195 199 204 209 214 219 223 228 233 238 242 247 252 257 261 266 271 276 280 285 295 304 314 323 333 41.1 60.5 63.2 43.3792 Brinell hardness 1) HB 10/250/180 20 °C 18 21 22 16 25 22 28 50 °C 15 16 22 16 20 17 25 120 °C 14 14 16 14 12 11 19 0.1 46.8 70.0 68.5 67.1 27.0 87.7 43.8 71.0 95.8 82.5 74.8 81.8 62.5 70.1 43. 1) Internationally usual.5 58.0 HRD 1) 52.0 67.8 64.3 57.8 70.5 47.6 74.2 64.5 68.2 58.102 + ) 30 D2 mm 2 Lead and tin casting alloys for babbit sleeve bearings [Extract from DIN ISO 4381 (10. to DIN 50145 94 95 .8 (105) 28.2 55.6 83.8 66.7 85.1 63.7 52.0 78.6 76.5 51.9 75. HRC.8 65.9 68.3 80.0 56.6 73.8 41.1 84.3391 2.3790 2.7 76.8 42.5 63.0 96.5 62.5 92.3 34.5 45.0 85.7 48.9 45.9 64.

.8 2.335 950 104.13 10 0..29 2. 100 °C Substance Aluminium alloys Grey cast iron (e. natural Beryllium Concrete Lead Boron (amorph.3.4 1816 1.8.28 8.69 2. + sec.26 20 0.5 11.87 29 – 2.1 63.85 7..84 15 0.175 0.25 1.100 0..6 1.125 0...2.67 5....1..66 20 0.15 1.55 3.5 1850 22 Iron-carbon diagram Mixed crystals Mixed crystals Melting + δ-mixed crystals Melting (Cementite) γ-mixed crystals (austenite) Melting + γ-mixed crystals γ-mixed crystals + sec.05 15 1..300 > 175 316 380.2 – 0... Primary cementite + ledeburite Pearlite Boiling Thermal oint point conductiat vity λ 1..6..2 2.7 – 3...6.27 1.5 ≈1650 ≈1 3. rhombic Sulphur....8 – 0.7 – – 1530 81 30.14 0.4 802 – – 0.2 7.6 3.8 9..4 14.6 8.3 1800 8.3 321 92.g.3 ≈2.96 20 ≈0.380 290 150.2.. fire Slate Emery Sulphur.86 0.1 2..83 20 0..8.8 1480 9.1..23 7.34.3 ≈2000 ≈1.7 ≈2000 ≈0. hard Cerium Zinc Tin Zirconium Melting point t in °C Thermal conductivity λ at 20 °C W/(mK) Values of solids and liquids Symbol Density p g/cm3 Agate Aluminium Aluminium bronze Antimony Arsenic Asbestos Asphaltum Barium Barium chloride Basalt.6 2.3 1..5 1670 15.14 0..6 22.9 1.4 1.75 – 936 58.35 – 0.94 20 (cubic body centered) Carbon content in weight percentage Cementite content in weight percentage Mo Na Ni Nb Os Pd P Pt Nickel Niobium Osmium Palladium Paraffin Pitch Phosphorus (white) Platinum Polyamide A..cem.7 97.. pure Grease Gallium Germanium Gypsum Glass.2.14 0..6 1500..65 – ≈1 327.7 ≈1800 38 4..8 19. rapid machining steel Copper Brass CuZn37 Bronze CuSn8 α [10−6/K] 21 .9.2...3..92.. For the linear expansion of a body applies: m l ) lo + + T where ∆l: change of length lο: original length α: coefficient of linear expansion ∆T: rise of temperature Coefficients of linear expansion of some substances at 0 .6 2990 54 6.83 15 1. + pearlite + ledeburite Ledeburite 2.81 20 13.cem.2 6.5 10.13 44 – 1770 70 ≈250 0.1 0.8 271 8.5 16 11.5 – – ≈1300 – 80.4 1.7 2300 – 740 – 1565 – 910 64 774 – 1800 69 1430 52.15 0.58 7.2 3410 130 1.9 0..14 2... pure Diesel oil Glycerine Resin oil Fuel oil EL Linseed oil Machinery oil Methanol Methyl chloride Mineral oil Petroleum ether Petroleum Mercury Hydrochloric acid 10% Sulphuric acid...25 455 4. DIN 17210 Hardness on finished gear Symbol HV1 16 MnCr 5 15 CrNi 6 17 CrNiMo 6 720 730 740 σHlim N/mm2 1470 1490 1510 σFlim N/mm2 430 460 500 Hg 96 97 .5.93 20 0.7 1450 26 2.26 7.0.4 8.) Borax Limonite Bronze (CuSn6) Chlorine calcium Chromium Chromium nickel (NiCr 8020) Delta metal Diamond Iron...8 – 0.7 6.99% Uranium 99.9 8.52 39 58 12..8.1.6 1480 0.209 29.5 1. strong Silicon fluid Pitting and tooth root fatigue strength of case hardening steels.. 24 10.42 ≈1.20 658 204 1040 128 630 22.26 – 0.22 Cu Li Mg Mn Substance (liquid) Symbol Density p g/cm3 at °C 0..86 419 110 7.9.29 0.2.3 1.2 232 65 6.28 18..5 17..145.17 156 24 2450 59.5 8..15 0...7 ≈1520 1.0.9 52 0. B Ether Benzine Benzole.8 0..5 Substance (solid) Substance (solid) Ra Re Rh Rb Ru S S Se Ag Si Cr C Fe Ga Ge Au C Temperature in °C Sr Ta Te Th Ti Woods Indium Iridium Cadmium Potassium Limestone Calcium Calcium oxide (lime) Caoutchouc.1.98 8.5 12 0.8 15 0.9 8..8 950 38 1.7 1133 28 6.63 1.9 1460 47.5 126 1020 48 1452 59 2415 54.9 11.2 8..35 – 0.8 0.73 15 0. GG-25) Steel.86 2.64 0.1700 0..5 4 2200 11.58 2.14.. plain + low-alloy stainless 18Cr8Ni non-magnetic 15Ni7Mn Tungsten steel 18W Steanit Hard coal Strontium Tantalum Tellurium Thorium Titanium Tombac Uranium 99.1 19.59 3.2.13 Thermal Melting conductivity λ point at 20 °C t in °C W/(mK) ≈1600 11.0.07 112.7 8.8 2.1.13 4.45.184 1600 23.92 1083 384 – 0..5 ≈3800 168 1200 58 – 0. + pearlite Sec.8 8.1.5 7.47 0.12 – 15.9.400 34.5 960 407 2.1..72 ≈2.4 0.93. alloyed Manganese Marble Red lead oxide Brass (63Cu37Zn) Molybdenum Monel metal Sodium Nickel silver In Ir Cd K Ca Co U V Bi W Cs Ce Zn Sn Zr Sec.1 1890 31.72 3.6.2 2300 106 1..31 22.2 1490 69.2.9.5 8.95 8.73 1.96 119 0.2. GG-20.4 34.33 1420 83 3..2.5 3.698 704 – 960 – – 1.2 10..1.5 ≈1500 2. red Silver Silicon Silicon carbide Sillimanite Soapstone (talcous) Steel.7 7.24 7.2.8.89 3...43 2.24 2.12.65 1000 159 1. Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Mean density of the earth = 5.83 15 0.17 2000 81 – 0.8.83 7. plain and low-alloy Steel.23 16.6.6.. cementite + ledeburite Melting + primary cementite Primary cementite + ledeburite (cubic face centered) Mixed crystals Pearlite Mixed crystals (Ferrite) γ-m.2.15 179 71 657 157 650 69.2 2.91 20 0..1 300..1 7.5 17 18..43 2500 – 1552 70.c.5 1580 – 4.4 1250 30 1290 2.21 0.54 797 0.400 65 24 > 360 > 40 > 150 357 102 338 – W/(mK) 0..3..9 1450 14 8 1450 16.34 Coefficient of linear expansion α The coefficient of linear expansion α gives the fractional expansion of the unit of length of a substance per 1 degree K rise in temperature. monoclinic Barytes Selenium..14 0.210 80 210.32 2..85 ≈2 11.74 1.72 20 ≈0..615 1200 0...9 5...8 0.013MPa at 20 °C MP C °C 35 25.1..6.9 8.5 1.7.6 110 – 2.13 0.2 1.8 2.0.7 900 116 2600 145 ≈1300 19.10.16 0.79 630 – 6.83 21.35 1063 310 – 3.3 1960 88 8...89 5 700 – 21 3175 71 12..cem.67 1280 1.69.Materials Values of Solids and Liquids Materials Coefficient of Linear Expansion.2 850 – 2572 – 125 0..91 15 0. stainless (18Cr 8Ni) Steel.13 0.17 0. dry Sandstone Brick.....25 1..94 5.95 15 0..5 ≈2. common Coke Constantan Corundum (AL2O3) Chalk Copper Leather.5.55 20 1. Iron-Carbon Diagram.517 g/cm3 Symbol Density p g/cm3 Porcelain Pyranite Quartz-flint Radium Rhenium Rhodium Gunmetal (CuSn5ZnPb) Rubidium Ruthenium Sand..0. dry Lithium Magnesium Magnesium.1.45 ≈700 0.2.9.23 – 0.83 2..3 2050 12. crude Cobalt Salt.1 8.4 220 0.5 0.2.4.4.5.99% Vanadium Soft rubber White metal Bismuth Wolfram Cesium Cement.81 ≈1300 0. window Mica Gold Granite Graphite Grey cast iron Laminated fabric Hard rubber Hard metal K20 Al Sb As Ba Be Pb B 2.53 1.

Quenchant c Tempering °C Symbol °C C 10 Ck 10 Ck 15 Cm 15 17 Cr 3 20 Cr 4 20 CrS 4 16 MnCr 5 16 MnCrS5 20 MnCr 5 20 MnCrS 5 20 MoCr 4 20 MoCrS 4 22 CrMoS 3 5 21 NiCrMo 2 21 NiCrMoS 2 15 CrNi 6 17 CrNiMo 6 880 up to 980 860 up to 900 780 up to 820 150 up to 200 830 up to 870 1) Decisive criteria for the determination of the carburizing temperature are mainly the required time of carburizing.0301 1. Hardening after isothermal transformation Table of Contents Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Page 100 101 102 103 104 Direct hardening from carburizing temperature Single hardening from core or case hardening temperature Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Direct hardening after lowering to hardening temperature Single hardening after intermediate annealing (soft annealing) (d) Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) and cooling-down to room temperature Double hardening a b c d e carburizing temperature hardening temperature tempering temperature temperature intermediate annealing (soft annealing) tem erature transformation temperature in the pearlite stage Usual case hardening temperatures Grade of steel Material number 1. the selection of the quenchant depends on the hardenability or casehardenability of the steel.6587 a Carburizing temperature 1) b Case Core hardening hardening temperature 2) temperature 2) °C °C 880 up to 920 With regard to the properties of the component.7131 1. quenching is carried out either from the carburizing temperature or any lower temperature. lower hardening temperatures are preferred.7333 1.1141 1. For direct hardening.7027 1. as well as on the effect of the quenchant. 98 99 . the chosen carburizing agent.1121 1.5919 1.Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Heat treatment during case hardening of case hardening steels acc. the provided course of process. Direct hardening or double hardening B. In particular if there is a risk of warping.0401 1.7147 1. and the plant available.7149 1.7016 1. In special cases.7321 1.6523 1.7028 1.7323 1. carburizing usually is carried out at temperatures below 950 °C. the shape and cross section of the work piece to be hardened. 2) In case of direct hardening. to DIN 17210 Usual heat treatment during case hardening A. as well as the required structural constitution.1140 1. Single hardening C. carburizing temperatures up to above 1000 °C are applied.6526 1.7139 1.

Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-temperature-diagram for mineral oils Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of poly-α-olefine base Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) 100 101 .

5562 3.26424 0. 636 OPTIMOL Optigear BM TRIBOL Tribol 1100 68 0.890 0.904 0. They are suitable for operating temperatures from -10 °C up to +90 °C (briefly +100 °C).7664 3.33813 0.0007 .934 Temperature (°C) 2) Mineral base gear oils in accordance with designation CLP as per DIN 51502.15 [K] Dynamic viscosity η .47717 0.910 0.895 0.Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Lubricating Oils Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity for Mineral Oils at any Temperature Kinematic viscosity υ Quantities for the determination of the kinematic viscosity VG grade 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 W40 [–] 0.910 0.895 150 0. 102 103 . 0.22278 0.4610 3.900 0.890 0. These oils comply with the minimum requirements as specified in DIN 51517 Part 3.905 0.890 100 0.920 0.3151 3.920 0.905 0.900 0.930 0.18066 0.3201 3.889 0. 0.890 0.882 0.6214 3.7231 3.900 0.30178 0.876 0.901 220 0. Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of polyglycole base m [–] 3.895 0.39900 0.2143 3.920 680 0.912 460 0.45225 0.901 0.880 0.895 0.36990 0.890 0..001 η=υ = 15− (t – 15) .8 m [-]: T [K]: W40 [-]: W [-]: υ [cSt]: 1) T = t + 273.2958 3.905 0.885 0.42540 0.900 0.50192 W = m (2..917 0.1775 (1) (2) Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) slope thermodynamic temperature 1) auxiliary quantity at 40 °C auxiliary quantity kinematic viscosity (3) (4) t [°C]: temperature 3 15 [kg/dm ]: density at 15 °C [kg/dm3]: density υ [cSt]: kinematic viscosity η [Ns/m2]: dynamic viscosity Density 15 in kg/dm3 of lubricating oils for gear units ) (Example) 2) VG grade ARAL Degol BG ESSO Spartan EP MOBIL OIL Mobilgear 626 .49575 – lgT) + W40 W m + 10 10 ) 0.907 320 0.885 0.4020 3.

0 20 2.4 14 1.Lubricating Oils Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Table of Contents Section 10 A rox.3 23 3 4 6 8 12 16 24 33 47 67 98 1. viscosities in mm2/s (cSt) at 20 C cSt 40 C cSt Approx.5 8.5 5 5 EP 6 6 EP 6.2 2 2 EP 3.7 E) 12 (2 E) 21 (3 E) 34 55 88 4.3 EP 4.9 19 2.5 85 11 15 19 24 30 40 50 250 65 214 316 464 696 1020 1484 2132 3152 1 EP 2.8 68 10 15 22 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 4 5 8 11 15 21 30 43 61 90 125 180 250 360 510 740 1.5 25 3. ISO-VG assignment DIN to previous 51519 DIN 51502 Mean viscosity (40 °C) and approx.5 35 4.4 4 4 EP 5.5 45 10 W 5.6 46 6.3 13 1.7 17 1. Saybolt assignment universal AGMA to seconds lubricant (SSU) at motorN° at 40 °C car motor 50 C 100 C (mean 40 °C gear oils value) ) oils 1) 1) cSt Engler cSt SAE SAE Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Concepts and Parameters Associated With Involute Teeth Reference Profile Module Tool Profile Generating Tooth Flanks Concepts and Parameters Associated With Cylindrical Gears Geometric Definitions Pitch Addendum Modification Concepts and Parameters Associated With a Cylindrical Gear Pair Definitions Mating Quantities Contact Ratios Summary of the Most Important Formulae Gear Teeth Modifications Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Scope of Application and Purpose Basic Details General Factors Application Factor Dynamic Factor Face Load Factor Transverse Load Factor Tooth Flank Load Carrying Capacity Effective Hertzian Pressure Permissible Hertzian Pressure Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity Effective Tooth Root Stress Permissible Tooth Root Stress Safety Factors Calculation Example Gear Unit Types Standard Designs Load Sharing Gear Units Comparisons Load Value Referred Torques Efficiencies Example Noise Emitted by Gear Units Definitions Measurements Determination via Sound Pressure Determination via Sound Intensity Prediction Possibilities of Influencing Page 106/107 108 108 108 109 109 110 111 111 111 112 113 113 113 114 115-117 118/119 119/120 120/121 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123/124 124 124/125 126 126 126/127 127 127 127/128 128 129 130 130 131 132 132 132/133 133 134 5 7 10 15 22 32 2 4 9 – 8 (1.5 55 65 6.5 15 2. Approx.6 7 EP 8 EP 15 W 20 W 20 30 85 W 40 50 70 W 75 W 5W 16 25 46 36 68 49 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 68 92 114 144 169 225 324 345 550 865 1340 2060 3270 5170 8400 219 137 80 W 90 140 1) Approximate comparative value to ISO VG grades 104 105 .

Pressure angle Angle α in the circular ^ ) m+ 180 measure Transverse pressure angle at the tip circle ad b cp d da db df dw e ep f gα h ha haP haPO hf hfP hfPO hp hPO hprPO Degree rad Degree αat αn αP Degree Normal pressure angle Pressure angle at a point of Degree the standard basic rack tooth profile mm Pressure angle at a point of αPO Degree the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile αprPO Degree αt αwt β βb εα εβ εγ η ζ p Degree Degree Degree Protuberance pressure angle at a point Transverse pressure angle at the reference circle Working transverse pressure angle at the pitch circle Helix angle at the reference circle mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Degree Base helix angle – – – – Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Total contact ratio Efficiency Degree Working angle of the involute mm mm mm – m/s N/mm – – – m2 mm N/mm2 Radius of curvature Tip radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Root radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Effective Hertzian pressure Allowable stress number for contact stress Allowable Hertzian pressure Effective tooth root stress Bending stress number Allowable tooth root stress p aPO p fPO mm mm σH N/mm2 hwP k m mn mt mm σHlim N/mm2 σHP σF σFB N/mm2 N/mm2 – mm mm mm σFlim N/mm2 N/mm2 Note: The unit rad may be replaced by 1.81 N Application factor Transverse load factor (for tooth root stress) Face load factor (for tooth root stress) Transverse load factor (for contact stress) Face load factor (for contact stress) Dynamic factor Sound pressure level A Sound power level A Nominal power rating of driven machine Mean peak-to-valley roughness Factor of safety from tooth breakage Factor of safety from pitting Enveloping surface Torque Lubricating oil viscosity at 40 °C Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Tip factor Roughness factor Size factor Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Zone factor Lubricant factor Speed factor ZX α ^ – Size factor Transverse pressure angle at a point. radius Tip radius Base radius Radius of the working pitch circle Tooth thickness on the reference circle Tooth thickness on the tip circle Tooth thickness of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth thickness of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Gear ratio Circumferential speed on the reference circle Line load Addendum modification coefficient Generating addendum modification coefficient Number of teeth Gear teeth surface Tooth thickness deviation Load value D Fn Ft G HV1 KA KFα KFβ KHα KHβ Kv LpA LWA P RZ SF SH S T V40 Yβ Yε YFS YR YX Zβ Zε ZH ZL ZV mm N N kg – – – – – – – dB dB kW µm – – m2 Nm mm2/s – – – – – – – – – – Construction dimension Load Nominal peripheral force at the reference circle Gear unit weight Vickers hardness at F = 9.Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and units for cylindrical gear units Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and units for cylindrical gear units a mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Hz mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Centre distance Reference centre distance Facewidth Bottom clearance between standard basic rack tooth profile and counter profile Reference diameter Tip diameter Base diameter Root diameter Pitch diameter Spacewidth on the reference cylinder Spacewidth on the standard basic rack tooth profile Frequency Length of path of contact Tooth depth Addendum Addendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Addendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum Dedendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance height of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Working depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile and the counter profile Tip diameter coefficient Module Normal module Transverse module modification n p p pbt pe pen pet pex pt prPO q r ra rb rw s san sp sPO u v w x xE z A As BL 1/min N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Speed Sound pressure Pitch on the reference circle Pitch on the base circle Normal base pitch Normal base pitch at a point Normal transverse pitch Axial pitch Transverse base pitch. reference circle pitch Protuberance value on the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Machining allowance on the cylindrical gear tooth flanks Reference circle radius. 106 107 .

The pre-machining tool generates the root diameter and the fillet on a cylindrical gear.1 Concepts and parameters associated with involute teeth 1. On cylindrical gears with small modules one often accepts on purpose a notch in the root if its distance to the root circle is large enough and thus the tooth root load carrying capacity is not impaired by a notch effect. Between pre.1 Introduction In the industry.5 1. module m has been standardized in preferred series 1 and 2.1. In order to prevent the tip circle of the mating gear from touching the fillet it is necessary that a check for meshing interferences is carried out on the gear pair. Table 1 Selection of some modules m in mm (acc. protuberance value prPO. normally it does not touch the root circle . The pre-machining tool leaves on both flanks of the teeth a machining allowance q for finishmachining. however. From figure 1 follows: – The flanks of the standard basic rack tooth profile are straight lines and are located symmetrically below the pressure angle at a point αP to the tooth centre line. H Advanced stage of development.1 Standard basic rack tooth profile The standard basic rack tooth profile is the normal section through the teeth of the basic rack which is produced from an external gear tooth system with an infinitely large diameter and an infinitely large number of teeth. the technical and economical advantages are basically: H Simple manufacture with straight-sided flanked tools.machining. For industrial gear units. To avoid this.3 Tool reference profile The tool reference profile according to figure 2a is the counter profile of the standard basic rack tooth profile according to figure 1. i. Cylindrical gear units 1. – The bottom clearance cP between basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is 0. On the tool. which.1 to 1.4 m. leads to warping of the teeth and growing of the root and tip circles.1. see figure 3b. for example. to DIN 867) a) Tool datum line b) Protuberance flank Figure 2 Reference profiles of gear cutting tools for involute teeth of cylindrical gears a) For pre-machining and finish-machining b) For pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) 108 109 . gear units have the best efficiencies. H Generating different tooth profiles and centre distances with the same number of teeth by means of the same tool by addendum modification. have quenched and tempered or nitrided gears.2. to DIN 780) Series 1 Series 2 1 1. figure 3c. 1. they require less space for the same speeds and torques. In comparison with other gear units. – The working depth of basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is hwP = 2 m. – The nominal dimensions of tooth thickness and spacewidth on the datum line are equal. Especially for cylindrical gears with a relatively large number of teeth or a small module there is a risk of generating a notch in the root on finish machining. – The addendum is fixed by haP = m. sP = eP = p/2. /1/ Tip line Counter profile Datum line Standard basic rack tooth profile Root line Fillet Tooth root surface Tooth centre line Figure 1 Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears (acc.like on the tooth profile in figure 3a. and for finishmachining tools sPO = p/2. As a rule. For a spur gear β = 0 and the module is m = mn = mt. The finish-machining tool removes the machining allowance on the flanks. mainly gear units with case hardened and fine-machined gears are used for torque and speed adaptation of prime movers and driven machines. as well as the tip radius of curvature ma PO must be so dimensioned that the active tooth profile on the gear will not be reduced and the tooth root will not be weakened too much.2 Geometry of involute gears The most important concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears and cylindrical gear pairs with involute teeth in accordance with DIN 3960 are represented in sections 1. The tooth thickness sPO of the tool on the tool datum line depends on the stage of machining. as a rule. Inside the gear unit the load is distributed and then brought together again on the output shaft gear. Load sharing gear units mostly have one input and one output shaft. They generate a root undercut on the gear.5 4 4.1 m up to 0. In order to limit the number of the required gear cutting tools. pre-machining tools are provided with protuberance flanks as shown in figure 2b.25 1. When load sharing gear units are used. Motion is transmitted without slip at constant speed. as a rule. Further.Cylindrical Gear Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears 1. gear units with case hardened gears have higher power capacities. i. the pressure angle at a point of the tool reference profile αPO = αP is 20°.2 Module The module m of the standard basic rack tooth profile is the module in the normal section mn of the gear teeth.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 32 28 1. protuberance pressure angle at a point αprPO. the tooth flanks are fine-machined by hobbing or profile grinding or removing material (by means of shaping or generating tools coated with mechanically resistant material).e.2. Compared with other tooth profiles.2.1. After carburising and hardening. an infinitely variable change-speed gear unit with primary or secondary gear stages presents the most economical solution even in case of variable speed control. – Between module m and pitch p the relation is p = πm. In industrial gear units mainly involute gears are used. H Good availability on the market. output torques can be doubled or tripled in comparison with gear units without load sharing. H The direction of the normal force of teeth remains constant during meshing. /1/ 1.and finish. see table 1.2. The uniform sharing of the load between the individual branches is achieved by special design measures.2.5 3 3. For a helical gear with helix angle β on the reference circle. Therefore. H Uniform transmission of motion even in case of centre distance errors from the nominal value. the transverse module in a transverse section is mt = mn/cosβ. cylindrical gears are subjected to a heat treatment which. Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1.75 2 2.2.4. the tooth thickness for pre-machining tools is sPO < p/2. the dedendum by hfP = m + cP and thus. H The same tool for all numbers of teeth. the tooth depth by hP = 2 m + cP.e.

see figure 13. is described by the transverse Base cylinder envelope line Involute of base cylinder Involute helicoid Base cylinder Involute pressure angle at a point α and radius r in the equations invα = tanα − r = rb / cosα ^ verse pressure angle at a point α in the transverse section is termed transverse pressure angle αt. db. da. On a spur gear αn = αt. If a tangent line is put against the involute surface in the normal section at the point of intersection with the reference circle. Figure 6 Definitions on the cylindrical gear Developed involute line 1. The interrelationship with the helix angle β at the reference circle is tanαn = cosβ tanαt. Hence. The angle invα is termed involute function. see figures 5 and 7. A straight line inclined by a base helix angle βb to the envelope line in the developed envelope is the generator of an involute surface (involute helicoid) of a helical gear.and finish-machining a) Pre. the equation for the reference diameter thus is d = mt z.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Pre-machining Finish-machining 1.2. The reference circle is the intersection of the reference cylinder with a plane of transverse section. an envelope line of the base cylinder with the base diameter db generates the involute surface of a spur gear. the number of teeth z and thus also the diameters d. figure 5.2 Concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears 1. When generating tooth flanks. Since mt = p/π. Figure 5 Involute in a transverse section Figure 7 Pitches in the transverse section of a helical gear Generator Involute of base cylinder Developed base cylinder envelope Figure 4 Base cylinder with involute helicoid and generator 110 111 .and finish-machining down to the root circle b) Pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) c) Finish-machining with notch 1. this is equal to the pressure angle αPO of the tool.2 Pitches The pitch pt of a helical gear (p in the case of a spur gear) lying in a transverse section is the length of the reference circle arc between two successive right or left flanks. Many geometric quantities of the cylindrical gear are referred to the reference circle. the trans- Machining allowance q Root undercut a) b) Notch c) Figure 3 Tooth profiles of cylindrical gears during pre. The normal transverse pitch pet of a helical gear is equal to the pitch on the basic circle pbt. With the number of teeth z results pt = πd/z = πmt.2.e. For a helical gear. at the point of intersection of the involute with the reference circle. df are negative values.1. i. and the angle ζ= ^ + invα = tanα is termed working angle.2.4 Generating tooth flanks With the development of the envelope. Therefore. see figures 6 and 7.2. in the normal section the normal base pitch at a point pen = pet cosβb is resulting from it. The involute which is always lying in a transverse section. by db = d cosαt.2. the reference circle periphery corresponds to the product of pitch p and number of teeth z.2.1 Geometric definitions In figure 6 the most important geometric quantities of a cylindrical gear are shown. and in the axial section the axial pitch pex = pet/tanβb. figure 4. the corresponding angle is termed normal pressure angle αn. Right flank Left flank Tooth trace Reference cylinder Reference circle d da df b h ha hf s e p Reference diameter Tip diameter Root diameter Facewidth Tooth depth Addendum Dedendum Tooth thickness on the reference circle Spacewidth on the reference circle Pitch on the reference circle (1) (2) rb = db/2 is the base radius. In the case of internal gears. the straight pitch line of the tool rolls off at the reference circle. thus pet = pbt = πdb/z. π d = p z. The base diameter db is given by the reference diameter d. Between the base helix angle βb and the helix angle β on the reference circle the relationship is sinβb = cosαn sinβ.

The mating of an external cylindrical gear with an internal cylindrical gear (internal gear) gives an internal gear pair. see figure 8. and the pitch circles are not simultaneously the reference circles.g.3 Addendum modification When generating tooth flanks on a cylindrical gear by means of a tooth-rack-like tool (e. The subscript 1 is used for the size of the smaller gear (pinion). According to figure 10 it is determined by cos αwt = db1/dw1 = db2/dw2. that is either right-handed or left-handed. i. In the case of external gear pairs k < 0.2.e. i.e. An addendum modification for external gears should be carried through approximately within the limits as shown in figure 9. In the case of both a zero gear pair and a V-zero gear pair. i. figure 11. i. The upper limit xmax takes into account the intersection circle of the teeth and applies to a normal crest width in the normal section of san = 0. An addendum modification is positive.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. and x is the addendum modification coefficient. However.ad)/mn . the working pressure angle is equal to the transverse pressure angle on the reference circle. both gears have the same flank direction. The working pitch circles divide the centre distance a = rw1 + rw2 in the ratio of the tooth numbers. 1. dw = d. In order to take into account tooth thickness deviation As (for backlash and manufacturing tolerances) and machining allowances q (for premachining). i. the tip diameters of both gears become smaller. A positive addendum modification results in a greater tooth root width and thus in an increase in the tooth root carrying capacity. then an addendum modification is to be carried out. The addendum modification limits xmin and xmax are represented dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn = z/(cosβ cos2βb).(x1 + x2). In the case of zero gear pairs and V-zero gear pairs.2. For zero gear pairs and V-zero gear pairs k = 0. Figure 8 Different positions of the datum line of tool in relation to the straight pitch line through pitch point C. see figure 19. The line of action with contacting left flanks in figure 10 is the tangent to the two base circles at points T1 and T2.e. x1 + x2 ≠ 0. which have the same circumferential speed at their mutual contact point (pitch point C). One of the cylindrical gears in this case may. If in the case of V-gear pairs the bottom clearance cp corresponding to the standard basic rack tooth profile is to be retained (which is not absolutely necessary). In a cylindrical gear pair either the left or the right flanks of the teeth contact each other on the line of action.e. αwt = αt. have an addendum modification x = 0. i. however.1 Terms The mating of two external cylindrical gears (external gears) gives an external gear pair.e.3. The starting point A of the length of path of contact is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driven gear. thus dw1 = 2 a/(u + 1) and dw2 = 2 a u/(u +1). Working pitch circles with diameter dw = 2rw are those transverse intersection circles of a cylindrical gear pair. thus u = z2/z1. and it is negative if the datum line is displaced towards the root of the gear. the centre distance is equal to the zero centre distance ad = (d1 + d2)/2. /3/. and the finishing point E is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driving gear. x < 0 c) Positive addendum modification. In the case of small numbers of teeth this has a considerably stronger effect than in the case of larger ones. When falling below the lower limit xmin this results in an undercut which shortens the usable involute and weakens the tooth root. The distance (x · mn) between the straight pitch line and the datum line of tool is the addendum modification. both gears have addendum modifications (V-gears). figure 10.3 Concepts and parameters associated with a cylindrical gear pair 1. if the datum line of tool is displaced from the reference circle towards the tip. The addendum modification factor is k = (a . x = 0 b) Negative addendum modification. In the case of a zero gear pair both gears have as addendum modification coefficient x1 = x2 = 0 (zero gears).3. a straight pitch line parallel to the datum line of tool rolls off on the reference circle. In the case of internal gears the tip points to the inside.25 mn.2. the sum is not equal to zero.2. 112 113 . In the case of internal gear pairs k > 0. Changing the flanks results in a line of action each lying symmetrical in relation to the centre line through O1O2. This is true for both external and internal gears. In the case of a helical internal gear pair.2 Mating quantities The gear ratio of a gear pair is the ratio of the number of teeth of the gear z2 to the number of teeth of the pinion z1. In the case of a helical external gear pair one gear has left-handed and the other one right-handed flank direction. For a V-gear pair. and the subscript 2 for the larger gear (wheel or internal gear). one has to give the following generating addendum modification coefficient for the manufacture of a cylindrical gear: XE = x + As q + mn sin αn 2mn tan αn (3) Datum line of tool = straight pitch line 1. One mostly strives for a greater addendum modification on pinions than on gears in order to achieve equal tooth root carrying capacities for both gears. that is with x1 + x2 = 0. the tip diameters of both gears become larger (on an internal gear with negative tip diameter the a) Straight pitch line b) Datum line of tool Straight pitch line c) Figure 10 Transverse section of an external gear pair with contacting left-handed flanks absolute value becomes smaller). and the pitch circles are simultaneously the reference circles. in the case of a V-gear pair the centre distance is not equal to the zero centre distance. and /4/. x1 = -x2. Further criteria for the determination of addendum modification are contained in /2/. see /1/ and /3/). In the case of a V-zero gear pair. x > 0 Figure 9 Addendum modification limit xmax (intersection circle) and xmin (undercut limit) for external gears dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn (for internal gears. With the common tangent on the pitch circles it includes the working pressure angle αwt. a hob).2. The working pressure angle αwt is the transverse pressure angle at a point belonging to the working pitch circle. The addendum modification coefficient x refers to gear teeth free of backlash and deviations. The length of path of contact gα is that part of the line of action which is limited by the two tip circles of the cylindrical gears.e. a) Zero addendum modification.

The addendum modification limits as shown in figure 9 are to be observed. and along the double lengths of paths of contact AB and DE two pairs of teeth are simultaneously in mesh. df2. Along the individual length of path of contact BD one tooth pair is in mesh. The number of teeth of the pinion is determined with regard to silent running and a balanced foot and flank load carrying capacity.6 and from IuI > 2 the width within the range b1 = (0. the left-hand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact D while the right-hand tooth pair gets into mesh at the starting point of engagement A. The following rules for signs are to be observed: In the case of internal gear pairs the number of teeth z2 of the internal gear is a negative quantity. The righthand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact B when the left-hand tooth pair leaves the mesh at the finishing point of engagement E.2.. from the output quantities of tables 2 and 3 only the normal pressure angle αn and the gear ratio u are given.2 to 0. as a rule. For the helix angle. the addendum modification coefficient should be within the range of x1 = 0. in exceptional cases also up to 30 degree. Driving Line of action Figure 11 Length of path of contact AE in the transverse section of an external gear pair A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement C Pitch point 1. The total contact ratio εγ is the sum of transverse contact ratio and overlap ratio. The overlap ratio εβ gives the contact ratio. while the generation of noise is reduced. da2.3. 23.e. E Starting and finishing point of engagement. If a high foot load carrying capacity is required. According to figure 12. D Individual points of contact A. Thus. dw2 and the virtual number of teeth zn2 are negative. as the ratio of the facewidth b to the axial pitch pex.e.35 to 0. and this for both external and internal gear pairs. In the case of helical gear pairs it is possible to achieve that always two or more pairs of teeth are in mesh simultaneously. owing to the helix of the teeth.45) a. i. the number may be reduced to z1 = 10.. εβ = b/pex. see figure 12. εα = gα/pet. see figure 13. i. β = 10 up to 15 degree is given. z1 = 18 .3 Contact ratios The transverse contact ratio εα in the transverse section is the ratio of the length of path of contact gα to the normal transverse pitch pet.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Driven Driven Line of action 1. εγ = ε α + ε β. In the case of spur gear pairs. the transverse contact ratio gives the average number of pairs of teeth meshing during the time of contact of a tooth pair.4 Summary of the most important formulae Tables 2 and 3 contain the most important formulae for the determination of sizes of a cylindrical gear and a cylindrical gear pair. Driving Figure 12 Single and double contact region in the transverse section of an external gear pair B. i. db2. at approx. With an increasing total contact ratio.e.2. also the centre distance a or ad and the gear ratio u as well as the diameters d2. respectively C Pitch point Length of path of contact Figure 13 Pitches in the plane of action A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement 114 115 . the load carrying capacity increases. On the pinion. Centre distance a is determined either by the required power to be transmitted or by the constructional conditions. When designing a cylindrical gear pair for a gear stage. as a rule.

2. z2 and a are to be used as negative quantities.3. see equation (1). *) For internal gear pairs.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 2 Parameters for a cylindrical gear *) Output quantities: mm mn degree αn β degree z – x – – xE mm haPO Item normal module normal pressure angle reference helix angle number of teeth *) addendum modification coefficient generating addendum modification coefficient.2. z is to be used as a negative quantity. Transverse base pitch Transverse pressure angle at tip circle Transverse tooth thickness on the pitch circle Normal tooth thickness on the pitch circle Transverse tooth thickness on the addendum circle Virtual number of teeth Gear ratio Working transverse pressure angle (“a” given) Sum of the addendum modification coefficients (“a” given) Working transverse pressure angle (x1 + x2 given) Centre distance (x1 + x2 given) Reference centre distance Addendum modification factor **) Working pitch circle diameter of the pinion Working pitch circle diameter of the gear Length of path of contact Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio tanαt = cosαwt = x1 + x2 = sinβb = sinβ cosαn d = mt z da = d + 2 mn (1 + x + k) df = d – 2 (haPO – mn xE) db = d cos αt pt = πd z = π mt π db = pt cosαt z invαwt = 2 a= ad = k= cosαt mt (z1 + z2) cosαwt 2 mt (z1 + z2) 2 a – ad – (x1 + x2) mn cosαt 2a = d1 cosαwt u+1 cosαt 2au = d2 cosαwt u+1 1 2 dw1 = dw2 = gα = pet = pbt = d cos αat = b da st = mt ( π + 2 x tanαn) 2 ( da12 – db12 + u IuI da22 – db22 ) – asinαwt εα = εβ = gα pet b tanβb pet b = min (b1. Item Formula u= z2 z1 mt (z1 + z2) cosαt 2a z 1 + z2 (invαwt – invαt) 2 tanαn x1 + x2 tanαn + invαt z1 + z2 Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Base helix angle Reference diameter Tip diameter (k see table 3) Root diameter Base diameter Transverse pitch Transverse pitch on path of contact. *) For an internal gear. 116 117 . **) See subsection 1. see equation (3) addendum of the tool Formula mt = mn cosβ tanαn cosβ Table 3 Parameters for a cylindrical gear pair *) Output quantities: The parameters for pinion and wheel according to table 2 must be given. as well as either the centre distance a or the sum of the addendum modification coefficients x1 + x2. further the facewidths b1 and b2. b2) sn = st cosβ sat = da zn = ( dt s + invαt – invαat) **) Total contact ratio εγ = εα + εβ z cosβ cos2βb **) For invα.

. according to Niemann. a high load utilization of the gear units is possible. selection of material. i. as a rule. – Gear unit designed for fatigue strength. In the case of longitudinal correction.. B. a calculation of load carrying capacity for scuffing will not be considered in the following. intentional deviations from the involute (profile correction) and from the theoretical tooth trace (longitudinal correction) are produced in order to attain nearly ideal geometries with uniform load distribution under load again. uniform load carrying along the face width and a reduction in load concentration at the tooth ends during axial displacements is attained.as a rule for 70 . a multiple of the manufacturing form errors. Because of the relatively large scope of standards. Figure 14 Cylindrical gear pair under load 1 Driving gear 2 Driven gear a.2. i. Design. – Subcritical operating range. are suggested for the determination of individual factors. the tooth trace relief often is superposed by a symmetric longitudinal Profile correction crowning. 7/. The deflection at the tooth tips is. life factors ZNT = YNT = 1. There is a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. Gear pairs which are only slightly loaded do not require any modification. the carrying portions and thus the contact ratio increase so that the generating levels drop. making the noise generating levels increase in the lower part load range. pitch circle velocity lower than approx.compared with the simplified one . the calculation in accordance with this method may be carried out only by using EDP programs. ting into engagement. The following calculation method for pitting resistance and tooth strength of case-hardened cylindrical gears is a further simplification if compared with the application standard. – Sufficient supply of lubricating oil. British Standard.. In DIN 3990. see figure 14.3.. As a rule. and housing deformations. as well as settling of bearings. Longitudinal correction 1. etc. to DIN 3990 /11/.is always more meaningful and therefore is exclusively decisive in borderline cases. where method A is more exact but also more time-consuming than method B. for instance. Those rules are: – Gear teeth geometry acc. It has to be expressly emphasized that for the load carrying capacity of gear units the exact calculation method . usual profile and longitudinal corrections are illustrated. 35 m/s. without losing some of its meaning. different methods A. Tooth flanks in DIN quality 6 or better. and other. The application standard /10/ according to DIN 3990 is based on simplified methods. This leads to meshing interferences at the entering and leaving sides. This results in skewing of the tooth flanks which often amounts considerably higher than the tooth trace deviations caused by manufacture. however.4 refer to non-deviating cylindrical gears. d Tooth pair getting into engagement Further. and a load reduction on the tooth leaving the engagement.2. however. – Cylindrical gears out of case-hardened steel. With increasing load. manufacture.1 Scope of application and purpose The calculation of the load carrying capacity of cylindrical gears is generally carried out in accordance with the calculation method according to DIN 3990 /8/ (identical with ISO 6336) which takes into account pitting. This has to be taken into consideration especially in the case of checks of contact patterns carried out under low loads. The standard work is the FVA-Stirnradprogramm /9/ which includes further calculation methods. Root relief may be applied instead of tip relief which. fine machined. Under partial load. tooth root bending stress and scoring as load carrying limits. – Use of prescribed gear oils with sufficient scuffing load capacity (criteria stage ≥ 12) and grey staining load capacity (criteria stage ≥ 10). – Maximum operating temperature 95 °C.5 Tooth corrections The parameters given in the above subsections 1. the flanks on pinion and wheel are relieved at the tips by an amount equal to the length they are protruding at the entering and leaving sides due to the bending deflection of the teeth. b Tooth pair being in engagement c.3 Load carrying capacity of involute gears 1. Because of the high-tensile gear materials. In the case of profile correction. 100% of the permanently acting nominal load /5. AGMA. 6. With it. C .0. The running-in wear of case hardened gears amounts to a few micrometers only and cannot compensate the mentioned deviations.e. Non-uniform load carrying occurs along the face width which also has a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. Therefore. the local maximum load rise is always lower than the theoretical uniform load distribution under full load. In order to restore the high load carrying capacity of case hardened gears and reduce the generation of noise. is much more expensive. the contact ratio is reduced under partial load because of incomplete carrying portions. Certain conditions must be adhered to in order to attain high load carrying capacities which also results in preventing scuffing. – Quality of material and heat treatment proved by quality inspections acc. – Effective case depth after carburizing according to instructions /12/ with surface hardnesses of 58 . pinion and wheel body.1 to 1. At low partial load.. Thus. heat treatment and operation of industrial gear units are subject to certain rules which lead to a long service life of the cylindrical gears.200 N/mm2. gear unit manufacturers have such a tool at hand. 62 HRC.e.2. the load causes bending and twisting of pinion and wheel shaft. – Flank fatigue strength σHlim y 1. Noticeable deformations of the elastic gear unit components result from it.universal validity it still is relatively time-consuming. to DIN 3960. – Gears with required tooth corrections and without harmful notches in the tooth root.even though limited . Line of action Pinion Wheel Figure 16 Tooth corrections designed for removing local load increases due to deformations under nominal load Bending Torsion Manufacturing deviation Bearing deformation Housing deformation Running-in wear Effective tooth trace deviation Fβ = Σf-yβ Load distribution across the facewidth w 1. however.. contact patterns which do not cover the entire tooth depth and Figure 15 Deformations and manufacturing deviations on a gear unit shaft In figure 16. see figure 15.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears facewidth are achieved. Because of its . a gradual load increase is achieved on the tooth get- 118 119 . however. In the case of modified gear teeth. The load-related form corrections are calculated and made for one load only .

they are contained in the workshop drawings for cylindrical gears. They are derived from the basic details according to table 4. the details listed in table 4 must be given in the units mentioned in the table. so that the calculation procedure is partly considerably simplified. 1. b2) – 120 121 . one can also start from the nominal torque of the prime mover if this corresponds with the torque requirement of the driven machine. does not necessarily mean that the load carrying capacity is reduced. the quantities listed in table 5 are required.3. a number of factors can be definitely given for the calculation of the load carrying capacity according to DIN 3990. Non-observance of the above requirements. The geometric quantities are calculated according to tables 2 and 3. carry out the calculation in accordance with the more exact method. In order to be able to carry out the calculation for a cylindrical gear stage. however. however.2 Basic details The calculation of the load carrying capacity is based on the nominal torque of the driven machine. Alternatively. In the further course of the calculation.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears If these requirements are met. In case of doubt one should. Usually. Table 5 Derived quantities Designation Relation Unit Gear ratio Reference diameter of the pinion Transverse tangential force at pinion reference circle Circumferential speed at reference circle Base helix angle Virtual number of teeth of the pinion Virtual number of teeth of the wheel Transverse module u = z2/z1 d1 = z1 mn/cosβ Ft = 19.1 S 106 P/(d1 n1) v = π d1 n1/60 000 βb = arc sin(cosαn sinβ) zn1 = z1 / (cosβ cos2βb) zn2 = z2 / (cosβ cos2βb) mt = mn / cosβ αt = arc tan (tanαn / cosβ) αwt = arc cos [(z1 + z2) mt cosαt / (2a)] pet = πmt cosαt db1 = z1mt cosαt db2 = z2mt cosαt gα = 1 2 – mm Table 4 Basic details Abbreviation P n1 a mn da1 da2 b1 b2 z1 z2 x1 x2 αn β V40 Rz1 Rz2 Meaning Power rating Pinion speed Centre distance Normal module Tip diameter of the pinion Tip diameter of the wheel Facewidth of the pinion Facewidth of the wheel Number of teeth of the pinion Number of teeth of the wheel Addendum modification coefficient of the pinion Addendum modification coefficient of the wheel Normal pressure angle Reference helix angle Kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil at 40 °C Peak-to-valley height on pinion flank Peak-to-valley height on wheel flank Unit kW 1/min mm mm mm mm N m/s Degree – – mm Degree mm mm – – Transverse pitch – – Degree Degree Length of path of contact cSt µm µm Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Base diameter of the pinion Base diameter of the wheel mm mm mm u IuI Transverse pressure angle Working transverse pressure angle Degree ( da12 – db12 + da22 – db22 ) – asinαwt mm – εα = gα / pet εβ = b tanβb / pet b = min (b1.

75 2.25 1.0 by approx. for the face load factors for gears without longitudinal correction the values may lie between 1. see table 4.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1. (5) KHα Transverse load factor acc. u. (9) Zε Contact ratio factor acc. the face load factor lies within the range of KHβ = 1. see subsection 1. Taking z1.3. 60 to 70%. the gear unit manufacturer carries out an analysis of the load distribution over the facewidth in accordance with an exact calculation method /13/.25 (1 + 112 ) 2 V40 (13) σHP permissible Hertzian pressure in N/mm2. it is calculated from Kv = 1 + 0. 40 to 50%.3. the face load factor can be calculated according to method D in accordance with /8/ dependent on facewidth b and reference diameter d1 of the pinion. to equ.3.25 1. In the case of slim shafts with gears arranged on one side. The application factor is determined by the service classification of the individual gear.3 General factors 1.00 or higher 2. the masses and stiffness of the system.3. the factor KA should be determined by means of a careful measurement or a comprehensive analysis of the system. z2. and addendum modification coefficients x1.00 Heavy shock loads 1. to equ. to equ. and for pinion and wheel is equally derived from the equation KA Kv KHα KHβ u + 1 Ft u d1 b (8) Table 6 Application factor KA Working mode of the driven machine Working mode of prime mover Uniform Moderate shock loads Average shock loads Heavy shock loads Uniform 1. According to /8/. (10) or (11) With ß according to table 4 applies: Zβ = cosβ (9) 1.2.3.1 . d1 acc. It is of different size for pinion and wheel if the strengths of materials σHlim are different.25. σH = ZE ZH Zβ Zε 1. It is dependent on the characteristics of the driving and driven machines.3 Face load factor The face load factor KHβ takes into account the increase in the load on the tooth flanks caused by non-uniform load distribution over the facewidth.4. 1.4 Transverse load factors The transverse load factors KHα and KFα take into account the effect of the non-uniform distribution of load between several pairs of simultaneously contacting gear teeth. or in the case of lateral forces or moments acting on the shafts from external sources. ZE = 190 N/mm for gears out of steel ZH Zone factor acc. 1.10 1.0 (7) 1. If required. As a rough rule applies: A sensibly selected crowning symmetrical in length reduces the amount of KHβ lying above 1.50 1.5. to equation (4) KHβ Face load factor acc. ZW and ZX are the same for pinion and wheel and are determined in the following. If possible.1 Application factor With the application factor KA.00 1. For pinion and wheel the same effective Hertzian pressure σH is assumed. Face load factor KFβ for the determination of increased tooth root stress can approximately be deduced from face load factor KHβ according to the relation KFβ = (KHβ )0.3.9 (6) With εα and εβ according to table 5 applies: Zε = ε 4 – εα (1 – εα) + β for εβ < 1 (10) εα 3 Zε = 1 εα for εβ + 1 (11) Figure 17 Zone factor ZH depending on helix angle β as well as on the numbers of teeth z1.50 Moderate shock loads 1. to table 6 KV Dynamic factor acc.2 Dynamic factor With the dynamic factor KV. i. to table 5 KA Application factor acc. Since very often it is not possible to carry out the one or other method without great expenditure. For normal cylindrical gear teeth without longitudinal correction. the result for surface stress and for tooth root stress according to method B in accordance with /8/ is KHα = KFα = 1. ZR.5 and 2. Exact methods based on comprehensive measurements or calculations or on a combination of both are very expensive. as well as the couplings.75 1.35 1. as follows: KHβ = 1.1 Effective Hertzian pressure The effective Hertzian pressure is dependent on the load.60 1. are not exact..1. It must not exceed the permissible Hertzian pressure σHp.4. The lubricant factor is computed from the lubricating oil viscosity V40 according to table 4 using the following formula: ZL = 0. Zv. all additional forces acting on the gears from external sources are taken into consideration. b2).3. as a consequence of which estimations made to be on the safe side mostly result in higher factors.15 + 0.3.0003 z1 v u2 1 + u2 (4) 1.e.85 2.3.5. As a rule.. σH ) σHp. it can be determined by means of different methods. and the operating conditions. (7) 2 ZE Elasticity factor. x2. with b = min (b1.3.0003 b (5) attain uniform load carrying over the facewidth. Under the conditions as laid down in subsection 1. additional dynamic forces caused in the meshing itself are taken into consideration. reference values are given in table 6 which equally apply to all gears in a gear unit.50 1. Simple methods.3. however.2 Permissible Hertzian pressure The permissible Hertzian pressure is determined by σHP = ZL Zv ZX ZR ZW σHlim SH (12) ZL.75 Average shock loads 1. and a directly made longitudinal correction by approx.3. Under such conditions.0 and in extreme cases even at 2. to table 4 Ft. he makes longitudinal corrections in order to 1. to figure 17 Zβ Helix angle factor acc. v and u from tables 4 and 5. to equ.18 (b/d1)2 + 0. Factors 122 123 .4 Tooth flank load carrying capacity The calculation of surface durability against pitting is based on the Hertzian pressure at the pitch circle.25 or higher σH Effective Hertzian pressure in N/mm2 Further: b is the smallest facewidth b1 or b2 of pinion or wheel acc.3.91 + 0.

degree 1. They are calculated from the following equation: sF = Yε Yβ YFS KA Kv KFα KFβ Ft b mn degree The size factor is computed from module mn according to table 4 using the following formula: ZX = 1. σHlim Endurance strength of the gear material. to equation (4) Face load factor acc.5 Tooth strength The maximum load in the root fillet at the 30-degree tangent is the basis for rating the tooth strength. case hardened. Under the conditions as described in subsection 1.3. 124 125 .0 (16) Figure 18 Allowable stress number for contact stress σHlim of alloyed case hardening steels. to table 4. material quality MQ may be selected for pinion and wheel. from Flank hardness HV1 ZR = [ 0.005 mn (17) (18) with the restriction 0. 1650 N/mm2 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the quality of the material. the load-dependent tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel are different. the work hardening factor is ZW = 1.513 R z 3 (1 + IuI) d1 ] 0.3. For gears made out of case hardening steel. see /11/ 1.e. the following applies using the circumferential speed v according to table 5: Zv = 0. see subsection 1.6. (20) Yβ The following factors are of different size for pinion and wheel: b1. to equation (6) KFβ Transverse load factor acc. (7) KFα Yε Contact ratio factor acc.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears For the speed factor. b2 Facewidths of pinion and wheel acc. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality.3.157 40 1+ v (14) degree The roughness factor can be determined as a function of the mean peak-to-valley height RZ = (RZ1 + RZ2)/2 of the gear pair as well as the gear ratio u and the reference diameter d1 of the pinion. Ft acc.5.. i. The following only approximately applies to internal gears: YFS = YFS∞ (≈ value for x = 1. to equ. If the facewidths of pinion and wheel are different. to table 6 KA KV Dynamic factor acc. to DIN 867 depending on the number of teeth z (or zn in case of helical gears) and addendum modification coefficient x.1 Effective tooth root stress As a rule. see tables 4 and 5. σF < σFP. Figure 19 Tip factor YFS for external gears with standard basic rack tooth profile acc. to equ. see table on page 97.93 + 0.. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality. to tables 4 and 5 Application factor acc. (19) Helix angle factor acc.08 (15) For a gear pair with the same tooth flank hardness on pinion and wheel. it may be assumed that the load bearing width of the wider facewidth is equal to the smaller facewidth plus such extension of the wider that does not exceed one times the module at each end of the teeth. figure 18 shows a range from 1300 . case hardened. SH required safety factor against pitting.3. to equ. σF Effective tooth root stress in N/mm2 The following factors are of equal size for pinion and wheel: mn. For pinion and wheel it shall be shown separately that the effective tooth root stress σF does not exceed the permissible tooth root stress σFP.1. see tables 4 and 5.0 and z = 300).9 x ZX x 1.05 – 0.

pinion and wheel widths b1 = 360 mm and b2 = 350 mm. σFlim Bending stress number of the gear material. special design gear units are used.625 ) Yε ) 1 Yβ = 1 – εβ β 120 (20) with the restriction Yβ + max [(1 .738.832. With the helix angle β acc.489. reference diameter of the pinion d1 = 558.123 m/s.0. also widely used for lower torques as they provide certain advantages in spite of the larger number of internal components. helix angle factor Zβ = 0. tip factors YFS1 = 4. For gears out of case hardening steel..879.03. case hardened. zone factor ZH = 2. numbers of teeth z1 = 25 and z2 = 47.0.0. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality. transverse contact ratio εα = 1. The low speed gear stage is to be calculated.00 for = 0.8 ) YX ) 1. a range from 310 . YFS2 Tip factors acc. For standard reference test gears. The safety factors against tooth breakage referring to the torque are SF = σFP/σF: for the pinion SF1 = 797/537 = 1. YRrelT and YX may be approximately equal for pinion and wheel..3. tip diameter da1 = 615. The effective tooth root stresses σF1 = 537 N/mm2 for the pinion and σF2 = 540 N/mm2 for the wheel can be obtained from equation (18). Calculation (values partly rounded): Gear ratio u = 1.027.88.75 εα cos2β (19) with the restriction 0. Adding further gear stages in order to achieve higher transmission ratios thus does not change anything about the following fundamental description.0205 mn). load sharing gear units playing an important role there.425 N. addendum modification coefficients x1 = 0. Among others.96.342. 1.3. the permissible tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel σFP1 = σFP2 = 797 N/mm2 can be obtained from equation (21) with the bending stress number σFlim = 500 N/mm2.310 and x2 = 0.3.391 degree. base helix angle βb = 9. The safety factor against pitting is found by SH = σHP/σH = 1470/1251 = 1.244 degree. mean peak-tovalley roughness Rz1 = Rz2 = 4. shaft 1 each being the HSS and shaft 2 being the LSS. KFβ = 1. ϕa0 = 0. They are case hardened and ground with profile corrections and width-symmetrical crowning. the Hertzian pressure for pinion and wheel is σH = 1251 N/mm2.25 + 0.6 Safety factors The minimum required safety factors according to DIN are: against pitting SH = 1.339 mm. pinion speed n1 = 141 1/min.50 (electric motor with uniform mode of operation. Load carrying capacity of the tooth root: Contact ratio factor Yε = 0. Load carrying capacity of the tooth flanks: Elasticity factor ZE = 190 N mm 2. case hardened. Given: Nominal power rating P = 3300 kW. 70 to 80% of the total weight and also of the manufacturing expenditure. size factor YX = 0.38. normal transverse pitch pet = 65.4 Gear unit types 1. is the stress correction factor of the reference test gears for the determination of the bending stress number σFlim.2 Load sharing gear units In principle.0.5. however. different types of gear units are used.018. the most economical drive solution. SF Safety factor required against tooth breakage. virtual numbers of teeth zn1 = 26. and in most cases even higher for the cheaper preliminary stages. With speeds n1 and n2.25 εβ). higher safety factors are usual. 1.3.48.0. transverse pressure angle αt = 20. work hardening factor ZW = 1. In figure 21.0 has been fixed in the standard.6.3. The safety factor referring to the torque is SH2 = 1. face load factor KHβ = 1. among others they are also used in standard design. Without taking into consideration the safety factor.2 Permissible tooth root stress The permissible tooth root stress for pinion and wheel is determined by σFP = YST YδrelT YRrelT YX σFlim (SF) (21) Flank hardness HV1 σFP permissible tooth root stress in N/mm2.0 against tooth breakage SF = 1. as a rule. helix angle β = 10 degree. Also for risky applications a higher safety factor is given. These single-stage to four-stage gear units according to the modular construction system cover a wide range of speeds and torques required by the driven machines. They account for the complex stress condition inclusive of the notch effect in the root fillet.98 for 8 mm < mn ) 16 mm (22) = 0. (1– β/120)]. to equation (5) follows KHβ = 1. because of symmetrical crowning the calculation may be made with a smaller value].5 mm and da2 = 1100 mm. Lubricant factor ZL = 1.3. gear units without and with load sharing are shown.1 Standard designs In the industrial practice. circumferential speed on the reference circle v = 4.18. centre distance a = 815 mm. base diameters db1 = 523. In such cases. depending on module mn : mn ) 8 mm YRrelT = 1. 520 N/mm2 is shown in figure 20 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth Figure 20 Bending stress number σFlim of alloyed case hardening steel. KHα = KFα = 1.20 [acc.978. Combined with a standard electric motor such gear units are. nominal circumferential force on the reference circle Ft = 800. the highest output torques of gear units are limited by the manufacturing facilities.3 Comparisons In the following. Some typical features of the one or other type are described in the following.284 degree. the safety factors are determined about 10 to 20% higher for the expensive final stages. In practice. But there are also cases where no standard drives are used.8 µm.7 Calculation example An electric motor drives a coal mill via a multistage cylindrical gear unit.041 mm. normal module mn = 22 mm. to table 5 follows: Yε = 0.4.4. Factors YST.4 mn. roughness factor ZR = 1. YST = 2. 126 127 . Stress correction factor YST = 2. since gear cutting machines can make gears up to a maximum diameter only. see subsection 1.829. Under the conditions according to subsection 1. relative surface factor YRelT = 0.927.203.96 for mn > 16 mm and for the size factor YX = 1.3 mn. overlap ratio εβ = 0.4. coal mill with medium shock load). this is true for high torques above the range of standard gear units. see /11/ 1. Load sharing gear units are. Then. contact ratio factor Zε = 0.485 mm. however. 1.0. For common gear units the last or the last and the last but one gear stage usually come to approx. to figure 19. transverse module mt = 22.047. 1.852 mm and db2 = 984. YST For the relative surface factor (surface roughness factor of the tooth root fillet) referring to the standard reference test gear the following applies by approximation.842 mm.992.178.94.83. the transmission ratio can be obtained from the formula i = n1 / n2 (24) YFS1. the output torque can be increased further only by means of load sharing in the gear unit. prO = 0. It is not equal for pinion and wheel if the material strengths σFlim are not equal. The cylindrical gears are made out of the material 17 CrNiMo 6. With the allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim = 1500 N/mm2. According to equation (8). 1.1. By approximation YδrelT = 1. length of path of contact gα = 98.18 (for ha0 = 1. Preferably. normal pressure angle αn = 20 degree. speed factor ZV = 0. working transverse pressure angle αwt = 22.08 and zn2 = 49. to table 4 and the overlap ratio εβ acc. standard helical and bevel-helical gear units with fixed transmission ratio and size gradation are applied.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types flanks and the material quality. helix angle factor Yβ = 0. Application factor KA = 1.326. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality.48 and for the wheel SF2 = 797/540 = 1. For multistage gear units.01 mn (23) with the restriction 0. size factor ZX = 0. kinematic viscosity of the lubricating oil V40 = 320 cSt. single-stage and two-stage gear units up to a ratio of i = 16 are examined. first the permissible Hertzian pressure σHP = 1470 N/mm2 is determined from equation (12) without taking into account the safety factor. a strength pertaining to quality MQ may be used as a basis for pinion and wheel see table on page 97.. dynamic factor KV = 1.05 – 0. relative sensitivity factor YδrelT = 1.28 and YFS2 = 4. αpro = 10 degree. YδrelT. YδrelT is the notch relative sensitivity factor (notch sensitivity of the material) referring to the standard reference test gear.

Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types

Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types

The diameter ratios of the gears shown in figure 21 correspond to the transmission ratio i = 7. The gear units have the same output torques, so that in figure 21 a size comparison to scale is illustrated. Gear units A, B, and C are with offset shaft arrangement, and gear units D, E, F, and G with coaxial shaft arrangement.

In gear unit D the load of the high-speed gear stage is equally shared between three intermediate gears which is achieved by the radial movability of the sun gear on shaft 1. In the low-speed gear stage the load is shared six times altogether by means of the double helical teeth and the axial movability of the intermediate shaft. In order to achieve equal load distribution between the three intermediate gears of gear units E, F, and G the sun gear on shaft 1 mostly is radially movable. The large internal gear is an annulus gear which in the case of gear unit E is connected with shaft 2, and in the case of gear units F and G with the housing. In gear units F and G, web and shaft 2 form an integrated whole. The idler gears rotate as planets around the central axle. In gear unit G, double helical teeth and axial movability of the idler gears guarantee equal load distribution between six branches. 1.4.3.1 Load value By means of load value BL, it is possible to compare cylindrical gear units with different ultimate stress values of the gear materials with each other in the following examinations. According to /14/, the load value is the tooth peripheral force Fu referred to the pinion pitch diameter dw and the carrying facewidth b, i.e. BL = Fu b dw (25)

1.4.3.2 Referred torques In figure 22, referred torques for the gear units shown in figure 21 are represented, dependent on the transmission ratio i. Further explanations are given in table 7. The torque T2 is referred to the construction dimension D when comparing the sizes, to the weight of the gear unit G when comparing the weights, and to the generated Table 7 Referred Torques Comparison criteria Size Weight Gear teeth surface Definition δ= γ= α= T2 D3 BL T2 G BL T2 A3/2 BL

surface A of the pitch circle cylinders when comparing the gear teeth surfaces. Gear unit weight G and gear teeth surface A (= generated surface) are one measure for the manufacturing cost. The higher a curve, in figure 22, the better the respective gear unit in comparison with the others.

Dimension m mm m mm2 kg mm2 m2

Units of the basic details T2 in mm BL in N/mm2 D in mm G in kg A in m2

The permissible load values of the meshings of the cylindrical gear units can be computed from the pitting resistance by approximation, as shown in /15/ (see section 1.3.4), using the following formula: Figure 21 Diagrammatic view of cylindrical gear unit types without and with load sharing. Transmission ratio i = 7. Size comparison to scale of gear units with the same output torque. BL ≈ 7 . 10-6 u u+1 σ2Hlim KA SH2 (26)

Ratio i a) Torque referred to size

Ratio i b) Torque referred to gear unit weight

Gear unit A has one stage, gear unit B has two stages. Both gear units are without load sharing. Gear units C, D, E, F, and G have two stages and are load sharing. The idler gears in gear units C and D have different diameters. In gear units E, F, and G the idler gears of one shaft have been joined to one gear so that they are also considered to be single-stage gear units. Gear unit C has double load sharing. Uniform load distribution is achieved in the high-speed gear stage by double helical teeth and the axial movability of shaft 1.

with BL in N/mm2 and allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim in N/mm2 as well as gear ratio u, application factor KA and factor of safety from pitting SH. The value of the gear ratio u is always greater than 1, and is negative for internal gear pairs (see table 3). Load value BL is a specific quantity and independent of the size of the cylindrical gear unit. The following applies for practically executed gear units: cylindrical gears out of case hardening steel BL = 4...6 N/mm2; cylindrical gears out of quenched and tempered steel BL = 1...1.5 N/mm2; planetary gear stages with annulus gears out of quenched and tempered steel, planet gears and sun gears out of case hardening steel BL = 2.0...3.5 N/mm2.

Ratio i c) Torque referred to gear teeth surface

Ratio i d) Full-load efficiency

Figure 22 Comparisons of cylindrical gear unit types in figure 21 dependent on the transmission ratio i. Explanations are given in table 7 as well as in the text.

128

129

Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types

Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units

For all gear units explained in figures 21 and 22, the same prerequisites are valid. For all gear units, the construction dimension D is larger than the sum of the pitch diameters by the factor 1.15. Similar definitions are valid for gear unit height and width. Also the wall thickness of the housing is in a fixed relation to the construction dimension D /15/. With a given torque T2 and with a load value BL computed according to equation (26), the construction dimension D, the gear unit weight G, and the gear teeth surface A can be determined by approximation by figure 22 for a given transmission ratio i. However, the weights of modular-type gear units are usually higher, since the housing dimensions are determined according to different points of view. Referred to size and weight, planetary gear units F and G have the highest torques at small ratios i. For ratios i < 4, the planetary gear becomes the pinion instead of the sun gear. Space requirement and load carrying capacity of the planetary gear bearings decrease considerably. Usually, the planetary gear bearings are arranged in the planet carrier for ratio i < 4.5. Gear units C and D, which have only external gears, have the highest torque referred to size and weight for ratios above i ≈ 7. For planetary gear units, the torque referred to the gear teeth surface is more favourable only in case of small ratios, if compared with other gear units. It is to be taken into consideration, however, that internal gears require higher manufacturing expenditure than external gears for the same quality of manufacture. The comparisons show that there is no optimal gear unit available which combines all advantages over the entire transmission ratio range. Thus, the output torque referred to size and weight is the most favourable for the planetary gear unit, and this all the more, the smaller the transmission ratio in the planetary gear stage. With increasing ratio, however, the referred torque decreases considerably. For ratios above i = 8, load sharing gear units having external gears only are more favourable because with increasing ratio the referred torque decreases only slightly. With regard to the gear teeth surface, planetary gear units do not have such big advantages if compared to load sharing gear units having external gears only. 1.4.3.3 Efficiencies When comparing the efficiency, figure 22d, only the power losses in the meshings are taken into consideration. Under full load, they come to approx. 85% of the total power loss for common cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings. The efficiency as a quantity of energy losses results

from the following relation with the input power at shaft 1 and the torques T1 and T2 h) 1 i

1

All gear units shown in figure 21 are based on the same coefficient of friction of tooth profile µz = 0.06. Furthermore, gears without addendum modification and numbers of teeth of the pinion z = 17 are uniformly assumed for all gear units /15/, so that a comparison is possible. The single stage gear unit A has the best efficiency. The efficiencies of the two stage gear units B, C, D, E, F, and G are lower because the power flow passes two meshings. The internal gear pairs in gear units E, F, and G show better efficiencies owing to lower sliding velocities in the meshings compared to gear units B, C, and D which only have external gear pairs. The lossfree coupling performance of planetary gear units F and G results in a further improvement of the efficiency. It is therefore higher than that of other comparable load sharing gear units. For higher transmission ratios, however, more planetary gear stages are to be arranged in series so that the advantage of a better efficiency compared to gear units B, C, and D is lost. 1.4.3.4 Example Given: Two planetary gear stages of type F arranged in series, total transmission ratio i = 20, output torque T2 = 3 . 106 Nm, load value BL = 2.3 N/mm2. A minimum of weight is approximately achieved by a transmission ratio division of i = 5 . 4 of the HS and LS stage. At γ1 = 30 m mm2/kg and γ2 = 45 m mm2/kg according to figure 22b, the weight for the HS stage is approximately 10.9 t and for the LS stage approximately 30 t, which is a total 40.9 t. The total efficiency according to figure 22d is η = 0.986 . 0.985 = 0.971. In comparison to a gear unit of type D with the same transmission ratio i = 20 and the same output torque T2 = 3 . 106 Nm, however, with a better load value BL = 4 N/mm2 this gear unit has a weight of 68.2 t according to figure 22 with γ = 11 m mm2/kg and is thus heavier by 67%. The advantage is a better efficiency of η = 0.98. The two planetary gear stages of type F together have a power loss which is by 45% higher than that of the gear unit of type D. In addition, there is not enough space for the rolling bearings of the planet gears in the stage with i = 4.

Level correction (dB)

+T + T

2

(27)

Correction curve A

Frequency (Hz) Figure 23 Correction curve according to DIN 45635 /16/ for the A-weighted sound power level or sound pressure level 1.5 Noise emitted by gear units 1.5.1 Definitions Noise emitted by a gear unit - like all other noises - is composed of tones having different frequencies f. Measure of intensity is the sound pressure p which is the difference between the highest (or lowest) and the mean pressure in a sound wave detected by the human ear. The sound pressure can be determined for a single frequency or - as a combination - for a frequency range (single-number rating). It is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. In general, no absolute values are used but amplification or level quantities in bel (B) or decibel (dB). Reference value is, for instance, the sound pressure at a threshold of audibility po = 2 . 10 -5 N/m2. In order to take into consideration the different sensitivities of the human ear at different frequencies, the physical sound pressure value at the different frequencies is corrected according to rating curve A, see figure 23. Apart from sound pressures at certain places, sound powers and sound intensities of a whole system can be determined. From the gear unit power a very small part is turned into sound power. This mainly occurs in the meshings, but also on bearings, fan blades, or by oil movements. The sound power is transmitted from the sources to the outside gear unit surfaces mainly by structure-borne noise (material vibrations). From the outside surfaces, air borne noise is emitted. The sound power LWA is the A-weighted sound power emitted from the source of sound and thus a quantity independent of the distance. The sound power can be converted to an average sound pressure for a certain place. The sound pressure decreases with increasing distance from the source of sound. The sound intensity is the flux of sound power through a unit area normal to the direction of propagation. For a point source of sound it results from the sound power LW divided by the spherical enveloping surface 4 πr2, concentrically enveloping the source of sound. Like the sound pressure, the sound intensity is dependent on the distance to the source of sound, however, unlike the sound pressure it is a directional quantity. The recording instrument stores the sound pressure or sound intensity over a certain period of time and writes the dB values in frequency ranges (bands) into the spectrum (system of coordinates). Very small frequency ranges, e.g. 10 Hz or 1/12 octaves are termed narrow bands, see figure 24.

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131

Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units

Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units

range) is a single-number rating. The total level is the common logical value for gear unit noises. The pressure level is valid for a certain distance, in general 1 m from the housing surface as an ideal parallelepiped.

(Frequency)

Figure 24 Narrow band frequency spectrum for LpA (A-weighted sound pressure level) at a distance of 1 m from a gear unit.

Histograms occur in the one-third octave spectrum and in the octave spectrum, see figures 25 and 26. In the one-third octave spectrum (spectrum with 1/3 octaves), the bandwidth results from

1.5.2 Measurements The main noise emission parameter is the sound power level. 1.5.2.1 Determination via sound pressure DIN 45635 Part 1 and Part 23 describe how to determine the sound power levels of a given gear unit /16/. For this purpose, sound pressure levels LpA are measured at fixed points surrounding the gear unit and converted to sound power levels LWA. The measurement surface ratio LS is an auxiliary quantity which is dependent on the sum of the measurement surfaces. When the gear unit is placed on a reverberant base, the bottom is not taken into consideration, see example in figure 27.

Machine enclosing reference box Measurement surface

The results correspond to the sound power levels as determined in accordance with DIN 45635. This procedure requires a larger number of devices to be used, however, it is a very quick one. Above all, foreign influences are eliminated in the simplest way. 1.5.3 Prediction It is not possible to exactly calculate in advance the sound power level of a gear unit to be made. However, one can base the calculations on experience. In the VDI guidelines 2159 /17/, for example, reference values are given. Gear unit manufacturers, too, mostly have own records. The VDI guidelines are based on measurements carried out on a large number of industrial gear units. Main influence parameters for gear unit noises are gear unit type, transmitted power, manufacturing quality and speed. In VDI 2159, a Gear units Cylindrical gear units (rolling bearings) Cylindrical gear units (sliding bearings) Bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units Planetary gear units Worm gear units For restrictions, see VDI 2159.

**fo / fu = 2, i.e. fo / fu = 1.26, fo = fm . 1.12 and fu = fm / 1.12;
**

fm = mean band frequency, fo = upper band frequency, fu = lower band frequency. In case of octaves, the upper frequency is as twice as big as the lower one, or fo = fm . 1.41 and fu = fm / 1.41.

Bandwidth Sound intensity level dB(A)

3

distinction is made between cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings, see figure 28, cylindrical gear units with sliding bearings (high-speed gear units), bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units, planetary gear units and worm gear units. Furthermore, information on speed variators can be found in the guidelines. Figure 28 exemplary illustrates a characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units. Similar characteristic diagrams are also available for the other gear unit types mentioned. Within the characteristic diagrams, 50%- and 80%-lines are drawn. The 80%-line means, for example, that 80% of the recorded industrial gear units radiate lower noises. The lines are determined by mathematical equations. For the 80%-lines, the equations according to VDI 2159 are: Total sound power level LWA 77.1 + 12.3 . log P / kW (dB) 85.6 + 6.4 . log P / kW (dB) 71.7 + 15.9 . log P / kW (dB) 87.7 + 4.4 . log P / kW (dB) 65.0 + 15.9 . log P / kW (dB)

Frequency (HZ)

**Figure 25 One-third octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level, A-weighted)
**

Bandwidth Sound intensity level dB(A)

In order to really detect the noise radiated by the gear unit alone, corrections for background noise and environmental influences are to be made. It is not easy to find the correct correction values, because in general, other noise radiating machines are in operation in the vicinity. 1.5.2.2 Determination via sound intensity The gear unit surface is scanned manually all around at a distance of, for instance, 10 cm, by means of a special measuring device containing two opposing microphones. The mean of the levels is taken via the specified time, e.g. two minutes. An analyzer computes the intensity or power levels in one-third octave or octave bands. The results can be seen on a display screen. In most cases, they can also be recorded or printed, see figures 25 and 26.

Frequency (HZ)

Figure 26 Octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level, A-weighted) The total level (resulting from logarithmic addition of individual levels of the recorded frequency

132

Sound power level LWA

Figure 27 Example of arrangement of measuring points according to DIN 45 635 /16/

Type: Cylindrical gear units with external teeth mainly (> 80%) having the following characteristic features: Housing: Cast iron housing Bearing arrangement: Logarithmic regression LWA = 77.1 + 12.3 x log P/kW dB Rolling bearings (80%-line) Lubrication: Certainty rate r2 = 0.83 Dip lubrication Probability 90% Installation: Rigid on steel or concrete Power rating: 0.7 up to 2400 kW Input speed (= max. speed): 1000 up to 5000 min-1 (mostly 1500 min-1) Max. circumferential speed: 1 up to 20 ms-1 Output torque: 100 up to 200000 Nm No. of gear stages: 1 to 3 Mechanical power rating P Information on gear teeth: HS gear stage with helical teeth (b = 10° up to 30°), hardened, fine-machined, DIN quality 5 to 8 Figure 28 Characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units (industrial gear units) acc. to VDI 2159 /17/

133

Room and connection influences have not been taken into consideration.2 dB. 1.2. determined in accordance with DIN 45635 (sound pressure measurement) or according to the sound intensity measurement method.5). is calculated at a distance of 1 m with a measurement surface S = 21 m2 and a measurement surface ratio LS = 13. Attention has to be paid to it. a measurement surface sound pressure level of 102 . of standard quality: “The sound power level. dependent on the conditions. with rolling bearings. Housing design. Individual levels in a frequency spectrum cannot safely be predicted for gear units because of the multitude of influence parameters. that no structureborne noise is radiated via coupled elements (couplings. Sometimes.4 Possibilities of influencing With the selection of other than standard geometries and with special tooth modifications (see section 1. in special design and manufacturing expenditure. however. such a procedure results in a reduction in the performance (e. is 102 + 2 dB (A). If it is agreed that measurements are to be made they will be carried out on the manufacturer’s test stand.5. in any case. gear unit noises can be positively influenced. log S (dB) (28) (29) S = Sum of the hypothetical surfaces (m2) enveloping the gear unit at a distance of 1 m (ideal parallelepiped) Example of information for P = 100 kW in a 2-stage cylindrical gear unit of size 200 (centre distance in the 2nd gear stage in mm). module reduction) for the same size. In some cases. distribution of masses. Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches Friction Clutches Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches and Friction Clutches Page 136 136 136-138 138 138 138 139 140 134 135 .” Note: For this example.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Table of Contents Section 11 The measurement surface sound pressure level LpA at a distance of 1 m is calculated from the total sound power level LpA = LWA – Ls (dB) Ls = 10 . type of rolling bearing.g.13. and it requires more space.2 ≈ 89 db (A). A sound screen does not only hinder the propagation of airborne noise but also the heat dissipation of a gear unit. connections) to other places from where then airborne noise will be emitted. lubrication and cooling are also important. the only way is to enclose the gear units which makes possible that the total level is reduced by 10 to 25 dB. tolerance + 2 dB.

unless a progressive characteristic has intentionally been aimed for by design measures. 2.000 Nm are drives with periodically exciting aggregates (internal combustion engines. Couplings with elastomer elements primarily subjected to compression and bending have non-linear progressive stiffness characteristics. Pin and bush. and the subgroups rigid/flexible couplings and positive/friction clutches. Typical applications for ELPEX couplings which are available for torques up to 90. The coupling is especially suitable for plug-in assembly and fitting into bell housings. Damping torque and speed impulses. Examples of flexible couplings incorporating metal elements are coil spring and leaf spring couplings. Gear Friction Hydrodyn. The coupling is available as fail-safe coupling and as coupling without failsafe device. the achievable damping values are around ψ = 0. angular). The coupling is suitable for plug-in assembly and capable of absorbing large misalignments. and the heat loss has to be dissipated via the surface. Radial tooth Pin and bush. Sound isolation. The N-EUPEX coupling is a wear-resistant pin coupling for universal use (figure 30) absorbing large misalignments. Rolling contact joint. and pin and bush couplings. Such components are connected by couplings which have the following tasks: . 100°C. Examples of highly flexible couplings incorporating elastomer elements are tyre couplings. 136 137 . DIN 740 /18/). The dynamic stiffness of a coupling is influenced [(+) increased. Tyre.700 Nm. . Examples of couplings incorporating elastomer elements of average flexibility are claw-.3 Torsionally flexible couplings Torsionally flexible couplings are offered in many designs. radial disassembly is possible. Flange. The flexible properties of the couplings are generated by means of metal springs (coil springs. all clutches are disengageable when stationary.g. gear unit. It is available in different sizes for torques up to 20. axial. The dynamic loading capacity of a coupling is determined by the damping power and the restricted operating temperature of elastomers of 80°C up to max. and compensation of shaft misalignments with low restoring forces. They are designed as clamp. Interrupting the motion of rotation (clutches). Cardan Rigid. Such inserts absorb the coupling forces and prevent the elastic-viscous flow of the elastomer. Shaft couplings 2. the flexible elements are reinforced by fabric or thread inserts. Foettinger Plate. Electrical insulation. In case of couplings incorporating elastomer elements. A distinction is made between the two main groups couplings and clutches. Because of their capability to transmit high torques. Centrifugal force. Main functions are the reduction of torque impulses by elastic reaction. or by using torsional vibration simulation programs which can compute detailed vibration systems for both steady and unsteady conditions. Steel plate. torsional vibrations are taken into account by reducing the drive to a two-mass vibration generating system. (–) reduced] by the average load (+). leaf springs) or by means of elastomers (rubber. Torque transmitting thread inserts have been vulcanized into the rings out of high-quality natural rubber. universal joint Gear.Reducing the torsional vibration load. (*) Cone. large RUPEX couplings are often used on the output side between gear unit and driven machine. Radial tooth couplings are self-centering and transmit both high and alternating torques. Leaf spring.000 Nm.1 General fundamental principles In mechanical equipment. bending and shearing. Multiple disk. depending on the type. pin-. The quasi-statical torsional stiffness of an elastomer coupling increases at dynamic load (up to approximately 30 Hz. The ELPEX coupling (figure 32) is a highly flexible ring coupling without torsional backlash which is suitable for high dynamic loads and has good damping properties. Damping leads to heating of the coupling. Oldham coupling Claw. . show a linear behaviour. the flexible elements of the coupling are subjected to compression (tension). plastics). Membrane. while flexible elements (without fabric insert) merely subjected to shearing generate linear stiffness characteristics. transfer of resonance frequencies by variation of the torsional stiffness. The BIPEX coupling is a flexible fail-safe claw coupling in compact design for high power capacity and is offered in different sizes for maximum torques up to 3. In its three-part design it is suitable for simple assembly and simple replacement of flexible elements. Automatic disengaging. tyre couplings). oscillation frequency (+). Electrodyn. Rings of different elasticity are suitable for optimum dynamic tuning of drives. test frequency 10 Hz) by approximately 30 to 50%.Transmitting an as slip-free as possible motion of rotation. ring couplings. Claw. influencing and displacing the resonant ranges. flange and radial tooth couplings and allow the transmission of high torques requiring only small space. Damping is achieved by means of friction and viscous damping means. When designing drives with torsionally flexible couplings according to DIN 740 /18/. Another highly flexible tyre coupling with a simple closed tyre as flexible element mounted between two flanges is the ELPEX-B coupling. Coil spring. or to a combined form of stressing. flange couplings.Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid and Torsionally Flexible Couplings 2. Overrunning. Depending on the type.000 Nm. and large-volume claw couplings with cellular elastic materials. and period of use (–). Air bag spring. the torsional flexibility is between 2 and 25 degree. reciprocating engines) or extremely shockloaded drives with large shaft misalignments. temperature (–).Compensating shaft misalignments (radial. Since the coupling hubs are not only offered in grey cast iron but also in steel. The RUPEX coupling is a flexible fail-safe pin and bush coupling which as a universal coupling is made in different sizes for low up to very high torques (106 Nm) (figure 31). The stiffness characteristics. and frictional damping in case of couplings with flexible metal elements. Figure 29 Overview of possible shaft coupling designs 2. shafts and driven machine. Limiting the torque. The coupling is made in different types and sizes for torques up to 62.8 up to 2 (damping coefficient ψ. Shaft couplings Couplings Clutches Rigid Flexible Positive Friction Torsionally flexible Clamp. the oscillation amplitude (–). Universal joint. drives are consisting of components like prime mover. as a rule. a distinction is made between couplings of average flexibility with torsion angles of 2 up to 5 degree and couplings of high flexibility with torsion angles of 5 up to 30 degree. and torques. Due to the symmetrical design the coupling is free from axial and radial forces and allows large shaft misalignments even under torque loads. The coupling halves are connected by means of bolts (close fitting bolts). In case of clamp and flange couplings (with split spacer ring).2 Rigid couplings Rigid couplings connect two shaft ends and do practically not allow any shaft misalignment. Friction Eddy current (*) In case of additional gearing. damping of torsional vibrations by internal damping in case of couplings with flexible rubber elements. For couplings incorporating flexible metal elements. Shaft Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings The diversity of possible coupling variants is shown in the overview in figure 29. For rubber-flexible couplings. In some couplings (e. the couplings are also suitable for high speeds. Flange. The optimized shape of the barrelled buffers and the conical seat of the buffer bolts facilitate assembly and guarantee maintenance-free operation.

conveyor drives. they have to be greased with oil or grease (exception: steel plate and membrane couplings). 2. N-EUPEX. Uniform transmission of torque is guaranteed by spring pressure even after high cylce rates. RUPEX Figure 34 Gear coupling. The coupling is maintenance-free (no lubrication) and wear-resistant and owing to its closed plate packs allows easy assembly. Fields of application are. in three parts Figure 33 Highly flexible claw coupling with cellular flexible elements. idle torque. torquedependent (slip clutches. Plug-in assembly is possible.6 Friction clutches In friction clutches. turbines. Many claw. It is actuated externally by mechanical. The couplings are of compact design and are suitable for torques up to 80. The coupling transmits torques very uniformly. Further criteria are wear. magnetical). or gear couplings can be used as clutches by axially moving the driving member. torsionally rigid plate coupling for the absorption of shaft misalignments (angular up to 1 degree). Constant velocity joints. cement mills. cooling. Of the different clutch types.4 Torsionally rigid couplings Torsionally rigid couplings are used where the torsional vibration behaviour should not be changed and exact angular rotation is required. electrical. the smaller the size of the clutch. input and output shaft in one plane). with plate packs. drives for materials-handling equipment as well as for control systems. The couplings have linear stiffness characteristics. among others. suitable for high speeds. and permits easy assembly and disassembly (radial). and owing to its all-steel design is suitable for high ambient temperatures (up to 280°C) and high speeds.Shaft Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive and Friction Clutches This coupling features high flexibility without torsional backlash. The clutch is actuated externally. always transmit uniformly and are very short. but shaft misalignment has to be absorbed at the same time. The ZAPEX coupling is of compact design. Universal joints allow large angular misalignments (up to 40 degree).or wet. Shaft Couplings Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Figure 30 Flexible pin coupling. friction clutches are most commonly used which may contain either dry. a distinction is made between cylindrical. pneumatically. The large-volume cellular flexible elements show very good damping properties with low heating and thus allow high dynamic loads. 2. Typical torsionally rigid couplings are universal joint.000 Nm. Gear couplings of the ZAPEX type (figure 34) are double-jointed steel couplings with crowned gears which are capable of absorbing shaft misalignments (axial. With the use of long floating shafts large radial misalignments can be allowed. hydraulically. universal joints must always be arranged in pairs (same diffraction angle. It is lubricated with oil or grease. The ELPEX-S coupling (figure 33) is a highly flexible. service life. Torsionally rigid couplings are very compact. which has been designed with overload protection for application in general mechanical engineering. and uniform friction effect (non-chattering). forks on the intermediate shaft in one plane. cycle rate. absorbs large shaft misalignments. among others. ELPEX-S Figure 31 Flexible pin and bush coupling. The PLANOX clutch is a dry-friction multiple disk clutch with one up to three disks. ARPEX 138 139 . The larger the number of friction surface areas. even with the shaft rotating (mechanically. 2. In order to avoid pulsating angular rotation (2 times the torsional frequency). pin and bush. Fields of application are. fail-safe claw coupling absorbing large shaft misalignments. ventilators. hydrodynamic). speed-dependent (centrifugal force. all flexible couplings can be used as clutches. and in addition offers large safety reserves for the absorption of shock loads. cone. membrane and steel plate couplings. flange and disk clutches. ZAPEX Figure 32 Highly flexible ring coupling. however. however. The ARPEX coupling (figure 35) is a doublejointed. safety clutches). This universal coupling can be used in drives with high dynamic loads which require low frequency with good damping. Dependent on the friction element and the number of friction surface areas.from the miniature coupling up to large-size couplings for torques up to > 106 Nm. which always have to be designed as double-jointed couplings with floating shafts (spacers) of different lengths. rolling mills. paper machines.5 Positive clutches This type includes all clutches which can be actuated when stationary or during synchronous operation in order to engage or disengage a machine to or from a drive. The clutch is made in different types and sizes for torques up to 3 S 105 Nm. With the additional design element of interlocking teeth. radial and angular up to 1 degree) without generating large restoring forces.(oil-lubricated) friction elements. and with the use of different flexible elements they are suitable for optimum dynamic tuning of drives. gear. hydrodynamic or electrodynamic effect. A wide range of ARPEX couplings is available . the dynamic load increasing with the diffraction angle. ELPEX Figure 35 All-steel coupling. pumps. torques are generated by friction. and transmits very high torques (depending on the size up to > 106 Nm). and dependent on the direction of rotation (overrunning clutches). pneumatic or hydraulic force.

balls. fusible safety plugs and electronically or mechanically controlled temperature monitors are used. Speed-controlled clutches allow soft starting of heavy-duty driven machines. the clutch operates without slip. The coupling parts on the input (pump) and output (turbine) side are not mechanically connected and thus wear-resistant. The FLUDEX coupling (figure 36) is a hydrodynamic fluid coupling operating according to the Föttinger principle without mechanical friction. for separating torsional vibrations. Table of Contents Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Mass Mass Moment of Inertia Symbols and Units of Translational and Torsional Vibrations Determination of Stiffness Overlaying of Different Stiffnesses Conversions Natural Frequencies Evaluation of Vibrations Page 142 143-145 145/146 146/147 147 147 147 148 149 150 150 150/151 151/152 Outer wheel drive 1 Blade wheel housing (outer wheel) 2 Cover 3 Fusible safety plug 4 Filler plug 5 Impeller (inner wheel) 6 Hollow shaft 7 Delay chamber 8 Working chamber 9 Flexible coupling (N-EUPEX D) 10 Damming chamber Figure 36 Basic design of a fluid coupling with and without delay chamber. Fluid couplings have the same characteristics as turbines. During steady torque transmission little operating slip occurs which heats up the coupling. Speed-controlled clutches are designed as centrifugal clutches with segments.500 Nm. Fluid couplings are mainly used for starting great masses. retaining springs which transmit torques only from a specified operating speed on. e. FLUDEX type 140 141 .Shaft Couplings Friction Clutches Fluid Couplings The AUTOGARD torque limiter is an automatically actuating safety clutch which disconnects driving and driven side by means of a high-accuracy ball-operated mechanism and interrupts the transmission of torque as soon as the set disengagement torque is exceeded. torque increases with the second power. The clutch is made in different sizes for disengagement torques up to 56. After running up. rollers). the motor accelerating itself at first and then driving the machine. and power capacity is proportional to the third power of the input speed. The torque which is generated by friction on the lateral area of the output part increases as the square of the input speed.g. This permits the use of smaller dimensioned motors for high mass moments of inertia and a high number of starts. or with pellets (powder. As safety elements for limiting the temperature. Torque is transmitted by the rotating oil fluid in the coupling accelerated by the radial blades (pulse exchange). The torque limiter is ready for operation again when the mechanism has been re-engaged during standstill. and for limiting overloads during starting and in case of blockages.

n2 q m m2 m. Vibrations Nm/ rad N/m m m m – m 2. distance between bearings Mass Time-variable excitation moment Amplitude of moment Reduced amplitude of moment of a two-mass vibration generating system Natural frequency (vibrations per minute) Input speed. see figure 38. natural frequency Deformation Force Time-variable force Shear modulus Transmission ratio Number of windings (coil spring) Axial moment of area Polar moment of area Mass moment of inertia Reduced mass moment of inertia of a two-mass vibration generating system Viscous damping in case of torsional vibrations Viscous damping in case of translational and bending vibrations Length. see figure 37.718 N/m2 Hz m N N N/m2 – – m4 m4 kgm2 kgm2 Nms/ rad Ns/m m kg Nm Nm Nm 1/min 1/min – Torsional stiffness Translational stiffness. and whether the vibration takes place without energy losses (undamped) or with energy losses (damped). t Amplitude Radian frequency Time Note: The unit “rad” may be replaced by “1”. and the like. a periodic conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy takes place. rad Length of overhanging end Cross-sectional area Amplitude of oscillation Damping energy. to DIN 740 /18/ 3. cosine) the arguments of which contain natural radian frequency ω = 2π . a distinction is made between free vibrations and externally forced vibrations. fe f F F (t) G i iF la lp J. angle. . 3. the mass acting as kinetic energy store and the spring as potential energy store. Translational vibration generatig system Bending vibration generating system Torsional vibration generating system Figure 37 Different vibrating systems with one degree of freedom Further. i. sinω . natural radian frequency of the damped vibration Natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration Radian frequency of the excitating vibration o Ω Period x A ω t = = = = A . a distinction is made between translational (bending) and torsional vibrating systems as well as coupled vibrating systems in which translational and torsional vibrations occur at the same time. velocity.e. The simplest form of a mechanical vibrating system consists of a mass and a spring with fixed ends. The vibration variation with time x can be described by the constant amplitude of oscillation A and a harmonic function (sine. Ji J* k k’ l m. bending stiffnes Diameter Inside diameter Outside diameter Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Mean coil diameter (coil spring) Natural number Modulus of elasticity Frequency. such as displacement.Vibrations Symbols and Units Vibrations General Fundamental Principles a A A AD. x = A .. Ae c c’ d di da D Dm e= E f. figure 39a. the kinetic energy of the mass and the energy stored in the spring are converted at certain intervals of time. h p ^ p ^ stat ψ ω Amplitude Vibration Amplitude Angular velocity. influencing each other. temperature. output speed Influence factor for taking into account the mass of the shaft when calculating the natural bending frequency α γ δ ε η λi Λ π= r ϕ. mi M (t) Mo Mo* ne n1. sin (ω . elastic energy t T T V V x ^ x s s Nm m3 – m m rad rad 1/s rad – – – 3. A vibration is free and undamped if energy is neither supplied nor removed by internal friction so that the existing energy content of the vibration is maintained. Dynamic/ static load ratio Displacement co-ordinate (translational.1 General fundamental principles Vibrations are more or less regularly occurring temporary variations of state variables. During vibration. ϕi ^ . bending) Displacement amplitude Phase angle Phase angle with free vibration Damping constant Phase displacement angle with forced vibration Excitation frequency/natural frequency ratio Inherent value factor for i-th natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Peripheral/diameter ratio Specific density Angle of rotation Angular amplitude of a vibration Angular velocity (first time derivation of ) Angular acceleration (second time derivation of ) Vibratory angle of the free vibration (homogeneous solution) Vibratory angle of the forced vibration (particular solution) Angular amplitude of the forced vibration Angular amplitude of the forced vibration under load ( = 0) Damping coefficient acc. t + α) α = Phase angle Figure 38 Mathematical description of an undamped vibration with and without phase angle 142 143 . The state of a vibrating system can be described by suitable variables. pressure. and vice versa.142 kg/m3 rad rad rad/s rad/s2 rad rad rad rad – rad/s rad/s rad/s Time Period of a vibration Torque Volume Magnification factor. In this case the system carries out steady-state natural vibrations the frequency of which is determined only by the characteristics of the spring/mass system (natural frequency). Dependent on the mode of motion of the mass. f (f = natural frequency in Hertz) and time. electric voltage/ current.

unfixed torsional vibration system with n masses. control actions. the amplitudes of oscillation decrease in accordance with a geometric progression. propeller. Resonance points may Differential equation of motion: One-mass vibration generating system: . When analysing vibration processes. universal-joint shaft. periodic meshing stiffnesses). when the applied frequency is at the natural frequency of the system. Displacement x Free two-mass vibration generating system a) Undamped vibration (δ = 0) Figure 40 Torsional vibrators J.e. piston compressor. c) From the output side: Principle of the driven machine. Drive systems with torsionally flexible couplings can be designed dynamically in accordance with DIN 740 /18/. If a constant viscous damping (Newton’s friction) exists. load as a function of time. In this standard. nonuniform. The range of the occurring amplitudes of oscillation is divided by the resonance point (natural frequency = excitation frequency. periodic excitation functions can be described by means of sine or cosine functions and the superpositions thereof. In technical drive systems. vibrations are excited by the following mechanisms: a) From the input side: Starting processes of electric motors. This applies even more to vibrating systems with non-linear or periodic variable parameters (non-linear torsional stiffness of couplings. figure 40. figure 39c. unsteady processes. As a rule. i.. Technical vibrating systems often consist of several masses which are connected with each other by spring or damping elements. critical vibrations) into the subcritical and supercritical oscillation range. ) c J* + ( 2 o 2 M(t) J1 ne (31) k J [1/min] [1/s] (37) (38) damping constant with J* J1 1 (32) (33) J2 J1 ) J2 ωo = natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration in rad/s fe = natural frequency in Hertz ne = natural frequency in 1/min Damped natural radian frequency: Natural radian frequency (undamped): ωο o c J [ rad/s] (34) 2 o + 2 o 1 + D2 (39) 144 145 . uniform. system short circuits. δ = damping constant) If the vibrating system is excited by a periodic external force F(t) or moment M(t). ( ϕ = ϕ1 – ϕ2 for 2-mass vibration generating systems as relative angle) = angular velocity [rad/s] (first time derivation of ö ) = angular acceleration [rad/s2] (second time derivation of ö ) J1 ) J2 J1 J2 b) Damped vibration (δ > 0) ö . energy can be supplied to or removed from the vibrating system. A free. With the periodic external excitation force. in undamped systems the amplitudes of oscillation grow at an unlimited degree. J2 c k M (t) = mass moment of inertia [kgm2] = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] = viscous damping [Nms/rad] = external excitation moment [Nm] . unbalance. a minimum frequency distance of 15% or larger from a resonance point is required. In case of simple vibrating systems with one or few (maximum 4) masses.2 Solution proposal for simple torsional vibrators Analytic solution for a periodically excited one(fixed) or two-mass vibration generating system. With EDP programmes.. e. loads with steady as well as unsteady excitation can be simulated for complex vibrating systems (linear. where mostly only the lower natural frequencies and especially the basic frequency (first harmonic) are of importance. the drive train having been reduced to a two-mass vibration generating system. analytic solutions for the natural frequencies and the vibration variation with time can be given for steady excitation. Then.. ö . Such systems have as many natural frequencies with the corresponding natural vibration modes as degrees of freedom of motion. for instance.g. if during each period of oscillation a certain amount of vibrational energy is removed from the vibration generating system by internal or external friction. the amplitude of oscillation grows until the energy supplied by the excitation force and the energy converted into heat by the damping energy are in equilibrium.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators lead to high loads in the components and therefore are to be avoided or to be quickly traversed. A damped vibration exists. figure 39b. (Example: natural bending frequency in highspeed gear units). All these natural frequencies can be excited to vibrate by periodic external or internal forces. )c J ( 2 o M (t) J (30) Natural frequency: fe o ( Two-mass vibration generating system with relative coordinate: . 2 o [Hz] 30 (36) ) k J* ( 2 . turbines. As a rule. Resonance exists. and overvoltages of resonance. for technical vibrating systems (e. b) From transmitting elements: Meshing. however. After a building-up period. ö c) Stimulated vibration ( δ < 0) Time t Figure 39 Vibration variations with time (A = initial amplitude at time t = 0. starting shock impulses. J1. drives). alignment error. All technical vibration generating systems are subject to more or less strong damping effects. 3.g. o c rad s (35) )k J 2 . a Fourier analysis may often be helpful where periodic excitation processes are resolved into fundamental and harmonic oscillations and thus in comparison with the natural frequencies of a system show possible resonance points. influences from bearings. this is a forced or stimulated vibration. In damped systems. parameter-excited) and the results be represented in the form of frequency analyses. has n-1 natural frequencies. For unsteady loaded vibrating systems with one or more masses. non-linear. simplified solution proposals for shock-loaded Fixed one-mass vibration generating system and periodically loaded drives are made. a damped vibrating system does no longer vibrate with its natural frequency but with the frequency of the external excitation force. solutions can be calculated only with the aid of numerical simulation programmes. Diesel Otto engines. time-variable = angle of rotation [rad] .

In damped vibrating systems (δ > 0) the free component of vibration disappears after a transient period. spring and damping elements without mass.2 Mass moment of inertia p 1 (1 + 2) 2 ) 4D 2 2 ^ stat M (50) M* o J = r 2 dm: general integral formula Periodic excitation moment M(t) Mo cos m t (41) ^ p = vibration amplitude of forced vibration = vibration amplitude of forced vibration at a frequency ratio η = 0. damped and undamped vibrations at periodic moment excitation (power excitation).V [kg] [kg/m3] One-mass vibration generating system: Mo * Mo Two-mass vibration generating system: J2 Mo * Mo J1 ) J2 (47) (48) c) Magnification factor Mo * c V cos (m t+ ) ^ V = volume [m3] r = specific density (49) Figure 41 Damping hysteresis of a torsionally flexible component V 3.3 Solution of the differential equation of motion ^ p 3.01..04. to Flender brochure damping energy elastic deformation energy AD Ae b) Forced vibration (particular solution p) p Reference values for some components: D = 0.04 gear couplings. 3. . determined by a damping hysteresis of a period of oscillation acc.4 Formulae for the calculation of vibrations For the calculation of natural frequencies and vibrational loads..4. stat Circular cylinder: 1 r J d4 l p (kgm2r 32 d = diameter [m] l = length of cylinder p mr Mo = amplitude of moment [Nm] Ω = exciting circuit frequency [rad/s] Total solution: h The magnification factor shows the ratio of the dynamic and static load and is a measure for the additional load caused by vibrations (figure 42). Magnification factors V and phase displacement angle ε. universal joint shafts Static spring characteristic for one load cycle M* o c (1 + t+ ) 2) 2 1 ) 4D 2 2 cos(m (44) 2 D 2 Frequency ratio m o Phase angle: tan 1+ m o (45) Figure 42 Magnification factors for forced...g. to DIN 740 /18/ and/or acc.001.0..4.15 (0. (42) ) p 146 147 Phase displacement angle ε Constants A and γ are determined by the starting .Vibrations Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping): D D k 2 o Vibrations Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations a) Free vibration (homogeneous solution h) (40) h A e {+ t} cos ( t+ ) (43) Magnification factor V o c 4 ψ = damping coefficient on torsionally flexible coupling. Frequency ratio: (46) 3.. by h = 0 and h= 0 (initial-value problem)..01 shafts (material damping of steel) D = 0. conditions. a general vibration generating system has to be converted to a calculable substitute system with point masses.08 gear teeth in gear units D = 0.0. e.0..0. all-steel couplings.04.2) torsionally flexible couplings D = 0.1 Mass m = r.

J) D = δ/ωο xn ^ ^ c N m E = modulus of elasticity 1) A = cross-sectional area x n)1 ^ ^ n n)1 Cantilever beam c 2 D 1 + D2 t α F f Shaft : 3 E Ia l3 Ia 64 N m d4 64 (d 4 + d 4) a i F f ε = α1 − α2 T = 2 . Torsionally vibrating mass with mass moment of inertia J Instantaneous. m2 m rad*) m rad m/s rad/s Translatory vibrating mass m. For D < 1. = force = deformation at centre of mass under force F Ia = axial moment of area Hollow shaft : I a Transverse beam (single load in middle) c F f 48 E l3 Ia N m c m c J 2 o Transverse beam with overhanging end c F f l 3 a2 E Ia (l ) a) N m a + r2 rad/s – = distance between bearings = length of overhanging end Ω η= Ω/ωο *) The unit “rad” may be replaced by “1”. π seconds. x. a damped vibration exists. Time during which a single vibration occurs. Radian frequency of excitation Resonance exists at η= 1. Frequency is the reciprocal value to a period of vibrations. da = diameters of shafts δ = k’/(2 .4. m) δ = k/(2 . Radian frequency is the number of vibrations in 2 .ϕ k’ k N NSm Nm rad d4 32 32 (d 4 + d 4) a i Nm Linear springs N S m/rad N In case of linear springs.3 Determination of stiffness Explanation Table 9 Calculation of stiffness (examples) Example Coil spring G 8 d4 if N m iF = G = d = Dm = number of windings shear modulus 1) diameter of wire mean coil diameter Stiffness Symbol Quantity m J x ϕ ^ x max.. f o o Coordinate of running time In case of a positive value. p p In (x n x n)1) In ( ^ n ^ n)1) ^ ^ Shaft : I p Hollow shaft : I p Tension bar E I A Ip = polar moment of inertia l = length d. Torsion bar c G I Ip m J c’ c c’ .. π) ωο = 2 . di. .Vibrations Terms. Vibration frequency of the natural vibration (undamped) of the system For a very small attenuation ratio D < 1 becomes ωd ≈ ωo. Mass moment of inertia Instantaneous value of vibration (displacement. Moment of inertia forces Spring rate. . Torsional spring rate Spring force. The d’Alembert’s inertia force or the moment of inertia force acts in the opposite direction of the positive acceleration. an aperiodic case exists. angle) Amplitude Oscillating velocity Inertia force. x x . 1) For steel: E = 21 S 1010 N/m2. π . Spring moment Attenuation constant (Damping coefficient). Attenuation constant for rotary motion Damping factor (Decay coefficient) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Damping ratio Logarithmic damping decrement Time Phase angle Phase displacement angle Period of a vibration Frequency of natural vibration Radian frequency of natural vibration Natural radian frequency (Natural frequency) Natural radian frequency when damped Excitation frequency Radian frequency ratio d 3. Oscillating velocity. x c. it is a lead angle.1 S 1010 N/m2 148 149 . one cycle apart. the damping N S s/m force is proportional to velocity and Nms/rad attenuation constant (linear damping). A ^ max. c D3 m . . Difference between phase angles of two vibration processes with same radian frequency. The damping ratio is the relation between two amplitudes. In case of Newton’s friction. time-dependent value of vibration amplitude Amplitude is the maximum instantaneous value (peak value) of a vibration. π / ωο f = 1/T = ωο/(2 . G = 8. for D ≥ 1. vibrations per sec. Symbols and Units Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Table 8 Symbols and units of translational and torsional vibrations Term Mass. Velocity is the instantaneous value of the velocity of change in the direction of vibration. 1/s 1/s – – – – s rad rad s Hz rad/s rad/s rad/s The damping factor is the damping coefficient referred to twice the mass. A Unit kg kg . the spring recoil N S m is proportional to deflection.

f e. dependent on mode of fixing Bearing application λ1 1.. general formula for the natural frequency in the order fe.927 λ2 4. in case of dynamic loads. 2nd. Examples of application are torsionally flexible couplings and resilient buffers for vibration isolation of machines and internal combustion engines.i + p d 8 i l 2 E r Hz (64) i = 1st. 1. c ges c1 ) c2 ) c3 ) ) cn (54) c = torsional stiffness in [Nm/rad] J. E Hz r A (63) Slope = dynamic stiffness Figure 43 Static and dynamic torsional stiffness λi = inherent value factor for the i-th natural frequency l = length of shaft [m] E = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] I = moment of area [m4] r = density [kg/m3] A = cross-sectional area [m2] d = diameter of solid shaft [m] 150 151 . dependent on the direction of load of the rubber material. 3. i. for calibration. Bending : f e + 1 2p c m (60) fe + 1 2p c m1 ) m2 m1 m2 (61) 3. for example. signal transmission and evaluation.. This applies. for instance.03 . stiffness can be determined by measuring the deformation. The dynamic torsional stiffness is greater than the static torsional stiffness. Series connection: Rule: The individual springs in a series connection carry the same load. (51) c (59) (52) Parallel connection: Rule: The individual springs in a parallel connection are always subject to the same deformation. load frequency.5 Evaluation of vibrations The dynamic load of machines can be determined by means of different measurement methods.069 λ3 7. Slope = static stiffness g = 9. Since torques in shafts are generated via bearing pressure in gear units.694 7. order of natural bending frequencies. vertical). equation (63) is simplified to: f e. mi = masses in [kg] b) Natural bending frequencies of shafts supported at both ends with applied masses with known deformation f due to the dead weight fe + q 2p g f [Hz Table 10 λ-values for the first three natural frequencies. see figure 43.09 common values when considering the shaft masses q = 1.210 (62) Conversion of stiffnesses cn2 and masses Jn2 with speed n2 to the respective values cn1 and Jn1 with reference speed n1: C n1 J n1 c n2 i 2 J n2 i 2 (56) (57) Before combining stiffnesses and masses with different inherent speeds. These components often have non-linear progressive stiffness characteristics. taking into account dead weights (continuum).13 solid shaft without pulley c) Natural bending frequencies for shafts. This requires.4. as a rule. 3rd .Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations 3. however. can be measured directly on the shafts by means of wire strain gauges. Translation: F N m c f F = applied force [N] f = measured deformation [m] Torsion: T Nm rad c T = applied torsion torque [Nm] ϕ = measured torsion angle [rad] Measurements of stiffness are furthermore required if the material properties of the spring material are very complex and it is difficult to rate them exactly.875 4. however. they are subjected to different deformations. load.81 gravity f = deformation due to dead weight [m] q = factor reflecting the effect of the shaft masses on the applied mass q = 1 shaft mass is neglected compared with the applied mass q = 1.4 Overlaying of different stiffnesses To determine resulting stiffnesses. Natural frequency f in Hertz (1/s): One-mass vibration generating system: Torsion : f e + 1 2p c J (58) Two-mass vibration generating system: fe + 1 2p J1 ) J2 J1 J2 Measuring the stiffness: In a test. 1 c ges 1 1 1 1 c1 ) c2 ) c3 ) ) cn (53) 3.6 Natural frequencies a) Formulae for the calculation of the natural frequencies of a fixed one-mass vibration generating system and a free two-mass vibration generating system. compression..966 3π 10. Conversion is carried out as a square of the transmission ratio: Transmission ratio: i n1 n2 reference speed speed (55) c’ = translational stiffness (bending stiffness) in [N/m] m. the stiffnesses and masses are to be converted to a reference speed (input or output). belt drives. and mode of stress (tension. Torsional vibration loads in drives.i + 1 2p mi l 2 m/s2 For the solid shaft with free bearing support on both sides. etc.855 10. single stiffnesses are to be added where arrangements in series connection or parallel connection are possible. much time for fixing the strain gauges.853 2π 7. shearing).730 π 3.4. For couplings the dynamic stiffness is given.4. conversion to the common reference speed has to be carried out first..5 Conversions If drives with different speeds or shafts are combined in one vibration generating system. which is measured at a vibrational frequency of 10 Hz (vibrational amplitude = 25% of the nominal coupling torque). to rubber materials of which the resilient properties are dependent on temperature. This is particularly helpful if the geometric structure is very complex and very difficult to acquire. structure-borne noise is generated which can be acquired by sensing elements at the bearing points in different directions (axial. Ji = mass moments of inertia in [kgm2] Translation.. horizontal.

“acceptable”.8 1. 18 from 18 up 1) 08/97 withdrawn without replacement..8 2.1 from 7. The structure-borne noise signal reflects besides the torque load in the shafts also unbalances. 15 kW without special foundation. to VDI guideline 2056 1) for four machine groups Including gear units and machines with input power ratings of . from approx. 75 up to 300 kW and installation on highly tuned.. alignment errors. and 12 154/155 Table 11 Boundary limits acc. Gear unit noises are evaluated according to VDI guideline 2159 or DIN 45635 /17. as a rule.. improving the alignment.5. to VDI 2056 (“Effective value of the vibration velocity” in mm/s) Good up to 0.8 . 1.7 . 4. and “non-permissible”.... from approx. 7 7 . For the evaluation of noise. Dependent on the machine support structure (resilient or rigid foundation) and power transmitted. 11. taking into account structure-borne noise in the frequency range between 10 and 1. as a rule... Dependent on the vibration velocity. rigid or heavy foundations.000 Hertz. velocity and acceleration can be recorded and evaluated in a sum (effective vibration velocity) or frequencyselective. up to approx. the vibrational state of a machine is judged to be “good”. VDI guideline 2056 1) or DIN ISO 10816-1 /19. over 75 kW and installation on broadly tuned resilient foundations (especially also steel foundations designed according to lightconstruction guidelines)..5 Non-permissible from 4.. .. . sound pressure level and sound intensity are measured.. M . bearing noises. verification by calculation). up to 1.. Structure-borne noise is emitted from the machine surface in the form of airborne noise and has an impact on the environment by the generated noises. If vibration velocities are in the “non-permissible” range... 2. meshing impulses.8 Still permissible 1.. or it has to be verified in detail that the vibrational state does not impair the service life of the machine (experience..7 Acceptable 0. measures to improve the vibrational state of the machine (balancing.. 20/ is consulted for the effective vibration velocity.. . 7. replacing defective machine parts. 15 up to 75 kW without special foundation. To evaluate the actual state of a machine. a distinction is made between four machine groups (table 11)..1 ...8 .8 . 4. and possibly developing machine damages..Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Table of Contents Section 13 Dependent on the requirements. see /20/ 152 153 . displacing the resonance) are required..8 .1 1. ..1 up Range classification acc.5 up Machine groups K G up to 1. rigid or heavy foundations. “still permissible”.5 4. the amplitudes of vibration displacement.5 . see subsection 1.8 2. Page Bibliography of Sections 10. 11 from 11 up T up to 2. over 300 kW and installation on highly tuned.... 16/.

Enveloping surface method. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Paper 109. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2056: Beurteilungsmasstäbe für mechanische Schwingungen von Maschinen. Beuth Verlag GmbH. 10772 Berlin /14/ /3/ DIN 3993: Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs. Frankfurt am Main Niemann. und Winter. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure.. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. New York (1965) Theissen. Part 1: Airborne noise emission. 1. Stirnradgetriebe. Berlin /13/ /2/ FVA-Ritzelkorrekturprogramm: EDV-Programm zur Ermittlung der Zahnflankenkorrekturen zum Ausgleich der lastbedingten Zahnverformungen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). 1983 DIN 45635: Measurement of noise emitted by machines. VDI-Verlag. Beuth Verlag GmbH. New York. Semi-Annual Meeting of the AGMA 1965. Stand Dezember 1976. Zahnradgetriebe-Grundlagen. Berechnungen mit dem FVA-Programm “Ritzelkorrektur”. Berlin DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Gear transmission. Frankfurt am Main /15/ /4/ /16/ /5/ /6/ /17/ /7/ /18/ /8/ /19/ /20/ /9/ /10/ /11/ /12/ 154 155 . Band II.: Profile and longitudinal corrections on involute gears. FVA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr.und Biegebeanspruchung. February 1989 edition Part 12: Simplified method. Heidelberg. Part 1: Introduction and general influence factors Part 2: Calculation of pitting resistance Part 3: Calculation of tooth strength Part 4: Calculation of scuffing load capacity Beuth Verlag GmbH. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2159: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen. December 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. Frankfurt am Main DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Heidelberg. Draft May 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. 30.. Basic method. Berlin Niemann. August 1986 edition. (08/97 withdrawn without replacement) DIN ISO 10816-1: Mechanical vibration . Berlin DIN 3994: Addendum modification of spur gears in the 05-system.: Maschinenelemente 2. 8: Grundlagenversuche zur Ermittlung der richtigen Härtetiefe bei Wälz. July 1985 DIN 740: Flexible shaft couplings. Parameters and design principles.16 Hösel. Springer Verlag Berlin. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure.: Vergleichskriterien für Grossgetriebe mit Leistungsverzweigung. Bd. H. G. Part 5: Endurance limits and material qualities. Berlin DIN 3992: Addendum modification of external spur and helical gears.Bibliography Bibliography /1/ DIN 3960: Definitions. March 1987 edition. H. VDI-Bericht 488 “Zahnradgetriebe 1983 . December 1987 FVA-Stirnradprogramm: Vergleich und Zusammenfassung von Zahnradberechnungen mit Hilfe von EDV-Anlagen (jeweils neuester Programmstand).Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts.: Ermittlung von Tragbild und Flankenrichtungskorrekturen für Evolventen-Stirnräder. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. 12 DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. August 1963 edition. October 1964. Springer Verlag. Getriebegeräusche. Tokyo (1985) Sigg. Enveloping surface method. Application standard for industrial gears. G. Part 2.mehr Know how für morgen”. divided into 3 grades of accuracy. Part 3. August 1997 edition. April 1984 edition Part 23: Measurement of airborne noise. Getriebe allgemein. Berlin FVA-Arbeitsblatt zum Forschungsvorhaben Nr. Part 11: Detailed method. J. 3rd edition. August 1981 edition. VDI-Handbuch Schwingungstechnik. FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr. Zeitschrift Antriebstechnik 22 (1983) Nr.: Maschinenelemente. March 1964 edition. Th. parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear pairs. July 1978 edition Beuth Verlag GmbH. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin.

TRANSLATION of FLENDER Technical Handbook 2nd Edition 07/2000 Copyright by FLENDER AG Bocholt .

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