Introduction of Line Balancing

Line and work cell balancing is an effective tool to improve the throughput of assembly lines and work cells while reducing manpower requirements and costs. Assembly Line Balancing, or simply Line Balancing (LB), is the problem of assigning operations to workstations along an assembly line, in such a way that the assignment be optimal in some sense. Ever since Henry Ford’s introduction of assembly lines, LB has been an optimization problem of significant industrial importance: the efficiency difference between an optimal and a sub-optimal assignment can yield economies (or waste) reaching millions of dollars per year. LB is a classic Operations Research (OR) optimization problem, having been tackled by OR over several decades. Many algorithms have been proposed for the problem. Yet despite the practical importance of the problem, and the OR efforts that have been made to tackle it, little commercially available software is available to help industry in optimizing their lines. In fact, according to a recent survey by Becker and Scholl (2004), there appear to be currently just two commercially available packages featuring both a state of the art optimization algorithm and a user-friendly interface for data management. Furthermore, one of those packages appears to handle only the “clean” formulation of the problem (Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem, or SALBP), which leaves only one package available for industries such as automotive. This situation appears to be paradoxical, or at least unexpected: given the huge economies LB can generate, one would expect several software packages vying to grab a part of those economies. It appears that the gap between the available OR results and their dissemination in today’s industry, is probably due to a misalignment between the academic LB problem addressed by most of the OR approaches, and the actual problem being faced by the industry. LB is a difficult optimization problem (even its simplest forms are NP-hard – see Garey and Johnson, 1979), so the approach taken by OR has typically been to simplify it, in order to bring it to a level of complexity amenable to OR tools. While this is a perfectly valid approach in general, in the particular case of LB it led to some 1

definitions of the problem that ignore many aspects of the real-world problem. Unfortunately, many of the aspects that have been left out in the OR approach are in fact crucial to industries such as automotive, in the sense that any solution ignoring (violating) those aspects becomes unusable in the industry. In the sequel, we first briefly recall classic OR definitions of LB, and then review how the actual line balancing problem faced by the industry differs from them, and why a solution to the classic OR problem may be unusable in some industries. Thus, we used line balancing technique to achieve: 1. the minimization of the number of workstations; 2. the minimization of cycle time; 3. the maximization of workload smoothness; 4. The maximization of work relatedness.

Related Theories Why we used line balancing All factories that have a line such as traditional assembly line and new assembly line such as heuristic and U-type and also mixed model used a few technique such as genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic and also simulation method to improve a few parameter of line control in other hand manager like has a productivity and high yield in their factory and for this goal get help from previous technique to locate a machine, employer ,assign employer to machine to select best choose for control and work by machine . In a few company one employer control 2 or more than 2 machines and this result is out put of line balancing. In another word the company used line balancing for grow up the rate of produce and decrease man power, idle time and buffer near machine, also used line balancing for produced more than 2 products. One reason for this deficit might originate from the fact that research papers often regard single or only just a few extensions of ALB in an isolated manner. Real world assembly systems require a lot of

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these extensions in many possible combinations. Thus, flexible ALB procedures are required, which can deal with a lot of these extensions in a combined manner. Typically, there is a trade-off between flexibility and efficiency of an optimization procedure. Accordingly, by identifying typical combinations of extensions which often arise jointly in real-world assembly systems, procedures can be developed which exactly fit these requirements, while decreasing the required flexibility to a minimum. Moreover, practitioners might be provided with valuable advices on how to use already existing models and procedures for their special assembly system for that purpose this paper is structured to show a kind of line balancing and also why the factory must be used line balancing in the another word this article want to show how many model and method is discovered in line balancing and each model when must be used and the benefit of line balancing in the industry.

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Some of shape of assembly line balancing

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SALBP: The simple assembly line balancing problem (SALBP) is relevant for straight

single product assembly lines where only precedence constraints between tasks are to be considered. Type 1 of this basic problem (SALBP-1) consists of assigning tasks to work stations such that the number of stations is minimized for a given production rate. Type 2 (SALBP-2) is to maximize the production rate, or equivalently, to minimize the sum of idle times for a given number of stations. A more general type (SALBP-G) is obtained by minimizing the sum of idle times subject to varying production rates and numbers of stations.

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2. UALBP: The U-line balancing problem (UALBP) considers the case of U-shaped (single product) assembly lines, where stations are arranged within a narrow U. As a consequence, workers are allowed to work on either side of the U, i.e. on early and late tasks in the production process simultaneously. Therefore, modified precedence constraints have to be observed. By analogy with SALBP, different problem types can be distinguished. 3. MALBP and MSP: Mixed model assembly lines produce several models of a basic product in an intermixed sequence. Besides the mixed model assembly balancing problem (MALBP), which has to assign tasks to stations considering the different task times for the different models, the mixed model sequencing problem (MSP) is relevant. MSP has to find a sequence of all model units to be produced such that inefficiencies (work overload, line stoppage, off-line repair etc.) are minimized. 4. GALBP: In the literature, all problem types which generalize or remove some assumptions of SALBP are called generalized assembly line balancing problems (GALBP). This class of problems (including UALBP and MALBP) is very large and contains all problem extensions that might be relevant in practice including equipment selection, processing alternatives, assignment restrictions etc. Because the research field has grown in an unsystematic manner and, thus, has produced many results which are neither relevant for practice nor for improving the theory. In order to structure the field, to identify practicerelevant research needs and to improve communication between researchers inside the community and with practitioners it seems to be overdue to define a classification scheme. Such a scheme with is based on the logic of the well-known classification scheme for machine scheduling is presented by Boysen.

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ALB in dependency of the number of models In the briefly we can see all kind of assembly line balancing that related with number of models in the figure 3 and we can see in the continue a summery of each part of this table :

1. Single-model assembly lines In its traditional form, assembly lines were used for high volume production of a single commodity. Now a days, products without any variation can seldom attract sufficient customers to allow for a profitable utilization of the assembly system. Advanced production technologies enable automated setup operations at negligible setup times and costs. If more than one product is assembled on the same line, but neither setups nor significant variations in operating times occur, the assembly system can be treated as a single model line, as is the case in the production of compact discs or drinking cans for example. Single-model production is the standard assumption of SALB and many generalized ALB problems and have been considered by a vast number of publications. A recent literature overview is provided by Scholl and Becker as well as Becker and Scholl.

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2. Mixed-model assembly lines In mixed-model production, setup times between models could be reduced sufficiently enough to be ignored, so that intermixed model sequences can be assembled on the same line. In spite of the tremendous efforts to make production systems more versatile, this usually requires very homogeneous production processes. As a consequence, it is typically assumed that all models are variations of the same base product and only differ in specific customizable product attributes, also referred to as options. The installation of varying options typically leads to variations in process times. In automobile production, for instance, the installation of an electrical sun roof requires a different amount of time than that of a manual one. Therefore, station times will depend heavily on the specific model to be assembled. If several work intensive models follow each other at the same station, the cycle time might be exceeded and an overload occurs, which needs to be compensated by some kind of reaction. These overloads can be avoided if a sequence of models is found where those models which cause high station times alternate with less work-intensive ones at each station. This leads to a short term sequencing problem. The balancing and the sequencing problem are heavily interdependent. While the line balance decides on the assignment of tasks to stations and thus determines the work content per station and model, the production sequence of a given model mix is arranged on this basis with regard to minimum overloads. The amount of overload by itself is a measure of efficiency for the achieved line balance. That is why some authors have proposed a simultaneous consideration of both planning problems. 3. Multi-model assembly lines In multi-model production, the homogeneity of assembled products and their production processes is not sufficient to allow for facultative production sequences. In order to avoid setup times and/or costs the assembly is organized in batches. This leads to a short term lot-sizing problem which groups models to batches and decides on their assembly sequence. Especially if lot sizes are large, the line balance can in principle be

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determined separately for each model, as the significance of setup times between batches is comparatively small. However, also in multi-model production a certain degree of similarity in production processes should be inherent. Typically, the different models are manufactured by use of the same resources, e.g. machines or operators. If line balances are determined separately, those resources which are shared by models might need to be moved to other stations whenever the production system is setup for a new batch or have to be installed multiple times. This increases setup times and/or costs. If this interdependency is regarded in the line balance, the setup times might be reduced considerably, which in turn allows for a formation of smaller lots with all associated advantages.

Pre-requisites to line balancing

Calculate Takt

Understand the “drumbeat” of the CUSTOMER

Achieve CONSISTENCY in operations

Standardise

Enabling us to achieve our customers requirements by ‘managing our production effectively’ Variation in our operations demands more human intervention which, increases the risk of HUMAN ERROR 8

What is the Takt Time? Takt time is the fundamental concept to do with the regular, uniform rate of progression of products through all stages from raw material to customer. As such it is important in planning, in cell balancing, and in facility design. It should also be a consideration along a complete supply chain. "Sell daily? make daily!" is the underlying idea. Takt time is the drumbeat cycle of the rate of flow of products. It is the "metronome" (from the German origins of the word). Understanding takt time is fundamental to analysis and mapping of Lean Operations. Takt time is most simply the average rate at which customers buy products and hence the rate at which products should be manufactured. It is expressed in time units: one every so many minutes or so many minutes between completions. Takt time should drive the whole thinking of the plant and the supply chain. In a plant it is the drumbeat. Takt Time Example: Customer demand = 10 units / month Total time available = 20 days Takt time = 20 10 = 2 = Available Work Time Customer Demand

Drumbeat = 1 part every 2 days Each process needs to complete one unit every 2 days

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The benefits of the pre-requisites Takt time maximises the productivity due to: • Easily managed processes • Output of each process matches customer demand Standard Operations provide: • Capable and repeatable processes • Process control at source • Improves accuracy of planning • Better adherence to plans • A platform from which continuous improvement can be made • Reduced costs • Improved quality • Basis for training

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Real world application Line Balancing : Simple Example

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Method - capture current state Calculate TAKT Customer demand = 19 units a month Time available = 20 days a month TAKT = Available time Customer demand TAKT = 20 days ( x 24 hrs in a day) 19 units TAKT = 25 hrs Time the process Why video? - Used to visually record activity - Accurate method of recording - Irrefutable and unambiguous - Modern approach to establishing method 1. Capture a representative sample of the process 2. Review the video with the operators present 3. Break down the ‘elements’ of work and record a time for each one. 4. Identify which of the elements are Value-added and which are non-value added Break down the work elements The operators cycle is broken down into elements These elements are put into three main categories, these being : 1. Working (man or machine) 2. Walking 3. Waiting

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Draw current state Line Balance

Calculate total work content (stacked time) : 15 + 30 + 17 = 62 hrs

• Lay all the ‘post its’ out in sequence so that all of the processes are visible • Draw on the TAKT line (or use string)

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Calculate target manpower Target Manpower = Total Work Content Takt time

Calculate LineBalance Ratio & Efficiency Line balance ratio = Total work content No. of stations x longest operation Line balance Efficiency = Total work content Target manpower x Takt

Takt (25 hrs)

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Line Balance Ratio = 62 hrs X 100 = 69% (3 x 30)

What could be achieved without reducing waste and still meeting TAKT – simply REBALANCING!!

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1. Identify the elements of work that exceed TAK

2. Refer to Standard Work Combination table

3. Identify where work can be re-allocated

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Use Line Balancing to Create Lean Operations

Timer Pro Professional supports your lean operation initiatives by allowing you to quickly balance single and multi-model processes by number of operators, required production or takt time. The balancing module will instantly calculate the optimum utilization using the fewest operators to achieve the result requested. You can vary the parameters as often as you wish to run 'what-if' scenarios. Results of the line balancing process are saved as a series of tasks. Each activity is represented as a chip in each task. You can drag and drop the activity chips to further refine your balance.

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Discussion For this discussion, the line balancing can improve the manufacturing for accuracy of the planning. Line balancing can reduce the cost for the pay the worker and material for using. It can saved the time for finishing the product very shortly. The process can under the control and can improved the quality the product.

Conclusions We have identified a number of aspects of the line balancing problem that are vital in industries such as automotive, yet that have been either neglected in the OR work on the problem, or handled separately from each other. According to our experience, a

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line balancing tool applicable in those industries must be able to handle all of them simultaneously. That gives rise to an extremely complex optimization problem.

References 1. www.optimaldesign.com/Download/OptiLine/FalkenauerPLM05.pdf 2. www.acsco.com/LineBalancing.htm 3. http://www.manufacturinginstitute.co.uk/text.asp?PageId=83 4. http://www.simcore.fr/Pages/en/en_soft_pplb.php?Langue=en&IndexMnu=6

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