Architectural Design

Edited AndreasC Papadakis by

OF E LEMEN T S A R CHITECTURE
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EDITOR Dr Andrcas C Pap.dakis Firs! publishcd in Crcat Brihin in 1983 by /rcl it.crural D.sign tn ifrDlina ol thc ACADEMY GROUP LTD, 42 LEINSTER GARDENS, LONDON W2 3AN Dktributed to rhc radc in ihe Unired Statcs of Amc.ic. by ST MARTIN'S PRESS,I?5 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK. NY IOOIO ISBN: I 85490 17?X Sccond cnlargcd cdition, 1992 Copyrighr @ 1983, 1992 rhc Acrdcmy Croup Lrd All righrs rcsencd The entirc contcnts of this publicatiol r!! copyright.nd cannot bc r.goduccd in any mattltcr whsts@vcr wirhout wrincn pcamissionfrom lhc publishcrs AD Profilc 49 is published as pan of .Arcrrrl"ctwal DesiSnVol/untc 53 9/10"1983 Translstcd from the Gcrman by Romrna Schncidcr. Origin.l rcrt prcpat d for public.tion by Dcitrnar Srciner. Photogrrphs illusuating lh. El€mcnts of Architccturc by JohannKdiftncr unlcss othcrwis€ crcditcd. Front and ba.k coe.r: Typological slndics of rcctangular buildings lnd U-typcs snd tow€rc by Rob Krier. lnsidc front and back cov?r.' Studcnt drawings of rhe intc.ior of thc Post Offic. Savin$ Bu*, Vicnn! by Otto wagncr and thc staircas€of thc An History Muscum, Vicnna by G Scmpc. and KV Hascnaucr. a

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EL EMENTS OF ARCHITE CTURE

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buildinS techniquei to lor stoneand thusto lom an homogeneous constructed ||.. pethapsevn the nost archoic.THE WALL The mostobvious. long watt |. to . bs and tenacia|.|.utteither be A thick eaouehto stondalone ot it needs be suppo ed by a systen of pillan. outer cov ng or zet\|ork.ass.

ac!. hds .lop?.lia ol pnssihilities nhith tould be e\ploite..nrcnts nto R.nt .lure hdv heen shen sisDricatt iueryrctdtion in stote. oJ the hasednd tlrc capital sith thei onplex isml and srnrcturclrcquir. For thousan. Thenodeltin! oJthe shdft.l ia btiUins.s? oJlime.ls \edN the basicloms of dtchit.THE COLUMN In a niraculous liligrce natrre has l?ft us a mosnifc.l to peiection oter the co .

the difrercnti.alb ot in the archiectunl oesthetic \'e desttuction a de. .tiot ol roons idside. rcchni.on t hef ndanenlols. all this.p-. Theenclosing protectingwll.ep out the ruin and cokl .THEHOUSE and erits.thenatkalb. muststaft again. .r'indo"s os to"rces ol light.IeaninS to build f. of . doors as entrunces and toda!.ootednadition in the twenties. Folloeing the needno lonSer be questioned the rcoJto k.

. intinacy and rctrcat. ..on|tust uith li|ing nature.TheBreaterthe dehsnyondth.t and squorcs are the . r'hile qtiet cells in the fo. Sne.ehicles of public life.n oJ.THE CITY TheBeonetrj of the single hotse de fts itsJofte lrom the.ourtJards arc places ol rcfuge.on. the 8rcott the displacenentof naturc ond the eAvircnnentond thus the nore inportant the artificial spaces b. nunber olhouses.

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BETIN SIA.iIDAC.CONTENTS A' LINDEI{UFETX.ound Pfans 82 LTypes 85 U-Typcs 85 Building Comcs 86 Interior Courtysrds 90 OutsidcStaircrscs 92 Prosoect94 TowersandMonumcnts 94 L L L L L L . Balconiesandloggias 72 RoofsandAttic Storrys 74 ELEMENTS ltr: GROLTND-PLAN AND BUILDING F9 RM 76 SquarcBuitdings ?8 RccungularBuildings 8l T-shapcdGr.'RE 25 ELEMENTSI: INTERIORS 26 The Typology of Interior Spaces26 The Art of Composing Spaces36 210ColumnsandPiers 44 Doon z16 Cciling andFloon Windows 49 Staircases 55 ef.I I. I''9 ARCHITECTUML PROFILE 49 DESIGN No EL EMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE ROB KRIER l q L Introductionby AndreasPapadakis KennethPowell I I and A Criticism of ModemArchitectur€ or About the Downfall of the An of Building 12 ELEMENTSOF ARCHITECTI.ff"feVfS tr: FACADES 60 ' Enrericcs andPoials 69 Arcades 70 GroundFIoors 7t ' Bay-Wfurdows.

lttarkcl Placcin Karlsruhe lookin! lowardsthe Palacc Tle Circus in Karlsruhe l0 .Th.

lhoughhis traditionalism is. He looks at tradition not as a static quantity. When this issue ol Architecnu'al Desig. Krier reassens constant values.demonsrrations the power of of tradition in lhe face of what he sees as an anarchic and destructive sabotageof ancient values. a masterpiece . [t is an immensely . a house or a museum and restores the place of symbolism.not merelyfor use in architecturaleducationas Krier himself suggests. He reflects the Modern Movement's anempt to redefine the image of a church. but as a measureof the present. Iike the artists and philosophers of the Renaissance.s for to magnificent colour drawings including the Wall.whoseview of'rrtrdition' is original and far from sfatic.He is a definiteeclectic. Andreas Paoadakis . This \\as the first part to be published of Rob K er's book.l Conpos ior. a guiding force through history Krier is not just a theorist.t. the words of one a In reviewer. in some ways.he is not a simple reactionary . .hitectr.. the Colrnn.'lt is. deepand sincere. authoritarian order but that order which is pafl of the power of nature in the world.By severingarchirecture's association with changingfashion he sho\\'show it respondsto the b{sic human requirements which are unfulfilled by designalone. while remaininga vital medium fo communicate most significantsocialand spiritualvalues. He is a true humanist who. cutsth6ugh He many of the simplisric fallaciesthat lie behind modern architectural criticism and revealshow the architecural agendaremainsconstant. anchoring humanity to the past. rich resource book.but looks beyond them. His influence on architectural design in the years since rhis book first appearedhas been immense and does not look set lo diminish. was first published in 1983 it was an instanr successwith both studentsand academics and quickly became a set text for a number of architecturecoursesthroughout the world.4 rchitectu.does not reject the past but looks to it to instruct and inspirc the future. as well as of rebinh and creativity.z by Rob Krier. in its way. Rob Krier is a theoristand an architectcommittedto seeking out iuilamenral architectural truths. When $e whole $ork appeared few yearslater it was receivedequallyenthusiastically.. His anal)sis oftraditionalarchitectural form is set in thecontextofpresent-day needs. the Krier does not fit readilyinto any of the contemporary stylisticcategories. and lhe CiA.Krier's analysisof traditionalarchitectural form is set in the context of present-da) needs. It is a greatpleasure us to reprintthis issueand to takethe opportuniry includeeight ofKrier.FOREWORD To the Second Edition It is with sreat pride that we are reissuing the Elemcnts of Ar. but as an inspiredseriesof lessonsin good architectural design'. the Holr. In times of confusion and decay.His buildingsare at one with his theory. The essence Krier's work is to be soughtin his deepbelief in the powerof beautyand order_ not of an artificially imposed.

Rome professional worldwhichiurally.Citizens'initiatives. to give an outlookon and an architecture which outlasts present. where Rob Krier has been Professorof Architecturesince 1975.and to formulate propositions according my own personal to conviction.etaik). ArchitecturalComposition. press vehemently upurbandesign take The out spies and huntsdown.* Spatial urbansystems havcbeen radically and callously ignored.areas ruinswhichwereimDortanl the was in were for thecity'sidenlity rebuilt wirha heroic cenainq. The masshousing shortage abuse? specularors order was by in for themto become in a shonperiod time.and the typological studiesof the elements architecof ture whichfollow.A Criticism of Modern Architecture or About the Downfall of the Art of Building This essay. a book on this traumatic issuein whichI tried to fathomthe reason for thisdestruction.because uglhess sooner lalercreates or coniempt disgust and in everyhuman being. haveinfluenced wholedecades. Someplanners of even welcome consumer/disposable the ideology a substitute nonas for existent architectural concepts. or to produce on a lexical review with the aim of analysing every architectural contribution the basis its theoretical on of stability. These will allow me to makea critical statement. Warsawfor instance. Second in where situation worst. andsometimes lgds ro delinquency.The planners. whichconcemed separation the offunctions in the city (zoning). They therefore madeWarsawa symbolof rheir national strength. 'shouldseme a logical in as link.. andall this with poor economic technical and 'reasons'. furlher. Evenif it is of has journalists difficultfor professionalsadmitthisfact. made even they it easier for buildingcompanies makefastmoney-a viciouscircle.to become mostprimirive the formulae.ondit shoud be citical in orderto selectivelyfiber achievements architecture the in ofhalf whattheyrepresent. This 'critical and admonishing'essay. with moreandmoresuccess.widely tendencies supponed.'The a century. WhatI wantto do is to takea goodlook at architectural which.were incorporated into building law ar an international andcarried withtherigourandscrupulousness level out of bu. The revolution modemorchitecture failed. ArchitecturalDeriSnis pleased proud to be able to publishthese and ettracts from what it considerswill be one of the most imponant works of architecturol theory of the twentiethcentury. has ruined cities throughout wholeworld. the Modern architecture.to examine ttpologies .eaucratic machines. took This development placewith fte euphoricsupponof theentire a Ufian Spac. I published deplorable. a disastrous in way. Acad€rny Edirions. Theyare simplyproduction areas housilg or esurtes whichpeople occupy avidlybutleave withour sonow.Theprofit-seeking rich of people attitude these of forcedthebuildingindustry intotheuseof prefabricated systems ceftain and othermaterials regardless oftheir durability.duringthetimeofthe post-Second World War buildingboom. morethanbefore. The lossof spatiality the modern the in city is mostespecially Someyearsago. Kier's oumwords. if struckby madness.sawthe chance realise architecto the nrral revolution dreamtof in the Twenties. I do not intendto put cenainpersonalities trial.1979 PiazzaNavona. problems. This deplorable stateof affairs was primarily helped the indescribable by miseryin Europeafter the World War.for years to and lay-people havebeenheaping reproaches us andhavegivenus on themostappalling repons. whilethe repertoire architectural of composition just hasbeendegraded as brutally.still to rotating. But oddly enough.currentlybeingprepared publication for by AcademyEditions (seepage 88 for d. connecting analyticondappliedtheory. as agreed this to profiteeringr building by extremely densely. arc extracbd from Rob Krier's nngnum opus. modem Our cities theirbuildings merely and are functional objects. I wish to sepamte theoretical substance from fashionable trends. thePolish Yet had disgraced wirhour being at fault. Bedin t2 . dubious the operations GropiuvStadr. withoutanyethicalmeaning.but now conscious its limits.he ond accomponying etamplesof studentwork were madeover a pefiod ofyeals duing coursework ot the TechnicalUnirersity in Vienna. The principles tie of CIAM Athens Charter. Ofcourse this operation criticised somepeople producing was by as merely people been stage-sets.

andwhen it finally ccased left to exist. architectural The thatworriesme is no doubtoneof the mostobvious. Of cqurse individual the case does manersomuch. But the illnesses which may be created chemicals by which newbuildings stuffcdwith. Unfortunately this ugliness.a scorched earth. by In philosopbical terdS.but a host not ofbad architecturc bccomes tlreatening.Thebrutality destructive ofself-slaughrcr re0ectcd all is in pansof industrialised problem society.This would be necessary anywayfor economlcreasons. Ifthe modern bureaucratic technocratic powerstrucand tures werc takenby storm what would then be left? Only a gigantic rubbish heap ofuseless equipment and. with good conscience. Education.A few ugiy ouildingswould not be thatserious threat.thisdevelopment seems represenr logical ro a resuh. architectural the detailhasbe€nsubmined the laws to of production terhnology. and Yet I have hopethat. cenainlvnot the bui mostthrearening problem twentieth tie ceniuryhasgivenbinh to. thedecadence culrureto which I refer Bui in is by no means confinedto theprivate sector. we were indeed with an immensely lavishbut tasteful heritage. Can we. which at one time everyone enjoyed. theremight be a chance a 'renewal'.hypenrophicbuilding complexes. for Mankindin our century continues demonstrate apocalyptic to its power. not viewedthat way by their inhabitants. would further enjoy all theseshapeless who idylls? I think we will put the 'throw-away'ideologyinto pracriceand pull down all the rubbish.wealthier andbetter schooled thanever before. reducing productiontime often offcnds sgainstall practicalreasoning.this private kitsch. is gestures.lculation the maximum of yield simplifics the consrructional solution.has suffocated underempty acs&eticism.it is evenmore obvious in thesegigantic.A society. canonly recovertogether. cntcr into a heritageof such dubious value? Who would be willing to take over all this hideousncss.then the ComDutcr Ccntrc. Also. despitcthe discrcditarchitects and the building industry have brought uponthemselves theirown faults by . Suchis the sadstaning-point contemporary of architecture. I hardlydareto foresee.ln historical tc. Thearchitectural problem neither will explode emitfatalradianor tion. in millions of variations floodingcity boundaries countryside the form of and in singlefamily houscs.ofcourse. He who has not yet realisedthis shouldop€n his eyesand nameme Bourg€ois dining room in rhe 'inlemlional modemg:sryle t3 .I I I Bomb€d srrcctir warsa* The samestred after reconstrucrion !_ - - -- - - - of big buildingcompanies. is as it is the casewith their standard upholstered fumiture and wall decorations.but if theyspread that in theendhardly a rc one per centof real qualityis leff in buildingactivities. Vicnna time would havecome to sit up and take notice.Ofcoursetheca. Aristocratic powerwas successfully foughtagainst. Decadence architecture the ruin of buildingcraftsmanship in and go together. Industrialisation not leadto the perfection reductionin has and priceof buildingcomponents it wasexpected Le Corbusier as by and his generation. wait arc We with distrust desperation theresults and for ofall these experiments which haveplunged into a meaningless us venturc.ms it is certainlynot tle only example this of kind ofdevelopment. is in dangerof wastingaway b€cause wh-ich ofrenaccompanied ridiculous ofirs selfishress. thst has beenachieved that through All is mechani2ation.

\ 'hat also gives certainty is the taste of big companies and banks which. their products and scrvices.try to pep up their image and. similar crireria are applied when. and many others. veered round to go the 'alternative \r'a) : the citizens were invited to discuss proposals. Art Nouveau. The 'Mother of the Arts' must have gone asiray in a brothel. If I think about the banalities which for the last 30 years have emetged from a ground that is pregnant with tradition. Nobody knows whether these games were an attempl to deceive the citizens. by way oftrendy architects. b) Sc h$r dz er l nd H l a$eni c z ta .somebodymakesa decision about his 'seaside hotel'. certainly to the amusementoftbeir supposedenemies. Anyway. The garden city movement fought against the overgrowing of the city.H . These 'link' (left) tactics for the fooling of citizens are disgraceful. accommo&tingNature' Ilodern alpinehorelarchirecrure. l-ater it bp{cme apparent dealt with. At the moment I live in an apanment block typical of the last cenrury. Tony Gamier. What then should one be guided by? In caseofdoubt. I live in rhe centre of a metropolis called Vienna. Salzburg. They are too clever are experiencedtradesmenand entrepaeneurs. If this is not capable of being changed abruptly we could end this chapter with some lascivious swear-words. Otto Wagner. As an exampleofhow evidentthe opportunism ofpowerful clients and architectscan be nowadays.After tlteir Schwarzenbergplatz. attemptedsuccessfully to halt the industrialised historicism of the nineteenth century. (heir choices being manipulated according to the strategy of clienls and architects. ' hich changes accoiding to a required role in a strategy. in vienna these would be the UN-City.orized by the taste of magnates.being among the busiestin vienna. But everything which lies behind this front is not wonh mentioning. and enjoy the room heights and the cross-section of the three front rooms. proposing for the iwo sites buildings with historicist facades.. indirectly.^nIJl . which is also frequentedby Willy Brandl. I am convinced that rnany lay-peopleconsider theseexamples as serious contempo.O uoW agne r . Architecture has been degraded to a masque. v i c nnr . to reject or agree.. decorated with rhis successfulindustrial ornamentationin Neo-Classicalstyle. the revolt against traditional architecture took place in several stagesand with different shades of opinion. Only the facades lhat the former did not exist at all. The illustrations which accompany this essay have been deliberately picked from anonymous modem architecture to be found in all our cities.fol l os i ngc l os el fF i s c her l onEr l ac h. (quorilrion by rhe archncd lbou his building) R uJol . After all. certainly by the buildings which are close to the hean of the ruling panies.the modern buildings in his close vicinity which will go down in building history for having met high architectural demands. not to have a precise strategy for these kinds of prestige objects. So it is that lay-people are spell-bound and ter. These 'enemies' however.althoughthe flat is 27 metresde€p. exchangeable. Nou'we can begin our analysis with a relaxed and enlightened mind.ary architecture. Adolf loos. or wheiher they were meant to be an ironical affront. So much for the 'ahospherical'. Josef Hoffman. architectsand clients changedtheir anitude and architectural sytle. different groups got very concemed about the aichitectural tradition of vienna and initiated meetings and panel discussions.the FEnz-roseph railway station Allgemeine Krankenhaus or the Hilton Hotel.nd Loos . The architectsconcerned. Henry van de Velde. I am on the verge of tears. Twelve metres in front of my window is a facade which could be ours.who abusearchitecture for their own publicity and to be celebratedpublicly as culhrral patrons. It was characteristic of the ensuing discussion that the plans were never were discussed. from a holiday catalogue.b!i l di nSbl Stl bc r '. first glass-facadedesigns had been successfully rejected by local initiatives. She has fallen to the marke! value of a car-body. At the beginning of this century.I would like to mention two building programmes in Vienna concerning the Ballhausplatz and which have becomepolitical issues. the (hospital). v i enna. vi ennJ F r l nz nx eph R ai l w ay Sr r l i or . and could better devote our time to a good game of golf. Vienna Secessionor artists and architects like Antoni Gaudi. more bearable but than an aluminium-profile facade..

and whichin the nineteenth cenftry wereemployed arbikarily.t9O9 :asa Mili|. The banking of thePostOffice hall Savings Bankis designed with greattechnical precision glassas steelarchitecture.theRenaissance.Wagner exposes consttuctive technical the and qualities of the building's parts. Barc. theyhave founda yet unknown variant. results was the were often awk'yard geometry alsoa good is faLt pos. a similareffectwouldhaveresulted. Mackintosh achieved libefation takirg refuge geometry. passion constructional The for subtlelies deeply is rooted theCatalan in building rradition.msofits universality. thisimmensely powerful just architectural event.lar€ nin€reenrh ccorury ClasgowSch@lof An by C.Evenif he had hadto usea traditional solid structure. which until thenwasonly appliedto hallsand Sreennouses. attention his was drawn on the designqualitiesof unmasked construcrive details. van de Velde and Guimard. . This may be a warningto all those youngarchirects who think thatihe spontaneous individual line andliberation from geometry are the pre-conditions becoming artisticpersonality.with theirsecure of instincts. realmof irregulardesign The canonly be mastered extremely by talented artists.The truly greatanistshaveindeed command a ofthis alphab€t. Still. individual His playwiih interpretationstoo irrational seta precedent. onlysolidprinciples remain a matter instruction orderto guarantec for in sound high qualityof \4ork.the tiberation from the classical linguagehappens almostlike a sensuous eruption. Wirh Gaudi. for an TheCasa Mila. buttlreyarealsoaware its limils. and all tangibleexp€riences history have to be in reviewed practical for application. Because the numerous of engine€ring buildings he executedfor the 'Sradtbahn'network and the Donaukanal. straight-forward protection mediocre for architects.they were too individual in rheir inlerpretation and therefore could not last for long.aftera long search.chitectural developmenr the twentieth in century. means in This that the margin of possibleinterpretations principleshas ro be of anticipated. 1697.powerful andofteneffusive.R. and The way uaditional ofcomposing building the bodyandirsinteriorwere notquestioned him. caudi. they only abandon approved rulesonce.The sculptural quality of his a. Thus. lcd Plecnik hadessentially moreclassical etc. a sreel-srructured building a freeplan on witha sculpted sandstone facing. although results But the werefresh.surfaces structures. Whoeverbuilds up and teaches architectural an theory must examine everytheorem te. to Theywercseeking forms whichwouldbe goodenough takethe placeof the andthemes to classical stylessuchas$e Rornanesque. cannot repeated everycorner. M&kinrosh.Srcet in Vicnna.as best seenin the works of Horta. a anitude abstained and gestures. the the Baroque Neo-Classicism. fromexpressionist Wagner's Post OfficeSavings Bankin Viennaand Hoffmann'sPalaisStoclet Brussels wonderful in are highlighlsof thismovement. and intended put an endto suchactivities.The be at analysis theCasa of Mila. The Art Nouveau movemcnt an international was revoltaeainst the historicalstyles being rrivialised. Theartisb ofthe Viema Sec€ssion by Ono Wsgner. Cothic.The classicaldecoiative werereplaced floral andotheromaments elements by borrowedfrom nature. 1905-10 All this of course doesnot rcachthe levelof architecture.k is a uniquebuilding.chitecture besolely can anributed $e artist to Gaudi. this of But qualitywhichwascerrainly exploired is a specific nor superficially by Gaudi. Gaudi and certainly benefited from this background.by A.lona. is to Where his architecture takenas an example. The youngartists architects the nineteenth and of centurydetested this kind of work for which the busyplasterers werein demand. this by in He did withoutclassicat symbols rilied oi thea'estheiic and valuis in inherent well-proponioned forms.Hofftnan. WhereHoffsun still formallycelebrates thedetail.reveals very interesting a building tlpe whichwasonlypossible because newQechnology. His conception by became very influential for a.

Pafls.Barcelona. C. by von Lindlcy and dc ChaEauncuf.udi. IEE4-EE by Watcr Tower. Hamburg. by H. J.1854 l6 . Hofrmann. by Mdtro sration. 18 -99 Roadbridgcovcr thc rivcr Norderelb€ Mcycrs. Bruss€ls. A. Hona. 1899- ll0o PalaisStoclet.r.1905-l I by Maisondu Peuplc.Brusscls. cu'mard.by V.Haue6 and Picp.CasaBarlld.

ibuneby A.:l 3.not only because its gesture.im!l. ClacsOld€nburg.1966 I think thatif this buildinghadb€enrcalised.. is amazed in the nineteenth one that cennrry architecwere kcpt at a distance ture and engineering from cachotherand that the latter.EEEtr l I i i-l\ [.This builCing. Loos." ::i.( \ | ) ll r lf Buildingar llichaelerphtz. Somc of his intedorsweredecoGted with classical friezesin plaster: Doric the r-columns which emphasise main cntranceof the Goldman lhc commercial building at Michaelerplatzin Vienna are me.andvehemently cririciscd romantic the air ofthe Viennese snrdios underHoffman. Vi€nna.Hilberseimer. ffiE ffif lN I E . oneof the strangesr is aodmostmisleading statements recent in architectural history. He also -a used hollow piers and non-supporting beamswh€n. of Adolf Loos alwaysplaycda specialrole in the scene Vienna. in He did notjoin any group. Loos. in r-the phoographs gavethe impression ofthe carcasse.One of his projects. To lhis long spanning concrele beams werc inse ed storeyby storey which. He had be is passion panelling walls with precious for the mate als.e (to 'decorations' be naughty).and surprising termsof - their different heights.:rO. is interlocked divcrsified.Different facades one building are oft€njoin€dtogether in as if they have nothing to do with each other. after plastering. becaus€ its anticipation many of but of of representationscontemporary andarchitecture. Designfor a monunenton Karlaplan. ofbeingsuitabl€ for oblong window bands.by A. al.in his terms.stand his entryfor theHeraldTribunecompetition a grandiose as affront against modernism la Gropius.and I canonly unde. l9l0 Compcririon desiSn rhe Chicago for T. according his 'Raumplan' to and in sconcept. Stockholm. 'ruughthess' noteasyto tolerate. The interior of (room-ptan) composiiion spaces. E . employed the classical ordersas if ashamed its nakedness.m& I = E = i1 C O L D A A \ I 5 A I AT s C H ]. t9:l In retrosp€ct.wherc it was found to be necessary. in an Loos was a biting critic of tlre International Style. accomplish architccture. This Viennese is VeryoftenLoos ltook up contradictory themeswhich he then piecedtogetherlike collages. simpleperforated a facadc appeared. ideaandrealitywould not haveaSrecd with eachother. this was required by the composition of rhe room.Far from it! They were filled in with bricksand. amongall the in .Horv hisbanleagaiost Ornament should understood evidentin his ownwork. l et 'The Bi8 Screw.the administration buildingof the HeraldTribuncin Chicago.

The ver) fL'$ modcrn buil. laner were The of of the playfulncss their Viennese and thcy werenot traditionalists.'t rcach. by J-8. Like Ne.che. in ofurban especially terms have spatial estates) a panicular as linearhousing estates. late works has little in common wilh the strict discipline of his buildings in Zurich and Dresden. Only in the romantic exp. Semper. and ofBerg.by G.vienna.rn trlovenrcnl $'us onl) halt--hc'arledl) Vienna. would have looked monstrous and ridiculous s Steinberg drawings picture similar American situations. 1930 nrade fun ideology certainly who to Architects adhered theBauhaus colleagues. Fischervon Erlach. alfiough asculruralachievemens the unique musical creations of Beethoven.vienna 1963i T. a technical Karlski. by A. yet its clear geometricalfacadeand carved decoration Sivesthe impressionof a gigantic complex when viewed from the city.rcentur). The enormous with is of$e bulldingson the Ringstrasse still experienced solenLnity the) cannotcompetewitl pleasure. But lhis is not possibleif one reflectson its meaning. . its Here. Gottfried Semper. He of could not cope with the intrigues and the manoeuvres the viennese partner Hasenauer with whom he had to wolk. in vicnnx huve n.l7l6-21 other kitsch. gained spontaneous public acknowledgement because many details employed xere known by the population as classical motifs.lElS--4! Ph' ofthe Bid turrenb€r8' quaner.vienna.b€comes culrunl a objecl HansHotlein.Schuben or Brahms' crearionswhich have not been surpassedanlwhere in $e world. lhe clear.)n!lrr'putrti(9. the southGermanBaroqu€celebrated splendidalliancewitl foreign sqles in the masterly collage of the Karlskirche by Fischer von Erlach.asoneofhis with the exception ofthe stage-set Burgtheater. and who beslowed Semper's plans with an effusive local hue.'dlhc. benefiting from her topographicalsiruation.+" I I Firit Coun Th€atre.ansfomntion. This tendency. Classicisnet the beginningof lhc ninctecnlh supported in rational Ilod. So the depot. Schdnberg Webern ccntury thr'nrusic In thet$enri!'th hr\ !Jin!'. one this gigantic Doric column wilh the wondersof the might associate Antiqueworld. has always been a place where cultural controversieshave been fought out. designed himsclfdown lo lhe lastdeBil by l8 . whencompared the schematic to design in by the cstate Karlsruhe walter Gropius for example Dammer-stock has in and o. who was commissioned to design the Burgtheatre. for thatreason as branded secret (courtyard for appreciated a long time.Drcsd€n. Berlin. vienna.lin!.rrnrclcrcl.essionism of the Viennese 'Cemeinde'(conununity)buildings ofthe T$enties and Thirties has a generationof architectsfound its identity. An office tower among many others in an American city with millions of inhabitantswould soon have lost its spirituality.(Thissubject wiug€nsEin's House. Hildebrandt was by no meansan orthodox classicist. His Upper Belvederefor Prince Eugenis a marvellcusarchitechrral It achievement.left Vienna headover heelsafter only three years. These'Hof-Siedlungen' quality. of Consideringtie app€arance the Herald Tribune Building. is a building which is not deepin plan. Klein. Onkel-Toms-Hiine SiemensstadtBerlin.which was paniall) rooled in rhe school of Ono Wagner.1irn internati.

set dcpoi. Gessncr.l tl 'Karl Seirz-Hol.1926 l9 . bt c. vierna.Former slage. ScnrDer. c 1875 7. and H. b! F. Vicnna. c .

Tony Garder wasdesigning 'Cit6 lndustriellc' were ofthesedrawings andfreshness time. positionevenat the risk ofjudging unfairly. It only appreciates judgementwhereno commoninterpretation If oneasksfor p€rsonal everything exists. Even in times where culture is imposedby dictators. However. Sometimesthe price for the artist's freedomin his choiceof themeandway ofexpression is lifeof undervaluation the artistic quality long isolationanda concomitant of his work. at the time of not for comp€ting breadandrecognition. my In this sense criticism of the contemporaryarchitecturalscene should not be understood simply as being bitter about failed They help me to clarify my point. themostpolitecomments These. Can art b€ the one or the other?After a short time ideological and hostilitiesdisappear what is left can be put in simplewords: he was proficient.Both Tessenow's for hereasbeingrepresentative catl Gamier'sprojects be compared future generations.Cezanne and landscapes portraits.beendealtwith at lengthin my book lJtban Spoce.I have always tiought that I was working beyondconiemporaryne€ds. ty. a similar way in which I teachmy students ofarchitectural to learnexemplarilyfrom this city.Hell€rau.awing from Ct. for years this is what I have been doing with all my strength and this. The beauty at thesame and in neverreached Gamier'sactualbuildings.shouldbe pointedout in Tessenow's in Vienna. Tessenow D.and that this was the reasonwhy my (Dalcroze lnttitute). my observations from this background..) hopenobodyminds homecity.andthis touchtbat is not undeNtood. the ln everyculturalera thereare two carnps.at preseot adopted In of my rcflections. at work. cenainly he architectural restrained of his very honest. to My devotion.will be knowinglysmil€dat thirare Cxchanged.But b€cause an language. the socalled reactionaryand pieces ofan will only revealtheirtrue artisticquality opportunistic for recognisable everybodyafter the ideologicalasp€cts andbecome The havebecome meadngless. An lives solelyon $e quality of meaningand lhe embodiment cautiously.. to be prc4ise. the One 'reactionary'. b€ of it. bonles8nd cuttings:Morandi with the Cubists etc. to strengoen my successes. altist is at liberty to frecly choose sloPhimselfthrough He his means ofcxpression. Shortlyafter the tum-of-the-century. is alwaysthe focus my that Vienna. /a/6r'islle by T.and therefore I can do better than to repeatmyself.neverbeaame 'echterWiener' (real Viennese). one of the tradi The and the other of the avant-gardists. eventsreceivetheir orientatioin at despite lechrreship the Akademiefiir his HeinrichTessenow.In Rome. one cautiously tradition.however. with his innocuous a <euvre created fantastic with their violins.. Gamier. only disqualifies has piness in and incapability termsof skill and design.but incaPable. And noneof them askedPermisof his arrangements vessels sion of the public to do this or that. l9O4 . other 'progressive'.theotherboldly questioning weighing can changeqrith the life of an artist. All a/ r. stone of every new artistic generationis at the same time its challenge.l9l0 Cymnasium by Housingeslalen€arSchwechat H.Anirudes tradition.Oneaspect. but concentratemy thoughts I on thearchiteltuieof thebuildingsthemselves. not ofcouncil cstates only the hadsome followersamong architects however.acpublicityshouldtherefore handled ai leastuntil suoerficialeffecs havedied down. two are mostly tionalists standardbearersof the sameage and educationalbackground but the to with differentattachments culturalheritage. 'cultured' public. The anist's biggest enemy is t]le airogance of the and what is established familiar. a time when many with heroic designthemesof the ninearchitecs were still concerned teenthcenNry Tessenowconcentratedall his efforts on workers' his housing. for ofApplied Art) which lasted five Kunst(Academy Ang€wandte ye€rs.lhen a spiiefulcriticismbreaksout condemning This hasalwaysbeenthe case. congratulations thecritic who hasunderstood However. forty yea$ later .. lndeed. RecendyI wasaccused of working beyondthe 'Zeitgeist' (spirit of the age).

newandrevolutionary thetime.'tfr. b y T .e Havre. Car nr er . benefit from immediate succcss. We for our paJtwill not be supercensitive either.-**. la perret. .tJ MaisonCassaodre. l9O1 A b a |l o ' r d c l a Mo u ch e . positandproverhishasrequired long prJlogue. PeEer. thattheans worldwide beinemade change but are To bankrupr.despitethe fact that it is an issueof the past. wasusingthe qualitiesof reinHe forced concrete.Buildings rural areas in wereto represent 'Heimatstil' the (homeland rtyle). inro of This pre-S€cond World War scene.UnlikeGarnier.\. . Dn\|ings frcm Cift ltdusri. The . Thus an avantgardist became bourgeois a traditionalist. therefore reliable and not enough.The sob€rbuilding bodieswereanythinS popular. by wasnot in dernand.Yct hisOlympic in Sradium hisabatand toir of La Moucheremainoutstanding achievem€nts . ffi-. L ]. on the Continent. Versailles.building a safe dre on repenoire.Despitc hindrances. Garnier a strong had influence the on 'Moderne'whichwasdeveloping the Twenties. who everybody rriesto avoidthis cul-de-sac wa) of thorough by studies historyis brandedas a of reactionary.I am not concerned aboutthe normal ofgenerations. A.His projects disciplined in are by an almostantique attitude.are existenthe new tially threatened.The same applied ModemAn wirh its critical social to aspe.but nevertheless askfor a fair battle. "/ e by T.iqi.who won the Prix de Romein 1899. dispute the 'reactionaries' . and of Weinbrenner or Klenze.D .To impressthe masses. The new rulersquicklyrealised neither aesthetics thetechnology that the nor of ModernArchitecture weresuitable serveas tbe Dretence to of theParty. however.seeking ways. archibcrure That it wasall to do with prescribing a 'Zeirgeist'nevercameinto my tnind.only the of In besttalents will survivethe hardest test.It is a very naturalthing thattheoldergeneration to copewith theirachievements has being questioned. Unfortunately ended in a structuralism. wassimilarwith perret.ts. Gamier. their but not building technologies tully developed. will niricerhatir is slill tully one in line with thebourgeois fashion-architectuCthe fin de sibcle. The debate thearchitectural on historyofthe Third Reichis immensely burdened.'. it is hewhois called b€ar pioneer's Nolr to the standard andto sufferthepriyations a renewer.asthe 'Modernc'in all its banalityis enjoyingcultural acknowledgement. Iq09. so was abruptlyendedin the middleof the Thinics when. fo Tony Garnier. rhis However.. $e To re-capitulate aim of this essay. persooally in But he rejected ideaof becoming promoterof this scene. Today.renounced programmc devoted theraditional B€aux-Ans and himselfto a theme ncglected thenineteenth in century: industrial the city. Nazis fell back upon the thc . would likc to mention the I words have only the purposcof putting my rhat my extensive criticismon a solidbasis.His the a buildings.Tessenow developed from being a poetictraditionalist a classicist the Thirties. latter. he up I whichwaspopular Frarce. of All themoreastonishing his reversal is afterwards.. bothcamps. It Perret'searly work conhasts 0le same in way with his later buildings in l. dictators politicalpower. not fulfil the expectations his powerful did of early work.f. His architecoral concepts of ingenious are clarity andvoid of any decorative romanticism. all betterarguments and achievcments alwaysreceive merit they descrve. colourful andrich asit was. Ifone looksat Carnier's design the prix de Rome for in theBeaux-Arrs publications.Zeitgeist'is solely created artists by and not by the public.avant-gardisis' between and anothcr has aspect. Uae citl industrielleis abook whichbelongs the mostbeautifultheorerical to contributions ofthis century.Theofficial architccassumcd tural canonfor public buildingsin Germancities prescribeda primitive inflatcd and whichhadnothilg to do with Neo-Classicism the delicacy elegance the era of Schinkel. Only industrialbuilding wasspared regimentation andcouldrealise clearmodem construction withoutDroblems. which hadvery muchto do with his sojourn Rome.andrefined srill at thisnewmaterial wayofan aesthetic by whichrespected design its inherent constructional rules and logical composition.while strugglingfor the realisation their ideas. former. therefore do nor mind their struggling and we against us.

it appearsthat the initial proposals were muchmoredifferentiated sympathetic the urand to ban structurein termsof scale. haveb€nefited from them.thefeeble on. music and art anticipatedthc apocalyseof the Fonies long before it happencd. plansfor Bcrlinarcof'cxcessivc thc The urban geography would.Or are there indeedpleasant s€nsations about self{estructioo? Or are there any natural automatawhich. Sp€er. not only public buildiogsbut also banls.In the history of urban grandeur'. I was very shocked to find the Wall being dealr with as an journal publishedin East arcbitecturalmonumentin an architechrral joke.' But this would probably have meantthat the fascistswould have been in power for an evenlonger period of time. That 8 majority of the world allows itself to be placedunder schizophrenictyranny cart only be explainedby an analysisof power mechanisms which have got out of the handsof society. Stalinallee The (development plan) wcll havesprungfrom Sp€cr'sBebauungsplan DomedHall planncdfor Berlin by A. has to b€ understoodas a waming of an imminent EsstB€rlin.by Paulicl. Berlin. in caseof surfeit. comrnuniststatewhich did not wa to be one. Thc modelfor a lateNeo-Classical monumental architecture wasfoundin *rc USA. Schuppand M. officc buildingsand business prcmises wercall alikein termsof thestyledescribed above. f\arl-Marx-Allcc(formcrlySlalinallcc). They sought to disguise the brutality of their regime with 8n appropriate(in thcir terms) architecture. order self{estruction? Literature.I fcar that the state of architecture.t-cucht.Sometimes one is temptedto think to oneseli 'Thcy should have built all this stuff instcadof makirlg a war.Obersalzb€rs. design. Hopp. thcy did not want to run and anyrisk. Krcmm. Io the EsstemBlock this which could is kind of idiolic despotism p€rpehDted.Iorderswhich.Alb€n Sp€€r's studio. Later ofsocialismwcrc fadingaway. this mute imagery. Wc do rot car€ for this kind of macabre A schizophrcniadrug scemsto exist in modern statcs.That the Nazis used the best materialsand craffsmanshipfor the few pompouscditices they were able to build. ihe effert of wbich is very unpleasartatrdpainful. assoonasthe images archiiectural thcory of capitalism came back into fsvour. andin colonialcities. the difference betwe€nthe two wouldonly beeconomic.A gigantic domed building of Boullde-like was dirnension to establish high point in tbis B€rlin the apotheosis.If one€xaminesthc diffcrcnt stagesof planning. l916 by Factory in W€stphalia F. canhardly be criticised. It was oot possible*cause its social order is that of a policc state.Here. lnd Hannlann.Otherwise andWestdo not Germanies East coDtradictcachother on the levcl of gcDeralcultural taste.r approved monur|€nt!.couldstill bemastered termsofcraftsmanship.Thcrc in was no time for new developments.l9J8 by meansof an oppressivearchitecture. Hcnselmann. If today the Berlin Wall was pulled down.becametha symbol for th€ rise ofa young.Only later did they becomecoarse in texture and lort in terms of space. givenfie pressure time they of were und€r.The East simply did not succeedin finding an architectural languagefor its kind of society.bowever. l95l-5? Souradny 22 .

working for and resting in general. Buttodaytheywould soundlike light music in comparison with the vast amountof destructive material available now. 1896-97 spiritualabyss.The last time thatthis abyss opened wasafrer up mankind had inflictedthe biggest self-destruction its existence. therefore. bcing thebackground every0ing thathappens. conceivable berr put to the test. they also became most magniilc€ntinterior public spaces.and rising from that. They received bestof artisticand anisanachievement. To undermine the sacredin this way.The underground has anything churchat lrurdes.can garages. seewhat happens br4ause a newenergy of crisis.No 6. Todaythisno longer needs be proved. it emb€llished reside ial premises its wirh all the atuibutes which were usedby the dethroned aristocracy standour from the to got masses. Sandwingasse. for example. Vienna. for ordycautiously reveals its secrets. The architecturallanguage so confused that it became wayof distinguishing publicbuildingsfrom necessary find another to privateones.es beentried out.For the last thirty yearsthe whole rangeof exotic structu.architects so thought theyhad thar been left without any good examplesand thercfore anemptedao the significalc€ building wayof employing express special ofa by novel methodsof construction. the Twenties frecln the standing objectassgchb€came desirable benerliving. concert hallsor theatres? Noneof these functionscancver reachthe mystic of andsymbolicsignificance a placeof worship. b) Kmunke and Kohl.in orderrhatthey differ ftom functionalbuildings. stationhalls.legshavelo be uscdfor walkingagain. themostnoblesymbolic as buildings. the Are thereany other functionsavailablenow to compensate thc loss for of religiousfeeling? Thc reading roomsin publiclibraries.Moderncitiesarethe built evidence.the smallapexof buildings which accommodate special functions society. Manymodemchurches b€ mistaken can for b€ingindustrial halls. or the oneby Nervi beside SaintPeter's. us wait and or [. parkor sitedon thetop ofa hill. In aerms ofground-plan at also design. How canbeauty evergrow on sucha brutalbackground? culhre is interconnected divided two parts: Architecnrral but into the wide basisof commonfunctional buildings dwellingand for working.MaybethenAmticans will remember the good old Europ€ancity again! The confusionin architectural language becameeven more profound after the Second World War. at best be calledwell-structured Thesebuildingshave nothhg to do with churches.in its monumcnblityandbquty. Flickingthroughpublications with this subject.some themare dcliberately of designed that way to suppos€dly reducethedistance the between churchand the faithful. given the significance churches thehistory of in ofarchitecture. and a But this stcp soonfoundits followers. in I remember boomof thebomb€rs lhe very well. Temples churchcs and have been acknowledged valued all and at times.this demandwouldhavemeant dcath the ofthe city. mato The jority of Americans claim thattheydo not wantto haveanything elseotherthanolemodem'anti-city'. were isolated from adjacent buildings setinto a square. rights. is legitimate design for k to the latter in distinctmanner.After theantique. dealing oneshudders somuchki6ch.The former.c 1860 _No 42. the They exemplifiedthearchitectural traditionofan epoch.Only one aspectwas not taken into giventhat everyMy hadthe same consideration. During the nineteenth centurywhenthe bourgeoNte gettlng was rich.et if.therestilg rooms in swimming pools or spon centles. fatefulandinscrutable The of dimensions cxistence non-eistenceare asoverwhelming atld as theyarc frightening. soothe fearsandto calm his senses. Boston SanFrancisco. has on churches. for methe is worst asp€ct our present of culturaldecline. vienna. As historical architectural had features beenabused much. To his manhas erectedsymbolic placeson earth for the spiritual interpretation of . 0tatonly some'fanatics'would still preferNew York.Everyhurnan b€ing is touched lhe enigma by oflife aoddeath. Linke wienzcile.Nature.evenby unbelievers.

New York. in of Propyhen-Verlag. they are condemnedto inactivity or their crearivity isjust not askedfor. Modeme Kunst. langewiescheKonigssein. 1976. The client who relies on cheaptechnologywill soon have to pay for its defectiveness. addressee this fictitious the in dialogue: glorifiedhuman a being. governments offered special finance and depreciation schemes which could easilybe abused.hit fie devastated middleEuropequite unexpectedly: exploding prosperity in connection an economic and with that.Academy Editions. There aii no less talented archikcrstday than in rhe pasi.London.Barcelonai ProplldenKunstg. Very often they take refuge eitler in the arts scene where it is still possible to get fair acknowledgement. they lecture at schoolsofarchitecture which or guaranteeanistic freedom and survival But without practical challenge every theory is meaningless. Wien. andimmune a from id€ology.ho buys or the one who produces?Both are cheatedat the momenl.Likker'Verlag.London.anre d Editrice.We canlive with these another for whilelonger. in At the beginning the Fifties..Cd!d/. pcriod. had ln a similarone-sided way.He will also be bored quite quickly with superficialarchitecturalcosmetics. and eines Henschelverlag. Die Kunstd. Bandll. do not klow whetherthis for I subjcctis definitelylost in architecNre.Thesebuildingsserved places mediation of as between him and the unnameable enigmas. building crafu rhe have been ruined. Berlin. Blume.I am For pith the sacralbuildingswhich historyhaspassed to satisfied on us.Also. ActeU.and nowada.me Architecturc of lvienerFassaden 19 Belser/Elecrrai des LudwigWirgenstein. Even rhe majority of buildings that do not needto meet high architecturaldemandshave lost tle elegancewhich I have mentionedabove. RobKrier. however. Bemhard des l. Iffusrrations this anicle are either from rhe archives Architectwal Jahrhunden. Der Architekt. the time being. burdened by growing competition. Johann Kraftner(phorographer). lleltgeschichte Archrie*tu/e.s 19 . Butdespite miseries thepost-war the are of there ofcourse examples an 'archite.C6sar Maninell. Paolo Faroce. the confusion of aboutformsgave a freshimpeNsto thedevelopmcnt newstructures. Edilorial Jah undens. Herben Ric]rfn. The idea of making a lot of money in a shon period of time has destroyedthe quality of a building as such.It is maybeonly too naturallhat in this competitionbet$een 'more money' and 'more architecture'. Kulka. or fromthefollowingsources: Geschichte Berufes.BOhlau-Verlag. Can rhis faral lack of s€lf-resp€ctstill be overcome?Who is the first one whose eyes must be opened.Berlin:Sreinberg's Pdp"rrdck. Piozza holia. theaftitudespread oncetheconstructional that requirements beenmet. and I cannot imagine that the easy rnoney he earns can make up for the shame of blunt opDortunism. But to build under today's conditions is a damned hurniliatingbusiness. anothercolleague will'. Onephenomenon. That is also due to the fact that b€cause ofquick indusrrialisation.despiterhe difference in expenditure and embellishment. effons werealsoconcentrated lhe on solution of functionalproblemsand cost-effective construction processes.I would very much like to prove my argumentswith my own work iosteadof letting others do this for me. ProAlben SWet.Berlini Archigram Croup.Designby Archisram.whatelsecanone do but stick worldpeople notvery to things is goodat?In thisconsumer one are interested spiritualvalues. plladn.eitner.Architektur. the Muse was the loser. scll their souls and professional credit with the empry phrase: 'If I don'r do it. of T€chnology waslessloaded termthanform. Heinrich Architektw der Z+'anzigeiahrc in Deutschland.-s some buildings from that time gain symparhydespite their clumsiness. Ir is a long time ago that a p€rson who commissioneda building demandedthe best skills of architectsand craftsmen. 1976. After a shon periodof time.AdoALoos. the house of the poor and tie house of the rich were easily comparablein terms of elegance.tural' anitudetowards of design. In order to encourage building activities. anideacannot If genuinely be celebrated anymore. to a much greater extent.Ro\rohlr: WaheFMuller-Wutkow. becausehis building was to demonstrate honourable his positionin society. an unrestrainedbuilding boom. Dpri8n. Responsiblefor all this are first and foremost the architectsand planners who. Bra'x.a God:thebuilding: idealised an accoBrmodation the supernatural.schichte .not very sympathetic to the fulfillment of theoretical and anistic ambitions. one haddonejusticeto architecture. The architecthas rricked himself out of the most elementary professionalfulfillment. the one r. But now. l960s his being.

EL E M EN TS AR C H IT EC TU R E Ro b K ri cr OF tLffiJ ffir4g 25 r-lr--F ffi .

e. The 'dislorlion' of a geometrical form can ln most cases ha acibuted ro faleful.can b€ crered by simple geometrical tricks. by buckling.It becomescornprehensible and describableby the definition of irs size. so that they learn to recognize the city in which they sody with all its aualrtie\ and the characteristicfeaturesof rt. triangle.a seriesof impressions closed of spaces ofnaveandside-aisles emerges. in a srnseto submititself to the form.height retbr and width) and shape. a so-called topological relation(Norberg-Schulz) . tle interior room. by it from the exteriorand rurnsit into an intenor . for The 'perspectivedistonion'. entire of the spacecan be perceived. 2. shouldfirstly be srudied. have here We the different heightsof spaces a meansof as design to express the hierarchy of spatial elements. e.the accomof modation fumilurcandlhe execution cerof tain activities.g.it can achieve an Seom€trical independent spatialquality if the bucklingpoin6 .e. clear and simple spaces nowadays havean almost€litisl character. by axialityor parallelity. the light is filteredwhen required. Or another are example. if theybecome i. can only be completely undersbod if they have been apprehendedrhrough dra$ing them. setscifcularspaces square into bounds lighl for penetration.The naNre of a room is very much which dernarcates determined its enclosure. which very often resuhed from the shape of the site-p€rhaps a triangle as rhe residual site benreen two streets-dle main spa. Ler us imaginean octaSonal spacewhich is surrounded a conidor. space the of Louis Kahn. spacesofdeformed shaperernained. and indirectlyled inlo the interior.onegets impression or. or Theseop€rations put togetherside by side ar€ withoutany valuation. becausetbey originated from something which was of more importance. this proccss space. repressron a ofclear geometry not resulted. and bending. so At thispoinrI \rould like to suggest rhat.Their relationto each or other ensues from the proximity. canalso sp€ciry$e exact by sizesand identify $c proponions relarinS length. but without contributing b€tter The to functioning. Two or several spaces of different geometrical and into a new form overlap merge one or shape. local architectural rradition. effect of depth and distortion.breaking. entire the space rernains b€experienced lo Classical examples this kind of simuhaneously.ely remnants. only able to function.geometrical relation means relation which a is created a geometrical by principl€of order. penetrarion to be foundin Eglprian of spatial are Baldachin Temples.By augmentingthe heighls ofside-aisles towards nave. the aflificial fiunipulation of the effecl of depth. The basilica serves asanexample whichseveral in similarelements ofspace arranged parallel.s€paration fragmentation. only a fraction thevariants are of created far by humaningenuiry. The publish€d drawings have emerged from exerciseswili my studenlscarried out in the first year of lheir course. accentuationof the perspective. In will be deformed.from $e historyof building.Normally an interior has space for its bounds: walls.That modern architecture thcreby gets the shorter end of consid€ration is not surprising. breaking.cle and the amorphousfigure. contrast In to thal. square or oval. Two spaces beingoverlapped retain thelr independence. widrh and height.c. Although we still describe rooms accordingto rheir basic geometricalfoftls. The closerthe two spaces nearlyequal movetogether.g. meaningful relationshipb€tween wall and op€ning. remainrecognisable.cylinderor differentforms we mixed together. Whentwo spaces overlapin a way rharone within includes other. lhe srnallest spatial uniry. the interior If space bordered rows is by from the enclosing of columnsand segregated space.ExplanationsRelatingto the Typology of Interior Spaces The diagrarn shows in the horizonlal lhe geometlical ground-plan forms:square. Shapesand ainospheres spaces of can b€ the describ€d. becauseof rne transparencytheorderof columns. Through diffe. bisic Funher possibiliries transforming of geometrical formsarctheprocesses ofbuckling.lhe latler the is especiallyaccentuated and the orienlation towardsthe altar is emphasised. These componedts they directlyto the firnction theroombecause of of allow for the r€sideoce peoplc.At first we rEcognize geometryof a room. This happensmosdy if severalelemenlsof shapeshouldbe joined different geometrical toge$er. Penetration l.ceilingand floor.-e! were insened as independenl forms-as circle.the technical elements a spaceare of determined.entopenings the in walls. The so-called liberation of spacesby modern architecture given rise to the unfonunate term has 'flowiog space'. Spaceswere separated inlo areas. wift in size. the Scala Regia. proporlion (relationships between length.e. Between them and the exleror skin. one shouldpicrurethe greatvarietyof forms for oneselfand refreshit againandagair by *ay of drawing exerciser. Bul ofien lhey are independent locali(ies of the 'in between' and have enoush spadal charm to accofirmodate staircas-j. but in which no loogerallo$ a deformedstructures. historical The examplesofinterior spaceslisted here do not in any way represenl a complete lypolog\ . toSether and quality. as Scamozzi did w i t-hhi s stage set' i n l he Teatro O l i mpi c o i n V i cen7n: and B emi ni i n bothhi s desi gnfor S ai nr Peler's Square. and his famous staircasein tlte Valican. 3. as with By these. Because the given by of geometryof the octaton.however. penetralion. or a building. for example. ci.*hich sometimes had lhe awksard effecr of being me. housingconstruclion the nineteenth work for instance: a given in in weinbrenner's ground-plan form.intruly free has and poetic solutronof room forms. rnrdeintojoints.the elements only closelyjoined and form an are accumulation a group.The crossing create new spatial a of$e cathedral aclassical is lie example: longitudinal penetrate aisle and the lransept eachotherand which is emphasised form a commonspace by a domeor a tower. i.The examples presented bere. Th€ good examplesin modem archhectureaie anyway loo Interior Spaces As the saning point of architecnrral comgosition. a doubleenclosure.piers. I am of the opin ion thal rhe decisions which form the design of a space. However.il haslo b€ buckled severaltimes.ln th€perspe€are in tive of depth.thisgivesriseto space the space. because would yield it fragments. beingthe traditionalelements. cube. Il may be noted lhat my students draw €xclusively in Vienna. and if onehasto adjustto the other. and in $e vertical thepossibilitiesof transfonnation these of basicelemenls way ofaddition. Windows anddoorsserve connections theexterior. Addition Addition is rhe most elemenrary principle of order.i. evenboth.amoaphous shape.esuhing in an irregular. whereas in the transversedirection. their formal separation would be senseless. which very often can be found in in century.So they offered $e possibilir) of accommoddrrng technicalfacililies.Wilh $e mostsimpleway ofaddition. by expansion.

comfonable. oppressive.oken. Very oftertwhenwe describe their characrer. bays.An and oval-shapedspace encloseslwo points of encounter.owingto E-adition. because move we and rn lhe room. talk aboutsmall. floor texlure. Of course $e mythically influenced a(itude conceming rhe effect of spacesdoes nor applv to such a degree to contemporary archilecture.gi\. or More difficult is rhed€scriprion oflhe quality of a space. geometrical ln terms.strucure.conceivable from what is krown about the differentstages change house in of construclion in ltaly and Creece. rectangular In a space.aniculateand structurei they form transparent wallsdividingthe space. ''L L . Psychologists likeC.space. housingconstrucrion. Finally. cancreate and He a sacred space which makes p€ople worship. ir cannot be connected!o another form.theenclosure space of ofa can ei6er be emphasised b.g.' Siederalso mainGins cerlain geometricalforms of spacesgavc expressron a corresponding to physical ard . . Culures not yetfon*d or no longersound.a lecture-hall helpingpeopleto concenlrale on . effect and usefulness can wc achi eve a meani ngful and w el l -bal anc ed composhion.nate that fotmlessbuildingt. each olher in the circularor reclangular house. In accordance with lhat.Very oftenfor these appraisals of a space. proponion. b€cause or of its functionalism..Jung.a t 4 z . of By differentlreatmcnt the surfaces rerms of n ofcolourandtexture. extensions. 2'l . A broad space becomes a place of prepararion.not only ils geometrybut also irs attributes caucial.lhey are not at all left to the free will. Already the accenruation the surfaces of confining roomadds i!5character: the ro dividing venical and horizontal elements.newperspectives. XEI: I CEOM ET RIC A L OU N DFIGLR E S GR II ADDITION III PENETRATION IV V VI V II B U C K LIN G S E GME N TA TION P E R S P E C TIV E D IS TOR TION w#' '"' | '. friendly. the circutarroom is not directional and rests in itself. Only if we in succeed understanding relaiionshipbet*een the form. vistas space and relationships emerge againand again.Archeoloeists and ethnologists have inrensively conceired .Accordingto rheir purpose. spacious.. an office room which.Bur it is cruciallo bear in mind thar cerlain rooms fumighed in a cenain way can actually and significandy stimulare and i nfl uence the spi ri t and emori ons of rhe inhabitan6. the! .rnade too. Symmerry emphasises independence. furnitureand accessories. imf. comesto lhe follo\r'inqmesls: 'Considering existingforms. high. . form of theapse risenfrom The has the feuerschism ('firescreen ) ro the s)mbolic place of spirirual promulgadon. Rounded comers emphasise enclosinS lhe character fie \r'alls.excluding .colours materials The and etc. basic formsareequally changed piers by sranding free in theroom-Newspaces 'within thespace' are crealed. e. This should also be undersrood as a waming to those who think lhat size and form ofa room are only ro be determined by lhe space rcquirementsof sondard furniture.themselves rhe wirh significance ofcenainforms ofspace. and on * omaments mouldings ceilingand walls.especially |he the inteSrity of the comers.. the enclosure createdby the uninterrupted is relalionship b€twe€n fourwalls. and therefore forgel about o$er spatial qualiries.spiritual atritllde: 'A nondirectionalcircular spac€ allows for relaxation concenfation.that we can lrace back prccisely genesis reclangular the ofa house born . thissense are In everyinrcrior space offersa complete 'culturalimage'. symbolic meanings canbe anributed certain !o forms.. With thc kno*ledge of theseeffecrs. Decisions tlat kind in of favourof the circularor the rectangular house are rootedin the entiteexistence $e human of beinS. rhroughertensive . light p€netration. arrangentnl openings by o[ andincid€nces lighr. a longitudinal spacea route leading to some\rhere.onam contributions tle exploration to of archetypes. places work in theforeground.. Hanns Sieder.listening.Bo$ spatial directions meet in the square-L\e crossing-the place of ritually structured concenration. is ii . we low.researchin his book U4onnen der abendldndischenBaukunst (ArchaicForms in Westem Architecrure).en by proportion. or cold warm rooms.G. usconsider geometry: sphere kt the a has a maxim!m €nclosure. the archilect give to a roomthecharacter can which suitsils function signilicance.out ofa circularhouse ovalandapse-shaped via preliminaryforms.

Illustrations and 9 show 8 thecentnlisationof thesquare way of rounded by or bevelled edgcs.lyrecognizable besl ar by means of an all-round symmetrical arrangement ofopenings.doesnot fully belongto it.ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTUR. and They alterthescalc.andsolheareas each on sideb€cornc moresignihcant. thegeometry As of the spaceis specially supported.lhe tectonics of the vault are more important than lhe ground-plan. that. are By thedivisionofthe square into rhreepartsin one direction(illustralion5). door lintelsandbeams. two equallyrelevant recEngular spaces creareo. a square ground-plan.but a space with a completely differenl centre ofgravitybecause of lhe pier and cross-vault. we -balanced A sDatial effectwithouldircctionis shownin illustration I. Illustralion6 shows an enclos€dspace with a skel€lal canopy construction inside. Here. A sDace within a sDac€ emerges.E l: I:\'TERIORS SquareInterior Spaces The square remains clea. thiscaserhespace tlte middlegains In in lhecharactcrofa route. the shape By ofthe entirespace is intensified. ordcrto avoidindistinct in spaces. In illustralion to 7. trfiH. $e spacecan be strucoredby \r'ay of a subrle. to lhe sides. These'manipulations the of edges' however.thecanopy defines almosrsacred an area and the edgesbecomea silent zone. Going be)ond lhis. a threshold which. square the achcvesan elen more po$etful expression (illuslration Also in illusrration we nave 2).andareconfusing whenil comes lo describing proponions.squaregrid of pilasters. the emphas$is laidon the mainsDace' rhemiddle. 3. The fully skeleral inlcriorspace (illusrralion Z) is of course only co0ceivable a largerscale.needto be minor in proportion . Otherwise this superimposition may iasily provoke associations a circular octagonal wirh or spaca. the Whendividedby meansof a row of piers (illustration4).or the Danreum by projectby Tenagni. ar Hereonerhinksof a space designed special for tunctlons: vasrhlposlylehall of the Creat fte Tcmple of Ammon in lGrnak wilh irs 134 sandstone columns: base theterrace lhe the of in ParkCiiell (Barcelona) Gaudi. examples srructures 4 of are shown which-ofren for technical or functional rcasons-in giveto thespace each case entirelydifferenlrelations directions.although ar€a existing inside the spacc. in whichtheope[ings placed lhe room are on axes. in Thisinlensification be reversed lhe middleparl can if whichoneenters narrower is lhanthetwo boroer areas.' t(r-*'J { 'e1-- lq3 ) \ 6 9 28 .

Thismainspace de form of has a square.Thc roulcis mainlyrccognizable by ils sericsof spaces p€rspcctive. A longitudinal barrel (illuslrarion cnphasises 9) cvcnmorethcclosed crossdir€ction. Ifrhey areposirioned lhe shortsides in (illustration7).diate position betwecn 'purespaccs' and a series spaces.Basicallv Square.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE t: INTERIORS Distorted. spaces 7 the location of the olanings is panicularly si8nifica . :__\ \\- n-* \-/ fi]t [il-l . Because ofbaysandfronral $resholdarcas. lhc meaniagand charactcrof thc space can thcrebybe subjectcd a completetransforto mation. wbich psychologically'stops' route. By inscning rowsofpiers. is a Soodaramplcof the significancc used of nat€rials. They almosr forcethe rniddleof the space to rcmain void bccaus€the us€r's attentioDis focusedon rhe bays.ccntality.d|istendency morc is manifcst.Thc anteroom has a clear oricntation: rictangre a whichaccompanies oura andprepares for $a us themainspace.ss notionof. ln rectantular (illustrations and 9). tie roomtains ar airy aEpsphcrE with a cleir alignm€nt alongits longitudinalaxls.Geometries Suchspaces poss. in Suchan effectis prohibited illusfarion4 wherefour in colunlns form an additional spatial fihe. only the found in the originalbasicgeomericalform.From the rush-hut thc solid stone to shrine. Thc dark side-zoncs be assigned can lo secondary purposcs and activities. the followingexamplcs (illusrmlion to 3) havean I interm. only at its finalwindowfrontdo€s but lhe routcend..oof (illustrarion is anarcherypal 6) form for the housc. { illustmtions and 5) 4 Stations a rout4with a smallcntrance of arca which functionsas a'bordar-crossine'. herethis fact is panicularly but cvldent.Thc sudacetexrure det€rmincs whole the rangeof what is prccious $ hatis nErely rmketo shift. is to be foundas seDulchre. of Windowsanddoorsin thebays form panicular architectonic rridr strong spaccs individuality. lt as wcll asbam or gardenhouse This foim of space . thc Rhythmic Segies Spaces of Rectangular Interior Spaces The simplc. This is somerhing applies gcneral that in !o cvery spacc. rcctangular spacewitb an opcn pitched .

quiteanexoticcharact€r. by by or elevating crossing $c arca. j\ -. whichis called 'crossing' centralised churches.I would like in this contextto cite Palladio'sVilla Rotoitda an as erarnple. Illustration 3 shows me interpcnetration two rectangular of spaces tle of sam€ kind.don4 sho*s the effectthat can be gainedby suchan arangernent:onc port of thc space elevated is and th€rebydemotcsthe side pans to bays. t I ---AFil-\ :--L -.immediatelyestablisna hie. By wa) ot stretchtng.---r''r The variants ocugonalspaces of prcsenred here (illustrations and2) have.A spacc havinganirtrinsichiemG*ny of dir€. Circular Spaces Illustration showsa rcundwall-shellwithura 8 squareroom. cstablishing panicular innerarea.r' 1 . evenmote so.archy b the spatialareas.tions will beachicv€d. But this spacealso has opentngs-doors or windows-which because of different valuations. Thc circular sDacein illuslrEtion bclongs square crois to rhc 9 tike and 30 .according I toconrem_ pomryunde$tanding. A focus to the centml space(illuslrations and 6) is 5 reachcd a crcss-vauh. Nevenlrless thcydo rcveal some advanrages.' Cross-shapedInterior Spaces The crucialproblemwith cross-shaDed intenor (illustrations to 7) is rhevaluation the spaces 3 of two directions. with thc r. in plan has a supreme symbolicand mythicalsignificance. tie equivalence oflhe spatial areas withoulany is doubt still existent.sult t|at iDtcrEsthg spatial enects were crcated.ELEIIENTS OF ALCHITECTLTREl: INTERIORS Octagonal Interior Spaces \-. a By the principlc 'spacewithin space'residual are3srcnain $hich have becn develoDed ro pcrfection. Illusrr. for examDle if Ine proportion ofone part is changed. lfone focoses only on rheinncrpan. buildingwith a similar ground-plan a wher€ the cffecl of the different prospects is norieable.i_ '-fI .This space. octagonal spaces develop a clearlydefinedmiddlezon€and two narowine edgeareas. The roomlherebygainsan inrimati stability. espcciallyby thc American architecf Iaris K!hn.

It is of imporlant io note how cle3rly geomelricalfonns can be broucht into correlation.fuI form. sqlarc. are often used in a boundarypositionas the mediation of spaces with multidirectional structure. plan. Esp€ciallyheightandform of lhe ceiling are crucial. On the one hand. The laier are designed loggias anterooms as or which surround the central space.w ri i' i '" ''! I .because ofits transparent strucNre. octaSon s€mi-circle In and form a rhylhmic scquenc€ spaces.it serves a kind On ofdlstributor. minimum dimension which should not be underestirnaled. theotherhand. allowsp€rception of the olcrall space.The circulaLsDacc canopyin the middle{tuiration 21 inteniifies the significanceof the centralspace. cvery humanbcingcancope not p€rmanently with sucha polre.Circular spaces. This is an exampleof the differentiationof heightsin a room and the resullingeffects. This example alsohintsst the fact lhat circular rooms. A famousexamplein architectuml history is the holse of lhc Russian conslructivist Constantin Melnilov. axtreme The spatialconsequences rcquirea well{onside. Illustrarions and 7 show circular 6 spaccsin eachcasebeinSrelatedto otber rooms.ed discrerion as ro practical application. Psychological havealsoto bc takeninto aspects consideration. of with rnrny side-rooms A hetcrogeneols space and bays(illustiation delermines centre way 3) its by of an insenedcilcular space formed by piels and which coveredby a dome. These place on the circular spac€an anangements aftbiYalentrole. beingin thc bcstpositionto connect different routes and meanings. d€veloptheir to ne€da certain sparialiryand functionaluscfulness.it is a space of tranquilliry.This is a technique can alsobe appliedto lal€r adaptations ofexistinS whercone oftenachieves valid architecspaces Nral results. lhinkin8 io three dimensionsis very oftenneglecEdwhen it comes with the souare to desien. The overlayinS two basicforms-the square of and ihe circle-has b€€natlempted illustration in 1.Nowadays.At thc sarnc time lhe roomgivestheimpression openness. la__r_]]i: tA-9' E It w# i '. void of fumiture and other as equipment. Illuslration describes cyclinders 5 two which interlock.beingnondirectional. The transparent tangenlialzooe offers a fascinatingarperienceof space. the cyclinderis lower and lherefore four segments remain as bays. Comparedto the altitudeof the cube.ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURE l: INTERIORS 'archetypal forms' of architecture. In illustration4 a hiShcircular spaceis cut throughby a bridgewhich.Illustotion 9 of actually belongsto thc them€:composition spaces.

Iltusrrations 4 and5 picture examples ofsimpleseries spaces: of through an entaanceafea one reaches a rectangular room whichis terminated a semiby circlewhichis ils culmination.Considering the mightyheritage ofarchitecoral history.In the space which is shown in illustralion 3. which are conceivablein real lerms. or . Illustrations and 6 7 provethatit is alsopossible give reclangular io spaces centre by way of widening and the a superimposition cenrral ofa circularspace.fonned by an inner shell which s€pamtes from a cor.the aberrations modernarchitecnrre of haveproved one fact: spaces which canbe described.ELEMENTSOF ARCHITECTT Ir INTERIoRS RE Addition and Penetration of Spaces Pracin tical Examples The basicformsdealt wilh abovecan give rise !o innumerable combinations spaces. illustrations and9.idor. The roule leadsfrom i( a represenlational staircase-inserted in an ellipse-lo an ante-space lllter into the main room. still-and this fact cannot be pointed out often enough-a buildingerists in g€neral longerthanits initially assigned utilization. I a tenrshaped spacc. promising a pleasantvtsta. In illustration2 a directionalaectangular space leadsto a semi-circulaa which hasa one relieving effect. it is the vaulting of the reclangular spacewhich createsa relationship withthesemi-circular forecourts. havethe advantage of multifarious waysof utilization. it is of so oul of thequestion that theemployment ofclear forms restrictscrcative irnagination.It gains differ€nl spatial effects by way of irs inner configuration widening. Illustralion shows square. Narrownessof the two spacescreatcs an lmportant tension. The laslrwoexamples. dealwith 8 a rectangular spacewith curvedends.

Sp€cial (illustrations7 io 9) $dch from shapcs all possible polygons the irregularlymodelled to space-urccave. whicharc?ifficuhro tulty urilize. 6 ' Sccl. For praclical reasons.nrii. the oval shapea duo-centricone.ELEME:{TS ARCHITECTURE INTERIORS OF It (illuslrationsI to 3) are not Oval-shapcd spaccs a mcdification ofcircular spaces. sincethe Renaissance. it may bc rernarked thatall spaces shouldhavein commondefining bordcrs.tmcdcs Cinqucnro'.A spaceshouldalwaysallow itself to b€ defurd.nisch. vrhich reached its prime in the Baroqu€.neo-classical lhaorisls(Albcni. The T.. edges cut off or rhethreesides the are are roundedoul. whcres the modehs (Penrzzi. 1tl volum.ations to 6) are 4 conceivable specialftrrns becausc thatr as of pointed eages. il R(.od.or if a tnrnk roadsplits into two less importantones. 'Dic ovalcnKirch.the triangl€ is oftcn deformed. type hasalways becns€€n a contrast the circle. For secular purposes. of lheovalallowsfor similaroperations do€srhe as circle. . To and this chronology.inity churchcsof the Baroqu€ knownexanplcs are ofthis. standasan but indep€ndent which.schichte. describcdand understood wi$out one havinS takerefugein its airnospherical to values to besin with. triangleis suitable mgdiation the as of threedistinctdircctions oftraffic routes. S€rlio) preferred the oval. However. Thc circle was favoured by the conservative. Brasunte) in the RcDaissance.* cours€ Of from a formalpoint vi€w.similar to the rectangle. 1955.the oval is dircctional. as to Th€circlereprescnB moncaentric a view oflife.s Jahtuuch Jtu Ku^sts. Triangllar spaces(illusr.

riors -l ---l I L! | r'.44.1*\/ av a Student *orL! on thc thcme of Inl. J i | | h 4 ' ! w 1-_a r-l I S R A € L I T ISCHER ST AOT T EM PEL WIEN l O I O W I E N..rl ir I'lr l" I . . SEIlENST ET T ENGASSE ' E-Lnrf \-. : L r4 ./ ixN +-l !I i.

Loos. by J. Sabbiodeb. 1873-81 Hall of Columns. v. vienna.- Auilding. Scamozzi. 19tr9-ll 35 . von Hans€n.JI L ffi L * Teatro Olimpico.Parliamcnt (Ph: Bildarchi! d. l?21-15 s{ I. Narionalbibliorhcl) Coun Libnry. by 1588 'Xnze storc. Ost.vi€nna.B.Vicnna.by A.von Erlach. Fische.by T.

the betwccD difrarenlfloors. audiencc wry of a rcctilinca! scenaeJrons. the spaca is terminated by a colonoadc columns consisting of blind and frec-standinS giving acccssto thc stairs which src siNatad in spacc thecomets. spaces connccting 3 5 6 9 36 . bcint drc mo6t bcauritul pan of lhc Dalacc.3/6. l T. Pa.and thc other for Sucsls. a sc!lin8.ichly structured facadewidt fivc openiogsthrouShwhich scvan 'slrccts'are visiblcin exrggcrat€d Pc$pcctivc. 2.lladio's intentiol was !o focusattcntionoo lhc cortilc. half amphithcatrcin plan with .Thc only clcltEnt that has no symnEtrical countcrysn is thc rnrn at which is situatad onc si& ofthccoutt' stairc8sc yard a{ually distant from thc two cntranccs.ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURI Ir ItiTERtORS cxplainingsparialrclatioNhips inrcrpr. It is .ned into an irrcgular larger onc.Thc staircsscis rathaamodestin lcrms latSc-scale ncvcrcraatcd Palladio of spatiality. Vlcebz! 1549 The ccntrdl spaccof this complcx is an inner courtvad which is siuratrdbctwccntwo lic kal oalaccblock.l of lhe upper floor which is also hcld by srnatlcr pilastcrsopposiElhe columns. It is not sufficicnt to be well acquaintcdwith $c quality of a single spaceas such.tadonof Pailadio'sSround'plans Diagraounatic The Art of Spaces Composing I cuided by thc work of Palladio. a .This sclf-co ainedgeom€ldaal appeaBasif ins. Thc $ace bctwc€n thc i*o columns in thc ccntrc is biggcr than thlt bcNecn lhc othcrs:6.v. bccausc lack of spacc. One must also be ablc to join spaccsiD a way that togcthar ihcy nukc an intercstinS composition. by The stageis linked with th. only allowed fo! tha pcrforRcnaissarrcc mancc of classicalplays.l of fte toP ticr.Frcm thcrc a narow corridor lcrds to cenral conilc which on clch sidc ha fivc axca. conunonat lhat dme. Thc colurn$ arc iwo srorryshigh lrd suppolta Sdlcry on lhc lcv. Ona antcrsthe palacc through a vcstibulc with four colunut slrpPortinS a cross-vault.At thc l. Vlcenza l5t0 The auditorium dcviatesfrom the semi_circular of vitruvian typc.3/8/6. Pdrzzo Porto. onc for thc uscof thc matcr aid iis houschold.atro Ollnplco. would like to horv spaccsshouldbc brought itlo dernonslrate scqucnccin ordcr to crcatespatial andaesthctic relationships.isint tiers of scats.The two ba*_ are tivinS arcis widr idcnticalfacadcs situatad ween two public strcats.3 (frct).3/6. reprasenlhg city in This pcnnancnt style.

The facsdc's dominan! featurcis a tigantic order of colums. On the o6er sideof the counyardoneentersaSaina dim hall which mediales b€tween exteriorand Ihe interior. Pslrzzo Porto. Comersare aniculat€d way ofthe ocbgonal by room-width bays. Palezzo Thlene.The spacc trerwe€nthe columnsdifinishes from the middle towardsthe sidesr2/4/4n W4/2 (fr. the ponal of which is cmphasis€d a ponico. Vtcenza 1542/. h thc Venetian NDe of palaceit alwaysrenaineda secondarv element.16 The ground-planof this palaccis one of lhe mosl intercsiingin Palladio'searly work. Plsz?r Cartello.reforc lhe light penetration morEintensein the middle is of th€ spacc where one actually walks. Vlcenza t57l Only two window axeshavebcenbuilt from this dcsiSn Oottom riSht).:lLfi llr .liJr-r+^ 3 2 r--'f --+--r--+ r: '':I 5 6 Flf] . The same rhythn is applied to thc orSanisation the upof per floor. 3.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTTJRE I: INTERIORS Ground'plans proj€ctsby Palladio of TI+ rl-_-l |=-.T'1.onearrives a square by in inner courtyard which is surroundcdby an arcade. leadsinto a tarocn which has a proportionof 2:1. A spacpus tripanite cotftnce hall was rneqnt to lcad to a courtyard consdrutedby a rcc(angleand a scfircircle. 4. Palazzo V.The stalEscs atr oval in phn. Of inte.t\ .rst is the varicty of differc spatial geomet. From a lripartite en!"nce hall.ic! which ar€ aftangedround the coulOfard within the wholc complcx forming a consistcntscrics of sluces.-. FTI '1|.:'. Squareaoorns alterDatewith oblongor tnnsverser€ctargularspaces. to H l-J l hhrr{ i . which is shonerthanthe fi. squaE and rectangularspacrssuggesting ei6er to llnSer of to continueone's way. Thena dark corridor. Thc concaveback wall absorbs rnovcnEnl in the dilcction of ahelongitudinal axis. lhe normal opcningsare 8 fert *ide.. Th. the transparcncy which givesaccess of to rhe brighr squarcinnerSounyard.JFI 'r. 5.st one. One entersrhe building throlgh a dark narrow corridor which leads to a dim arcaded hall. Much more imponrnt wasthe rhyfhm of spaccs ro be experienced whcn walking throughthe roonE: the vicissiNdeofwide andnafiow.-. Vlc€||'o 1565 The scquence spaces this palace of in corrcsponds in a rnalv€llousway to a cadenc€ ofdiffercni light intensity..andwhichon bothsides narowedby is one verticalaxis. Spiral starrcases grcupcd around the courtyard for are acccss thc buildinc. The comers sccm to be denscr b€€ause their hish rectangular openhgsareonly 4 feerwidc whe.'f1 i It was only in thc Barcque that the st ircase becamea theatrical evcnt.lnrrara.

ll. Palazzo Capra. to The entire compositionis orientatedtowads the cenlre.Inside. 12. lltontagnana (psdur) l5S2 From th€ streetand an outsideshircasc.6.rel-shaped vault is extended front of lhc in mainspace. Bagnolo di Loniso lS42 The main entrance situared a iouitudinat is on sideof the spacious rectangular courtya. nearlysqlare plan.A corridor givesaccess the loggia where to the positionof the columnscortesponds that to of the main space. spaces (conrinued) of &.Is.thetwo main axes nrn ihrough narrow halls.Thechancel situa(ed rheprolonqarron is in of de longitudinal \ idr semi-ciicular axis n-iches added it. whichis enclosed from theoutside.u f 4. to axis 13.In conlmst theplans by to which I havedescribed before. .whichhasnoprojecrions oradditions.The backofthe middleaDse a *all is of columns through which the cioir can be viewed.they form a buift the continualion thenahiralhill. Vicenza1563-64 Similarto the Palazzo Pono (2). Srvulg The vestibule le3ds direcdyinrothe cross-shapd vauhedmain spac€. J-. is manifesred way of the broad by extemalstairson all four sidesof rhe villa.it is not theaxisofdeoth that is the rnainprinciple in this case. d€l Redentore. Venic€ 1579 A recuotlc.Thedirectionof movemenr is emphasised lhe longitudinatbarrel vault and by the doublecolumnsof both sidesof the nave. The entrances of on all four sides emphasised porticoes the are by for enjoyment ofthe viewsall round.ro conslrurea relationshipbctween rhe laodscapeand tfie building. slightly wider on the entry axis.To this spacechancels attrched are which arc situat€d the prolongationof thernain on axes. emphasised The tr. the entrance axis is orientated towards a singlechancel *hich is anached theopposite ro sideof lhc rnainspacc.ptans of erptainhg composnio. Mss€r l5t0 A rectangulaa porticogivesaccess a circular to domedspac€. to alLr. Chies.Venice 1576 The ground-plan consists three spadalar€as of which correspond different funitions. a rhythmical. Luci. A r€ctangular anteroomsupponinga ba. is divided into mree zones. 10. which in €achcaseconstiture niche.hich rsmostlysuftounded an arcade. Fmm an anteroom arrivesin a rectangular one main spacewhich is covered a transverse by barrel vauk.From here on! has access eilher to the upperpart of rhe buitdingby way ol two oval staircases eachshon sideof the on loggia. as with the Villa Rotonda.12 . Villa Rotonds.nsverse direction ofthe mainspace creates calminq a counterbalance themovement ofentran. the s€lf-containcd chancel which is coveredby a dome and is accessible from all sides. Tempietto Barbaro. Chlessdi S. The idea for such a composttronwas cenainly also due lo the topographical characlerof lhe si!e. by Thecorunrns ofthe arcade interrupted theenlrance are in arca waytoa tliple flighrofslairsanda ponico. 9. includes basicallysquarernain spaccin its a centralarla covercdby a dom€. VUla Pisad..They haveroundedback walls and ther€by conespond thc form of the main space.The edges dis of room arc bevelledin order to rn€diate souatcand circle.we havean cnclosed. Palladio's inrention. ChicsadeueZlt.4r l 7 E 38 . it is flantedlo the left andrherighr to by mjnorsquarechapels compound wirl column! in thecomers. As they rise rowards house. Vlls Pisani.The nav€ a terminates rhe most imponant pan of $e al church.//t 4-44 2u a-"'4. The passage rhe garden ro rslhrougha lransverse recbngularloggiawhich hastwo semi-circular terminations the snon on sides. syrnmetrical sequence spaces of develops along DiaSramnuric inrerpr€rarion Palhdio s grcu'd. Venice t564 Herc also. by way offour free-standing columns supporting a transverse barrel vault. The to church is enteredand a long rectangular nave providesrhe spatialframe for the Drocessional routeof$e faithful.or onecondnues axis into the garden on by way of an outsidesbircase. t. Vicenzs 156tu7 The Villa Rotonda themostconsistent is e*unDle of a symmetricalplan. contrast th€Tempieno In lo Barbaro (10).d*.bur ihe hamoniousarrangement rectangulalrooms of with a circular rnainspacein lhe centre 7. a gently slopinghill.The space er argedon rhreesidesby way is ofaps€s. one arrivcsdirectlyin rhesquare main room wirich. and meet h a rouncl cenlral space which is rwo-storeyshigh and covered a dome.

to at angles eachother sPaces aiSht rectangular which, when taken wirh similar dimensions room The form a T-shape. lransverse together, added ils shon sides lo apses hassemi-circular main tle From tlere one reaches rectangular of|he four col roomwhichpicksup the motive is hall. This sPace enlargunmsfrom lhe entrance axis.A small ed to theleft andriShtby a second the loggiacreates transitionto thecounyardand, 14. Project for r Prlsce in V€nice 155f, inlo siaircase todreoYal a This projectdiscloses very evenlfulsequence on theleft, givesaccess axis.The square lhe house. of spaces alonga lonSitudinal by entrance is structured way of four free_ hall above. 15. Project for a Prlace ln venlce columns carryinga cross-vault standing lils with tbe formerexample room is folloeed by lwo basically when compar€d -This (contrnued) b) pllnsof projeds Palhdio Ground to the axisofdeplh. A narro\! corridorleads a widened anteroom futallylo a quietsquare and sup_ by inner counyardsurrounded an arcade Tmvers_ portedby four free-standing columns. narow ing the counyard,the roomsSradually inlo again,leading a lo88lafollo{ed by a seconcl and la.gercourtyard.

projectshowsa similar organisation; however, rhe situation is different. The transverse entrance hall is biggerand againis rectangular columns. A by constituted four free-standing shortnarrowcorridor leadsto a snuller oblong hatl which to the left receivesliSht from the and to the riShl givesaccess adjacen! courtyard, A short corridor to the main staircase, second hall leads throlgh an arcaded inlo thecourtyard which, on its opposi(eside, is conlined by a arcaded hall. s€cond 16. Pslazzo Angsrano, Ylc€nza 1564 by of The ground-plan conslitulcd a sequence is lhree spatial unils, rrhere one preparcs for the oext. All arcashave in commonthe motiveof the positionofcolumns bul differcndyaPplied. by hall is slructured way of two The entrance direction andcor_ in rowsof columns transverse into lhe walls. rcsponding half columnsrecessed has with anarcadc, Theadjacen! courtyard, first hall, bu! is much thesamewidth asthe entrance de€pcr.The colunmssurroundthe counyardor y a support 8allery. on threesides and,asarcades, axis gives The openfounh sideof the entmnce accessto lhe main slaircaseso that lhe narrow into the passages both sidesof lhe staircase on arcaded courtyardappearaspolongations second of arcadesof the firs! courtyard- The larSer with by is courtyard againsurrounded an arcade area.By the spacofthe staircase theexception ing oftheiows ofcolunns, the width of thetwo is olher spaces takenllFJagain. 17. PalarzoTorre, Verom 156l hasan enclosed Thisbuildingis free-standinSand reclangularground-plan. The two main of axesdelermine organisation lhe intersecting axisleads The entrance differentspaces, shorter lhen into the space, first ofall into a reclangular square main ball, and from thereagainhto a reclh€ tangularspacewhich accornmodales man The staircase. threeroomshav€the samcwidth The of because thecolurnns. andarelransparent the longeraxis runs throuSh two sideentrances which, by way of narrow corridorsand snrall anterooms,l€ads againinto the centralhall.The principlehereis the gradualwideningof spaces towardsthe cenlre. 16, ViUr Mocenico, 1564 the lowards is Thc wholccomposilion orientated centml hall as is the casewith the Villa Rotonda here is that a definitemain axis The difference are exists,On two sidesexteriorspaces created which prepare arcadcs by way of quaner-circle for lhe interior. Here we also have locatedthe nrainentrances,whoseponicoes consistof eight on columns,whereasthe side<ntrances the other sidesonly consistof six colurnns.Oneof the main by is emphasised way ofsn cntrdnces especially and columns the hall entrance with free-standing adjacent main staircase.

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Ceilingsand Floors
Thesccxamplcsshouldonly scwe as a smali mdication of what wc havc lost in terms of trearmentofthe mostihportant surfaccs ofan intenor spacc-thc floor and thc cciling. Thc surfaceof a roomwhich wausee3chday, on which we walk all the time, cannottr€ dealt with only in terms ofuscfulncss case maintenaDcc. sam€ or of Tha applicsto rhe cciling, the tlrminatior of I space

aboveour hcads.A sprce's significanccand us€, indcpcnd€nt from its sizc, car bc adaptedand structurcdby way ofan intentionaland pair|staking fcatment of thesd suafaccs. Centralised spaccscan be emphldsrd, lincs of movemcnts can bc represcnted.No carFt covcring the entire floor can have the effect which is so clearly achicvedby scparatcbetutiful nrgson a haads:urfacai the crcalion of sriall islandswithin a space, of infonnal borders which underlinethe crnployment and structure of thc room; 8nd vhich also,

whcn looked at, give rise to a little happiness snd relief. With one cxemple, I would also likc ro explain thc clonomic aspectof a soundtr€ftlent of surfaccs. Ai thc moment timber ceilings are vcry popular. But, riany pcople pr€fer to use chcap vcnecrcd pancls, or even foarn rubb€r berns with an cmbossed wood pattcm. After somcyesrssuchjunk becomes dusty,sciatchcd and mean-lookin8, and has to bc raplacedby a ncw ceiling. Compalcdwirh this, wc still find in old housesunpaintedceilings rnadcof natural

Srudent worls on rhe thcm. of Ccilingsand Floors

40

Jmb€r. Every few years they are cleanedwith soap and brush and thcteby develop ovcr time 1 silky lustre, a patina,which makesthe matetial, n the course of decades, more and more )e5uritul. Thesc thrc! clamples demonstrate pnnciple thc of floot and ceiling corresponding eacho0rcr. to lhey show how thc two surfaces broughtinto are nlo relationshipby way of fornul and consttuccompositions.Thc first eramplc (illustra-ional l) is the banting hlll of Otto wagner's Post tion

bricks TheSlass OmceSavings Bankin Vienna. to of the floor correspond the glassroof in ils The towardsdernaterialisation. pie6 teodency cmergefiom the floor pa(itions and Penetrate the roof into infinity. Also in thc nextexample (illuslration the companments thc vault 2) of to correspond thoseof thc floor. Thc transverse in lrches of the cciling are represented the floor, principle. lhe thc rilesofwhich repeat diagonal A classical,8€omctricalordcr is applied in illustration 3. ,osef Plccnik createdan alrnost

whendesigning entmnce for sacral space lhe hall $e 'Zacherlhaus' Viennafillustratioo4). From in a shinyfloor riadc of naunl stone,black nudle columns rise and breakthroughan exquisitely positions the dctailed brightcciling.Theclose of marblecolufius,and their sitnificancc pan as of ihecomposition thespacc a whole,makc of as it necessary leave them wilhout base and to Whatis mostcrucialis the cnvelope capi(al. of the wholespace.

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Monloyer.R oof l r us \ . . lE06-07 DomcdHall in the PalaisRasumofsky.c o c hur c h.f r hc Sr n F nnr e. R J \ennr vienna. by L.

. \=// - \:rl \. -v -.\-z \-z ret \:z \-t \'rZ ! _ _ _ -v \c'.|or orlhe DomedHall. t806-07 by - . Church am Steinhoi vienna.2 \-z . *. \.{-r\-. by O. PalaisRasumofsky. Monroyer. L. 1905 07 . wagner./.-t \:lt \z.

''.'- Y J .haustible variety of forms of columls ano piers. this alone should have beeosufficientenoughto tlestow higherconsiderarions rhese on lwo prop€nies.€nsive. of steeior piersnowadays v€ry simpleandclear: timber is it i5 dueto high wages whichhavefar exceeded thcpric€of nuterials.. The students' dowings which accompany chapter this should merely remind us of this. Concrete brick piersare probl€matic to or due ItE vulnerabilityof their edges.tFF' 'J*: = {Eds :. lo thereby and gainpublicsupporl which$ould makeit meaningful againlo learnfrom lhe Ancienrs how to us€columns a deviceof structure.-il jj . their orders." illl n % #ir O M! il# . whichup to a certainheightrcquire specialprot€ction. A columnhasa relationshiD wirh thc groundand hasto carry a load. as .. 1.In Creekarchitecturc cpochs w€rc named afte.ft L' L: o ilfl. high wages fabricarion the for arejustified. Experimenls concrere with picrsby Morandior Nervi. h remained our for timesto giveup thecontinuous refinement ofthis archaicform.The reason for the cmployment banalconcr€te. for cxample.Time and again the proponioning anddecoration column oier ofa or servedas an indication6nd characterisation of a cenain architecturalstyle. too Exposed steelpiershad lo disappear from the classic reDenoire arof chitecture to rigorousfire regulationsl due ano fte qualiry oflimber which generall! is available todayis sofeeble it hardlt allowsforanisan thal treatment.. i.i Columnsand Piers Cennrriesof architecturalculture havecreated an inex. it wouldbe imDonant maKe But to societyapprcciaE significarc.on |he ftcme of Columns and Picrs FIANiFE-'F]TFFP: l ffiffiq Y. j +sq =#i s=' . of archiccNral the design architecrutal and themes. no are longer possible because making the ofthem has bccome exF. Doesall thismean endofthe colrhe umnandpierasanelement archilecural in creation?Of course.

coldcn Hall of rh€casdcHohcnsalrburg.t I villa Salrcgno. Pl._ Arcade ofa buildingfron rh. 545 Ponalof thc HciliSgeislkirchc.c 1500 Bas€of a pier.borcgna Easc ofa picr in rh.Cnik. Sanlasofia di pcdcmonrc.by J. l9 l0 . BasilicaSan Viialc. Ravcnna. vi€nna.by pajladio. 1569 . jttiddleAgcs.

But normally only onc half wasopened(about 60cm width)-seemingly nowadaysa hardly bearable (I standard.. But even under complicated functional constraints. just wantingto go thmugh.metrical harmonywith thc room. areusedto a door havinS form We of an upright rcctangle. *'Ja ntriabiatrJa iHtsW if& 46 . means violation thewall.) More delerminedby tunction is the position of a door. Thc norrnal foldinSdoor of a Vieoncscbourgeoishousehad a width of and of 1. Of prime imponance are the pro- .:^W ffiilJffitm % " . the s€nse ifone examines This baial statefiFntrnakes al the manyversions door formatsavailable of the present.I: OF ELEMENTS ARCHITECTURE INTERIORS Doors of If one considers conception an inlerior thc whelber dooror window.50 metrcs. door within a door {. everyopening.. space. These the of givc the roomits directionand i$ aphowever. the they thiscontext because prepare visilor for of thespatial cventto come. lhe meaning tion l).4--- 2. am always amusedto seesome 20O who students cameto my lecturesat theT€chnical University in vicnna goinS in and out through sucha nanow slit withoutanyonehavi[g the ides to open the s€condwinS of the door. It is not always the scale of rhe humanbody which detenninesthe size of thc in buildings.the cnlite over-dimensioned of door was opened. a good e&mpl€ of the relativityof frrnction. But when rnajor eventsoccurred. that the old farm house. is forour rellection to A cnrcialirrc-condition recognize door asteing an ihporlant symbol..Espccially monurnental dimensionsof the openings darivc from lhe proponions of thc raceptive space.- : )\il | '//A b -a. Illustratiods 3 to 6 show lo attempts craatea pleciserelation bct\reenwall and opening. W nWfrWt JML .it is possiblein most cascsto find an appropriateposition which is in gc.as which could be usedeasily by peoPle conceived. a door.The significance the from difbe door shouldthercfore considered feren!sandDoints.25rnetres a heiSht 2. violadons. Here lhe most popular sizeslie in lhe proponionsl:2 to l:3 (illustraofa door can this.A low door for to whichgivesaccess the parlourofan to instance.. role ln propriate Doorsplaya decisive meaninS.clearlycodmunicates privatearcais to bepenetrated into. Beyond vary accordinS its purpose.:. Descendants thesepalace doors arg still to be found in bourgeois houses of the nineteenthcentury.i .._. faciliratesorientation. Quile often a for everydaypurposes. Doors ofde individually by way same kind canbe emphasised on of addidonal openinSs the sidesor above (illusrralion This kind of arlculation also 2).

:. Today we can only conceotrateon the quality of proponions. F.Rclatively simpleis thecreadoo niches a wall or lhe of in concentmtion a groupof doorsandwindows.)Our contcmpomry standard door setsoffcr fela possibilities in terms of design. terraces loggias. of lhe *all panelsare thercforcof the ssmelimber as thc door and window fmmes.The violarionof thc wall causeo o by a door can b€st be ovcrcome by fair-faced brickwork.s .eatea propet door spacewhich is symparhctic thc functionalstructureof the acto tual room (illustration O.This 'fiher' in frontofthe opening would c.iateto apply the sysiem prolrcnionwhichdctcrmincs of the ground-plan thc clevatiolofa buildingalso and io the s€condary elenrents suchas windows and doo$.It is css€ntial.e I cnd this s€ction. Ifthe wallsareplastercd. of A morcdifficult method. $e inhabitantrcalisesvery soonthat thesedifferent rnaterials difficulrtojoin properly.The tccluriqueof rnaking penelsoul of boards had led to astonishing results which b€camc rcal worksof an. Ll 'r l\ ' OO. Befo. plastcr and wallpapet.bu onc *hich helpsto cffich the spatial afiiosphcrc. Studert works on the them€ of Doo. the matcrial and colour. I think thereis no longerany signof lheold typeofdoor. I' i1.'. SeeminSly buildingmour dus!ryis or y interestcd incoshing nahtral productssuchastimb€r into fibrcs only !o laler glue rhe stuff together agrin and to roll it imo big sheels.i l : ponions of door heighr and door lintel !o fie residualsurfaccsat the sidesof thc door opening. As a mlc ir might bc approp.O o€:: r o€ ricENsrD ^!1Err€ crfFE 4rfts5!c D€r0rr:r BTNDER t!fVFr9Fir ^V5 |-Et5M nBEnIoCE|€n i:.oper to a transidonfrom door frame to wall.I I 2 CANCiVREHAVSE Ifi HABSaVRCCASSE -t>= n i---l 'f ' j l+l: . And because the incessantctack of betwc€ntimber.The aftangement lintcl anddoor of lcaf is determined the logicof the brickwork by stttrcore. tne decorators uscdmouldings achievc p. The combination of (illustration7) is very door andwindowclemcnts appropriate. .I would like to mentionsome technical constructional and factors reladng doors. door the fram€ in most cases si{ply surrounds the opening.i ? ll . are With old doors. is to insen bays which by way of piers are s€parated from the actual room and would cushion irrcgular posttionsofdoors.thal a distinctionin terms of proponionand sizc betweendoor and windo\. thercarc otherdcvicesto neverthclessachievea harmoniousspace. these weal areas wereresolved wayof by richly prof cd framcsand the employrnent of beautitul timb€r. (A fantastic example is Otto Wagncr's design for the managcment roorns in the Post Office Savings Bankin Vienna.andtheframeis s€qrredin thc rnasofy accordingly. is retaincd. lf i! is nol possiblc!o coordirlate door and wau in this way.The doorsare treatedas logical clcrncnts thc conposhionof the wall surfaces. ln addition to that. anil however. The st€cl frame is mercly the rcpres€ntation a fmmc aroundlhe plain of doorleaf.-\ *i. esp€cially thecas€ in ofbalconies.

wasner.FormerStadtbahn surionat Kadsplarz. popularAustriancxpression an arfor cade.1898 Zachcrlhaus.by J. in c 1900 Hous€Knips. by J. Plcinik. Hoffmann. 1898-9 PalmHousc thcBurggaflcn. 1903-05 - ffi -- H 4E tf. by O. byO. Vienna. Olbnch. byJ. vicnna.vi. Vi.nthccntury Slrdlbahnsiador ar rhc ciin€t. l9t0 Buildingat Michacl€rplaE. 1923-24 Kind€rschutzstarion.ilr .ninctc. OhFlann.srion Buildirg.!l innffi ffi rffi It tffiE I vicnna. 1907-08 Th€S€c.by A.M. Loos. Vi€nna. Vicnoa. Plc{ni}. 'Pawlatsche'.nna.by J.by F. wagn€r.nna. Vienna. I E96-97 .

a sparkling whichare given oor.The excessive fullyglazed amountof lighl is exiaustingfor lhe eyes.ate trivialised. afterhavingtom up the wall. however. but the view presented of a The *indow f!_ames cenainpan of important. is It therefore recommendable trcat circular and to triangular windowswith greatcare.var€nessof the space-wherebynol only the source the light.l87l t-'.lhe uprigh windowhasevolved meet to moslsimplyandefficiently requirements the for sufficient li8ht. alsothe illuminated but surfaces f$e room:$e tertureofthe walls. transparent inains and plants.rcnsity weatened) are light to penetmte a good and appropriate solution.byP 1660-66 .have to be regardedas special forms. Even reflectivemasonrysurrounding b€tween the big windowscansoftent}tecontrast brigh! outsideand the dark inside. It is also imponantto find rt what quantityof light is app. rts . lighi by way ofspecialsunprolection The room itsclf is completelyopenonly on one andlhe tension side.although representing a precise form. ln general. first of all the . lintels.s harsh.indow's functionas the sourceof lighr is of greatimponance. iffor one functional designreasons \vall of a toom or hasro be left open.strictly speaking.iatefor a )ace.by T.we should To ralk aboutthe effectp€netrating light hason $e Lteiiorspace.merstag€-set depot.by G. one hasto counteract implications excessive the of equipment.rch as shutters. If nevenheless generous a lransitionfrom the inside!o the oulsideis desired. In the for end. way of loggias transparent by or ancl projeclions (verandas instance). remains oui of in . Iight and quality. Fo.suchas a row of piersor welfo. season. triangleand lhe circle are lhe tle basicgeomelrical forms for the window.I am of the opinion that singlesources of light offer an opportuniryfor the space be to li( in a muchmoreexciting waywhilelheyalso allow the cr€adonof areasin shadewhich are very pleasant time of direci sunlighlpenetrain tion. lightweiBht for the whicharesi8nificant lf weconsiderall points when dealingwith the window-such as light penetration its effec!on the interior. misty etc.Onemaythinkofa sunbeam strikingupon a whitewall or producing reflections somewherc rthe room.But. fumitureor otherobjects -prominence thelight. space. Thercfor€ design by the of an interiorspace thechoiceofmaterialsand and tours. dazzlinS. which open up the interiorspacc tolally. Semp€r. shouldalwaysuke into account effect the f p€netrating light.dered bars. motivates *. BasicForms and Bars The square. Too little light canonly be complemented artificial illumination. cardinal rd intensity. the simpleargument againsl broadwindowsis that lhey violateth€ wall considerably.wise theywoulddegene.and to use them sparinglyso ihat their meaningis not Othe.is deahwith in the seclon with the composition $e facade.e. painting to very muchin constrast themotionless oo the wall which canbe an artisticsubsdnrdon for what migh! be seenlhrougha window. Equallydoubttul in |ermsof benefiris tle wall or cunirn wall. which would not As destroy. termsof In function. view from the of window-then it becomes obvious l})at. I do notallow my students design to horizontal bbonwindows.lighlcoming from a ribbonwindowonlyhas a very monotonous banaleffect on space. the appropriateness ribbon windows is rather of lirnited.1a.Bu! if the main sourceof light is balanced a smaller by windowon another one side-the opposite would be b€st. The square window. is b€tween insideandoutsideis diluted.or generally \rindowswith by struc$ring bars. and makesit inlo a kind of our environment pictur€. * one aspect that is quite often underestimated is the qualityof light and its dependence the on rimeofthe day.. muchor too direcl too -y light should filteredwi$ the help of devices be .lhen the room will be betterlil.position the window. Leopold wingofthe HofburS. one shouldnot think of achieving this in an abruptway.It canbe appropriate in if the composidon a facadeit is used as a of harmonizing wi$ olherforms. and Therefore for housing developments. The latter two. 1874 7? =toct E\change. element together t. we are not in favourof the ribbon window.op. we haveto cometo termswith the positionof the window. the feelingof safetyand securilyis lost. Nor only is rhe way in which lighl affectsihe \r'henlalkingaboutthe interiorspace significant is position a window.andbecomes wealerthebigger the windowopening Thuswindowsor glass is. the window.whichin by theextreme case couldbe directsunlighl.its geometry dertroted.lts effecton the to the outside.we can €slablishthat if a room ls penetrat€d light onlt from oneside. a very banalformat.The pl6yoflight andshadecreating aight our anddark zonesin a room.and oddlyenough. but one which is changingconslandy. soft.or fmm above.All this resultsin certainthough whichwe expcrience unsn8 light atmospheres . For thousands yearsof arof chitecture. points weather.it is much bette.onsciousn€ss. but gradually.sparkling. The by of awareness theoutsideworld is inlensified a crosswindow. air and view. the sameextentthat a room To by crcat€d its wall surfaces.Traditionally theywereusedfor spaces eminent solemn of or significance. to graphic attribules quickly(illusrratoo negligible tio[ l). walls which are too big. facade.Vienna.because want themfrom the I of rrrst momenton to tackle the Droblems the windowand its sigDificance the room.anuncomforlable dazzlewill easilyresult. f== vienna. kindof li*lt source proved this has to be the most economic both in terms of conslruction in optimaltermsof functlon. von Han*n. obscure.blinds.Also forms of doubleskin 'all construction which allow indirecl (i.ilindows he theme ofthis sectionis the window ano ns rlationship interio. is enliv€ned by it Iighr. dealiDg of Wilh respect to the relarionshipberween indow and interior space.maketheroomuncomforuble.is a veryabstract. b€ more specific. The classicwindow hasa rectangular upright format.theinteriorspace.vi.in addirion. and.to applyan architecturally effectivemethod. and Relatedto constructional considerations. butenrich. suMued. windowdeserves muchcareas fie as doestle actualroom.

such?rsopcnin8. This Lttrr desiSnrcsponsibility been very much ncglectedin the rccent years. [lL rl ffi Tlt r'r . The colunon 'window-caoss' be€nquite successful. rirffitF l-|-.f'f : ' lr l$ ..astbc us€r'saesponsa. I fr" . Th€ simple divisions. dependint on the kind of openinS.4).^..J L---i-J + /an/'J .ir-l l 1.ta-t^ mmffi l l l l l lF ftr l ffiffiffi 4 m l[-l rflE ti. The cxamples in illustration 4. . which show differcnt arrangcments of bars. H NL I .:) 4 'f .Very oftenas a re$lt.r'.-. are horizontal or vcrtical.. the proportion l:2.: I I" :" 1 L-.i^ &. window bars c6n be employed for the aesthetic structuring of thc window plane (illustrations 3 has to E).l f' -!. In addition to these. refer only to k Corbusicr's I wirdow'. the division of th.Fl +. ventilation and cleaning.:. If peoplehave fcar of heighls. I shouldmcntion that all my recortunendations although of conceming differen!aspects design. Ihey can le3non the closedcas€ment look out $rough and the other oFned one (illustration 6).a. is has It economic in tcrms of timbcr consumPtionand handy in terms of ventilation and clcsniDg. circlc and irro four pans (l:1. The exact squarc has also the of disadvantagc apFarhg disto(€d whcnvi€wed from a cenain anglei face to facc it takes on a horizontal fonrut. Thescwindows aaesp€cial in l€rms of their strucure.. Bccause of all thcse rcasonsonc shouldgo back again to sensibledivisions for the window and reconcile its desiSn with that of the facade.l f. lheir figurarion. h was rhouShtto bc cnough to satisry the passionfor an unhindered view by way of panoramaglazing.The . and the superimposition of these two.alwaysallow for filstrate exccptions.-i l--+ H I . Scvcrd times when I thought I had discovercd a square window.-' .4tnt^ /*:At^a- +.One can ofthe top casarncnls oFn sepantely by way of a levcr rnecharism. the intimacy of a spaccwas destroyed:tastelcss 'cunain culturc' tr.fut /th rl : I l r-l ilffiE '# Lltrl l w \# E!. The most common window proponions resuhfrom thedivisionof thecircle into 6rer parts( I : I .. lhe goldensection.ll |lEL ffi iHf 7 m mtffi ul W @ E-I EJ -- ffi lffil nrl 8 50 .J1.ELEMEMS OF ARCHITECTURE I: INTERIORS In anonymousrural and urban architecture.--. Vcry rurely arc lsed for s€condary they applied to dorheslicbuildings.5 (illustration2). They have to comply with basic function.1 i1 1. thcy rnay soundirrEfutable. it tumed out ir facl to be slightly reclan8llar.4) tt /.. 'ribbon wirdow' or Aldo Rossi's'square windo\r divisions are firsdy related to the kind of oper ng one is dealingwith.1=TH T-:-l I L.". squarc window formats are almost exclusively utility spaces.i . I 6). Thc lowcr sftlc hung casemcnts allow for tbe uMvoidablecurtains also to be moved asidc when lhe willdow is io be opcncd. which was rnadepossible by th€ producls of the Slazingindustry..the lension berweenlarSeaand srnaller divisions: they have an indcpendcntarchitectu€l siSnificance.-t t?4 ({. are rather decorativc.

Both halvesof thc window can be moved upwardsand downwardsand they can remair in any F. 2. Openings with different functionsand m.osition-ir can come in either from tle top or the bonom. (illustrarion 9).r..J would like to suggest smpre a 'peasan! maxim' (illustration9): s l.anings are combined!o foi. They would destroy the texore of rhe facade..langular window (itlustrations7 and 8). the differcnt thickness bars ls a of characteristic which resultsfrom the constructional functions frameand thinnerelcmenls. Gaudt (illustration and tr Corbusier E).The resuhis anexciting conducr light ot into the in@riorandan archirectura! aniculation on the outside.The tensionof the fomraE one ro anotheris teometricallymeasurcable. (illu. Cut the formrls out of dark cardboard and mo\e themaroundon the facade drawing: yo! *ill leam quickly how to avoid banal solutions.e the rclationship to to lhc overall facadeis crucial. havesketched I someexamples explainwhatI mean:palladio to (illusrrarjons 2 top.r:arion} 2 bonom.rnalsboth in the horizontalandlhe verucar direction.ELEME\TS OF ARCHITECTURE INTERIORS I: -l -nt 't. . of Vertical sash-windows. 5 top and middle.W -A@*': . allow for the greatestgraduarionof ventilalion.J'Tt*- tJ--4- . . They can even ba::t in an architecturalfaame and thciefoae b. Specialforms of windowsdeak with hereare seenasderivarions of the re.Ifone triesto alt€male siresstorcy lhe by storey. Window Flgur€s Windos figures are created when differcnt formats are brou3ht int6 "ar15". 7). common in Great Britain. Window figurcs are always CividcJ into different elements. A successful patremin architecrumlhistory bar is the multipledivisiooof the window in fairly exactsquare (illustration5).3). For compartmen6 this rype. It would be precariousto replacethesekinds of windowsby synlheticor panorama glazing. One shouldb€ carcful with lhe additionof identical fo.| w .it will become evidenthow lively $e relationship betwe€n openingand nusonry can become(illustration9). As regards rhe combrnationof differcnl *indow forrnats. Schintcl l. Otn€rwise this would be a typical result of T-shape thinking .a interdependence.-I an 'image'.Window figurcsnrc alsoesFrially addressed cxt rior space.ao6rc a paaticular element oithe facade.ant an elemen!of design. W.111\ window surface itself becornes imDor.J F------ .He.4. Different window fomralsshouldnever line up witi eitherlheir lintelsor their sills.

by E. by G. As much as an archedwindow canbe very attractive. No 70.rtures various desiSns have becn havenever commendedl lhe bestArchitects but and madeUseofany but Squares stmit Lines. Diirrhamner Markelhallin l-andstrasse. Aich€r The Wlndow ss Room Dlvlder The cxamplesin this plate have treenmeasured up by sl.This is best describcdby a thc cxpericnccwc havcwhcn approachinS wrndow: we are no longerinsideand not yet outside.these not aside.They show dre refined treaunent. an is to oDtimalrcsDonse diffcrcnt climatic ne€ds en' are sured-because severalcasements available to be openedor leff closed.Illustrations 2 and4 also between exterior showwindows$ herelhe space and interior windowscan b€ used. F€derspael uI E A\ il' l?" \m Vienna. vienna.. BuildinSar Ilinorirenplatz. by C. and Schlors Schnnbrunn vienna.dent"J from old Vicnncscbuildings. Thesehints advocatethat the window should b€ understood andnot astnnspar€ntwall.by J. Aicher . But the bars in the arch alrcadyusherin the dominationof the macbine(illustration3). Although dividing the arch is an exremely risky task in to aestheticlerms. St€rtrwan€$rasse. The window has to be casyto reachto bc uscd.I E fI T F En L tr ta.This work much bermodem venler than even thc most sophisticated tilaiion systems(if they work at all!). this w. Akademiest._ l l TT tf-I Vienna.In the nin€leenth cenrurythc archadwindo\t wasalao usedin engineer-designed buildings.'r .s often undertaken emphasise certainwindowsover others.ahe richnessin dctail which wasappliedto th€ winlnd de significance dow.3 and 4). Behind us Iics tlrc prot cting room and in front of us the exteaiorworld. fl. No 12. Hcinrich Tessenophad slrong opinionsabout filling in panswhichcameinto conflictwith the when-as with lhe arched overall formi especially with an arch window-a rcctilineardivision meets so lhat unsightly residualare3sremain. of the roomsbehind.Albeni difficultiesshould be brushed r€striction haspobably expEssed mostsevene the conceming this problemi '[n thes€Sons of Ap. A window is not rnercly with 'a hole in the *all'. lr shouldalso tell us sonEthingaboutthe significanceand situation l.By lhis.by F. Vostrovky. asa spatialelement A spccialtheme is inroduced by lhe arched window (illustrations2. The bay window in illu$ration I is designed as a spccial room. it defines real space a an ar€ain faon!of thc witrdow.asse. a bre3st-wallzone and an erterior space. Vi€nna.

:::'-: . achicve To 6is.iriiij. Albcni. _ whichshould Unfonunatelyonc priority.. windows The E is givenby ihcs€facsde let us irnaginethe wonderfully high rooms behind. has And what alsob€€nlost in this contcxtis the high.besides lnconyethe nience.' happens Withoutinlending anticipate section to tle on facades.. The examples that in demonskate former times the valuationand meaningof paniculaf was storeys alsoapplied dledcsign ro of their windows. all lhc and rest of thc Room is darken'd.1.. R. suchstrikinS Ofcoursethey L ar€ cheaper than the old ones. we oughtto makc suchan Opening it.HAL BRIT'I'E R Facsdelnd Window Axls Funhet reference a conEmporary grievance lo segmen6. and de Top ofthat Opening oughtneve..rangemcnt these in buildings reprcsented social conditions.Bathrooms and toiletsare cxpensive: would anyMy think but of ignorinS themin councilhousing becausc of cost facrors? just want to hinr at the priorities | govemus whenrnalinSbuildings.. on 'L. it is norabsolutelyneccssary usediffer€ot to windo* formats for special stor€ys. because are to seethe Light with our Eyes..A ffi I-FTI t Lr r l ! ll II f . beennost ersily renounced. IITTI A I@it ilr t l ..London tnnslatior by | 965. the quality of the space.I would like to show herc parts of facad€s which rclateto tbe vertical graduation of windows. againan admonition H.. t' LI EEE H. 4 {...chaDEr XIl. Studcnt works on thc thcmeof wiodows t'"") t filr t ::iiltilFt. as may for alwaysSiveus a free Sighlof lhe Sky.the racognition ofpanicular storeys and a precise archilcctunldesignation.rheLiShtis int€rceptcd. Different rnat rials on the facade alsosuppona similar can effect. we and not with our Heels.. reprEsentativewindow. schmrdt from Albeni aboutthc lreaiment *indo$s: of '. because differcnt storeyswere inhabitedby members of differentsocialclasses. N€verthcless todaywe are attractedby this differentiation not only for nostalgic rcasons.from whalever sidewe takcin theLight. .onc Banish EnSlish publishcd AIccTinnt. The a. I ILJJI | [ rl 3 : *fl H . allowsfor sponEn€ous It orientation. It is rcally qucstionable whetherthe loweted ceiling heiShts in council housing represent proSrcss.. Therefore.to be too low.r Eookt Archit. ifone Man gets $at between another and the Window.1 i.ctun. $hich never when the Light comesfrom above.

Studcnlworks on $e them. ot SBkcascs II & .

the gaps bet*een flights. The most comfortable staircas€accoading to Vicnnese traditionhasriserswhich arc 14 cm high and treads 35 cm width.flexibly.is nesaon !op. which on average a lengrhof 63 cm. lhe heiSht steps lessthan 14 cm. the PostOfficesalin8s Bant.e still possible.besides rrgerrhanfor a slaircase because the gentle stone benches.In mostcas€s typical staircases relidential buildings in Vienand is not firmly insBlled in orde. A l. conlained sculpture which is requiredfor a ramp is considerably oft€n.l0 metres widthsdo not needio be enormous: lherefore intervene to l 20 metrcsis anough.In Baroque b€comes representative a thc well ofthe staircase in itself is gorgeous detail.ln Orto wagner's residential of as buildings 6ese detaitshavebeenexecuted real iseof the former. l 9l 0 t5 . tffiilil| ilt i$ull[ r-leu€ Holburg. -rc Staircases . whileunmistakable areas crcated. This ppositediagonalfli8hls which cut throughthe has case beensacrificed in is why we havemerely functionalstaircases . and which arc enlivenedby uter skin of the suircasewas a(iculated by pcnetrating througha roofli8ht.If a building has !o acco[unodate s€veralsiaircases. In the sixteenrh or vedcally beyond vJhichallow for conversation restingon a )wers which werc extended bench.eached in is because difference altitude onlyvery slowly mastered. the space in mostcasesilluminated by a rooflight and quite But or water-taps. The Senerous8ap bctwecn and re all aspects flights. H€re the whole richnessof typologicalvariationsis at our disDosal.has to be spiral staircase. The The staircase.It is not . vi€nna. space we perceive either a straight flight or two for economic rcasonsand the large-scalestairwithouthesitation. lt is has assumed the movement vcnicaldirectlon lhat in requires a double effon in comparisonwilh the horizonul one.has almos!completelygone. The staircase ofaccess in heslaircase lhe venicalelement is flights.The differences leight are very easilyovercome. qomanesque had tan! area of humanconmrlnication. which enablesone to ascendand of lighr and sometimesends under a mighry lescend from one slorey to the next. C. at which fomerly wasan imporemphasis which wasgivento the staircase.The mo$ imponant requLement staircase ofa is thatthedegrce ofrise is asgende possible. masterPreces.the hierarchy of significance and frequencyin termsofuse canbe rnanifested in desiSn. firsl ofall thestrideof a hurnan beingmustbetakenintoconsid€ration. Here the motivc of lhe staircase palaces linkedwi$ a socialfunclion. tE69 ll II in official staircas. the plan of the building can bc understood and visitoa can easily oricntate tbcmselves.The a sunbeam columns and tracery. They appearasan sddidon The way a skircaseruns: whetherit of disjoin@ds€ctionswith tiny landidgsand requires a-typically vertical-well. penetraleand it could be looked l. by O.The functionofa staircase wascul down andat the same time shapes enclosing the space. To determine a convenient angleofrise. Unfortunately of most staircases steeperlpith risers of lE to are 19 cm because rcduction in floor spacecan be a If of is achieved. a'crow'sbuildings thcybelonged havinS to. cupola.if landings c€nturywe havestair 'hrough. The staircase its surroundingspacearean and pan of the architectonic ess€ntial compositionof a building. Hall.The otherextreme. which receiveenoughliSht and allow venicalconidor. its determines form . inslance. onc trcadandtwice the riser shouldmake63 cm. minimal lhicknessof rnaterial. as in order to rcduce to a minimum lhe effort necessary for climbing. circular (ower.allorrsforan almostimperceptible lranslbanisters and profiled handrails. anistically designed rmp.The acrualpurposeof the staircase is The by : is theshones! connection belween places. Its function of giving accessto different storcyscan ooly be achicvcdin a meaningtulway if lhis quality is irnrnediately obvious. solutions for stai$ on a more r€cess the masonryor wasprcssedinto in _lecial approprialescale a.vicnna.oos.or a windinS movementwhich turns our modembuildings. two in ot it is alsosteep hardlo use.r architectonic one side.lt is full oversized nrnsup in several and building. by wayof theirrelations theentrancc thcir to and particular form. to be used na reachedlheir prime in the nine|eenthcentury: . lt fulfiUed the purpos€of which we find transporting people like difficult to crcatcthcm as spaces upstairs downstairs and pleasan!. waSner VieDna.Jace. Light could -rcades. The ts primitive forcrunnerof the staircase lhe ladder. for given back hs approprialc significancein a o light and havingthe shape a tube filled a of building. by BuildingstMichaclcrplatz. which allo.by S€mFr. arc Form directly fulfills function. Hcldcnplatz. in olher words. Du. dominated the nolion of representation.*ed the view from storeyto which contribute its form. the botlom line of convenierceis .generous quality. wherei( fi(s -pwards. This means arithrnetical in terms. lto the ground-plan:its construction rnaterial minimal flights.frce projeclionover . In theyearsafterthe war.the views to the outside.The well was in on from storeyto storey.ingthecothic period. to A shon glance historyshowsthe chanSing storey. Todayone nukes do with lechnicaland guidinS systems insrcad organising of Sraphical rouGsand stairsin a way thatby their positioo. if it is clear that the starrcase serves as a device of orientation in a buildinS. and therefore lacksany properspatial curvedstairsof naturaistone.

The type in illusttation from both directions. ther€forE better suited for housing developments. wherestairschange their dkection on cvery level to Siva access altcmalely to oppositesides. the Illustmtion solution. This type works very well in public buildings.This canbe suilable for sDecial solutions. directions from the intermedialelanding. straight stairis thesimplest I showsan examplewhich is fitted into a frame is of piers and b€ams. hasits besteffectifapplied only oncein a building. which is a flight of two stairswi$ preliminary integratio[ into a high stepsleadingto it.The crGmple illustration 5 is suitablefor repetitionover sevcral sbns with one fli8ht storeys. However. Thre€flights of slairs(ilustrations5 to 7) havc !o be seenprirnarilyas being relaledto reprcs€ntation. the ctample in illustration wheretwo fli8htsrisein different 6. exlerior wall it is possibleto arrangefor the well to ger nabiralligh!.access the different storeyscan t'e given by way of a gallery (illustmtion 2).If a stmight staircase to situaiedin a bigger space. This iorm directions meetto become witr espaciallyfor passage-ways is recornmended equally two enttances. The respectivestair lo the next storcy is easyto find. dernands space which allows lhc *hole staircase to be lookeda! from elsewherc. which until the intermediata point i! tums into two fliShtswhich arc narrower than the tirst one. . and Mor€ €conomicalin tennsof space.is the well ath straightflighrsof sbirs of the square samesize as lhe landings(illustration3). and lhe gallery allows all rooms on one level to bc enlrred widDut difficulty.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE I: IMERIORS Si!ircas€ Similar to the ladder put against a wall.A very cosdy solution is shown in illustration9. They alnost direcdyask in for'dignified striding'. broadstaircase A at landingis reached. Onc common solution is the developrnent of two straiSht flighrs with an inErmediate landing by (illustralion If fte landinS bordered an is 4). they canbe approached as 8.ln illustration 7 two flights of stairs from opposite onc stair.

Illustrarion is more rclatedto the cxDloitation 4 of a geometrical fo. Here { $ E alsopossible find one'sown walking rhythm to by eitherclimbingon the inneror theouterside. In difficult spatialsituations.m where thc sides of an octagonare consliotcd altemately by flighb and landings.The verylnarrow newel slaircases (illustrations and dfarc difficutt for cldcrly 5 people and unsuilable fo. becausethis makes it very difficult to find one's natural walking rhythm. Two fli8hts of stairs on a polygonalgroundplan-for examplca hexagon (iltustration 3)pmvide the well wilh a high spariatqualirr. A variarion oflhis form is s slair risinc in lhrceIlightson thessme (illustra: ground-plan tion 2).al stairs. bigSer objecb to be transponed. This is not the cas€s/ith *inding staircases half<ircular(illustririon7) oroval on ground-plans (illustrations and 9). . but herc only a small landbg rcmams. Whal shouldbc avoided is thc alEmation of circular and straight stcps. for inslance comers.ELEIIENTS OF ARCHITECTURE I: INTERIORS The geonEtricalriodification of stmiShtstaircase leadsto spi.a two-fligh! staircasc a on triangularground-plan be applied(illustracan lion l). Illustrations5 to 9 show eromplesof spiral sbircases.

l 9l 0-1912 58 . Schonlal. Vienna.Vi€nna. in c 1830 YE a. Margarethenstrass€. building phascof the Post Office SavinSs by O.p€riod. Staircase a building from the Biedemeierp€nod./4 Spiralstaircalc.l9l0-12 for in Bank. vienna. . w aS ncr. Staircase the officials Beamreosti€ge the PostOfllce Savings by O. c 1830 Staircasc a buildingfmm th€ Biedenneier in vienna. Wagncrwith O.second Bank.

hall of a r. wrgnci.8 vienna.Entranc. I 862 'Majolik h.. by O.us at dlcR..cht wicnzeil.by . |898 59 . if.sidential build in Lnndsrrass€. Brychb.VicMa.

proponions ex' perceiving suchtruly calculat€d very impo(antto me it acdy.e. after the rediscovery the offte publicrealmandthevalueof imponance urban life.eouirenenlsarc sliil bestmetby the solid facade wh'osc massive.the energyProblcms haveal.. rousesemolionsin us.i. In all 1pe mean above thefroni facingthe strect.whichshould moreclosed conthe cealinq-towards street.nt workson the thcm€of Facad€s tl tl lll tll ll ll .' beauty a But the aim of reaching harmonious only in this way Oneneeds be cannot achieved view Sivenfrom only to considerfiattheoblique the bottom of a buildinS.. is which. visible from all sides. similar to the rhythm in architecture music. does nol allow for aesthetic differentiation and is too vulnerable and to has Sucha'skin facade' nothing transparent. .h talks aboutthe cultural the roonLs wasbuilt. .andgives of and an accolntof thc possibilities ingenuily alsotells A omamentatioo decoration.Especiallyh the Renaissance. capacity ln Austna. from lhe The root ofthe word 'facade'slems with the btin 'facies' which is synonymous if 'face'and'appearance'.colour and SinceVilruvius architects decorative elements. of Dhenomena front and back relate-roughly ipeaking-on lhe onehandto public rcsponsibility and on lhe other hand to the privat€ s€lfof reprcsentation the inhabitanls comparedwilh of character the sreet the more representative the facade.g.oved-andso Renaissance SaintAugustine ftat convinced thewhole anistswerelhorouShly and harmonious universewas a rnatiemalical creation. This exercise harmonious to a 'narural'sense ofpleasanl.materials. baseand total ponionsof op€ningand parap€t.. app. is only of in receotyears. Sarden and communicates landscape. siuationat thctimewhcn$e building it revels criteria of orderandordering.sun proteclion.Facades architectural The facadeis still themostessential thc of capable communicating function element I ofa andsignificance building. of had prioriryover the crealion building It lhe a specific'show-side'facing stre€!.the facade.in order to protectthe orivarf sphercof lhc iniabihnts All these . have beenlrying to developmetricalrelations which would give an ideal order and strucnire to the facade-and alsoto floor plansand rooms This wasthoughtto be the way ofachievingab_ such soluteb€auty.If fte p€rvade everything laws of harmonicnumbers life to sDheres themosthumble from thecelestial on canh. -l I 't"rnl] [ l r tI. ruleswerc established as whichwittkowcr describes follows: '. the back is assiSned s€mlBoth these public or private exterior spaces. a well-balanced composition. Proh portions. + L: =:--: i ::I Itr r|ftt] SNd. having rn proclaimed destruction in mindits theoretical ofthe *here the ideology century the lwentieth object. that the facadc rcgained a new valuation. The facadenever only fulfills lhe'natural of by dctermined theorganisation requirements' behind.laking into (windows.By suchthitikinS. . backof a buildingis moreopenand with cou(yard.eadybeentakeninto by glassfacades proponion In account.Neveiheless seems with the helPof window proponions to examine andequallyto studytheprothegoldensection.Plato'sphilosoPhy lalen asa basis. horizolal structuring. the a collectivc identhy as a communily. of The comPosition a facade. Thereforeit is of possibleto transferconceptions musicaltheory KORB-WE DENHEIMN tr=:= r-'1 -: ' . togetier with the and effects of constantlychangingconstrasts prcvenlusfrom by depthcaused light andshade.ILl l l L!5i l "iol .protecdngexterior wall N lo perforatcdby openinSs let air and liShl o€nerrate the intetiorof thebuilding Also' into the in termsofenergyconsumplion solidfacade b€cause is *ithou! doubtmuchmoreapproPnarc' its exterior wall has a higherthermalstorage caused . and of ul(irnatrl) is the reprcsentalion the lalter in Dublic. to to contrast that. publicbuildugsa smaller surfaceis allowedas of windowsin a facade with previou5 compared )ears This Propodion has and opening Plane at leaststopped between walls.and of developmen! curtain theunhindercd to lhe hashelped solid facade Sainnewropicality. requirements the accoudt functional roof area) is door op€nings. The often-usedframed facadernadeof liSht and material glazingis too stlndardin tyPeand too abstracl in character for housing It develoDments. of anefipb were rcfened to systerns numt€rs and was rulesof proportions. say'still'. a todo essentially withthecreationol harmonlou! venicaland of e ity by means goodproPo(ions. free-slanding The p€rfectionof the became'body Dredominant. do with the appropriatefacadefor a residential and be buildinq.i + + +. Therefore. rhenoui tery soulsmust conform to t thisharmony.aswerc thethoughlsof Neo_Platon$m. will leadafter a while heightetc. facade and gives them of usabout inhabitatts a building. we wonds talk aboutthe 'face' of a building.

However. for examole.will be taken across.s thcA8e in of Hunanatn. . -asis€ How€ver.oducea quiet orderand vary the sametheme )m storeyto storeyby way of-for instance_yrhmical diminution towards the top (appropriale becaus€ light qualityincreases). them(reflectinS or window boxes and Virginia creepe. wayofwall Projections. The facade 'built border' actsin a similar way to as the portal: in Ge. The €vent-interval. The elemenG base. is necessary it lo employdiffercnt elements which sepamte new the from the old as well atones $/hichjoin and connect both. roof etc. materials that emphasise (rusdcalion) loosen matble).p 27. as it is similarly perienced naore. the surface has a certain plasticity and if movemenl evident. by chanoelling bearingforcesinto the :rs. of smoothand rough surfaces.give the building a summeror winler appearance. but incontexl work with adjacenthisloricalfacades. which in succession wilh the wall )ments. Besidesconslructionlhere are many other things necessary termsof functionor simply in narrative whichaddto theanimationof elements and the facade:\*indow surroundings lintelsto rainaniculat€ independence ofthe windorps. the common factor could relate to similar proportionsor shadinggradations a basic of lf we do not approach design a facade the of asanautonomous ofan.rnanthe word for wall is 'wand' whichhasto do with 'uenden' (to tum) or with 'wandlung' (change).g. ofa -Following theordering $e constructional can conditions b€ madevisirre. foregrcund and background.. The of comDosition a facade. tnlarilies of tension-relaxation. the pipes. although common $e language bindingtbemlo the wholehasalsoto be found. Ecmselves.windows.will are alsothereforebe differcnt in their forms.roof projeclions which give the masses shade. reflect on winoow openingswhich repeatthemselves again and ain. whereas *)ad proportions in high buildingsslender give a sens€ elements '.in each generaleffect. or and bu! to rcveal the narure of construclion craftsmanship. a purponing conlinuity being achieved such a thenutic by approach.the the ^. which by their narure differentthings. elc. is notlo putconstniction much this too intotheforeground to showeverynailorjoint. But g€nuine continuity is only qualityof lhe conceivable oncethe indep€ndent nelr facade. principleof repclition.Thus$e choice ofelements should firsl of all be relaledto the language the of historicalfacades. e. accord-conlrasl. bays. the ordinary storeysand the attic. a facade should never be designedwithout horizonral differentiation. All thesepans should remain recognisable individually. because p€riodical sametime repelitionthey of _.ocessof lhe themebeing carriedihrough in planes riations. colours and rnaterials. its newconditions dernands add and are upheld.Ac^deny Ednions. is B) ledgesand pilastersthe plan€ of lhe surface develops threeiimensionality.ELEI\IENTS OF ARCHITECTTTREIIr FACADES rccdy lo architectural composhion. AccordinSly low broad buildings. becomeperceptible. in principles facade..Inprinciple. The horizontallayeringof the facade results from thediffercntareas offunction.however. d lines.The relationship b€twe€n and new old is in anycase adialogue.consists of structuring lhe onehandandordering the on on olher. b€cominga relief. *RudolfWinlow€r. conversation a between lhe pastand the present. not every means of connectinS matchin8 sensiblet instance or is for to locatetheupperedges ofwindowsanddoors in one line would contradict the different meanings they have.createan adequaie Normauythe proportions theelemenG of should -'rrespond to thoseof the whole.f th€ largebeingfoundin lhe srnalland the srnall ing found in th€ large. lrndon | 9?3. cleardiffer€ntiation A is especiallyappropriatebetweenthe Sround floor. Partsof them. the An importanlaspect ofstructuringthe facade to makea distinc(ion betwe€n horizontal the d thevenical elements.crealethe contrasts open-closed. of whichcan. 6 GR IGA R 6t .irn!r. This articulation ofvenicality would ema panicular effect of the facade. of The facade a whole is compos€d single as therns€lves with elements. crcat€ rhythm all the ofrnass€s. This transitional becomingmore lively if functionof exchange.window. wall is therefore the the placewherelhe exlerior lums into the int€rior zone has the and vice versa. whereby light and shadow. th€ A! -rkli8ht.or particular aspecls. -Let us. lanerbeingentities the an exprcssivecapabiliry of their own. would predominate.lf the heightsare slaggered.'/ ml Pnncipl.. shune15.

a deliberate zoningof rhefacade (illustrarion 2). Herc thc possibilities rangefrom a regular distribution cqualwindows an irregular of to and figurative arrangemcnt.wouldlike to again I hintat thcde. can be at least this panially prevenred carcfulcomposition. of course. which will be dealt with again in thc sectionon the threedimensional composition a building(illustraof rion 9). whereby the foregroundand lhe backgroundof (illustralion8). by i.or thcy can divide the facade b€ing by (illustrarions and6).auseof a disadvantageous or restrictive site building regulations. By the distribulion of windowsin drc facade.ELErIENTS OF ARCHITECTLTRX FACADES tr: This plateshows possibilities tundamental for the designof a facade. Specificpans (illustrated of the building can be cxpos€d ?). If.isive role geometrical proponions play for thc harmoniousapparanceof (hefacade(illustmtion I ) . I I I 4 t* l* aI {{ . First of all.no! of ro be separatedfrom the whole building body.e. almostsepamtc elemen|s 5 While windows are thc most important means of composition. panicular a cffect can b€ emphasised suspcnded (illustraor tion 4). Yet whenapplyingthis kind ofdcliberatc zoning. be. unsatisfactory an solution of $e facade will transpire. Windows can be combinedin snBll groups to form panicular figures. The Lhefacadcare determined superimposition diffe. Considerations 0riskind are. vJitlrsrnall sketches.entbuildingparrsis yet of anothcrsubjectof composition. facade the itselfcan b€ trcared as a sculpturalpan of $e building. harmoniousgcometrical pmponions havc to be paid atention to (illustrarion 3).

) .The lwo storeyhigh glazingfolds into the tefiaces. however. the lheme of facadefigures running lhrcu8h venically can be explainedwith examples. &e middle sectionaccornnodating sitlin8 the room andthe sidesof lhe bedroorns.The scaleof the building must be able to cope with such a monumentat openlng. llhsration l: The distriburion windowsrs of based 6eir axes. Illuslration 5: A figurc in ar|almostlite. of which is based the coordination differenr on of fonnalson one verticalaxis. this figure. Illustration2: Here rhe windowsincrease in sizewhich makes facade the appcarlighter and symbolises constructive its logic.allows for the zone of above to employ a new.al sense developsfrom this arrangement windo*s. shownhere. Illustration9: The same figure as the only opening elem€nt lhe facade. t i::. lllustration7: A projectedbasewith rcgular openings(instead pilastcrs). Thus a very active facadeprovides nevertleless sameamountofopening space the In eachstorey. Il is probablyofimponanc€at this point lo againcall one'sanendon the spalial rc effects ofinterior roomswhich canleadto such figuralionon the facade. wherethegroundfloor hasa separate meaning. Adolf t os appliedlhis themein his buildinBal rhe Michaelerplatz in Vie.Similarwindowproportions on are reducedin sizestorey.is not determined lhe axesof lhe by windows but by the grouping of windows togetlrer. giganticfigure in a wnich runs tbrough all storeys.oorns.l! T = alli il' ill{ ll By means ofthepans ofelevadons. reducing their formats. Here lhe emphasis Iieson rheenrance rheanicularion and ofthe anic by way of a regular s€ri€s of equally sized Illusuation 6: This somehowuneasyfigure has a mther casual effect composedof different window forma6. it makes the of buildingappear higher than it is in reality. Illustmtion An almost'rnathernatical' 3: order is achieved doublinE number by rhe ofwinoo$s in eachstorey andby.'t2-72:2 tl^ '&l 6-l .ELEI\IENTS OF ARCHITECTURI II: FACADES . a-t same ik time. Illusuation 4: Similar in appearance the to example shown in illustation l. organisalion ofwindows. and symbolises needfor more lighl penetration the into the lower storeysof buildingsin narrow sareeis. lllustrarionE: Onevenical elementaccumulates all necessary openings ofthe adjacen!. independent.na and the HouseofTrisan Tzarain Paris. This motive underlines the perspective lhe facade.This is a popular rnori\ e in 'big city architecNre.

Illustration Theext€riorflightsofstairsgive 5: The larSe the groundfloor a public character. windowslitsare 7: slender nlustration Elegant. Thusa serialrnotiv€becomes image.F -lTiL - {.. cannot thistyp€a skeleton one 4: Illustration The old themeof the 'piano is nobile. ljlustrationl: A regularwindow composition on based axes.Nith rts and surfaces windowpanitions lt gives different storeys of theimp.andform bound togeder a con$ructional by a fisure with the circular windowsof the attic an storiy.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTI. o[ the foundat'on these - '$=&-4 . call storey. arch. 6: a like almost a'stoa'. a studiowindowsofthe top floor indicate clear wilh the small compared difference valuation in slorey. the mainfloorofa hous€.RE II: FACADES no These examples longershowonly pansofthe are high buildings demonstrated facade. Slendcr in their total composilionand s€rve for each theme.. Illustration Here the sizesof the windows 3: in ared'mensioned a way that the wall surfaces to'Piers' and'beams" are largelyreduced vary in each because windowsizes the However. emphasised hereby a closedattic zone.From bottomto top increaslng top sizes windowsculminalein a large-scale of floor. the yel laste leadto a harmonious free can Excellent design. constitutes po\rerfulolder whichcan alsoconceal irregularand lively lhe interiorof the building. lo because requiresadherence quile prec$e it to proportions relating oPenings oneanother. nlustration Herewe havean i.ession relativelyindependent beingpiled up.but a 'secret'principleof order is also Undsof composition.F . windowsof the inlermediate hall IllustratioD A large-scale of columns. difficulry of distributinB*indows this freely.regularfacade 9i to according lhe interiororganisation strucNred the One should not undereslimale of spaces. facade. middlearea and a light skelelalattic storey. into 2: llustration Clearscparation dlreezones: a oPenings: the ground floor with large-scale wilh windowsregularlydistributed. Illustration 8: The zoninS of this facade resembles the'buildingblock' principle.

can bul reinforce whole rendenc)'of a buildin8. or One may also find fiat rhe significance the of individualstoreys diminishes ro\\ardsthe topIllustralion Herea plastic 3: figure. facade figuretaper\offioqards thebp. Illustration Thistacade 2t figureunfolds from thebotlomto the top like a lree-rop a goblet.The layering of$e facade ranges from $e opening thegate. do the we not perceive change meaning. of to unljl finally the surroundinS frameof rhebuildingrs feached. a Illustration A projeckd 5: arcade subdivided is by a loggiaon first floor level.Because the terraces of beingcut out from the anic srore\. although orderis reversed.lding $hereb]$e enrrance is clearlyemphasised.Sround of relationship. Oddl) enough. lllustration The galemotivein fronr of a 6: largelyglazedfacade clearl) demonstrales the problematic nature de figure. projects from th€bu. a in Probably il is thehierarchical slructure ofthe facade such as which suggests hierarch)of significance. lhe building has a battlemenr-like rermination.a po(ico. the Illustration Thebase clearl)distinguished l: is fromtherestof thebuilding ha\inga differenr by surface. 65 .A socially useful interspacecreated.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTTRE II: FACADtrS Compl€te composkions also shownin this are plate. is rhich almosr gi!esrheidea of $eatricalsraging. Illunrarion In conlllisr illunrar'on (he 4: ro 2. Theycannot applied be arbirrarily. thelightbackground.

G or.. I w- :rn car s4-4.\\ Ls .2t. S TE ]:. lr lr lr l .::LD ..i tI rlNi: ll- ?A 554l a H A U : ai i - l . .tdsre rl 15 FASSA'EN'E* .r ..1-t wN wTLNEIIr KOr45 0TTOWA6NER .V IE N T. NOTiILDORF ..r. 'oo rdrer NoFFM!\!.Li EEffEflNi _.! ' ir i :. NUrr[LAtRC5TR.4(rikr3 :a:{Llt Monlred STURTZER S C H U TE N H A U 5 K AISERBAD Z Sfudentworks on thc thcmc of Facades lilItItIllilrrI rl rlrl r I lrl r lr lr lr lr lr lr lr l. I .

-.fimmEa E] f iEiEN f f iEAEE ffis B c m ffiE ffig sctiEU WIENXIII n 1'200 I{AU5 mmE E IffiEl Em m GLEDERUNCl FENSTE RoRoNUN G FENSTE RTEI LTNG I'ATERIAL o^f. U|NARSKYl10F tllj&!+ r@!!!!4 @ 6ES0 I'rlrrl lrllil:::. . WOLFANG WCHGRAAER 5E O€LMA E R '^oo.-oo" xx..1 ffi" 67 .

EINGANOSLOSIJNC IlAUSES OIS HOtafisT ufEr{c^ssa 3 EltEl ALtoa LANO!nBA{X 0ro wacNEn t€82 ER N S I C fRE f.E R Student works on rhe rhem€of Enrrances ponak and HoRL Chnstei .

1830 69 .and awkwardly structuredby wall . sw€lring at lhe dirty and devaststed of becalled'thepublic'. for The places whether or nol hc could rcmemb€r the routefrom the ponal to d|c venical means of space. c 1900 Vcstibuleofa buildinS.. After this landing. Oneshouldask a visitor leavirg one of dles€ -exterior of self-reprcs€nlation the inhabitanb.cns inlo a propcr vestibulc with iililing bonom stcpsof a staircase and two doors. Threediffercnr areas Entrances and Portals (banking hall. Immediatcly. carly cighreenrh ccntury Entrancc hall of a bourgeois resid.Thusfte nlaincnranccof a largc hallsofthe modemcenlrcsofpowcr. find an oFn We sontewhere *herc nobodywould fud ir. As the actual door into the buildingis recesscd. rhe and whal else can be expected from and _ ol theentlancc thearchitEctonic sicnificancc sucha buih realiry? it is givendcrDooslratc role and dnction of thc olier badexamplesare lhe so-calledenrancc thebuilding. the ofiice publicbuildingwould norb€a tiny holelocated towcrsand insurancc palaces. onc giving acccssto the hous€. to They rDerely A notable exampleis $e solution for the enmnce suffi therequirements building cc of regularions.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE Il: FACADES underyround park-with ahe car entranceinlo the building. Hcrc a simplc cntrance has been tumcd into an cnjoyable meering place. :. acs as -Uppennosr entrancafot vchicles-into a counyaador a distributor(illustEtion l). by J. Thus.thc other lcading inlo thc courtyard. A spaciousporch o!.ntial buildinS.by pessing rubbish lhe On the way from thc slreq ino a buildios onc containers. Equally 8. lerestinS sequance spaces. vicnns. (illustration showsan inThc nexl cxample 5.iale for a modesthouseto bc approached a rcpres€nrarional by drive or partitions.A small flight of srairsnirmws Oe space.bt!-of Lieranda and srzircasc a buildins in Rcssctsass. Thc portal is emphasiscd a by fiamc of bricks. -"r--grFti$. enlrancc and main staircase)are lhusheld togcther. posilion entrancc.For this reasonthe following cxamples spaces: fact is muchtoo seldom this takeninlo havebeenchosenwhich clearly demonstrate thc -account.which is scparaleo fiom thc actual stairwell by wall projections. spatial of Ponals and entranceshave nowadaysbe€n mostlydegradcd residualspaces. one hurries to the safe apanment passes through diffcrcntgraduarions whit can door. mural pictures and large-scale flightsof s(airs. utc roulc terminatcs a sbircascwhich ascends in in threc flights.il would bc inapprop. thc The ponal rnarkslhe transitionfrom thc public entnncehall would bejust an arra without rreanto lhc privateintcrior. Thcrc wcre tincs whcn even ihe cntranceareasto blockl of council flals received Oe necessary dcsign anention. H€ would not even undeKtand the access forms an individualspace scricsof or queslion.This is clcarly visible in ihe example of a Vicnncse 'Cerneirdchaus'from the yca$ bct$c€n the wars (illustration4). v/hich thcn opcos into an irrcgular hexagon.Anderbank' Otlo Wagncr. ante-space an is crcaEd which is madcinto a Dorch. The by in pcrvcrsity thccombination is oflhe roundvestibule. orientation boards.vienoa. flattenedby the load of the ascendin8 storeys. qualities cntmnccarcas.which is non{irectional.A richly decomted nouveau an portal is pictured in illustration 2. Without all this crap.It is an clemenr ing. Kornhiiusct. a narrowpath only alongthe*all fulefi.ound floor.For thepedestrian. greencry. \ icnM. to the former 'L. roundvestibule of A preparcs visitor lor thc follo*iac archrtccthe tural event.

) The arcade a collcctive is urbanelement.S Arcades who owns thc arcadcs?Are they relaied to the strcet or thc building? Or do thcy cven belong to ihe pavement. the us€fulncss effichrnent of thc arcadefor urban and life has b€enproved for ceo$ries. Once the arcadeis built it becomes an individual urban clemcnt which is larg. arc hidden arcades ofren found bchindplastcrand brick walls. to gain additional spacc. but it is also an intcrmcdiatc space which can bc usad and irtcrpraled in rnany differenl ways.ly understoodto b€ indcFndent faom lhe building behind. But thc space of the arcade is also capable of assuming an indcpandent public role.craating its propcr spscc?The arcade is detarmined by lhis ambivalence of application. is neithcroutsidenor insidethe building. However.and ther€by beconEan arcaded building. . It can almo$ grow into the buildinSbchind.but alsoto gain thc pcrmission.(Whcn old buildings arc in the pmcessofbcing restor€d. It cln fulfill semi-publicfunctions by bcing projccled in frcnt of a building whercby the usc.de. The rcasonwhy therr arc so fcw arcadcs buih today is probably due to a lack of commot sensc whan it comes to thc dctcnnination of common uaban elements. is ncccssary only to gain it not thc agrecmentof the neighboun in lhe panicular streclaffccted. and even the irstruction. For ils construction. of the building authorities.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE [: FACADF. Finally lher€arc exampleswhcrc in thc colrsc of tina. arcades Mvc bc€n fillcd in or wallcd up in o.

:.charaoer. It is in to trc rccommcndcdlhc-relorclhat $c round floor be given a robust.csDecially tetr|s of its fittincs. its grourd floor zone.As it constitutes tratrsitionto the thc ground. The grcund floor hasa panicular impodance in urb6n life.m - L L .ELEME\"TSOf ARCHITECTURE FACADES trr Ground Floors Thc baseof a building.rcnt kinds of bascs.c showdiff. evcnclos€d. ffi L Ill|rllm]IftI! : = .whosctroutd floors do nol. and thercforc the matcrial uscd for this zona is usually morc durablc than that uscd for thc rcsi of thc building. Givcnthe nature business. it oft€n servcs for the accommodation shopsand olhcr commcrical of enterpriscs. or the pavenrent.havc a public function.Thcy rangc from ncutral backgrounds largc openings buildingswilh for to I rcjeltin8. for some reason. Because arca is most direcdy this pcrceived by people. of such a ground floor zon€is alsosubjectcd frcquent to chanre. neutralsrrucurriwhich can copc lrith 'paBsitical architccnrrc' suchas shopfittings. is withoul doubt the mostimportanturtan clenrent ofc facade.I :Il rrU. it is cxposcd to considcrablcstrain. The examples he.

Th.nt worts on the lhem€ of Bay'windows' Ealconies' l. thcscPansofa building werE often used for lhe sto€gc of food dutinS the winter. whenonly a few houscholds with rcfrigcralors. bay-window in Otto Wagn€r's 'schiitzenhaus' in Vienna (illusmtio.They form ! bufrer zoncto the cxterior.After the lsst wcrc equiPFd war.cd in lhc rccent period of cncrgy wastagc. Anothcr buildinS in VicDna revcals a bay elcrncnt which vcnically teachcs over the entire facadc crcating the motive of a srial building which is projectd ftom I largeone (illustration 2). To a grcater ext nt than the balcony. wcrc largely igno. In addilion to that. as loggias !o be s€en indepadcntspdtialunils. in which is of gtentadvantrge tennsof lhe crFrSy of consumption thc aprrtmcnt. a Pulpit abov. because they divide it into spsccsof differcnt value Ano0rcrimportantargumentin favour of baywindows and loggias strcsses lheir clirnatic function. and Loggias balconies and bay-windows.i1 = mnl :L_ --ffiI -hr I tm i3 | il 6 --m 4t u i a -7*' | I sNd. Similarto arcadcs. Expcriric swith havc winter gardens projcctcdconservatories and rcvealed intrrcsting rcsults which.r 1) is conceivcd as I little buildinS on its oll[. bay- windowsandloggiasalsorlpfts.__t!! -. Evcn the intcrmcdiate spsce belwccn doubL Slazed windows also served for thcse purposcs. rlthough kaown long ago. arc ganuina cdrrgcnE s of thc Theysre i'l any ces€ apanmcnt. r Two varianb ofbays atr sho*T in illustrations I and 2. thc river. FE SSL x:AUS 7725755 O SURESCH Balconies Bay-windows. Thc r*o balconicsshown in illustrations 3 and 4 are renarkable in ielms of 72 .nt a[ cnrich[Ent of $c intcrior spacewhich lies bchind. lhcs€ elemcntsallow for a bcttcr vicw of uaban h lifei they opanup 'ncw prospocls' thc ruc of scnsc thc woad.providing a scnscof steppingout of the building-out of thc faclde-althoughstill b€in8 in thc private rcaLn.'---l LI i_.88ias t' I I l -t-t_ 1 *-# ---T----.

l trcatrnentof the soffir. .a firrther differentiation within theseclcmcnrs. asrheanglcdrcoms do not seemto bc vcry suitablefor apartmenrs.rr !l^ 4 tantpatt of thc buildinS shownin illuslrarions is 3 and 4.t .rior. in addition. .. a brief glancear the ro street." ll I lill ! nt' wEri vl I . This *ould also clearly increasethe legibility of the differcnt storcys. Espcciallyat thc times whcn thc Frcnch windows arc openwould it sugSestan optical enlargementof the room b€hhd. |(0SILERGASS! 5 B ." lll lt tT . This clca y invites possi ble useas a room. I would recornrnend a concenttationover s€vcfal storcys. But.". of the cxt. The big 'hole' in the facadeof the 'G€meindehaus' (illustration 4) achievesa positive m€aning by way of curvedbalconies. Thc degrecto which thcs€kinds ofelernentsarr also appropriatefor the articulationofan impor- H D'. thc interior spaceis much more important..:'. thc loggia rathcr seding as an additional filte. balconiesand loggias arc also i very suieble for thc irnctional strucnrrcof the b facade.The loggia in iltustration I measurcs squaremetrcsand tlErcby alrnostrcsembles thc sizeof s propcr room.L ll ffi IHIH !.erruptedby a cyclinder which provides space for a terrace and. the archcs dominatingthc loggiasin illustration 2 constiNte a rcprcsenhtional frame. the especiallywhen viewedfrom a distance. thc comer is inl.* :iill il' llll ltil I tffi ffitr mEi .. exanplesof rcprcsentational nearlythree . .constauctiona.. Thc contour of a streetconrcr is talen up again by the first two storeys of a comer building (illustation 3). In contrastto lhat..:ffitr.@ H 1!!!4 'tl '. and morc likely only invite the inhabitants hai. . it goes without saying that thescelemcnts should not be distribucd on lhe surfacc at random. !o allow for \. 3 their painstaking.. However. monumenlalis€s comer of the building.. The loggiasshownin illustmtions and2 are I building projections.Il tl ill .. Bay-windows. whichhavethe effect of the buildingmassbeingmodulaled. Probablyhere.

Here the obj€cb of the past. Thercfore thc top floor zon€. The touom is thebascwhich hasto communicate irs pqrticrrlar rclationshipwirh the eanh.thc anic s|orcy.by which dcvicethe roof is withdmwn fmm people's eyes.ted from the weather by a comicc.It is oftenfull of comers. Bu! let us r€Nm to the rttic storcy. hisrory of the inhabitanls. The meanings which languagc attaches to roofs are v€ry instnrctive. belring in mind that ir is a building'srerminarion rowards the sky. On toDof these couldbe a smallbalustaade-as if thire was a tcrrsce behind-to hide the mysterious roof.But we shouldnot completely foBct this rcs€woir of secrcb and mentoncs. For instancc.bul rathe.children. undefincd spac€ *hich nowadays is mostlysacrificed a mdicalexploitation ofthe to buildingvolume.a play arcafo. For all this $ere is a simpleexplanation.a storeroom. the evidencc its meining showingthe of pride and dignity of the buildingirself. Wc should of not engagc ours€lves clich€s. ovcrtoppcd by the higher silhouenesor public buildhgs.ELEMEMS OF ARCHITECTURE FACADES II: Roof and Attic Storev Nowadays apparendy onc only corDes acrosstwo typasof roofs: the llat roof (the developrnent ard asses$De of whbh doesnot need!o be d€scribed herc in dctail). this artificial lhing becomes secondplaneb€tween a sky and canh. At imponant points the anic storcy is broken through by dornesand towers which simply havc the purposcof 'crowns' . is muchmor€ important for the dcsign and compositionof the facadethan thc actual rooi The facade is prota. in in terms of form and firnction.if we rcflect on the term 'roof landscape':it risesfrom the buildings like a skin and. and therefore that of the building itselfareprcserved. or by any othcrprojecting moulding. moslly dark and dusty. lhc oppositcof thc cxtcrior world. The nccessityof it bcing taEatad a spccial *ay. The crown is canicd by the building body. look at the in variety of possibilities and meanings that this imponant part of thc buildinS has. a residual space. Visuallyit is lhe tcrmination thefacade. resuks from thc simplefact dtat a building hasa top ard a bonom. of oftEn with 8n attic storcy inscned. In Seneral.i {orks on the themeol Roofsand Anics Srudenr 74 . At lhe lop cverybodyshouldknow dlat lhe building ends . roof involvcsan the ambiguous. and the norrnal pitchcd roof. th. which by now has bccome wide-sprcadas the embodiment lhe 'alpinestyle'. The altic is a frce placc. The roof is the caownof the building.

Vi€ona Bourgeois residential CaslelloSfoncsco in Milan L L 'Ankerhaui in Crab€n.c 1900 .Palladio.15. Ohmann.Basilicain Vicenza. F. vienna.rfrcr | 135 buildingat Drnn€bergplatz. by O'wagner.16--49 by Cathedril in Ferrara. 1895 Palm Hoos€in the Burgganen.vienna. A.

Peoplehavegiven meaningto cven fte rnost desolate prairie.aphical and typological situation of the surroundings. or is non-€xislent. Wilhin its€lf. and the most inaccessible mounlainare{s.-'t LIEJ] uFl Iqt 4 76 . and the form of a building.. Always in architecturc.r'' ffil r:i] { t.or eventhatthe laiter is a resultofthe former. all doors would be openedto 'hypenrophic ferociry'and the disruprionof buildings. every type provides enoughfteedomofd€sign.n. Bul as this irrevocable cquationof a direct analogyof functionand space.ed wildness irt architecture and its lack of conccption.}rt :. and to investigate. In contrast. argument put forward that conftnementto prccisebuilding iypes would restrictrheindividuality architectuml of desiSn. anemptwas madeto creale an an auxiliarytheory which endedin a diftused. An addidonal aid in thedesignof a building is drcarulysis of rh€ ropoS.and lhe tradition of the respective area.rypesof spaces' will be applied. form. In principle. The rnajority of functionsandground-plans are easilycapable being rclatedto simple types of if the oles and prccedurcsof function arc understood. certain . Requirements alonedo no! makea buildinS. the cxampleswhich follow show the possibililies individualdifferenriarion of of buildhgs with similar ground-plans.Every placehasirs sFcific conditionsand irs hislory. bg€nds and mythsdo exist. and I . To discover.il I ! . But it is exacLly excessive this individuality which leads to lhe nowadaysmuch lamenl.ils implicltions is a pre-conditionfor the cultuml undeNtanding of an architectural design. They are ulrimately relarively indeFndent from the initially required function which existedat the beginningof rhe plannng prccess. Experience showsthat with lhe clarity and simplicity of rhe ground-pla. lhe seemingly untouched desen. vaguedefinition andvindication architectu of re. No ground-plan or building can be lraced back direcdy to a function. tf so. one should always presume lhat every site hrs its own social a|ro historical rneaning. Thereforelet us asslmethal the designof a building develops frorn the interdependence of the requirements thc users-the functionsof and the typesof spaces which are providedby architecture.Ground-Plan and Building Form A Iong-standing error in cootemporaryarchitecnrre is the belief that therc is a logical connection between the ftrnction and the form of a buildinS. Seemingly infinitepossibilities tbe which lie in lhe relationship of function and form were not understood a positive in way. lhe is Qlite frequendy. the possibilities of differcnt usesincrcase.

every solution remains individualistic idl€ arbilrariness. asa kind ofsecondlayer but to lhe building. and fien the work on the form of the building can be sta ed. . and are are combined form a motive.oduct. in to Here. the first obstaclesto understanding occur.not or are as missing pieces.bccause is normallynot he experienced sparial in imaginarion. the user in genemlknows very well whereto draw the line between thes€ sDaces. decisionon the the building rype rhedesign thebuildinS and of ilself. whichmean motethanrnasrering the requiremenG a building'sfu$rc inhabitants of andits architectural possibilities. lhereis But a usetulrule of thumbwhich might help in this situation: thebeSinning a buildingprocess. a buildingis merelya trivial th. D€velopment and Composition Every ground-plan should be conceivedand developed relation space. contrast In to a muchch€rished ideologyof architectsadvocating the unlimitedtransitionof interior and exteriot.und€rstandable a and appropriate buildingtype. trecause involves it concrele experience understanding. change concepinto A in tion occurs wherebytheseiwo different spaces haveto be takeninlo considemtion. everyhonest will therefore architec! quickly consider simple. thispoint. This kidd of discipline excludes much unnecessary eslmngement.ow-away p.ELE\TENTS OF ARCHITECTL'RE lU: GROLTND-PL. and without the involvemen!of tne cuhural heritaSe. of ihe Openings broughtinto a rhythm. balconies loggias added. beginwith de deliberate superirnposition ofthe conditions $e_place#ith requiremenrs of rhe of the Inhabrtants. at of thearchitect should nev€rconfrrse overwhelm or theclient. Thechoiccof rhebuildingtype andthe building form is deFndent on lhese general specific conditiods.No placeis a virgin pieceof land.exterior spaces. he la}'estheseore-condilions If seriously. Simplegcometrical basicforms also provide possibilities sparial sufficient for surpris€. to such asterraces.the wholerangeof At possibilities how to createan appropriate of transilion from the privatesphereto the public realmcomes question. Thc mostimponant problemwhen designing a building is probablj the detcrmination of the line whichhasto bedrawobetween interiorand exteriorspace. and The an of architecture. very often from the clien!'s sidc. Withourtaking inloaccount complex the siluationofapanicular site. Onceits roughcontours lisible.$ AI\iD BUILDING FOR\I cerlaio places evoke associations for many people. are the rcquirernents refiningb€corne next step.

the The subdivisions and fragmeniations shown in lhe following plaes shouldfirs! of all be understood indcpendendy functionand use.but in termsof irs iDterior.symbolizes earth. owards thecentrc. Thc mostdecisive spacc question which whendcsigning adses square roomsis probably what to do wiih the centre.whelher!o fill ir in or to keepit void. whichlhebuilding subby is dividedinto two. in the trancewasoI minor imponance.One side of the squarcis accennrated a large opening and &us by constitutes main side. 2 l 1 5 6 7 8 9 78 .it allowsfor complete frecdom spatral of arrangcmant. how spatial effecls are chanSed.of the the building. where similarity ofdivisionis emde phasised a pier (illuslralions and2).\T SquareBuildings geometrics For thesNdyof simple .ation of in ?. The cube therefore. we To cofrmence sequence canconsider the the whichis orienuted all-round enclosure.ELEITIENTS OF ARCHITECTLIRE III: GROUND-PLANAND BUILDI\G FOR.elated the to conception ofresidential buildings.The interior its fragmentation a solid appears illust. wouldlike t ftrstofall io talkabout squarc. by and wayofinterior structure. thc facade. This is thecase thebuildingshown in in illustration despite livrng areas 3 the running through. Spatral I by focus is mainly dclerminedby the positionof the staircase. among Platonic the solids. lilustration concems 5 a directional division. The square rcmains way of its bordcring by lines. of They simplystateprincipalfonnal possibilities whichgiveriseto definable rulesofhow to solve the conflict of enclosure division. whichdeviccthecentre by ofthe building is clearlydet€rmined. zoncs representing valuatiolrs. wherebythe main space can have its own Seometryto emphasise particularposition. common pactice differentspatial A is to sub{ividelhebuildint intoa mainzone and two subsidiary zones(illustration6). therefore and siuated in a comer of the building. As a geometrical objecl. Thc square house has Roman its fircplace whereas enexactly lhecenlre. IUustialion demonstrates superrm4 the position circulation with a central ofa axis stalrcase.and. or several.thecubemosr clearly communicates notionof enclosure also lhc and the symbol of stability. following the The threeplateswill dealwith fiis basicform andwill showhow it allowsfor the manipulation lhe of within. Thus is only thesquare left recognisable whenviewed from the oulside. nlustrations and 9 showcxamples oneE of dircclional space.

by an atrium. Only pien rentainoflhc basicBeometrical form. 5 8 9 '79 .ornls.cnthcighr (illusrration l). or lhey can follow the linesof movcment within a building. r€sult! in cxciting spaces 4). whereby out rhe residual spaccs-wlA walls of differcnt thickness-disregard olerall shapeof the the enclosurc. As wih rll othersimplegeometrical forms. asks for dialectical contsasls.I{D BUTLDTNG FORM 2 l The centralized vcnical arraogementwirhin a cubc is dividcd into quarlerscgmenls. lhat is betweeo hard (illustsation andsoft.b€inga ncutralandnondirecrionalbasic form. So thc inncr spaces lhemsclvcscan be createdasSconElricalforms. hich is uscfulforlhc mediation ofinkrior andexterior. eachof whichsbns at a diffe. \ Thusa sccond sparirllayerdevclops. The disintcgration ofthe square. on Dlustration3 sho*s 6 cubebeirg cut throughyet havinSa ccntralhall. lakingplace slepby stcp. The shapeof the squarcis repcatcdin the gap betwecn stairsin thecenE"a! well. This method thc is alsoappliedin principlein the nexrexample (illustration wherethe ccntreis constituted 2). a fmmewhich surrounds lik€ changing inagcs. The conu'ast ber\r'een solid andamorphous basicforms.the squarccanalsobe superimpos€d otherf. The squaEin general.ELEMENTS OF ARCHTTECTTJR. Differcnt forms within a compositionappcar to b€ punched (illuttralion5).EIII: GROTJND. is shownin illuslEtions6 and 9.PLAN A.

. in on me rcality of a facadc Seorretrical can. A variation this type is shownin illusrraof tion 5. whcrebythesolid form Iyingb. .. developinto one with a differ€nteffecr. The sketchesir| illustrations8 and 9 are anemptsat strucuring a square facade.hindbecomes visible(illusrralions anq 3 4). of building forms is achievedby rhe surrounding cubebeingfrrgrnen@d.'l|-rl'fl .As already mentioned thc section facades.r i . . k Corbusieralso concemed hims€lfwith m€ square. A central cylinder serves lhe matn as space at the sametime asa distribulor.tL 2 l ffi 6 ff i 9 L . or are reducedto bay-like projectionsfrom a solid cor€ (illustration Theco+xistence two differcnr 2).Massivecomer towersdefine a U:nspat€ntinterior space (illustration l). 1 ' I "W 1 E .llluslmtion 6 showsa snrdiobuildine whichreveals poeticstructure. nextexarn: a The ple (illustration 7) suggests centEl core from a whichvery differentspadal divisionsare possible withoutdestroyirgthc overall form of tne building. ryq WU "S . giving and access llte comcr towers eachof which have to differenrspatialgeometries. by way of v6ual manipulations.PLAN OF trI: AtiD BUILDI\G FOR\r A sp€cialform ofthe squarcis consdnrted the by loosening its sides of andby theaccenn8don of its four comers. ELEMENTS ARCHITECTLJRE GROUND.

A. unless dis direction of movement is terminated by sub.That means that here ti e possi bi l i ti esof del i qn are l i mi ted.ion of le rectangle lherEforehascenain effects on ihe division of rhe ground-plan. autorralically divided into two halves (illustrations 4 to 6). These can be tunher sub-di vi ded(i l l ustrati on Wi th a c en5). Thus a slaircasein the centre makes possible the division ofthe whole into two spaces of equal value (illustration 4). O. If the l ong si de\ havea cenl re. By so doing. thi s ki nd of di vi si on i s even more di sti nc t.\iAu\D BUILDI\c FORII Rectangular Buildings .l ffim 5 7 8 9 . Also. rhe bui l di ng i .rr l di ng i s to si ruatethe { tai rbui case i n paral l el w i th a l ong si de (i l l usrrati ons t lo 3). divisions and-above all by the position ofthe Anolher aspect of recrangular ground-plans affects the design of the building irself. rral hrl l runni ng through veni cal l y (i l l ustrati on 6). The different valuatioo Siven to the facades on rhe long and the short sides can hardly be changed by means ofcomposition. I Fre= .e po\ibiliry olthitypological strucrurrng ot a rectangul . a longitudinal zone is created which separates main and subsidiaryspacesfrom each other.{1 RectanSularground-plansare clearly directionar: the exlen.ELEIIIE\TS OF ARCHITECTURE III: GROTND-PL. the building has a clear direclion of movemen! which influences thc way ir is us€d.

the rectangularsolid can also be understoodas a container which accommodales a free form (illustration9). rnni ll S <ooo r" s { 5 W T-shapedGround-Plans of This type offers manifoldpossibilities interpretation.r r f. whereas thesecond in examplc (illustration t) the constructional possibilitiesof solid ad skeletonare deliberately oppos€d. One realisesthat it is the projecting part of the which constitutcs rcal challcnge buildiDg lhe for the designof thb buildhg typei is it a triumphant portico projecting fiom the facade. In illustrationI wc havean interiorstructure which is consriotcdby piers andpilasters..-n . Finally.r.ELEMENTS ARCHITECTURI[I: GROUNDPL. The examples illustrations and4 sho\sthe in 2 of fi-agnEntation rcchngllar solidsby way of projected loggias.It can be a centralised building with Ihree ext€nsions. .ffl F . or even the codbination of four centralised buildingsfoming a T-shape.a longirudinal building with an accenruated centre. Otherwise the intended meaning can easily tum into its opposite. to A lively combinationof solid and skeleton building pans eosucs they are superimposed if (illustration The rcsllr of this methodis that 6). well-considercd..i?*-S 1 N 9 8l . to the two rernaininScomer towers forming prominent terminations the building. $4 .$ AND BUILDINGFORM OF The exarnples this plate shovr' of superimposilions of solid and skclebl building parts. or are the two side lrings mercly cxtcnsions of a centralised building?Il is clear that the panicularbuilding partshaveto bc treated vcry carcfullyaccording to their valuation. . Colunns arc never only constructional eleftents. In illustrations aod8 thesetwo principles of 7 defining a space simply co-€xist. rRt{<<ark lt .. This sub{ivision almostdirecdy prcvokesa certain valuationand useof the spaces creat€d:main add subsidiaryspaces becomeobvious. is it simply on an axtension the back. The first (illustration showsa solidpanjuxtaexample 7) posed with a hall ofpiers. .E. .In illustiation5 the middlepan of a building is loos€ned becomea centralhall.' n r. as they always createan indcp€nden!spatial layer or an additional ordcring factor to the structure of a Thereforethc rhyrhm of pieN has to be space. two differen! rectangular struc$rcs seemto be inteSraled with one another.

the thc walls the T-shape. This kind ofdivision is alsoapplied (illustrations and6). h*4 . we see in illustration 9 one building part being almost as sepamted. In conrrast 6at. from it by way of transparcnt The building in illusrration4 is divided in of transverse dircction duc to thc arranSement the subsidiary rooms. rutn so.ELEITENTS OF ARCHITECTT-R. to all The lonSsideacconunodates subsidiaryroorns and lhe entrance. wherebythe ccntraldark onc funclions to as the elenreniof access the building. the exte. Thc next of exarnple(illustration2) consists four individual solids. the whole complex is supplemenled become rectangle plan. on io a This showsthat througharchilecNral treatment to of residtlal spaces is possible gaincompletc it to buitding forms. B€cause thb entmncc especially pan.e.1 0 1 8 83 . loggiasdetermine form of the square.The centnl pan is clearly the main space. it receives by wayoflhe rower-likc building a cent. the longitudinalPrincipalpan is of emphasised.E III: GROUNDPLAI\ AND BUILDING FORM '_1 L & f2 3 The projecring pan of the building in illustration I s€erns rcsult ftom a needfor addidonalspace. Ii is also the centralpan ir illustration3 which givesaccess to lhe building-The sidewingsaredistinguished joinls.ior spaceis filled If with pergolas(illustration 8).gce llle nere ts even more anrculate. 5 in rhefollowingexamnbs HOWeVet. The simple methodof superimposing Tahe with a square polentially allowsoneto get shape rid of the dark zonesconstituted (he inner by comers(illustration The exteriorpiersofthe 7). and the staircasc pushesthe 'middle' part out towardsthe front.

give the space rhe middle its direction. The core is enlircly dissolved a transparent by staircas€ towea. A ransvcrse main space is emphasiscd thedissolurion by ofrhe sidewings (illustration2). The dircclion of the main sDace in of fie buitdingshownin illuslmtion4 is clearly visible. The cnclosedrectrangle have a projected can pcrgola. I whichcanalsob€designed monumental as lnain spaces.and by isolation from the o(her thrce towers. The massivecomers of the lonSitudinal partsof a building (illusrrarion 3).ojecting from the building.a row of picrs createsa hlter in front ofa bwer which is a kind ofannexe (illustration l). This ryp€ hasbeenbuilt as a four room maisonene apartnent in my ploject for Riaerstrasse Berlin.ELENIENTS OF ARCHITECTURX III: GROUND-PLAIi . A buildingwith an oppositedevelopment is shown in illustration7.This in is brokcn by a light loggia p. projecdonsrecedeto becomcmerely |he cmohasised entrances.q : i F :r !c 5 o E 9 84 .{\D BUILDING FORM T-shapedGround-Plans Within lhe main space. ln bo|hexamples T-shape only consti$ted the is by piers. illustrations and6 we seethesolid In 5 partsof two buildings beingshrunkinto a corc. I 2 l ! r '. If fte T-shape superimposed a circular is wirh or semi{ircular cylinder (illustrarions and9).

icaltypes d€velop€d ftom a square. the transverse ruin spaccis clcarly dcfin.oof tectedfree space which is c. ffi wrifr E i'}-==. whereasthe oFn sides are relievedby piers.F l! " li Li L-i 9 a) . an caseis locatedin thejof. thc two lrings bcing lcft to accommodale subsidiaryrooms. Illusration 5 represents an assernblage independenl of building elements. The t\r'o wings are buih as verandas. by Thc nextexample showsan L-form beingsuperimpos€d with the figure a cylind€r. nlustrationI shows elamplewherethestair. whichtrccomcs dominatinS of the building.d.eatcdb€tween them. wherethc living areais sioatedin lhe shoner wing and the bedrooms arc joined together thelongerone. Illustration shows 7 this classic rype. A tmnsparent tower accommodating siaircase the is flaoked rwo solidtowers. The ccntre is dominatedby a staircase. I 3 4 6 U-Types Thcse building fonnr still incvitablyhavc a rnasterlycharacter. In the 2 nexlexample edge walls the consists ofmassive (iUustration 4). The opposite cffect is Sained if a pergola constitutes long sideof a building(illustrathe tion E). The superimposition io of givesriseto ftc erterior L-form andthesquare space beingfixed (illustrarions and 3). the space the wings in havingloggias from. ll5 retacted courtyardis closcdby a pcrgola. L L 1ffi. By this.The distinct symlnery wilh its defincd centre is so dominantthat a mitigalion by way of fragmentadon similar technior qucsis difficuhto achiev€. Theydiffer from thc functionalist L-type.ANDDUILDINGFOR\I trI: ELEMENTS ARCHITECTURE GROIhiI>PLAN OF L-Types ground-plans esperiallysuitablcfor L-shaped are arrangements buildings bccauseof the p. quanerofwhichhas a beenleft void.and thc side wings accdmmodate rwo nuin spaccs.The disadvantage in of L-shaped building ryFs liesin lhe possibility of darkcomers $e junction. is advisable use at It to lhis space subsidiary for roomsor shircases. The examples shownhcrearc geomet. In ilhlslra&e tion 9 thelongsideof thebuildingis terminated by a buffer zonewitb subsidiary spaces.

The first examplc shows (illustration ) thatthecomerhas alsobeendealt I TerraSni with in modem archit€cture.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURT III: GROUND-PLAII AND BUILDING FORM Building Corners The comer of a building is one of the most with the imponantzones is rnainlyconcemad and nEdiationof t'. t Il ri lkl:l 86 . and In comrastto this. During thepastdecades lhis subjectin architecorc has been largcly negl€ct€d. Nowadays. Guisepp€ achieved constructivist Golosov andtheRussian by the simiiar results emphasising comer of a solid buildingby way of a glasscylindet.. In illustralion3 lhe building (illusrration psychological shearing off tha corncr is counteracted way of an insenedpyramid. deriatcflalisedroundcolumn. a resuh simplylininS as of part of up buildings. Thc tuming of the emphasised a projecting by corncris cspccially frame which markstheactual terminationof lhe 2). Thc rounded.A.This carics thearchitrave ofthe top storeylike a huge.retracted $^\ trl n' h'ii .:<A. the following sketches for should demonstmte possibililies special some comer lreatment.a by a s€nsitive perhaps Frowerful protection but too comer of the comer. comeras a particular rhe the building has not receivcdthe nccessary acknowledgement treatnent.1-: T.r'ofacadcs...

The small monumenr $ith iG outward edges lakes thealignment up ofthe rwoadjacent presenhd illusrration facades. Thc problemof connecting towerwith lhe the steel facades solvedby lhc employment is of Ioggias. circleandthe the umingofacomer are. in otherwords. Illustrations and7 alsopresenl 6 comer towerswhich in termsof lheir proponions are to be regarded classical as solulions.The tower to allowsfor a proDer lermiradonof fie sidefacades and creates additionlh an accentuation. The emptying ofa comeror. of without beingbroken. in formalterms. In illusrration the comer is 5 formedasa buildingin its own right-a tower. logicalmeans ofprolecting a comer. example The in 9 is a useful solutionborh in conslruclional and functional terms: the steppedform and the dissolutioninto perSolas allos for a positi!e r€sponse the otherwise to larSedark zoneof a comer. Parls and elements the facade.can thereby 'wound be round' from one facade the next. By opening comer rowards top the the suchDaoblems removcdare .ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE III: GROU{D"PLAN AI\D BUILDING FORI1 show[ in illustration4 is emphasised a by similarly shaped row of colurns crearinga fiher and reducinglhe dark zoneofun associated with a deep comer. a comer beingopened is shownin illustraup tion 8. Thecurve.

terminated lhe bevcllcdcomarsabovc. Thrcc the elenEnts. which is slighdyconcavc tcnacedtowatds and thc !op.All this by prepar€s finally for thecomerto bc crowncd Illustlalion 2: A ground-plan levcl pavilion in front of a building comcr completesthe alignmen! of tha two facadcswhich approacheach otherat an acutaan8le. of Comcr BuildinSs @@@ 3 Illustralion l: A rnasterlylchieve|trcnt in lerms of the most subtlc and yet accentuatcd developmenl of a comcr is rcaliscdin Otto Wagncr'sPost OIfice SavingsBank in Vicnna. comcr ilself are held togelherby a projccrhe of ting comice. two vcrtrcalpojlsoflhc 'frarne' and th. by Tle setback also accommodltes a venical window axis and signalsthe developrFnt of a diagonal prospect from lhe building. The surfacesof thc last vertical window axis of tha sida facadcs are drawn forward and sland oul almost like a frame.Student worts on th€ thcm. Thc serbacks thc storcyscnd of al lop floor levcl which is cmphasisedby a wtdow si&atedin thevenicalaxiJ. reccdes.The actlal comer facadc.the consoles which constihrte point of transitionof the different parts.aDdis cro*n88 .

l' I t i o ']t.but the Denetation of the comcr.J]!d | ' i.lled comcr !o widcn towardsfic rop wherEby a planc is created.j:i tr" .which hclp cvincethc comcr as trcinga complete form.this comer is separatrd from thc sidc facades by way of ecess€d com€rs. Illustration 3t This building shows &e -lransparcncy of mediadonof diffcrcnt building levels. Illustration 4: This cxampleshowsthe penetration of a comer. The logSia! finally allow dle bcv. . The srnall tralconiesat the comcr do not representthc prolongationof the facadc. by way of a eall band tlove. The entaaiccarca rcrches symmetrically ight roundthecomer and.r c' l. One side penetntesthe othcr and davclop6inlo 8n cxprcssivcgatewaystructurc. is connectadwith the side facades. tn addition.F\ G rN'*"-' 3 -ed by tvo statues. This is flankcd by two flagstaffs.ffix IV4F6A^S BLEII6RAAER .The plasterjoints at the cnd of thc sidc tacadesrDark their termination.

It also rcmovesthe tightnessofan officc complcx aid ald allowsfor additionrl venti..Courtyards semiare public spac6 which are for the us€ of thc communityconcemed. wlat will be dealt witb in this context are e.F 1 /V A L T E P E X MUILE R L SNdentworks on lh€ thcmeof lnGrior Counyards \ r&.(amplesof counyards as thcy are foundin cities. Especially trcausc of cxcessive lraffic.however. cdsting and new intcrior courtyards. the sucets and publiclife areofienrcstricted cities. 90 .is cspeciallyuscful in public buildings as a dcvice oforicntrtion. therefore in lhe courtyardhasthusgaincda new significance. Wc should not concem ours€lveshcre *ith originel historicsl and rural forms of lhis tyF. but thc outcomcof a certainkind of building. madesenscof. a hall so to spcak. city (illustrations I lnd 3).This is a developmeot is only beginningbut which will rcsult in greater suppon for.Thcy canalsotrc pan of rn informal routc nctwork of passagesand to which give access variousparts thoroughfares of th. i -n(' \ -t E'-l Fryffil Etv tel Interior Courtyards Intcrior counyardsarc not indeFndent elements. Thc rcquired changes to traditional be buildingtyp€smust. As a rcsidentialcourtyard (illustration4). A largeroofed courtyard. and considcrationof./ l f ' {. the wirhin sn urban developmcnt courtyard is a conlrDn spaceuscd by thc in' habitantsof thc adjacetl buildings.lalion illumina_ tion (illustration 2). Today one should strive to locate apanments oricntaLd towardsa quict courtyard la$cr than which towardsthe street. so thc 'atdum' and other similar types of counyard buildingswill not be at issue.

rchenfeldersrrarse and Neubaugassein vienna. by A. visu berween Lf.na by Th. wielemanns.1870-75 Counyard in lhe Justizpalanir vienna.slrass€. lE75-81 . ninctecnth cenluR Palais Epstcinin vi!f.vienna Inleriorcountaid bctween Wollzeileand Biicte. vot Hansen.

of Anothe. Ifsimply rude steps emerge hilly terrainthen in we know that this path is often used by people. Beyondlhis. bccomepointsofcncounter. and lhat it facilitates walking. think i! is not necessary I lo enlarSe ulron the fact thal thesecharacteristics havelargely b€enlost. Onecan then of slowlyascend However.oa simply points from which beautiftll viewscanbc enjoyed.ahhough . SlaLcaseswhich run parallel to one another (illustration Siveeverylevelan indcpenoem.From thebeginning. Onecould aLnosr call thisanexample of'frcedomofuse'. This arrangement resemblcs Ernces. also lcadsaway from i! and lhereforc cngendem moments contemplation. meetandseparate again: they can timc theia walking slrccd cither to cncounterothersor !o avoid them. and havebeensubstituted by thcsimplistic ideaofthe 'shortest connection between two points'. If our sens€ spatiality of wasstill intact. meeting places. and cotrF rnnni. They alsoact asmarkeG in naful"al and urban environments.We cantbink for exanple of a larSe Baroqleoutside stairwhich.\D BUILDING FORM OutsideStaircases As lhe termalready explains.They are hlman strucoresof landscape. Stairs which scpamte and come together again luve a special character because the way they are us€d by the public of (illustration Peoplc 7). staircasc often tums st right anglesinto two. 5) yet equal significancc.elatedto an axis.the us€rb€conEs awarethat the stair is going to end at a certain point. What we nowadays cxperience instead is somebodyrushing up the stairs and getting confusedbecause. outsidestaircases crcatetheir also own space. to a slaircasc projecEdfiDm its upwardt€rmination is (illustrations and 3) determines different 2 the possiblcrclationshipsbetweenthe two levels. lllustratioo I showsa simple straightstaircas€ cu! into theupp€rlevelofa building.we would realise the difference. axatrple is a footpathin the coun!ryside. Illustration 8 shows int€rcsting an thoughspecial form. Illustradon6 showsan almost semi<ircular staircase running up in three lights suggestinga slopc. outside sBircases form part of the exterior space. one comes underthe influence of the upperlevel because the slair.Alr€dy ar the boBomlevel.aedteir Fblic use. A slair rises like a spiml and a! the same time it narrows. The crample presented illustration9 in again showsa cut-in staircase which is now cu cd and runs parallelto the upFErlevet. .the degree which it.ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE III: GROIIIiD-PLAN A. is shownin illustration one as 4.

aarangemcnl shownin illustration 6. circular and thc intermediatelanding clearly manifestsa mcaningfulccntrc.Thdollowing staircase is lusrrattn 5. Apan from the varietyof possible lincsof movcmcnt conncction. (illustrarion 9). Only after havingmovcdon to thebosomstcphasonc rcally left the area coocemed. yct in anothcr way sophisticated. Onehalfof rheslair is 'hcaped up'. This cffect of ofan 'extErior'and'interior' to a staircase cven is more explicii in thc simple. Herc the arE upFr level clerrly hrs the prominent me3rling. A bold variation of opposite is staircas€s sho*n in illustration4. Herc thecurved formofthe stairgivcstheimpression that theuppcrlevelhasa graaLr significarcethan in the examplebefore. As a 'functioral *inding' h is a pre-rulner---orrnaybe rcsult---of a the Towcr of Babel. Eramplcsof rcprcsentational front slaircascs prescntrdin illustration7. The semi-circular statcasc sho\. The division into main levels and inlararcdirte (i! landings striking.inrermedilc landing. A rarc erample for an €xterior slair is a spital staircase(illusu"ationt). From half way up ooe has al. Inilially one movesaway from it to comcback to it againon arcther level.eady enrcredthe sphere lhc uppcr lcvcl.evenmore rcminiscent in the lastcxampl. The nextexample considcrs staicasawhich is again 6 cut inlo thc ground (illusiration 3). theother half'cut iD'. alsJ poSsscs an.nin illustralion 2 cmergesfrom a garticular lcvel to lead up to the next one. 93 .FOR}I trI: ELEMENTS ARCHITECTI.RE GROUN}PLANAND BTJILDING OF IllusEationI rcprcsents opposite thc cffcct ofthat gainedin illustration9 on thc former plata.

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE trI: GROTJNIIPLAN AND BTJILDING FORM

Prospect
Wirh the issueof the prospect, altboughir is closely related toarchitccturc, leave suowe lhe jefl 'building' asan independent subi:ct ofdesign and s€l out to thint rbout public spacc. It has alr.ady bccnhint€dat that lhe obligalionofevery building is ro be integratedinro its spccific urbantissuc.A spctialproblemin this contextis presented the 'prospecf. by kl us lake the cornmoncaselhat a sfeet oa a squarcis io be lerminatedby a building-our building. Thistermination not tb be treated is as anaccidcnt;tbc facade lhe buildinSconc€m€d of hasro reacrto this specific situation. Whilc thc strcctas suchis a symbolof innniry, its l,ermination communicstes fact that a dcstinationhas the bcanreachad. This destination, facade our thc of building,mustrcspond thisevent,mustcatch to thc eyc: only then will lhe building makesense andbe intagrated the urbancontext.If we inlo are committcd to our responsibility for urban we space, haveto respcct laws.Thatwehave its regardto thc affcct of prospectshas nolhing to do with a delibcratemonumcntalization of buildings,but with renderingrcsp.ctto $c llrtan texNre. A prospectat the end of a stleet makes the eye rcsl, givcs il a larSet, and lhcrcby symbolically shofiensthc way to the desdnation. By taking into considcration thc cffect our hcadehason adjacent streetali8nnents,we conF municatcour conccm for thc oles of thc placc wherewebuild. We shoulddot rt|akcpoople $ink abolt our buildingin rhesense a spacc that ship has landcdin their town by accident.What we should carcaboutis givinSevidence we arc that goingtocontinuetobuild moreforthis specific, for our. olace.

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Towersand Monuments
Buildint is always about thc occupationof a place.Architectureis aboutsettingnark. In the free cou rysidc we comc across a tower. It dirlc6 our *ay. Lighthouses, chirnneys, sleeples, ciry gates, defencc towe$ e!c. belongto thearcheqpa.l symbols uprighEEss. of Towers symtJolize the eristence hurnanachievern€nt, lriumph of thc over eanhly Inatlers.Without doubtcvery tower hasa monumcnlal charact€r it risesabove as the anvionment.Havingsaidthat I can seeb€fore

KECK HERBERT

91

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUR.EUl GROUNDPLAN AND BUILDING FORI\I

5

my inncr eye cenain modemarchitectsshaking lfone a wamingfingerat me. llonumenlality? daresto talk aboutthis lasttabooof theModeme, for oneis tooeasilyaccus€d ofhavinga lonSing a totalitarian state ofaffairs. Whata stlpid and shon-sighted fallacy!A monument of course is first and forcmosla sign of power. Only the mighty pot€ntatecould afford to rise abovehis manifestations. subjecls way of architectlaal by will 8ut he is mortal. whereas monument his outlasthim and will b€ celebrated funrre by generations a cuhrrEllestirnony. Witholt thes€ as 'signsof power' tlerc would be no suchthing as architecore:we would dwell in a desolale steppe. Monumenis alwaysVere. and still are. cult obiecb \r hich havcnF4ing andvaluefor a community. Because their symbolism, of theyexpress a commonwill or confession, Monurncnls not do ne€d b€towers high-rise to or buildings. srnal A wayside shrineat theforkingofa routcsuffices asasignof humancxislence, let ustry agait Bul andfind out whattheterm 'monunEntality'really pieceofarchmeans. cenair y impliesa lasdng It itecutre;it alsoconveys beauty destnrction. the of On the l6rh of May lt7l, the Vend6me Column with the statue of Napolcon I was This destroyed fiShters by ofthe ParisCommune. act of overthro'*-in8po\rcr is documentedtn photographs. numcrous Many groupsof fiShters pose ill front of the dcstloycd monument.w]at do \re leam from such an cx@ple, to which many otherscould be addcd?We leam lhal lhe i5 desructionofa monurrFnt a symbol;a symbol preserve We, however, for thewill ofa socicty. and carc for the monumcnts of thc past. sometimesit appcarsthat thc rcscuadstatucof q pastsovcrcign for comp€nsarcs thadestluclion While our of entirehistoricalurbanquartcrs. of societydestmysvalt,abl€testimonies the past, it clings !o nice linlc monumcnts is unablc but to crc{e ncw on€s.Historical worshipof heroes with is ccrtainlynot in accordancc our undc$iandinSofdemocracy. is rherenorhing we But left canbelieve Arc wc no lonScr thcposidon in? in to sct signs which, olthough not uscful, can Democracyobviousd@urlEntcommon s€ns€? ly does not stand in need of crectinS monumcnts-but it lcgitimiscs itsclf by tesdmonicsof monarchicandautocraticpowcr. From (hc rnonuments which havcnot b€€nbuilt, we canlcamabour self.valuation societhc ofa ty and *hat position archirccturehas in il. ,,1 societt A'hichdoet iot beli.v. in its sunirol i5 of incapable of the tynrbolic reprcsentation its aim, and thereforc incapabh of btiAinS.

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ROBKRIER

ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION
R O BK R I E R

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Rob Krier is a unique voice in toddy's archil.ctural discourse illustrations. Krier also drarvson siudenr{orks.Lnd pholographic through his commitmentto developinga relevxntand pragmaric exrmplesto support his argument, manv of which rlere commis_ lheory of architecture basedon his own experience and observa_ sioned especiallyfor this book. The culminalion of years of tions of architectural practice, and opposed to lhe eas\.. abstracl terchingand practical experience one of Europe.sbestknown by theorising so common in contemporar! architecturalwritins. architecturaflheorists , Arc.hitettural Conposifio, is without doubt Together wilh his brorher Leon. he hts perfeired a form oi a major achievement, deslined to become a standard work of p.esentation which the potencyof his thinkingfinds its perfect referencefor both in studentsand practising archirects. counterpoinlin detaileddrawings and sketches !rhich arguerhis Rob Krier is an architect.educatorand influentialtheoriston visually throughthe power of example.Following the success of architecture and urbanism. He was born in Luxembourg and his widefy acclaimed Urban Spare, a work which looked at lhe sub\equentl]emigratedto Au.rria $hefe he has lired ever.since. problemsof our citiesfrom an historical. theoretical and Dractical Krier hasproduced urbanschemes forcitiesasdiverse Stutrsart. as sli|ndpoinr.Krier now applies his ptrticular. highl) jnfluenrirl V i e n n a a n d B e r l i n . H i s b u i l r *o r k . i n c l u d e e r t e n s i v e sJci a l mode of didactic criticism to contemporary architecture in a houJingschemes Berlin and more recentlyprojectsin Amiens in continuingsearch fundamental for architectural truths. and Vienna-Krier's sculpturalwork includessix bronzesfor the Architectural Composiaio,is both a theoreticalandvisual analvsis ponsideof Barcelona l986). ( five bronzes a castlein Luxem_ for clearly illustraling lhe crealive processwhich inform. Krier.s bourg(1987). a bronzeof the philosopher Reuchlinfor pforzheim vision and praxis. Separate chapters derail the i.undamentalsof in Germany (1987), and a pair of figures for rhe Camillo Sirre architectural composition, beginning with funcljon, construction Piazza in Vienna (1988) of uhich he is also the architect.His and architectural form; the elements of architecture, including pre\ iousbooksincludeUrba Spa(e,Academy EditionsI979,and typologies for plans, facades and interior spaces. proportional On At chitecuu.e, A,cademy Edirions( l9g:). He hasbeenprofessor studiesof Gothic cathedrals, human body,planrs, the animalsand at Ihe Technicrl Unjver\ily o[ Viennasince 1975. sculpture, demonstrating their rclianceon lhe GoldenSecrion; and a seriesof critical and discursive essays the plight of architec_ 25AeJqnn,3JJ paees on i,tdtding thrc?doilbte itt .tt!efottts cotour. oter 500 ture and architects practising today.In addirionto his own didactic IS R\ 08:070803x H ,l t,thdt^ tjg.S 0 i

ACADEMY EDITIONS
42 Leinster Gardens. LondonW2 3AN

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