Design Solutions Guide

Table of Contents
Topic Part/Page

Welcome! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–2 BASF Product Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–2 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 Design Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 CAD/CAE Capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . II Parting Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–2 Draft Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Fillets and Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Bosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–4 Ribs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–4 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Gating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Vents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–6 Potential Knit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–6 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–2 Stress-Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–2 Normal Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–3 Shear Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–3 Torsional Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–4 Bending Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–5 Section Properties of Various Cross-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Explanation of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Beam Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Formulas for Common Beams in Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–7 Formulas for Torsional Deformation and Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–8 I, T and L Sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–9 Formulas for Flat Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–10 Flat Plate Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–10 Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–11 Thermal Expansion and Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–12 Impact Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–13 Stress Concentrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–14 Rib Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–15 Design for Equivalent Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–18

Topic

Part/Page

Design Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV Cruise Control Bracket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV–2 Cover Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV–4 Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V Snap-Fit Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–2 Snap-Fit Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–2 Cantilever vs. Cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–2 Tapered Cantilever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–2 Short Cantilever Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–3 New Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–4 Snap-Fit Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–4 Press-Fit Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–5 Adhesive Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–6 Bolts, Nuts, and Machine Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–8 Molded-in Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–9 Self-Tapping Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–10 Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–11 Ultrasonic Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–12 Shear Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–12 Energy Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–13 Vibration Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–14 Other Assembly Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–15 Thermoplastic Staking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–15 Spin Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–15 Electromagnetic Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V–16 Plastic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI Classification of Plastic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–2 Molecular Weight Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–4 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–5 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–5 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–5 Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI–6 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII The Mechanical Properties of Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–2 Short-Term Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–2 Notches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–2 Rate of Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–2 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–4 Thermal Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–4 Moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–5 Dimensional Considerations (Moisture Absorption) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–6

. . . . .A1–2 Ductility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IX–3 Surface Treatment . . . . . . . .A1–3 Warpage . . . . . .IX–2 Machining .IX–2 Printing/Hot Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IX -3 Appendix I: Physical Properties and Terminology . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1 Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Topic Part/Page Effects of Moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–8 Ultraviolet (UV) Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–3 Appendix II: ISO and ASTM Test Methods . .IX Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VIII–2 Short Shot Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A2 A2–2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–3 Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–8 Long-Term Properties–Creep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B1 B1–2 . .A1–3 Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VIII–3 Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–3 Water Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Brittleness . . . . . . . . .VII–8 Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IX–2 Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–3 Specific Gravity (Relative Density) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–6 Accelerated Moisture Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–6 Dimensional Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VIII Hollow Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–3 Notch Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VIII–3 Full Shot Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–9 Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . .VII–11 Design Considerations for Gas Assist Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Isotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Relaxation and Service Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Friction and Wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–7 Additives (Color) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII–6 Process Induced Property Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Lubricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1–2 Mold Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part I Welcome! Overview . . . . . I–2 BASF Product Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 CAD/CAE Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–2 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 Design Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I–3 Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recycling Recycling is part of an all-important global drive toward reducing contamination. Cadmium-free colors are available. it results in reduced product lifestyle costs. Your design success is our primary concern. Manuals on specific applications will expand upon this general guide and address those precise topics. It is our goal to provide all our customers with the optimum level of technical and design support during their product development process. There are some design implications which should be considered when using recycled products: • One should use the same material in assembly applications where parts are permanently affixed to one another. we have prepared this guide to give you a general product design overview with a focus on plastic part design. Mixing material types is acceptable for mechanically assembled units which can be disassembled. • • Color availability is generally limited. Recycled plastic materials can often be specified into less-demanding applications. I-2 . Overview Proper design strategy includes: a) a concern for safety and performance b) appropriate material selection and preparation for processing to achieve the ultimate functional design goal c) maximum functionality d) minimum material usage Our intent in developing this Design Solutions Guide is to supply general information for the customer on a variety of applications as a precursor to the more narrowly focused information which will appear in subsequent manuals. landfill volume and saving natural resources. Recycling is good business too.WELCOME! Part I: Welcome! As part of our customer-driven philosophy of doing business. since in many cases.

WELCOME! Safety When designing parts. temperature. Data sheet information is point data only. Nylon has some unique characteristics. premature and short-term failures. dimensions and creep will increase. etc. it changes its physical properties. These are reasons for designing with information not found on data sheets which are readily issued by material suppliers. unforeseen overloads. Engineering handbooks cover this subject in more detail. We trust you will find this and our other manuals of great value. ductility. Strength. including type of application. impact resistance. the introduction of a factor will extend the service life of the product depending on the value used. Having predetermined load conditions. The value used for the factor is based on the criticality of the function. The factor is contingent upon numerous conditions. I-3 . These characteristics need to be tempered with the safety factor during design. in the presence of moisture. For instance. a factor of safety should be used to manage the risk of catastrophic. We are always available to assist when needed. lack of material homogeneity. stiffness. unknowns. surface hardness and brittleness will decrease while elongation.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part II Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Parting Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–6 Potential Knit Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–2 Draft Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–4 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Fillets and Radii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–4 Ribs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–3 Bosses . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II–5 Gating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9. Free Running Shaft The parting line depends on the shape of the part.Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Part II: Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts The injection molding process is the most common process for producing economical and automated thermoplastic parts.005 in to 0. Figure II-3 illustrates an irregular parting line. 2. Mold Clamp System Mold Back Flow Check Valve Screw Travel Limit Switches Motors. injection molding machinery and auxiliary equipment. Irregular Parting Line II-2 . Controls Figure II-1. They are: 1. Parting Line .010 in range relative to the finished dimension. 8. When a parting line involves two mating halves with close tolerances. 11. Parting Lines Draft Angles Wall Thickness Fillets and Radii Bosses Ribs Opening Formations Shrinkage Gating Vents Potential Knit Lines Nozzle Heater Bands Hopper Screw Motor Injection Piston Parting Lines Parting line consideration depends upon shape and the function of the part.005 Figure II-2. 10. If a shaft diameter is used as a bearing surface and is going to be injection molded. Heat Exchangers. Pumps. 7. Valves. 5. it cannot tolerate a conventional parting line. In this situation. etc. 3. Oil Tank. 6. The allowance should be in the 0. there are numerous design aspects which should be addressed. the mold mating steel parts should be interlocked for good positioning or take in an allowance for possible mismatches. It commonly requires the use of steel molds. incorporating small flats on the shaft at the parting line will avoid mismatch and minimal flash conditions (see Figure II2).005 . Schematic of Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine Parting line Figure II-3. 4. To injection mold a part.

Where minimum draft is desired. molded-in stresses and differential shrinkage. good polishing is recommended and feature depth should not exceed .5T Min. Uniform walls aid in material flow in the mold. Figure II-4 II-3 . stress concentrations. the change in thickness should not exceed 15% of the nominal wall (see Figure II-4) and should transition gradually. Some draft angle is better than none and more draft is desirable if the design permits. Figure II-4 NOT RECOMMENDED RECOMMENDED R = . Recommended draft angle is normally 1° with 1/2° on ribs. Z 3Z Min.Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Draft Angles Draft is necessary for the ejection of the parts from the mold. Indicate radii at all inside and outside corners to the maximum which a design will allow. reduce the risk of sink marks. Wall Thickness The number one rule for designing plastic parts is uniform wall thickness. For non-uniform walls. poor flow patterns and increased tool wear (see Figure II-5). Corners should always be designed with a minimum fillet radius of 50% of the wall thickness and an outer radius of 150% of the wall thickness to maintain a uniform wall thickness (see Figure II-4).5T Min. Always design with draft angles. T R = 1. They are the number one cause of part failure. NOT RECOMMENDED RECOMMENDED Fillets and Radii Sharp corners should be avoided.5in.

020in Figure II-6 The thickness at the base of the ribs and gussets used to stabilize bosses should not exceed 50% of the thickness of the adjoining wall. where sink marks are objectionable.5T AT BASE Ribs Ribs should be used when needed for stiffness and strength or to assist in filling difficult areas.020 in minimum. for use in assembling or mounting parts.5 times the screw diameter for self-tapping screw applications. rib base thickness (t) should not exceed 50% of the adjoining wall thickness (T) if the outside surface is textured and 30% if not textured. 1/2°Min. Fillets at the base of the rib should be . etc. Figure II-5 The O.0 times screw diameter or less can have multiple ribs (see Figure II-6). NOT RECOMMENDED RECOMMENDED .. Boss inside and outside diameters should have 1/2° draft per side. Sink marks are also dependent on the material. T Rib height should be at least 2.D.25T T T t R = . of the boss should ideally be 2. Thick-walled bosses with bases greater than 50% of the wall could form visible sink marks. To overcome this condition.0 T Min. For appearance parts. In structural parts where sink marks are of no concern. R = . Multiple ribs should be spaced at least 2 times the wall thickness apart to reduce molded in stress and problems in cooling of the mold (See Figure II-7). drive pins. self-tapping screws.5-3.0 times the wall thickness (T) for effective strength. Draft should be 1/2° per side nominal.7 T 2.5T RECOMMENDED . a thinnerwalled boss of 2. 2 T Min. rib base thickness (t) can be 75–85% of the adjoining wall thickness (T).5–3. Avoid stand-alone bosses wherever possible. Figure II-7 II-4 . Bosses should be attached to walls or ribs by means of ribs or gussets for structural stability (see Figures II-5 & 6). NOT RECOMMENDED SINK MARK . See Part V of this guide for additional information on bosses for press fits and self-tapping screws.Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Bosses Bosses are usually designed to accept inserts.

As cavity pressure increases. Crystalline and semi-crystalline materials exhibit higher shrinkage than amorphous materials. if possible.Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Openings When an opening is desired in a part (such as to accommodate a snap-fit) and is to be formed without core pulls. The design of the gate is dependent on tool design. It is usually the thinnest cross-section in the entire system. Unreinforced plastics have higher shrinkage than reinforced grades. size. Refer to the BASF Injection Molding Processing Guide for more details. Gating The gate connects the part to the runner system. II-5 . and locate knit lines in low-stress areas. 5° Min. Basic shrinkage data is obtained from ASTM tests or ISO tests. Contact BASF Technical Services for shrinkage recommendations on any of our products. MOLD PULL • Gate configuration and location should minimally affect part appearance. a 5° angle mating of the core and cavity is required (see Figure II-8). Shrinkage Shrinkage is a characteristic of resin which occurs during molding. if present. Cooler molds will reduce shrinkage while hotter melt temperatures will increase shrinkage especially with semi-crystalline materials. The mold and melt temperature will also influence shrinkage. Different resins have different mold shrinkages. • Gate design and location should eliminate secondary degating operations. • Gates should be located away from high stress or impact areas. variation in section thickness can cause differential shrinkage and warpage. Material shrinkage can vary with part and tool design: thick walls will have higher shrinkage rates than thin. “Kissoff” between two pieces of steel Figure II-8 • The gate should be located to best fill the part. see Figure VII-14). position flow for advantageous glass fiber orientation. part geometry and the material selection. flow direction will effect shrinkage. Shrinkage is also influenced by process conditions. particularly with glass fiber-reinforced grades (more when perpendicular to flow and less when parallel to flow. Gate location. It is important that the grade of material be selected before the mold is constructed and that the proper mold shrinkage be specified. shrinkage typically will decrease. type and number must also be addressed.

this is done by machining numerous shallow channels at the parting line. vent pins and runners. The dimensions of the channels are dependent on the material injected. One should anticipate knit lines. Knit lines generally form on the opposite side of obstacles which are in the way of the normal flow path. burn marks and splay.Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Vents Vents are regions in the mold where clearance is used to permit trapped air and gases to escape. A cavity can be considered adequately vented when plastic can be injected at high rates without showing signs of burn marks. short shots. Potential Knit Lines Knit lines are areas in the molded part where two or more flow fronts converge. and direct them away from anticipated high stress areas of the part where possible. Lack of proper venting can cause excessive injection pressure. such as pins that form holes in the part or bosses designed to accept inserts. Flow analysis can identify areas needing specific venting for best results. This area generally has lower strength than the other areas of the part. II-6 . Other ways to vent a mold are ejector pins. Contact BASF Technical Services for this information. which show up well in flow analysis programs. There are many ways to vent a mold. Typically.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–14 Rib Design . . . . . . . III–3 Torsional Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part III Structural Design Stress . . . . . III–13 Stress Concentrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–11 Thermal Expansion and Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Explanation of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–4 Bending Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–9 Formulas for Flat Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–7 Formulas for Torsional Deformation and Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–10 Flat Plate Equations. . . . . . . . . III–12 Impact Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–8 I. . . . . . . . . T and L Sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–2 Stress-Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Formulas for Common Beams in Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–15 Design for Equivalent Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–10 Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–6 Beam Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–5 Section Properties of Various Cross-Sections . . . . . . . III–3 Shear Stress. . . . III–18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III–2 Normal Stress . . . . . .

Temperature and humidity can change these curves. Higher temperatures and humidity generally reduce stress carrying ability and increase strain (deflection). The stress-strain curve describes the resin’s response to a force applied at a predetermined rate (. III-2 . Its original size and shape will no longer remain constant. Shear. Strain F Brittle Plastic Ductile Plastic L A Figure III-2. the result is a deformed part which is both stressed and strained.All plastic materials have a characteristic stress-strain curve (see Figure III-2). such that strain is proportional to stress and the modulus of elasticity (E) or Young’s Modulus is the constant of proportionality: − E=σ ε . _ σ=F A Strain (ε) is a change in the part’s length over its original length (see Figure III-1).Structural Design Part III: Structural Design Stress Stress-Strain When a force is applied to a part. It is only when the part has not been stressed beyond its elastic limit that Hooke’s Law applies. Exceeding the linear range results in some permanent deformation of the material. The stress (σ) in a part is determined by the load (F) applied per unit area.2–. it will exceed its elastic limit (the straight line portion of the curve in Figure III-2). Stress vs. Hooke’s Law is the relationship between stress and strain. The part is axially loaded with the force directed away from the part. When a plastic part is subjected to a high enough external force. The yield point (deviation from the straight line) is dependent upon the temperature at which it is measured. the material at that point is in its plastic (non-linear) range. Torsional. There are many types of stresses: Normal. Each will be discussed in detail. The material behaves linearly as long as the stress is kept well below the yield point. and Bending. ε= ∆L L STRESS Typical Metal Figure III-1. a tensile test is performed at room temperature.5in/min). Plastic materials do not have a distinct linear response like that of metals. Once the yield point is reached. Strain ∆L F In order to obtain a stress-strain curve for a resin.

A normal stress is either tensile or compressive. the stress is tensile (see Figure III-3). A F Figure III-4. Compressive Stress III-3 . and when the force is directed toward the part. F Shear Stress Shear Stress (τ). Mechanical Materials. the stress is compressive (see Figure III-4). _ τ=F A The difference is that the result of the force being applied is a stress which is parallel to the cross-section (see Figure III-5). like tensile and compressive stress. F C F A C F A F F Figure III-3. Shear Stress Illustration credit: Beer & Johnson. depending on the direction of the force applied. When the force is directed away from the part. it results in a stress normal to the cross-section. is also expressed as the force applied over a cross-sectional area (A).Structural Design Normal Stress Normal stress (σ) is the ratio of the force applied over a given cross-sectional area (A): _ σ=F A When a load is applied perpendicular (normal) to the plane of a surface. Tensile Stress F Figure III-5.

25in) = 326 psi 4 . Mechanical Materials. at room temperature and dry as molded (DAM): E = Modulus of elasticity = 1. Torque is calculated by: T = θKG L Where variable θ is the angle of twist due to the torque. Torsional Stress Illustration credit: Beer & Johnson.006136in (8in–lb)(5in) θ = (411. is subjected to a torque of 8 in–lb. G is the modulus of rigidity. (b) U T Figure III-6. The equation can be manipulated to calculate the angle of twist (θ): __ θ = TL KG III-4 .111psi)(. The maximum shear stress of a shaft in torsion is calculated by: __ τ = Tc K Example for solid circular shaft: A 5in long solid circular shaft of . at any point on the plane of the section.006136in4) = . therefore. 000psi = 411. * Please reference the formula for the torsional constant of various cross-sections in the Torsional Formula Section (see Figure III-8).110.Structural Design Torsional Stress When a part is in torsion (T). Using Ultramid• 8267 resin (40% mineral/glass).0158 rad L The shear stress is extremely low in comparison to the resin’s tensile strength.35) 2(1+ υ) 4 K = 1 πR 4 = π (0. there is. a shear stress (τ) (see Figure III-6). and K is the torsional constant.25) = 0.5in diameter.* υ = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.111 psi 2(1 + 0. Calculate the shear stress and angle of twist.110. twisted along its longitudinal axis. the shaft can withstand the 8 in–lb torque applied.35 G= E = 1.006136in4 2 2 C τ = (8in-lb)(0. and L is the length of the member.000 psi Where variable c is the distance from the center of the shaft to the outer surface where the maximum stress occurs.

A.3 2in F Figure III-8.000 psi.A.15 b = . and is a region of zero stress. ))3 (. Height (h) Distance to N.0015in σb = (40in-lb)(.15)(.A. tensile strength at room temperature and dry as molded (DAM) is 20. The center of the member is the neutral axis (N. The maximum stresses will occur at the extreme fibers (a and b). * Please reference the Beam Sections that follow for the moment of inertia of various cross-sections. then the bending stress can be calculated. Neutral Axis in Bending In comparing the bending stress with the material’s tensile strength. Bending stress is expressed as: σ= Mc I Example for cantilever beam: The I-beam shown has applied force of 20lb (see Figure III8).42in) = 5333 psi N. III-5 . the I-beam will be able to withstand the 20 lb force applied.Structural Design Bending Stress When a simply supported structural member is in flexure. c is the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme outer fiber and I is the moment of inertia (see Figure III-7). Compression w = .3–. a M = Force x distance = (20lb)(2in) = 40in-lb b Tension Width (b) I* = b(d +2t)3 (b–w)d 3 .3(.4 where M is the bending moment.2 . F = 20 lb t = .1 d = . Once the moment is calculated.0015in4 12 12 12 .2 + 2(.).A. The chosen material is Ultramid® 8267 (40% mineral/glass). Cantilever I-Beam Cross-Section N.2)3 1 – 12 = – = . (c) Figure III-7. the top section will be in compression and the bottom surface will be in tension.

.Ri2) I = __ (R 4. C channel and Hollow Rectangle t t t y y y d w w d d A = Area Y = Distance from centroid to extreme fiber I = Moment of Inertia about principal axis r = Radius of gyration about principal axis w/2 b b b A = 2bt + wd d y = __ + t 2 Beam Sections Rectangle b(d + 2t)3 – (b – w) d 3 12 12 1 /2 I r = __ A I= () w A = bd d y = __ 2 1 I = __ bd 3 12 Figure III-12 y U channel.. T section and L section w/2 d r = 0. cross-section and H section w w w 2 1 r = __ √ i2  2 + R  R 2 y y y R d t d t d t Figure III-11 b b 2 b A = wd d y = __ 2 3 3 I = wd + bt 12 I 1/2 r = __ A () Figure III-14 III-6 . ..9Ad + t .Ri4) 4 y=R Side T section. .y) 3 3 3 y = bt 2 + wd (2t + d) 2(tb +wd) I r = __ A () 12 / Figure III-10 Figure III-13 Hollow Circle R1 y π A = π(R 2.w) . Structural Design Section Properties of Various CrossSections (Straight Beams) Explanation of Variables The table below provides the following useful section properties for Figures III-9 through III-14: I-Beam.2887d w b d d d Figure III-9 t y t y t y Solid Circle b b b R y A = πR2 y=R π I = __ R 4 4 R r = __ 2 A = tb + wd 3 2 b d _ I = __ (d + t) – _ (b .

. Fully Distributed. σmax. displacement at a point. Structural Design Formulas for Common Beams in Bending Fixed Beam. L 8I Mmax = WL 2 Figure III-19 x o W X y max y y = –Wx (3L – x) 6EI 3 ymax = –WL 3EI Fixed Beam. Partially Distributed. . ymax. maximum displacement. and maximum stress. Center Load L L/2 W y max Cantilever Beam. Intermediate Load Y L W σmax = WLc @ x = 0 I Figure III-15 o X Mmax = Wa (L–a) L2 2 3 ymax = –2W(L–a) a 2@x= 2aL if a > L/2 L+2a 3EI(L+2a) 2 y max a σmax = –Wa (L–a)c 2 Cantilever Beam. of many commonly used beam structures. L 4I Figure III-22 Figure III-18 III-7 . Uniform Load Y L W w = load/unit length 2 Figure III-16 o y X x y max Cantilever Beam. c = distance from centroid of cross-section (Figures III-15 through III-22).L 12 2 2 2 y = wx (2Lx–L –x ) 24EI 4 L _ ymax = –wL @ x = _ 384 2 2 σmax = wL c @ x = 0. Intermediate Load Y L Figure III-20 Mmax = W(L–a) 3 W a o X y max ymax = –W(2L –3L a+a ) 6EI σmax = W(L–a)c @ x = 0 I 2 3 Fixed Beam. .. Mmax. y. Center Load Y L W The following equations can be utilized to determine the maximum moment. Cantilever Beam End Load Y L L _ Mmax = WL @ x = _ 8 2 2 3 y = –W (3Lx –4x ) 48EI L/2 o y X y max x L _ ymax = –WL @ x = _ 192EI 2 3 σmax = WLc @ x = 0. Uniform Load Y L w = load/unit length 2 W o y x Mmax = wL @ x = 0 2 X 2 –wx (6L2–4Lx+x2) y= y max 24EI 4 ymax = –wL @ x = 0 8EI 2 σmax = wL c @ x = 0 2I Figure III-17 Mmax = wL @ x = 0.. Fully Distributed.L 12I Figure III-21 Simply Supported Beam. . Uniform Load Y 2 L W a o X y max Mmax = w(L–a) @ x = 0 2 –w (L–a)3 (3L+a) ymax = 24EI 2 σmax = w(L–a) c @ x = 0 2I Mmax = WL @ x = L 2 4 2 3 y = –W(3L x-4x ) for O ≥ x ≤ L 2 48EI –WL3 ymax = 48EI σmax = WLc @ x = 0.

36  1− for a ≥ b 3 a  12a4     T(3a + 1.8b) @ midpoint of each longer side τ max = 8a 2 b2 Reference: Roark.25a4 τmax = 0. Raymond & Young. Warren. and maximum shear stress. Tmax. (See Figures III-23 through III-29.601T @ midpoint of each side a3 Figure III-23 Hollow Circular Section Figure III-26 Ri R0 1 K = − π (Ro4 − Ri 4 ) 2 2TRo @ outer boundary τmax = 4 π (Ro − Ri4 ) Figure III-24 III-8 . Formulas for Stress and Strain. angle of twist.) 2a Solid Rectangular Section 2b TL θ =KG Where: T = Twisting moment (force-length) L = Length of beam G = Modulus of rigidity (force per unit area) K = Cross-section dependent function (length4) 16 b b4   K = ab3  − 3. can be calculated. U. McGraw Hill. Figure III-25 Solid Square Section Beam in Torsion Solid Circular Section 2a K = 1πR4 2 2R τ max = 2T @ boundary πR 3 K = 2.Structural Design Formulas for Torsional Deformation and Stress By using these formulas on beams of common crosssections.

T and L Sections For sections I.105d (1 − d 4 ) 3 c 192c   t (0.762  2r 2r radius r π 2D4    1+ 2 16A 2 4  D 1 + 015 ( π D ) where D touches flat surface .21 b (1− b 4 ) 3 a 12a   τ max = Tc K 3 T Section K = K1 + K 2 + α D4 a 4   K 2 = cd 3  1 − 0.118 loge(1+ ) + 0.238   touches 1+ 0. 4   K1 = ab  1 − 0.15+ 0.10r ) α = t1 b D r b c D= d d2 (b + r ) 2 + rd + 4 (2r + b) for d < 2(b + r ) c=   D D D  where D 0. A=cross-sectional area.Structural Design I.076r α =b b ) *If b < d then t = b and t1 = d If b > d then t = d and t1 = b a I Section d K = 2 K1 + K2 + 2α D D r c d b a b 4 D = 2 d + b + 3r – 2(2r + b)(2r + d) for b < 2(d + r) ( ) K2 = 1 cd 3 3 α = t (0. T and L.07+ 0. D. the maximum shear stress occurs where the largest inscribed circle.105 d (1 − d 4 ) c 3 192c   d (0. π 2D4  16A 2    1+ 16A 2 Figure III-28 L Section b c r D c= K = K1 + K2 + α D 4 4   K2 = cd 3  1 − 0.15+ 0.1r ) b t1 Figure III-29 d2 (b + r) 2 + rd + 4 D= 2r + b Figure III-27 III-9 . touches the boundary.

Concentrated Load at Center -3W(m2–1)r2 4 ymax r radial stress 0. Fully Fixed. of a plate under uniform loading. Uniform Load W = w πr 2 ymax Figure III-32 −3 3 +1 Rectangular Plate. Fully Fixed Figure III-30 Circular Disk.01261W(m–1) 3W 2 edge Figure III-31b III-10 . Uniform Load b a ymax Figure III-33 Figure III-31a Circular Disk. Simply Supported b Flat Plate Equations Circular Disk. a Rectangular Plate. ymax and maximum bending stress. Fully Fixed. σmax.Structural Design Formulas for Flat Plates Both circular and rectangular plates with constant thickness may use these formulas to determine maximum displacement. Uniform Load. Edge Supported. Uniform Load. ν is Poisson’s Ratio (See Figures III-30 through III-33).

Structural Design
Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels, containers, or tanks can be analyzed by the use of shell theory because of their shell-like shape and symmetrical loading. To distinguish between thick and thin wall shell or cylinders, the relationship of the wall thickness (t) to the radius (r) must be considered: • If 10t is < r, the thin wall theory applies. • If 10t is > r, the thick wall theory applies. In dealing with pressure vessels, only those vessels having internal pressure resulting in a tensile failure will be addressed in this manual. External pressure resulting in buckling failure is not covered here because it seldom occurs in practice. The equations are as follows: Internal pressure: (See Figure III-34) Thin wall Maximum stress (hoop or circumferential) is:
σ= Pri t
Cover

The critical or the highest-stressed area of a pressure vessel is the knuckle or transition section, located at the juncture between the end cover and the shell or body of the vessel (see Figure III-35).

Knuckle

where P is the internal pressure, ri is the inner radius, and t is the wall thickness. Thick wall Maximum stress is:
σ= P (ro + ri )
2 2

High localized stresses at the knuckle section are caused by stress risers. (These can be linked to the effects of stress concentration factors. See section III-12.) The more abrupt the change, the higher the stress will be. As a result, a spherical shaped end cover is best.

(ro − ri )
2 2

,

where ro is the outside radius, ri is the inside radius, and P is the internal pressure. Shells or Curved Surfaces • Thick Wall: Radial and Hoop (Tensile) Stresses • Thin Wall: Hoop Stress only

;
Shell

Figure III-35

ri ro

P

`

III-11

Structural Design
Pressure Vessels (cont.) Example: Design a cylinder container to withstand an internal pressure of 50 psi, if the diameter is to be 12in. Material has been selected to be Ultramid® • 8233 (33% glass reinforced nylon 6). The wall thickness, for molding convenience, has been set at 0.250 in maximum. Test for wall condition•Thin or Thick? 10t (10)(.250in) = 2.5in r = 12/2 = 6in 2.5 in < 6in Therefore, thin wall approach is acceptable.
(50psi) ( in ) 6 = 1200 psi σ = Pr = t (.250in ) .
∆L

Thermal Expansion and Stress
Thermal stresses are typically not of significant concern except in the case of dissimilar materials in an assembly which sees temperature variations. This occurs when a thermoplastic part is fixed to metal. If the plastic is clamped to the metal, then the material with the greater expansion would tend to buckle from the resultant compressive loading. To eliminate this potential, the allowable stress of the larger expanding material must be less then the compressive stress developed due to expansion. Euler’s critical buckling load (Pe ) equation allows one to calculate the critical compressive stress. Pe = 4p2 EI L2

L 1 Thermoplastic 2 Metal

Since we are dealing with long-term effects, we need to compare the 1,200 psi against the allowable tensile strength of the material to determine if this design is satisfactory. Fortunately, this 1,200 psi is well below the allowable tensile strength of the material (18,400 psi @ 50% RH), therefore, the design is satisfactory for short term applications. One must check acceptability for long term conditions, where applicable. NOTE: for a spherical shape the stress is:
(50 psi) (6in) = 600 psi σ = Pr = 2t 2(.250in)

Figure III-36

σcc = Pe /A1 σcc = critical compressive stress
A1 = cross-section area of material 1 I = moment of inertia of material 1 E = modulus of elasticity

This demonstrates that spherical is a good shape for the end cap.

The following equation calculates the thermal expansion difference between two dissimilar materials (1 & 2). ∆L = (α1 - α2)∆TL where α1 = coefficient of thermal expansion of material 1 α2 = coefficient of thermal expansion of material 2 ∆L = change of length ∆T = change in temperature L = length between fixed points To calculate thermal stress, use the following equation:

σc = (α1 - α2) E∆T
or increase the section modulus for the larger expanding material. If the σc > σcc , buckling will occur. To avoid this potential: 1) add additional bolts, 2) increase the section modulus (I/c) of material 1, or 3) provide clearance between bolts and holes for expected movement.

III-12

Structural Design
Impact Stresses
An impact situation results when the loading of the part occurs over a very short time frame. When designing for impact, certain concerns should be considered. One important factor is to minimize stress concentrations. Various places in a part, such as holes, notches, grooves, depressions, sharp corners, ribs and bosses, can create high stress concentrations and induce impact failures. Modify the part, where possible, to reduce and spread the stress over a larger area. One method to predict impact stresses, deflections or strains is to calculate the static deflection of the part. This information can then be used to calculate an amplification factor. By multiplying the static deflection, stress or strain by the amplification factor, an approximation of the dynamic, deflection, stress or strain can be determined. The amplification factor is as follows: Amplification factor: First determine the static deflection and stress by using the formulas for flat plates, shown in Figure III-31b.
ystatic = -3W (m – 1 ) r 4πEm2 t 3 1 2 − 1 15 2 −3(12)  . . .   0 35 = 1 2 (0.25) 3 4π1,300,000 . 0 35
2 2

(

(

)

)

= −2.7846 x 10− 5 in. radial stress @ edge: 3W σstatic = 0.01261W(m– 1 )– mr 2 2πt 2 1 0.01261(1.2) 0.35 − 1 = – 3(1.2) 2 1 2 2π(0.25) 0.35 (1.5)

(

)

= –9.163 psi Next, calculate the amplification factor: 2h KD= 1 + 1 + y static 2 (−48) _ = 1 + 1+ −2.7846x10 5 = 1858

KD = 1 + 1+
where h = height of drop y = static deflection

2h ystatic

Example: The following simulates the impact of a 1.2 lb. load from a height of 4 feet on the center of a fully fixed 1/4 in. thick, 3in circular thermoplastic disk. ν = Poisson’s Ratio ν = .35 E = 1,300,000ν m = 1/ν

Then, the predicted dynamic deflection and stress are as follows:
ydynamic = KD ystatic = (1858)(−2.7846 x 10 -5) = −0.052in @ center

σdynamic = KDσstatic
= 1858 (−9.163)
1.2 lb

= −17025 psi @ edge
4 ft.

Please note that this method is an approximation and generally will be conservative. All calculations should be verified by experimental testing.

Figure III-37

III-13

Structural Design
Stress Concentrations
Irregularities in a structure subjected to loading may produce high localized stress, or stress concentration (see Figure III-38). These irregularities or stress risers include holes, sharp corners, notches, abrupt changes in wall thickness, or numerous other geometric discontinuities.
Stress Concentration = Stress Riser

Example:
Cantilever Beam
10 LB R = .05in b= .20in

h = .25in

d = 2in

Typical Cross-Section

B E F O R E

Sh

ar

o pC

r

ner

A F T E R

ak Bre

Load

M = Fd = (10lb) (2in) = 20in–lb h C = __ 2 = 0.125in
Wrong Way

(.20in)(.25in)3 __ I = bh = ______________ 12 12 = 2.6 x 10 -4in4

3

Right Way

σ = ___ Mc

Sharp Corners Concentrate Stress Break Due to Stress Concentration

Figure III-38 In many instances it is difficult to accurately compute the actual stress, but, good information does exist which provides for a reasonable estimate. Figure III-39 shows a graph for a given configuration. When the corner radius is small compared to the wall thickness, a high stress concentration factor results. Stress Concentration Factor
3.5

I = (20in–lb)(.125in) ________________ 2.6 x 10 -4in4 σ = 9600 psi

I __ = .05in = .2 R t .25in K = 2.5 σ = 2.5(9600 psi) σ = 24,000 psi

σ = K ___ Mc

The design and load shown should be expected to experience a stress of 24,000 psi. Note that changing the radius to .25 in. changes the expected stress concentration to 12,500 psi.

Stress Concentration Factor (K)

R
3.0

Load

2.5

T
2.0

1.5

1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

R /T

Figure III-39
Illustration credit: Peterson, R.E., Stress Contribution Factors.

The actual stress is now predicted by simply multiplying the calculated bending stress by the K factor.

III-14

5 2 3 4 5 6.Structural Design Rib Design When designing a part. Draft angle (in degrees) = 1/2° Base rib thickness to wall thickness (T/W) = . There are numerous other similar curves for other variations.5 8 13 15 S/W 20 30 40 50 70 100 W equiv 6 W 5 4 3 2 1 Draft 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 H/W H 12 11 W 10 T S 8 9 3 EQUIVALENT THICKNESS-STRESS 1 1.75. The following curves (Figure III-41) have been generated for a plate with ribs having 1/2° draft per side and a T/W = .5 2 S/W 4 5 6. Equivalent Thickness Charts III-15 .5 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 70 100 Figure III-40. The following method can be used to determine the number of required ribs. 7 W equiv 6 W 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 H/W Figure III-41. W 12 11 10 9 8 7 EQUIVALENT THICKNESS-DEFLECTION 1 1. It is typically required that the thermoplastic provide equal or better stiffness and strength as the metal part. it is often necessary to determine the number of ribs needed to produce an equivalent displacement or stress based on an un-ribbed part of different thickness. Ribbed Plate With Draft Where W = Wall thickness T = Base rib thickness S = Distance between ribs H = Height of rib Figure III-40 shows the geometric parameters used in this method.75 All values are per unit of plate wall thickness. An example is the conversion of an aluminum/steel part into thermoplastic. It also results in minimizing the mass of the part without compromising performance or manufacturability.

Using the curves.5in. This means that for a plate of 6 in. Therefore: Wequiv 0.725in.75∴T = (0.0x10 5 1 3 Figure III-42. x 10 in. Next.) 3 EA tA = EP t 3 P We must now choose a value for two of the following: nominal wall thickness (W). For this exercise. This process can be reversed as well if there is a desire to determine displacement or stress for a ribbed member.we will need 3 and 4 ribs respectively. the appropriate rib pattern can be determined. we can find the curve that corresponds to these 2 ratios and find that S/W = 20.Structural Design To use these charts a few ratios need to be calculated.125 in. the addition of ribs is an alternative. the following ratio is valid: (see page III-15.75 W = 0.125in and H = 0. a nominal thermoplastic wall thickness must be selected along with either the rib height or number of ribs.094in (see page III-18) knowing: Ealuminum = 1.339 = = 2.712 W 0. it is necessary to calculate the equivalent thickness of the plastic part without ribs. To convert an aluminum part to thermoplastic of equal rigidity. Example: The following shows the conversion of a flat aluminum plate of 6 in.0x10 7psi Eplastic = 5.125) 3 = 5. it is recommended that generous radii be placed at the base of the ribs.125)20 = 2.125)0. rib height (H).725in 1. It basically reduces the ribbed member to a simple flat plate.339in NOTE: To lower stresses in the plate. 10in 6in 0. Table III-1 further illustrates the weight-to-stiffness advantage of various rib heights. For flat plates of equal rigidity. to a typical glass reinforced nylon plate with ribs and having equivalent stiffness.8 . This is the thickness that the thermoplastic part would need to be if no ribs were present.0 x 107 (0. or distance between the ribs (S).725 = = 5.125 H 0. let us make W = 0.0x10 5psi then EA tA 3 tP = EP 1 3 Since we are interested in equivalent deflection. The equivalent plate would look like Figure III-42. W 0125 T = 0. Since this wall thickness is thicker than desirable for injection molding. x 10 in.125in 0. III-16 . with a thickness of 0. therefore S = (0. Equivalent Plate Using Cross-Ribbing tP = Wequiv = 0.

Structural Design Case Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 Effect of 1/8in Thick Rib of Various Heights on the Strength of a 2in x 1/4in Beam Rib Rib Height/ Shape Size Wall Thickness % Increase in Weight % Increase in Stiffness 2 in T N/A N/A 1/8in W x 1/8in H 1/8in W x 1/4in H 1/8in W x 1/2in H 1/8in W x 3/4in H N/A N/A 1:2 1:1 2:1 3:1 N/A 100 3.5 19.0 N/A 700 23 77 349 925 2T T 6 1/8in W x 1in H 4:1 25.0 1901 7 T = Thickness = 1/4in 1/8in W x 1 1/4in H 5:1 31.12 6.0 3352 Table III-1 III-17 .25 12.

Structural Design Design for Equivalent Stiffness In order to replace metal parts with plastic.457 .789 .270in2 Figure III-43 III-18 .0254in4 EI = 5.08 x 104 lb–in2 A = 0.620 . See Figure III-43. deflection is the same. (The moment of inertia will vary for each geometry. Deflection is inversely proportional to the rigidity modulus (R): R = EI where E is the modulus of elasticity and I is the moment of inertia.0374in4 EI = 5.100 E aluminum I aluminum = E plastic I plastic .100 .620 .08 x 104 lb–in2 A = 0.) Therefore.08 x 104 lb–in2 A = 0. Sections of Equivalent Stiffness in Bending: Aluminum Zinc .36 x 106 psi DAM I = 0.142 . When the two parts are of equivalent stiffness.08 x 104 lb–in2 A = 0.0374in4 EI = 5.3 x 106 psi I = 0.620 E = 10.489in2 Nylon 33% GF .898 1. E aluminum h3aluminum = E plastic h3plastic E = 1.0049in4 EI = 5.36 x 106 psi DAM I = 0.620 For solid shape of equal width.283in2 Nylon 33% GF E = 2.0 x 106 psi I = 0. the equivalent stiffness of a plastic part can be determined. by equating the modulus of rigidity of the metal and plastic parts the condition of equivalent stiffness will be satisfied.557in2 E = 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part IV Design Examples Cruise Control Bracket. IV–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV–2 Cover Cap. . . . . .

R = EI E = Modulus of Elasticity I = Moment of Inertia R can be increased by increasing E or I Figure IV-1.Design Examples Part IV: Design Examples Design Example #1 A Application: Problem: Potential Reasons for Part Failure: Steel Part CRUISE CONTROL BRACKET Plastic Bracket Bending Under Load After Conversion From Steel a) Material b) Processing c) Design Simple Cantilever Beam (Closely similar to the end-use condition).) X A B Analysis: B Present Plastic Part F Section XX h C X L Part fixation b C Redesign Figure IV-2. (Note actual outlined part. Cruise Control Bracket IV-2 . Rigidity Modulus.

which is basically clamped. Since I = bh3/12.041 EI = 30.Design Examples NOTE: The small section was analyzed because the left portion of the part.340 IV-3 .000. > EI plastic = EI steel (lb.) If the E for plastic is 740. Example: If h is doubled.000 I = .000 psi. a very effective change.000 (Ultramid • 8233) @ 50% RH.0002 EI = 6. has a large section modulus and is therefore much stiffer than the middle of the part. then the results would be as noted: Section AA Original Steel Part Section BB Plastic Present Part Redesign Section CC Conclusion: a) A material change would not be effective enough. a small change in h will result in a cubed effect or a large increase in R. b) Processing was not determined to be the problem by lab analysis. and for steel 30. c) Redesign was implemented with successful results. in2. it could increase the cost and require new approvals.0008 EI = 592 Figure IV-3 I = . I = . it will increase the R by a factor of 8!!! To make the plastic part more rigid than the steel part.

b) Can be corrected by preparing the mold for the anticipated long term size and 50% RH conditions. a . and placed into stock.Design Examples Dimensional Change (in/in) Design Example #2 Application: COVER CAP Problem: Oversize Parts Out of Specification Potential Reason for Part Failure: a) Material.005in part growth results. IV-4 . It was assumed that the problem could well be the growth of the part due to moisture absorption. it can be seen that the growth of the part at 50% RH is . the parts were in the DAM (dry as molded) condition. Analysis: Parts were in Ultramid ® 8233.010 .002in diameter by . in diameter. or b) Processing Customer Input: 1) The parts were initially inspected. is 2. when a reorder was issued. The critical dimension. c) Parts can be conditioned initially to stabilized dimensions. Using the plot shown for part growth versus moisture absorption or percent relative humidity.0025in/in. This was the amount the parts in stock were oversize and therefore the problem. C. . approved by Q. 2) Five months passed. 3) Parts were .0025 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Relative Humidity Figure IV-4 Conclusion: a) A concern only when very tight tolerances are important. If the parts were measured soon after molding. as this was. This is a worldwide average which should be used in all calculations for critical dimension determinations. and the one in question.0025in/in.002 in.0045in oversize and rejected by the customer.005 . The formula for the circumference of a round part is: C = 2 x πx r or C = πx D Where: r = radius D = diameter If we multiply the 2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . V–15 Spin Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–10 Inserts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–4 Press-Fit Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–4 Snap-Fit Design Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–8 Mold-in Threads . . . . . . . V–14 Other Assembly Techniques . V–9 Self-Tapping Screws . . . . . . . V–15 Electromagnetic Welding . . . . . . . . V–2 Short Cantilever Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part V Assembly Snap-Fit Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–15 Thermoplastic Staking . . . . . . . . V–3 New Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . V–5 Adhesive Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–12 Vibration Welding . . V–2 Snap-Fit Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–2 Tapered Cantilever . . . . . . V–11 Ultrasonic Welding . . . . . . . . . and Machine Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V–2 Cantilever vs. . . . . . . V–6 Bolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

costeffective.50-tL2 •Y t L B t B P t/2 t L B TAPERED SECTION BEAM ∈ = 0. if additional deflection is desired. The designer can eliminate the need for slides by adding a slot directly underneath the snap ledge or by placing the snap at the outside edge of the part. if slides are needed in the mold. thickness. When designed correctly. These include a possible clearance condition due to the tolerance stack-up of the two mating parts. snap-fits can be assembled and disassembled many times without any adverse affect on the assembly.92-tL2 •Y Figure V-2. deflection dimensions.) to design a snap-fit which results in a strain lower than the allowable strain of the material (Figure V-6). the uniform section cantilever (see Figure V-2) is sufficient in designing a snap-fit. A tapered section beam is desirable. The cylindrical design can be employed when an unfilled thermoplastic material is selected (a typical application is an Aspirin bottle/cap assembly). and a quick method of assembly. The designer should be aware that snap-fits do have some limitations. etc.Assembly Part V: Assembly Snap-Fit Assembly Snap-Fit Design When assembling two parts. and low pullaway forces. B P UNIFORM SECTION BEAM ∈= 1. Cylindrical Most applications use the cantilever snap-fit design (see Figure V-1). snap-fits are simple. Conventional Cantilever Formulas CYLINDRICAL (UNFILLED MATERIALS) Y Y 2 V-2 . Figure V-1 CANTILEVER (FILLED & UNFILLED MATERIALS) Tapered Cantilever For most applications. Snap-fits are also one of the more environmentally-friendly form of assembly because of their easy disassembly. Snap-fits can also increase the cost of an injection molding tool. When designing a cantilever snap. Cantilever vs. the designer may have to go through several iterations (changing length.

0 1987 SPE ANTEC. Jones. An example illustrates the procedure for designing a snap-fit. Alan Dublin and Elmer D.0 ON A BLOCK (SOLID WALL) 0. Beam Configurations V-3 .0 10.0 11. L/t Figure V-4.0 5. but not short cantilevers.0 4. Chul S.0 2.0 3. Formulas for calculating maximum strain.Assembly Short Cantilever Design The conventional cantilever formulas used in analyzing snap-fit deflections predict a much smaller deflection than observed in the field for short cantilevers.0 4.0 1. 1 8.0 6. The results of this study were compiled and are shown in Figure V-4 for various configurations (see Figure V-3).0 6. The intersecting wall actually deforms under load for short beams. The wall from which the snap protrudes is assumed to be rigid in the conventional formulas. BASF has proven1 this both experimentally and by Finite Element Analysis. A special snap-fit manual with more detail is available. deflection and amount of force required to assemble the parts are also given.0 3. Lee.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 1 0. This is a valid assumption for long cantilevers. ‘‘SHORT CANTILEVER BEAM DEFLECTION ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THERMOPLASTIC SNAP-FIT DESIGN.0 9. 1. ON A PLATE (THIN WALL) 2 4 3 5 Figure V-3.0 7. USA.0 DEFLECTION MAGNIFICATION FACTOR Q 5.0 ASPECT RATIO. California. Q Factor NOTE: Numbers inside of the circles correspond to the beam configuration cases shown in the preceding figure.’’ Held in Los Angeles.

5% Y α L L Figure V-5 Where: DETERMINE: Figure V-6 ∈O = Maximum strain at the base t = Beam thickness Y = Deflection L = Beam length Q = Deflection magnification factor (refer to graph for proper Q values) Bt2 ∈E — — P=— — 6LQ a) THE MAXIMUM DEFLECTION OF SNAP b) THE MATING FORCE SOLUTION: a) THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF SNAP MATING FORCE µ + tan α W = P— — — — ——— 1 .5) + —— W = P µ —tan α — ——— 1– µ tan α 0.Assembly New Formulas t W B P Example: MAXIMUM STRAIN t W B P Y ∈O = 1.µ tan α Where: ∈O L2 Q tY ∈O = 1.015)(0.1)2 (1. it will take 14.1) Therefore.2lb ———— 1 – 0.5)(0.0) Ymax = — — — — — = 0.300.0 ⇒ Q = 2.25in E = 1. b) THE MATING FORCE Bt2—∈ — P = —E—O —— 6L (0.2 + tan30 W = 8.10in L = 0.⇒ Ymax = — — — — — 2 L Q 1.5 t L = 5. a smaller value for deflection (Y) would be chosen for an added factor of safety.2 α = 30.0 (from Q Factor graph) — t (0.0° ∈O = 1.) W = Push-on force W’ = Pull-off force P = Perpendicular force µ = Coefficient of friction α = Lead angle α’ = Return angle B = Beam width t = Beam thickness E = Flexural modulus ∈ = Strain L = Beam length Q = Deflection magnification factor (refer to graph for proper Q values) V-4 .000 psi µ = 0. (More detailed information can be found in the BASF Snap-Fit Design Manual. in an actual design.5)2 (2.000) (0.1 — — — — — = 14.5 —max.50in B = 0.25)(0.2 (tan30) Therefore.015) P = — — — — — — — — — = 16.05in — — — — — (1.2 pounds to force the snap-fit into position.2lb — — — — — — — — — 6(0.5 -• •tY Q L2 α GIVEN: Material: PETRA 130 (PET) t = 0.300.

Determine the maximum interference of the assembly using a 2% allowable strain for Ultramid 8233. Radial deformation. 3.250 .489in minimum diameter).D.. Press-Fit With Two Identical Materials NOTE: 1. Formula is only valid when the shaft and hub are the same material.b 2 — + b +vPL — c2 — — 22 c +b c -b ( )( ) METAL c WHERE: δ = Radial deformation ∈ = Strain vPL = Poisson’s Ratio. δ. not diameters.75in).35 — — — — ) — — — — ) .375 . b WHERE: δ = Radial deformation ∈ = Strain WHEN a = 0 2∈bc2 δ = — —2 —— c2 + b c Figure V-8.. Figure V-7 b PLASTIC RADIAL DEFORMATION 2 2 c2— 2 δ = b ∈ —.02)( — — — — ( — — — . Formula assumes zero deformation of the metal shaft.+ . = 0. Creep must be fully analyzed.D.011in (2δ) maximum interference (. = 0.250)(. b and c are radii. 4. Press-Fit a Metal Shaft into a Plastic Hub NOTE: 1. EXAMPLE: GIVEN: A metal insert (O. Although this is a common assembly method in metals. Since plastics creep (or stress relax). A good design will minimize the strain on the plastic (see Figures V-8 & V-9).+ vPL) c . Figure V-9.0057in Therefore.250 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( d = . V-5 . must be doubled for the total interference fit on a diameter.50in) is to be press-fit into a Ultramid 8233 boss (O. 2.a2) δ=—————— ————— (c2 + b2)(b2 . a.Assembly Press-Fit Assembly Two parts can be assembled by press-fitting them together (see Figure V-7). the Capron® 8233 boss I.250 = (. b and c are radii. δ.a2) PLASTIC RADIAL DEFORMATION PLASTIC a +— )(c——bb—. a good design is more critical for thermoplastics. 2.250 . SOLUTION: b c2— 2— d = b ∈ —. not diameters. should be designed with an . take tolerance stack-up into account and estimate the final residual clamp force due to plastic creep relaxation.D.375 + .375 + . 3. the designer must allow for a large reduction of the initial press-fit clamp force.375 . must be doubled for the total interference fit on a diameter. Creep must be fully analyzed. Radial deformation. 4.— c2 + b2 2 ∈ b3 (c2 .

long cure times. Simple lap Double butt lap Joggle lap Conventional tongue and groove Figure V-10. moisture resistance. poor impact resistance. parts (usually). Details of some adhesives. Polyurethanes – High strength. and limited moisture resistance. good sealing capability. good impact resistance. limited *3M. one part. • Cyanoacrylates (example: Krazy Glue) – High strength. Joint Design* V-6 . two parts (usually). good low temperature flexibility. very high heat resistance. two which can be used with BASF Ultramid® and Petra® products. usually needs to be fixtured. very fast cure time. and usually needs to be fixtured. and very high material cost. and usually needs to be fixtured.Assembly Adhesive Bonding Another method for assembling parts is by applying an adhesive. long cure times. The choice of the adhesive depends on the application and its end-use environment. resistance. Various joint designs are shown in Figure V-10. Silicones – Low strength. good impact are highlighted in Table V-1. high temperature resistance. limited service temperature (about 200°F). Epoxies – High strength. poor impact resistance. Two similar or dissimilar materials can be assembled together in a strong leak-tight bond. two parts (usually). good low temperature flexibility. very long cure times. Structural Adhesive Guide for Industrial Product Design and Assembly.

30 sec @ 73° F (23° C) 10 sec @ 73° F (23° C) 24 hrs @ 73° F (23° C) 15-18 min @ 73° F (23° C) MANUFACTURER HB Fuller 1-800-328-7307 HB Fuller 1-800-328-7307 Hysol Aerospace Products (510) 458-8000 3M Company 1-800-362-3550 3M Company 1-800-362-3550 3M Company 1-800-362-3550 Lord Industrial Adhesives (814) 868-3611 Loctite Corporation 1-800-562-8483 Lord Industrial Adhesives (814) 868-3611 Permabond Int’l 1-800-526-4741 Dow Corning (517) 496-6000 ITW Plexus 1-800-851-6692 Table V-1. Recommended Adhesives for BASF Resins V-7 .Assembly ADHESIVE UR 1100 FE 6046 (Flexible Epoxy) Hysol 934 Scotch-Weld 2214 Regular Scotch-Weld 2214 Hi-Temp Scotch-Weld 2216 Tyrite 5700 A/C Superbonder 498 Cylok P Permabond 268 3-0100 Plexus MA310 TYPE 1 part urethane 2 part epoxy 2 part epoxy 1 part epoxy 1 part epoxy 2 part epoxy 2 part epoxy Cyanoacrylate Cyanoacrylate Cyanoacrylate Silicone 2 Part Methacrylate CURE 30 min @ 250° F (121° C) 60 min @ 200° F (93° C) 60 min @ 200° F (93° C) 40 min @ 250° F (121° C) 40 min @ 250° F (121° C) 5 min @ 250° F (121° C) 15 min @ 200° F (93° C) 30 sec @ 73° F (23° C) 10 .

Minimizing Stress Relaxation V-8 . • High torques generally produce high compressive stress. Application of Stress Relaxation to Plastic Part Design SHAKEPROOF STEM BOLT ASSY.Assembly Bolts. • A larger head screw or addition of a large diameter metal washer under the bolt head and/or nut will increase the contact area and reduce stress. Figure V-11 illustrates this concept. Bolts and screws are used to join plastic to metal or plastic to plastic.5 . A spring washer can be used to maintain acceptable force and torque levels. • Flat head screws and rivets should be avoided in plastic applications. Nuts. the greater the stress relaxation. although self-tapping screws are more common. (STEM WASHER ATTACHED) STEM WASHER PLASTIC METAL SHOULDER BOLT SPRING WASHER PLASTIC METAL Option 1 Option 2 STEM (WASHER ATTACHED) FLAT WASHER (OPTIONAL) PLASTIC METAL Option 3 Figure V-12. Figure V-12 shows various options to help counteract stress relaxation. Rapid application of torque should be avoided since most thermoplastics are rate sensitive. A rapid initial stress reduction takes place before leveling off over time. • As stress relaxation occurs. the clamping force and torque retention drop and the fastener will loosen.01 So=15000 So=5000 . Options 1 & 2 use a shoulder washer or bolt in combination with the spring washer.1 1 TIME.9 So=15000 psi 0. These conical shaped fasteners cause a wedging action which results in high hoop stress and possible failure of the part. Elevated temperatures will further increase relaxation.6 0.8 S/So 0.0 So=5000 psi 0. • Assembly must be limited to a prescribed torque level and controlled. and Machine Screws Standard metal fasteners are also used to assemble thermoplastic components. The higher the stress. The main clamping is metal to metal while a smaller force holds the plastic. 1. Care must be taken to prevent excessive compressive stress on the plastic.7 STRESS RELAXATION ON A PLASTIC PART 0. HOURS 10 100 Figure V-11.

Also it is good design practice to include radii of . (See Figure V14. Molded-In Thread Relief External threads should be located on the tool parting line. 1/32 in Figure V-13.Assembly Molded-In Threads One of the advantages of injection molded parts is the ability to mold in many kinds of functional features such as threads. 1/32 in 1/32 in Figure V-14.005 in. Single Screw Thread Tapered Pipe Threads Special care should be taken when designing internal tapered pipe threads that will be mated with a metal pipe. These can be traditional forms or specially modified versions tailored to specific applications. at the thread roots to minimize stress concentration.–. if at all possible. If a single thread that is slightly less than 360° around is adequate. These threads act as a wedge. This will lower tool cost and lower mold cycle time.010 in. causing high hoop stress that may crack the plastic member. is sufficient to prevent high stresses at the end of the threads. Examples of external and internal threads are shown below. The two main types of threads are external and internal. to avoid undercuts and the need for an unscrewing mechanism. then it can be formed using a straight core pull. Generally 1/32 in.) V-9 . Coarse threads are generally preferred due to their higher strength and torque limits. Internal threads are usually formed by an unscrewing or collapsible core. Acme• or Buttress• thread • • forms can be used. if over-tightened. Both types should be designed with lead-in thread relief. For applications requiring high pullout or subject to high pressure loads. Some means of providing a positive stop should be incorporated such as a shoulder at the bottom of the internal plastic thread.

0 to 2. They cut threads by means of a slotted shank. Bosses for Self-Tapping Screws V-10 . some form of metal inserts should be used. Boss diameter should be at least 2 times the pilot hole diameter. 4. but the difference in strip to drive torque is more important than the ratio. Because they actually remove material when inserted. There are several styles of thread forming screws designed specifically for plastics. For repeated assembly and disassembly. These screws have a high strip torque to drive torque ratio which is important for small sizes. Three of the more widely used are: Plastite™ These screws have a trilobular cross-section which roll threads by moving material out of the way as they are installed. PT™ This thread design has a single 30° included angle which reduces hoop stress in the boss and also provides a high strip torque to drive torque ratio. Seating torque should be no more than 2/3 strip torque. Hi-Lo™ These screws feature a dual lead with a high thread having a 30° included angle and the low thread having a 60° angle. 3. Holes should be counterbored or chamfered to a depth of .5D D . 6. Thread cutting screws are generally used only on brittle plastics. thread cutting screws should not be reinstalled and a chip reservoir should be added. Thread forming screws are generally preferred for most thermoplastic applications.020 in d Figure V-15. 5. After installation. 2. the material fills back around the shank lowering the residual stress in the screw boss.5 times the screw diameter. These types of screws can be reinstalled a limited number of times (3-7). D 2. This feature also gives the Plastite• screws excellent resistance to loosening due to vibration. Lower hoop stress is produced but higher stress concentrations result due to acute angle threads. This can vary with the material and the type of fastener (check with your Basf design representative).020 in. such as thermosets and highly filled (+50%) thermoplastics. to aid alignment and reduce the chance of boss cracking.Assembly Self-Tapping Screws There are two main types of self-tapping fasteners used in plastic parts: thread cutting and thread forming. Cored holes should have 1/4° to 1/2° draft/side. Pilot hole diameter should be based on 50%-70% thread engagement. Strip to drive torque ratio should be at least 3:1. Higher hoop stress is produced with these screws. Guidelines for self-tapping fasteners: 1. Thread engagement length should be 2. 7.

The high frequency horn vibrations cause frictional heat between the insert and plastic. these inserts are placed in the mold cavity and the plastic is injected. There are several methods of installing inserts: Ultrasonic This method uses the same equipment as ultrasonic welding.Assembly Inserts Inserts of various types are used with plastics. thereby encapsulating them. The most common are threaded metal inserts. The expansion insert is designed to expand into the side walls of the boss with a tool. and they have lower mechanical performance. Threaded metal inserts are used when the assembly application requires repeated assembly and disassembly or the assembly needs to resist creep and compressive relaxation. either internally threaded nuts or externally threaded studs.) Press-fit and Expansion This type of insertion is not normally desirable. As the name implies. Thermal Insert Ultrasonic Insert Expansion Insert Self-Tapping Insert T Figure V-16. thereby melting it into the boss. The insert is pressed in with an interference fit. Molded-in This method is often used for large or special inserts. (See Figure V-7. This method is relatively slow and also yields a low stress assembly with good pull out strengths. and In-X Fasteners Corp. V-11 . Typical Threaded Metal Inserts Illustration Credit: Spirol Inserts CEM Corporation Inc. The need to place the insert in the mold increases cycle time and mold damage can occur. Thermal This is similar to ultrasonics in that the insert is melted into the boss but the insert is heated by a device like a soldering iron. Self-tapping These inserts have an external self-tapping screw thread and are driven into the hole using low cost equipment. Both methods impart a high stress to the boss. This process takes under 5 seconds and features low residual stress and excellent pullout strengths.

0 second.5-1. Due to their sharp melting points. 1980. semi-crystalline resins often do not achieve strong welds with energy director joints. LEAD-IN .016 0. As with energy director joints. Shear Joint Interference Guidelines V-12 . In a shear joint.75 0. The major factor determining the quality of an ultrasonic weld is the joint design.Assembly Ultrasonic Welding Ultrasonic welding is a quick and reliable way to assemble the same or very similar thermoplastic parts. a small contact area is initially melted and then continues down the weld surface as one part is forced into the other. Shear Joint (Flash Trap) Maximum Part Dimension (In) <0. Standard welder frequencies are 20 kHz.003 Figure V-17 (c). thereby melting the plastic. or by placing parts in moisture proof bags to assure dry as molded condition. Shear Joint A shear joint is more commonly used on semi-crystalline materials such as nylon* and polyester.25 in Min. • Interference Figure V-17 (b).75 to 1.008 to 0. This can be achieved by welding parts soon after molding. flash traps can be included in the joint design.50 >1. Typical joint designs and interference guidelines are shown in Figure V-17 (a–c). although 40 kHz units are available for small delicate parts.016 to 0.• Branson Ultrasonics Corp. * NOTE: Hygroscopic materials such as nylon should be welded in their dry as molded• condition to prevent brittle • welds. strong structural and hermetic seals can be obtained. The energy is then shut off and the pressure maintained until the weld surface has solidified.020 ±0. DEPTH OF WELD .50 Interference for Part Dimension Size (Range) Tolerance (In) 0.020 in 30˚– 45˚ INTERFERENCE FIXTURE Figure V-17 (a). The choice depends on the type of material to be welded and the end use requirements.002 ±0. The parts are held in a fixture under pressure while the ultrasonic energy is applied. Total weld time is generally around 0. The molten material flowing from the weld area quickly resolidifies before welding to the opposite interface. The two major types of joint designs are shear joints and energy director joints. Electrical energy is converted into mechanical vibrations causing frictional heat between mating parts. Shear Joint Illustration credit: Vibration Welding.012 0.012 to 0. Due to the good material mixing between the welded parts.001 ±0..

For appearance parts. Energy Director V-13 . Energy director joints are normally used for amorphous materials. Hitchcock Publishing. No Flash W 4 Illustration Credit: Holtz. Richard.024 in Figure V-18 (a) & (b).) W 2 3° to 5° DRAFT ANGLE W 8 3W 8 CLEARANCE FIT (BOTH SIDES) W 8 W 4 W Figure V-19. Efficient. flash traps can be designed into the joint. Vibration Welding: Fast. (Figure V-19. It concentrates ultrasonic energy causing a rapid initiation of the melt and welding of the material.• Assembly • Engineering.Assembly Energy Director An energy director is a raised triangular bead molded on one of the joint surfaces. W 8 W 64 W W BEFORE WELD AFTER WELD CLEARANCE W 8 3W 8 W 8 W* 4 W BEFORE WELD AFTER WELD *Minimum of . Quiet. Typical joint designs are shown below in Figure V-18.

140 in. Vibration Weld Joints Illustration Credit: Holtz. Care must be taken when designing fixturing to prevent unsupported part walls from flexing during welding. respectively.–.–.030in WALL THICKNESS STATIONARY ELEMENT Figure V-20.. SPRINGS ELECTROMAGNET VIBRATING ELEMENT ELECTROMAGNET WELD SURFACE 0. However. including flash traps to provide for a cosmetic appearance. One of the main limitations on this welding process is that the weld joint must be designed so that the reciprocation motion takes place on a single plane.• Hitchcock Publishing. Weld time is generally 2–3 seconds.. In this process. Figure V-21. Separate welded areas can be incorporated on parallel planes to the direction of motion on the same part. Richard. Depending on the equipment (Figure V-20).• • Branson Ultrasonics Corp. and . Components of a Vibration Welder Illustration credit: Designing Parts for Ultrasonic Welding. Efficient. Allowance for this amplitude must be built into the joint.015in–0. The flash trap must accommodate the melt area (shaded areas are basically equal in volume). The welding cycle is described in more detail below. x 24 in.Assembly Vibration Welding Vibration welding is a preferred method for assembling large structural parts of the same or very similar thermoplastic parts. 1980.030 in. the plane need not be flat. This method is used to create separate sealed integral gas and oil compartments on chain saw chassis. • Standard machines can accept parts up to 16 in. it may be bowed or bent as in automotive intake manifolds. welding frequency is either 120 Hz or 240 Hz with weld peak to peak amplitudes being . Strong hermetic bonds can be achieved using this process.020in Min.060 in. Quiet. Some common joint designs are shown in Figure V-21. The back and forth motion of vibration welding also helps to remove surface contaminants such as mold release from the weld area. MELT DOWN 0. V-14 .065 in. Assembly • Engineering. A new method called orbital vibration welding makes welding unsupported walls easier by producing a constant circular motion so no wall is ever perpendicular to the weld direction. frictional heat is developed by moving the two parts relative to each other under pressure. Vibration Welding: Fast. A proper holding fixture is critical in achieving a good weld.

c+d = weld surface. forming a head and locking the second part in place. fast and permanent. SHEAR JOINT TONGUE & GROOVE rib Steel CLEARANCE . Dome Stake t = wall thickness of the part a = depth of weld. Spin Welding Spin welding is a fast and practical assembly technique for joining circular parts or surfaces. Strong. Should be . Frictional heat melts both surfaces. A specially contoured horn contacts and melts the top of the stud. The welding joint can be either flat. Figure V-23 Credit: Forward Technology Industries.5 to . It produces a tight assembly with a variety of head contours to choose from (Figure V-22 shows a dome configuration). Most thermoplastics can be spin welded. angled or V-shaped. permanent and hermetic welds can be obtained. Must be 30 degrees or greater to avoid jamming. Rotation is stopped and pressure is maintained until the weld solidifies. but accurate orientation between the parts is difficult. Staking is simple. Flash from the weld can also be hidden with special joint designs (see Figure V-23). V-15 .02in Where: Figure V-22.8 times the wall thickness.5 times the wall thickness.5 t Plastic 1. heat and hot gas) is a common assembly technique to join two dissimilar materials.015in – . Should be up to 2.Assembly Other Assembly Techniques Thermoplastic Staking Staking (including ultrasonic.002in c 1. A stud configuration or boss molded into one of the plastic parts protrudes through a hole or matching configuration in the second part. Welds are made by rotating one part against the other fixed part at high speed and under pressure. usually with a flange for increased surface area and rigidity.2 t b a rib Horn t a d rib t • . b = angle of stationary joint interface. particularly rigid resins. Cycle times are generally 1 to 2 seconds and ordinary machinery equipment can be used. Part configuration or a keying feature is needed for rotating a part.

077in .085in .) . This assembly is then exposed to an induction heat field which melts the strand and plastic to form a strong bond at the interface.020in R . Our studies show the shear strength of the weld to be about 5000 psi.203in . rapid and reliable assembly technique to produce a strong and hermetic joint.040in . V-16 . A variety of joints can be used as in other welding techniques.267 in (Min.092in EMAWELD STRAND BEFORE WELD PROVIDE STOP .097in . A specially designed strand is placed between the two parts to be welded.085in (Min.218in AFTER WELD Figure V-24 Credit: Emabond Systems.085in (Min.) .325in .112in . .040in R .020in .) . A tongue and groove joint is shown in Figure V-24.310in .Assembly Electromagnetic Welding Electromagnetic welding provides a simple.020in .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI–2 Molecular Weight Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI–5 Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI–4 Physical Properties . . . . VI–5 Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part VI Plastic Materials Classification of Plastic Materials. . . VI–6 . . . . . . . . . . . VI–5 Thermal Expansion. .

At room temperature. extruding or shaping under high temperature conditions. The material can be formed into a finished shape by molding.Plastic Materials Part VI: Plastic Materials Plastics are man-made materials. Each molecule consists of many units of organic chemicals. They are made up of long chains of large molecules. Thermoplastic material can be classified into two categories: Crystalline and Amorphous. VI-2 . Some of the materials retain rigidity at relatively high temperatures and can replace metallic components in such high temperature environments as automobile underhood applications. and it can withstand significant structural load. PLASTIC MATERIALS THERMOPLASTIC CRYSTALLINE AMORPHOUS PP PE THERMOSET EPOXY MELAMINE PHENOLICS UNSATURA PC PS POLYESTER PET PPS BUTYL RUBBER PBT PPO NYLON (PA) PVC ACETAL (POM) ABS SAN POLYSULFONE POLYARYLATE POLYETHERIMIDE PMMA (ACRYLICS) Table VI-1. Figure VI-1 shows molecular structure of the material in various forms. while thermoset plastics are processed in an uncured state and then cured in the mold. It will degrade or char if exposed to high temperature. or macromolecules. Family of Plastic Materials Thermoplastic material is processed in a molten state at elevated temperature. the material is solid and rigid. thus called a polymer (many units). Classification of Plastic Materials General classification of plastic materials is shown in Table VI-1. Thermoplastics can be reprocessed by melting the finished product while a thermoset material cannot because it has no melting point.

Therefore. When heated. Specific Volume 1. M O D U L U S d. they will form some crystalline regions and some amorphous regions.Plastic Materials c.04 Figure VI-1.92 0. most of the crystalline polymers cannot achieve full crystallinity.80 0 32 100 50 100 200 150 300 200 400 250 500 300˚C 572˚F Typical Nylon 6 Temperature Figure VI-3. they are sometimes called semi-crystalline polymers. Figure VI-2.96 Amorphous 0. a.84 100% Crystalline 0. it exhibits both a glass transition behavior and a sharp melting point. whereas amorphous polymers consist of randomly entangled polymer chains. Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastic Thermoset with Transition Amorphous Thermoplastic Thermoset without Transition TEMPERATURE b. Since a semi-crystalline polymer contains both crystalline and amorphous phases.88 0. Faster cooling rates will result in higher amorphous content. Volume vs. Instead. as shown in Figure VI3 for a Nylon 6 material. Figure VI-2 shows the temperature dependence of the modulus for various classes of plastics. They start in a rigid state at room temperature and get softer above the glass transition temperature (Tg ) until they become liquid in the higher temperature regions. 1. The proportion of the two phases depends on the cooling rate during molding.00 0. Amorphous polymers change their rigidity gradually as the temperature rises. Mechanical Characteristics of Various Plastics In real molding conditions.08 1. the crystalline polymers exhibit a distinct melting point (Tm ) and change from rigid plastic to easy-flowing liquid. Molecular Configuration of Crystalline Polymers and Amorphous Polymers a) Amorphous Polymer Solid b) Folded Chain Polymer Crystal c) Extended Chain • Drawn Polymer Fiber d) Semi-Crystalline Polymer The molecular structure of crystalline polymers shows periodic folding of molecules. Temperature Behavior of Nylon 6 VI-3 .

the lower the molecular weight. Population n1 n2 • • • • • • In nn n2 Population N n1 nn Mn Mw In Chain Length Mn : Number Average Molecular Weight Mw : Weight Average Molecular Weight I1 I2 Figure VI-4. The amount of plastic collected at the bottom of the capillary in a given time is called MI. and this number is related to the molecular weight of the sample. as shown in Figure VI-4. Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymers VI-4 . The higher the number. or molecular weight. A simple method to evaluate relative value of a given polymer is to use the Melt Index (MI) method. such as melt viscosity and part strengths. and the distribution of such chain lengths. this method is rather time consuming and costly. creates a form of bell curve. They are Formic Acid Viscosity (FAV) and Intrinsic Viscosity (IV). The full spectrum of molecular weight distributions can be obtained through an analytic lab technique called Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC).Plastic Materials Molecular Weight Distribution Molecular chain length in plastic materials varies from very short to very long. There are similar but a little more complicated methods of estimating the molecular weight distribution. FAV is normally used for Nylon materials. However. Molecular Weight of Polymers Chain Length I1 I2 • • • The weight averaged value (Mw) of the molecular weight distributions affects important physical properties. and IV is used for thermoplastic PET materials. and it is pushed through a nozzle by placing a specified weight on a plunger. Molten plastic is placed in a heated capillary chamber.

the product design engineer should calculate dimensional changes over the service temperature range.77 Expansion (x 10–6 in/in/°F) Steel 6 40 Specific Gravity 30 20 10 Unfilled Nylon G/Filled Aluminum Nylon 0 Unfilled Nylon G/Filled Aluminum Nylon Steel Figure VI-5. etc. Thermal Expansion Relative Comparisons 5 4 3 2 1. Specific Gravity Relative Comparisons 8 7 7. Large parts are also more of a concern than smaller parts. tensile and shear stress. Thermal Expansion Coefficient VI-5 . Specific Gravity Figure VI-6.75 50 Thermal Expansion Plastic materials change dimensions significantly with temperature.49 2. Care must be taken when joining materials having different coefficient of thermal expansion for buckling.Plastic Materials Physical Properties Plastic materials have significantly different physical properties compared to metallic materials. Some key properties are compared against metallic materials in the following topics: Density Plastic material is significantly lighter than most metallic materials. to verify that critical dimensions will remain within acceptable limits. Figure VI-6 compares the thermal expansion coefficient of various materials.13 1 0 1. Plastic materials replace metals in many applications where product weight reduction is desired. Therefore. as shown in Figure VI-5.

6 0.04 0.4 Water 0.006 0. Figure VI-7 shows thermal conductivities of various plastic materials as compared to other materials. Plastic is then a good thermal insulator.008 0. Thermal Conductivities of Solids. Vedal S.“ Addison-Wesley.06 0.06 .01 0.05 Polyvinyl Chloride Polystyrene .0 0.2 0. Liquids and Gases with Temperature Illustration credit: Arpaci.004 200 400 600 Diatomaceous Earth 10 lb/ft3 Air Silica Brick . Convection Heat Transfer. “ VI-6 .3 30% Glass Filled Nylon High Alloy Steels Lead (liquid) Zinc (solid) Sodium (liquid) Low Carbon Steels Iron Zinc (liquid) Potassium (liquid) Copper 1.08 .07 Carbon Dioxide Benzene (gaseous) .1 .02 Methane 0.09 .08 0.6 .04 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 Absolute Temperature °R Figure VI-7.5 30% Glass Filled PBT .8 .8 0.7 . This thermal characteristic can be a positive or negative factor depending on the application.0 .2 Missouri Firebrick ABS Polyethylene Acetal Polypropylene Nylon .Plastic Materials Thermal Conductivity Plastic materials do not conduct heat well and are about two orders of magnitude less conductive than the metals.1 0.4 Thermal Conductivity Btu hr -1 ft -1 F -1 PLASTICS Polycarbonate . 400 200 Aluminum 100 80 60 40 20 Alloy Steels 10 8 6 4 Magnesite Brick 2 Ice 1.9 ..

. . . VII–4 Thermal Aging. Stress Relaxation and Service Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–8 Long-Term Properties– Creep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–11 . . . . . . . VII–6 Process Induced Property Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–6 Dimensional Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part VII Physical Properties The Mechanical Properties of Plastics . . . . . . . . VII–2 Short-Term Properties . . . . . . . . VII–2 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–4 Moisture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–5 Dimensional Considerations (Moisture Absorption). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–9 Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . VII–2 Rate of Loading. . . . . . . . . . . . VII–7 Additives (Color) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–8 Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–6 Accelerated Moisture Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII–8 Ultraviolet (UV) Light . . . . . . . . VII–2 Notches . . . . . . VII–6 Effects of Moisture . . .

IZOD. You can find these properties for individual resins listed in BASF’s product data sheets. So the short-term properties cannot be applied to long-term applications. Impact resistance of materials is better measured by drop weight impact loading (see Figure VII-4 for testing method). Short-Term Properties Standard mechanical properties are normally obtained by test methods as specified by the American Standard Testing Materials (ASTM) or by the International Standard Organization (ISO) methods. (Product data on all our individual resins is also available via the Internet. Definitions of various physical properties and terminologies are listed in Appendix I.) Test specimens used for some standard test methods are shown in Figure VII-1. The influence of the notch radius on the impact resistance is shown in Figure VII-3 and it indicates the notch sensitivity of materials. can be affected significantly by the following factors: Notches Notches or sharp corners introduce stress concentrations and can induce premature failures. however. etc. especially during impact. Therefore. part configuration. as shown in Figure VII-5. FLAME TENSILE TYPE I I Figure VII -1.Physical Properties Part VII: Physical Properties The Mechanical Properties of Plastics The mechanical properties of plastic materials can vary depending on the service environments. The notched Izod specimen geometry is shown in Figure VII-2. TENSILE IMPACT DROP WEIGHT IMPACT FLEX. types of loading. Sudden change of cross-sections are to be avoided when designing with plastics. Test Specimens VII-2 . Call BASF for details. DTUL. These two standards are cross referenced in Appendix II. the duration of the service loading. Resistance of material to the combined effects of notches and impact is measured by the Notched Izod Impact Test. The material properties. Rate of Loading Higher rates of loading tend to reduce elongation of a plastic material. and it can result in brittle failures. Some materials are more resilient to such rapid loading effects than others. design engineers should obtain property data that is applicable to the service conditions and life expectancy of the product. at the end of this guide. It produces significantly different ranking of materials compared with those obtained by the notched Izod test method.

Section) .) 12 Izod Impact ft–lb/inch of notch Ring 10 (2.5 0.8 1.C.3 1.3 0.500 45° Tube (Cross . Izod Impact Strength vs.0 2. Drop Weight Impact Values vs. Drop Weight Impact Test Drop Weight (ft-lbs) Polycarbonate Nylon 6 Modified Nylon 6/6 Nylon 6 Copolymer PBT Nylon 6/6 Nucleated Nylon 6 30% GR Nylon 6 20% GR Polycarb 30% GR Nylon 6/6 30% GR PBT >180 135 125 125 95 75 75 3. 1/1000 inch Figure VII-3.400 Top Weight 1.6 0. Izod Impact Values of Various Engineering Thermoplastics VII-3 .0 2.5 1.0 1.500 Figure VII-2.0 4 G 2 RA ENE L PU RPO 20 SE 8 2 (D RY) IZOD (ft-lbs/in notch) Polycarbonate Modified Nylon 6/6 Nylon 6 Copolymer Modified PPO 20% GR Polycarb 30% GR PBT 30% GR Nylon 6 PBT Nylon 6/6 Nylon 6 Nucleated Nylon 6 12.9 1.8 0.5 202 SE 8 RPO 8 L PU ERA 6 GEN UL TR I AM DC O PO M LY ER 8 3 25 (D RY ) Figure VII-4. Notch Radius Figure VII-5.0 3.Physical Properties .010 R . Impact Specimen Specimen Cross Section Specimen/Ring Top View %M .250 Detail 2.5 1.4 GLASS REINFORCED NYLON (DRY) O O 5 10 20 40 60 80 100 Notch Radius.

However. this test method is based on a specific deflection during test rather than a total time history. VII-4 . DTUL Apparatus 93° C (200°F) 149° C (300° F) STRAIN (% ELONGATION ) Figure VII-6. Figure VII-8 shows the effect of heat aging on an Ultramid® nylon product. Tensile Stress-Strain Curve of Petra 130 at Various Temperatures Thermal Aging Plastic degrades under extended exposure to high temperature environment.Physical Properties Temperature Properties of plastics change significantly with temperature. Typical property changes with temperature are shown in Figure VII-6. DIAL INDICATOR LOAD THERMOMETER SPECIMEN -40° C (-40°F) TENSILE STRESS (psi) HEATED LIQUID MEDIA 23° C (73°F) Figure VII-7. Deflection Temperature Under Load (DTUL) is sometimes used for screening high temperature grade materials. Property values corresponding to the service temperature should be used for designing a plastic part. Results should be used in combination with other inputs. And Figure VII-9 shows how extensive heat aging affects thermoplastics. The test apparatus is illustrated in Figure VII-7.

350°F (177°C) 1500 2000 300 200 Figure VII-8.Physical Properties 125 % Retension Tensile Strength Effect of heat aging on tensile strength of ULTRAMID 8233G HS BK-102 100 75 50 Moisture Nylon 6 or 6/6 absorb moisture from the air and environment.300°F (149°C) . Figure VII-10 shows the flexural modulus change due to temperature and moisture. Temperature and Moisture of Ultramid ® 8202 2 0 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 Number of Cycles to Failure Key: As Molded Heat Aged 650 Hrs at 400°F Figure VII-9. Heat Aging Effect 100 10 0 8 100 200 Temperature (°F) DAM 50% R. Flexural Modulus vs.250°F (121°C) . Kpsi 6 4 Figure VII-10. 300 350 Key: Stress.) 400 25 0 0 500 Flexural Modulus (x 103 psi) 1000 Time (Hours) Key: . (See Dimensional Considerations • Moisture Absorption• • in Part VII of this guide. Mechanical properties and dimensions will change depending on the amount of the absorbed moisture.H. Fatigue Life of Petra 130 Before and After Heat Aging VII-5 .

) 50 100 in 60 0.25 0 in 0. TIME 50% RH & 73° F 8233 33% GLASS REINFORCED AT DIFFERENT THICKNESS 3. or impact requirements may need moisture conditioning prior to use or testing.) MOISTURE CONTENT vs.125 in 0. Nylon will increase in impact resistance.1 0 0.12 0 0.Physical Properties Dimensional Considerations (Moisture Absorption) Effects of Moisture All nylons are hygroscopic. The conventional practice is to choose 50% relative humidity at 73°F and base the design on property values at this condition. The moisture absorption rate is shown in Figure VII-11 for Ultramid 8233 (33% GR Nylon). The amount and rate of moisture absorbed from the atmosphere depends upon the ambient humidity and temperature.0 MOISTURE CONTENT 2.250 in Once at the new average condition. See Dimensional Considerations manual for other materials. The time it takes for nylon to come to equilibrium depends on the thickness.5 0 2 4 6 TIME (MONTHS) 8 10 12 0.5 1.25 Figure VII-13 VII-6 .2 0. Dimensional Changes Nylon parts will expand with exposure to moisture.5 0. as can be seen in Figure VII-12. toughness and size.0 in 25 0.2 0.5 2.0 2 TIME (HRS. further dimensional changes will be minimal. Design engineers should account for moisture effects when designing parts with nylon. A study performed by BASF showed that the annual average relative humidity throughout the USA varies between 40% to 60%.2 2 5 10 20 TIME (HRS.0 1. These changes are small and need only be considered for applications with very large dimensions or very tight tolerances. property.5 0. Submerging the parts in room temperature water or high temperature water can accelerate the time to achieve the design moisture content (Compare Figure VII-11 with Figure VII-13.5 1. while its strength and stiffness properties will decrease as it absorbs moisture.06 5 in 0.060 in 0.0 0.) 5 Figure VII-11 MOISTURE CONTENT 10 5 2 1 0. Ultramid® 8233 ROOM TEMPERATURE WATER Ultramid® 8233 180° F WATER 10 MOISTURE CONTENT 5 2 1 0. 8233 DIMENSIONAL CHANGE (mils/in) 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) Key: Dimensional Change Equilibrium Moisture Content 10 8 6 4 2 0 100 EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT (%) 10 Figure VII-12 Accelerated Moisture Conditioning Some applications having critical dimensional.

The molded part will also be very weak at a weld line. Property Variations With Fiber Orientation in a Molded Petra 130 Shell Structure Where: L -Longitudinal Direction T -Transverse Direction VII-7 . creates different directional property characteristics: stronger in the flow direction and weaker in transverse direction.Physical Properties FIBER ORIENTATION Glass-Reinforced Polymers Stronger GATE LONGITUDINAL (Flex Bar) GATE Stronger Weaker Weaker Process Induced Property Variations Fiber orientation. and improper processing.0 20 15 10 5 0 0 Flexural Modulus (x 105 psi) 8 6 4 0. Hole Formed by Mold Pin TRANSVERSE (Plaque) Weld Line Figure VII-14 IZOD Impact 1. will degrade the resin.) A typical property profile of an injection molded Petra® 130 shell structure is shown in Figure VII-15. thereby reducing physical properties. Improper preparation.5 2 L T L T 0 L T Figure VII-15.5 30 Flexural Strength 10 Flexural Modulus IZOD Impact (ft-lbs/inch of notch) 25 Flexural Strength (x 103 psi) 1. (See Figure VII-14. such as poor drying of the resin. especially for glass reinforced material (see Figure VII-14). Excessive amounts of regrind will reduce strength as well. introduced during molding.

The influence of colorants varies. Special UV resistant grades are available from BASF. depending on the ingredients and quantity used to achieve a specific color. However. Ultraviolet (UV) Light Ultraviolet light affects the polymer structure chain and reduces the physical properties of plastics. Chemicals Certain chemicals attack plastics and reduce their physical properties. the surface appearance can be significantly affected. Each polymer behaves differently when exposed to various chemicals. A design engineer should refer to the chemical resistance table for each material (See the Chemical Resistance Guide) to make sure the service environment is not harmful to the plastic material being used.Physical Properties Additives (Color) Carbon black or colorants do affect strength. VII-8 . service life of the material. and testing is recommended. and therefore. These grades are formulated to extend the surface appearance. Most of the degradation is localized to the outermost layer so the overall strength decay is minimal.

Lo Lo + ∆ L Lo + ∆ L + ∆c Lo Lo + ∆L Lo + ∆L ∆L ∆L ∆L ∆L Initial Strain (short-term creep) ∆c = Creep w Time = 1 Min. Time = T Force Gage Reading a) Tensile Creep (Sustained Load) Time = T b) Stress Relaxation (Diminishing Load) Figure VII-16. One can observe this phenomenon in plastic assemblies such as mechanically fastened plastic components. The amount of the elongation depends on the magnitude of the load. The creep phenomenon is illustrated in Figure VII-16(a). (a) & (b) Creep and Stress Relaxation Phenomena VII-9 . w Force Gage Reading Time = 1 Min. On the other hand. creep will continue and lead to eventual failure. and if the load is constant or diminishing with time. When a sustained load is applied Figure VII-16(a). This last case is called stress relaxation. duration. Stress Relaxation and Service Life When a load is applied on a plastic part.Physical Properties Long-Term Properties Creep. if the load is applied and then fixed. the stress will decrease with time Figure VII-16(b). the part will elongate or collapse with time. Such time dependent change is called creep.

If the failure time is plotted against the applied stress level on a log-graph. Creep strain does not recover immediately but takes time to recover after the load is removed.SO = 15. as shown in Figure VII-18. a significant portion of the creep strain is unrecoverable.000 psi . Based on this principle.7 Figure VII-17. The higher the load or stress. Compressive Relaxation of 33% Glass Reinforced Nylon VII-10 . an approximate linear relationship can be found.SO = 5. See Figure VII-17. the higher the strain and the faster the rate.000 psi . One can now predict the service life of a part under sustained loading. Extrapolation of a curve for more than one decade in the time scale is not recommended. Generally. Hours .000 psi Figure VII-18.Physical Properties The creep strain is added to the initial elastic strain to arrive at a total strain.9 St /S0 104 105 3 2 1 . The amount of the creep strain and the rate of elongation depends on the applied load. Creep Strain Showing Stress and Time Dependency .0 1 .6 0 50 100 Time (Hours) 150 200 Legend: . Elastic strain can be recovered immediately upon release of the load. Log. The rate of the stress decay takes place faster with a higher initial stress level. reducing stress in a mechanical fastening application reduces the clamping force decay.SO = 10. Creep Strain 3 Increasing Stress 2 1.8 101 102 103 Time. Examples of the service life prediction scheme are shown in Figures VII-19 and 20. The amount of deformation and failure time depends on the stress level.

The lower the COF value.000 100. Hours 10. Time to Rupture Curve of Wheel Assemblies (Air Filled) @ 73° F . Log Stress (σ1000) 101 102 Figure VII-19. a conservative design approach is recommended. imperfections and specimen warpage. in which a sled of one material was pulled over a plane of a second material (See Figure VII-21). Extrapolation of a Creep-Rupture Curve for Service Life Prediction 1000 ULTRAMID 8267 100 Pressure. µs is generally greater than µk. the easier it is to move one part relative to another. Static COF (µs) relates to the force required to initiate the movement. The following COF data was generated by ASTM D-1894. 103 Time (Hours) 104 105 ULTRAMID 8233 • x •• • OPERATING PRESSURE W F 100 1000 Time. and is dimensionless.• Therefore the COF. Kinetic COF (µk) relates to the force required to sustain the movement.000 • ULTRAMID 8267 ULTRAMID 8233 x PETRA 130 µN N N=W F = µN Figure VII-21 VII-11 .. Pressure vs. µ = F/N. This test is very sensitive to surface irregularities. usually gravitational.Physical Properties Coefficient of Friction The coefficient of friction COF (µ) is defined in ASTM D1894 as •the ratio of the frictional force (F) to the force. The COF is a measure of the relative difficulty of one surface moving over another. acting perpendicular to the two surfaces in contact (N). psi • x x PETRA 130 10 1 10 Figure VII-20. Although the data presented in Table VII-1 are believed to be representative.

23 0.33 0.22 0.25 0.48 0.32 0.15 POLYMER-TO-POLYMER STATIC KINETIC POLYMER-TO-STEEL STATIC KINETIC ULTRAMID and PETRA are registered trademarks of Basf Inc.13 0.23 0.18 0.25 0.47 0.33 0.48 0. Table VII-1.32 0.32 0.16 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.39 0.33 0.22 0.19 0.Physical Properties PRODUCT ULTRAMID® 8200 HS 8202C HS 8224 HS 8253 HS 8254 HS BK-102 8350 HS 8351 HS BK-102 D-8358 HS BK-102 8233G HS 8267G HS D-8333G HS GY5723 8360 HS PETRA• 130 230 D-242 BK-112 132 0.26 0.17 0.16 0.34 0.32 0.22 0.15 0.35 0.16 0.17 0.27 0.16 0.3 0.25 0.21 0.38 0.37 0.33 0.34 0.17 0.18 0.32 0.35 0.32 0.17 0.15 0.32 0.17 0.15 0.16 0. Coefficient of Friction VII-12 .2 0.4 0.21 0.47 0.21 0.22 0.41 0.23 0.25 0.53 0.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII–3 Full Shot Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part VIII Gas Assist Molding Hollow Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII–2 Short Shot Molding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

There are generally three ways gas assist molding is utilized: 1. . The gas pressure is maintained until it is vented just prior to part ejection. The final crosssection is determined by part geometry. or into the part itself. usually nitrogen. . into the melt. It produces large. cars and large appliances. Ltd. The maximum circular area is generally limited to 1. the gas takes up the volume shrinkage of the plastic as it cools. into the runner. including those found on chain saws. Short Shot 3. gas and resin flow. (A) A circular core is produced during Phase 2 Flow that retains its form during Phase 3 Packing. Packing final channel shape Figure VIII-1 Reference: ‘‘Application of Gas Injection Technology’’ by Matthew Sayer. Full Shot VIII-2 . Depending on the process. and filler content. . In this way. the gas can be introduced through the machine nozzle. Hollow Molding This method is normally used to core out parts like chair arms and various types of handles. Cooling Effect of Surrounding Metal Phase 1. Hollow Molding 2. Gas assist molding is a form of injection molding in which the mold cavity is partially filled with molten plastic followed by injecting an inert gas. The process can also lower costs because it reduces cycle times and uses less material.Gas Assist Moldings Part VIII: Gas Assist Molding Gas assist molding is used to partially core out thick sections. (B) A rectangular form produces thicker sections on shorter sides. packing out sink marks and greatly reducing molded-in stress that can cause the part to warp. dimensionally stable parts with good surface and mechanical properties.25 in max. (C) Offset Phase 2 Flow produces solid sections on the opposite side. Cinpress. material type. Some common cross-sections are shown in Figure VIII-1. Phase 2 Flow Largest Circular Area 1. Plastic Injection Phase 2. Gas Injection Phase 3.25in.

such as mirror housings or door handles. .. They can also be run along the base of the side walls to help stiffen the part and prevent warpage. Channels Created Using Form Figure VIII-2 Reference: ‘‘Design Tips for Gas-Assisted Injection Molding. VIII-3 . Sidewall D. Sidewall . E.. Plastics Design Forum. . (July/August.. Vertical Rib B. Gas Assist Moldings Short Shot Molding This version is normally used for structural parts where heavy ribs are desired for stiffness. A. thus packing out sink marks.. especially those that will be painted or chrome-plated. The gas channels are generally positioned so the gas will flow along the base of ribs and under bosses. 1990) Full Shot Molding Here the mold cavity is filled completely with plastic before the gas is applied.. . ..’’ diagram of rib designs by Indra Baxi of Sajar Plastics. This is primarily used for highly aesthetic parts where elimination of sink marks is critical. . Bridge Rib C. Some design examples of these channels are given in Figure VIII-2. The coring is limited to the volume shrinkage of the plastic. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX–2 Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX -3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX–2 Printing/Hot Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX–2 Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part IX Finishing Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX–3 Surface Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

With special preparation of the surface for better adhesion (cleaning is essential). even the more difficult plastics. Other plating materials can also be used where desired. results in excellent plating adhesion and appearance.001in to . Their ability to tolerate high temperatures for long periods of time without softening is a key advantage. which have more slippery surfaces and chemical resistance. BASF materials will accept paint systems well. can be painted. IX-2 . A well-cleaned surface is the most important preparation for quality adhesions. PP and Acetal. Nylon and PET are excellent resins for paint applications. shielding and/or aesthetics. nickel and chrome in that sequence. Plating can be used to enhance conductivity. Good design practice for an effective end product includes: a) avoiding deep cavities or sharp corners b) application of abundant radii to avoid plating build-up. The total thickness of plating is in the range of . Occasional surface preparation may be needed for improved adhesion quality. which is designed to accept plating. Deep pockets can be expected to be void of plating. Painting Most plastics accept paint systems well. Special surface preparation may be needed in some cases. especially the amorphous resins.Finishing Part IX: Finishing Electroplating The mineral reinforced nylon 6 material (Ultramid® 8260).. PE. i. Refer to BASF’s Finishing Manual for more detailed information.e. especially where high-temperature curing is required.005in. Printing/Hot Stamping All known printing methods are effective when using BASF materials. An electrolytic pre-plating process of copper or nickel prepares the surface for final electroplating of copper.

• Provide good support at the cutting area. • Maintain a sharp tool with relief after the cut. and disguise wear and abuse. Specifying mold finish has often been arbitrary or neglected completely. you should remember to: • Provide for cooling during the cutting process. IX-3 . A practical guide to surface finish selection is the SPI Mold Finish Guide which is available from the Society of the Plastics Industry.Finishing Machining Nylon and PET are readily machinable using conventional metal-cutting equipment. and special preparations should be taken. • Apply low cutter forces. Cutting techniques for plastics are different than those for metals. The finish should be specified by SPE/SPI number where possible. hide sink marks. • Use cutting points with a radius. are less slippery. Surface Treatment A designer can chose from a variety of surface treatments and plastic colors. Uniform matte and textured mold surfaces are usually less costly than a high polish and can be obtained by vapor blast or glass blast. Both can be molded into the plastic part and require no further finishing operations. A smooth. matte or textured surfaces are also attractive. When cutting. uniform surface is often preferred for plating and painting. while machining or chemical etching can produce a variety of patterns and textures. However. Part function and/or aesthetics usually dictate the surface requirements. provide contrast. • Use carbide where possible. and high gloss is popular on many consumer applications. A wide selection of textures are available from companies that specialize in mold engraving. The injection molding process will accurately duplicate the mold surface. especially for reinforced resins.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Notch Sensitivity . . . . . . . A1–3 . . A1–2 Isotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Plasticity. A1–2 Hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Warpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part A1 Appendix I: Physical Properties and Terminology Anisotropy . A1–2 Brittleness . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Mold Shrinkage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Lubricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Ductility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Water Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Specific Gravity (Relative Density) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–3 Toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1–2 Friction and Wear . . . . . .

Density The density of plastics is the mass in air per unit volume of material at 23° C (73° F). As a rule. their resistance to abrasion and wear may still be excellent. The various hardness tests provide different behavior characteristics for plastics: —the resistance of a material to indentation by an indentor. Those with good lubricity tend to have a low coefficient of friction either with themselves or other materials and have no tendency to gall. It is expressed in force per unit area. brittleness. ductility. Elasticity Elasticity is the ability of material to return to its original size and shape after being deformed. tribological (lubricity and abrasive resistance) properties. These terms and others are defined below. anisotropy and isotropy are crucial physical properties determining the usefulness and durability of a plastic. The elastic region is very important for linear analysis (FEA) of thermoplastic components. plasticity. specific gravity. —the resistance of a material to scratching by another material. strength. If the plastic in the area of contact is loaded beyond its strength. stiffness. AI-2 . Although plastics may not be as hard as metal. toughness. Most plastic materials have limited elasticity. mold shrinkage. notch sensitivity. Elastic limit is the greatest stress which a material is capable of sustaining without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress. Glass and mineral reinforced thermoplastics have a high degree of property dependence on orientation of fiber reinforcement.Physical Properties and Terminology Appendix I: Physical Properties and Terminology Density. —the measurement rebound efficiency or resilience. expressed in pounds per cubic inch or grams per cubic centimeter. scratch resistance. pulled or rolled into shape without destroying its integrity. or more brittleness than unfilled plastics. elasticity. Brittleness Brittleness is the opposite of toughness. and brittleness. wear or abrasion will take place. water absorption. Ductility The ability of plastic to be stretched. Lubricity Lubricity refers to the load-bearing characteristics of a plastic under conditions of relative motion. reinforced thermoplastics show higher stiffness and lower impact properties. Isotropy An isotropic material is a material that retains the same physical properties when measured in any direction. Hardness Hardness is closely related to wear resistance. Friction and Wear Friction is resistance against change in the relative positions of two bodies touching one another. Anisotropy Anisotropic material properties depend on the direction in which they are measured. Typical ductile failure of plastics occurs when molecules slide along or past each other.

This process is done with both elastic and plastic deformation. Notch Sensitivity Notch sensitivity is the ability of crack propagation through a plastic from existing stress concentration areas (sharp corners. Warpage Complex shapes of the finished part promote varying contraction rates relative to molded part dimensions and can cause internal stress to build up during the cool-down process while molding. Mold shrinkage starts the very moment plastic is injected into the cavity of a closed mold. as well as dimensional stability. mechanical and electrical properties. holes. unless removed by drying prior to processing. cycle times. cooled in a desiccator. Saturation is given by percentage of part dry weight. unfilled resins have excellent toughness. Part warpage can be significantly greater than the in-plane mold shrinkage value. Plasticity occurs when the stress goes beyond yield strength on the stress-strain curve for plastic. or exposure to a humid air environment. This can cause warpage. and the smoothest flow path to prevent excessive shrinkage or differential shrinkage across the whole part. As a rule. Sometimes the toughness is measured by the amount of energy consumed to generate unit area of a fracture surface. AI-3 . Toughness Toughness refers to the ability of plastic to absorb mechanical energy without fracturing. Plastic parts absorb water by direct exposure or from airborne water vapors at a rate specific to each material. so optimum mold design will choose the best gate(s) position. and immediately weighed to the nearest 0. and injection molding conditions. mold shrinkage can vary with design and molding variables. Water Absorption Water absorption is the percentage of increase in the weight of a plastic part during its immersion in water. plastic for plastic) and for specific applications. flow direction. design variables (stress concentration areas) are quite important. Generally. In evaluating plastics for a particular impact or cyclic loading condition. grooves. Standard test specimens of a material whose physical property values would be appreciably affected by exposure to high temperatures in the neighborhood of 110°C (230°F) shall be dried in an oven for 24 hours at 50°C (122°F). The warpage and plastic part-distortion can be caused by internal stresses generated by non-uniform shrinkage. abrupt changes in the crosssectional area). the rate of water absorption is measured when a material is exposed to 50% relative humidity air (50% RH). Most engineering plastics show absorbent tendencies in their dry conditions (DAM–dry as molded). such as part walls thickness. Plastic parts (materials) can be either absorbent (hygroscopic) or nonabsorbent (non-hygroscopic). Plasticity Plasticity is the ability of material to preserve the shape and size to which it is formed. runner diameter. for material substitution (plastic for metal. Specific Gravity (Relative Density) The specific gravity (relative density) is the ratio of the mass in air of a unit volume of the impermeable portion of the material at 23°C (73°F) to the mass in air of equal density of an equal volume of gas-free water at same temperature. Material toughness is often measured as the area under the stressstrain curve.Physical Properties and Terminology Mold Shrinkage Mold shrinkage is the amount of contraction from mold cavity dimensions that a molded part exhibits after removal from the mold and cooling to room temperature. Increases in temperature affect plasticity of plastic materials. can cause serious degradation of physical properties.0001g. Mold shrinkage is very important for concurrent design. Moisture in the resins before molding. The presence of water (water absorption) in the plastic part influences its physical. For a given material.

Part A2 Appendix II: ISO and ASTM Test Methods .

13 Shrinkage.3 2.7 2. These methods may not be technically equivalent.5 1.2 2.5 2. Units for ASTM Test g/10 min % 294-4 - % % % Mechanical Properties Tensile modulus Yield Stress Yield Strain Nominal strain at break Stress at 50% strain Stress at break Strain at break Flexural modulus Flexural strength Charpy impact strength Charpy notched impact strength Izod impact strength at 23°C 527-1 & 2 527-1 & 2 527-1 & 2 178 178 179 179 180 D 638 D 638 D 790 D 790 D 4812 D 256 MPa MPa % MPa MPa kJ/m2 kJ/m2 kJ/m2 kJ/m2 MPa % MPa MPa J/m J/m psi % psi psi ft–lb/in ft–lb/in 527-1 & 2 527-1 & 2 527-1 & 2 527-1 & 2 D 638 D 638 D 638 MPa MPa % % MPa MPa % psi psi % - — • — • Izod notched 180 impact strength at 23°C * For each applicable ISO method.ISO and ASTM Test Methods Appendix II: ISO and ASTM Test Methods Property Number in ISO ISO 10350:1998 Property Standard 1 Rheological Properties 1.6 2 2.11 2.10 2.12 2.1 2. A2-2 . corresponding ASTM methods are provided for reference.1 Melt mass1133 flow rate 1. transverse direction 294-4 ASTM* Standard D 1238 SI Units for ISO Test g/10 min % SI Units for ASTM Test g/10 min % U. flow direction Shrinkage.S.4 2.6 2.

• Plastics Engineering. V-0) mm mm class mm % class mm % Electrical Properties Relative permittivity. 100 Hz Dissipation factor. flow direction.9 3.7 3.ISO and ASTM Test Methods Property Number in ISO 10350:1993 Property 3 3. The Road to Standardization. V-1. transverse direction. V-2.3 • ISO Standard ASTM Standard D3418 D 648 D 648 E228 or 831 E228 or 831 (UL94) (UL94) (UL94) (UL94) D 2863 SI Units for ISO Test C C C E-4 1/K E-4 1/K SI Units for ASTM Test C C C 1/C 1/C U.6mm Thickness Flammability•5V Thickness Limiting Oxygen Index 11359-2 11359-2 1210 10351 4589 mm class mm % class (as HB. 23-55°C CLTE*. 1MHz Dissipation factor.3 3.7 4. IEC 250 100Hz Relative permittivity.4 4.1 5. • A2-3 . 23-55°C Flammability at 1. 1MHz Volume resistivity Surface resistivity Electric strength Comparative tracking index Other Properties Water absorption 24 hr immersion/23°C Water absorption saturation at 23°C Water absorption at 23°C/50% RH Density Specific gravity IEC 250 IEC 250 IEC 250 IEC 93 IEC 93 IEC 243-1 IEC 112 D 150 D 150 D 150 D 150 D 257 D 257 D 149 E-4 E-4 ohm cm ohm kV/mm ohm cm ohm kV/mm ohm cm ohm V/mil 2 62 62 1183 1183 D570 D570 D792 D792 % % % g/cm3 % % % g/cm3 % % % lb/ft3 * CLTE = Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion ** TMA = Thermo-Mechanical Analysis Chart reference: Wigotsky.5 4.45 MPa CLTE*. Units for ASTM Test F F F 1/F 1/F Thermal Properties Melting 11357-3 temperature Temperature of deflection at 1.1 3.11 3. Victor.8 MPa 75-1& 2 Temperature of 75-1& 2 deflection at 0.1 4.13 4 4.8 3.4 3.3 4.6 4.2 4.2 • 5.S.9 5 5.

Part B1 Bibliography .

” Assembly Engineering..” Branson Utrasonics Corporation. 1987 SPE ANTEC. Forward Technology Industries. torsional deformation. Injection Molds and Molding.” Gas Assist Molding Sayer. Peterson. “•Emaweld. “•Application of Gas Injection Technology. California. and stress formulas thanks to: Roark. “Joint Designs.” Plastic Materials Arpaci. Efficient. ‘‘Short Cantilever Beam Deflection Analysis Applied to Thermoplastic Snap-Fit Design. Electromagnetic Welding System for Assembling Thermoplastic Parts. R. CT. Ltd. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and Young. Stress Contribution Factors. Hitchcock Publishing. • “•Ultrasonic Insertion.” Addison-Wesley. “Vibration Welding. Appendix II: ISO and ASTM Test Methods Wigotsky. • Plastics Design Forum. Richard. Jones. Joseph B. Raymond. Alan Dubin and Elmer D. CT.” Plastics Engineering. Second Edition. Structural Control Beer & Johnson. Danbury. BI-2 . “Convection Heat Transfer. McGraw Hill. Flat plate. Assembly “Designing Parts for Ultrasonic Welding. Matthew. Lee. Victor. Formulas for Stress and Strain. “The Road to Standardization. “Vibration Welding: Fast.” ©Branson Utrasonics Corporation.” Cinpress. • Holtz. Danbury.E. “Structural Adhesive Guide for Industrial Product Design and Assembly. Quiet.” Emabond Systems. USA. “Design Tips for Gas-Assisted Injection Molding. Danbury. Mechanical Material. CT.” diagram of rib designs by Indra Baxi of Sajar Plastics.. 3M..Bibliography Selective Bibliography Design Considerations for Injection Molded Parts Dym. Warren. Chul S.” Branson Utrasonics Corporation. Vedal S.’’ Held in Los Angeles.

8948 6.0689 6.) TEMPERATURE degree F PRESSURE psi psi ksi psi ENERGY AND POWER in lbf ft lbf kW U.1442 0.00689 0.3596 0.S.S. ton VOLUME inch3 inch3 fluid ounce quart (liquid) gallon (U.68 16. horsepower Btu Btu in (h ft2 F) VISCOSITY poise BENDING MOMENT OR TORQUE ft lb DENSITY lb/in3 lb/ft3 NOTCHED IZOD ft–lb/in To Metric System millimeters meters gram gram kilogram metric ton centimeter3 liter centimeter3 decimeter3 (liter) decimeter3 (liter) degree C bar kPa MN/m2 MPa Joules Joules metric horsepower Kw Joules W(m K) Pa s Multiply English Value by.3871 0.8948 0.1 0.3495 453.4 .4536 0.7457 1055.30478 28. 25.016387 29.1 Nm g/cm3 kg/m3 J/m 1.113 1. .7854 [(F)-32] / 1.9072 16.S.8 = (C) 0. .5925 0.English/Metric Conversion Chart To Convert English System DISTANCE inches feet MASS ounce (avdp) pound pound U.38 0.356 27.0185 53.3558 1.9464 3.5735 0.

NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND.com. OR THAT THE PRODUCTS. BASF is the world's leading chemical company. Germany. ARE MADE REGARDING PRODUCTS DESCRIBED OR DESIGNS. thus contributing to a better future. EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. As a reliable partner to virtually all industries.BASF Corporation Engineering Plastics 1 (800) 527-TECH BASF: The Chemical Company. We make a lot of the products you buy better. it is provided for your guidance only. DATA OR DESIGNS PROVIDED BE CONSIDERED A PART OF OUR TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE.® BASF Corporation. Because many factors may affect processing or application/use. All trademarks are owned by BASF AG or BASF Corporation. is the North American affiliate of BASF AG. Further information on BASF is available on the Internet at www. DATA OR INFORMATION SET FORTH. While the descriptions. DATA OR INFORMATION MAY BE USED WITHOUT INFRINGING THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OF OTHERS. performance products. DESIGNS. We don't make a lot of the products you buy. IN NO CASE SHALL THE DESCRIPTIONS. INFORMATION.basf. data and information contained herein are presented in good faith and believed to be accurate. Ludwigshafen. BASF's intelligent solutions and highvalue products help customers to be more successful. Our portfolio ranges from chemicals. INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. designs. We combine economic success with environmental protection and social responsibility. agricultural products and fine chemicals to crude oil and natural gas. headquartered in New Jersey. we recommend that you make tests to determine the suitability of a product for your particular purpose prior to use. BASF develops new technologies and uses them to open up additional market opportunities. plastics. © 2007 BASF Corporation .

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