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CHANGING ATTITUDE OF INDIAN CONSUMER TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING
AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
SUBMITTED TO: Prof. B RAY
AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
MOHD. MOHSIN ISLAM
The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of our project would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible and whose constant guidance & encouragement crowned our efforts with success. We express our sincere gratitude and thanks to Mr. Bedabal Ray for his support, guidance and valuable suggestions without which we would not have been able to complete this project. We are also thankful to all the respondents for their contribution who helped us in this study.
MOHD. MOHSIN ISLAM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………. Page 1 Abstract....................................…………………………………………...Page 4 Introduction ...................................................……………………………Page 5 Literature Review………………………………………………………...Page 6 Research Methodology…………………………………………………...Page 8 Online Shopping In India………………………………………………....Page 9 Change in Attitude towards Online Shopping……………………............Page 11 Proposed Model………………………………………………………......Page 15 Implications of Research……………………………………………....…Page 20 Research Report byJuxtconsult ……………………………………….....Page 21 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..Page 23 Annexure……………………………………………………….................Page 26
The growing use of Internet in India provides a developing prospect for online shopping. If Emarketers know the factors affecting online Indian behaviour, and the relationships between
these factors and the type of online buyers, then they can further develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active ones, while retaining existent online customers. This project is a part of study, and focuses on factors which online Indian buyers keep in mind while shopping online. This research found that information, perceived usefulness, ease of use; perceived enjoyment and security/privacy are the five dominant factors which influence consumer perceptions of online purchasing. We have developed a model indicating online shopping behaviour and acceptance among customers in India. The model was tested with a survey sample (n=50). We used factor analysis technique to classify these factors which buyers keep in mind while shopping online.
Internet is changing the way consumers shop and buy goods and services, and has rapidly evolved into a global phenomenon. Many companies have started using the Internet with the aim of cutting marketing costs, thereby reducing the price of their products and services in order to
stay ahead in highly competitive markets. Companies also use the Internet to convey, communicate and disseminate information, to sell the product, to take feed back and also to conduct satisfaction surveys with customers. Customers use the Internet not only to buy the product online, but also to compare prices, product features and after sale service facilities they will receive if they purchase the product from a particular store. Many experts are optimistic about the prospect of online business. In addition to the tremendous potential of the E-commerce market, the Internet provides a unique opportunity for companies to more efficiently reach existing and potential customers. Although most of the revenue of online transactions comes from business-to-business commerce, the practitioners of business-to-consumer commerce should not lose confidence. It has been more than a decade since business-to-consumer E-commerce first evolved. Scholars and practitioners of electronic commerce constantly strive to gain an improved insight into consumer behavior in cyberspace. Along with the development of E-retailing, researchers continue to explain E-consumers’ behavior from different perspectives. Many of their studies have posited new emergent factors or assumptions which are based on the traditional models of consumer behavior, and then examine their validity in the Internet context. .
LITERATURE REVIEW The current literature on consumer online purchasing decisions has mainly concentrated on identifying the factors which affect the willingness of consumers to engage in Internet shopping. In the domain of consumer behaviour research, there are general models of buying behaviour that depict the process which consumers use in making a purchase decision. These models are
very important to marketers as they have the ability to explain and predict consumers’ purchase behaviour. The classic consumer purchasing decision-making theory can be characterized as a continuum extending from routine problem-solving behaviours, through to limited problemsolving behaviours and then towards extensive problem-solving behaviours [Schiffman et al., 2001]. The traditional framework for analysis of the buyer decision process is a five-step model. Given the model, the consumer progresses firstly from a state of felt deprivation (problem recognition), to the search for information on problem solutions. The information gathered provides the basis for the evaluation of alternatives. Finally, post-purchase behaviour is critical in the marketing perspective, as it eventually affects consumers’ perception of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the product/service. This classic five stage model comprises the essence of consumer behaviour under most contexts. Nevertheless, the management of marketing issues at each stage in the virtual environment has to be resolved by individual Emarketers. Peterson et al.  commented that it is an early stage in Internet development in terms of building an appropriate dedicated model of consumer buying behaviour. Decision sequences will be influenced by the starting point of the consumer, the relevant market structures and the characteristics of the product in question. Consumers' attitude towards online shopping is a prominent factor affecting actual buying behaviour. Source: Jarvenpaa Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL. 6, NO.2, 2005 Todd  proposed a model of attitudes and shopping intention towards Internet shopping in general. The model included several indicators, belonging to four major categories; the value of the product, the shopping experience, the quality of service offered by the website and the risk perceptions of Internet retail shopping. In the research conducted by Vellido et al. , nine factors associated with users' perception of online shopping were extracted. Among those factors the risk perception of users was demonstrated to be the main discriminator between people buying online and people not buying online. Other discriminating factors were; control over, and convenience of, the shopping process, affordability of merchandise, customer service and ease of use of the shopping site. In another study, Jarvenpaa et al.  tested a model of consumer attitude towards specific webbase stores, in which perceptions of the store's reputation and size were assumed to affect consumer trust of the retailer. The level of trust was positively related to the attitude toward the store, and inversely related to the perception of the risks involved in
buying from that store. Jarvenpaa et al.  concluded that the attitude and the risk perception affected the consumer's intention to buy from the store. Consumer risk perceptions and concerns regarding online shopping are mainly related to aspects involving the privacy and security of personal information, the security of online transaction systems and the uncertainty of product quality. Trust is interwoven with risk [McAllister, 1995]. One of the consequences of trust is that it reduces the consumer’s perception of risk associated with opportunistic behaviour by the seller [Ganesan, 1994]. Lack of trust is frequently reported as the reason for consumers not purchasing from Internet shops, as trust is regarded as an important factor under conditions of uncertainty and risk in traditional theories. Mayer et al.  developed a model which combines traditional marketing philosophy on consumer motivation to buy and the trust model. In this model, trust propensity; which is a personality trait possessed by buyers; is an important antecedent of trust. In Internet shopping, there is not much information available to the buyer regarding the seller, prior to purchase. A buyer with a high propensity to trust will more likely be a potential customer than a buyer with a lower propensity. Mayer et al.  proposed that ability, benevolence and integrity constitute the main elements of trustworthiness. Ability refers to skills, competencies and characteristics that a seller has in a specific domain. In this context, sellers need to convince buyers of the competence of their companies in the Internet shopping business. Benevolence is the extent to which the seller is perceived by the buyer as wanting to ‘do good’. Sellers have to convince buyers that they genuinely want to do good things for buyers, rather than just maximize profit.
The objective of this study is to synthesize the representative existing literature on consumer online shopping attitudes and behaviour based on an analytical literature review. In doing so, this study attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of the status of this subfield and point out limitations and areas for future research.
The purpose of this research study is to investigate online consumer behaviour, which in turn provides E-marketers with a constructional framework for fine-tuning their E-businesses’ strategies. The specific objectives of this research are:
1. To identify key factors influencing online shopping purchase behaviour. 2. To identify the factors that can explain the differences in online buying behaviour among
different online buyers.
Data for this study was collected by means of a Survey conducted in NCR Region within a period of Fifteen days. The sample size was 50. Questionnaires were filled at two different places i.e Amity campus and Outside ATMs. .The Questionnaire (shown in Annexure) was used mainly to test the model proposed for Attitude towards online shopping. The type of research was both exploratory as well as Descriptive. Likert five point scale ranging from Strongly Agree to strongly disagree was used as a basis of Questions. We took around eleven different factors by studying the existing models of consumer attitudes (Refer Annexure3,4 & 5 ) that play an important role in online purchase,then proposed a model leading to online shopping.This model was then tested in our research by the mode of factor analysis in SPSS.
ONLINE SHOPPING IN INDIA
It is a fact that a great online shopping revolution is expected in India in the coming years. There is a huge purchasing power of a youth population aged 18-40 in the urban area.
Info by: IAMAI If we observe the growth of Indian online transactions from the above graph, it is getting doubled year by year. The usage of internet in India is only 4% of the total population. This is also getting increased day by day as the costs of computers are decreasing and net penetration is increasing. The cost of internet usage is also getting lower, with good competition among the providers. Wi-Fi & Wimax is also getting tested in Bangalore and other cities in India. This will increase the usage as it goes more on wireless internet. Indians are proving everytime that they can beat the world when it comes to figures of online shopping. More and more Indians are going to online shopping and the frequency of India’s online buying is crossing the overall global averages.
Factors That Boost Online Shopping in India
• • • •
Rapid growth of cybercafés across India Access to Information The increase in number of computer users Reach to net services through broadband
Middle-class population with spending power is growing. There are about 200 million of middle-class population good spending powers. These people have very little time to spend for shopping. Many of them have started to depend on internet to satisfy their shopping desires.
. Few Facts About Online Shopping The figures from IAMAI show that the internet users in India will grow to 200 million by 2010. Around 25% of regular shoppers in India are in the 18-25 age groups, and 46% are in the 26-35year range.
Indian online matrimonial sector is worth around $230 million. Worldwide e-commerce is only growing at the rate of 28%, since India being a younger market, the growth of e-commerce is expected at 51% in the coming years.
Inline with global trends finally India has also started shopping online these days. As per the study by IAMAI online shopping in India has rose from $11million in 1999-2000 to $522 million in 2007 and it is expected to rise above $700 million by end March 2010.
Indians are also Shopaholics like other Asians. There is a strong booming young adult population in India with good levels of disposable income.
INDIA - Over $50 Billion and growing rapidly - Most popular online shopping products include: books (45%), electronic gadgets (42%), railway tickets (38%), accessories apparel (35%), apparel (35%), gifts (34%), computer and peripherals (32%), airline tickets (28%), music downloads (21%), movie downloads (21%), hotel rooms (22%), magazines (18%), tools (16%), home appliances (16%), toys (16%), jewelry (17%), movie ticket (15%), beauty products (12%), health and fitness products (12%), apparel gift certificates( 11%) and sporting goods (7%).
There are over 120 million people online in India and this is expected to grow to 200 Million by the end of 2010
CHANGING ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING
Malls malls springing up everywhere and yet people are e-shopping! And not in small numbers either. E-commerce figures are going through the roof, according to Assocham (Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry of India). Today (2007-08) the figures are touching Rs. 2200 crore, but are expected to increase by 150 percent by 2008-09 - to Rs 5,500 crores! And two metros - Delhi and Mumbai are driving the growth:
CITY Mumbai Delhi Chennai Kolkata Bangalore
LOGGING ONTO E-SALES Share in 07-08 24% 20% 7% 7% 6%
Projection for 08-09 40% 30% 11-12% 10-11% 9%
It was never thought that Indians would go in for e-shopping in such a big way.Ticketing, travel bookings and even books and movies seem fine to buy online. Knowing that in India sizes vary from brand to brand and quality is inconsistent, even of some electronic items, how is it that there are people buying these items online? Well, Assocham says that books are the hottest selling item on the internet. In fact most products bought and sold off online are: books, electronic gadgets and railway tickets. However, people are also buying clothes, gifts, computer and peripherals, and a few are buying home tools and products, home appliances, toys, jewelry, beauty products and health and fitness products.
Traffic for e-commerce sites is mostly coming from the two metros of Delhi and Mumbai. Here are few reasons for this : 1. Convenience It is the major reason. Both the cities are spread out over a large area and the best stores in both these cities are often concentrated in certain ‘posh’ areas. In Mumbai for example there are certain items you get only in Crawford market which is at the other end of town
in South Mumbai. And demographics show that the population of Mumbai is now concentrated in the suburbs. Ofcourse, huge malls have come up in the suburbs as well, and India’s biggest mall Nirmal Lifestyle is in far-flung Mulund but often you find a better choice of sizes and styles choice in other malls, say Phoenix (central Mumbai). And though both Mumbai and Delhi have transport system,few people like to travel for two hours just to get to a shop at the other end of town. Clearly the transport systems leave much to be desired. In Delhi, safety is also an issue for women traveling alone in the evenings. 2. Literacy Rate and the Cities’ Internet Savvy Population Most cities in India have a higher literacy rate as compared to the national average of 64.8 percent. In fact Mumbai has a highest literacy even amongst the cities (86 per cent). Delhi too has a high literate population (81.2 per cent). Oddly, although Bangalore has a higher literacy rate than Delhi, at 83 per cent, the city’s share of e-commerce is not very high. Kolkatta too has a literacy rate (80.8 per cent) and so does Chennai (80.1 percent.) If one compares these rates to literacy rates of cities like Patna (62.9 percent), Jaipur (67 percent), Indore (72 percent) or Warangal (73 percent) its clear why its the metros which are going to continue to lead e-shopping. 3. Home delivery concept In any case, home delivery is a concept that Indians are familiar with and love. The mall craze has started only now.Earlier it was a choice between sweating it out in small crowded markets, or asking a friendly neighbourhood kirana (grocer) to deliver groceries home and this system is still thriving. 4. Increase in the Internet users Increasing penetration of Internet connectivity and PCs has led to an increase in the Internet users across India. The demographic segments that have witnessed maximum growth comprise college going students and young persons. These segments are the users of advanced applications and technologies online and are most likely to be heavy ECommerce users.
5. Increase in the number of buyers and sellers The success of a marketplace depends on the presence of a large number of buyers and a large number of sellers. In addition to online buyers, many offline stores have begun to sell their products in the online marketplace. The greater the number of sellers and buyers, the faster the market grows.
PRODUCT PREFERENCES CITY WISE
Bangalore loves to buy books, electronic gadgets, computer peripherals, gifts movies, bookings,actually just about everthing. Well, Kolkatta prefers to buy music and movies online Mumbai leads in all categories, except jewellery. Delhites seem to prefer buying jewellery online as compared to any other city
After examining the 10 empirical studies, we identify a total of eleven interrelated factors for which the empirical evidences show significant relationships. These ten factors are perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online shopping,security and privacy,quality of internet connection, attitude towards online shopping, intention to shop online, online shopping decision making, online purchasing, and consumer satisfaction. Six (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online shopping, security and privacy, quality of internet connection )are found to be ordinarily
independent and five (attitude toward online shopping, intention to shop online, decision making, online purchasing, and consumer satisfaction) are ordinarily dependent variables. Consumer satisfaction is considered to be a separate factor in this study. It can occur at all possible stages depending on consumer’s involvement during the online shopping process. The relationships between satisfaction, attitude, intention, decision making and online purchasing are proposed to be two-way relationships due to the reciprocal influences of each on the other. In addition, three of the antecedents, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment , have been found to have direct impact on consumer satisfaction.
Perceived Usefulness Perceived usefulness is defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would increase his or her job performance. It is an important factor affecting acceptance of an information system,because the ultimate aim of any person is the superior job performance. Perceived Ease of Use This is an important factor that affects the acceptance of a particular information system.It is defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular information system would be free of effort. Hence an application perceived to be easier to use would more likely be accepted by the user. Perceived Enjoyment Enjoyment refers to the extent to which the activity of using a computer is perceived to be enjoyable in its own rights.This is seen as an intrinsic source of motivation to use a particular application. Amount of Information Amount of information is defined as the information which is available for the product which a person wants to buy through online shopping.This factor eases the decision of the user to actually buy the productor not, or which product to buy. This factor becomes even more important in case of High Involvement product.
Security and Privacy Security and privacy are the main factors which hinder the growth of Online shopping. The user is concerned about his ID and Password which can be stolen by persons with wrong intentions and then misuse it. At the same time they are concerned that their personal information may be sold to the third party which poses a serious threat to their privacy. Quality of Internet Connection Not only is the presence of internet connection neccessary but also its Quality is important to shop online.This is an important factor which determines whether the user would shop online or not because presence of internet is a basic neccessity for this mode of shopping.
ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING Consumer’s attitudes toward online shopping have gained a great deal of attention in the empirical literature. It is believed that consumer attitudes will affect intention to shop online and eventually whether a transaction is made. It refers to:
1) The consumer’s acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel 2) Consumer attitudes toward a specific Internet store (i.e., to what extent consumers think that shopping at this store is appealing).
INTENTION TO SHOP ONLINE Consumer’s intention to shop online refers to their willingness to make purchases in an Internet store. Commonly, this factor is measured by consumer’s willingness to buy and to return for additional purchases. The latter also contributes to customer loyalty. Consumer’s intention to shop online is positively associated with attitude towards Internet buying, and influences their decision-making and purchasing behavior. In addition, there is evidence of reciprocal influence between intention to shop online and customer satisfaction. ONLINE SHOPPING DECISION MAKING Online shopping decision-making includes information seeking, comparison of alternatives, and choice making. The results bearing on this factor directly influence consumer’s purchasing behavior. In addition, there appears to be an impact on user’s satisfaction. Though it is important, there are only five studies that include it. According to Haubl and Trifts (2000), potential consumers appear to use a two-stage process in reaching purchase decisions. Initially, consumers typically screen a large set of products in order to identify a subset of promising alternatives that appears to meet their needs. They then evaluate the subset in greater depth, performing relative comparisons across products based on some desirable attributes and make a purchase decision. ONLINE PURCHASING This is the most substantial step in online shopping activities, with most empirical research using measures of frequency (or number) of purchases and value of online purchases as measures of online purchasing; other less commonly used measures are unplanned purchases Online purchasing is reported to be strongly associated with the factors of personal characteristics, vendor/service/product characteristics, website quality, attitudes toward online shopping, intention to shop online, and decision making (Andrade 2000; Bellman et al. 1999)
CONSUMER SATISFACTION It can be defined as the extent to which consumer’s perceptions of the online shopping experience confirm their expectations. Most consumers form expectations of the product, vendor, service, and quality of the website that they patronize before engaging in online shopping activities. These expectations influence their attitudes and intentions to shop at a certain Internet store, and consequently their decision-making processes and purchasing behavior. If expectations are met, customers achieve a high degree of satisfaction, which influences their online shopping attitudes, intentions, decisions, and purchasing activity positively. In contrast, dissatisfaction is negatively associated with these four variables (Ho and Wu 1999; Jahng et al. 2001; Kim et al. 2001).
Informationon Onlineshopping Attitude towards online shopping
IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
As the model indicates, three out of the five dependent variables (consumer attitudes, intentions, and purchasing behavior) and three out of the five independent variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, information on online shopping, security and privacy, quality of internet connection ) receive the most attention. This seems to constitute the main stream of research in this area. It is found that personal characteristics such as vender/service/product characteristics and website quality significantly affect online shopping attitudes, intention, and behavior. The role of the external environment, demographics, online shopping decision making, and consumer satisfaction are less well represented in the proposed model.. Any number of factors, including vender/service/product characteristics, website quality, attitude towards online shopping, intention to online shopping, online shopping decision making, and online purchasing, may influence consumer’s satisfaction. More importantly, the extent to which customers are satisfied is directly related to attitudes toward online shopping or toward specific Internet stores. The relative importance of this factor in determining such consumer behavior as repeat purchases suggests that further research on consumer satisfaction with online shopping needs to be conducted.
LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY
Limitation of the study is the selection of the existing studies. Owing to time limitation, we only searched a few number of journals. This may leave some other prominent empirical studies out. In addition, owing to the multidisciplinary nature of online shopping, it would be very interesting to compare IS literature to other disciplines that study online shopping attitudes and behavior.
Indian E-Comm. Report Finds Heavy Spenders Driving Sales
By Devin Comiskey August 16, 2007 A Survey by Indian research organization Juxtconsult found that more and more Indian Internet users are opening their wallets online. While such hurdles as limited broadband access and security concerns remain, the report finds there are currently more than 10 million shoppers online in India. While current trends point to increased e-commerce growth in India, the online marketplace in the country of more than 1 billion people is still relatively small. Juxtconsult's survey found that 40 percent of all urban Internet users buy online, while 42 percent of the sales originate through just five percent of consumers. The survey was conducted in April 2007 and sampled more than 30,000 users. "This section of buyers spends 5,000 rupees or more per month on the net," states the report. "It is interesting to note that two out of every three heavy spenders are also 'netholics,' those who are on the net for more than three hours per day...Of all those who buy online, only 25 percent are spending more than 1,000 rupees per month while the (remaining) 75 percent bill less than 1,000 rupees per month." (1,000 Indian rupees is currently equal to approximately $23 US.) The report also found that buying and search patterns among Indians differ between genders.
"While 43 percent of male users buy online, only 31 percent of urban female users are consumers as well. Women tend to search more. Defying their more common attitude towards shopping, women are more guarded when it comes to the online market," says Juxtconsult. "Depending on the product type, nine percent to 25 percent are buying online, whereas 33 to 47 percent are searching the net for product information," it says.
Security Fears Persist Juxtconsult says the motivation for Indian users to make purchases online varies, but users fear compromised personal information is still a great risk when it comes to e-commerce. "The single biggest motivation for buying online for net users is saving time. Thirty-two percent of them look to shop online with this purpose. Convenience of shopping '24x7' and home delivery are other major incentives," says the report. "However, the concern of possible misuse of credit car or personal information is extremely significant among online buyers, with almost 55 percent of them voicing their concern. Clearly, tackling and countering the issue of online safety figures as an imminent challenge for net marketers."
Books, CDs Top the List The products that are purchased most online in India, according to Juxtconsult, are books and CDs - making up 25 percent of all online purchases. "Ironically, computer hardware and software, despite having the home advantage are among one of the least bought products online, with only 13 percent buying them," says the report. "In sum, the online market in India is blossoming but is yet to take off in a considerable way. The Internet is still being used more for searching than buying products and services. Though a noticeable proportion of net users are also net consumers, essentially, at present only a small tribe among them is driving online shopping momentum," says Juxtconsult.
A new trend in this space is that of Meta search engines. Ixigo and Ezeego are two players in this space. A Meta search engine searches all the online travel sites (including the airlines sites as well) and displays the best deals for the user.
Travel websites, such as Make My Trip India Pvt. Ltd and Yatra Online Pvt. Ltd, are battling to win over India’s Rs16,000 crore ($400 million) religious travel market Opportunity in Online Travel Industry: $2billion Online travel company MakeMyTrip (MMT) has recorded sales of Rs. 1000 crore for the financial year ending March 2008, as per a release.
BARRIERS TO GROWTH OF ONLINE MARKET
Consumer Bias Consumers often display a bias for brands that they know well and have had a good experience in the past. Thus products of brands with a favorable bias will score over the products of less popular brands. A few would risk to buy expensive jewelry from an unknown jeweler online. Lack of ‘Touch –Feel-Try’ Experience The customer is not sure of the quality of the product unless it is delivered to him and post delivery of the product, it is sometimes a lengthy proces to get a faulty or the unsuitable product changed. Thus, unless the deliverables are as per the customers expectations, it is hard to infuse more credibility in the e-Tailing market. Mounting Competitive Pressures To attract customers, the competing online players are adopting all means to provide products and services at the lowest prices. This has resulted in making the consumers choice-spoilt, who in turn surf various websites to spot the lowest price for the product. Thus, although the number of transactions is increasing, the value of the products sold is continuously falling owning to high competition and leaner margins. Seasonality
eTailing Market is faced by seasonal fluctuations. As told by an Industry player, “August to February is the peak seasons for sale, while March to July is the dry seasons for sale”. During the peak season, occasions that drive the sales are Diwali, Rakhi, Valentines Day, New Year, Christmas, Mother’s Day, Friendship Day etc are. On these occasions younger generations prefers buying and sending gifts online.
Credibility in Payment System Online frauds and breach are the biggest barriers to online sales. As a result, prospective buyers prefer staying away from revealing their credit card and bank details. Untimely Delivery of Products It might take a few minutes to search, book and pay for products and services online, but the delivery of the product may take unreasonable time.
Increased Internet penetration, a hassle free shopping environment and high levels of Net savviness see more and more Indians shopping online.But at the same time the companies need to reduce the risks related to consumer incompetence by tactics such as making purchase websites easier to navigate, and introducing Internet kiosks, computers and other aids in stores. The goal is not to convert all shoppers to online purchasing, but to show them it’s an option. In addition to above, efforts need to be taken to educate the online buyers on the steps that need to be undertaken while making an online purchase. Moreover, the feedback of an online buyer should be captured to identify flaws in service delivery. This can be done through online communities and blogs that serve as advertising and marketing tools and a source of feedback for enterprises. We found that it is a challenge for E-marketers to convert low frequency online buyers into regular buyers through successful website design and by addressing concerns about reliable performance. Thus, the online retailing raises more issues than the benefits it currently offers. The quality of products offered online and procedures for service delivery are yet to be standardized. Till the same is done, the buyer is at a higher risk of frauds.
ANNEXURE 1 Questionnaire
1. Have you ever made a purchase over the Internet?
2. When was the last time you made a purchase over the Internet? a. One month ago b. Two months ago c. More than two months ago
In the past 3 months what items have you purchased on the Internet?
b. Videos / DVDs / Games d. Clothing / Accessories / Shoes f. Electronic Equipment h. Tours / Hotel Reservations j. Computer software l. Groceries n. other items
c. Airline Tickets / Reservations e. Music g. Computer Hardware i. Event Tickets k. Cosmetics / Nutrition Supplies m. Sporting Goods
4. Which method (or methods) of payment did you use to make your last purchases over the Internet in the past 3 months?
a. Credit /Debit Card
Cash on Delivery
e. Other Method
What helps you decide which site to use for shopping online? a. Search engine d. Online Advertising b. Personal recommendation c. Special offer I saw
e. Same store I buy from offline
f. TV/print or other advertising
5. Do you have enough information about online products and services? Totally disagree Totally agree
6. Online shopping is useful: Totally disagree Totally agree
7. Online shopping is easy to do: Totally disagree Totally agree
8. Online shopping is enjoyable: Totally disagree Totally agree
9. Online shopping is secure: Totally disagree Totally agree
10. Quality of internet connection is good: Totally disagree
11. For each of the following, please tell if these concern you when you are making a
purchase over the Internet. Great deal a)Not sure of product quality b) Cannot bargain/Negotiate c) Not sure of security of transactions /Credit card misuse d) Need to touch and feel the product e) Significant discounts are not there f)Have to wait for delivery Fair amount A little Not at all
NAME: AGE: below 23 yrs 23 yrs- 40 yrs 40 yrs-55yrs 55yrs and above GENDER: Male/ Female MONTHLY INCOME: below Rs. 20,000 Rs. 20,000-50,000
Rs. 50,000 and above CONTACT NO: EMAIL ID:
RESULTS OF FACTOR ANALYSIS
KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. ChiSquare df Sig. .667 83.193 15 .000
Communalities Initial Information Percieved usefulness Ease of use Percieved enjoyment Security 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Extraction .572 .675 .763 .812 .260
Quality of internet 1.000 .673 connection Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Initial Eigenvalues Squared Loadings Compo % of % of nent Varianc Cumulat Varianc Cumulat Total e ive % Total e ive % 1 2.571 42.853 42.853 2.571 42.853 42.853 2 1.184 19.732 62.584 1.184 19.732 62.584 3 .970 16.162 78.746 4 .695 11.592 90.338 5 .350 5.840 96.178 6 .229 3.822 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Component Matrix(a) Component 1 2 Information Percieved usefulness Ease of use Percieved enjoyment Security .563 .797 .836 .886 .365 .505 .201 -.253 -.166 -.355
Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Varianc Cumulat Total e ive % 2.417 40.276 40.276 1.338 22.308 62.584
Quality of internet .054 .819 connection Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a 2 components extracted.
Rotated Component Matrix(a) Component 1 2 Information Percieved usefulness Ease of use Percieved enjoyment Security .362 .684 .873 .890 .463 .664 .456 .040 .139 -.213
Quality of internet -.222 .790 connection Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a Rotation converged in 3 iterations.
Component Transformation Matrix Componen t 1 2 1 .943 -.334 2 .334 .943
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
ANNEXURE:3 Different models of consumer attitude towards online shopping
By:Mary Ann Eastlick This chart shows how consumer attitude toward online shopping can lead either to approach coping (wanting to shop online) or to avoidance coping (deciding not to search or shop online). Someone who is optimistic toward the benefits of online shopping will develop approach coping. A person who is pessimistic toward online shopping will think of the drawbacks to it and decide to purchase in physical stores instead, which is avoidance coping.
FRAMEWORK FOR CONSUMERS’ INTENTIONS TO SHOP ONLINE
Source: research by Emerald
By: Thijs L. J. Broekhuizen University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Marketing Trends in India Online Travel Industry
Searches by Indians every month Searches by Indians that result in sponsored links shown, every month Total clicks on sponsored links by Indian users in a month Number of advertisers targeting Indians web-users Total annualized spend by all advertisers targeting Indian users Total annualized spend by Indian advertisers targeting Indian users Most amount spent by one advertiser All brands that spend more than Rs.10 lakhs a year in India Indian brands that spend more than Rs.10 lakhs a year in India Average number of key words bought by a brand Most key words bought by a brand Most clicks bought by a brand in a month Average cost per click paid by advertiser in India Highest cost per click paid by advertiser in India Average search campaign click-through rate Over 1 billion 308 million Over 4.8 million Over 40,000 Rs.236 crores (US $ 52 m) Rs.72 crores (US $ 16 m) Rs.9.7 crores (US $ 2.2 m) 291 90 42 89,377 599,968 Rs.16.20 ($ 0.36) Rs.266 ($ 5.92) 0.62%
Top Online Travel Industry using Search Engine Marketing and their annual spend in Rupees.
Keywords Portfolio: Online Travel India Firms
Source: IMNAI & Pinstrom
Consumer online shopping attitudes and behavior: an assessment of research ,by: Na Li and Ping Zhang ,Syracuse University
Consumer attitudes toward shopping venues affect marketing strategies .By Susan McGinley
The State of E-Commerce: Online Shopping Trends,By James Maguire Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL. 6, NO.2, 2005 Research report by IMNAI & Pinstrom Research report By: Thijs L. J. Broekhuizen ,University of Groningen, The Netherlands Framework for consumers’ intentions to shop online, research by Emerald Research report By: IAMAI
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