JOHN CK MM32FB2 January 3, 2012

General Emilio Famy Aguinaldo
President of the First Philippine Republic Birthdate: March 22, 1869, died- February 6, 1964 Term: 1898- 1901 Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and later against the United States for the Independence of the Philippines.

General Emilio F. Aguinaldo (March 22, 1869 - February 6, 1964). He was 29 years old when he became Chief of State, first as head of the dictatorship he thought should be established upon his return to Cavite in May 1898 from voluntary exile in Hongkong, and then a month later as President of the Revolutionary Government that Apolinario Mabini had persuaded him should instead be instituted. Aguinaldo s presidential term formally began in 1898 and ended on April 1, 1901, when he took an oath of allegiance to the United States a week after his capture in Palanan, Isabela. His term also featured the setting up of the Malolos Republic, which has its own Congress, Constitution, and national and local officialdom -- proving Filipinos also had the capacity to build. Aguinaldo is best remembered for the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite.

Manuel Luis Quezon
First President of the Commonwealth Birthdate: August 19, 1878, died- August 1, 1944 Term: November 15, 1935- August 1, 1944 Filipino statesman, leader of the independence movement, and first president of the Philippine Commonwealth established under United States tutelage in 1935.

Manuel L. Quezon (August 19, 1878 - August 1, 1944). He won the elections held in September 1935 to choose the head of the Commonwealth Government. It was a government made possible by the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which Quezon secured from the U.S.

Quezon had emerged as the acknowledged leader of Philippine politics and possessed the kind of background and experience that appealed to Filipinos. He had a bachelor of arts degree, studied law, and landed fourth place in the 1903 Bar examinations. He served in the revolution, fighting in Tarlac, Pampanga, and Bataan, and ended up with the rank of major. He was appointed provincial fiscal of Mindoro and Tayabas, his home province. He was elected governor of Tayabas in 1905 and in 1907, first assemblyman from the province to the First Philippine National Assembly. In 1909, he was appointed resident commissioner to the U.S. and when he finished his term after eight years, he returned to the Philippines to become President of the Philippine Senate, created by the Jones Law. He was also top man of the ruling Nacionalista Party. Quezon s term (1935 - 1944), though chiefly known for making Pilipino the national language, tried to solve nagging problems inherited from the Spanish and American administrations. He directed his main efforts to bring about political stability, build up national defense against the threat of Japanese militarism, and strengthen an economy that was extremely dependent upon the U.S. He was also remembered for taking executive and legislative actions to implement his social justice program aimed at the underprivileged. The Commonwealth Government was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of 1941. Quezon and his government were forced to go into exile in the U.S. He died on August 1, 1944, in New York.

Sergio Osmeña
Second President of the Commonwealth Birthdate: September 9, 1878, died- October 19, 1961 Term: August 1, 1944- May 27, 1946 Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

Sergio Osmena (September 9, 1878 - October 19, 1961). He was elected Vice President of the Philippines in 1935 and succeeded Quezon to the Presidency in-exile. Osmena was a notable figure in the struggle for independence. A lawyer, he espoused the cause of independence through peaceful means as editor of the Cebu newspaper El Nuevo Dia (New Day), which he founded in 1900. He served as fiscal of Cebu and Negros Oriental. He was appointed governor of Cebu in 1904 and elected to the same post in 1906. In 1907, he was elected as representative of Cebu and later became speaker of the first Philippine Assembly. In 1922, he was elected as senator. He headed important government missions to the U. S. Osmena returned to the Philippines on October 20, 1944, together with Gen. Douglas MacArthur. In February 1945, he took the reins of government.


Jose Laurel
President of the Japanese Sponsored Republic Birthdate: March 9, 1891, died- November 6, 1959 Term: October 14, 1943- August 15, 1945 Became the President of the Philippines during the Japanese occupation of World War II.

Jose P. Laurel (March 9, 1891 - November 5, 1959). He was elected by the National Assembly as President of the Republic on September 25, 1943 and inducted on October 14, 1943. This unicameral assembly was created through the sponsorship of the Japanese authorities. Laurel s controversial Presidency during the Japanese Occupation (1943 - 1945) overshadowed his achievements as legislator, jurist, writer, and administrator in the pre-war struggle for independence. As an elected senator and later delegate to the Constitutional Convention, he distinguished himself for his advocacy of women s suffrage and his sponsorship of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution. He also became an associate justice of the Supreme Court.

Manuel Acuña Roxas
Birthdate: January 1, 1892, died- April 15, 1948 Last President of the Commonwealth Term: May 28, 1946- July 4, 1946 First President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Term: July 4, 1946- April 15, 1948 Political leader and first president of the independence republic of the Philippines.
Manuel A. Roxas (January 1, 1892 - April 15, 1948). He was popularly known as the First President of the Third Republic. He won the elections by a slim margin. He was inaugurated on July 4, 1946, the day the U.S. government granted political independence to its colony. Roxas was born in Capiz (now Roxas City), studied law at UP and graduated with honors in 1913. He topped the Bar examinations in the same year, was employed as private secretary to Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano, and taught law in 1915-1916. His political career started when he was appointed as a member of the Capiz municipal council. In 1919, he was elected as governor of Capiz. He was elected as congressman in 1922, and in 1935, he

was chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was elected as a senator in 1941 and eventually became Senate president. The short-lived Roxas administration (1946 - 1948) embarked on a course that resulted in what were considered as his greatest achievements, namely: the ratification of the Bell Trade Act; the inclusion of the Parity Amendment in the Constitution; and the signing of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement. Roxas was not able to complete his presidential term; he died from a heart attack at Clark Air base on April 15, 1948.

Elpidio Quirino
Second President, Third Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: November 16, 1890 Died: February 28, 1956 Term: April 17, 1948- November 10, 1953 Political leader and second president of the Independence Republic of the Philippines.
Elpidio Quirino (November 16, 1890 - February 28, 1956). Being the Vice President, he took over the Presidency after Roxas death. And, he managed to retain the position after winning over Laurel in the infamous fraud-tainted 1949 elections. Quirino was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, finished law studies at UP in 1915, and hurdled the Bar examinations in the same year. His political career started with his election as a representative of Ilocos Sur in 1919, then as a senator in 1925, and again reelected in 1931. President Quezon appointed him as secretary of finance and then secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth Government. As Roxas Vice President, he served concurrently first as secretary of finance and later as secretary of foreign affairs. The Quirino administration (1948 - 1953) focused on two objectives: 1) to regain faith and confidence in the government; and 2) to restore peace and order. He was more successful in the second objective breaking the back of the Hukbalahap Movement in Central Luzon. In addition, he was credited with sponsoring the growth of industrial ventures, expanding irrigation, improving the road system, and setting up the Central Bank and rural banking. It was also during his term that the RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty was approved on August 30, 1951.

Ramon Magsaysay
(Born- August 31, 1907, died- March 17, 1957) Third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines (Term: December 30, 1953- March 17, 1957) Best known for successfully defeating the communist led Hukbalahap (Huk) Movement. Idol of the masses, champion of democracy, and freedom fighter.

Ramon Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957). He was largely famous for his success in the peace campaign. He defeated Quirino in the 1953 presidential elections by an unprecedented margin of votes. Popularly known as the guy, Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales. He took up mechanical engineering at UP but ended up with a commerce degree from Jose Rizal College. He took a job as a mechanic in the bus company Try-Tran and rose to become its branch manager. He attained fame as an able guerilla leader in World War II and was subsequently named by MacArthur as military governor of Zambales during the liberation. He was elected twice as a congressman after the war. He was instrumental in having the U.S. Congress pass the G.I. Bill of Rights, which accorded benefits to the Filipino war veterans. But his national prominence resulted from being appointed defense secretary in the Quirino administration, successfully fighting the Huks, and for being the friend of the common tao. Many regard Magsaysay as the President whose heart truly bled for the common man. He toured the barrios, opened up Malacanang to the public, solicited and acted upon their complaints, built artesian wells and roads. He had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954, providing greater protection to tenants. Death came to Magsaysay when his plane crashed at Mount Pinatubo in the early morning of March 17, 1957.

Carlos Polestico Garcia
Fourth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: November 4, 1896, died- June 14, 1971 Term: March 18, 1957- December 30, 1961 Famous for his austerity program and policy. He maintained the strong tradition ties with the United States and sought closer relation with non-communist Asian countries.
Carlos P. Garcia (November 4, 1896 - June 1, 1971). He presided over the eight months of Magsaysay s remaining term and went on to win the 1957 elections, the noisiest and the most expensive in Philippine history. Garcia hailed from Talibon, Bohol. He finished his law studies at the Philippine Law School in Manila. He passed the Bar examinations and was among the top ten. His election as Bohol representative to the National Assemblly in 1952 marked his entry into Philippine politics and public service one of the longest ever. He was again reelected as a representative. In 1931, he started the first of this three terms as governor of Bohol. In 1941, he was elected as a senator, but it was only in 1945 that he took office because of World War II. He was again reelected as a senator and in 1953, he became Vice President to Magsaysay. He was appointed in a concurrent capacity as secretary of foreign affairs. Garcia s administration (1957 - 1961) was anchored in his austerity program. It was also noted for its Filipino First policy an attempt to boost economic independence.

Diosdado Macapagal
Fifth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines Term: December 30, 1961 - December 30, 1965 Poet, politician, lawyer, diplomat, statesman, economist and intellectual, Diosdado Macapagal was born to poverty but rose due to diligence and brilliance. Best known as the "Champion of the Common Man."

Diosdado Macapagal (September 28, 1910). He defeated Garcia in the presidential elections of November 14, 1961. Mapacagal who styled himself as the poor boy from Lubao (Pampanga) completed pre-law and Associate in Arts at UP; however, he was a law graduate of the University of Santo Tomas. He was the topnotcher of the Bar examinations in 1935. He then entered into a private law practice, teaching law at the side. In 1946, he was appointed Chief of the Legal Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and was eventually sent to the Philippine Embassy in Washington as Second Secretary. In 1949, he was elected as the congressman of the first district of Pampanga and reelected in 1953. In 1958, he was elected as Vice President of the Philippines. Macapagal s administration (1961 - 1965) is best remembered for resetting the date of the celebration of Philippine Independence Day from July 4 when the U.S. turned over the reins of government in 1946 to the more correct date of June 12 when Aguinaldo declared independence in 1898. This single act overshadowed the other distinguishing features of his administration, namely: the promotion of the stability of the Philippine currency; the initiation of a socioeconomic program aimed at the betterment of the poor; efforts to combat misdeeds in government, and the launching of his version of agrarian reform.

Ferdinand Edralin Marcos
Sixth And Last President Of The Third Republic Of The Philippines Birthdate: September 11, 1917, Died- September 28, 1989 Term: December 30, 1965- December 30, 1973 President Of The Fourth Republic Of The Philippines Term: June 30, 1981 - February 25,1986 Philippine Lawyer And Politician Who Ruled By Martial Law And Was Ousted By A Peaceful People Power Revolution In 1986.

Ferdinand E. Marcos (September 11, 1917 - September 28, 1989). He defeated Macapagal in the 1965 presidential elections. And the two-decade era of Marcos (1965 - 1986) began. Marcos was born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. He was a consistent scholar, took up Law at UP, and graduated cum laude in 1939. At 19, he was charged with the murder of a political enemy of his father. Thrown in jail, he reviewed for the nearing Bar examinations and topped it. Defeated at a lower court, he argued his own case in an appeal before the Supreme Court and won an acquittal. He joined the guerilla forces at the outbreak of war. Marcos entered politics with an eye to eventually capturing the presidency. In his maiden campaign in 1949, he said: Elect me your congressman now and I ll give you an Ilokano President in 20 years. He won that election and was returned thrice to Congress as Ilocos Norte s congressman. In 1959, he was elected to the Philippine Senate and in 1963, he became its president. Completing the presidential term in 1969, he won a reelection . In 1972, he declared martial law. The rest is history.

Corazon Cojuangco Aquino
First President Of The Fifth Republic Of The Philippines And The First Woman President Of The Philippines. Birthdate: January 25, 1933 Term: February 25, 1986- June 30, 1992 Political Leader And The First Woman President Of The Philippines. She Succeeded Her Murdered Husband, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr.(A Popular Critic Of The Marcos Administration), As Leader Of The Opposition To President Ferdinand Marcos.
Political leader and president from (1986 to 1992) of the Philippines. In 1983 she succeeded her murdered husband, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr.(A popular critic of the Marcos administration), as leader of the opposition to President Ferdinand Marcos. No one could have imagined that Cory Aquino would become a president of the Philippines. Corazon "Cory" Aquino, the first woman to become president of the Philippines, was born in Tarlac on January 25, 1933. Her parents are Don Jose Cojuangco and Doña Demetria Sumulong. Cory was the sixth among the eight children of the Sumulong. Corazon Aquino's children are Maria Elena Aquino, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Eliza, Noynoy and Kris Aquino, her youngest child is a TV and movie personality. Corazon Cojuangco was born into a wealthy, politically prominent family based in Tarlac province, north of Manila. In 1946, her family left for the U.S. and she enrolled at Ravenhill Academy in Philadelphia. She finished her junior and senior years at Notre Dame College in New York. She entered Mount Saint Vincent College in New York City in 1949 where she finished a Bachelor of Arts, major in French. In 1953, she returned to the Philippines to take up law at the Far Eastern University, but then abandoned further studies in 1955 to marry Benigno Aquino, who was then a promising young

politician. Cory remained in the background during her husband's subsequent career, rearing their five children at home and later in exile. Her husband was assassinated upon his return to the Philippines in August 1983. When Ferdinand Marcos unexpectedly called for presidential election in February 1986, Corazon Aquino become the unified opposition's candidate for the presidency. Though she was officially reported to have lost the election to Marcos, Aquino and her supporters challenged the results, charging widespread voting fraud. High officials in the Philippines military soon publicly renounced Marcos continued rule and proclaimed Aquino the Philippines rightful president. On February 25, 1986, both Aquino and Marcos were inaugurated as president by their respective supporters but that same day Marcos fled the country. In March 1986 she proclaimed a provisional constitution and soon thereafter appointed a commission to write a new constitution. The resulting document was ratified by a landslide popular vote in February 1987. In spite of her continuous popular support, Aquino faced an ongoing outcry over economic injustice, a problem that was only exacerbated by continuing warfare between the communist insurgency and a military whose loyalties to Aquino were uncertain. In general, her economic policies were criticized for being mixed or faltering in the face of mass poverty. Aquino children are Maria Elena Aquino, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Eliza, Noynoy and Kris Aquino. Her youngest child is a TV & movie personality.

Fidel Valdez Ramos
Second President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: March 18, 1928 Term: June 30, 1992 - June 30, 1998 As head of the State his administration centerpiece program is the Philippines 2000; which aim to uplift the Philippines as a newly industrialized country by the year 2000.
As head of the State his administration centerpiece program is the Philippines 2000; which aim to uplift the Philippines as a newly industrialized country by the year 2000. Fidel V. Ramos was born in Lingayen, Pangasinan on February 8, 1928. His parents are Narciso Ramos (A lawyer, a crusading journalist, a legislator and later, secretary of foreign affairs) and Angela Valdez Ramos. Fidel V. Ramos have two sisters, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani and Gloria Ramos de Rodda, a diplomat. Become a Valedictorian of his graduating class at the Lingayen Elementary School in Maniboc, Lingayan, Pangasinan, he was the consistent valedictorian of his class, through his elementary grades and through his high school at the University of the Philippines. In the year 1950, Fidel V. Ramos graduated in the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, a well know military school in the U.S.A. He also acquired his master in Civil Engineering course at the University of Illinois in the year 1951. Another course in associate Infantry Company Officers at Fort

Benning at Fort Bragg. In the year 1960 he was the topnotcher of all the 21 graduated for the "Special Forces/Pay Operations/Airborne." Aside from those courses, he took up Command and General Staff at Fort Santiago year 1965, where he became the topnotcher of all 48 graduating students. During the administration of President Marcos, Fidel V. Ramos became the Presidential assistant of military tactics. (1968-1969); Assistant to the head of State of the Civil Defense July 1, 1969- Nov. 6, 1970. Head of the Intelligence Services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and Deputy Chief of Staff for Home Defense Activities (1971-1981). Moreover, he become a delegate of the Philippines to other countries such as: Delegation for the third conference of the Association fo Southeast Asian Nations, held at Malaysia (1969) and the Ministerial conference of Southeast Asian Nations held at Kuala Lumpur (Nov. 1971). According to his record, FVR receives award, medal and honor for his achievements in Korea and Vietnam. Known for his disciplinarian method in his troop but has a good faith in his heart. In his administration the good President look forward the dream for the Philippines as an industrialized country towards the year 2000. He also emphasizes for the rebels who are willing to surrender, to achieved the real peace and order in the country. The Ramos Administration intensify to complete the Program such as; school buildings, roads and bridges, country wide development, country's infrastructure program for Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and inviting foreign investors to put up business in the country to help the Filipino People. Ramos married Amelita Martinez on October 21, 1953. They had five children.

Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Third President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: April 19,1937 Term: 1998 - 2001 Filipino film actor and director, later politician. He resigned after the impeachment trial against him collapsed.

Joseph Ejercito Estrada was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo, Manila. He is the eight of the ten children of Emilio Ejercito and Maria Marcelo. His family later moved to San Juan, Rizal (now part of Metro Manila) where he grew up. Estrada studied at Ateneo de Manila University. He took up engineering at the Mapua Institute of Technology, on his second year he moved to the Polytechnic College of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila. Before he could finish engineering he quit school and decided to try the movies. Displeased with his decision to drop out of college, his parents forbade him to use his family name, which forced him to adopt "Estrada" as a screen name and "Erap" ("pare" or friend spelled backward) as a nickname. During his movie career, he played the lead role in more than hundred movies and produced more then 70 films. In 1974, he founded the Movie Workers Welfare Fund (MOWELFUND) that provides

movie industry workers with financial and professional assistance. He was the first FAMAS Hall of Fame awardee for Best Actor (1981) and also became a Hall of Fame awardee as a Producer(1983). Estrada entered politics when he ran for mayor of San Juan in 1968. He was only proclaimed mayor in 1969, after he won an electoral protest against Dr. Braulio Sto. Domingo. As mayor (19691986), Estrada was named one of the Ten Outstanding Young Men (TOYM) in Public Administration (1972). He was also named Most Outstanding Mayor and Foremost Nationalist (1972), and most outstanding Metro Manila Mayor (1972). He won a seat in the Senate in 1987. At the Senate, he chaired a Committee on Cultural Minorities and Rural Development and co-chaired the committees on Health, Natural Resources and Ecology, and Urban Planning. On September 16, 1991, he voted for the rejection of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Security, which ended the stay of the United States military bases in the Philippines. He was elected Vice President in 1992. He was appointed chairman of the Presidential AntiCrime Commission (PACC). He was elected President of the Philippines in 1998 but the EDSA II Revolution cut his 6-year term short on January 20, 2001. He is married to Luisa Pimentel, with whom he has three children.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Fourth President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines and 14th Philippine President Birthdate: April 5, 1947 Term: 2001 - June 2010 Description: The daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal. The second woman to be swept into the Presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution (EDSA II).
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo or GMA was born on April 5, 1947. His parents were former President Diosdado Macapagal and Dra. Eva Macaraeg. She grew up in Iligan City. GMA finished high school as Valedictorian at the Assumption College. She studied at the Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. but she stopped during her third year, when she got married to Jose Miguel Tuazon Arroyo. She finished her course in Commerce at Assumption College, graduating Magna Cum Laude. She took her Masters Degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University and her Doctorate Degree at the University of the Philippines. She worked as an assistant secretary to President Cory Aquino in 1986, and was later appointed as Undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. GMA was elected Senator in 1992, and was re-elected in 1995. In 1998, She was elected vicepresident of the Philippines, with Joseph Estrada as President. She was appointed as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, but gave up the position in October 2000 when there was a public clamor for the resignation of President Estrada. when some of the top officials of government and Armed Forces of the Philippines withdrew their support for President Estrada who was forced to leave Malacañang on

January 21, 2001. GMA was sworn in as the new President. She chose Senator Teofisto Guingona as Vice-President. Estrada criticized the legitimacy of GMA's presidency, however it was affirmed by the Supreme Court. She served the unfinished term of Estrada. In 2004, she ran for President and won against the popular actor, Fernando Poe Jr. In November 2009, Macapagal-Arroyo formally declared her intention to run for Congresswoman in the 2nd district of Pampanga. She is the 2nd Philippine President after Jose P. Laurel to pursue a lower office in the government after his presidency. Her term as President was finished on June 30, 2010. Gloria Makapagal-Arroyo married Jose Miguel Tuazon Arroyo in 1968. They have three children Mikey, Luli and Dato.

Benigno "Noynoy" S. Aquino III
15th President of the Republic of the Philippines Birthdate: February 8, 1960 Term: 2010 - Present Description: His father is Benigno ´Ninoyµ Aquino Jr. (Vice Governor of Tarlac province) and Mother is Former President Corazon Aquino. His siblings are 5 (Noynoy is the third child and He has four sisters, Maria Elena ("Ballsy"), Aurora Corazon ("Pinky"), Victoria Eliza ("Viel"), and Kristina Bernadette ("Kris"))
Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8, 1960. His parents were former Sentor Benigno Aquino Jr. and former President Corazon C. Aquino. Aquino finished his elementary, high school and college education at the Ateneo de MAnila where he obtained a bachelor's degree in Economics in 1981. After college, his family left the Philippines to live in the United State of America, because his father, who was then detained for charges of rebellion by the government of President Ferdinand Marcos, was permitted to seek treatment in the United States. Aquino and his family returned to the Philippines in 1983, after his father was assassinated at Manila International Airport. In 1986, his mother became president after the historic "People Power Revolution". In 1983, after his return to the Philippines, Aquino worked in private corporations until 1993. From 1993 to 1998, Aquino worked for the Central Azucarera de Tarlac. In 1998 Aquino ran for Congressman and served as representative of the 2nd District of Tarlac until 2007. As Congressman, he passed laws enhancing the effectiveness of public offices and improving the rights of workers and consumers. In May 2007, Noynoy was elected Senator. When his mother died in 2009, there where calls for him to run for President of the Philippines. To convince him, a million signatures were gathered by Edgardo Roces. On May 10, 2010, Aquino won the Presidential elections. He took his oath of office on June 30, 2010.

Some of the laws that he immediately signed were the banning of the use of siren or "wangwang" in the streets for no serious reason, and the voiding of "midnight appointments" in government positions. He also established the "Truth Commission" to investigate graft and corruption, and abuses of the government of Pres. Gloria Arroyo. Aquino is the third president to use his second given name, Simeon, as his middle initial, as Manuel L. Quezon and Jose P. Laurel. He is one of the younger elected presidents after Emilio Aguinaldo (29 years old when elected), Ramon Magsaysay (46 years old when elected) and Ferdinand Marcos (48 years old when elected). He is the third president who only holds office but does not reside in Malacañang Palace, following Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Ramos. He is the first president to make Bahay Pangarap his official residence. He is the first elected president who does not have a wife and children.

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