Computer System, Hardware

Computer System, Hardware Chapter (1)
Introduction to Computer Science
Computer (uGeysLwm) f

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Data → Processing → Information

Computer Hardware

GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out)

Software
Application Software ( Customize / Packages ) - Word Processing - Spread Sheet - Database - Graphic , etc.

System Software - Input Hardware - Operating System - Output Hardware - Processing & Memory Hardware - Utility Programs - Language Translators - Secondary storage Hardware - Communications Devices - etc.

History of Computer Science (uGeysLwmody\ordi;) f HÜ k f 2/ Computer Science \jzpfay:ajymif;vJrorki;rSm atmufygtwdi; jzpfygonfI d f k f pOf ckESpf Generation tokH;jyKaomypönf; tjrefEIef; 1/ 1200 Decimal pepfutajccHaom dk

ayoD;wGufcsufrI 2/ 1800 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 1896 1950 1960 1965 1970 1980 1 st Gen: 2 nd Gen: 3 rd Gen: 4 th Gen: 5 th Gen: Automatic Mechanical Calculator Punch Card Machine Vaccum tube Transistors Integreated Circuit(IC) Microprocessor Artificial Intelligence(AI)

1000 cal/sec 10×1 st Gen 100×2 nd Gen 50×3 rd Gen
Million Inst/sec

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2

Types of Computer (uGefysLwmtrsKd;tpm;rsm;) 3/ Types of Computer (uGefysLwmtrsKd;tpm;)udk pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIyrmP? tjrefEIef;ESifh csdwfquftoHk;jyKEdkifaom Terminal ta&twGufwdkYtay: rlwnfjyD; uGefysLwmrsm;tm; tMurf;

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3 (3) (4) (5)
Parts of Computer

Computer System, Hardware

Notebooks( 4-7.5 Pounds) ) Pocket PCs or Hand Held PC (1 Pound or Less) Palmtops(1 Pound or Less) Screen ay:wGif Pen jzifha&;í Data

rsm;ukd xnfhoGif;edkifonf/

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uGefysLwmwpfvkH;wGif atmufygtpdwftykdif;rsm; yg0ifygonf(u) Hardware / uGeysLwm&Sd xdawGUukiw,í&aom ypön;f ud&,mrsm;ukd ac:qkd f d f G f d ygonf/ Oyrm- Harddisk, Floppydisk, Monitor, Memory ( c ) Software / uGefysLwm&Sd xdawGUukdifwG,fír&aom tpdwftykdif;rsm;ukd ac:qkd ygonf/ Oyrm- System Software (pufvnfywf&ef tokH;jyKaomy½dk*&rf)? Application Software (tokH;csy½dk*&rfrsm;)/ ( * ) Firmware / Hardware ESifh Software aygif;pyfyg0ifaom ypönf;ukd ac:qdk ygonf/ Oyrm- ROMBIOS

Program (y½dk*&rf) 5/ Program qkdonfrSm ñTefMum;csufrsm;tm; tpDtpOfwus pkpnf;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ¤if;ñTeMf um;csursm;ukd Programming Language rsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;onf/ f

Generations of Programming Languages (uGefysLwmy½dk*&rfrsKd;qufrsm;)

6/

Programming language generation

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pOff (u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i)

Generation Language 1st Generation Machine language 2nd Generation Assembly language 3rd Generation High-level language 4th Generation Very high-level language 5th Generation Natural language

Artificial Intelligence(AI) (todÓPftwk) 7/ AI onf Computer Science \ tpdwftykdif;wpfck jzpfonf/ AI zefwD;&eftwGuf Program a&;om;&mwGif uRrf;usifaom Programmer rsm;? Hardware qkdif&muRrf;usifol

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4

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5 ( i)

Computer System, Hardware

( p)

Computer Vision and Scene Recognition / Machine Sensor wpfckrS &&Sdaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk Digitized vkyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tjrifqkdif&m owif; tcsutvufrsm;ukd Computer wGif xnfoi;f xm;aom A[kowtajccH f h G k onfh Programrsm; (Knowledge Base)jzifh aygif;pyfxm;onfh enf;ynmyif jzpfonf/ ¤if;rS &&Sdaom Result onf puf½kyfrStp pufrIqkdif&mvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;? Quality Control qkdif&mrsm;txd xdef;csKyfvkyfaqmif Ekdifonf/ Intelligence Computer Aided Instruction(ICAI) / vlrsm;ukd enf;ynm

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uGefysLwmvufpJG

6 Chapter (2)

Personal Computer Hardware & System Maintenance

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Components of a Computer (uGefysLwmwpfvHk;\tpdwftydkif;rsm;) 1/ Computer wpfvHk;wGif t"duyg0ifonfh tajccHtpdwftydkif;rsm;rSm atmufyg

twdkif;jzpfygonf(u) System Unit ( c) Monitor ( *) Keyboard ESifh Mouse (C) Printer ponfhypönf;rsm;udk awGU&ygrnf/
System Unit 2/ System Unit wpfck\ twGif;ydkif;wGif atmufygypönf;rsm;yg0ifEdkifygonf-

(u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i) ( p) (q) ( Z) (ps) (n) ( #) ( X) ( !) ( ¡) (P)

PSU (Power Supply Unit) [ AT/ATX ] FDD (Floppy Disk Drive) HDD (Hard Disk Drive) [IDE/EIDE/UDMA33/66/100/133,SCSI] CD Drive (Compact Disk Drive) [ IDE/SCSI ] Mother Board [ AT/ATX] Interface Card / Controller Card Sound Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)] VGA Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)/AGP] Fax Modem Card [ISA(8/16 Bit)/PCI(32/64 Bit)] Main Memory [FPM/EDO/SDRAM/DDRRAM/RDRAM] Cache Memory CPU [Intel/AMD/Cyrix/TI/WinChip] ROM BIOS [AMI/AWARD/PHOENEX] Backup Battery Others

7

Computer System, Hardware

Computer System One Set (uGefysLwmpepfwpfpHk)

System Unit

yHk (1)

Monitor Speaker Scanner
Scanner Tower System

Speaker

Dot- Matrix Printer
Dot-matrix printer

Mouse

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Keyboard Personal Computer

trsK;d tpm;rsm;

Pen Computer

PDA

Laptop Computer

Pen computer

PD Pocket organizer (PersonalA Digital (Handheld computer) (Per ersonal Digital Asistant)

Laptop computer

Computer Casing

trsKd;tpm;rsm;

Desktop Casing
Desktop box

Tower Casing

Plotter Computer Accessories
Tower box

uGeysLwmqufpyfypön;f rsm; f

Modem
Plotter

Modem

Laser Printer

Laser printer

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8

Mother Board / Main Board 3/ Personal Computer wpfv;wGif ta&;Bu;qH; tpdwtydi;rSm Main Board (odr[kw) kH D k f k f Yk f Mother Board jzpfygonf/ 4if; Mother Board wGif CPU, Chip Set ESifh tjcm;vQyfpD; ywfvrf;rsm; yg0ifygonf/ xdkYtjyif tjcm; Expension Card rsm; wyfqif&ef Slots rsm; yg0if ygonf/ Mother Board wpfckudk a½G;cs,f&mwGifatmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;udkxnfhoGif;pOf;pm;

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Parallel, Interface ..... ) Plug and Play (PNP) pGrf;aqmifEdkifrI? Power Management jyKvkyfEdkifrI? Mother Board Chip Set Documentation / Manual Book ..... ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/

Bus, Slot and I/O Card 4/ rnfonfh Computer System rqdk Mother Board onf ta&;Bu;D qH;k jzpfonf/ Mother Board twGif; Hardware Devices tcsif;csif; tvkyfvkyf&mü Bus [kac:aom Wire BudK; tpkta0;rsm;jzifh tjyeftvSef qufo,í tvkyvyygonf/ Mother Board \ Bus Design G f f k f EIdif;,SOfcsufudk yHk(2)wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;wGif atmufyg Bus

trsKd;tpm;rsm; yg0ifygonf(u) Processor Bus ( c) Address Bus ( *) Memory Bus (C) I/O Bus

9
CPU Processor Bus
480-528MBPS

Computer System, Hardware
Half (or) Full of CPU Speed CPU Processor Bus Back Side Bus
800-1064MBPS

External Cache

L2 Cache

60/66MHz

Front Side Bus

PC 100/133 Memory Memory RAM

Chipset

Memory

RAM PC 66 Memory

AGP
528MBPS

Chipset

I/O Bus

yHk (2) 5/

tjcm; Device rsm;ESihf CPU tjyeftvSef qufo,aqmif½uEi&ef I/O Bus (odr[kw) G f G f kd f Yk f Expension Slots rsm;u aqmif½Gufay;ygonf/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;&Sd Slots rsm;ü atmufaz:jyyg I/O Cards rsm;wyfqifEdkifygonf(u) Sound Card ( c) Video Card ( *) Network Interface Card (NIC) (C) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) Host Adapter ...etc ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/
Classes of I/O Buses (I/O Buses trsKd;tpm;rsm;) 6/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;taejzifh jrifhrm;aompGrf;yum;jzifh tvkyfvkyfEdkif&ef I/O Bus rsm;\ Speed jrefqef&efvdktyfygonf/ 4if;vdktyfcsufonf atmufaz:jyyg tcsuf(3)csuf

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I/O Bus

Classic Mother Board Design

Pentium Pro/ PII/PIII Design (Dual Independend Bus)

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10

EISA (32 bit)(Extended Industry Standard Architecture) VL Bus (32 bit) (VESA Local Bus) PCI Bus (32 bit / 64 bit) (Peripheral Component Interconnect) PC-Card (Formerly PCMCIA)(Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) (Note Book rsm;wGif toHk;jyKonf)

Personal Computer wGiyg&Saom omref Mother Board wpfcwif CPU, Chipset, f d k G f f G f G f S k k f Memory, I/O Devices rsm;tcsi;csi; qufo,aqmif½uaerIrmyH(3)ygtwdi; jzpfygonf/
CPU External Cache

Processor Bus (High Speed)

Built-In I/O

I/O Bus (Slow Speed)

Bus Controller Chips

I/O Bus (Slow Speed)

Slotted I/O

yHk (3)

Memory Bus (High Speed)

RAM

Microprocessors (rdkufu½dky½dkqufqmrsm;) 9/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;\ Model udktqHk;tjzwfay;aom t"duypönf;rSm CPU jzpfygonf/ CPU qdonfrm A[dxe;f csKyonfh ,lepfwpfcjk zpfNy;D Computer wpfv;kH \ OD;aESmuf k S k d f [kvnf; ac:qkEiygonf/ CPU onf Computer wpfv;kH \ 'ór*Pef;qdi&m wGucsurrty d kd f k f f f I S tjcm;wGucsurEihf Processing qdi&mrsm;udk vkyaqmifay;Ediygonf/ 'ór*Pef;udk wGucsuf f f I S k f f k f f Edkifaom FPU(Floating Point Unit) ESifh CPU wdkYudk Chip wpfcktwGif;wGifxnfhoGif;í wnfaqmufxm;jcif;tm;jzifh Microprocessor [k ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ 4if; Microprocessor udk IBM, AMD, Cyrix, Nexgen, Intel, DEC ..... ponfhukrÜPDrsm;rS xkwfvkyfvQuf&Sdygonf/

11
Processor CPU Clock Std. Voltage

Computer System, Hardware
MaxMultimedia Memory Instructions 1M 1M 16M 16M 16M 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G 4G MMX 64G 64G MMX 64G MMX 64G SSE(MMX,3D)

8088 1x 8086 1x 286 1x 386SX 1x 386SL 1x 386DX 1x 486SX 1x 486SX2 2x 487SX 1x 486DX 1x 486SL** 1x 486DX2 2x 486DX4 2-3x Pentium OD 2-5x Pentium 60/66 1x Pentium 75+ 1.5-3x PentiumMMX1.5-4.5x Pentium Pro 2-3x Pentium II 3.5-4.5x Celeron 3.5-7x Pentium !!! 4.5-8x

Intel Processor Specifications Internal Data-Bus AddressRegister Width Bus Size Width 5v 16-bit 8-bit 20-bit 5v 16-bit 16-bit 20-bit 5v 16-bit 16-bit 24-bit 5v 32-bit 16-bit 24-bit 3.3v 32-bit 16-bit 24-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 3.3v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 5v 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 3.3v*** 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 32-bit 2.9v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit 1.8-2.2v 32-bit 64-bit 36-bit

MMX=Multi Media Extensions SSE=Streaming Instruction Data) SSE=Streaming SIMD(Single Instruction Multiple Data) Extensions

Z,m; (1) 10/ Intel ukrÜPDrS xkwfvkyfonfh Intel Processor rsm;\ pufrIqdkif&mt&nftcsif;rsm;udk Z,m;(1)ygtwdkif; awGUEdkifygonf/ 11/ Intel Processor rsm;\ vkyfudkifaqmif½GufEdkifaom Memory yrmPudk Theory t& Z,m;(1)ygtwdkif; awGUEdkifygonf/ 12/ Processor rsm;\tjrefEe;f onf Mother Board \tjrefEe;f ESihf rwlnEiyg/ Processor I I D kd f \tjrefEIef;udk CPU Speed (odkYr[kwf) CPU Internal Speed [kac:qdkNyD;? Mother Board \tjrefEIef;udk Mother Board Speed (odkYr[kwf) CPU External Speed (odkYr[kwf) FSB Speed [k ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ CPU Speed ESifh Mother Board Speed jrefqefrIudk OD;pm;ay; a&G;cs,frSom Performance aumif;rGefygrnf/ CPU Speed onfMother Board Speed xuf tqrnfrQjrefqefonfudk Z,m;(2)ygtwdkif; awGUEdkifygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

12
CPU Type/Speed Pentium 60 Pentium 66 Pentium 75 Pentium 90 Pentium 100 Pentium 120 Pentium 133 Pentium 150 Pentium 166/P6 Pentium 180/P6 Pentium 200/P6 Pentium 233/PII Pentium II 300 Pentium II 350 Pentium II 450 Pentium !!! 500 Pentium !!! 533 Pentium !!! 667 Pentium !!! 733 Pentium !!! 800 CPU Clock 1x 1x 1.5x 1.5x 1.5x 2x 2x 2.5x 2.5x 3x 3x 3.5x 4.5x 3.5x 4.5x 5x 4x 5x 5.5x 8x Motherboard Speed 60MHz 66MHz 50MHz 60MHz 66MHz 60MHz 66MHz 60MHz 66MHz 60MHz 66MHz 66MHz 66MHz 100MHz 100MHz 100MHz 133MHz 133MHz 133MHz 100MHz

Z,m; (2)

Memory (rSwfÓPf) 13/ Personal Computer wpfvHk;\ wGufcsufrIrsm;? Process rsm;vkyfaqmif&mwGif CPU

rSajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufjcif; rjyKrDüvnf;aumif;? ajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufjcif; jyKvkyfNyD;üvnf;aumif;? tcsuftvufrsm;? ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk Memory wGif odrf;qnf;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf/ 14/ Mother Board wGif wyfqifEdkifaom Memory Chip (odkYr[kwf) Memory Card trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk yHko@mefESihfwnfaqmufyHkt& DIPs, SIMMs, SIPs, DIMMs [lí cGJjcm;edkifygonf/ 15/ Mother Board ay:wGif Memory rsm;udk wyfqif&mü Memory Bank wpfcktjynfh wyfqifrSomvQif tvkyfvkyfaqmifrnf jzpfygonf/ Mother Board, Processor rsm;tvdkuf Bank pepfowfrSwfcsufrsm;? uefYowfcsufrsm; &dSygonf/ Memory wyfqif&mwGif Memory Card rsm;onf Speed ESifh Capactity rsm;wlnD&ef vdktyfonfhtjyif FPM, EDO, SDRAM, DDRRAM, RDRAM ponfhwdkYvnf; wlnD&ef vdktyfygonf/

13

Computer System, Hardware

Monitor (armfeDwm) 16/ Monitor wGif CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube ) udkoHk;aom Monitor ESifh LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display )udk oHk;aom Monitor [lí ESpfrsKd;½Sdygonf/ Monitor trsKd;tpm;rsm;rSm

atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Monochrome/ ( c) CGA ( Color Graphic Adaptor )/ ( *) EGA ( Enhanced Graphic Adaptor )/ (C) VGA ( Video Graphic Array )/ ( i) SVGA ( Super Video Graphic Array )/ ( p) XVGA ( Extrasuper Video Graphic Array )/ 17/ Monitor wGif Power On / Off Switch, yH&y\tvif;tarSmifEihf rsuEmjyifukd tay: k d f S f S atmuf? ab;b,fnm tusOf;tus,fwdkYudk jyKvkyfEdkifaom Button / Adjustment rsm;yg½SdNyD;? aemufzufwGif Data Cable (9Pin,15Pin) Male Type ESifh Power Cord wdkYyg½Sdonf/
9 Pin 0 0 0 0 Mono, CGA, EGA 0 0 0 0 0 Connector 00000 00000 00000 15 Pin VGA, SVGA, XVGA Connector

yHk (4)

18/

Monitor ESiwzuftoH;jyKrnfh VGA Card / Graphic Card wGirrtoH;jyKvaom hf JG k f d d k kd Resolution, Color Setting rsm;tvdkuf Video RAM vdktyfcsufZ,m;
Resolution 640 x 480(VGA) 800 x 600(SVGA) 1024 x 768(XGA) 1280 x 1024(SXGA) 1600 x 1200 16 Colors 0.15MB 0.23MB 0.38MB 0.63MB 0.92MB 256 Colors 0.29MB 0.46MB 0.75MB 1.25MB 1.83MB 64K Colors 0.59MB 0.92MB 1.5MB 2.5MB 3.66MB 16.7M Colors 0.88MB 1.37MB 2.25MB 3.75MB 5.94MB

VRAM Requirements for Various (VGA/SVGA/XGA/SXGA)Resolutions/Color Depths

Z,m;(5)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

14

½Sif;vif;csu f/ 1024 x 768 Resolution ESihf 16 Million Color az:jyEdiaom Frame wpfcukd k f k Monitor ay:wGif az:jyEdkif&ef SVGA Card ü Memory yrmP 2.25MB vdktyfrnfjzpfí vufawGUwGif VRAM 4MB wyfqif&ef vdktyfygonf/
Keyboard (cvkwfcHk odkYr[kwf tcsuftvufESifhñTefMum;csufxnfhoGif;onfhypönf;) 19/ Keyboard wGif XT Keyboard, AT Keyboard ( 101 Keys, 104 Keys, Windows'95 Keyboard, Windows'98 Keyboard )[lí awGU½SdEdkifygonf/

PS2 Keyboard Connector ( 6-Pin -Female )

yHk (5)

101 Keyboard

AT Keyboard Connector ( 5-Pin -Female )

Mouse 20/ Mouse (3) rsKd;½Sdygonf/ Serial Mouse, Bus Mouse ESifh Inport Mouse jzpfygonf/ ,cifpufrsm;wGif Serial Mouse toHk;rsm;cJhonf/ ,cktcg PS2 MouseudktoHk;rsm;vmonf/
USB Mouse, Optical Mouse ESifh Wireless Mouse wdkYudkvnf;

toHk;jyKvmMuygonf/

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Serial Mouse Connector

PS2 Mouse Connector

yHk (6)

Mouse & Mouse Pad

15

Computer System, Hardware

Printer 21/ Printer qdonfrm Data rsm;? ½kyyrsm;udk Output (Hard Copy)taejzifh pm½Guay:odYk k S f kH f xkw,aompufjzpfygonf/ Printer rsm;udk t"dutm;jzifh atmufygtwdi;f ESprsK;d cJjG cm;Ediygonff l k f k f (u) Impact Printer ( c) Non-impact Printer wdkYjzpfygonf/ Impact Printer 22/ Microcomputer oHk; Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;rsm;wGif (u) Daisywheel Printer ( c) Dot-matrix Printer [líawGU½SdEdkifygonff/

23/ Impact Printerrsm;onf Hammer (or) Small Pin rsm;jzifh ½dkufESdyfaom Printer trsKd;tpm;rsm; jzpfMuonf/
Daisy Wheel Printer 24/ Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;xJwGif yg0ifonf/ Solid Character Printer [kvnf; ac:onf/ vkyfaqmifrIonf Type Writer ESifhqifwlonf/ Daisy Wheel ac: A[dkrS jzmxGuf

aeaom vufwHtoD;oD;ay:wGif azgif;<upmvHk;rsm;yg½Sdonf/ rdrdtoHk;jyKaom pm½Guf\tus,f wpfavQmufwGif Daisy Wheel onf vnfywfa½GUvsm;jcif;jzifh pmvHk;udk ½dkufESdyfonf/
Dot Matrix Printer 25/ Line Printer qdkonfrSm Ribbon udktoHk;jyKí Pin rsm;jzifh½dkufESdyfyHkazmfay;aom pufjzpfonf/ Dot Matrix Printer [kvnf;ac:onf/ Dot Matrix Printer onf Pin ta&twGufay:rlwnfNyD; 9 Pin , 24 Pin [lí trsKd;tpm;cJGjcm;xm;ygonf/

24 Pin Printer Head

9 Pin Printer Head

Dot Matrix Printer

yHk (7)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

16

Non-Impact Printer 26/ Microcomputer oHk; Non-Impact Printer trsKd;tpm;wGif (u) Laser Jet Printer(Photocopying machineESifhqifwl) ( c) Ink Jet Printer (Nozzle rsm; toHk;jyKíyHkazmf) ( *) Thermal Printer(Special Paper toHk;jyK) [líawGU½SdEdkifygonff/

Laser Jet Printer

yHk (8)
Installation of the Computer and Accessories (AT)

(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;) 27/ AT System Unit yHk(9)wGif Computer ESifh qufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifyHkrSm atmufyg twdkif; jzpfygonf (u) AT System Unit wGif Power Cord wyfqifjcif; / System Unit wGi½aom f dS AC Inlet Port (A) wGif Power Cord udk csdwfqufwyfqifyg/ ( c) Monitor Power Cord wyfqifjcif; (1) System Unit ½Sd AC Outlet Port (B) ESifh Monitor ½Sd Power Inlet d f Yk f Port udk Loop Back Power Cable jzifh cswquf wyfqifyg/ (odr[kw) (2) AC Source rS Monitor ½Sd Power Cord wdkYtm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf wyfqifyg/ ( *) Monitor rS Signal Cable tm; System Unit wGif wyfqifxm;aom VGA Interface Card (C) wGif csdwfqufwyfqifyg/ (C) System Unit ½Sd Keyboard Input Port (D)wGif Keyboard Connector tm; wyfqifyg/ ( i) System Unit ½Sd Serial Port (E) wGif Mouse Connector tm; wyfqifyg/

17 ( p) (q) ( Z) ( ps)

Computer System, Hardware

System Unit wGi½dS Parallel Port (F) wGif Printer Data Cable tm;wyfqifyg/ f AC Source ESifh Printer Power Port tm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf wyfqifyg/ System Unit ½Sd Sound Card (G) ½Sd SPK Port wGif Speaker Connector

tm; wyfqifyg/
UPS ( Uninterruptible Power Supply ) csdwfquftoHk;jyKjcif;/ AC Source rS UPS ? UPS rS System Unit odkY rSefuefpGm tpOfvdkuf csdwfquf

(n) ( #)

wyfqif toHk;jyK&rnf/ Surge Protector csdwfquf toHk;jyKjcif; / Surge Protector udk AC Source ESifh UPS tMum;xm;í toHk;jyK&rnf jzpfonf/ wyfqifrItm;vHk;tm; rSefuefrI ½Sd^r½Sd ppfaq;yg/ Rear Panel of AT System Unit
DB 25 PARALLEL PORT (F) AC OUTLET (B) ( TO MONITOR) AC INLET (A) DB 9 SERIAL PORT (E)

KEYBOARD INPUT (D) VGA INTERFACE (C)
SERIAL 2

PARALLEL PORT (F)
SERIAL 1

PARALLEL

GAME

IN MIC

SPK

tjcm; Sound pepf wpfck rS O/P udk 4if; PortwGifxnfh&ef Speaker wyfqif&ef
SOUND CARD INTERFACE (G)

PARALLEL & SERIAL INTERFACE SERIAL PORT (E)

..... .....

OUT

VGA Port

tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckodkY O/P xkwf&ef ae&m MIC wyfqif&ef
VGA INTERFACE (C)

○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

.... .....

............ ............. ............ ............. ....... ........

yHk (9)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

18

Installation of the Computer and Accessories (ATX)

(uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm; wyfqifjcif;) 28/ ATX System Unit yHk (10)wGif wyfqifyHkrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygonf(u) ATX System Unit wGif Power Cord wyfqifjcif;/ AC Source rS System Unit wGif½Sdaom PSU (Power Supply Unit) ½Sd AC Inlet Port (A) wGif Power Cord udk csdwfqufwyfqifyg/ ( c) Monitor Power Cord wyfqifjcif; (1) System Unit ½Sd AC Outlet Port (B) ESifh Monitor ½Sd Power Inlet d f Yk f Port udk Loop Back Power Cable jzifh cswqufwyfqifyg/ (odr[kw) (2) AC Source rS Monitor ½Sd Power Port wdkYtm; wdkuf½dkuf csdwfquf wyfqifyg/ Rear Panel of ATX System Unit
PS/2 Keyboard (F) PS/2 Mouse (E)

AC OUTLET (B) AC INLET (A)

USB PORT

o

o

○ ○ ○ ○○

○○○○○○○○○○○○ ○○○○○○○○○○○○○

yHk (10)
tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckrS udk 4if; Port wGifxnfh&ef Speaker wyfqif&ef
VGA INTERFACE (C)
IN SPK

Game Port

MIC

OUT

SOUND CARD INTERFACE (D)

tjcm; Sound pepfwpfckodkY O/P xkwf&efae&m
MIC

○ ○ ○ ○○

............. ............ ..... .... .... ..... ..... .....

COM B

LPT PORT (G)

O/P

o o

....... ........

COM A

o

o

wyfqif&ef

19

Computer System, Hardware

( *) Monitor rS Signal Cable tm; System Unit wGifwyfqifxm;aom VGA/ SVGA/AGP Interface Card (C) &S d Interface wG i f csdwfqufwyfqifyg/ (C)S System Unit ½Sd PS2 Keyboard Input Port (F) wGif PS2 Keyboard Connector tm; wyfqifyg/ (odkYr[kwf)tjcm; Keyboard rsm;udk wyfqif toH;k jyKvygu PS2 Keyboard Input Port (F) wGif Adapter cHí kd toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/ ( i) System Unit ½Sd PS2 Mouse Input Port (E) wGif PS2 Mouse Yk f Connector tm;wyfqifyg/ (odr[kw) tjcm; Serial Mouse wyfqif toHk;jyKrnfqdkygu COM A wGif Mouse Connector tm;wyfqifyg/ ( p) System Unit wGif wyfqifxm;aom LPT Parallel Port (G) wGif Printer Data Cable tm;wyfqifyg/ (q) AC Source ESihf Printer Power Port tm; Power Cable jzifh wdu½uf k f kd csdwfqufwyfqifyg/ ( Z) System Unit ½Sd Sound Card (D) rS SPK Port wGif Speaker Connector tm;wyfqifyg/ ( ps) UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) csdwfquftoHk;jyKygu AC Source rS UPS? UPS rS System Unit odkYrSefuefpGm tpOfvdkuf csdwfqufwyfqif toHk;jyK&rnf/ (n) Surge Protector csdwfquftoHk;jyKygu AC Source rS txGufwGif Surge Protector udkcHí UPS t0ifwGifwyfqiftoHk;jyK&rnf/ ( #) wyfqifrItm;vHk;tm; rSefuefrI½Sdr½Sd aocsmpGmppfaq;yg/
Starting The Computer (For Windows XP)

(Windows XP toHk;jyKuGefysLwmtm; pwiftoHk;jyKjcif;) 29/ Windows XP Operating System xnfhoGif;xm;aomuGefysLwmrsm;tm; atmufygtwdkif;zGifhEdkifygonf(u) AC Source rS Switch udk On yg/ ( c) System Unit a½SU&Sd Power On/Off Switch udk On yg/

uGefysLwmvufpJG ( *) (C)

20

Monitor Power Switch udk On yg/

acwåtMumwGif Windows XP Desktop Screen ay:vmNyD;aemuf Computer tm; pwiftoHk;jyKEdkifrnfjzpfygonf/ (Windows 9x, desktop screen rsm;ESifh tenf;i,fuGJjym;aeonfukdawGU&ygrnf/)

Shut Down The Computer (For Windows XP)

(Windows XP toHk;jyKuGefysLwmtm; ydwfjcif;) 30/ Windows XP Operating System xnfhoGif;xm;aomuGefysLwmrsm;tm; atmufygtwdkif; ydwfEdkifygonf(u) ( c) rdrdtoHk;jyKpOf zGifhxm;aom Files rsm;? Folder rsm;? Application f Software rsm;tm; wpfqifhjcif; Close vkyyg/
Windows Desktop Screen atmufajc½Sd Task Bar ay:rS Start f Yk f Button udk Click vkyyg/ (odr[kw) Short Cut taejzifh Ctrl+Esc Key ud k w G J í ES d y f y g/ (od k Y r [k w f ) Windows Keyboard rsm;wG i f Windows Key udEyyg/ k Sd f Start Menu ay:vmrnf/ yHk(11) Shut Down Button tm; Click vkyyg/ f Shut Down Wimdows Dialog Box ay:vmrnf/ yHk(12)? ykH(13) ATX System jzpfygu uGefysLwmonf tvdktavsmuf Turn Off

( *) (C) ( i) ( p) (q) ( Z)

jyKvkyfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/
Monitor Power Switch ukd Off vkyyg/ f AC Power Source rS Switch ukd Off vkyyg/ f

21

Computer System, Hardware

yHk(11)

yHk(12)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

22

yHk(13)

Startup Procedure for PC

(uGefysLwmwpfvkH;rD;zGifhvQifpwifaqmif&GufrItqifhqifh) 31/ uGeysLwmwpfv;Hk ukd rD;zGivuonfEihf atmufygtqifrsm;twki;f aqmif&uNf y;D f hf dk f S h d G Ready toHk;jyKEdkifapygrnf(u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i) ( p) 32/
Power Supply Unit Motherboard/Mainboard Crystal (X'tal) Clock Generator Digital Clock (or) Digital Pulse ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory- Basic Input Output System)

tqdkygtqifhtoD;oD;\vkyfaqmifyHktao;pdwfrSmatmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf-

23 (u)

Computer System, Hardware

( c)

( *)

Power Supply Unit (PSU) / Computer wpfvHk;pwiftoHk;jyK&eftwGuf rD;zGifhvdkufonfESifh PSUonf AC Voltage vufcH &,lNy;D DC Voltage (4) rsKd; (+5, -5, +12, -12 )udkjyefvnfxkwfay;onf/ PSU 4if; Output Voltage (4) rsK;d udk ±5% Error twGi;f tNr&aeatmif Maintainvkyay;aejcif;jzifh ReguJ dS f lated Outputudk pOfqufrjywf xkway; ygonf/ PSU onf Switched Mode f Power Supply trsK;tpm;wpfck jzpfonf/ ±5% Error qdonfrm 5V Output d k S twGuf 4.75V tenf;qHk;&Sd &rnfjzpfNyD; 5.25V tjrifhqHk;&Sd&rnfjzpfovdk 12V Output twGuf 11.4V tenf;qH; &S&rnfjzpfNy; 12.6V tjrifq;&S&rnfjzpfonf/ k d D h kH d Mother Board / Main Board (MB) / PSU rSxkwfay;aom Regulated Output Voltage \ ± 5% Error &Sdr&Sdudk Mother Board rSppfaq;NyD; 4.7V ESifh 5.25V \ tjyifa&mufaevQif Mother Board rSvufrcHyg/ 4.7V ESifh 5.25V twGi;&SromvQif Power Good Signal (PG) udk PSU odjYk yefyay;onf/ f d S Ykd PG onfvdar®mfa&mifBudK;jzpfNyD; 5V &Sdonf/ PG Signal jyefvnfr&vQif PSU tvkyfrvkyfawmhyg/ odkYjzpfí PSU ESifh Mother Board onf wpfckESifhwpfck Independent jzpfygonf/ PSU ysuwi; Mother Board udk rxdcuap&efEihf f kd f kd f S Mother Board ysufwdkif; PSU udk rxdcdkufap&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ Crystal (X'tal) / Crystal onf vIdif;xkwfonfhud&d,mjzpfonf/ ovif;

(C) ( i)

( p)

ausmufjym;yg;yg;udk pwD;bl;i,fwGifxnfhí wnfaqmufxm;onf/ 0ifvmonfh AdkYtm;aMumifh Crystal &Sdovif;ausmufjym;wkefcgrIrS Analog vIdif; (14.31818 f I f f k MHz)xkway;onf/ 4if;vdi;udk Digital Clock toGiajymif;,l&ef vdtyfonf/ Clock Generator / Crystal rSxkwfay;aom Analog vIdif;udk Clock Generator IC odkY ay;ydkYNyD; 4if; IC rS Digital Clock odkYtoGifajymif;ay;onf/ Digital Clock (or) Digital Pulse / Digital Clock udkoufqdkif&m Frequency rsm;odkY tqwifí Mother Board wGif&Sdaom IC , Memory, h f k f Yk Processor, ROM-BIOS, Chip Set ponftpdwtydi; toD;oD;odYk ay;ydonf/ ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System)/ Mother Boarday:wGif ROM Chip (Read Only Memory)yg&Sdygonf/ 4if; twGi;f wGif Program udk puf½rxwvypOfuwnf;u owfrway;vduygonf/ kH S k f k f S f k f ROM BIOS onf atmufaz:jyyg tqifh(3)qifhjzifh vkyfaqmifygonf-

uGefysLwmvufpJG (1) (2) (3)

24
Power On Self Test (uGeysLwmrD;zGicserpí pwifppfaq;rIjyKvyjf cif;) f hf d f S k Boot Strapping (uGefysLwmtqifoifhjzpfap&efjyKvkyfay;jcif;) Low Level Interfaces (Hardware tcsi;csi; tjyeftvSef qufo,rI f f G f udk Interface jyKvkyfay;jcif;)

Power On Self Test (POST) (rD;zGifhonfESifhtvdktavsmufppfaq;jcif;) 33/ POST onfuGefysLwmudkpwifzGifhvdkufaomtcg uGefysLwmpepfwpfckvHk;wGifwyfqif xm;aom Standard Devices (Memory, Monitor, Keyboard, Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, CPU, Chip Set, ...)rsm;udk pwifppfaq;&ygonf/ POST onfuGefysLwmwGif Disk Drive ta&twGuf rnfrQ&Sdonf? Serial Ports, f Yk f d Parallel Ports rSwÓPf (Memory) wdukd ppfaq;ay;ygonf/ Test vkyí&&Saom Hardware tajctaersm;udk CMOS Setup ESifhEIdif;,SOf ppfaq;NyD; udkufnDrI&Sdygu POST tqifhrS Boot dS f dS f H Strap odYk a&muf&ygonf/ tu,fírSm;,Gi;rI&ygu Monitor ay:wGieygwfrsm;az:jyjcif;? Error Message ay;jcif;? toHjrnfjcif;wdkYjzifh today;ygonf/

34/

Start -Up Procedure For PC (PCwpfvHk;rD;zGifhvQifpwifaqmif&GufrItqifhqihf)
MOTHER BOARD Regulated DC Output CMOS

Internal Battery 3V
ROM-BIOS

Clock Generator

Switched Mode Power Supply

230V/110V

7654321 7654321 7654321 7654321

AC

P S U

→ -5 → +12 → -12 → PG
+5

(± 5% Error) Analog

Digital Clock

(i) POST
(Power On Self Test)

(ii) Boot Strap

Crystal (Oscillator)

→ → Other Devices →

(iii) Low Level
Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System Interface

yH(14) k

25
Boot Strap

Computer System, Hardware

Boot Strap Program Code Boot Strap Program

Main Memory
Seg F ROM-BIOS Program Loader

I/O.SYS
3

2

MSDOS.SYS CONFIG.SYS COMMAND.COM
1

4 5 6

yH(15) k
Seg 2 Seg 1

7

AUTOEXEC.BAT WIN.COM

Boot Strapping (uGefysLwmtqifoifhjzpfap&efvkyfaqmifjcif;) 35/ Boot Strapping onf OS udk Memory ay:odkYwifay;jcif; (odkYr[kwf) Computer udk toHk;jyKEdkifap&ef Ready jzpfapjcif;tydkif;udk aqmif½Gufay;onf/

36/

Boot Strapping (DOS) vkyfaqmifrItqifhqifhrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) ROM-BIOS Programs rsm;onf Memory \ Segment F wGif ae&m,lonf/ ROM-BIOS rS Program Loader ac: Loader Program onf uGefysLwm pepfudk Boot vkyf&ef Drive A (System Disk) \ Boot Record (BR) odr[kwf Drive C (Hard Disk) \yxr Track, yxr Sector wGif &Saeaom Yk d Master Boot Record (MBR) rS Boot Strap Program Code ud k Ykd f d uGeysLwm\rSwÓPf (Memory) ay:odYk wifyay;Ny;D 4if;wGiyg&Sonfh Instrucf f tion rsm;udk rdkufc½dky½dkqufqmu qufvuf vkyfaqmifay;onf/ ( c) Boot Strap Program Code onf System Disk (or) Hard Disk xJ&Sd System File (5) Files jzpfaom (1) IO.SYS (2) MSDOS.SYS (3) CONFIG.SYS (4) COMMAND.COM (5) AUTOEXEC.BAT udk Memory ay:odYk quf

vufwifay;onf/ 37/ Boot Strap Program onf Input/Output Operation udk ROM-BIOS ESifhwGJNyD; vkyaqmifay;aom IO.SYS File udyxrOD;pGm Memory ay:odYk wifay;ygonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh f k IO.SYS onf Input/ Output Operations rsm;udk ROM-BIOS ESifhtwl aqmif&Gufay;onf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

26

38/ 4if;aemuf Memory ay:oda&muf&NdS yjD zpfaom IO.SYS onf DOS Request udajz&Si;f Yk k aqmif½Gufay;aom MSDOS.SYS File udk Memory ay:odkY wifay;onf/ 39/ IO.SYS onfqufvufí CONFIG.SYS File udk &SmazGNy;D Memory ay:odYk wifay; onf/ CONFIG.SYS File onf4if;wGif&Sdaom Instruction rsm;t&aqmif&GufNyD; uGefysLwm pepf\ Configuration udk wnfaqmufay;onf/ DOS toHk;jyKuGefysLwmpepfwGif Hardware k f G h G f Device topfwyfqifygu Device twGuf Instruction udk CONFIG.SYS zdiwif xnfoi; ay;&rnf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh CONFIG.SYS onf Standard r[kwonfh Device rsm; wyfqif f xm;jcif;udk uGefysLwmpepfu odatmifaqmif&Gufay;jcif; jzpfonf/ 40/ 4if;aemuf IO.SYS File onf COMMAND.COM zdiukd qufvuf&mazGNy;D Memory k f S ay:odkY wifay;onf/ CONFIG.SYS zdkifwGif COMMAND.COM File onf rnfonfh Directory wGif &SaMumif;udk Path vrf;aMumif;jzifh az:jyEdionf/ COMMAND.COM zdionf d k f k f DOS \ Command Interpreter jzpfojzifh Command rsm;udkuGefysLwmem;vnfatmif bmomjyefay;onf/ COMMAND.COM File r&SvQif "Missing Command Interpreter" d [k owday;pmwef;ay:vmrnf/ qufvufíaemufq;kH tqifwifCOMMAND.COM File onf AUTOEXEC.BAT h G File udk&SmazGonf/ AUTOEXEC.BAT File onf uGefysLwm rD;zGifhNyD;aemuf aqmif½Gufapvdk aom Instruction rsm;udk pDpOfppnf;íxnfoi;f xm;onfzif jzpfygonf/4if; Instruction rsm;udk k h G h kd COMMAND.COM File uulnDajz&Sif;aqmif½Gufay;NyD; "C:\>-" odkYvnf;aumif;? Win 9x pepfwGif WIN.COM udk Automatic Execute vkyfívnf;aumif;? uGefysLwmtm; tqifoifh jzpfapygonf/
Low Level Interface

41/

(trmxnfrsm;tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefqufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;) 42/ BIOS onf Hardware Devices rsm;tcsi;f csi;f udk tjyeftvSef qufo,aqmif½urukd G f G f I OS ESifhtwl ulnDyHhydk;ay;ygonf/ Oyrm- Memory rS Hard Disk odkYvnf;aumif;? Hard Disk rS Memory odkYvnf;aumif; Data rsm;tjyeftvSefay;ydkYqufoG,fjcif;rsm;udk ulnDay;ygonf/

27

Computer System, Hardware

Maintenance a Hard Disk (For Windows XP) (Hard Disk wpfvHk;tm;xdef;odrf;rI jyKvkyfjcif;)

43/ Windows rS Defragmentation jyKvkyf&ef atmufygtwdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkif ygonf(u) Start→All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk f Yk f Defragmenter udkyHk(16)ygtwdkif;tpOfvdkuf Click vkyyg/ (odr[kw)

yHk(16) ( c)
Desktop ay:½Sd My Computer Icon udk Double Click vkyygf (1) My Computer Window ay:vmrnf/ (2) Defragmentation vkyfcsifaom Drive A: (or) Drive C: ponfjzifha½G;í Right Click vkyyg/ f (3) Context Menu yHk (17) ay:vmrnf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

28

yHk(17) (4) (5) (6) (7) ( *)
Context Menu rS Properties udk a½G;í Click vkyyg/ f Properties Dialog Box ay:vmrnf/ yHk(18) Properties Dialog Box rS Tools uda½G;yg/ k Defragment Now, Button udk Click vkyyg/ f Disk Defragmenter Window ay:vmrnf/yHk(19)(1) Disk Defragmenter Window wGif Drive rsm;udxyfNy;D a½G;cs,f k

Edkifygonf/ (2) a&G;cs,fNyD;ygu Defragment Button udk Click vkyyg/ f

29

Computer System, Hardware

yHk(18)

yHk(19)

uGefysLwmvufpJG (C)

30

rdrda½G;cs,fxm;aom Drive udk Defragmenting vkyfaeaMumif; Disk Defragmenter Window wGifvkyfaqmifcsufay:vmrnf/ yHk (20)

( i) ( p)

yHk(20) Defragmenting Window wGif cP&yfqdkif;vdkvQif Pause ? &yfqdkif; vdkvQif Stop udk Click vkyyg/ f teDa&mifonf wpfqufwpfpyfwnf;&Sdaejcif; r&Sdaomzdkifrsm;udk vnf;aumif;? tjyma&mifonfwpfqufwpfpyfwnf;&Saeaom zdirsm;udk d k f vnf;aumif;? tpdrf;a&mifonf a&TUír&aomzdkifrsm;udk vnf;aumif;? tjzLa&mifonf Hard Disk &SdtoHk;rjyK&ao;aom Free Space wdkYudk&nfñTef;ygonf/ Defragmenting vkyfaejcif;NyD;qHk;oGm;ygu NyD;qHk;aMumif;udkaz:jyonfh Disk Defaragmenter Window ay:vmrnf/ yHk(21)

(q)

31

Computer System, Hardware

yHk(21)

( Z)

NyD;qHk;aMumif;az:jyonfh Disk Defaragmenter Window rSxGufvdk ygu Close Button tm;a&G;cs,fNyD;? Defragmentation Report udMk unf½vygu View Report Button tm; a&G;cs,fvQif yHk(22) yg h I kd Defragmentation Report Window ay:vmrnfjzpfygonf/

yHk(22)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

32

(ps) Defragmentation Report yg tcsutvufrsm;tm; odr;f qnf;vdygu f k Save As... Button tm; Click vkyfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? Hard Copy xkwvygu Print... Button tm; Click vkyfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? xGuf f kd vdygu Close Button udk a&G;cs,fjcif;jzifh Defragmenting vkyfaqmif k csuf atmifjrifpGm NyD;qHk;oGm;rnf jzpfygonf/
Disk Cleanup jyKvkyfjcif; (rvkdtyfonfh zkdifrsm;tm;&Sif;vif;jcif;) 44/ Disk Cleanup jyKvkyf&ef atmufygtwdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkifygonf(u) Start → Accessories → System Tools→Disk Cleanup udk Click

vkyfyg/ ( c) Select Drive (Dialog box) ay:vmygrnf/ yH(23) k

ykH (23) ( *) Select Drive (Dialog box) wGif Cleanup (&Sif;vif;jcif;)jyKvkyfvdkaom Drive ukda&G;í OK udEyyg/ k dS f (C) &Sif;ypfvkdonfhzkdifrsm;ukd a&G;cs,fNyD; OK udEyyg/ ykH (24) k dS f

ykH (24)

33

Computer System, Hardware

( i) Delete (Cleanup) vkyfrnfhzkdifrsm;ukd yHk(24)ygtwdkif; a&G;cs,fí OKukd Click vkyyg/ Delete (Cleanup) vkyfrnfhzkdifrsm;qkdonfrSm Old Chkdsk f G files, Recycle Bin, Catalog file for Content Indexer ponfrsm;xJwif tpkvkduf a&muf&Sdaeaom toHk;jyK&ef rvdktyfonfh zkdifta[mif;rsm;ukd qkdvkdygonf/ ( p) Disk Cleanup for (C:) Dialog box ay:vmygrnf/ Delete (Cleanup) jyKvyvygu Yes ukd Click vkyyg/ yH(25) k f kd f k ykH(26)wGifjyxm;onfh Disk Cleanup Dialog box xyfrHay:vmygrnf/ ¤if; Dialog box wGif rnfhonfh Button ukdrS ESdyf&efrvkdbJ cPapmifh&efom jzpfygonf/ rdr&i;f vif;ypfvaom zkirsm;ukd Drive C: xJrS &Si;f vif;Ny;D jzpfaeygrnf/ Disk Cleanup d S dk d f udk tokH;jyKí rvkdtyfaomzkdifrsm; &dSvmygu &Sif;vif;ay;&ef vdktyfygrnf/ 45/

ykH (25)

ykH (26)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

34

46/ Computer Hardware rsm;onf atmufygtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh cRwf,Gif;rI^ysufpD;rI rsm;½SdEdkifygonf(u) User Error (toH;k jyKorsm;rS pufukd pepfwus zGi^ydwf rjyKvyjf cif;? toH;k jyKpOf l hf k ae&ma½TUajymif;jcif;? vIyf½Sm;rIjzpfapjcif;)? ( c) Manufacture Fault (puf½kHrS Design ESifh Quality wdkYaMumifh jzpfjcif;)? ( *) Environmental Condition ( Dust-zk e f r I e f Y r sm;? Temperature -tyl c sd e f ? Moisture-pdkxdkif;q? EMI = Electro Magnetic Interference-vQyppfovuf f H kd qdkif&maESmuf,SufrIrsm;? RFI = Radio Frequency Interference-a&'D,dkvdIif; aESmuf,SufrIrsm;)? (C) Electrical Power Problem rsm;rSm(1) Noise (rvdkvm;tyfaom Signal rsm;)? (2) Spike (rD;tm; ½kwfw&ufjrifhwufrI)? (3) Surge (rD;tm; jrifhwufoGm;jcif;)? (4) Brown out (vQyfppf"mwftm; avsmhenf;usqif;jcif;)? (5) Black out (vQyfppf"mwftm; vHk;0jywfawmufjcif;)? (6) Unstable Frequency (BudrfEIef; rrSefjcif;)? (7) Unstable Power (vQyfppfAdkYtm; rwnfNidrfjcif; )?
Protecting Electrical Power Problem

(vQyfppf"gwftm;qdkif&mjyóemrsm;udkumuG,fjcif;) 47/ Noise, Spike, Surge jzpfjcif;wdrumuG,&ef Noise Filter rsm;? Spike Killer rsm;ESihf Yk S f Surge Protector rsm;udk rdrdtoHk;jyKrnfhpuf\ yg0gt0ifrsm;wGif wqifhcHí toHk;jyKEdkifygonf/ Brown Out jzpfjcif;ESifh Black Out jzpfjcif;rS umuG,f&eftwGuf UPS ( Uninterruptible Power Supply) udwqifcí toH;jyK&rnf/ ,©Ktcg UPS rsm;onf Electrical Power Problem k h H k rsm;udk umuG,fEdkifaom pepfrsm;yg0ifvmNyDjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh vQyfppf"mwftm;qdkif&mjyóem rsm;aMumifh uGefysLwmpepfwpfckvHk; rysufpD;apa&;twGuf UPS Mum;cHí toHk;jyKoifhygonf/ rSefuefaom Ground pepfxm;&Sd&efvkdtyfygonf/ csdwfqufyHkudk ykH(27)wGifazmfjyxm;ygonf/

35

Computer System, Hardware

Surge Protector, UPS, Computer System wkdYcsdwfqufwyfqiftokH;jyKjcif;

600VA

yH(27) k rSwfcsuf/ UPS onf Built In AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) ryg0ifyguExternal AVR tm; UPS \t0ifwGif csdwfqufítoHk;jyKoifhygonf/ ukd,fykdifokH; uGefysLwm pepfrsm; wGif UPS wyfqifvdkygu uGefysLwmwpfpkH(System Unit+14"Monitor) twGuf yQrf;rQ (500VA~600VA) yrmP&Sd UPS qkdvQif vkHavmufrI&SdEkdifygonf/ 48/ uGefysLwmpepfrsm;wGifvkdtyfaom Power yrmPukd wGufcsufvdkygu atmufygZ,m;&Sd Rating rsm;jzifh wGufcsufEkdifygonf5v Power Less 20.0 Amps Motherboard (5.0 amps) 4 slots filled at (2.0 amps)each (8.0 amps) 3 1/2 and 5 1/4 inch floppy drives (1.5 amps) 3 1/2 inch hard disk drive (0.5 amps) CD-ROM drive (1.0 amp) 4.0 amps 8.0 Amps 4 slots filled at (0.175 amps)each (0.7 amp) 3 1/2 inch hard disk drive (1.0 amp) 3 1/2 and 5 1/4 inch floppy drives (1.0 amp) Cooling fan (0.1 amp) CD-ROM drive (1.0 amp) 4.2 amps Dotmatrix Printer=(120VA~150VA) Laser Jet Printer = (360VA~400VA)

=Remaining power 12v Power Less

=Remaining power 14" Monitor= (180VA~290VA) 15" Monitor= (300VA~340VA)

uGefysLwmvufpJG 49/

36

Notice of the Computer Users (uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKolrsm;twGufowday;csufrsm;)

uGeysLwmtoH;k jyKorsm; owdjyKvuem&rnftcsursm;rSm atmufygtwdi;f jzpfygonff l kd f h f k (u) uGefysLwmESifhqufpyfypönf;rsm;tm; aeYpOfoefY½Sif;rIjyKvkyfyg/ ( c) uGeysLwmwpfv;kH tm; rzGirD Cable rsm; cswqufxm;rI rSerrSef udk ppfaq;yg/ f hf d f f ( 110V / 230V ) wdkYudk rSefuefrI&dSatmif *&kpdkufítoHk;jyKyg/ ( *) UPS ESifhcsdwfqufxm;ygu AC Switch udk ON NyD;aemuf UPS udk ON yg/ (C) uGeysLwm ON/OFF jyKvyjf cif;rsm;udk Procedure twdi;f pepfwus vkyaqmifyg/ f k k f ( i) Application Software, Utilities Software rsm; Installation vkyf&mwGif puf\ Operating System ESifhudkufnDrI½Sd^r½Sd? Version udkufnDrI &dS^r&dS wdkYudk ppfaq;NyD;rSom Installation jyKvkyf&rnf/ ( p) uGefysLwmwGif xnfhoGif;xm;aom ta&;BuD;onfh Data rsm;? Files rsm;udkyHkrSef Back Up jyKvkyfxm;yg/ (q) uGefysLwmtm; BuHhcdkifrI½Sdap&eftwGuf Hard Disk tm; Scan Disk or Norton Disk Doctor ESifh Defragmenting or Speed Disk vkyfjcif;wdkYudk vdktyfygu tywfpOf aqmif½Gufyg/ ( Z) uGeysLwmtm; Virus tEÅ&m,fruif;a0;ap&eftwGuf aemufq;kH ay: Anti Virus f S Program tm; uGefysLwmpwif rD;zGifhonfhtcsdefrSpwifí Auto Run Edkif&efESifh rSwfÓPfwGif apmifhMuyfppfaq;Edkif&ef(TSR) pDpOfaqmif½Gufxm;yg/ ( ps) jyifyrS,aqmifvmaom Diskettes rsm;? CD Disks rsm;tm; Virus ygrygppfaq; l NyD;rS toHk;jyK&rnf/ jyifyESifhcsdwfquftoHk;jyKvQifvnf; Virus owdjyKyg/ (n) uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKaepOf a½TUajymif;jcif;? uGefysLwmwifxm;aom pm;yGJtm; vIyf½Sm;rIjzpfapjcif;? System Unit a&SU&dS Hard Disk rD;vif;aepOf ydwfjcif; rsm;udk rjyKvkyf&yg/ ( #) uGefysLwmcsKdU,Gif;rIjzpfay:ygu Service Centerrsm;okdY Online Help jzifhaqG;aEG;Ekdifygonf/ ( X) Utilities Software rsm;udk toH;k jyK&mwGif aocsmpGmzwf½avhvmNy;D rS toH;k jyKyg/ I ( !) System ydi;f qdi&mESihf Computer Peripheral rsm;udk jyKjyif ajymif;vJprf;oyfrrsm; k k f I udk uRrf;usifem;vnfjcif;r&dSbJ wpfpHkwpf&mjyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; rjyKvkyf&/ ( ¡) CRT Monitor twGif;&dS tpdwftydkif;rsm;tm; jyifqifjcif;? vQyfppf"gwftm;ESifh ywfoufí jyKjyifjcif;rsm;onf touftEÅ&m,fxdcdkufapEdkifojzifh toHk;jyKol taejzifh (vHk;0) rvkyfaqmif&/

37

Computer System, Hardware

udk,fydkifoHk;uGefysLwmtm; jypfcsuf½SmazGjcif;
50/ uGeysLwm\ vkyaqmifrtqifrsukd atmufygvG,u&i;f vif;aomyHjk zifh rnfonftydi;f f f I h f l S h k wGif csKdU,Gif;aeaMumif;udk pOf;pm;awG;ac:Edkifygonf(u) Hardware (PSU, CPU , Memory, ( c) ( *) (C) ( i)
Keyboard, HardDisk, FloppyDisk, Application Monitor ponfwdkY yHkrSef vkyf^rvkyf/ O/S POST vkyf^rvkyf/ (rD;pzGifhvQif KeyFirmware(ROMBIOS) board rD;ESpfBudrf vif;jcif;) Hardware Operating System yHkrSef vkyf^rvkyf/ Application rsm; aumif;rGefpGm vkyfaqmifEdkifpGrf; &dS^r&dS/

tjzpfrsm;aomtjypfvu©PmtcsKUd udk atmufygtwdi;f jypfcsu&mazGEiygonfk f S kd f pOf tjypfvu©Pm csKdU,Gif;Edkifonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm; 1/ Power rD;rvif;jcif; Power Source (odkY) Power Cable (odkY) Power Switch (odkY) PSU raumif;jcif;/ 2/ Monitor rD;rvif;jcif; Power Source (odkY) Power Cable (odkY) Power Switch (odkY) Monitor raumif;jcif;/ 3/ POST rvkyfjcif; PSU rSAdkYtm;rrSefuef(odkY) Memoryraumif; (odkY) ROMBIOS rvkyfjcif;/ 4/ Monitor ray:jcif; Monitor Cable (odkY) Memory raumif; (odkY) VGA raumif; (odkY) Monitor raumif; (odkY) Mother Board/ CPU raumif;jcif;/ 5/ Memory Error Memory raumif; (odkY) Memory trsKd;tpm; rwlnjD cif;/ 6/ Hard Disk Error CMOS Setup wGif HD type rSm; (odkY)Hard Disk raumif; (odkY) HD Controller raumif; (odkY) Backup Battery tm;enf;jcif;/ 7/ Non System Disk or System File rsm;ysuf (odkY) Boot Disk ysuf Disk Error (odkY) Virus zsufqD;jcif;/ 8/ Missing Command COMMAND.COM File ysuf (odkY) Virus zsufqD;jcif;/ interpreter

uGefysLwmvufpJG

38 Chapter (3)
PC Hardware Maintenance and Upgrading

Typical ATX Motherboard & Rear Panel Connectors 51/ PII/PIII ATX Motherboard wpfck\ Layout Diagram ESifh Built-in Connector rsm;tm; atmufaz:jyyg ykH(28)ESifhyHk(29)wdkYtwkdif; Type trsKd;rsKd;awGY½SdEkdifygonfATX Power Supply Connector

.......... ..........

Floppy Disk Connector Hard Disk Connector

}

South Bridge

}
North Bridge

DIMM Memory Bank

Backup Battery

AGP Slot

PCI Slots

PCI Slots

PCI Slots

Slot 1(CPU)

A

C

F

B
A B C D PS2/ mouse PS2/ keyboard USB Port 1 USB Port 2

D
E F G H

E

G

PCI Slots

H

I

J

Serial Port A Parallel Port Serial Port B MIDI/Game Port (optional)

I Audio Line Out (optional) J Audio Line in (optional) K Audio Mic in (optional)

Slot Type PII/PIII ATX Motherboard

yHk (28)

ISA Slots

K

ISA Slots

39
Desktop Board Components
A

Computer System, Hardware

BCDE

F G Y H I

USB Device

Line In

X W V UT S R Q P O NM L K

J

Socket Type Intel DX15EEA Motherboard

ykH (29)
A. CNR (Communication and Networking Riser) connector (optional) B. AGP universal connector C. Chassis fan connector (Fan 2) D. Legacy CD-ROM connector E. ATAPI-style CD-ROM connector F. Auxiliary line in, ATAPI-style connector G. Processor fan connector (Fan 3) H. Digital video output connector I. Processor socket J. DIMM sockets K. Power connector L. Diskette drive connector M. Primary IDE connector N. Secondary IDE connector O. Serial port B connector P. BIOS configuration jumper block Q. Front panel USB connector R. Front panel connector S. Front panel power LED, alternate T. Wake on LAN technology connector U. Chassis fan connector (Fan 1) V. Battery W. SCSI LED connector X. Speaker Y. PCI expansion

The Intel Desktop Board D815EEA supports the following processors:
Processor Type Intel Pentium Processors Intel Celeron Processors Celeron Processors Socket Type FC-PGA FC-PGA FC-PGA Processor Designation (MHz) 866, 800EB, 733, 667, 600EB, and 533EB 850, 800, 750, 700, 650, 600E, 550E, and 500E 700, 667, 633, 600, 566, 533A, and 500A 533 and 500 System Bus Freq. (MHz) 133 100 66 L2 Cache Size (KB) 256 256 128

PPGA

66

128

For the latest information on processors supported by the Desktop Board D815EEA, refer to the Intel web site at:

Z,m;(3)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

40

Intel’s Microprocessor 52/ Computer wpfv;Hk \ Model ukd ¤if;wGif wyfqifxm;aom CPU \ Model jzifh owfrwq;Hk jzwfMuygonf/ ¤ifCPU rsm;rSm CISC (Complex Instruction Set Code) ESihf S f ; RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Code) enf;ynmrsm;ukd tok;jyKMuonf/RISC enf;ynm H ok;H Microprocessor rsm;ukd Motorola, Digital ponfh ukrPD rsm;rS xkwvyMf uNy;D Special Ü f k ? Purpose Computer rsm;wGif tok;rsm;Muonf/CISC enf;ynmok;Microprocessor rsm;ukd H H Intel, AMD, Cyrix ukrPrsm;rS tjyKd itqkixwvyvm&m ,cktcgwGif3500 MHz Ü D f d f k f k f (3.5GHz) tjrefEe;txd a&muf½vmNyjD zpfonf/ az:jyygZ,m;rsm;onf If dS Intel rSxwvyaom k f k f Microprocessor rsm;ESihf tjcm;ukrPrsm;rS xkwvyaom Processor rsm;\ pufrqi&m Ü D f k f I dk f

tcsutvufrsm;? pGr;f aqmifEirrsm;ukd EIi;f ,SOaz:jyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ Z,m;(3)t& f dk f I d f atmufaz:jyyg txl;od½Sd&eftcsufrsm;ukd avhvmawGY ½SdEkdifygonf(u) 486 DX Processor rSpwifí Microprocessor twGi;f 'ór*Pef;rsm;ukd wGucsuaqmif&uEionfFPU (Floating Point Unit) (okUd ) Co-Math f f G f dk f h Processor rsm;ukd Built-in wnfaqmufxm;onf/ ( c) 386 rSpí Internal 32-bit vkyaqmifEionftwGuaMumifh f dk f h f 32-bit OS rsm;ukd tok;H jyKEionf/ dk f ( *) Classics Pentium ukd MMX enf;ynm ( 57 MMX Instructions ) aygif;pyf wnfaqmufvuaomtcg Pentium MMX [kjzpfay:vmjy;D ? Multimedia dk f qki&mñTeMf um;csursm;ukCPU rSajz½Si;f aqmif&uvmEkionf/ d f f d G f d f (C) P6 Architecture ud k MMX Instruction Set (57 Instruction) aygif;vduaomtcg PII Processor [líjzpfay:vmonf/ k f ( i) P II Processor wGif 3D Instruction, 70 Instructions (SSE-Streaming SIMD) aygif;pyfvuaomtcg PIII Processor [líjzpfay:vmum 3D f kd f Instruction rsm;udk CPU rSajz&Si;aqmif ½GuvmEdionf/Socket Type PIII f f k f rsm;wGif L2 Cache \tjrefEe;f rSmCPU \tjrefee;f twki;f aqmif&uEionf/ I I d G f dk f ( p) Pentium Pro (P6) Microprocessor twGi;f L2 Cache udk Built-in wnfaqmufxm;jcif;jzifh L2 Cache rS access vkyonfh Performance udk f wd;k wufapygonf/ (q) Pentium Pro (P6) rSpí L2 Cache ESihf CPU wdYk \Access vkyonfh EIe;f udk f CPU Core Speed \wpf0uf (odr[kw)tjynfjh zifh aqmif½uapjcif;jzifh Yk f G f Performance udk ydrw;wufaponf/ k kd kd ( Z) P4 wGif Internet ESioufqiaom nTeMf um;csursm;ukd jrefqefpm aqmif&uf hf dk f f G G Ekijf cif;? jrifrm;aom FSB Speed ESivyaqmifEiNf cif;tjyifHT Technology d h hf k f dk ukyg aqmif&uvmEkiygonf/ d G f d f

Intel Processor Specifications

Z,m; (4)
1.8-2.8v 1.6v 1.8-2.8v 1.5-2v 1.3-1.6v 1.8-2v 1.3-1.7v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64GB 64GB 64GB 64GB 64GB 64GB 64GB 2x16KB 2x16KB 2x16KB 2x16KB 2x16KB 2x16KB 2x16KB WB WB WB WB WB WB WB 1/2Core Core3 Core3 Core3 1/2Core Core3 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB Core 1.8-2.8v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB Core 1.65v 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB WB Core3 2MB

41

Processor 8088 8086 286 386SX 386SL 386DX 486SX 486SX2 487SX 486DX 486SL 2 486DX2 486DX4 486Pentium OD Pentium 60/66 Pentium 75-200 Pentium MMX Pentium Pro

CPU Clock 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 2x 1x 1x 1x 2x 2-3x 2.5x 1x 1.5-3x 1.5-4.5x 2-3x Voltage 5v 5v 5v 5v 3.3v 5v 5v 5v 5v 5v 3.3v 5v 3.3v 5v 5v 3.3-3.5v 1.8-2.8v 3.3v

Internal Register Size 16-bit 16-bit 16-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit Max Memory 1MB 1MB 16MB 16MB 16MB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 64GB L1 Cache 0KB 1 8KB 8KB 8KB 8KB 8KB 8KB 16KB 2x16KB 2x8KB 2x8KB 2x16KB 2x8KB Integral FPU Yes Yes Opt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Multimedia Instructions MMX No. of Tsransistors 29,000 29,000 134,000 275,000 855,000 275,000 1.185M 1.185M 1.2M 1.2M 1.4M 1.2M 1.6M 3.1M 3.1M 3.3M 4.5M 5.5M

Data Bus Width 8-bit 16-bit 16-bit 16-bit 16-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit

L1 Cache Type WT WT WT WT WT WT WT WT WB WB WB WB WB

L2 Cache Speed Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Core

Date Introduced Jun'79 Jun'78 Feb'82 Jun'88 Oct'90 Oct'85 Apr'91 Apr'94 Apr'91 Apr'89 Nov'92 Mar'92 Feb'94 Jan'95 Mar'93 Oct'94 Jan'97 Nov'95

Pentium II Pentium II PE Celeron Celeron A Celeron III Pentium III Pentium III E

3.5-4.5x 3.5-6x 3.5-4.5x 3.5-8x 4.5-9x 4-6x 4-9x

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

MMX MMX MMX MMX SSE SSE SSE

7.5M 27.4M 7.5M 19M 28.1M 9.5M 28.1M

May'97 Jan'99 Apr'98 Aug'98 Feb'2000 Feb'99 Oct'99

Pentium II Xeon

4-4.5x

Yes

MMX

7.5M

Apr'98

Pentium III Xeon

5-6x

Yes

SSE

9.5M

Mar'99

Pentium III E Xeon

4.5-6.5x

L2 Cache 256KB 512KB 1MB 512KB 256KB 0KB 128KB 128KB 256KB 512KB 1MB 2MB 512KB 1MB 2MB 512KB 1MB 2MB 256KB 1MB Yes SSE 28.1M 84M 140M

Computer System, Hardware
Oct'99 May2000

Intel Compatible Processors
Internal Data Register Bus Voltage Size 32-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB WB 4GB 2x32KB WB 4GB 2x32KB WB 4GB 2x16KB WB 4GB 64KB WB 256KB Core3 Bus Bus Core3 Bus 4GB 64KB WB Bus 4GB 16KB WB Bus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8TB 2x64KB WB 256KB Core3 Yes 8TB 2x64KB WB 64KB Core
3

L1 Max Memory Cache 4GB 4GB 4GB 4GB 8TB Yes 2x64KB WB 512KB
1/2-1/3CoreYes

L2 Cache FPU Yes Yes Yes Yes 3DNow 3DNow MMX 4.3M 8.8M 9.3M 21.3M Instructions Tsransistors Mar'96 Apr'97 May'98 Feb'99 Jun'99 Ench.3DNow 25M Ench.3DNow 37M MMX 3DNow MMX 3DNow MMX 3M 6.5M 22M 3.5M 5.4M 5.9M 3.6M Jun'2000 Jun'2000 Feb'96 May'97 Feb'2000 Mar'94 Oct'97 Sep'98 Oct'98 Integral Multimedia No. of Date Cache Speed 256KB Core Bus Bus Bus

Processor Width 64-bit 2x32KB WB 2x32KB WB 2x32KB WB 16+8KB WB Type

CPU

L1

Cache L2

Introduced

Clock

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AMD K5 2.2-3.2v 32-bit 2.2-2.4v 32-bit 2.2-2.4v 32-bit 1.6-1.8v 32-bit 1.5-1.8v 32-bit 2.5-3.5v 32-bit 2.5-3.5v 32-bit 2.9v 2.2v 4v 3.3-3.5v 32-bit 3.3-3.5v 32-bit 2.8v 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit

1.5-1.75x 3.5v

AMD K6

2.5-4.5x

AMD-K6-2

3.5-5x

AMD-K6-3

4.5x

AMD-Athlon

5-10x

Ench.3DNow 22M

AMD-Duron

5-10x

AMD-Athlon 4

5-10x

Cyrix 6x86

2x

Cyrix 6x86MX/MII 2.3-5x

Cyrix III

2.5-7x

42

Nexgen Nx586

2x

Z,m; (5)

IDT Winchip

3.4x

IDT Winchip2/2a 2.33-4x

Rise mP6

2-3.5x

FPU = Floating Point Unit (internal math coprocessor) WT = Write - Through Cache (caches read only) WB = Write-Back cahce (caches both reads and writes) Bus = Processor external bus speed (motherboard speed) Core = Processor internal core speed (CPU speed) MMX = Multimedia extensions, 57 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing 3DNow = MMX plus 21 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing Enh.3DNow= 3DNow plus 24 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing SSE = Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) Extensions, MMX plus 70 additional instructions for graphics and sound processing 1 = The 386SL contains an Itegral-cache controller, but the cache memory must be provided outside the chip. 2 = Intel later marketed SL Enhance version of the SX, DX, and DX2 processors.These processors were available in both 5 v and 3.3 v versions and included power-management capabilities. 3 = On-die integrated L2 cache-runs at full-core speed. 4 = 128 KB functional L2 cache (265 KB total, 128 KB disabled), use same die as Pentium 333 E.

Intel Pentium 4 Processors rsm;
PRODUCT CODE PROCESS BUS SPEED CACHE PACKAGE UPC CODE

BRAND AND CORE SPEED

Intel Pentium 4 Processor 3.00 GHz BX80532PG3000D

0.31 micron

800 MHz

512KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 16038 4

Supporting Hyper-Threading Technology

Pentium 4 Processor 2.80C GHz

BX80532PG2800D

0.31 micron

800 MHz

512KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 16037 7

Supporting Hyper-Threading Technology

Pentium 4 Processor 2.60C GHz

BX80532PG2600D

0.31 micron

800 MHz

512KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 16036 0

Supporting Hyper-Threading Technology

Pentium 4 Processor 2.40C GHz

BX80532PG2400D

0.31 micron

800 MHz

512KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 16018 6

Supporting Hyper-Threading Technology

Pentium 4 Processor 3.06 GHz

BX80532PE3066D

0.31 micron

533 MHz

512KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15777 3

43

Z,m; (6)
BX80532PE2800D BX80532PE2667D BX80532PE2533D BX80532PE2400D BX80532PE2266D BX80532PC2600D BX80532PC2500D BX80532PC2400D BX80532PC2200D BX80532PC2000D 0.31 micron 0.31 micron 0.31 micron 0.31 micron 0.31 micron 0.31 micron 533 MHz 400 MHz 400 MHz 400 MHz 400 MHz 400 MHz 0.31 micron 533 MHz 0.31 micron 533 MHz 0.31 micron 533 MHz 0.31 micron 533 MHz 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD 512KB ECC OD

Supporting Hyper-Threading Technology

Pentium 4 Processor 2.80 GHz

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15696 7 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15697 4 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15430 7 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15429 1 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15428 4 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15695 0 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15662 2 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15372 0 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15248 8 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15247 1

Pentium 4 Processor 2.66 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.53 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.40B GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.26 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.60 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.50 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.40 GHz

Pentium 4 Processor 2.20 GHz

Computer System, Hardware

Pentium 4 Processor 2A GHz

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Intel Celeron Processors rsm;
PRODUCT CODE PROCESS BUS SPEED CACHE PACKAGE UPC CODE

BRAND AND CORE SPEED

Intel Celeron Processor 2.40 GHz BX80532RC2300B BX80532RC2200B BX80532RC2100B BX80532RC2000B BX80531P180G128 BX80531P170G128 0.18 micron 400 MHz 0.18 micron 400 MHz 128KB ECC OD 128KB ECC OD 0.31 micron 400 MHz 128KB ECC OD 0.31 micron 400 MHz 128KB ECC OD 0.31 micron 400 MHz 128KB ECC OD 0.31 micron 400 MHz 128KB ECC OD

BX80532RC2400B

0.31 micron

400 MHz

128KB ECC OD

478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 16053 7 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15966 1 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 157.3 2 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15940 1 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15702 5 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15464 5 478-pin FC-PGA2 7 35858 15463 5

Celeron Processor 2.30 GHz

Celeron Processor 2.20 GHz

Celeron Processor 2.10 GHz

Celeron Processor 2 GHz

Z,m; (7)

Celeron Processor 1.80 GHz

44

Celeron Processor 1.70 GHz

rSwfc suf/

txufygZ,m;(6)ESifh (7)t& HT Technology jzifhaqmif&G ufEkdifaom P4 CPUtrsKd;tpmrsm; rSm Bus Speed 533 MHz/800 MHz &Sdygonf / ¤if; HTpGrf;aqmif Ekdifaom CPUrsm;ukd tokH;jyKvQif Mother Board wGif Chipset ESifh BIOS wkdYrSm HT yHhykd;aqmif&GufEkdif&ef vkdtyfovkd OSrSmvnf; HT pGrf;aqmifEkdif&nf&Sdaom OS (Oyrm- Windows XP )jzpf&efvkdtyfygonf/

45 tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Board D875PBZ (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

1000Mbps Network Interface (Gigabit Ethernet)

480Mbps tjrefEIef;pGrf;aqmifEkdifonfhU SB

yHk (30)

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46

Intel Desktop Board D875PBZ (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \ tao;pdwf

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HTukpr;aqmifEijf cif;ESihf FSB 800MHz d G f dk 1.

pGr;f aqmifEijf cif; dk

Support for the Intel Pentium 4 processor supporting Hyper- Threading Technology and 800MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package. Also supports the Intel Pentium 4 processor with 533-MHz system bus in the mPGA478 package.

PATenf;ynmaMumifh Memoryrsm;ukd 2.

jrefqefpGm Access jyKvkyfEkdifjcif; wpfNyKd iwnf; Access vkyEijf cif; f f dk

Intel 875P Chipset featuring Intel Performance Acceleration Technology (Intel PAT) to boost overall system performance by reducing memory latencies. Dual-Channel DDR4003 SDRAM support: Four DIMM sockets designed to support up to 4 GB of DDR 400 SDRAM memory (also supports DDR333). Flexible support for either single or dual-channel operation. AGP 8X/4X graphics interface: For high-end AGP graphics cards.

f k JG Main Memoryukd Channel ESpccí
3.

I f f h f h d Yd k f dk AGP \tjrefEe; 8X(≈ 2GBpsEIe;)jzif¤if;? 4X(≈ 1GBpsEIe;)jzif¤if; Imagersm;ukay;ykvyaqmifEijf cif;
4. Parallel ATA UDMA/100 xuf 50% RAID Controller yg&Sdjcif; 5.

ykrjdk refqefonfh Serial ATA enf;ynmtjyif RAID jzifh vkyaqmif&ef d f

Serial-ATA 150 (1.5 Gb/s) featuring Intel RAID Technology and Ultra ATA/100 connectors: Flexible support of new generation SATA 150 (2 ports) and current generation ATA (2 channels) storage devices. Also includes Intel RAID Technology for support of up to 300 MB/s of maximum bandwidth on RAID 0 configurations with Serial-ATA HDDs. Integrated Intel PRO/1000 CT Desktop Connection LAN: Onboard Gigabit Ethernet LAN connectivity using the Communication Streaming Architecture (CSA) interface. Five PCI slots: Expansion slots for custom system configurations and future add-in card upgrades.

tqufrjywfay;ykEiNf y;D 1000Mbps tjrefEe;f jzifh vkyaqmifEionfhGigabit Ethernet Cardyg&Sjd cif; Yd dk I f dk f
6. PCI Slot (5)ckyg&Sjd cif; 7.

I f 480 Mbps tjrefEe;jzifh
8.

ay;ykEionfh USB 2.0 Port (8)ckyg&Sjd cif; Yd dk f

Eight Hi-Speed USB 2.0 ports: Six rear ports and header for two front-panel USB ports.

I f f f dk H J I D System Temperature ay:rlwnfí Cooling Fan \tjrefEe;ukd xde;csKyEijf cif;ESihf Power ok;pGrudk a>cwmNy; Noise xkwfvTifhrIukd avsmhenf;apjcif;
9. Intel Precision Cooling Technology: Advanced management ASIC supports temperature-based fan control. Fan speeds adjust real time according to system temperatures to help reduce unnecessary noise and energy consumption.

vQifjrefpGm Ready jzpfatmif jyKvkyfEkdifjcif;
10. Intel Rapid BIOS Boot: Accelerates Power on Self Test (POST) for faster system access. 11. Not pictured: Instantly AvailableC(suspend-to-RAM):Enables advanced power savings.

47 tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;
Processor Processors Supported

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Board D875PBZ (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

¿ Intel Pentium 4 processors supporting Hyper- Threading Technology with 800-MHz or 533-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel Pentium 4 processors with 533 MHz in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel 82875P Memory Controller Hub (MCH) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus ¿ Intel 82801 EA I/O Controller Hub with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus ¿ Intel 82802AC Firmware Hub (FWH) ¿ Designed to support up to 4 GB of system memory using DDR400/333 SDRAM memory ¿ 2 Serial-ATA 150 ports with Intel RAID 0 support ¿ Ultra ATA 100/66 Integrated super I/O LPC bus controller ¿ Five PCI local bus slots ¿ Power management support for ACPI1.0b ¿ Designed for PC2001 Integrated IntelICH5A controllers: ¿ Six back-panel ports (one quad and one dual stack) ¿ Two front-panel ports (via header requiring cabling to front panel)
¿ ¿

Chipset Intel 875P Chipset

Memory Controller Hub (MCH) Intel ICHSR I/O Controller Hub I/O Feetures

USB 2.0

Firmware Hub System BIOS

Intel Rapid BIOS Boot System Memory Memory Cepacity Memory Types

¿

8-Mb Fiash EEPAOM with Intei/AMr BIOS featuring Plug and Play, IDE drive auto-configure Advanced configuration and power Interface V1..0b, DMI 2.0, multilingual support Accelerated POST for faster access to PC from power-on

Memory Modes Memory Voltage

Four 184-pin DIMM connectors supporting up to four double-sided DIMMs ¿ DDR400 SDRAM Memory (when used with Intel processor with 800MHZ system bus) ¿ DDR333 SDRAM Memory (when used with Intel processor with 800MHZ or 533-MHz system bus) ¿ ECC or Non-ECC RAM ¿ Dual- and single-channel operation support ¿ 2.5V
¿

Hardware Management Features ¿ System chassis fan speed control ¿ Voltage and temperature sense ¿ Fan-sensor inputs used to monitor fan activity

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48

Intel Desktop Board D875PBZ (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

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Wake-up From Network
¿ ¿

Wired for Management (WfM) 2.0 compatible Support for system wake-up using an add-in network interface card with remote wake-up capability or integrated LAN Five PCI bus add-in card connectors One universal 1.5V or 0.8V AGP 3.0 connector supporting up to AGP8X

Expansion Capabilities
¿ ¿

Jumpers and Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Single configuration jumper design Jumpers ¿ Jumper access for BIOS configuration mode ¿ Reset, HD LED, Power LEDs, power on/off, standby header Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Two front-panel USB headers ¿ Front-panel audio header Mechanical Board Style Board Size Power Requirements ATX 12V Environment Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Regulations Safety Regulations U.S. and Canada Europe International 0ºC to +55ºC -40ºC to +70ºC ATX 2.03-compliant 11.5” x 9.6”

UL 1950, 3rd ed.- CAN/CSA C22.2 No.950-95 w/U.S. and Canadian recognized component marks Nemko certified to EN 60950 Nemko certified to IEC 60950 (CB report w/CB certificate)

EMC Regulations (tested in representative chassis) U.S. FCC Part 15, Class B U.S. FCC Part 15, Class B open chassis (cover off) testing Canada ICES-003, Class B Europe EMC directive 89/336/EEC; EN 55022:1998 Class B; EN 55024:1998 Australia/New Zealand AS/NZS 3548, Class B Taiwan CNS 13438, Class B International CISPR 22:1997, Class B Power requirements vary. Complies with U.S. CRF via EN55022 + 6 db in system configurations with an open chassis and EU Directive 89/336/EEC and use via EN55022 and EN50082-1 in a representative chassis.

49

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Boards D865GBF and D865GLC ( Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;

Pentium 4-Intel 865 Chipset Mother Board

yHk (31)

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50

Intel Desktop Boards D865GBF and D865GLC ( Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;
1. Support for the Intel Pentium 4 processors featuring Hyper-Threading Technology and 8OO-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package.Also supports the Intel Pentium 4 processors (1.60a, 1.80a, 2a, 2.20 GHz or higher) with 533-MHz or 400-MHz system bus in the mPGA478 package.

Cost oufomNyD; ykHxGuf pGrf;tm;aumif;onfh Graphic Inteface yg&SdNyD;jzpfjcif; Main Memory ukd Channel (2)ckcGJí wpfNydKifwnf; Access jyKvkyfEkdifjcif;

2. Intel 865G Chipset featuring Intel Extreme Graphics 2 using Dynamic Video MemoryTechnology (DVMT).Low-cost, high-performance graphics solution. 3. Dual-Channel DDR4002 SDRAM support: Four DIMM sockets designed to support up to 4 GB of DDR400 SDRAM memory (also supports DDR333 and DDR266). Flexible support for either single or dual-channel operation. 4. AGP 8X/4X graphics interface: Flexibility toupgrade via a high-end AGP graphics card. 5. SATA150 and Ultra ATA100 connectors: Flexible support of new-generation SATA 150 (2 ports) and current generation ATA (2 channels) storage devices.

Gigabit Ethernet (okdYr[kwf) Fast Ethernet Interface yg&Sjd cif;

6. Integrated Intel PRO/1000 CT Desktop Connection or Intel PRO/100 LAN (optional):On-board Gigabit Ethernet LAN connectivity using the Communication Streaming Architecture (CSA) interface or 10/100-Mbps LAN.

Channel (6)ck pGrf;aqmifEkdif AC’97 Sound Card yg&Sjd cif; PCI Slot (6)ck yg&Sdjcif;

7. AC’97 6-channel Audio: SoundMAX* 4 XL AudioESP (Audio Enumeration and Sensing Process) enabling either 6-channel or 2-channel audio. 8. Six PCI slots (Desktop Board D865GBF) or three PCI slots (Desktop Board D865GLC): Expansion slots for custom system configurations and future add-in card upgrades. 9. Eight Hi-speed USB 2.0 ports: Four rear ports and headers for four front-panel USB ports. 10. Intel Precision Cooling Technology: Advanced management ASIC supports temperature-based fan control. Fan speeds adjust real time according to system temperatures to help reduce unnecessary noise and energy consumption. 11. Intel Rapid BIOS Boot: Accelerates Power on Self Test (POST) for faster system access. 12. Instantly-Available PC (suspend-to-RAM): Enables advanced power savings (not pictured).

51

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Boards D865GBF and D865GLC ( Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;
Processor Processors Supported Intel Pentium 4 processors supporting Hyper- Threading Technology with 800-MHz or 533-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel Pentium 4 processors (1.60a, 1.80a, 2a, 2.20 GHz or higher) with 533MHz or 400-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel Celeron processors (2 GHz or higher) in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel 865G Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus ¿ Intel 82801EB I/O Controller Hub (ICH5) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus ¿ Intel 82802EB Firmware Hub (FWH) Designed to support up to 4 GB’ of system memory using DDR400/333/266 SDRAM memory ¿ Ultra ATA 100/66 ¿ Six PCI request-grant pairs for support of six PCI bus masters ¿ Two SATA 150 (1.5 Gbps) ports ¿ Intel PRO/1000 GT network connection (optional) ¿ Intel PRO/100 network connection (optional) Integrated super I/O LPC bus controller ¿ Six (Desktop Board D865GBF) or three (Desktop Board D865GLC) PCI local bus slots ¿ Designed for PC2001 Integrated Intel ICH5 controllers. ¿ Four back-panel ports (two dual stack) ¿ Four front-panel ports (via 2-headers requiring cabling to front panel)
¿

Intel 865G Chipset

Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) Intel ICH5 I/O Controller Hub

I/O Features

USB 2.0

Firmware Hub System BIOS

Intel Rapid BIOS Boot System Memory Memory Capacity Memory Types

4 Mb Flash EEPROM with Intel/AMI BIOS featuring , Plug and Play, IDE drive auto-configure ¿ Advanced configuration and power interface V1.0b, DMI 2.0, multi-linguai support ¿ Optimized POST for faster access to PC from power-on
¿ ¿ Four 184-pin DIMM connectors supporting up to four double-sided DIMMs ¿ DDR400 SDRAM Memory (when used with Intel processor with 800-MHz

system bus)
¿ DDR333 SDRAM Memory (when used with Intel processor with 800-MHz

Memory Modes Memory Voltege

or 533-MHz system bus) DDR266 SDRAM Memory ¿ Non-ECC RAM (ECC memory will run in non-ECC mode) ¿ Dual- and single-channel operation support ¿ 2.5V
¿

Hardware Management Features ¿ System chassis fan speed control ¿ Voltage and temperature sensing ¿ Fan sensor inputs used to monitor fan activity ¿ Power management support for ACPI 1.0b

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52

Intel Desktop Boards D865GBF and D865GLC ( Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;
Wake-Up From Network
¿ ¿

Wired for Management (WfM) 2.0-compatible Support for system wake-up using an add-in network interface card with remote wake-up capability or integrated LAN

Expansion Capabilities Six (Desktop Board D865GBF) or three (Desktop Board D865GLC) PCI bus add-in card connectors ¿ One universal 1.5V AGP 3.0 connector supporting up to AGP 8X Jumpers and Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Single configuration jumper design Jumpers ¿ Jumper access for BIOS configuration mode Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Reset, HD LED, Power LEDs, power on/off, standby header ¿ Two front-panel USB headers ¿ Front-panel audio header Mechanical Board Style Desktop Board D865GBF-ATX 2.03-compliant Desktop Board D865GLC-MicroATX 1.0-compliant Board Size Desktop Board D865GBF-11.6" x 9.6" Desktop Board D865GLG-9.6" x 9.6" Baseboard Power Requirements Desktop Board D865GBF-ATX12V Desktop Board D865GLC-ATX12V or SFX12V Environment Operating Temperature 0º C to +55º C Storage Temperature -40º C to +70º C Regulations Safety Regulations U.S. and Canada UL 1950, Third edition- CAN/CSA C22.2 No.950-95 with recognized U.S. and Canadian component marks Europe Nemko certified to EN 60950 International Nemko certified to IEC 60950 (CB report with CB certificate) EMC regulations (tested in representative chassis) U.S. FCC Part 15, Class B U.S. FCC Part 15, Class B open-chassis (cover off) testing Canada ICES-003, Class B Europe EMC directive 89/336/EEC; EN 55022:1998 Class B; EN 55024:1998 Australia/New Zealand AS/NZS 3548, Class B Taiwan CNS 13438, Class B International CISPR 22:1997, Class B
¿

Power requirements vary. Complies with US CRF via EN55022 + 6 db in system configurations with an open chassis and EU Directive 89/336/EEC and use via EN55022 and EN50082-1 in a representative chassis.

53 tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Board D865PERL (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

Pentium 4 - Intel D865PERL Mother Board

yHk (32)

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54

Intel Desktop Board D865PERL (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

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1. Support for the Intel Pentium 4 processor: Supports Pentium 4 processor mPGA478 (478 pin) packaging supporting Hyper-Threading Technology, including an 800-MHz, 533-MHz, or 400-MHz system bus Intel 865PE chipset featuring dual-channel DDR400 non-ECC support: Designed to take full advantage of the power of the Pentium 4 processor, delivers enhanced features and increased band- width for maximum performance Four DDR DIMM* Sockets: Supports DDR400/333/266 memory in a dualchannel configuration from 128 MB to 4 GB AGP 8X/4X 1.5V connector: Supports the latest graphics technology Serial ATA 150 (1.5Gb/s) (2 ports) featuring Intel RAID Technology (optional): Enables faster disk I/O for transfers to storage devices Integrated Intel PRO/1000 network connection via CSA (Communication Streaming Architecture) bus or Intel PRO/100 LAN connection (optional): On board Gigabit Ethernet LAN connectivity via the CSA bus solutions Five PCI slots: Expansion slots for custom system configurations and future add-in card upgrades Eight Hi-Speed USB 2.0 ports: Two dual-stack rear connectors and header for four front panel USB connectors Intel Precision Cooling Technology: In coordi-nation with Intel Active Monitor, allows user to monitor vital system levels like temperature and voltages for advanced warning of component failure

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

Multimedia Informationrsm;ukjd refqefpm&,lvufcEiaom (IEEE-1394a)yg&Sjd cif; G H dk f Port
10. 11. 12. 1394a Connector (optional): Enables data transfer from consumer electronic devices like digital camcorders or MP3 players Intel Rapid BIOS boot: Reduced boot time enables faster system access Instantly available PC (suspend-to-RAM): Power-management mode reduces PC power consumption and provides immediate PC access (Not Pictured)

55 tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESifh pufrIqdkif&mt&nftaoG;rsm;
Processor Processors Supported

Computer System, Hardware

Intel Desktop Board D865PERL (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

Intel Pentium 4 processors supporting Hyper-Threading Technology including 800-MHz and 533-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel Pentium 4 processors (1.60a, 1.80a, 2a, 2.20 GHz or higher) with 533-MHz or 400-MHz system bus in the mPGA478-pin package ¿ Intel Celeron processors (2 GHz or higher) in the mPGA478-pin package
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Chipset Intel 865PE Chipset

Intel 82875P Memory Controller Hub (MCH) Intel ICHS I/O Controller Hub External Interfaces I/O and Expansion Capabilities

Intel 82865PE Memory Controller Hub (MCH) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus ¿ (optional) Intel 82801 EB I/O Controller Hub (ICH5) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus (optional) ¿ (optional) Intel 82801 ER I/O Controller Hub (ICH5-R) with Accelerated Hub Architecture bus Designed to support up to 4 GB (with 512-Mb technology) of single or dual-channel DDR400, DDR333 or DDR266 SDRAM memory ¿ AGP 8x, 4x ¿ Communication Streaming Architecture (CSA) ¿ Two Serial ATA 150 ports, Ultra ATA/66/100, and Ultra DMA/33 ¿ Six PCI request-grant pairs for support of six PCI bus masters ¿ SMBus (to PCI slot #2)
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Eight USB 2.0 Ports

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Integrated Intel PRO/1000 CT (optional) Integrated Intel PRO/100 (optional) Firmware Hub System BIOS

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Integrated super I/O LPC bus controller Five PCI bus add-in card connectors (PCI local bus Specification Revision 2.2) One 0.8V/1.5V 8X/4X AGP port connector Power management support for ACPI 1.0 Integrated Intel ICH5/ICH5-R USB 2.0 host controllers - Four back-panel ports - Four ports routed to two on board headers On board 1 ,000-Mbps Ethernet LAN connectivity over CSA utilizing Intel 82547EI LAN On board 10/100-Mbps Ethernet LAN connectivity utilizing Intel 82652ET LAN 4-Mb Flash EEPROM with Intel/AMI BIOS featuring Plug and Play, IDE drive auto-configure . Advanced configuration and power interface V1.0b, DMI 2.0, multilingual support Optimized POST for faster access to PC from power-on

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Intel Rapid BIOS Boot

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56

Intel Desktop Board D865PERL (Pentium 4 Mother Board) \tao;pdwf

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System Memory Memory Capacity Four 184-pin DIMM connectors supporting up to f our doublesided DIMMs ¿ Designed to support up to 4 GB (with 512-Mb technology) of dualchannel DDR400, DDR333, or DDR266 SDRAM memory ¿ Dual-Channel, Non-ECC, Double Data Rate (DDR400 or DDR333, Memory Type DDR266) SDRAM in 128-Mb, 256-Mb and 512-Mb technologies ¿ 2.5V Memory Voltage Hardware Management and Fan Control Features ¿ Voltage and temperature sense ¿ Fan-sensor inputs used to monitor fan activity ¿ Temperature-dependent closed-loop fan control Wake-Up From Network ¿ Wired for Management (WfM) 2.0 compliant ¿ Support for system wake-up using an add-in network interface card with remote wake-up capability or PCI Jumpers and Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Single configuration jumper design Jumpers ¿ Jumper access for BIOS configuration mode Front-Panel Connectors ¿ Reset, HD LED, power LED, power on/off, aux LED Mechanical Board Style ATX 2.03 compliant Board Size 12.0'' x 9.6'' (300 mm x 240 mm) Power Requirements Requirements ATX12V
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Environment Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Regulations Safety Regulations U.S. and Canada Europe

0º C to +55º C -40º C to +70º C

UL 1950 and CSA 950-95 U.S. and Canadian recognition component marks UL classified to IEC 950

EMC/RFI Regulations Intended for use in systems meeting the following EMI/RFI regulations U.S FCC Class B (DofC-Csover off testing) Canada IC Class B Europe EU Class B (Res, Corn, Light Industry) Japan VCCI, Class B (ITE) Power requirements vary. Complies with US CRF via EN55022 +6 db in system configurations with an open chassis and EU Directive 89/336/EEC and use via EN55022 and EN50082-1 in a representative chassis.

57

Computer System, Hardware

( ps) P II / PIII Xeon Processor rsm;onf L2 Cache yg0ifrI1024 KB rS 2048 KB xd&SdEdkifojzifh Performance ydkrdkaumif;rGefNyD;? Server rsm;wGif tusKd;jyK Edkifonf/
Chipset 53/ Motherboard wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIukdt"ducsKyfukdifaom Chip rSmChipset jzpfyg onf/ Chipset rsm;ukd CPU, Main Memory, AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) ESifh Slot rsm;tm;xdef;csKyfonfh North Bridge ESifh Hard Disk Controller, USB wkdYukdxdef;csKyfonfh South Bridge [lí½Sdygonf/ Intel Chipset, SIS Chipset, ALi Chipset, UMC Chipset, VIA Chipset ponfjzifhawGU&SdEdkifygonf/ Intel Chipset rsm;\ pGrf;aqmifekdifrIESifh pufrIqkdif&m

t&nftaoG;rsm;ukd Z,m;rsm;jzifh EIdif;,SOfavhvmEkdifygonf/ 54/ Z,m; (u) ( c) ( *) (8)ESifh(9)wdkYudkavhvmjcif;jzifh atmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;ukd awGU½SdEkdifygonfChipset ukdMunfhí Motherboard wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIukd cefYrSef;Ekdifygonf/ Chipset ay:rlwnfí Mother Board Speed/ Bus Speed uGmjcm;onf/ Chipset ay:rl w nf í trsm;qk H ; wyf q if E k d i f o nf h t "d u rS w f O mPf y rmPES i f h (66/100/133/200/400/800MHz)Memory Bankta&twGufuGmjcm;onf/ (C) Chipsetay:rlwnfíwyfqifEkdifaom (2/4/8)CPUta&twGufuGmjcm;onf/ ( i) 440GX, 440 NX Chipset rsm;onf SMP [kac:aom CPU ta&twGuf 2ck (odkY) 4ckxd wyfqifvkyfaqmifEdkifonfhtwGuf Server rsm;wGif tokH;jyK Ekdifonf/ ( p) Chipsetay:rlwnfíCPUtrsKd;tpm;?HT,Dual Channel&^r&uGmjcm;onf/ (q) Chipsetay:rlwnfíAGP Support(1/2/4/8X)vkyf^rvkyfEdkifuGmjcm;ygonf/ ( Z) Chipset ay:rlwnfí wyfqifEkdifaom Memory Type (FPM, EDO, SD-RAM, DDR-RAM, RD-RAM)uGmjcm;onf/ ( ps) Chipset ay:rlwnfí UDMA 33/66/100/133 Hard Disk, Serial ATA wyfqiftvkyfvkyfEdkifjcif;wdkY uGmjcm;ygonf/ (n) Chipset ay:rlwnfíPCI Bus width(32/64bit),SpeedESifhtjcm;Features rsm;uGmjcm;ygonf/ Oyrm-RAID controller, Gigabit, IEEE1394

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Celeron and Pentium II/III Motherboard Chipsets (North Bridge) Chipset 440FX 440LX 440EX 440BX
Codename Date Introduced Port Number Natoma May 1996 82441 FX 82442 FX Bus Speed 66 MHz Optimum Processor Pentium II SMP (dual CPUs) Yes Memory Types FPM/EDO/BEDO Parity/ECC Both Maximum Memory 1 GB 4 2.1 No 82371AB(PIIX4) none Aug 1997 82443 LX 66 MHz Pentium II Yes FPM/EDO/SDRAM Both 1 GB EDO/ 512 MB SDRAM 4 2.1 AGP-2x 82371EB(PIIX4E) none Apr 1998 82443 EX 66 MHz Celeron No EDO/SDRAM Neither 256 MB 2 2.1 AGP-2x 82371EB(PIIX3) none Apr 1999 82443 BX 66/100 MHz Pentium II/III, Celeron Yes SDRAM Both 1 GB 4 2.1 AGP-2x 82371SB(PIIX4E)

Memory Banks PCI Support AGP Support South Bridge

Chipset
Codename Date Introduced Port Number

440GX
none Jun 1998 82443 GX

450NX
none Jun 1998 82451 NX 82452 NX 82453 NX 82454 NX 100 MHz Pentium II/III Xeon Yes, up to 4 FPM/EDO Both 8 GB 4 2.1 No 82371EB (PIIX4E)

440ZX
none Nov 1998 82443 ZX

810
Whitney Apr 1999 82810/ 82810-DC100 82802 AB/AC

Bus Speed 100 MHz Optimum Processor Pentium II/III, Xeon SMP (dual CPUs) Yes Memory Types SDRAM Parity/ECC Both Maximum Memory 2 GB Memory Banks 4 PCI Support 2.1 AGP Support AGP-2x South Bridge 82371EB (PIIX4E)

66/100 MHz* Celeron, Pentium II/III No SDRAM Neither 256 MB 2 2.1 AGP-2x 82371EB (PIIX4E)

66/100 MHz Celeron, Pentium II/III No SDRAM Neither 256 MB 2 2.2 Direct AGP 2801AA/AB (ICH/ICH0)

SMP = Symmetric Multiprocessing (Dual Processors ) FPM = Fast Page Mode EDO = Extended Data Out BEDO = Burst EDO SDRAM = Synchronous Dynamic RAM Pburst = Pipeline Burst ( Synchronous )

PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect AGP = Accelerated Graphics Port SIO = System I/O PIIX = PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator ICH = I/O Controller Hub

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59
Intel South Bridge Chips
Chip Name SIO
Port Number IDE Support USB Support CMOS/Clock Power Management 82378IB/ZB None None No SMM

Computer System, Hardware

PIIX
82371FB BMIDE None No SMM

PIIX3
82371SB BMIDE Yes No SMM

PIIX4
82371AB UDMA-33 Yes Yes SMM

PIIX4E
82371EB UDMA-33 Yes Yes SMM/ ACPI

ICHO
82801AB UDMA-33 Yes Yes SMM/ ACPI

ICH
82801AA UDMA-66 Yes Yes SMM/ ACPI

SIO = System I/O BMIDE = Bus Master IDE PIIX = PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator UDMA = Ultra-DMA IDE ICH = I/O Controller Hub SMM = System Management Mode USB = Universal Serial Bus ACPI = Advanced Configuration and Power Interface IDE = Integrated Drive Electronics (AT Attachment)

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Mother Board Upgrading 55/ Chipset ay:rlwnfí Mother Board Speed? Memory Bus Speed uGmjcm;onfh twGuf Mother Board wGif wyfqif&rnfh t"durSwOmPf (Main Memory) \tjrefEe;f rsm; f I onfvnf; Mother Board Speed ?Memory Bus Speed ESihf udun&efvtyfygonf/ odjYk zpfí k f D kd Mother Board udk Upgrade jyKvkyf&mwGif topfwyfqifrnfh Mother Board rSvufcHonfh Memory rsm;(FPM/EDO/SD-RAM/DDR-RAM/RD-RAM)ESifhMemory Speed (PC66/ 100/133/266/333/400 MHz) wkdYukdudkufnDatmifa½G;cs,f&ygrnf/ Z,m;(11) Processor Sockets / Slots 56/ CPU udk Socket wGifvnf;aumif;? tcsKdU SEC Type CPU rsm;udkSlot wGif vnf;aumif; wyfqif&rnfjzpfygonf/ odkYjzpf&m CPU Upgrade jyKvkyf&mü Motherboard ay:½Sd Socket eHygwfuMdk unfjh cif;jzifh rnfonfh CPU jzifh Upgrade vkyEiaMumif; od½Eiygonf/ f f dk f dS dk f qkdvkdonfrSm Socket 7 Motherboard ay:wGif Slot 1, PGA 370, Slot 2 Processor rsm;jzifh Upgrade rjyKvkyfEkdifyg/ tu,fí Upgrade jyKvkyfvkdygu CPU omru Motherboard ukdyg Upgrade jyKvkyf&ygrnf/ (Memory ukdvnf; Motherboard \tjrefEIef;ESifhukdufnDaom Memory jzifh Upgrade jyKvkyf&ygrnf/) CPU Socket rsm;\pufrIqdkif&mtcsuftvufrsm;udk Z,m;(10)wGifawGUEdkifygonf/ PIIIukd P4tjzpf Upgrade jyKvkyf&efMother Board ESifhP4 Power Supply tjzpfokdY Upgrade vkyf&rnf/

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Intel 486/Pentium CPU Socket Type and Specifications Socket Pins Pin Layout Voltage Supported Processors Number
Socket 1 Socket 2 Socket 3 Socket 4 Socket 5 Socket 6** Socket 7 Socket 8 PGA370 Slot 1 Slot 2 169 238 237 273 320 235 321 387 370 242 330 17x17 PGA 19x19 PGA 19x19 PGA 21x21 PGA 37x37 SPGA 19x19 PGA 37x37 SPGA dual pattern SPGA 37x37 SPGA Slot Slot 5v 5v 5v/3.3v 5v 3.3v/3.5v 3.3v VRM Auto VRM Auto VRM Auto VRM Auto VRM 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4 Overdrive 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2*, DX4 Overdrive, 486 Pentium Overdrive 486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4, 486 Pentium Overdrive, AMD 5x86 Pentium 60/66, Overdrive Pentium 75-133, Overdrive 486 DX4, 486 Pentium Overdrive Pentium 75-233+, MMX, Overdrive, AMD K5/K6, Cyrix MI/II Pentium Pro Celeron Pentium II/III, Celeron Pentium II/III, Xeon

PGA = Pin Grid Array

SPGA = Staggered Pin Grid Array VRM = Voltage Regulator Module

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CPU Type Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium/PenitumPro/MMX Pentium/PenitumPro Pentium/PenitumPro/MMX Pentium-MMX/Pentium II Pentium-MMX(Mobile)/ Pentium II/Celeron Pentium II/Celeron Pentium II/Celeron Pentium II/Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron Celeron CPU Speed (MHz) 60 60 75 90 100 120 133 150 166 180 200 233 266 300 333 366 400 433 466 500 533 566 600 633 CPU Clock Multiplier 1x 1x 1.5x 1.5x 1.5x 2x 2x 2.5x 2.5x 3x 3x 3.5x 4x 4.5x 5x 5.5x 6x 6.5x 7x 7.5x 8x 8.5x 9x 9.5x Mainboard Speed (MHz) 60 66 50 60 66 60 66 60 66 60 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 CPU Type Celeron Pentium II Pentium II/Xeon Pentium II/III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon Pentium III/Xeon CPU Speed (MHz) 667 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 533 600 667 733 800 866 933 1000 1066 1133 1200 1266 1333 CPU Clock Multiplier 10x 3.5x 4x 4.5x 5x 5.5x 6x 6.5x 7x 7.5x 8x 8.5x 4x 4.5x 5x 5.5x 6x 6.5x 7x 7.5x 8x 8.5x 9x 9.5x 10x Mainboard Speed (MHz) 66 66 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133

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61

Computer System, Hardware

Five Ways to Faster PCs (PCrsm;tm; ykrvsijf refpmpGr;f aqmifEia&;twGuf enf;vrf;(5)rsKd ;) d dk G dk f

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(1) CPU \ System I/O Bus speed (okr[kw) FSB tm; Yd f 66MHz rS 100~133~200 ~400 MHz xd

AGP 2x/4x/8x

L2 cache (old)

(5) PCI Graphic Controller tpm;
Accelerated Graphic Port ukd

PCI Bus

(3) Main Memory Speed ukdjrefqef ap&eftwGuf
SDRAM, DDR-RAM, RDRAM wkdYjzifh tpm;xkd;

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Graphic Speed

ukd jrefqefapjcif; (4) PCI Bus Width ukd 32-bit 64bit ok¤if;? Speed ukd 33 MHz rS Yd 66 MHz xd¤if; ESpq wifjcif;jzifh f Speed jrefqefapjcif;

jyKvkyfapjcif;? ,cktcg Chipset rsm;onf Dual Channel jzif h v k y f E k d i f N yD jzpfonf/

rSwcsu/ P6, PII, PIII, P4 Motherboard Design rsm;onf txufyg tcsu(5)csuf f f f ESihf ukunatmif Design jyKvyxm;aomaMumifh ,if; Motherboard rsm;ukd d f D k f tok;H jyKjcif;jzifh Performance ydraumif;rGevmygonf/ k kd f

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Two Buses are Better than One ( BUS vrf ; aMumif ; ES p f c k o k H ; Motherboard rsm;onf BUS vrf ; aMumif ; wpf c k o k H ; Motherboard rsm;xuf y k d r k d p G r f ; aqmif E k d i f j cif ; ) P6, PII, PIII, P4 Motherboard Design rsm;onf ,cif Motherboard Design rsm; 58/

xuf ykdrkdpGrf;aqmifEkdifaMumif; atmufaz:jyygykHrsm;jzifh EIdif;,SOfavhvmEkdifygonfIntel’s Socket 8 and SEC Slot 1 Socket 7

Private backside bus (64 bits wide)

CPU I/O bus (64 bits wide)

CPU I/O bus (64 bits wide)

PCI bus

PCI bus

PCI device

PCI device PCI device

PCI device

PCI device PCI device

Socket 8 and Slot 1 have two independent 64-bit buses, Improving cache access bandwidth over Socket 7.

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Socket 370, Socket 8, Slot 1, Slot 2 okH; Motherboard rsm;onf DIB (DualIndependence Bus Architecture) ukd tokH;jyKxm;ojzifh L2 Cache ESifh Main Memory ukdwpfNydKifwnf;Access vkyfEkdifonf/ Xeon MB wGifL3 cache udkyg CPUtwGif;xnfhoGif; wnfaqmufxm;aomaMumifh ,cif Pentium ESifh4if;xufedrfhaom Motherboard rsm;xuf

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63

Computer System, Hardware

Conventional Graphics Architecture 60/ Pentium Mother Board Design rsm;wGif Graphic Card tjzpf PCI trsKd;tpm;udk toHk;jyKíPCI Slot wGifwyfqifvkyfaqmifEdkifjcif;aMumifh PCI Bus \ Data Transfer Rate

om tvkyfvkyfEdkifonfhtjyif atmufygyHktwdkif; tm;enf;csufrsm;udk awGU&Sd&ygonf/
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PCI Graphic Card onftjcm; PCI Device rsm;ESifh PCI Bus ukd rQa0okH;pGJ &onf h t wG u f a Mumif h Bandwidth uefYowfcsufukdjzpfaponf/

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How Accelerated Graphics Port Works 62/ AGP \pGrf;aqmifEdkifrIudk atmufygyHkjzifh awGUjrifedkifygonfAGP onf tjcm; Bus rsm;ESifh rQa0okH;pGJ &efrvkdbJ Chipset, Main Memory wk d Y E S i f h wk d u f ½ k d u f tvk y f v k y f E k d i f o nf / (Program ESifhTexture rsm;ukd Main Memory rS AGP okdYwkduf½kduf ay;ykdY Ekdifonf)/

CPU I/O Bus

Graphic Controller rSvmaom PCI Memory Request rsm;udk Chipset rS v uf c H o d r f ; qnf ; í tjrefqkH;tvkyfvkyfEkdifonf/

AGP
Graphics Controller (old)

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Bits per transfer Transfer per clock cycle Clock cycles per second Band Width PCI 32 One 33.3Million 133MB/Sec AGP 2x 32 Two 66.6 Million 533MB/Sec AGP 8x

2132MB/Sec

65

Computer System, Hardware

Upgrading jyKvkyf&eftwGuf tBuHjyKcsufrsm; 64/ uGefysLwm Hardware qdkif&mESifh Software qdkif&mwdkY\ wdk;wufajymif;vJrIonf tvGef

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Hard Disk Storage

66

uGefysLwmpepfwpfckwGiftcsuftvufodkavSmifaomypönf;wpfckjzpfonfhHard Disk onfta&;BuD;qHk;aomtpdwftydkif;rsm;wGif yg0ifonf/Hard Disk \pufrIydkif; qdkif&mtvkyfvkyfyHkudk em;vnfjcif;jzifh rnfodkYrnfyHkBuHhcdkifatmif xdef;odrf;oifhonf? rnfonfhenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh xdef;odrf;a&;aqmif ½Gufoifhonfudk od&SdEkdifrnfjzpfygonf/ 66/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;wGif atmufaz:jyyg Conponents rsm;yg0ifonf(u) Disk Platters ( c) Logic Board ( *) Read/Write Heads (C) Cable and Connector ( i) Head Actuator Mechanism ( p) Configuration Items (Jumper or Switches) (q) Spindle Motor 67/ Hard Disk onftvHkydwfxm;aom oHbl;i,fwpfckjzpfygonf/ 4if;oHbl;i,f twGif;wGif&Sdaomypönf;rsm;udk yHk(37)ygtwdkif;awGU&SdEdkifygonf/ 65/

ykH(37)

67 68/

Computer System, Hardware

f kd D D txufygyHt& Iron Oxide jzifh Coating vkyxm;aom puf0i;f yHk tvlre,rfjym;rsm;udk k Shaft wpfckwGiftaowyfqifxm;NyD;? Spindle Motor jzifhvnfywfapygonf/ (1 rdepfvQif tywfaygif; 5400? 7200? 10000 txd vnfywfEdkifonf)/ tcsuftvufrsm;udk Head jzifh ñdIUízwfygonf/ rsufESmjyifwpfzufwGif Head wpfckpDwyfqifxm;NyD;? 4if; Head rsm;onf Fly Head Principle jzifh Platter \rsufESmjyifESifh 1 vufr\ tyHk 1 oef;yHkvQif 3 yHkcefY tuGmta0; (3 µ in) rSñdIUízwfonf/ 69/ ,if;odkY Head rSzwfaepOf (Hard Disk tvkyfvkyfaepOf? Hard Disk LED vif;aepOf) User rS Proper Shut Down rjyKvkyfojzifhvnf;aumif;? rD;ysufjcif; rD;tm;avsmhusjcif; ponfh Electrical Power Problem jzpfojzifhvnf;aumif;? vnfywfrI½kwfw&uf&yfwefYjcif;aMumifh yifhtm;&aeaom Head rSm yifhtm;r&awmhbJ Platter \rsufESmjyifESifhxdcdkufrdojzifh Head Crack jzpfum Data rsm;aysmufqHk;Edkifonfhtjyif Hard Disk rSmvnf; ysufpD;Edkifygonf/ 70/ rD;tm;jyóemrsm;aMumifhvnf;aumif;? oHk;pGJol\toHk;rjyKwwfrIaMumifhvnf;aumif; Head Crack jzpfEiouJoYkd Logic Card udvnf; ysup;cRw,i;Ediygonf/ odjYk zpfí vQyppfr; kd f h k f D f G f k f f D jyóemrsm;jzpfaom (Spike, Noise, Surge, Brown Out, Black Out) ponfwdkYudkyg umuG,fwm;qD;&ef vdktyfojzifY trsdK;tpm;aumif;rGefaom UPS ESifY Surge Protector rsm;udk tokH;jyK&ef vdktyfygonf/ owfrSwfcsufESifhudkufnDaom Ground System &dS&efESifh oHk;pGJolrS rSefuefpGm toHk;jyKwwf&efvnf; vdktyfygonf/ 71/ Hard Disk onf atmufyg yHk(38) twdkif; puf0dkif;yHk vrf;aMumif; Tracks rsm;jzifh tcsuftvufrsm;udk Magnetic Sport rsm;tjzpfzefwD;í " 1, 0 " rsm;tjzpf odrf;qnf;ygonf/ Platter rsufESmjyifwdkif;wGif Track rsm;wnf&Sdav&m rsufESmjyifrsm;&Sd eHygwfwlnDaom Track rsm;udk pkpnf;jcif;jzifh Cylinder [kac:qdkEdkifygonf/
Head Arm Spindle

321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321

Platter

Head

Cylinder

yHk (38)

uGefysLwmvufpJG 72/

68

Hard Disk wpfvHk;\tcsuftvuf odkavSmifEdkifrIyrmPudk Cylinder ta&twGuf? Head ta&twGu?f Sector ta&twGuay:wGif rlwnfí wGucsuEiyg onf/ yH(39)ygtwdi; f f f kd f k k f Hard Disk \Capacity rsm;rsm;odr;qn;Edi&eftwGuf wpfvufrwGi&dS Track ta&twGuf f f k f f udk wdk;íxm;&Sdjcif;? wpfvufrwGif&Sdaom 1, 0 ta&twGuf bit ta&twGufudk wdk;íxm;&Sdjcif; jzifh &&SdEdkifygonf/ þtcsufonf Platter tcsif;0ufcsif;wlaomfvnf; odrf;qnf;EdkifrIyrmP

enf;&jcif;? rsm;&jcif;\ t"dutcsufyifjzpfonf/
Tracks per Inch ( TPI ) Bits per Inch (BPI) Track Lower Bits Areal Density Tracks per Inch ( TPI ) Bits per Inch (BPI)

Higher Areal Density

yHk (39) 73/ Hard Disk \ Platter Surface wGif yH(40)ygtwdi;f Hard Disk \puf0i;f yHvrf;aMumif; k k kd k (Track) ESifh Sector rsm;cGJí tcsuftvufrsm;odrf;qnf;onf/
Track

}
yHk (40)

Sector

69 74/

Computer System, Hardware

Hard Disk \puf0dkif;ykHvrf;aMumif;rsm;wGif tjyiftusqHk; puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif;udk Track 0 [kac:onf/ 4if; Track 0 onf Hard Disk \ta&;BuD;qHk;tpdwftydkif; (System Area) jzpf&m Track 0 Bad jzpfom;ygu tcsutvufrsm;ysuq;qH;½I;Ny;? Hard Disk wpfcv; G f f D k H D k kH oHk;r&aom tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ tjyiftusqHk; Track rStwGif;bufodkY a&muf&SdoGm;onfESifh eHygwfydkBuD;vmrnf jzpfygonf/ yHk(41)?yHk(42) (Oyrm- Track 1024)
Outer Track Middle Track

yHk (41)
Inner Track

Cylinders

Outer Cylinder

MiddleCylinder

Inner Cylinder

yHk (42)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

70

Hard Disk Features 75/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;tm;a½G;cs,f&mü(u) Reliability (,HkMunfpdwfcs&rI) ( c) Capacity (odkavSmifEdkifrIyrmP) ( *) Interface Type (csdwfqufEdkifonfhpepf SCSI, IDE-(SATA,PATA)) (C) SMART (Self Monitoring And Reporting Technique) ( i) Head Technology (Head wnfaqmufxm;onfh enf;ynm) ( p) MTBF (oufwrf;umv) ( q) Shock Mounting (vIyf&Sm;rI'PfcHEdkif&ef txdef;rsm;) ( Z ) Speed (tjrefEIef;)ESifh RPM (vnfywfEIef;) ( ps) Cost (wefzdk;aiG) wdkYudkMunfhí a½G;cs,foifhygonf/

76/ Hard Disk wpfvHk;\oufwrf;udk MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) jzifh wdkif;wmonf/ MTBF rSm20000 em&DrS 50000 em&Dtxuf &SdEdkifygonf/ (Oyrm - MTBF t& em&D (5)aomif; &Sdaom Hard Disk wpfvHk;udk (1) &ufvQif (8) em&DMumtoHk;jyKygu (17)ESpfMum toHk;jyKEdkifNyD;? (24)em&DtjynfhtoHk;jyKrnfqdkygu (6)ESpfcefYtoHk;jyKEdkifaMumif; wGucsucefre;f Ediygonf/) 4if;onf oDt&t& oufwrf;yifjzpf&m wu,fvufawGUwGif tjcm; f f Y S k f kd D xdcdkufEdkifzG,f tajctaersm;udkyg xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf/
Hard Disk udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifhxdef;odrf;rIrsm;

77/

atmufygtcsursm;udk owdjyKxe;f odr;f *½kjyKvkyfaqmifoifygonff d h (u) Hard Disk rD;vif;aepOf (odkY) tvkyfvkyfaepOf pufudkrydwf&? rvIyf&Sm;&yg/ ( c) Hard Disk Utility , File System Utility Software rsm;toHk;jyK&mwGif ruRr;f usibJ toH;k rjyKoifyg/ owdjyK&rnftcsursm;udk aocsmpGmzwf½NI y;D rSom f h h f oHk;oifhygonf/ (Data rsm;udktjcm; Media wpfckckwGif Backup jyKvkyfNyD;rSom oHk;pGJoifhygonf/) ( *) CMOS Setup wG i f & S d o nf h Hard Disk ES i f h o uf q d k i f a omtcsuf r sm;ud k jyKjyifajymif;vJrIjyKvkyfonfhtcg owdjyKrSwfom;vkyfaqmifyg/ (C) Hard Disk udoifawmfaom Hard Disk Utility rsm;jzifh Scan Disk jyKvyjf cif;? k h k Defragment jyKvyjf cif;rsm;jzifh yHrexe;odr;rI aqmif½uay;&ef vdtyfygonf/ k k S f d f f G f k (Norton Utility jzpfygu Norton Disk Doctor jyKvkyfay;jcif;? Speed Disk jyKvkyfjcif;rsm;jzifh yHkrSefxdef;odrf;rI aqmif½Gufoifhygonf/) ( i) tjrefEIef;jrifh Hard Disk rsm;tm;Cooling Systemwyfqifay;&efvkdtyfonf/ ( p) uGefysLwmtm; rD;zGifh^rD;ydwfjcif;wdkYudk owfrSwfcsufESifhtnD vkyfaqmif&rnf/ (q) uGefysLwmpepftm; Ground csxm;rIudk pepfwusvkyfaqmifxm;&rnf/

71
Floppy Disk Drives

Computer System, Hardware

78/ Floppy Disk Drives rsm;wGifa&;EdkifzwfEdkifaom Read / Write Headonf rsuEmjyifwpfzuftwGuf wpfcp½onf/ Floppy Drive wpfckwnfaqmufrIudk yHk f S k D dS (43)jzifazmfjyxm;ygonf/ Floppy Drive onfwpfrdepfvQiftywfaygif;300ESifh360 h xdvnfywfEionf/ Head ESihf Diskette \rsuEmjyifuxízwfjcif;aMumifh zHrsm;aom kd f f S kd d k ae&mwGifxm;½Sdygu Diskette ESifh Head rsm;Mum;wGifzHkrsm;Mum;cHí yGwfwdkufrdum Diskette ESifh Head rsm;ysup;Ediygonf/ Head Cleaning Disk jzifh Clean jyKvkyfí f D k f oefY ½Sif;rIaqmif½GufEdkifaomfvnf; Cleaning Disk jzifh tBurBf urtoH;k jyK&efroifyg/ d d f h 79/ Floppy Disk Drive wpfck\wnfaqmufxm;yHktpdwftydkif;rsm;tm; yHk(43)yg twdkif; awGU&SdEdkifygonf/

ykH(43)

uGefysLwmvufpJG
Floppy Disk

72

80/ Floppy Disk wpfcsyf\ puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif;ESifh Sector rsm;\ ydkif;xm;yHkudk yHk(44)ygtwdkif; awGU&dS&rnfjzpfygonf/

Platter

Floppy Disk ESifh Head vIyf&Sm;rI

ykH(44)

73 81/

Computer System, Hardware

Floppy Disk rsm;udk Plastic Material jzifh jyKvkyfxm;NyD;? puf0dkif;yHkvrf;aMumif;rsm; Sector rsm;cGJí tcsuftvufrsm;udk odrf;qnf;ygonf/ 5¼ ESifh 3½ Floppy Disk wdkY\

odrf;qnf;EdkifrIyrmPrsm;udk atmufygZ,m;rsm;twdkif;awGY½SdEdkifygonfDiskette on its Capacity For 5¼" 1. Single Sided Double Density (SSDD) 2. Double Sided Double Density (DSDD) 3. Double Sided High Density (DSHD) For 3½" 1. Double Sided Double Density (DSDD) 2. Double Sided Quad Density (DSQD) 3. Double Sided High Density (DSHD) Track Sector Byte/Sector Total 40 x 8 x 512 = 160 KB 40 x 9 x 512 = 180 KB (40 x 9 x 512) x 2 = 360 KB (80 x 15 x 512) x 2 = 1.2 MB

Track Sector Byte/Sector Total (80 x 9 x 512) x 2 = 720 KB (80 x (80 x 18 36 x x 512) x 2 = 1.44 MB 512) x 2 = 2.88 MB

Z,m; (12) Floppy Disk & Drive ud k t oH k ; jyKaepOf owd j yKxd e f ; od r f ; &rnf h t csuf r sm; 82/ atmufygtcsufrsm;udk owdjyKvkyfaqmif&ygrnf(u) jyifyrS Diskette rsm;toH;k jyKrnfqygu Virus &S^r&Sd ppfaq;Ny;D rStoH;k jyK&rnf/ kd d ( c) zkefwufaeaom? rIdwufaeaom? ysufpD;aeom Diskette rsm;tm;toHk;rjyK&yg/ ( *) Diskette \rsufESmjyiftm; vufjzifhudkifwG,fjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/ (C) Diskette rsm;tm; oHvupufui;f &Saom? tylrsm;aom ae&mrsm;wGirxm;&yg/ kd f G d f ( i) Floppy Drive zwfaepOf Diskette tm; txkwftoGif;rjyKvkyf&yg/ ( p) Diskette udk Floppy Drive twGif; ajymif;jyefrxnfhrdap&efowdjyK&rnf/ (q) Floppy Drive \ Head wGifzkefwufjcif;? rIduyfjcif;rsm;jzpfay:í zwfr&ygu Cleaning Disk jzifh Cleaning vkyfay;&ef vdktyfygonf/ odkYaomf Cleaning Disk jzifh tBudrfBudrfjyKvkyfygu Head ysufpD;Edkifygonf/ ( Z) uGefysLwmtm; jyifyodkYo,faqmif&mwGif Floppy Drive twGif; Diskette xnfhvQuf o,faqmifjcif;rjyKvkyf&yg/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

74

CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) 83/ ,cktcg CD-ROM Drive rsm;onf PC rsm;wGif Standard Equipment tjzpfyg&Sdvmygonf/ CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) onf Optical Storage Medium wpfckjzpfNyD;? 682 Milliom Byte or 650 MB udkzwf½Hk oufoufom toH;k jyKEiygonf/,cktcg Blank CD ay:ü Record vkyumodr;f qnf; kd f f Edkifaom CD-R Drive rsm;ay:vmNyD;? t*FvdyfpmrsufESmrsm;udk½dkufEdSyfodrf;qnf;ygu Text pmrsuEm 333,000 Pages eD;yg; (odkYr[kwf) t&nftaoG;aumif;rGefaom toH f S udor;f qnf;ygu 74 Minutes pmudor;f qnf;xm;Ediygonf/ wpfpuúetwGuf Block k d k d k f Yf wpfckvQif 2048 Byte ygaom Block aygif; 75 ckyg&Sonf/ yHk (45) d

ykH(45)

75 84/
CD-ROM Drive wpfck\tvkyfvkyfyHk

Computer System, Hardware

(u) ( c)

( *)

(C)

( i)

( p)

avqma&mifjcnfxkwfvTwfjcif;/avqm'dkiftkyfonf Energy tenf;i,fom &Sdaom Infrared tvif;a&mifwef;ufk rSefjym;ay:odkYxkwfvTwfonf/ Servo Motor rScsdefn§djcif;/ Servo Motor onf Microprocessor rS ydvwf Yk T aom ñTefMum;csuftwdkif; vkyfaqmifNyD; tvif;a&mifwef;\ taetxm;udk CD-ROM ay:&Sd vrf;aMumif;ay:odkY a&muf&Sdatmif rSefjym;rsm;udk a½GUvsm; apjcif;jzifh csdefñd§yg onf/ avqm"gwfjym;udkxd½dkufrdjcif;? tvif;jyefjcif;ESifhpkqHkapjcif;/tvif;a&mif wef;onf avqmDisk zefjym;udk xd½dkufrdNyD;aemuf tvif;jyefrI jzpfapygonf/ jyefvmaom tvif;a&mifwef;udk jyefvnfpkpnf;&eftwGuf rSefbDvl;wGif jzwfoef;aponf/ xdkYaemuf rSefjym;rsm;udkjzwfí tvif;a&mifwef;udk cGJxkwf onfh Beam Spliter odkYydkYvTwfygonf/ jyefvmaomavqma&mifjcnfwef;ukd pkqkHapjcif;/ Beam Splitter onf jyef v maoma&mif j cnf w ef ; uk d pk q k H r I a umif ; ap&ef t wG u f pk q k H r S e f b D v l ; aemufwpfckokdY ykdYvTwfonf/ tvif;a&miftcsufjyrsm;ukdvQyfppftcsufjyrsm;tjzpfajymif;jcif;/ aemufqkH; tqifhwGif avqma&mifjcnfwef;ukd Photo detector okdY ay;ykdYonfh Photo detector onf tvif;a&mifudk jywfawmif;jywfawmif; vQyppfvi; tcsujf yrsm; f dI f tjzpfokdYajymif;ay;onf/ CD Drive wGif Microprocessor rS Process jyKvkyfjcif;/ uGefysLwm\ Microprocessor onf ¤if;xHokdY 0ifvmaom impulse rsm;ukduGefysLwmokdY datarsm;tjzpfykdYvTwfygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG
MultiBeam Technology

76

85/ jrefqefaom CD-ROM Drive rsm;ESifh DVD (Digital Video Disk) wdkYonf wpfBurwif puf0i;f yHvrf;aMumif;wpfcom or½k;d uszwfonfenf;ynmrS Track rsm;pGm d f G kd k k h udk wpfBudrfwnf;ESifh jrefqefpGmzwfEdkifonfh Multi Beam / True X Technology udk Zer Research ukrÜPDrSwDxGifcJhygonf/ azmfjyyg yHk(46) onf puf0dkif;yHk vrf;aMumif; (7)ckukd avqma&mifjcnfrsm;jzifwpfNyKd iwnf;zwf&ef rnfovyaqmifonfukd &Si;f vif; h f Ykd k f jyoxm;aomyHkjzpfygonf/

Multi-beam Dector

Beam Splitter

Lenses

Laser Diode

MultiBeam Technology allows seven tracks to be read at once.

ykH (46)

77

Computer System, Hardware

CD-ROM Drive Specification 86/ CD-ROM wpfck\pGrf;aqmifEdkifrIrsm;udk atmufygtcsufrsm;jzifh wdkif;wmygonf(u) Data Transfer Rate (CD-ROM rStcsuftvufydkYvTwfEdkifonfh yrmP) ( c) Access Time (tcsuftvufzwf&efMumcsdef) Z,m;(13) ( *) Buffer / Cache (tcsuftvufrsm; acwåodrf;qnf;&ef CD Drive twGif;&Sd

rSwfÓPfyrmP) (C) ( i) ( p) (q) ( Z)
CPU Utilization (CPU \xdef;csKyfrIjzifh vkyfaqmifrItwdkif;twm) DMA (Direct Memory Access udktoHk;jyKí CPU \xdef;csKyfrI tenf;qHk;

CD-ROM Drive Speed 1x 2x 3x 4x 6x 8x 10x 12x 16x 18x 24x 32x 36x 40x 48x 52x 100x

jzifhvkyfaqmifEdkifrI) Interface (uGefysLwmpepfESifh csdwfqufrI) Loading Mechanism (CD xnfhoGif;pepf) CD-ROM Format Z,m;(14) Drive \tjrefEIef;rsm;ESifh Access Time rsm;
Transfer Rate(bps) 153,600 307,200 460,800 614,400 921,600 1,228,800 1,536,000 1,843,200 2,457,600 2,764,800 3,686,400 4,915,200 5,529,600 6,114,000 7,372,800 7,987,200 15,360,000 Transfer Rate(KB/sec) 150 300 450 600 900 1,200 1,500 1,800 2,400 2,700 3,600 4,800 5,400 6,000 7,200 7,500 15,000 Access Time (ms) 400 300 200 150 150 100 100 100 90 90 90

}

85~75 or less

Z,m; (13)

uGefysLwmvufpJG
CD-ROM Format
Format Red Book Yellow Book Used For Digital audio CDs Computer CDs

78
Notes This standard, a.k.a. CDDA (Compact Disc Digital Audio), was codeveloped by Philips and Sony Specifies physical arrangement of sector. ISO Mode 1:9660 Level 1: PC, Apple, UNIX, DVI Level 2: CDTV ISO 9660, HFS, and HFS-ISO are used with Yellow Book to define file and directory structures. See also Mode 1, Mode 2, and CD-ROM/XA, which define sector formats. Stores MPEG 1, MPEG 2, and similar video sources. Has replaced VHS video in southeast Asia for flim distribution Port I-Magneto-Optical Drives Port II-CD-R

White Book

VideoCD

Orange Book

Writable CDs including CD-R, magneto-optical, single and multisession recording and packet writing Green Book Combination of Red Book and Yellow Book - for CD-I (Interactive CD) CD+(Enhance CD) Combines music and computer data on single CD

CD-ROM/XA can be played on either CD-I or CD-ROM drives; CD-I has been used for interactive sales presentations and kiosks Used by musical artists to incoporate video and interviews on music CDs

Z,m; (14) CD & CD Drive udktoHk;jyKaepOf owdxm;&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifhxdef;odrf;rIrsm; 87/ atmufygtwkdif; owdjyKvkyfaqmif&ygrnf(u) zkefwufaeaom? jcpf&mygaom? zefom;aygufaeaom CD rsm;udk toHk;rjyK&yg/ ( c) zkewufaeaom CD rsm;udk owfrwxm;aom Cleaning Kit jzifom oef&i;f rI f S f h Y S jyKvkyfoifhygonf/ ( *) Format rwlízwfr&aom CD rsm;tm; xnfhoGif;zwfjcif;udk a&SmifusOf&rnf/ (C) CD Drive twGif;&Sd Lens tm; tjcm;Murf;wrf;onfh ypönf;rsm;jzifh yGwfwdkufí oefY&Sif;a&;jyKvkyfjcif;tm; a&SmifusOf&rnf/ ( i) uGefysLwmtm; jyifyodkYo,faqmif&mwGif CD Drive twGif; CD xnfhvQuf o,faqmifjcif; rjyKvkyf&yg/ ( p) CD Drive twGif;rS CD udkxkwfír&ygu ta&;ay: Eject vkyfEdkifonfh taygufudk toHk;jyKí vkyfaqmifyg/ 4if;taygufonf CD Drive \ rsufESmpm wGif yg&Sdwwfygonf/ (q) CD rsm;udk Virus yg^ryg ppfaq;NyD;rS toHk;jyKyg/

79 ( Z)

Computer System, Hardware

CD Drive &Sd Eject cvkyftm; csufjcif; zGifhydwfrI rjyKvkyfoifhyg/

High Capacity Removable Storage 88/ tcsuftvufrsm;ukd Backup tjzpf odrf;qnf;xm;&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? wpfae&mrS wpfae&mokdY yrmP BuD;rm;aom File rsm;ukd o,faqmif&mwGifvnf;aumif; atmufaz:jyyg Magnetic Media ESifh Magneto-optical Drive rsm;ukd tokH;jyKEkdifonf-

(u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i) ( p) (q)

High-Capacity Floptical drive (21MB, 120MB, 250MB, 500MB

[lítrsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
Bermoulli Drives(10MB, 35MB, 65MB, 105MB, 150MB [l í

trsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf)
Zip Drives (100MB, 250MB [lí trsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf) JAZ Drives (1GB, 2GB [lítrsKd;rsKd;&Sdonf/) SyQuest Drives (44MB, 88MB, 270MB, 1GB [lítrsdK;rsdK;&Sdonf) Tape Drives (2GB, 4GB, 8GB, 14GB, 24GB, 35 - 70 GB [lítrsdK;rsdK;

&Sdonf)
Optical Storage Drives(CD-ROM, CD-R or CD-RW, DVD)

89/ Removable Storage tcsdKU\ pufrIqkdif&mt&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIrsm;ukd atmufaz:jyygZ,m;toD;oD;jzifh EIdif;,SOfEkdifygonf/ Z,m;(15)rS(20)xd LS-120 Specifications Drive Type Floppy Disk Fomatted Capacity Transfer Rate: parallel port Transfer Rate: Internal IDE Average seek time Disk rotational speed Track density Number of tracks LS-120 Floppy Standard 1.44MB

120MB 290KB/sec 484KB/sec 70ms 720rpm 2,490tpi 1,736×2 sides

1.44MB 45KB/sec n/a 84ms 300rpm 135tpi 80×2 sides

Z,m; (15)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

80

Zip Specifications(100 and 250MB Capacity) Model (Interface) Formatted capacity Substained transfer rate Substained transfer rate Maximum throughput Average seek time Disk rotational speed Buffer size SCSI and/or Parallel 100MB or 250MB 1.40MB/sec 0.79MB/sec 60MB/min(SCSI); 20MB/min(parallel) 29ms 2,941 rpm 32KB Eide 100MB or 250MB 1.40 maximum MB/sec 0.79 minimum MB/sec 84MB/min 29ms 2,941 rpm 16KB

Z,m; (16)
Jaz Specifications Model Formatted Capacity Transfer rate: Maximum Average Minimum Burst Average seek time read Average seek time write Acess Time Disk Rotational speed Buffer size Interface 1GB 1070 million bytes 6.62MB/sec 5.4MB/sec 3.41MB/sec 10MB/sec 10 ms 12 ms 15.5-17.5ms 5400rpm 256KB Fast SCSI II 2GB 2000 million bytes 8.7MB/sec 7.35MB/sec 3.41MB/sec 20MB/sec 10 ms 12 ms 15.5-17.5ms 5394rpm 512KB Ultra SCSI

Z,m; (17)

81
DAT and 8mm Tape specifications
Tape Capacity Standard (w/o Com- Data pression) Density

Computer System, Hardware

Tracks Appro- Tape Recording Encoding ximate Length Technology Format Interface

DAT 2GB/4GB 114MB/in 1869 195 ft./ Helical Scan DDS* (Digital AudioTape) 300 ft. DataDAT Video Tape

SCSI

14GB

n/a

n/a

120m

Helical Scan

*DDS=Digital Data Storage DDS-1 drives store 2GB of uncopressed data(4GB Compressed) DDS-2 drives can store 4GB of uncompressed data(up to 8GB with compression) DDS-3 drives have a native 12GB capacity or 24GB compressed

Z,m; (18)
SparQ Specifications Formatted Capacity Transfer rate: Maximum Minimum Burst (PIO mode 4) Substained transfer rate: parallel version Average seek time Disk rotational speed Burst (PIO mode 4) Substained transfer rate: parallel version Average seek time Disk rotational speed 1008 milion bytes

6.9MB/sec 3.7MB/sec 16.6MB/sec 1.25MB/sec 12ms 5,400rpm 16.6MB/sec 1.25MB/sec 12ms 5,400rpm

Z,m; (19)

uGefysLwmvufpJG
Removeable Drive Specifications Drive Type lomega Zip Parallel lomega Zip IDE lomega Zip SCSI Imation LS-120 Internal SyQest 235 Parallel Avatar Shark 250 Parallel SyQest 235 SCSI/IDE lomega Jaz (SCSI) Avatar Shark IDE SyQest Syjet SISC SyQest Syjet IDE SyQest SparQ Parallel CD-R Drives

82

Disk/Cartridge Capacity 100MB 100MB 100MB 120MB 235MB 250MB 235MB 2GB 250M 1.5GB 1.5GB 1GB 650MB

Average Seek Time 29ms 29ms 29ms 70ms 13.5ms 12ms 13.5ms 12ms 12ms 12ms 12ms 12ms <150ms

Data Transfer Rate 1.4MB/sec 1.4MB/sec 1.4MB/sec 4.0MB/sec 1.25MB/sec 2.0MB/sec 2.4MB/sec 5.4MB/sec 2.5MB/sec 5.3MB/sec 5.3MB/sec 1.25MB/sec 150KB/sec

Z,m; (20) 90/ uGeysLwmtok;H jyKorsm;taejzifh ta&;Bu;D aom tcsutvufrsm; rqk;H ½I;H apa&;twGuf f l f trsdK;tpm;rwlaom Media (3)rsdK;jzifh ykHrSef Backup jyKvkyfxm;oifhygonf/ Removable Drive 0,f,l&mwGif atmufaz:jyygtcsufrsm;ukd pOf;pm;oifhonf(u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i)
1MB odrf;qnf;&eftwGuf ukefusrnfhaiG (Price per megabyte of storage) a&;Edkif? zwfEkdifonfh tjrefEIef; (Access time)

rnfonfhuGefysLwmESifhrqkd csdwfquftokH;jyKEkdifjcif;ESifh o,faqmif&vG,fuljcif; uGefysLwmtwGif; (okdYr[kwf) jyifywGifwyfqifEkdifjcif; (Internal or External) uGeysLwmtm; Ready jzpfatmifjyKvyEijf cif; (Bootable)ponfwYkd jzpfygonf/ f k f dk 91/ DVD Formats and Standards udk Z,m;(21)ygtwdkif; a&G;cs,ftoHk;jyKEdkifygonf/

83
DVD Formats and Standards Standard DVD Formats and Capacities

Computer System, Hardware

Data Format DVD-5 DVD-9 DVD-10 DVD-14 DVD-18 DVD-1 DVD-2 DVD-3 DVD-4 DVD-R1.0 DVD-R2.0 DVD-RAM 1.0 DVD-RAM1.0 DVD-RAM2.0 DVD-RAM2.0 DVD-RAM2.0 CD-ROM CD-ROM Disk Size 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 80 mm 80mm 80mm 80mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm Sides Single Single Double Double Double Single Single Double Double Single Single Single Double Single Double Double Single Single Layers Single Double Single Double Double Single Double Single Double Single Single Single Single Single Single Single Single Single Capacity 4.7 GB 8.5 GB 9.4 GB 13.24GB 17 GB 1.4 GB 2.7 GB 2.9 GB 5.3 GB 3.95 GB 7.4 GB 2.58 GB 5.16 GB 4.7 GB 9.4 GB 1.4 GB 0.65 GB 0.194 GB DVD-ROM Formats and Capacities

Video Capacity 2+ hours 4 hours 4.5 hours 6.5 hours 8+ hours 0.5 hours 1.3 hours 1.4 hours 2.5 hours

Recordable DVD Formats and Capacities

CD-ROM Formats and Capacities (For Comparison)

Z,m;(21)

uGefysLwmvufpJG 92/

84

HT Technology ( Hyper Threading Technology) \xl;jcm;csufrsm;

atmufygtwkdif; jzpfygonf(u) HT Technology qdkonfrSm CPU tvkyfvkyf&mwGif Virtual CPU wpfckxyfrHzefwD;í CPU ESpfvHk;jzifh wpfNydKifwnf; aqmif&GufouJhodkY tvkyfvkyfEdkifjcif;/ ( c) Back Ground Process rsm;vkyfaqmifaepOfwGif Fore Ground Process udk jrefqefpGmaqmif&GufEdkifjcif;/ ( *) Multi-Tasking udkjrefqefpGm aqmif&Gufay;Edkifjcif; / (C) wpfpuúefYwGif NyD;ajrmufaomñTefMum;csuf (Instruction) ta&twGuf (Through Put) aumif;rGefjcif;/ atmufygtwkdif; jzpfygonf(u) Motherboard Platform (Chipset, ROMBIOS) wdkYonf HT twGuf Ready jzpfapjcif;/ ( c) CPU wGif HT Technology yg0ifjcif;/ ( *) Operating System onf HT Technology udktaxmuftulay;jcif;/ (Oyrm- Windows XP, LINUX RED HAT 9.0) atmufygtwkdif; jzpfygonf(u) Main Memory udk CPU rS Access jyKvkyf&mwGif Channel (2)cktm; wpfNyKd iwnf;vkyaqmifEijf cif;/ (Oyrm- vlwpfa,mufonf vufEpzuf f f kd S f jzifh ypönf;rsm;udk wpfNydKifwnf;&,ljcif;rsKd;jzpfonf/) ( c) DDR RAM 400 MHz &Sdonfh Memory udk Channel (2)ckwGif owfrwcsuEitnD Match jzpfatmif xnfoi;f jcif;jzifh Dual Channel S f f S hf h G + Dynamic Memory Mode jzifhvkyfaqmifEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ ( *) DDR RAM 400 MHz tjrefEIef;&Sd Memory udk Channel (2)ckwGif owfrSwfcsufESifhtnD wyfqifygu Channel wpfckwGuf 400 M x 8 Byte = 3200 Mbps jzpfojzifh Channel (2)cktwGuf 6400 Mbps ≈ 6.4 Gbps EIef;jzifh tvkyfvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ (C) CPU ESihf Main Memory Mum;wGif tjyeftvSey&efMumcseenf;oGm;Ny;D f Ykd d f Performance ydkrdkaumif;rGefvmrnfjzpfonf/ ( i) Dual Channel &&SdEdkif&ef? ¤if;enf;ynmjzifhvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh Chipset rsm;udk toHk;jyK&rnfjzpfonf/

HT Technology udktjynfht0toHk;csedkif&eftwGufvdktyfcsuf

93/

Dual Channel DDR \pGrf;aqmifEdkifrI

94/

85

Computer System, Hardware

95/ HT enf;ynmaMumifh pGrf;aqmifEkdifrI aumif;rGefjrefqefvmjcif;tm; ykH(47) wGif awGU&SdEkdifygonf/logy udktjynfht0toHk;csedkif&eftwGufvdktyfcsuf
Hyper-Threading Technology boosts performance in multitasking environments
Outlook* and Winzip* PowerPoint*, VirusScan* and Acrobat* Photoshop* and VirusSacn* Word*, Acrobat* and VirusSacn* Microsoft* Visual Studio.Netand Winzip* 0% 10% 54%

24%

23%

ykH (47)
21% 20%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Hyper-Threading Technology benefit (%) * Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

96/ ,aeYtoH;k rsm;vQu&onfh yH(48)yg Software Packages rsm;onf HTenf;ynm f Sd k toHk;jyKjcif;jzifh ydkrdkjrefqefpGm aqmif&GufvmEdkifNyD jzpfygonf/
Immediate performance boosts on today's popular software packages
MAGIX* MP3 Maker*+ Digital Video and Audio Content Creation XMPEG* with DivX* Window* Media Player + Watch a Movie while encoding one Window* Movie Maker* Comanche* 4 and Musicmatch* XMPEG* with DivX* Adobe* PhotoShop* MAGIX* MP3 Maker* Doing more while gaming Digital Video Encoding Photo Editing Audio Encoding 14% 23% 34% 19% 38% 27% 33%

Quake* III Arena DemoIV Gaming

ykH (48)
30% 35% 40%

20% 25% 5% 10% 15% 0% Hyper-Threading Technology benefit (%) * Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

1

Data Communication Network

Data Communication Network

Chapter (1) Media (qufoG,frIMum;cHypönf;)? Modulation (vdIif;ojcif;) ESifh Multiplexing (aygif;pyfpkpnf;jcif;)
Digital and Analog Signal 1/ Digital Signal qdkonfrSm jywfawmif;jywfawmif; oabmobm0&Sdaom vdIif;

jzpfonf/ tcsdeftydkif;tjcm;wpfckwGif wnfNidrfaomtajctae wpfck&Sdonf/ yHk(1-1) (Oyrm- High or Low) 2/ Analog Signal qdkonfrSm tcsdefESifhvdkufí pOfqufrjywf jzpfay:ajymif;vJ aeaomvdIif; jzpfygonf/ yHk(1-2) (Oyrm-vl\toH) 3/ Analog tcsujf yrsm;udk Digital pepfjzifay;ydEiouJoYkd Digital tcsujf yrsm;udk h Yk kd f h vnf; Analog pepfjzifh ay;ydkYxkwfvTifhEdkifygonf/ Digital Signal uJhodkY jywfawmif; jywfawmif; obm0&Sdaom tcsufjyrsm;udk pOfqufrjywf ajymif;vJjzpfay:aeaom tcsufjyrsm;taejzifh ay;ydkYxkwfvTifhEdkifygonf/

yHk (1-1) Digital Signal

yHk (1-2) Analog Signal

uGefysLwmvufpJG

2

4/ omreftm;jzifh Digital tcsutvufukd Analog uGe,ufpepfay:rS atmufaz: f f jyyg Modulation enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ay;ydxwviEiygonf/ ¤if;enf;vrf;wGif Analog Yk k f T hf kd f k Yk T f h MODEM (MOdulation DEModulation) vdtyfygonf/ ydvwonfbufrSMODEM onf Digital tcsutvufrsm;udk Analog tcsujf yrsm;tjzpfoYkd vdi;f ojcif; (Modulate) f I jyKvkyfNyD;? Mum;cHay:wGif Analog yHkpHjzifh ay;ydkYygonf/ xdkYtwl vufcHonfhbufrS MODEM onf Analog tcsufjyrsm;udk Digital tcsufjytjzpfodkY ajymif;vJjcif; (Demodulate) jyKvyonf/ k f 5/ vufawGYtoHk;csrItrsm;pkwGif DTE (Data Terminal Equipment Oyrm- PC) onf tcsuftvufrsm;udk Digital Signal jzifh az:jyvkyfaqmifygonf/ ¤if; Digital f Yk k f Signal udk MODEM twGi;odYk ay;ydaomtcg MODEM rS Modulation jyKvyonf/ vufcHonfhbufrS MODEM onf Modulate jyKvkyfxm;NyD;aom tcsufjyrsm;udk Demodulate jyKvkyfí rlv Digital tcsuftvufrsm;tjzpf&&Sdatmif vkyfaqmifay; rnf jzpfonf/
Modulation (vIdif;ojcif;) 6/ Modulation qdkonfrSm tcsufjy Signal udk vTifhxkwfEdkif&eftwGuf Process jyKvkyfjcif; enf;vrf;wpfckjzpfonf/ tcsufjyudk Carrier Signal (o,faqmifvIdif;)

wpfcjk zifh o,faqmifí Mum;cHe,fwpfcrwpfqifh wpfae&mrSwpfae&moday;ydEiygonf/ k S Yk Yk kd f 7/ tcsufjy Signal udk Modulating Signal (odkYr[kwf) Base Band Signal [k ac:onf/ ¤if;onf Analog (odkYr[kwf) Digital jzpfEdkifygonf/ vIdif;oNyD;aom Output Signal udk Modulated Signal [kac:onf/ 8/
Modulition Technique tcsdKUrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Amplitude Modulation (Also called Amplitude Shift Keying) / (ASK) ( c) Frequency Modulation (Also called Frequency Shift Keying) / (FSK) ( *) Phase Modulation (Also called Phase Shift Keying) / (PSK)

3

Data Communication Network

Amplitude Modulation (AM), (Also called Amplitude Shift Keying) / (ASK) (tjrifhvIdif;ojcif;)

9/ o,faqmifvdIif;\tjrifh (Amplitude ) onf Input Signal \ tedrfhtjrifh ajymif;vJrIt& jzpfay:ajymif;vJapjcif;udk AM [kac:onf/ yHk(1-3)

yHk (1-3) 10/ AM (OR) ASK wGif 0ifa&mufvmaom Digital tcsufjyrsm;udk Analog tcsufjyrsm;tjzpfodkY ajymif;vJay;onf/ xdkodkYajymif;vJ&mwGif Modulated Signal tcsufjy\ Amplitude onf Digital input \ajymif;vJjcif;uJhodkY jzpfay:rnfjzpfonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG
1
Digital Information

4
1 1 0 0
Modulated Signal

0

+
Carrier

=
1

0

0 1 1

0

yHk (1-4)

11/ txufygyH(1-4)wGif Level ESprsKd ;&Sojzifh Analog Signal wGivnf; tjrifEprsKd ; k f d f h S f (Amplitude ESpfrsKd;) az:jyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ( 1 or 0 ) yHkwGif jrifhrm;aom Amplitude tcsujf yudk 1 jzifh udk,fpm;jyKNyD;? edrfhaom Amplitude tcsujf yudk 0 jzifh ud,pm;jyKonf/ k f BudrfEIef; (Frequency)ESifh toGif ( Phase) ajymif;vJrIr&Sday/ ASK udk aemufxyf Amplitude Level rsm; owfrSwfjcif;tm;jzifh xyfrHcsJUxGifEdkifygonf/ odkYrSom Noise \aESmuf,ur'Pfukd cHEirnfjzpfygonf/ ASK enf;ynmudk MODEM rsm;wGif toH;k jyK S f I kd f xm;ygonf/
Frequency Modulation (FM) (BudrfEIef;vIdif;ojcif;) 12/ o,faqmifvdIif;\BudrfEIef;onf Input Signal \tedrfhtjrifhajymif;vJrIay: rlwnfí BudrfEIef;ajymif;vJrIjzpfapjcif;udk FM [kac:onf/ yHk(1-5)

yHk (1-5) 13/ FSK wGif Digital tcsufjyudk Analog tcsufjytjzpfodkY ajymif;vJíxkwfvTifh onf/ xdoxwvi&mwGif Analog Signal BurEe;f onf Digital Input 1 odkY 0 udu,pm; k Ykd k f T hf d f I k kd f jyKonf/

5
1
Digital Information

Data Communication Network

1

1 0 0
f1 f2 f1 f2

0

+
Carrier

=
1

yHk (1-6)

Modulated Signal

0

1

0

14/ txufygyHk(1-6)wGif Coding Level ESpfrsKd; &Sdonf/ jrifhaom Frequency onf 1 udk ud,pm;jyKí edraom Frequency onf 0 udk ud,pm;jyKonf/ Analog tcsujf y\ k f hf k f tjrifh Amplitude ESifh toGif (Phase) rajymif;vJyg/ ASK uJhodkY FSK onfvnf; aemufxyf Frequency trsKd;rsKd; o,faqmif&ef csJUxGifEdkifygonf/ FSK Technique udk Low Speed MODEM rsm; ( 1200 bps ESifh ¤if;atmuf) wGif trsm;qHk;toHk;jyKonf/ ukefusp&dwfoufomaom Technique jzpfonf/
Phase Modulation (PM) (toGifvIdif;ojcif;) 15/ o,faqmifvIdif;\toGif (Phase) udk Input Signal \ajymif;vJrIay:rlwnfí jzpfay:apjcif;udk Phase Modulation [kac:onf/ PM (or) PSK wGif tcsujf y Signal \tjrifh (Amplitude ) ESifh BudrfEIef; (Frequency) ajymif;vJrI r&Syg/ PSK Technique d udk MODEM rsm;wGif trsm;qH;k toH;k jyKygonf/

tcsujf y Signal \ Wave Form t& Phase (axmif) ajymif;vJjcif;ay:rlwnfí h Phase ajymif;vJygu ]] 0 }} [kowfrwonf/ Phase 180 H ajymif;vJygu ]] 1 }} [k S f owfrwygonf/ yH(1-7) S f k

16/

yHk (1-7)

uGefysLwmvufpJG 17/

6

Quadrature Phase Modulation wGif rwlnDaom Phase Angle (4)ck &Sd&m

2bit jzifh atmufygtwdkif;az:jyEdkifygonf(u) 0 0 = 315 H ( c) 0 1 = 225 H ( *) 1 0 = 135 H (C) 1 1 = 45 H

18/

Phase Angle (4)ckudk yHk(1-8)ygtwdkif; awGU&dSEdkifygonf/

yHk (1-8) yH(1-9)ESihf yH(1-10)wdwif vdi;f udk Phase Angle (16) rsK;d jzifh cGjJ cm;az:jyxm;&m k k Yk G I 4 bit jzifh atmufygtwdkif;az:jyEdkifygonf(u) 0 0 0 0 = 22.5 H ( c) 0 0 0 1 = 45 High Amplitude H ( *) 0 0 1 0 = 67.5 H (C) 0 0 1 1 = 45 H 19/

7 ( i) ( p) (q) ( Z) ( ps) (n) ( #) ( X) ( !) ( ¡) (P) (w)

Data Communication Network

0 1 0 0 = 157.5 H 0 1 0 1 = 135 H 0 1 1 0 = 112.5 H 0 1 1 1 = 135 H High Amplitude 1000=..... 1001=..... 1010=..... 1011=..... 1100=..... 1101=..... 1110=..... 1111=.....

yHk (1-9)

yHk (1-10)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

8

Data Communication wGif MODEM \ tcef;u@

20/ az:jyygyH(1-11)wGif qufo,a&;uGe,ufpepfwpfcü toH;k jyKaomMODEM k G f f k wpfvHk; rnfuJhodkYvkyfaqmifonfudk az:jyxm;ygonf/
Telephone Network User Analog signals upstream Digital-Analog conversion Analog - Digital conversion Digitals Analog Signals upstream Digital-Analog conversion Analog - Digital conversion ISP

Remote System with an Analog Connection to the Telephone System

yHk (1-11)
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment )DTE (Data Terminal Equipment )

21/ DTE qdonfrm PC wpfvHk;aomfvnf;aumif;? Terminal wpfrsKd;rsKd;aomfvnf; k S aumif; jzpfEiygonf/ Oyrm- PC onf Digital tcsufjyrsm;xkwfvTifhjcif;? vufcHjcif; kd f jyKvkyfonf/ MODEM onf Digital Signal rsm;udk Analog Signal rsm;tjzpfodkY ajymif;vJay;NyD;? Analog Network (Oyrm- Analog Telephone Network) rSwpfqifh ay;ydkYonf/ vufcHonfhbufwGif Analog tcsufjyrsm;udk MODEM rSvufcH&,lí Digital Signal rsm;tjzpfodkY Modulate jyKvkyfay;NyD; DTE odkYay;ydkYonf/ yHk(1-12)
DTE DCE Link Interchange Circuit Terminal Modem Interchange Circuit HOST Computer DCE HOST DTE

Modem

yHk (1-12)

Typical Interface Showing DTEs and DCEs

9
Communication Resource udkrQa0oHk;pGJjcif;

Data Communication Network

qufoG,fa&;pepfwGif rQa0oHk;pGJjcif;qdk&mü jrefEIef;jrifh Transmission Line udk User wpfOD;xufru &,ltoHk;jyKjcif;udk qdkvdkygonf/ a0;uGmaomae&mwpfckrS tjcm; a0;uGmaom ae&mwpfcoay;ydjYk cif;udpwif jrifrm;aomtjrefEe;f &Sonfh qufo,a&; k Ykd ö G h I d G f vdkif;tpHkrsm;pGmvdktyfonfhtwGuf p&dwfpuBuD;rm;onf/ 23/ User wpfOD;onf a,bk,stm;jzifh jrefEIef;jrifh qufoG,fa&;vrf;aMumif; rvdktyfyg/ odkYjzpfí tjrefEIef;edrfhaom Device rsm;taejzifh jrefEIef;jrifhaom Channel wpfckudk rQa0oHk;pGJ&ef vdktyfcsufwpfck jzpfay:vmygonf/ odkYrSom Communication Media rsm;pGmvdktyfjcif;? ukefusp&dwfjrifhrm;jcif;wdkYudk avsmhenf;apygrnf/ þuJhodkY vkyaqmifEi&ef enf;vrf;wpfcrm Multiplexer jzifaqmif&ujf cif;enf;vrf; jzpfygonf/ f kd f k S h G ¤if;enf;vrf;onf ukefusp&dwfoufomNyD;? Device aygif; N ckonf qufoG,fa&; vrf;aMumif;wpfcwnf;udk Channel N ckjzifh wnfaqmufcswquf tvkyvyEiygonf/ k d f f k f kd f Analog ESifh Digital enf;ynmwGif Multiplex yHko@meftrsKd;rsKd;&Sdygonf/ yHk(1-14)

22/

Multiplexer

yHk (1-14) 24/ Multiplex wGif Low Speed Line rsm;udk aygif;pkí High Speed Line ay: wifay;um a0;uGmaomae&modkY ay;ydkYEdkifygonf/ a,bk,stm;jzifh þuJhodkYay;ydkYjcif; aMumifh Low Speed Line rsm;pGm rvdtyfb?J High Speed vdi;f wpfvi;f vdtyfygonf/ k k kd k odkYjzpfí ukefusp&dwfoufomapygonf/
FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing )

25/ FDM enf;vrf;wGif Communication Channel \pkpkaygif; Frequency udk csdwfqufvdkonfh User ta&twGujf zifpm;ygu User wpfO;D twGuf Frequency yrmP h udk &&Sdygonf/ az:jyygyHk(1-15)wGif Device (4)ckonf yHkaoowfrSwfxm;aom Frequency Channel rsm;&Sygonf/ Channel wpfcEiwpfcMk um;tuGmta0;onf Guard d k S hf

uGefysLwmvufpJG

10

Band rsm;jzpfygonf/ Guard Band rsm;onf Channel wpfcEiwpfcMk um;wGif a&maESmí k S hf xyfí raeatmif wdusaom Frequency yrmPjzifh jcm;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/

yHk (1-15)
Time Division Multiplexing

26/ Digital enf;ynmjzifh ydvwjf cif;wGif txufygtwdi;f Frequency rQa0oH;k pGjJ cif; Yk T k tpm; tcseukd rQa0oH;k pGrenf;vrf;udk ydrtoH;k jyKMuygonf/ ¤if;enf;vrf;udk TDM [k d f J I k kd ac:ygonf/ TDM pepfwif Station wpfconf tcseumvwpfcwif ydvwci&ygonf/ G k d f k G Yk T f G hf dS Station rsm;udk oufqdkif&m Slot tvdkuf ydkYvTwfzrf;,lapygonf/ TDM pepfjzifh vkyfaqmif&mü atmufygtajccHenf;vrf;(2)ck&Sdygonf(u) Statistical Time Division Multiplexing ( Stat MUX) yHk(1-16) ( c ) STDM (synchronous TDM) yHk(1-17)
STDM (synchronous TDM) TDM enf;pepfwGif User wpfOD;jcif;onf ay;xm;aomoufqdkif&m Time Slot wpfckpDü tvSnfhus&,ltoHk;jyKEdkifygonf/ Station wpfckonf Time Slot yHkao wpfc&&Sonf/ ay;yd&efr&Syguvnf; Time Slot taoay;xm;onftwGuaMumifh Time k d Yk d h f Slot qHk;½IH;rIjzpfay:apygrnf/

27/

11

Data Communication Network

Workstation

Demultiplexer
Workstation Multiplexer

.....3 2 1
Workstation

4 3 2 1
Time Slot for Computer 2 Time Slot for Computer 1

Server Server Computer

Workstation

yHk (1-16) Time Division Multiplexing

T1 Frame

n-3

n-2

n-1

nth
Frame

n+1

n+2

n+3

-----

Channel 1

Channel 2

Channel 24

yHk (1-17)

T1 Multiplexed Data Stream

uGefysLwmvufpJG

12

Statistical Time Devision Multiplexing ( Stat MUX) 28/ Frequency Division Multiplexing ESifh Synchronous Time Devision d Yk d Yk f Multiplexing (2) rsK;onf ay;yd&ef r&SaomTerminal rsm;twGuf Time Slot (odr[kw) Transmission Space qHk;½HI;rI jzpfedkifygonf/ odkYjzpfí Statistical Time Division Multiplexing ( Synchronous Time Devision Multiplexing) wGif Time Slot qHk;½HI;rI rjzpfap&eftwGuf ay;ydkY&efr&Sdaom Empty Time Slot rsm;udk ay;ydkYjcif;rvkyfaqmifbJ? ay;ydkY&ef&Sdaom Active User rsm;\ Data rsm;udkom ay;ydkYjcif; jyKvkyfygonf/ yHk(1-18)

ESifh yHk(1-19)

yHk (1-18)

yHk (1-19)

13

Data Communication Network

Chapter (2)
Dial-up Telephone Line pepftoH;jyK Point to Point k f Data Communication vkyaqmifjf cif; (PC < >PC) Point to Point Data Communication (wpfae&mESifhwpfae&mqufoG,f

aqmif&Gufjcif; 1/ wpfae&mESifhwpfae&mqufoG,faqmif&Guf&ef Modem wyfqifyHk? toHk;jyKEdkif &ef twGuf Install jyKvyy?kH Point to Point cswquf&eftwGuf Microsoft Windows k f d f 2000/ Windows XP Operating System wdkYjzifh vkyfaqmifyHktqifhqifhudk yHk(2-1) jzifh&Sif;vif;tyfygonf/

MODEM

Tele-Communication Network

MODEM

vufatmufcH yifruGefysLwm uGefysLwm yHk (2-1) w,fvDzkef;vdkif;toHk;jyKí wpfae&mESifhwpfae&m qufoG,faqmif&Gufjcif;
Point wpfcktwGuf vdktyfaomypönf;rsm; / Windows 2000 / Windows XP Operating System toHk;jyKonfhuGefysLwmtwGuf atmufygypönf;rsm; vdktyfyg

2/

onf(u) ( c) ( *) toHk;jyKuGefysLwm
56 K , Internal MODEM / External MODEM Telephone Line & Telephone

(1)pHk (1)pHk (1)pHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

14

USB jzifhcsdwfqufonfh External Modem wyfqifjcif; (Installating a USB External Modem)

3/

External Modem wyfqifjcif;udk yH(2-2)ygtwdi; aqmif&uEiygonf/ yHwif k k f G f kd f k G USB Modem jzpfojzifh USB Line jzifh Mother Board rS Power udk &,lygonf/ oD;jcm; Power Adapter rvdtyfyg/ k
Computer USB Cable

jzifh USB Cable toHk;jyKí csdwfquf&efae&m

(uGefysLwmESifhUSB Modem Mum;wGif qufoG,fonf/)
Modem

(¤if; Cable jzifh Motherboard rS Volt tm;udk &,lonf/ oD;jcm; Power Adapter rvdktyfyg/)

odkYqufoG,f&ef

Telephone Cable

Computer

odkYqufoG,f&ef
Telephone Line Modem Driver CD

Telephone

odkYqufoG,f&efae&m

qufoG,f&efae&m

yHk (2-2) External USB Modem ESifhyg0ifaomypönf;rsm;

15 wdkYjzifh csdwfqufjcif;

Data Communication Network

Computer tm; External USB Modem? Telephone Line ESifh Telephone (Connecting a Computer, External USB Modem, Telephone Line & Telephone)

4/ External USB Modem? Telephone Line ESifhTelephone csdwfqufEdkif&ef yHk(2-3)ygtwkdif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/
ES i f h External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;
System Unit Telephone ES i f h External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

yHk (2-3)
Computer tm; External USB Modem? Telephone Line ESifh Telephone

csdwfqufxm;yHk

Telephone Line ESifh External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

uGefysLwmvufpJG

16

Computer \ System Unit tm; External USB Modem tygt0iftjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifhtjynfhtpHkcsdwfqufjcif; (Connecting a System Unit & Other I/O Devices)

5/ External USB Modem tygt0if tjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifh csdwfquf&ef yHk(2-4)ygtwdkif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/
Telephone Line ESifh External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif; System Unit USB Modem

ES i f h External qufoG,fjcif;

Telephone ES i f h External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

AC Inlet AC Outlet to Monitor Keyboard Connector

Mouse Connector

yHk (2-4) Computer \ System Unit tm; External USB Modem tygt0if tjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifhtjynfhtpHkcsdwfqufxm;yHk

17

Data Communication Network

RS232 Cable jzifhcsdwfqufonfh External Modem wyfqifjcif; (Installating a External Modem , Using RS 232 Cable)

6/ RS232 Cable jzifh csdwfqufonfh External Modem wyfqifxm;rIudk yH(2-5) ygtwdi;f aqmif&uEiygonf/ 4if;wGif oD;jcm; Power Adapter vdtyfygonf/ k k G f kd f k
Computer RS 232 Cable Adapter ( Modem

jzifh RS 232 Cable toHk;jyKí csdwfquf&efae&m (25 pin)
Telephone

tm;oD;jcm; DC Volt tm;ay;&ef)

Telephone Cable

odkYqufoG,f&efae&m

Computer

odkYqufoG,f&ef

Modem

odkYqufoG,f&ef
Telephone Line

Adapter DC Volt

rS

tm;t0if

Modem Driver CD

qufoG,f&efae&m

yHk (2-5) RS232 Cable jzifhcsdwfqufonfh External Modem ESifh yg0ifaomypönf;rsm;

uGefysLwmvufpJG csdwfqufjcif;

18

Computer tm; External Modem ? Telephone Line ESifh Telephone wdkYjzifh (Connecting a Computer, External Modem, Telephone Line & Telephone)

7/ External Modem ? Telephone Line ESifh Telephone csdwfquf&ef yHk(2-6)yg twkdif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/
System Unit ESifh External Modem qufoG,fjcif; Telephone ES i f h External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

yHk(2-6)
External Modem ? Telephone Line

ESifh
Telephone

csdwfqufxm;yHk

Telephone Line ESifh External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

19

Data Communication Network

Computer \ System Unit tm; External Modem tygt0if tjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifh tjynfhtpHkcsdwfqufjcif; (Connecting a System Unit & Other I/O Devices)

8/ External Modem tygt0if tjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifh csdwfqufrIudk yHk(2-7)ygtwdkif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/

Telephone Line ESifh External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif; System Unit USB Modem

ES i f h External qufoG,fjcif;

Telephone ES i f h External USB Modem qufoG,fjcif;

AC Inlet AC Outlet to Monitor Keyboard Connector

Mouse Connector

Adapter rS DC Volt tm;t0if

yHk (2-7) Computer \ System Unit tm; External Modem tygt0if tjcm; I/O Device rsm;jzifh tjynfhtpHkcsdwfqufjcif;

uGefysLwmvufpJG

20

Chapter (3)
Modem Installation (Microsoft Windows 2000 & Windows XP)
( Modem

wyfqifjcif;ESihf toH;k jyKEi&efaqmif½ujf cif; ) kd f G

Modem Installation jyKvkyfjcif;

1/ uGeysLwmESihf Modem udk rSefuefpGmcsdwfqufí Modem udk Power ON yg/ f Ny;D vQif uGeysLwmudk Power ON í Windows XP pwifonfESifh yHk(3-1)uJhodkY Found f
New Hardware Message ay:vmrnf/ (USB Modem jzpfygu Power Adapter

rvdktyfyg/ Modem trsKd;rsKd;tm; Computer pepfwGif wyfqifcsdwfqufjcif;udk tcef;(2)wGif yHk (2-2)rS yHk (2-7)txd yHkrsm;jzifh &Sif;vif;az:jyNyD;jzpfygonf/)

yHk(3-1) Found New Hardware Message jzifh New Hardware udk awGY&SdaMumif;az:jyyHk 2/ Plug & Play Modem jzpfygu Modem trsK;tpm;yg wpfygwnf; az:jyay; d vdrrnf/ yHk(3-2) hf

yHk(3-2) USB Interface Device awGY&SdaMumif;az:jyyHk

21

Data Communication Network

3/ qufvufí Found New Hardware Wizard rS Modem udkxdef;csKyfaqmif &Gufrnfh Driver Software udk tvdktavsmuf Install jyKvyrnf/ Install the software k f automatically (Recommended) udk a&G;cs,fí Next Button udEyyg/ yH(3-3) k dS f k

yHk(3-3) Found New Hardware Wizard 4/ xdtcg Modem Driver Software udk vdkufvH&SmazGrnfjzpfonf/yHk(3-4) k

yHk(3-4) OS rS V.90 USB Modem udk&SmazGawGY&SdyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

22

5/ oufqdkif&m Driver Software rawGU&Sdygu rawGU&dSaMumif; azmfjyay;ygrnf/ yHk(3-5) wyfqifrnfh Modem twGuf Driver Software vdtyfygrnf/ toH;k jyKaeonfh k Windows Operating System ES i f h u d k u f n D a om Driver Software jzpf&ygrnf/ Modem driver software udk rawGU&Sygu yH(3-5)twdi; Message box ay:vmygrnf/ d k k f xdtcg Back Button udkESdyfNyD;? rSefuefaom Driver Software udk Install jyKvkyf&ef k vdktyfrnf jzpfonf/ yHk(3-6)ygtwdkif; Message box ay:vmygrnf/

yHk(3-5) PNP taejzifh USB Modem udk awGY&Sdaomfvnf; OS wGif oufqdkif&m USB Modem udkrawGYojzifhaz:jyyHk rSwfcsu/ Plug and Play Modem Device jzpfNyD;? Windows 2000 ESifh Windows f XP wdkYwGif wyfqifxm;onfh Modem Driver Software tqifoifhyg&SdNyD; jzpfygu Installation tqifhrSmvG,fulNyD;? yHk(3-6)rSpwifí yHk(3-11)txd Operating System rStvdktavsmufaqmif&GufoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ toHk;jyK oltaejzifh Driver CD/Floppy udk xnfoi;f &efrvdtyfyg/ h G k

23

Data Communication Network

yHk(3-6) USB Modem ESifhtwlygvmaom Modem Driver udk Install jyKvkyf&efa&G;cs,fyHk 6/ yHk(3-6)rS Install from a list or specific location [Advanced] udka&G;cs,fí Next Button udk ESyyg/ xdtcg yH(3-7)odYk a&muf&rnfjzpfonf/ d f k k dS

uGefysLwmvufpJG

24

7/ yHk(3-7)tqifhwGif Driver Software ygaom Floppy (odkYr[kwf) CD-ROM udk xnfhí Next Button udkESdyfyg/ yHk(3-8)ygtwdkif; &SmazGrnf (odkYr[kwf) Include this location in the search udkESdyfí Modem Driver Software &Sdonfh Storage device ae&mtm; a&G;cs,fay;Edkifygonf/

yHk(3-7) Modem Driver &Sdonfh CD-ROM rS Path udk&SmazG&efa&G;cs,fyHk

yHk(3-8) USB V.90 Modem udk&SmazGawGY&SdyHk

25

Data Communication Network

8/ yHk(3-8)wGif oufqdkif&m Modem driver rsm;udk &SmazGaejcif;jzpfonf/ &SmazGNyD; aemuf awGU&Sdygu yHk(3-9)ygtwdkif; Message azmfjyaeygrnf/

yHk(3-9) wyfqifxm;onfh Modem Driver udkaz:jyxm;yHk 9/ yHk(3-9)rS Continue Anyway udkESdyfyg/ yHk(3-10)ygtwdkif; Driver rsm;udk ul;,lí Install jyKvkyfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/

yHk(3-10) Modem Driver udk Install jyKvkyfyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 10/

26

Installation NyD;qHk;ygu yHk(3-11)ygtwdkif; Completing the Found New Hardware Wizard ay:vmNyD;? Modem \oufqdkif&m Software Driver udk Install vkyfNyD;aMumif; azmfjyrnfjzpfonf/ Finish udEyygu yH(3-12)ygtwdi;f Modem \ k dS f k k Audio device udkvnf; qufvufí Install vkyom;rnfjzpfonf/ f G

yHk(3-11) Modem Installation NyD;qHk;aMumif;az:jyyHk

yHk(3-12) Modem Audio Device awGY&SdaMumif; Message jzifhaz:jyyHk 11/ vHk;0NyD;qHk;ygu yHk(3-13)ygtwdkif; Modem udk tqifoifhtoHk;jyKEdkifNyD jzpfaMumif; Message Box jzifh azmfjyay;rnf jzpfonf/

yHk(3-13) Modem udk tqifoifhtoHk;jyKedkifaMumif; Message az:jyyHk

27 rSefuefatmifaqmif&Gufjcif;

Data Communication Network

Modem Driver Error azmfjyjcif;tm; Uninstall jyKvkyfjcif;ESifh Software Driver (Repairing & Upgrading the Modem Driver Error) 12/ Modem Installation jyKvkyfaomfvnf; Driver &SmazGawGY&Sdjcif; r&SdvQifaomf vnf;aumif;? Driver rSefuefjcif; r&SdvQifaomfvnf;aumif; Modem udktoHk;jyKí

r& jzpfaewwfygonf/
Modem udktoHk;jyKír&jzpfaevQif My Computer udk Right Click ESdyfí Properties udk a&G;cs,fyg? System Properties Dialog box ay:vmrnf/ 4if;rS Hardware Tab udkESdyfyg? NyD;vQif Device Manager Command Button udkESdyfyg/ yHk(3-14)wGif Modems ae&mü warning trSwftom;azmfjyaeonfudkawGU&rnf/

13/

yHk(3-14) Device Manager wGif Modem Driver rSm;aeonfudk az:jyonfhyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

28

14/ yHk(3-15)twdkif; Modem udk Select vkyfí Right Click ESyyg/ Uninstall udk d f a&G;cs,fyg/

yHk(3-15) Modem Driver udk Uninstall jyKvkyf&efa&G;cs,fyHk 15/ xdktcg yHk(3-16)uJhodkY Warning Box jzifh Uninstall jyKvkyfjcif;udk Confirm jyKvkyfrnfNyD;? xdktcg OK Button udEyyg/ k dS f

yHk(3-16) Modem Driver udk Uninstall jyKvkyfNyD; Message az:jyyHk

29

Data Communication Network

16/ Uninstall jyKvkyfNyD;ygu yHk(3-17)ygtwdkif; Modem device r&Sdawmhonfudk awGU&ygrnf/ Menu Bar &Sd Action rS Scan for Hardware changes jyKvkyfí Install jyKvkyfjcif;tqifh yHk(3-3)ygtwdkif; Found New Hardware Wizard rS jyefvnfpwifNy;D ? yHk(3-13)txd tqifhqifhqufvufvkyfaqmifygu rSefuefaom Driver Software jzifh Modem yHkrSefjyefvnfvkyfaqmifapEdkifrnfjzpfygonf/ yHk(3-18)

yHk(3-17) Modem Driver jzKwfcsNyD; Device Manager wGifawGY&yHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

30

17/ yHk(3-3)ygtwdkif; Found New Hardware Wizard rS jyefvnfpwifí yHk(313) txd Install jyKvkyfjcif;tqifhqifhudk qufvufvkyfaqmifygu yHk(3-18)ygtwdkif; Device Manager wGif rSefuefaom Modem Software Driver udk Install jyKvkyfNyD; aMumif; awGU&Sd&ygrnf/

yHk (3-18) Modem Driver rSefuefpGm vkyfaqmifaerItm; Device Manager wGifaz:jyxm;yHk

31

Data Communication Network

Chapter (4)
Routing & Remote Access (Windows 2000 & Windows XP)

(ta0;wpfae&m&Sd vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrS w,fvDzkef;vdkif;jzifh yifruGefysLwmodkY qufoG,faqmif½Gufjcif;)
Routing & Remote Access Service (yifruGefysLwmwGifvkyfaqmif&ef)

1/ yifruGeysLwmwGif Routing & Remote Access Service tvkyfvkyfaprSom f vQif tjcm;wpfae&mrS uGeysLwmrsm;onf w,fvze;f vdi;f udk toH;k jyKí yifruGeysLwm f D k k f ESifh qufoG,ftvkyfvkyfMurnfjzpfonf/ 4if; Routing & Remote Access Service wif&eftwGuf Start → Control panel → Administrative Tools rS Services d f k Shortcut icon udk Double Click ESyyg/ yH(4-1)

yHk(4-1) Administrative Tools xJrS Services Icon

uGefysLwmvufpJG 2/

32

yHk(4-2)uJhodkY Services Window ay:vmygrnf/ 4if;rS Routing and Remote d Access Services Startup Type ü azmfjyxm;jcif;r&Sojzifh Disable jzpfaernf/ odjYk zpfí 4if;udk Double Click ESyyg/ d f

yHk(4-2) Services Window rS Routing and Remote Access Services wGif Disable jzpfaeaMumif; az:jyxm;yHk

33 3/

Data Communication Network

yHk (4-3) uJhodkY Routing and Remote Access Properties ay:vmygrnf/ Startup type wGif Automatic udka&G;cs,fyg/ NyD;vQif Apply Button udEyyg/ k dS f

yHk(4-3) Routing and Remote Access Service Startup type udk Automatic a&G;cs,fyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 4/

34

yHk(4-4)uJhodkY Start Button ay:vmrnf/ 4if;rSS Start Button ESdyfí Routing and Remote Access Service udk pwiftvkyfvkyfap&ygrnf/

yHk(4-4) Routing and Remote Access Service status udk Start jyKvkyf&efaz:jyyHk

35 5/

Data Communication Network

yHk(4-5) uJhodkY Progress Bar jzifh Starting jyKvkyfygvdrfhrnf/ Routing & Remote Access Service Starting jyKvkyfjcif;NyD;qHk;vQif OK Button udEyyg/ k dS f

yHk(4-5) Routing and Remote Access Service udk Start jyKvkyfaeyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

36

6/

Services Window yHk(4-6)odkYa&muf&Sdygrnf/ Services Window wGif High light wifxm;aomae&m&Sd Routing & Remote Access Service onf Started ESifh Automatic jzpfaejcif; &Sd^r&Sd ppfaq;yg/ r&Sdygu azmfjycJhNyD;aom Process twdkif;

vkyfaqmifyg/

yHk(4-6) Routing and Remote Access Service tqifoifhjzpfaeaMumif;az:jyaeyHk

37

Data Communication Network

7/ Start → My Network places ESdyfyg? ay:vmaom Window \ Left Pane &Sd Network Tasks atmufwGif&dSaom View Network Connections uda&G;cs,yg/ k f yHk(4-7)ygtwdkif; Network Connections Window xJwGif Incoming Connections Icon ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ vufatmufcHuGefysLwm(Client )rS qufoG,frI r&Sdojzifh No Clients Connected [k azmfjyaernfjzpfonf/

yHk(4-7) Routing and Remote Access Service wifvdkufjcif;aMumifh My Network Places wGif Incoming Connections Icon a&muf&SdvmyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 8/

38

yHk(4-7)yg Incoming Connections icon udk Right Click ESdyfyg/ NyD;vQif Properties udk a&G;cs,fyg/ yHk(4-8)ygtwdkif; Incoming Connections Properties Dialog box ay:vmygrnf/ yHk(4-8)rS General Tab wGif Devices box ü qufoG,f vkyfaqmifrnfh Modem check box ü Check vkyyg/ f

yHk(4-8) Incoming Connections \ Properties Dialog Box wGif qufoG,frnfh Modem udk Check jyKvkyfaeyHk

39

Data Communication Network

9/ Users Tab udk ESdyfí yHk(4-9)twdkif; vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrS qufoG,f 0ifa&mufrnfhol\ae&mwGif Check box ü Check vkyyg/ tu,fí topfxnfoi;f f h G vdkygu New Button udkESdyfí topfxnfhoGif;yg/ 0ifa&mufcGifh&yfqJapvdkygu oufqdkif&mtrnfudka&G;cs,fí Delete Button udEyyg (odr[kw) Uncheck jyKvyyg/ k dS f Yk f k f yHk(4-9)wGif Administrator, DSCD ESifh Mg Mg wdkYonf vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrS yifruGefysLwmodkY qufoG,f0ifa&mufcGifh&&Sdrnfholrsm;jzpfNyD; usefvlrsm; 0ifa&mufcGifh r&&Sdyg/

yHk(4-9) Remote rS 0ifci&orsm;tm; yifruGeysLwmwGif G hf dS l f Check jyKvkyfí owfrSwfyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

40

Sharing & Processing (yifruGefysLwmwGif vkyfaqmif&ef)

10/ yifruGefysLwmwGif yHk(4-10)uJhodkY Folder wpfckwnfaqmufNyD;? 4if; Forder udk Right Click ESyí Sharing Security udk a&G;cs,fNyD;aemuf vufatmufcHuGefysLwm d f rS rQa0oHk;Edkifatmif Sharing jyKvkyfay;&ygrnf/

yHk (4-10) Folder wnfaqmufNyD; Share jyKvkyfyHk

41 11/

Data Communication Network

xdtcg yH(4-11)odYk a&muf&om;ygrnf/ yH(4-11)twdi;f Share This Forder k k dS G k k on the Network Check Box udk Check vkyf&rnf/ wpfzuftoHk;jyKoltm; File rsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJcGifhjyKygu Allow network users to change my files udk Check jyKvkyf&rnf/ udkESdyfygu rlv Forder wGif Sharing vkyfxm;onfh oauFwtjzpf vufyHkuav;yg ay:vmrnf/ yHk(4-12)

yHk (4-11) Share Folder udk Share Name owfrSwfyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

42

yHk (4-12) Com [laom Folder tm; tjcm;uGeysLwmrsm;twGuf f Share jyKvkyfxm;yHk

43 12/

Data Communication Network

yifrvufcHuGefysLwm\ trnfudk od&Sdvdkygu yHk(4-13)twdkif; My Computer Icon udk Right Click ESyí ay:vmaom Context menu rS Properties udk a&G;cs,yg/ d f f (odkYr[kwf) Start → My Computer udk Right Click ESdyfí Properties uda&G;cs,yg/ k f

yHk (4-13) My Computer ay:wGif Right Click ESdyfí Properties udka&G;cs,fyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 13/

44

xdtcg System Properties Dialog box ay:vmrnf/ 4if;rS yHk(4-14)twdkif; k Computer Name Tab udkESdyfyg/ yHk(4-14)&Sd Computer Name Tab wGif Full computer name \ab;wGif&Sdaom trnfonf yifruGefysLwm\ trnfjzpfonf/ yHk(4-14)t& yifruGefysLwm\trnfrSm Dell [laomtrnfjzpfygonf/ tu,fí ac:&cufaomtrnfrsm;? &Snfvsm;aomtrnfrsm; jzpfaeygu Change Button udEyí k dS f vG,fulaomtrnfudk jyef½dkufxnfhNyD;? uGefysLwmudk Restart jyKvy&ef vdtyfygonf/ k f k

yHk (4-14) Computer Properties \ Computer Name Tab wGif uGeysLwm Name udkppfaq;yHk f (yHt& uGeysLwm Name rSm dell jzpfonf) k f

45

Data Communication Network

14/ Sharing jyKvkyfjcif;rSefuefrI &Sd^r&Sdppfaq;&ef yHk(4-15)uJhodkY Start → Run udk a&G;cs,fNyD;aemuf? \\dell [k½dkufxnfhí OK udkESdyfvdkufygu yHk(4-16)uJhodkY yifruGefysLwm Dell twGif;&Sd Share vkyfxm;aom Folder rsm;udk azmfjyaernf jzpfygonf/ (þodkYvkyfaqmifEdkif&ef ESpfzufpvHk;&Sd uGefysLwmrsm;\ Protocol wGif NetBEUI jzifhyg vkyfaqmifxm;&efvdkonf/)

yHk (4-15) csdwfqufrI&&SdNyD; wpfzuf&SduGefysLwmodkY qufoG,f&efac:qdkyHk

yHk (4-16) wpfzuf&Sd Shared Folder rsm;tm; awGY&Sd&yHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

46

15/ vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrsm;rS rdrd Folder ESifhrdrd tqifajypGm qufoG,f vkyfaqmifEdkif&ef aemufxyf Sub Folder rsm;udk xyfrHwnfaqmufEdkifygonf/ 16/ yHk(4-16)wGif azmfjyxm;aom Com Folder tm; ESyvuygu Com Window d f kd f ay:vmygrnf/ 4if; Window ay:wGif yHk(4-17)ygtwdkif; Folder rsm; xyf r H wnfaqmufjcif;jzifh oufqdkif&m½Hk;Xmersm;twGuf oD;jcm;pD owfrSwfay;xm;Edkifyg onf/ (Oyrm- ½Hk;Xme trSwf(1) twGuf cmd 1 ? ½Hk;Xme trSwf(2) twGuf cmd 2? ½Hk;Xme trSwf(3) twGuf com 3? ½Hk;Xme trSwf(4) twGuf com 4) qufvufí txufyg Folder rsm;twGif;wGif Inbox ESifh Outbox [laom Sub Folder rsm; wnfaqmufí t0iftxGufrsm;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwftoHk;jyKEdkifygonf/

yHk (4-17) Com Folder atmufwGif ½Hk;Xmetvdkuf Folder rsm; aqmufxm;yHk

47

Data Communication Network

Telephone Line toHk;jyKícsdwfqufjcif; (vufatmufcHuGefysLwmwGifvkyfaqmif&ef) (Connecting Telephone Line)

w,f v D z k e f ; vd k i f ; jzif h quf o G , f t oH k ; jyK&ef Start→All Programs → Accessories → Communications → New Connection Wizard wdukd wpfqihjf cif; Yk Click vkyyg/ yH(4-18) f k 17/

yHk(4-18) New Connection Wizard odkYoGm;a&mufyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 18/

48

New Connection Wizard Window ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ yHk(4-19)

yHk(4-19) Dial-up Telephone Line toHk;jyKqufoG,f&ef Network Connection Type wGifa&G;cs,fyHk 19/ ,cktoHk;jyKrnfh w,fvDzkefvdkif; (Dial-up Telephone vdkif;)udk toHk;jyK qufoG,frnf jzpfojzifh Connect to the network at my workplace udka&G;cs,fí Next Button udk Click vkyyg/ f

49 20/

Data Communication Network

New Connection Wizard Window ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ yHk(4-20)

yHk(4-20) Network Connection tjzpf Dial-up Connection udk a&G;cs,fyHk 21/ qufoG,frnfh uGef,ufpepfonf Dial-up w,fvDzkef;vdkif; toHk;jyKqufoG,f rnfjzpfojzifh "Dial-up Connection" udka&G;cs,fyg/ ¤if;aemuf Next Button udk Click vkyyg/ Company Name Box ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ yHk(4-21) f

uGefysLwmvufpJG

50

yHk(4-21) tjcm;wpfzuf&Sd½Hk;tm; trnfay;tyfyHk 22/ yH(4-21)twdi;f qufo,rI uGe,ufpepf\trnfukd od&&ef vduavsmnDaxG k k G f f dS k f jzpfrnfh trnfudk owfrSwfay;yg/ (Oyrm- rdrd½Hk;rS uGefysLwmjzifh qufoG,f&mwGif My Office [k trnfay;yg/) ¤if;aemuf Next udkESdyfyg/ Phone Number Box ay:vmrnf/ yHk(4-22)

51

Data Communication Network

23/ yHk(4-22) wGif ac:qdkvdkaom zkef;eHygwfudk ½dkufxnfhyg/ (rdrdqufoG,fvdkonfh uGefysLwmESifhwyfqifxm;aomzkef;eHygwf) Oyrm - rdrdqufoG,fvdkonfhXme&Sd "25707" jzpfygu "003125707" udkxnfhoGif;yg/ ¤if;aemuf Next udEyyg/ k dS f

yHk(4-22) tjcm;wpfzuf&Sd w,fvDzkef;eHygwfudk Entry jyKvkyfxm;yHk tcsif;csif;qufoG,frItwGuf ukefusp&dwf oufom&ef vdktyfygonf/ Network {&d,mwljzpfygu "5707" udk oHk;vQif ukefusp&dwf oufomEdkifygonf/ tjcm; Network jzpfvQif {&d,m Code yg xnfoi;f &ygrnf/ ¤if;aemuf Next Button h G udk Click vkyyg/ f 24/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

52

25/ Completing the New Connection Wizard Window xyfrHay:vmrnf jzpfygonf/ yH(4-23) k

yHk(4-23) NyD;qHk;aMumif;az:jyjcif;ESifh Desktop wGif Shortcut az:jy&ef Check jyKvkyfjcif;
Desktop ay:wGif Shortcut jyKvkyfxm;&dSvdkvQif yHk(4-23) wGifygaom Add a f shortcut to this connection to my desktop udk Check vkyyg/ Setting jyKvkyfrI Ny;D qH;k ygu Finish Button udk ESyyg/ d f

26/

53

Data Communication Network

27/ Desktop ay:wGif yHk(4-24) ygtwdkif; My Office Shortcut icon ay:vmrnf jzpfygonf/

yHk(4-24) Desktop wGif My Office Shortcut icon az:jyaeyHk 28/ yHk(4-24)wGif Desktop ay:&Sd My Office Shortcut icon udk Double Click ESdyfí Connection pwifyg/ xdtcg yH(4-25) uJoYkd Connect jyKvkyfonfh Box ay:vm k k h ygrnf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

54

yHk(4-25) w,fvDzkef;vdkif;jzifh rqufoG,frDaz:jyay;yHk yHk (4-25)wGif User Name ESifh Password wdkYudk ½dkufxnfhyg/ aemifwGif Password ½dkufxnfhp&mrvdkatmif Save this user name and password for the following users udk Check vkyfxm;yg/ Dial wGif xnfhoGif;xm;onfheHygwfudk ppfaq;yg/ Properties Button udk ESyítjcm; Setting rsm;udvnf; ppfaq;&ef vdtyfyg d f k k onf/ Properties udEyygu yH(4-26)ygtwdi;f Properties Window ay:vmrnf k dS f k k jzpfonf/ 29/

55

Data Communication Network

30/ yH(4-26)rS General Tab udkESdyfí Connect using box wGif Modem udk Check k vkyyg/ rdrwyfqifxm;onfh Modem trsKd;tpm;jzpf&rnf/ f d

yHk(4-26) Properties rS General Tab wGif Modem trnf rSefuefpGmawGY&yHk
Configure Button udkESdyfí Speed (bps) udk Adjust vkyyg/ yHretm;jzifh f k S f 57600 (56 Kbps) owfrSwfay;xm;vQif oifhawmfygonf/ (¤if; Tab &Sd usef Setting rsm;udk Default twdi;f owfrwxm;yg/ k S f

31/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

56

32/ yHk(4-26)rS Networking Tab udkESdyfí yHk(4-27)uJhodkY Setting rsm; &Sd^r&Sd ppfaq;yg/ File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks ud k Check jyKvyxm;&ef vdtyfonf/ odrom Files rsm; tjyeftvSef Share jyKvkyfEdkifrnf jzpf k f k Yk S onf/ yHk (4-27)wGif OK udk ESdyfygu yHk(4-28) odkY jyefa&mufoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ User f S Name onfvnf;aumif;? Password onfvnf;aumif; yifruGeysLwmrS cGijhf yKowfrwf NyD;jzpfonfhtrnfESifh Password jzpf&ygrnf/ xdktcg Dial-up Button udkEdSyfygu yHk(4-29)uJhodkY rdrdqufoG,faeaom Phone eHygwfoYkd Dialing jyKvkyfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ 33/

yHk(4-27) Point to Point Protocol (PPP) jzifhqufoG,f&efESifh File and Printer Sharing jyKvkyf&ef Check jyKvkyfxm;yHk

57

Data Communication Network

yHk(4-28) Dialing jyKvkyf&eftwGuf Dial Button udkESdyf&efaz:jyxm;yHk

yHk(4-29) Dialing jyKvkyfaeyHk 34/ cswqufrom;ygu Task bar wGif uGefysLwm (2)vHk;csdwfqufxm;onfh Icon d f d G ay:vmNyD;? csdwfqufNyD;aMumif; Message azmfjyay;rnfjzpfygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

58

35/ xdktcg vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrS yHk(4-30)uJhodkY jyKvkyfygu Share Folder ay:vmrnf jzpfonf/ yHk(4-31)

yHk (4-30) uGefysLwmESpfvHk;csdwfqufrI&&SdaepOf tjcm;uGefysLwmtm; ac:,l&ef Entry jyKvkyfyHk

yHk (4-31) tjcm;uGeysLwmrS Shared Folder rsm;az:jyxm;yHk f

59 36/

Data Communication Network

yHk(4-32)wGif Windows rsm;udkzGifhí Task bar wGif Right Click ESdyfNyD;Tile windows Vertically jyKvkyfí pDxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ nmbuf Window onf yifr uGefysLwmpufjzpfNyD;? b,fbuf Window onf vufatmufcHuGefysLwmpuf jzpfonf/ Window rsm;rS tvdk&dSonfh File rsm;udk Transfer jyKvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/

vufatmufcHuGefysLwmpufrSzdkifrsm;

yifruGefysLwmpufrSzdkifrsm;

yHk (4-32) qufoG,fxm;aom uGefysLwmESpfvHk;&Sd Shared Folder rsm;udk ,SOfvQufaz:jyxm;yHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG 37/

60

yHk(4-33)wGif nmbufrS ay;ydkYvdkaom File rsm;udk Select vkyfí b,fbufodkY Drag & Drop jyKvk y f u m yif r uG e f y sLwmrS vuf a tmuf c H u G e f y sLwmod k Y Copy ay;ydkYEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ yHk(4-33)

rS Destinnation odkY Mouse jzifh Drag & Drop jyKvyí ul;,l&ef (od) k f Yk Transfer jyKvkyf&ef
Source

¤if;zdirsm;udk Zip vkyí ay;ydYk k f f ygu ydrjkd refqefNy;D tcseuef k d f k oufomapygonf/

vufatmufcHuGefysLwmrSzdkifrsm;

yifruGefysLwmrSzdkifrsm;

yHk (4-33) Drag & Drop enf;jzifh File rsm; Transfer jyKvkyfaeyHk rSwcsu/ vufawGYprf;oyfcsuft& zdkif(6)zdkiftm; Zip vkyfxm;aom 1.41 MB &Sdonfh f f zdkifwpfzdkifudk 33.6 Kbps tjrefEe;f jzifh 56 Kbps w,fvDzkef;vdkif;ay:rSay;ydkY&m I (6)rdepfcefYMum&SdaMumif; awGY&Sd&ygonf/ Zip rvkyfbJ wpfzdkifjcif;ydkYygu zdkifyrmPay:rlwnfí Mumjrifhcsdefonf Zip vkyfNyD;ay;ydkYjcif;xuf tcsdef ESpfqrS oHk;qtxd ydkrdkMuefYMumEdkifygonf/ odkYjzpfí Zip vkyfNyD;ay;ydkYrSom tcsdefukef? aiGukefoufomaprnf jzpfygonf/

61

Data Communication Network

38/ yifruGeysLwmodYk Message ay;ydkYvdkygu Start Run Command ½dkuf f xnfhí OK ESdyfjcif;jzifh yHk(4-34)uJhodkY Command Window ay:vmrnf/ xdktcg yifrpufodkY ay;ydkYvdkaom Message udk ½dkufxnfhay;ydkYEdkifygonf/ Oyrm- yHk(4-34)wGif yifruGefysLwmESifh csdwfqufNyD; Ready taetxm;wGif File ydkYvdkaMumif; Message ydvygu Yk kd
C:\>Net Send dell “ I want to transfer file ”

yifruGefysLwmtrnf

ydkYvdkonfh Message

[k ½dkufxnfhay;ydkYEdkifygonf/

yHk (4-34) tjcm;uGeysLwmodYk Message ay;ydkYaeyHk f

uGefysLwmvufpJG

62

39/ xdtcg yifruGeysLwm\ display wGif azmfjyyg yHk(4-35)ygtwdkif; Message k f ay:vmrnf jzpfygonf/

yHk (4-35) Message ydkYvdkufojzifh tjcm;uGefysLwmwGif az:jyaeyHk 40/ þodjYk zifh yifruGeysLwmESihf vufatmufcueysLwmrsm;tMum; w,fvze;f vdi;f f H G f D k k toHk;jyKí Remote Access jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh owif;tcsuftvufzdkifrsm; tjyeftvSef ay;ydkY&,ljcif;? Message ay;ydkYjcif;wdkYudk Third Party Software rvdkbJ Microsoft Windows 2000 ESifh Windows XP wdkYwGif yg&Sdaom Service rsm;udktoHk;jyKí vG,fulpGmvkyfaqmifEdkifygonf/ 41/ jrefqefpGmaqmif&GufEdkifa&;twGuf zdkifrsm;udk Compression Utility wpfrsK;d rsK;d (Oyrm- WinZip, WinRAR) toHk;jyKí Zip jyKvkyfay;ydkYEdkifygonf/ Zip vkyfpOfwGif vHNk cKH rtwGif Password xnfoi;f Ediygonf/ vufconfueysLwmrS ¤if; Zip zdirsm;udk I h G k f H h G f k f rl v twd k i f ; jzpf a tmif j yef v nf j yKvk y f j cif ; ( Decompression odkYr[kwf UnZip) jyKvkyf&ygrnf/

63

Data Communication Network

42/ vHkNcHKrI&Sdapa&;twGuf Encryption Utility wpfrsK;d rsK;d (Oyrm- PGP ) toHk;jyKí rydkYrD Encrypt (odkYr[kwf) Compress jyKvy&ef vdtyfygonf/ vufcueysLwmwGif k f k H G f Decompress (odkYr[kwf) DeEncrypt jyefvnfjyKvy&ef vdtyfygonf/ k f k 43/ tjcm;aom Communication Utility Software (Win Fax Pro, ...etc) rsm; toH;k jyKívnf; vG,upmjzifh owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk tjyeftvSeay;ydEiygonf/ f l G f f Yk kd f odaomf toH;k jyKvonfh Software twGuf Installation Package oD;jcm;vdtyfygon?f Yk kd k yifruGefysLwmESifhvufatmufcHuGefysLwmrsm;wGif Install jyKvkyfxm;&ygrnf/ ¤if; Application ESifh rdrdtoHk;jyKonfh Operating System vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpf&efvnf; vdktyfygonf/ 44/ txufyg pepfrsm;onf Point to Point csdwfqufjcif;jzpfojzifh uGefysLwm ta&twGuf tenf;i,ftwGufom toHk;jyKoifhygonf/ uGefysLwmta&twGuf rsm;jym;vmygu vHkNcHKrIydkif;qdkif&m? pDrHcefYcGJrIydkif;qdkif&mjyoemrsm; BuHKawGYvmrnfjzpf ojzifh Server Based Network pepfwnfaqmufí owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk tjyef tvSefay;ydkYzvS,fjcif; jyKvkyfoifhygonf/

MODEM
DE M

Tele-Communication Network

M

O

vufatmufcH uGefysLwmrsm;

yifr Server

yHk(4-37) Sever Based Network toHk;jyKí Telephone Line jzifh tjyeftvSefqufoG,faqmif&GufyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

64

Chapter (5)
Network/ Internet

(uGe,ufpepfEitifwmeufqi&mrsm;) f S hf kd f
Physical Media

1/ wpfae&mrS wpfae&modYk (odr[kw) uGeysLwmwpfv;kH rSwpfv;kH odYk qufo,&mwGif Yk f f G f BudK;rJhqufoG,fjcif; ESifh BudK;jzifhqufoG,fjcif;[lí tajccHtm;jzifh ESpfrsKd;&Sd&m BudK;jzifh qufoG,fonfh uGef,ufpepfwGif atmufaz:jyyg Cable trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk toHk;jyK Muygonf(u) Coaxial Cable (Thick Coaxial, Thin Coaxial) ( c ) Twisted-Pair Cable (UTP, STP) ( * ) Fiber-Optic (Single Mode, Multi Mode)
Coaxial Cable 2/ Coaxial Cable onf aMu;BuKd ;jzifjh yKvyxm;aom Cable trsK;tpm;jzpfygonf/ k f d ¤if;wGif Inner Conductor ESihf Outer Conductor [lí&Sygonf/ Cable wnfaqmufyukd d kH

yHk(5-1)twdkif; awGY&SdEdkifygonf/

Wire Outer Jacket Braided Metal Shield Plastic Filler

yHk(5-1) Coaxial Cable wnfaqmufxm;yHk

65 3/

Data Communication Network

Coaxial Cable udk Thick Ethernet Coaxial Cable ESifh Thin Ethernet Coaxial Cable [líawG&&ygonf/ Thick Ethernet Coaxial Cable rSm 500 m tuGmta0;txd Y dS ay;ydkYEdkifygonf/ tjrefEIef; 10 Mbps &Sonf/ yH(5-2) d k

500 m Thick Backbone 10 Base 5 yHk(5-2) Thick Ethernet Coaxial Cable

4/ Thin Ethernet Coaxial Cable rSm185 m tuGmta0;txd ay;ydkYEdkifygonf/ tjrefEIef; 10 Mbps &Sonf/ yH(5-3) d k

185 m Thin Backbone 10 Base 2

yHk(5-3) Thin Ethernet Coaxial Cable
Twisted-Pair Cable 5/ Twisted-Pair Cable onf trsm;qH;toH;jyKaom Cable trsK;tpm;jzpfygonf/ k k d wpfcgwpf&H Twisted-Pair Cable wGif Wire BuKd ;i,fEppxuf ydryg&dEiygonf/ 4if;wGif S f kH k kd S kd f Wire BudK;i,fuav;rsm;udk wpfckESifhwpfck vdrfíjyKvkyfxm;ygonf/ þodkYjyKvkyfjcif;rSm vnf; Wire BuKd;ESpfckMum;wGif jzpfay:wwfaom Mutual Capacitance udkajczsuf&ef jzpfygonf/ Wire BudK;wpfacsmif;udk Plastic Insulation jzifh xnfhxm;NyD;? 4if;WireBudK; tpkta0;udk tjyifrS Outter Jacket jzifh tkyum yH(5-4)twdi;f zJUG pnf; wnfaqmufxm; f k k

ygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

66

Jacket Four Pairs (Eight Wires)

yHk(5-4) Twisted-Pair Cable wnfaqmufxm;yHk 6/ Twisted-Pair Cable udk CAT-1, CAT-2,CAT-3,CAT-4,CAT-5 [lí tajccH tm;jzifh cJGjcm;xm;ygonf/ Z,m;(5-1) ,ckaemufydkif;wGif CAT-6, CAT-7 [lí xyfrxuay:vmygonf/ H G f
UTP Category Category 1 Typical Use Telephone Wire T1, ISDN LANs LANs LANs LANs LANs LANs Signaling Technique Maximum Data Rate Analog and Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital <100 Kbps Maximum Range 3-4 miles

Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 5e Category 6 Category 7

<2 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 200 Mbps 600 Mbps (?)

3-4 miles 100 m(328 feet) 100 m 100 m 100 m 100 m 100 m (?)

Z,m; (5-1)
Fiber-Optic

The Characteristis of Twisted-Pair Cable

7/ vQyfppfoHvdkufvdIif; aESmuf,SufrI Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) ? a&'D,vi;f aESmuf,urrsm; Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) wdaMumifh Copper kd Id S f I Yk f G f T hf Wire twGi;pD;qif;aeaom Signal rsm;onfvnf;aumif;? avxJwif xkwviaeaom RF Signal rsm;onfvnf;aumif;? yHko@mefysuf,Gif;rI (distortion) rsm;ESifh Error rsm;

67

Data Communication Network

jzpfay:apygonf/ ¤if;rvdkvm;tyfaom EMI, RFI wdkYudkumuG,f&ef tvif;yHko@mef jzifh ydvwjf cif;onf tvGeaumif;rGeaom enf;vrf;wpfck jzpfygonf/ tvif;yHo@mefjzifh Yk T f f k ydkYvTwf&mwGif Fiber Optic Cable jzifh ydkYvTwfEdkifygonf/ Fiber Optic Cable \ wnfaqmufxm;yHkrSm yHk(5-5)twdkif ;jzpfygonf/
First Conductor Fiber

Fiber Second Conductor

yHk(5-5) Fiber Optic wnfaqmufxm;yHk 8/ Fiber Optic Cable udjk zwfí tvif;a&mifyvw&ef atmufygtajccH enf;vrf; Ykd T f ESpfrsKd;&Sdygonf(u) Single-Mode Transmission ( c ) Multi-Mode Transmission 9/ Single-Mode Transmission wGif tvGefao;i,faom Fiber Optic Cable ESifh Laser uJoaom pkqtm;aumif;aumif;jzifh ydvwEionfh Light Source vdtyfyg h Ykd Hk Yk T f kd f k onf/ ukeusp&dwrsm;aomenf;vrf;vnf;jzpfygonf/ tvGea0;uGmaom tuGmta0; f f f txd ydvwEiygonf/ rdif 100 ESitxuf (+100 Mile) xd ydvwEiygonf/ Single Yk T f kd f k hf Yk T f kd f Mode Fiber Cable \ diameter rSm 8.3 Micron &SdNyD; Cladding rSm 125 Micron &Sygonf/ odjYk zpfí 8.3/125 Cable [k ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ d
Multi-Mode Transmission wGif Single Mode xuf tenf;i,fydkBuD;aom Fiber Cable udk toH;jyKygonf/ Light Source tjzpf pkqkHrIr&Sdaom LED Source udk k toH;k jyKygonf/ odjYk zpfí Single-Mode Transmission uJoYkd jrefjrefqefqef rydvwEibJ h Yk T f kd f ukeusp&dwvnf; ydroufomygonf/ < 2 Km txd ydvwEiygonf/ Multi-Mode f f k kd Yk T f kd f Fiber Cable \ diameter rSm 62.5 Micron &SdNyD; Cladding rSm 125 Micron &Sdojzifh 62.5/125 Cable [kac:qdkEdkifygonf/

10/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

68

Network Topology (uGef,ufpepfqdkif&m BudK;csdwfqufyHkenf;vrf;rsm;) 11/ uGe,ufpepfwpfctwGi;f uGeysLwmrsm;ESihf tjcm; Network qdi&mypön;f rsm;\ f k f k f

BudK;csdwfqufoG,fyHkudk atmufygtwdkif;tajccHenf;vrf; (4) rsKd;jzifh awGY&SdEdkifygonf(u) Bus Topology ( c ) Ring Topology ( *) Star Topology (C) Mesh Topology ( i ) Tree (or) Hierarchical Topology
Bus Topology 12/ Bus Topology wGif uGefysLwmtm;vHk;udk Cable wpfckwnf;jzifh csdwfquf

xm;ygonf/ yHk(5-6) ¤if;enf;vrf;onf uGef,ufpepfwpfck wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf tvG,fulqHk; enf;vrf;jzpfonf/ LAN wGif Bus Topology csdwfquf&mü Coaxial k Cable udk Main Backbone tjzpf toH;jyKygonf/

Terminator

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

T-connector

Main Backbone

Workstation yHk(5-6) Bus Topology 13/ uGef,ufpepfwpfckwGif Bus Topology toH;k jyKí qufo,ygu uGeysLwm G f f tm;vHk;onf Wire BudK;ay:wGif ay;ydkYvQuf&Sdaom Data rsm;udk awGY&SdEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ odaomf oufqi&muGeysLwm ( estination) rSwyg; tjcm;uGeysLwmrsm;taejzifh vufcH Yk kd f f D f &,ljcif; rjyKvyyg/ rnfonfueysLwmtwGuay;ydonfukd Data twGif;&Sd Destination k f h G f f Yk H h f h dS kd f d Address (vufcrnfpuf\vdypm)udk Munf½jI cif;tm;jzifh od&Eiygonf/ rdrpuftwGuf jzpfygu Copy ul;í rdrdpuftwGuf r[kwfygu &,ljcif; rjyKvkyfyg/ tqdkyg Bus kH G f Topology wGif Wire BuKd ;\ wpfae&mü jywfawmufrI wpfpwpf&m jzpfym;ygu uGe,uf pepfwpfckvHk; csdwfqufvkyfaqmifEdkifjcif; r&Sdawmhyg/

Workstation

69

Data Communication Network

Star Topology 14/ Star Topology onf Bus Topology ESihf BuKd ;cswqufykH uGmjcm;ygonf/ Star d f Topology wGif uGeysLwmwpfv;csi;pDonf Hub/Switch odYk oD;jcm;BuKd ;rsm;jzifh qufo,f f kH f G cswquf&ygrnf/ odjYk zpfí Bus Topology xuf Cable BuKd ;ydrvtyfrnfjzpfygonf/ d f k kd kd Cable wpfacsmif;wGif jywfawmufrjI zpfygu oufqi&muGeysLwmomvQif uGe,ufpepf kd f f f

ESifhqufoG,frIjywfawmufoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/ uGef,ufpepfwpfckvHk;tm; tusdK; oufa&mufrI rjzpfEiyg/ odjYk zpfí Star Topology onf Bus Topology xuf trSm;cHEirI kd f kd f ydkrdkaumif;rGefaMumif; awGY&SdEdkifygonf/ LAN wGif Star Topology jzifh csdwfquf&mü Twisted Pair Cable (4 Pair) udk toH;jyKygonf/ Star Topology oH;ícswqufxm;yHukd k k d f k yHk(5-7) wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/

Workstation

Hub
Workstation Workstation

Hub

Workstation

Workstation

yHk(5-7) Star Topology jzifh BuKd ;cswqufo,wef;xm;yHk d f G f
Star Topology onf atmufaz:jyygtusK;aus;Zl;rsm;aMumifh toH;rsm;vmaom d k Topology wpfckjzpfygonf-

15/

(u) (c) (*)

vsifjrefpGm csdwfqufwyfqifwnfaqmufEdkifjcif;? Cable wpfacsmif;jywfawmufrI (odkYr[kwf) csKdU,Gif;rIjzpfygu Network BuD;wpfckvHk;tm; rxdcdkufEdkifjcif;? csKdU,Gif;rIrsm;&SmazGjyifqif&mvG,fuljcif;?

uGefysLwmvufpJG 16/

70

Star Topology wGif atmufaz:jyyg tm;enf;csufrsm;&Sdygonf(u) Star Topology uGef,ufpepfwnfaqmuf&mwGif Cable vdktyfcsuf

(c)

ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmrnfjzpfojzifh ukefusp&dwfjrifhrm;Edkifjcif;? Star Topology wGif t"duusaom tpdwtydi;jzpfonfh Hub/Switch f k f ysufpD;ygu uGef,ufpepfwpfckvHk; csKdU,Gif;oGm;rnfjzpfygonf/

Ring Topology 17/ Ring Topology wGif uGefysLwmwpfvHk;onf tjcm;uyfvQuf&SdaomuGefysLwm (2)vH;k ESihf wdu½ucswqufxm;ygonf/ Cable ae&mcsxm;yHonf puf0i;f yHjk zpfygonf/ k f kd f d f k kd &Sif;vif;vG,fulaom yHko@mefwpfck jzpfygonf/ raumif;onfhtcsufrSm Ring \ wpfae&mwGif Cable jywfawmufrI (odkYr[kwf) csKdU,Gif;rIjzpfygu Bus Topology uJhodkY

uGef,ufpepfwpfckvHk; tjyeftvSefqufoG,frI r&Edkifawmhyg/ þtm;enf;csufudk jyifqifí ydraumif;rGeatmif wnfaqmufxm;aomIBM Double Ring enf;ynmonf k kd f trSm;cHEirI ydraumif;rGeaom emrnfBu;D onfh Topology wpfcjk zpfygonf/ 4if; Double kd f k kd f f dS G Ring wGif Inner Ring ESifh Outer Ring [lí Ring ESpxyf&&m Ring wpfcjk ywfawmufom; ygu usef&Sdaeaom Ring rS qufvufvkyfaqmifoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/yHk(5-8)?yHk(5-9)

Workstation

Workstation

Single Ring

Workstation Workstation

Workstation Workstation Workstation

Double Ring

Workstation

yHk(5-8)
Ring Topology jzifh

yHk(5-9)
Workstation Workstation

BudK;csdwfqufoG,fwef;xm;yHk

71

Data Communication Network

18/ Token Ring Topology wGif vufawGYwGif Ring yHo@mef rawG&Eiyg/ Star k Y dS kd f yHo@mefcswqufxm;ygonf/ tvkyvyyrm Ring yHo@mef jzpfygonf/ yH(5-10) k d f f k f kH S k k

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

yHk(5-10)Workstation Ring Topology jzifh BudK;csdwfqufoG,fwef;xm;yHk
Mesh Topology

Workstation

19/ yHk(5-11)wGif csdwfqufxm;ouJhodkY Mesh Topology wGif Station wpfckonf tjcm;aom Station tm;vH;k odYk wdu½ucswqufxm;ygonf/ ,aeY Internet ESihf tjcm; k f kd f d f WAN rsm;onf Mesh Topology ESifhtjcm; Topology rsm;aygif;pyfum Hybrid Mesh tjzpftoHk;jyKMuygonf/ þodkYtoHk;jyKjcif;aMumifh Station wpfckESifhwpfckMum;wGif jywfawmufrI (odr[kw) csKUd ,Gi;f rI jzpfay:vmygu tjcm;use&aeaomvrf;aMumif;rsm;rS Yk f f dS vSnywfqufo,jf cif;tm;jzifh ¤if; Station ESpcrm uGe,ufpepfqufo,rI qufvuf hf G f k S f G f aqmif&uEiygonf/ G f kd f 20/ yHk(5-11)wGif Link No:1 jywfawmufoGm;ygu Link No:2,3,4 rsm;rS oifhawmf ovdk a&G;cs,fí qufvuftvkyfvkyfrnfjzpfygonf/ 21/ Mesh Topology wGif qufoG,fcsdwfqufrIrsm; ½IwfaxG;Edkifygonf/ Station wpfconf tjcm; Station tm;vH;k odYk tquftoG,&&ygrnf/ qufo,&ef Link rsm;pGm k f dS G f vdtyfrnfjzpfygonf/ Link ta&twGuf wGufcsuf&ef yHkaoenf;rSm n Station twGuf k n x (n-1)/2 jzpfygojzifh uGeysLwm (5)vH;cswqufyguf k d f

uGefysLwmvufpJG

72

n x (n-1)/2 k 5 x (5-1)/2 = 10 Link vdtyfrnfjzpfygonf/

Workstation

1 2
Workstation Workstation

3 4

Workstation

Workstation

yHk(5-11) Mesh Topology jzifh BudK;csdwfqufoG,fwef;xm;yHk 22/ tu,fí uGe,ufpepfwif uGeysLwm (10)vH;k xdcswygu txufygyHaoenf; f G f d f k t& (45) Connection (odkYr[kwf) Link vdtyfrnfjzpfygonf/ xdtcg BuKd ;cswquf k k d f oG,wef;rI tvGe½yaxG;vmrnf jzpfygonf/ odaomf Cable wpfccsKUd ,Gi;f rIjzpfay:aomf f f I f Yk k vnf; uGe,ufpepf qufvufvyaqmifEirnfjzpfonftjyif oufqi&mConnection f k f kd f h kd f rSmvnf; qufvufcswqufEiaMumif; awG&&ojzifh trSm;cHEirI ydraumif;rGeygonf/ d f kd f Y dS kd f k kd f ,cktcgwGif Mesh Topology \trSm;cHEiraumif;rGejf cif;aMumifh Wide Area kd f I Network (WAN)wGif us,fjyefYpGmtoHk;jyKMuygonf/ odkYaomf ¤if; Topology onf ukefusp&dwfjrifhrm;jcif;? ydkrdk½IyfaxG;jcif; ponfhtcsufrsm;udk pOf;pm;&rnfjzpfygonf/
Tree (or) Hierarchical Topology 24/ Tree Topology onf opfyifwpfyif\ yifpnf? tudkif;? tcufwdkYuJhodkY zGJYpnf; xm;ygonf/ Level wltcsif;csif; wdkuf½dkufcsdwfqufEdkifaomfvnf; Level jrifhaom uGefysLwmrsm;odkY tjcm; Tree rSuGefysLwmrsm;ESifh qufoG,f&mwGif wpfqifhjrifhaom

23/

uGeysLwmrSwpfqifh qufo,&ygonf/ yH(5-12) f G f k

73

Data Communication Network

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation yHk(5-12)

Workstation

Tree (or) Hierarchical Topology jzifh

BudK;csdwfqufoG,fwef;xm;yHk

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Segment

Segment

FDDI Backbone

yHk(5-13) Backbones and Segments jzifh BudK;csdwfqufoG,fwef;xm;yHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

74

Backbones and Segments 25/ Backbones qdonfrm uGe,ufpepf\ t"duta&;tBu;D qH;k yifrqufo,a&; k S f G f vrf;aMumif; jzpfygonf/ ¤if;yifrvrf;aMumif;odkY Server rsm;? Network tcGJ (Branch k k f kd f d f Network) rsm;? Segments rsm; tm;vH;wdu½ucswqufMuygonf/ Backbones onf jrefEIef;jrifhrm;aom obm0&Sdojzifh High Speed Communication Line rsm;[kvnf; ac:onf/ Fiber (zefBudK;rQif)toHk;jyKí tvif;jzifhay;ydkY&,lEdkifaom FDDI (odkYr[kwf) 100 Mbps, 1000 Mbps vdi;rsm;onf Backbones tjzpftoH;jyKMuonf/ yH(5-13)wGif k f k k Server (3)vHk;ESifh Segments (3)ckwdkYonf Backbones odkY vma&mufcsdwfqufxm;Mu

ygonf/ 26/ Segments qdonfrm Backbones odYk cswqufxm;aom Network tpdwtydi;f k S d f f k wpfck jzpfonf/ a,bk,stm;jzifh Server rsm;onf Backbones ESifh csdwfqufavh &SMd uonf/ Workstation rsm;onf Segments jzifh cswqufavh&MdS uygonf/ yH(5-13)uJoYkd d f k h Segnment rsm;onf Backbones ESifhcsdwfqufxm;jcif;aMumifh Workstation rsm;onf Server ESihf tjcm; Network rS Resources rsm;udk Backbones rSwpfqifh &,ltoH;jyKEif k kd ygonf/ rSefuefaom Topology udka&G;cs,fjcif; 27/ BudK;csdwfqufrIenf;vrf;(Topologies)rsm;wGif tm;omcsuf? tm;enf;csufrsm; &SMd uygonf/ odjYk zpfí uGe,ufpepftwGuf tuketuscrnfh aiGaMu;yrmP ESihf tjcm; f f H vdkvm;aomtajctaet&yf&yfay:wGif rlwnfí rSefuefaom Topology udk a&G;cs,f &rnf jzpfygonf/ þodYk a&G;cs,&mü atmufaz:jyygtcsursm;udvnf; xnfoi;f pOf;pm; f f k h G &rnf jzpfygonf(u) ukefusp&dwf? ( c ) Installation jyKvkyf&mwGif vG,fuljcif;? ( * ) Maintenance jyKvkyf&mwGif vG,fuljcif;? (C) BudK;rsm;\trSm;cHEdkifrI aumif;rGefjcif; ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/

75 uGef,ufpepf (Network)

Data Communication Network

28/ uGef,ufpepfqdkonfrSm Hardware Resources rsm;? Software Resources rsm;ud k rQa0toH k ; jyK&ef t wG u f uG e f y sLwmrsm;ud k Communication Media ? Communication Devices rsm;jzifh cswqufxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ uGe,ufpepfcswquf d f f d f jcif;aMumifh atmufaz:jyygtusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk &&Sdrnfjzpfygonf(u) E-mail (odkYr[kwf) Message tjyeftvSefay;ydkYEdkifjcif;? ( c ) Hardware Resources rsm;udk rQa0oHk;pGJEdkifjcif;? (Oyrm- Printer Sharing? Scanner Sharing ) ( * ) Software Resources rsm;udk rQa0oHk;pGJEdkifjcif;? (Oyrm- File Sharing? Folder Sharing ) (C) Application rsm;udk rQa0oHk;pGJEdkifjcif;? ( i ) Database rsm;udk rQa0oHk;pGJEdkifjcif;? ( p ) Information rsm;udk rQa0toHk;jyKEdkifjcif;? (q) Communication Line ESifh Device rsm;udk rQa0toHk;jyKEdkifjcif;? ( Z) wpfae&mwnf;rS pDrHcefYcGJxdef;csKyfEdkifjcif;? (ps) vHkNcKHrIaumif;rGefjcif;? (Security) (n) rQa0oHk;pGJEdkifrIaMumifh ukefusp&dwfoufomjcif;? (Cost) (# ) Video Conferencing tpnf;ta0;rsm; jyKvkyfEdkifjcif;?
Server ESifh Server trsKd;tpm;rsm; 29/ Server qdonfrm pGr;f tm;aumif;aom uGeysLwmwpfv;kH jzpfNy;D Client uGeysLwm k S f f rS awmif;qdkaom Service rsm;udk ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/ Server onf Super Computer wpfv;vnf; jzpfEiygonf/ Main Frame Computer / Mini Computer kH kd f ESifh High End PC wpfrsKd;rsKd;vnf; jzpfEdkifygonf/

30/ aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonfh Service rsm;ay: rlwnfí Server trsdK;tpm;rsm;onf atmufazmfjyygZ,m;(5-2)ygtwdkif; trsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifygonf-

uGefysLwmvufpJG
pOf
Server trsKd ; tpm;

76
0ef a qmif r I (Service)
zd k i f o d r f ; qnf ; jcif ; ESifh
Printing

1 File & Print Server

qd k i f & m0ef a qmif rI r sm; jyKvk y f E d k i f y gonf /
e-Mail rsm;vuf c H j cif ; ? od r f ; qnf ; jcif ; ? quf

2 Mail Server

vuf a y;yd k Y j cif ; rsm; jyKvk y f E d k i f o nf
Client / Server Architecture

toH k ; jyKí

3 Application Server Application rsm;wG u f c suf Edkifonf/

aqmif & G u f r I j yKvk y f

tcsuf t vuf r sm;od r f ; qnf ; jcif ; ES i f h 4 Data Base Server

wG u f c suf

vk y f a qmif j cif ; ? toH k ; jyK ol r sm;tm;wpf N yd K if w nf ; csd w f q uf c G i f h j yK aqmif & G u f j cif ; jyKvk y f E d k i f o nf /

5 Backup Server 6 Fax Server

tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k
Fax Machine

Tape

unit

ponf h
Fax

Backup rsm;jzif h t &H o d r f ; qnf ; Ed k i f y gonf /

rsm;jzifhcsdwfqufí
Pages

Service jyKvk y f E d k i f o nf /

owif ; tcsuf t vuf z d k i f Web 7 Web Server
FTP Server 8 (File Transfer Protocol) File rsm;ud k

ESifh

od k a vS m if o d r f ; qnf ; rQa0Ed k i f o nf /

wG u f c suf v k y f aqmif E d k i f o nf / zdkifrsm;ay;ydkYEdkifonf/ &,l E d k i f o nf / (up load/
down load)

77 pOf
Server trsKd;tpm;

Data Communication Network

0efaqmifrI (Service) jyifyuGef,ufpepfESifh rdrduGef,ufpepfMum;wGif vHkNcHKrI? axmufvSrf;Munfh½IrI? jrefqefr&ap I dS a&;twGufxm;&SdaomMum;cH Server jzpfonf/ t0iftxGufppfaq;Munfh½Ií vHkNcHKrIaqmif&GufEdkif onfh Server jzpfonf/
IP Address rsm;udk xdef;csKyfxm;NyD; qufoG,f vmaom Client rsm;tm; IP Address owfrSwf

9 Proxy Server

10 Firewall Server
DHCP Server (Dynamic Host 11 Configuration Protocol)

jcif;udk aqmif&GufEdkifonf/
Domain Name ESifh IP Address wdkYudk mapping jyKvkyf ay;Edkifonfh Server jzpfonf/ Windows NT Server jzpfonf/ Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) udkaqmif&Gufay;EdkifNyD; Net BIOS Name rS Domain Name odkY ajymif;vJay;Edkifonf/ Communication Server wpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ Point to Point Protocol jzifh w,fvDzkef;vdkif;

12

DNS Server (Domain Name)

13 WINS Server

RAS Server 14 (Remote Access Server)

toHk;jyK Edkifonf/
IBM

qufoG,frIudk
Main Frame

vufcHaqmif&Gufay;

15 SNA Server

Client ESifh uGefysLwmtMum; qufoG,fay;Edkifaom Server jzpfonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG pOf
Server trsKd;tpm;

78 0efaqmifrI (Service) ESifh Software aygif;pyfxm;NyD; rwlnDaom Netwoork rsm;Mum;wGif csdwfquf aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonf/
Hardware Local Area Network rsm;udk csdwfqufay; Edkifonf/ Different Network rsm;udkcsdwfquf

16 Gateway Server

17 Router Server

ay;Edkifygonf/
18 Bridge Server
Router uJhodkYvkyfaqmifEdkifonf/ Type wlnD aom Network ESpfckudk vnf;csdwfqufay;Edkifyg

onf/ Type rwlnDaom Network rsm;udkvnf; csdwfqufay;Edkifygonf/ Z,m; (5-2)

Local Area Network (LAN) 31/ LAN qdkonfrSm taqmuftODwpfcktwGif; (odkYr[kwf) y&0kPfwpfcktwGif;

(odr[kw) rDwm 2500 ywfvnftwGi;f BuKd ;jzifh wdu½ucswqufxm;aom (odr[kw) Yk f k f kd f d f Yk f BudK;rJhcsdwfqufxm;aom uGef,ufpepfwpfckjzpfygonf/ 32/ uGef,ufpepftm; Physical Media toHk;jyKí 0g,mBudK;jzifh csdwfqufjcif; ESifh 0g,mBuKd ;rJh (Wireless) qufoG,fjcif;wdkYudk atmufygtwdkif;cGJjcm;Edkifygonf(u) ( c) ( *)
Wired LAN yHk (5-14) Wireless LAN yHk (5-15) Wire + Wireless LAN yHk (5-16)

79

Data Communication Network

Wired Backbone

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

yHk (5-14) Wired LAN csdwfqufxm;yHk

Workstation

Workstation Workstation

yHk (5-15) Wireless LAN csdwfqufxm;yHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

80
Wired LAN

Workstation

Access Point
Workstation

Workstation

Wireless LAN
Laptop

Workstation

yHk (5-16) Wired LAN ESifh Wireless LAN qufoG,fxm;yHk 33/ LAN wGif t"duqufoG,frIvrf;aMumif;rSm Backbone jzpfNyD;? Backbone ESifh csdwfqufxm;jcif;tay:rlwnfí atmufygtwdkif;cJGjcm;xm;ygonf/ yHk(5-17)(u) Backbone LAN ( c) Branch LAN

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Backbone LAN

Branch LAN

Branch LAN

yHk(5-17) Backbone LAN rSwpfqifh Branch LAN rsm;udk csdwfqufxm;yHk

81

Data Communication Network

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 34/ MAN qdonfrm NrKd wpfNrKd twGi;f tuGmta0; 50km ywfvnftwGi;f cswquf k S Y Y d f xm;aom uGef,ufpepfwpfck jzpfygonf/ ¤if;pepfwGif Communication Facility udk Carrier Service rsm;rS iSm;&rf;jcif; (odr[kw) aiGaMu;wwfEiaomukrPD rsm;taejzifh Yk f kd f Ü udk,fydkif Communication Facility jzifh csdwfqufvkyfaqmifjcif; jyKvkyfMuygonf/ Wide Area Network (WAN) 35/ WAN qdonfrm wpfNrKd EiwpfNrKd ?Y wpfeiiEiwpfEii?H urÇmESit0ef; cswquf k S Y S hf kd f H S hf kd f hf d f

xm;aom uGef,ufpepf jzpfygonf/ tuGmta0; uefYowfcsuf r&Sdyg/
LAN ESifh WAN uGmjcm;csuf 36/ LAN ESihf WAN wdonf uGe,ufpepfrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; atmufaz:jyyg rwlnD Yk f

aom tcsufrsm;&SdMuygonf/ Z,m;(5-3)pOf
LAN WAN

1 tuG m ta0; rD w m 2500 twG i f ; tuG m ta0;uef Y o wf c suf r &S d y g/ 2 udk,fydkif Communication Facil- Carriers Service rsm;rS Commu ityud k t oH k ; jyKonf / nication Facility udkiSm;&rf;toHk; 3 Organization (odkY) Administra- jyKonf/ Service rsm;rSpDrHcefYcGJ Carriers
tor rS pDrHcefYcGJxdef;csKyfEdkifonf/

xdef;csKyfonf/

4 Leased line (odkY) Fixed Line Switch Line rsm;jzifh(odkY) Leased rsm;jzif h quf o G , f c sd w f q uf o nf / Line rsm;jzifhcsdwfqufonf/ 5 Speed jrefqefonf/ 10 Mbps/ Speed aES ; onf / Dial Up jzpfvQif 100 Mbps/1000 Mbps(1Gbps) 56 Kbps &Sdonf/ tjcm; Line rsm; tjrefEIef;trsKd;rsKd;&SdMuonf/ Mbps xd o m&S d o nf / 6 Bit Error Rate (BER) enf;onf/ Bit Error Rate (BER) rsm;onf/ Z,m; (5-3)

uGefysLwmvufpJG

82

Internet 37/ Internet qdkonfrSm urÇmhtBuD;qHk; WAN yifjzpfygonf/ urÇmay:&Sd uGef,uf pepfrsm;\ uGef,ufpepf (Network of the Networks ) [kvnf; ac:qdkEdkifygonf/ ¤if; Internet tm; atmufaz:jyyg uGe,ufpepfrsm; toD;oD;vma&mufcswqufxm;Mu f d f

ygonf(u) ( c) ( *) (C) ( i)

tpdk;&qdkif&m tzGJYtpnf;rsm;\ uGef,ufrsm;? usef;rma&;qdkif&m tzGJYtpnf;rsm;\ uGef,ufrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m ukrÜPDrsm;? tzJGYtpnf;rsm;\ uGef,ufrsm;? ynma&;qdkif&m tzGJYtpnf;rsm;? wuúodkvf? aumvdyf? odyÜH? okawoe vkyfief;rsm;\ uGef,ufrsm;? uGef,ufpepf0efaqmifrIay;onfhukrÜPDrsm;\ uGef,ufpepfrsm;/

Intranet 38/ Intranet qdonfrm Internet enf;ynmudk toHk;jyKí rdrdtzGJYtpnf;twGif; k S csdwfqufxm;aom Local uGe,ufpepf jzpfygonf/ Intranet onfvnf; Internet wGif f toHk;jyKedkifonfh Service rsm;jzpfaom e-mail Service? WWW Service? Video k kd f Conferencing Service? FTP Service ponfh Service rsm;udk toH;jyKEiygonf/ OyrmBoeing 747 avaMumif;vdi;ukrPwif ¤if;\½H;csKyEi&;cGJ rsm;? wpfurÇmvH;tESYIntranet k f Ü D G k f S hf Hk k H

pepfjzifh csdwfqufvkyfudkifjcif;aMumifh ukefxkwfvkyfrIpGrf;tm;rsm; ydkrdkaumif;rGefvmjcif;? c&D;oGm;rsm; rdrdoGm;vdkonfh avaMumif;c&D;pOfESifhywfoufí Intranet pepfjzifh pHkprf;Edkifjcif;? BudKwifvufrSwf&,lEdkifjcif;wdkY aqmif&GufEdkifonfhtwGuf a&mif;tm;ydkrdk aumif;rGefvmygonf/ xdkYtjyif avaMumif;vdkif; 0efxrf;rsm;tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef qufoG,frI jyKvkyfEdkifygonf/ av,mOfrsm;ESifhywfoufí Maintenance qdkif&m? Servicing qdkif&mrsm;udkvnf; Intranet toHk;jyKí tcsdefESifhwajy;nD vkyfaqmif vmEdiygonf/ k f
Extranet 39/ Extranet qdonfrm Intranet tcsif;csif; vHkNcHKrIwnfaqmufum tjyeftvSef k S csdwfqufxm;&Sdjcif;udk ac:ygonf/ Oyrm- Microsoft ukrÜPD\ Intranet ESifh Intel ukrÜPD\ Intranet wdkYonf vHkNcHKrIwnfaqmufí Extranet csdwfqufxm;jcif;aMumifh Microsoft ukrÜPDrS owfrSwfxm;aom oHk;pGJcGifh&Sdolrsm;onf Intel ukrÜPD\ Intranet

83

Data Communication Network

twGif;odkY 0ifa&mufí oufqdkif&moHk;pGJcGifh&Sdonfh Service rsm;? Network Resources rsm;udk toH;k jyKEiygonf/ tjyeftvSetm;jzifh Intel ukrPrvnf; Microsoft ukrP\ kd f f Ü D S Ü D Intranet twGif;odkY vHkNcHKrI&SdpGmjzifh 0ifa&muftoHk;jyKEdkifygonf/ 40/ tifwmeufwGif zGJYpnf;wnfaqmufxm;onfh Domain Name Structure rSm yH(5-18)ygtwki;f jzpfygonf/ jrefrmjynftm; ud,pm;jyKonfh Domain Name rSm mm k d k f jzpfygonf/
Domain Name Structure Internet Domain Name Structure root
GTLD CCTLD

net

edu

org

mil

gov

com

mm

jp

my

sg

mm Domain com net gov org

mpt
mpt.net.mm Domain

bagan
bagan.net.mm Domain

OyrmGTLD = Generic Top Level Domain CCTLD = Country Code Top Level Doamain

mail2 . mpt . net . mm Computer Domain Name Name

yHk (5-18) Internet \ Domain Name Structure ESifh jrefrmjynftwGuf mm domain

uGefysLwmvufpJG

84

Internet odkYqufoG,fjcif;enf;vrf;rsm; 41/ Internet odkY atmufygtwdkif; qufoG,fEdkifygonf/ yHk(5-19)(u) Leased Line IP Connection ( c ) Dial Up Connection (1) LAN Type (2) Terminal Type

Internet

Leased Line IP

Dial up i) LAN Type

Dial up ii) Terminal Type

Router

Modem/TA LAN

Modem / TA (Analog) (Digital)

LAN

yHk (5-19) Internet odkY qufoG,faqmif&GufyHkrsm;
DNS Server 42/ DNS Server qdonfrm Domain Name ESifh IP Address udk Mapping jyKvyay; k S k f Edkifaom Server wpfv;kH jzpfygonf/ Internet User rsm;onf Domain Name rsm;udom k toH k ; jyKí tvG , f w ul ac:a0:oH k ; pG J M uygonf / Oyrm- ( www.intel.com, www.ibm.com) vufawGYwGif Internet twGif;ü Computer tcsif;csif;onf IP

85

Data Communication Network

Address rsm;jzifom cswqufrjI yKvyMf uonf/ Oyrm- (10.3.4.1 ) vltrsm; od&em;vnf h d f k dS aom Domain Name rS IP Address odkY ajymif;vJay;&ef vdktyfouJhodkY IP Address rS Domain Name odYk ajymif;vJay;&efvnf; vdtyfygonf/ þuJoYkd vkyaqmifjcif;rsm;udk k h f Domain Name Server rS jyKvkyfay;Edkifygonf/ Oyrm- www.mpt.net.mm [laom Domain Name udk 203.81.65.75 [lonfh IP Address odkY Mapping jyKvkyfay;

Ediygonf/ k f
DNS Mechanism 43/ Internet jzifh csdwfqufxm;aom Computer rsm;pGm&dSonfhteuf tjcm;edkifiH&Sd Computer wpf v H k ; taejzif h www.bagan.net.mm Server \ IP Address ud k od&SdEdkif&eftwGuf vkyfaqmifyHktqifhqifhudk yHk(5-20) DNS Machanism jzifh &Sif;vif; az:jyygrnf/ DNS Client wpfvHk;onf rdrdqufoG,fvdkonfh Domain Name \ IP Address udk od&Sd&ef DNS Server rsm;jzifh qifhuJqifhuJvkyfaqmifMuygonf/ Web Server 44/ Web Server qdkonfrSm owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk pkaqmif;xm;&Sdjcif;? tjyeftvSeay;ydzvS,Eijf cif;jyKvyEionfh Server jzpfygonf/ Web Server rsm;onf f Yk f kd k f kd f owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk oHk;pGJol Web Client rsm;tm; rQa0oHk;pGJjcif; (Sharing) jyKvkyfay;Edkifygonf/ Web Server twGif;ü Web Site rsm;yg&SEiygonf/ Web Site d dk f qdkonfrSm owif;tcsuftvufpmrsufESm(Web Page)rsm;pGm pkpnf;xm;&Sdaom tpkta0;wpfck jzpfonf/ Web Server rsm;onf tjcm; Web Server rsm;&Sd Web Site

rsm;jzifhvnf; tjyeftvSefcsdwfqufEdkifMuygonf/ 45/ tcsKUd ukrPrsm;onf rdrw\owif;tcsutvufrsm;udk ISP \ Web Hosting Ü D d Ykd f Service udk iSm;&rf;oHk;pGJjcif;jzifh Web Page rsm;xm;&SMd uygonf/ Web Page rsm;onf owif;tcsutvufpmrsuEmrsm;jzpfonf/ ¤if;pmrsuEmrsm;onf taMumif;t&mydi;f f f S f S k qdkif&m? owif;tcsuftvufqdkif&m csdwfqufrI (Hyper Link) &SMd uygonf/ xm;&Srukd d I tcsuftvufyrmP(Volume Size)t& tcaMu;aiGay;aqmifMuygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

86
Root

yHk (5-20) DNS tvkyfvkyfyHk

w w w .b ag Se an rv .n er et. in m m m m do m ain

DNS Server in root

of

(3 )

DNS Server

.mm net ain an. g dom .ba ww .mm fw net r in IP o ? ve DNS Server in (4) Ser NS mm domain of D ) IP (5
IP

of D N S

(2 )?

mm jp

IP

Server

www.ba gan.net. mm (7) IP o f DNS S erver in bagan.n (8 et.mm )? domain IP (9 of ) w IP w w of .b w DNS Server in ag w an w net.mm domain .b .n ag et. an m m .n et. m m do m ain

(6) ? IP of

HTTP: // www.bagan.net.mm

) ) 0 1 1 ( (

net com

bagan mpt

DNS Server in bagan.net.mm domain

Server

tjcm;Edii&dS uGeysLwmrS k f H f Web Site udkMunfh½Ijcif;
www.bagan.net.mm

Server

87

Data Communication Network

Chapter (6)

uGeysLwmESiueysLwmuGe,ufpepfrsm;okYd Hackerrsm;\ f hf G f f 0ifa&mufwucuonfenf;vrf;rsm; kd f kd f h
Hacker (odkYr[kwf) Cracker

1/ uGeysLwmwpfv;kH (odr[kw) uGeysLwmtcsi;f csi;f cswqufxm;aom uGeysLwm f Yk f f d f f uGef,uftwGif;okdY cGifhjyKcsufr&SdbJ (odkYr[kwf) 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifcGifhr&SdbJ 0ifa&mufí uGefysLwmpepftwGif;&Sd zdkifrsm;? y½dk*&rfrsm;tm; Munfh½Ijcif;? ul;,ljcif;? ajymif;vJjcif;? uGef,ufpepf\vkyfaqmifaerIukd apmifhMunfhjcif;? zsufqD;jcif; ponfhvkyfaqmifrIrsm; (Unauthorized Use) jyKvkyfjcif;udk Hacker (odkYr[kwf) Cracker Attack [k ac:yg onf/ 2/ Hacker [laom pum;vHk;tay: tkdifwDqkdif&m ½IaxmifhrSaeí em;vnfaom t"dyÜg,frSm uGefysLwmwpfvHk; (odkYr[kwf)uGefysLwmuGef,uf\ vHkNcHKa&;pepftm; csdK;azmuf0ifa&mufjcif;? uGefysLwmtcsif;csif; qufoG,fvkyfukdifaerIwGif Mum;jzwf 0ifa&mufum uGefysLwmtwGif;rS owif;tcsuftvufrsm;? y½dk*&rfrsm;tm; cdk;,l&ef (odkYr[kwf)zsufpD;rIwpfckckjyKvkyf&ef aqmif&Gufjcif;? uGef,ufpepfay:&Sd vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;ukd apmifhMuyfMunfh½Ijcif;vkyfaqmifoludk ac:qkdygonf/ 0ifa&mufaomvrf;aMumif;rsm; 3/ Hacker (ac:) Cracker rsm;onf uGefysLwmpepfwpfckvHk;odkY a,bk,stm;jzifh 0ifa&mufaomenf;vrf;rsm;rSm ,if;wdkYESifhqufoG,fxm;aom Modem rsm;? qufoG,f a&;qkdif&mvrf;aMumif;rsm;? ypönf;rsm;? ,if;wdkYtoHk;jyKpDrHxm;aom Diskette, CD rsm;? LOG-IN y½kd*&rfrsm;ponfwdkYrSwpfqifh 0ifa&mufMuygonf/
Hacker rsm;\oabmobm0

4/ usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmaom Hacker tcsdKUonf zsufpD;jcif;vkyfief; rvkyfMubJ? owif;tcsuftvufrsm; ESifh y½dk*&rfrsm; &,l&eftwGufom vkyfaqmifMuygonf/ odkYaomf tcsKdU Hacker rsm;onf 4if;wdtvd&&m owif;tcsutvufEiy½d*&rfrsm;udk Yk k Sd f S hf k

uGefysLwmvufpJG

88

&,lNyD;? uGefysLwm\pepfqkdif&my½kd*&rfrsm;? owif;tcsuftvufrsm;? tokH;csy½dk*&rf rsm;tm; ajymif;vJjcif;? zsufqD;jcif;rsm;udkyg vkyfaqmifMuygonf/
Unauthorized Use

5/ uGefysLwmtm; cGifhjyKcsufr&SdbJ toHk;jyKjcif; (Unauthorized Use) qdkonfrSm uGefysLwmudkifwG,fcGifhr&Sdol 0ifa&mufudkifwG,fjcif;omru 0ifa&mufcGifhr&Sdaom uGefysLwmpepftwGif;&Sd vrf;aMumif;rsm;odkY0ifa&mufjcif;? tokH;jyKcGifhr&Sdaom Network H f G hf d k f h f G Service rsm;ukd tok;jyKjcif;? Munhcir&Saomzdirsm;tm; Munf½jI cif;? a&;rSwcihf (Read/ G k f G f G G Write)? jyifqifcihf (Edit)? wnfaqmufjyKvycihf (Create)? zsucihf (Delete)? ul;,lcihf (Copy)? zkdifydkYvTwfjcif;(File Transfer) ponfh vkyfykdifcGifhjyKcsuf (Permission)rsm; teufrS rdrdtm; owfrSwfay;xm;jcif;r&Sdonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; oHk;pGJ&efBudK;pm;jcif; (odkY) csdK;azmuf0ifa&mufjcif;jzpfygonf/ toHk;rsm;aom Attack rsm; 6/ Hacker rsm;onf uGeysLwmwpfcv;twGi;(odr[kw) uGeysLwmuGe,ufpepf f k kH f Yk f f f wpfckwGif enf;vrf;rsdK;pHkjzihf 0ifa&mufEdkifMu&m atmufaz:jyyg enf;vrf;rsm;onf toHk;rsm;aomenf;vrf;rsm;jzpfygonf(u) TCP/IP Sequence number prediction attack. ( c ) TCP session hijacking attack (active sniffing). ( * ) Sniffing or observing packet’s passing. ( i ) Spoofing. ( p ) Breaking or corrupting existing HTTP Transaction or TCP
Connection.

(q) ( ps)

Hyperlink spoofing to attack secure socket layer (SSL) server installations . ( Z ) Others Web Spoofing to intercept .

89 7/

Data Communication Network

TCP/IP Sequence number prediction attack

tifwmeuf (odkYr[kwf) uGef,ufpepfrsm;wGif tcsif;csif; csdwfqufxm;onfh Communication media rsm;ay:rS TCP/IP Packet (owif ; tcsuf t vuf tpkta0;)rsm;xJrS oufqi&muGeysLwm\vdypm(address) ESihf tpOftvdueygwfrsm; kd f f f k f H (Sequence number)udk Hacker rS cdk;,lí IP Address rsm;udk cefYrSef;wGufcsufum 4if;wdkY&&Sdaom vdyfpmrsm;? tpOftvdkufeHygwfrsm;jzifh uGef,uftwGif; qufoG,f 0ifa&mufjcif;jzpfonf/ yHk(6-1)

TCP Session hijacking attack 8/ Server ESifh Client qufoG,fvkyfaqmifaeaom Client Server qufoG,frI vrf;aMumif;rS Client \ IP address ESifh Sequence number wdkYudk &,lí Client

ykH(6-1) Hacker rS IP Address rsm;udk cefYrSef;wGufcsufí Server IP udkod&Sdatmif qufoG,fyHk

ud,pm; twif;0ifa&mufqufo,um uGe,ufpepftwGi;f xk;d azmuf0ifa&mufonf/ k f G f f xdtcsewif yH(6-2)ygtwdi;f Client udk uGe,ufEihf qufo,rI jzwfawmufxm;onf/ dk d f G k k f S G f Hacker onf Client \ IP Address jzifh yHk(6-3)ygtwdkif; ta,mifaqmif qufoG,f aqmif&GufEkdifygonf/

ykH(6-2) wu,fh Client jzifh qufoG,faerIudk jzwfawmufí Hacker rS 0ifa&mufcsdwfqufyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

90

ykH(6-3) trSefwu,f csdwfqufaeonfh Machine udk,fpm; 0ifa&mufcsdwfqufyHk
Sniffing or observing packet’s passing

9/ yHk(6-4)ygtwdkif; uGefysLwmpepf\ Backbone ay:wGif Tapping jyKvkyfí vnf;aumif;? IP Address udk ta,mifaqmif toHk;jyKívnf;aumif;? uGef,ufpepf twGif; xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufum tjyeftvSef ay;ydkYqufoG,faeMuaom owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk apmifhMunhfjcif;? ul;,ljcif;? jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh vIyf&Sm;rIukdod&dSatmif BudK;pm;jcif;? toHk;jyKoltrnf (User ID) ESifh (Password) udk &,ljcif;? owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;ukd ckd;,ljcif;jyKvkyfonf/

ykH(6-4) owif;tcsuftvuf Packet udkMum;jzwfí Copy &,lxm;yHk

91
Spoofing

Data Communication Network

10/ uGefysLwmuGef,ufwpfcktwGif;odkY Hacker onf yHk(6-5)ygtwdkif; 4if;\ uGefysLwmjzifh 0ifa&mufcsdwfqufí uGefysLwmpepftwGif;&Sd toHk;jyKcGifh&SdouJhodkY ta,mifaqmiftoHk;jyKum ta&;BuD;aomtcsuftvufrsm;ukd ckd;,ljcif;? uGef,uf pepfukd aESmuf,SufzsufqD;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfygonf/

ykH(6-5) toHk;jyKcGifh&SdoluJhodkY ta,mifaqmifcsdwfqufyHk
Breaking or Corrupting existing HTTP transaction or TCP Connection

11/ owif;tcsuftvufqufoG,frIrsm;wGif yHk(6-6)uJhodkY vHkNcHKrI&SdpGmjzifh owfrSwf xm;olrsm;udkom zwf&IcGifh? jyKjyifydkifcGifh &Sd&rnfjzpfonf/ odkYaomf owif;tcsuftvuf qufoG,frIjyKvkyfjcif;onf vHkNcHKrIpepf r&Sdygu/tm;enf;ygu Hacker rsm;onf uGefysLwmuGef,uftwGif; xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufí yHk(6-7)uJhodkY Server ESifh Client uGefysLwmqufoG,fvkyfaqmifaerIrsm;? HTTP Protocol jzifh owif;tcsuftvuf qdkif&m csdwfqufaqmif&GufaerIrsm;udk jywfawmufatmif [efYwm;aqmif&GufEdkifyg onf/

ykH(6-6) Web Page ½Sd Link rsm;onftjcm; Web Page rsm;odYk csdwfqufjcif;

uGefysLwmvufpJG

92

ykH(6-7) DNS Server rS Domain Name to IP Address Map jyKvkyfay;yHk
Hyper Link Spoofing

vHkNcHKrIpepf tm;enf;aom Web page rsm;twGif;ü Hacker rsm;\ Web Site odkY tvdktavQmufa&muf&SdoGm;apaom Hyper Link HTML Code tcsdKU xnfhoGif;NyD;? 4if; URL jzifh qufE,um Hacker rsm;\ Web Site odkY tvdktavQmuf G f a&muf&Sd oGm;apNyD;? toHk;jyKol\trnf (User-Id) ESifh Password rsm;udk Hacker rS od&Sdatmif jyKvkyfonhf enf;vrf;jzpfonf/ þenf;jzifh&&Sdaom tokH;jyKolrsm;\ UserID ESifh Password rsm;ukdtokH;jyKí aiGaMu;qkdif&mvdrfvnfckd;,ljcif;rsm;? vkyfykdifcGifh qkdif&mrsm; ajymif;vJjcif;? tvGJokH;pm; jyKvkyfjcif;wkdYukd jyKrlEkdifygonf/
Web Spoofing to Intercept 13/ Web Server ESifh Client Mum;wGif Hacker onf Mum;cHqufoG,fí Client rS request vkyfonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk &,lEkdifonf/ vkdtyfygu yHk(6-8)ESifh yH(6-9)ygtwdi;f Hacker rS owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;? odvonfh k k kd

12/

owif;tcsuftvufrsm;twGuf trdefYrsm; xyfaqmif;xnfhoGif;jcif;wdkYudk jyKvkyfEkdif onf/ odkYjzpfí uGef,ufpepftoHk;csonfh pD;yGm;ukefoG,frIqdkif&m udpörsm;wGif Hacker onf oHk;pGJolrsm;\ account number, password ESifh tjcm;vQdKU0Suf&ef vdktyfaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;tm; cdk;,l&&SdoGm;Edkif ouJhodkh owif;tcsuftvuf trSm;rsm; udkvnf; xnhfoGif;Ekdifygonf/ Server rSjyefvnfay;ydkYvmaom tcsuftvufrsm; twGif;rS yHk(6-10)uJhodkY odvdkonfhtcsuftvufrsm;udk Copy ul;,lxm;Nyd; User xHodkY awmif;qdkonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;om jyefvnfay;ydkYygonf/

93

Data Communication Network

ykH(6-8) Client rSay;ydkYrIudk Hacker rSMum;jzwfí&,lum rdrdvdkcsifaom tcsuftvufudk xnfhoGif;í qufvufay;ydkYyHk

ykH(6-9) Hacker rS Mum;jzwfí &,lumowif; tcsuftvufrsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJyHk

ykH(6-10) Hacker rS rdrdodvdkaom^&,lvdkaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk xnfhoGif;ay;ydkYvdkufyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

94

14/ yHk(6-11)twdkif; Hacker onf User rS Server xHodkY awmif;qdkonfh tcsuf tvufrsm;udk Mum;jzwf&,lí jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; jyKvkyfum tvGJoHk;pm; jyKvkyf aqmif&GufEdkifygonf/

ykH(6-11) Hacker rS owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJvdkufyHk 15/ yHk(6-12)twdkif; Hacker onf User rS Server xHokdY Telnet Protocol jzifh csdwfqufaerIudk Mum;cHtv,fvltjzpf aqmif&Gufí owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk vnf;aumif;? User Name ESifh Password rsm;udkvnf;aumif; &,lEdkifygonf/ jyKjyif ajymif;vJEdkifygonf/

ykH(6-12) Client rS Telnet Service toHk;jyKjcif;udk Mum;jzwfí Hacker rS&,lyHk

95
Other Attacks

Data Communication Network

16/

ykH(6-13)twkdif; Hacker onf Server ESifh Client Mum;rS Mum;jzwf0ifa&mufí Packet rsm;ukd xdef;csKyfNyD; ykH(6-14)twkdif; vufcH&&SdaMumif; taMumif;jyefMum;csuf (ACK Packet)rsm; qufwkdufxkwfvTifhap&ef Hacker rS aqmif½Gufum qufoG,frI rjzpfajrmufatmif vkyfaqmifEkdifygonf/

ykH(6-13) Hacker rS Mum;jzwfítaMumif;jyefMum;csufay;ydkYyHk

ykH(6-14) Server udk yHkrSefrvkyfaqmifEdkif&ef ACK Packet Loop jzifhzefwD;aeyHk
Client ESihf Server Mum;wGif yk(6-15)twki; Client tm; taMumif;jyefMum;&mü H d f Server ukd,fpm;0ifa&mufí &aMumif;jyefMum;jcif;aqmif½Gufum Client tm; vdrvnf f

17/

vSnfhzsm; taMumif½kdufEkdifygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

96

ykH(6-15) Hacker rS Mum;jzwfí ACK Packet ay;ydkYyHk 18/ Server tm; 0ifa&mufqufoG,f&mü ykH(6-16)twkdif; Hacker rS csdefom;ukduf ñSdjcif;? &&dSaMumif;jyefMum;csufrsm;ESifh jyefvnfpwifapjcif;tcsufrsm; wpfNydKifwnf; ykdYvTwfí Server ukd vdrvnfvnpm;Ekiygonf/ f S hf d f

ykH(6-16) Server tm; Hacker rS&aMumif; Packet ay;ydkYjcif;ESifh RST Packet ay;ydkYjcif;tm; wpfNydKifwnf;ay;ydkYí vdrfvnfvSnfhpm;vkyfaqmifaeyHk 19/ Client ESifh Server Mum; qufoG,faqmif½GufaerIukd ykH(6-17)twkdif; Hacker rS Mum;jzwf0ifa&mufí csdefom;ukdufñSdjcif; ESifh &aMumif;jyefMum;jcif; tcsufjyrsm;ukd qufoG,faqmif½Gufum Server ESifh Hacker \csdefom;ukduf qufoG,frI&&Sdatmif wnfaqmufEkdifygonf/

97

Data Communication Network

ykH(6-17) Server \ ay;ydkYrIudk Mum;jzwfí vrf;aMumif;ajymif;atmif aqmif&GufyHk 20/ Client ESifh Server tMum;qufoG,frIukd aESmuf,Sufonfhtaejzifh ykH(6-18) twkdif; tcsuftvuf rygaom Packet(Null Data) rsm; tqufrjywfykdYvTwfí aqmif½GufEkdifygonf/

ykH(6-18) Server odkY Null Data rsm;tqufrjywfydkYvTwfí qufoG,frIudk taESmuft,Sufay;aeyHk

uGefysLwmvufpJG

98

Chapter (7)

uGeysLwmESihf uGeysLwmuGe,ufpepf vkNH cKH rwnfaqmuf&eftwGuf f f f I
Firewall qki&menf;ynmrsm; d f
rS jzefYa0onfhuGefysLwmqdkif&mOya'csdK;azmufrIESifh vHkNcKHrIqdkif&m wdkif;wm awG&csu/ (2001 ckEp?f rwfv 12 &ufaeYwixwjf yefonf) Y dS f S G f k
Computer Security Institute

1/

uGefysLwmqdkif&m Oya'csdK;azmufrI ESifh vHkNcKHrIqdkif&mwdkif;wmrIrsm;udk San Francisco Federal Bureau of Investigation \ yl;aygif;yg0ifrIjzifhvnf;aumif;? uGeysLwmvHNk cKH rqi&m vufawGaqmif&uaeol 538 OD; jzifvnf;aumif; aqmif&uchJ f I kd f Y G f h G f ygonf/ wdkif;wmawGY&Sdcsufrsm; 2/ wdkif;wmawGY&Sdcsufrsm;rSmatmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) tenf;qHk;(12)vtwGif; uGefysLwmvHkNcHKrIcsdK;azmufcH&onfh&mcdkifEIef; 85% ( c) vHkNcHKrIcsdK;azmufcH&ojzifh b@ma&;qdkif&mqHk;&IH;aMumif; owif;ydkYonfh &mcdkifEIef; 64% ( *) b@ma&;qdkif&mqHk;&IH;rIyrmP USD377 Millions (uGeysLwmvHNk cKH rI f csdK;azmufcH&olrsm;\&mcdkifEIef; 35% rS owif;ydkYcsuft&)
Firewall

3/

Firewall qdkonfrSm atmufygtwdkfif; jzpfygonf-

(u) ( c)

( *)

uGef,ufESpfckMum;wGif Mum;cHtjzpf aqmif&Gufaom uGefysLwmpepf wpfck jzpfygonf/ Firewall onf,HkMunfpdwfcs&aom uGef,ufpepfodkY ,HkMunfpdwfcsjcif; uif;onhf jyifyuGef,ufrS 0ifa&mufrIudkumuG,f&ef &nf&G, fwnf aqmufxm;ygonf/ jyifyodom;a&mufrnfvrf;aMumif;rsm;? jyifyrSvmonfY vrf;aMumif;rsm; Yk G Y onf Firewall udkjzwfoef;&rnf/

99 (C) ( i) 4/

Data Communication Network

vHNk cKH rqi&mrl0g't& ppfaq;cGijhf yKonfh qufo,rvrf;aMumif;udom I kd f G f I k jzwfoef;cGifhjyKrnf jzpfonf/ xdk;azmufjcif;rsm;udk ckcHEdkifaompepfjzpfonf/

Firewall rSvkyfaqmifEdkifonfYtcsufrsm; Firewall rSvkyfaqmifEdkifonfYtcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf-

(u) ( c)

Firewall onf v H k N cH K rI q d k i f & mqH k ; jzwf c suf r sm;twG u f tav;xm;

vkyfaqmifEdkifonfY ae&mjzpfonf/ Traffic tm;vHk;onfppfaq;a&; 0if^xGuf*dwfwpfckwnf;rS jzwf& rnfjzpfNyD; vHkNcHKrIqdkif&m wdkif;wmrI? ppfaq;rIudk 4if;0if^xGuf*dwfrSyif pkpnf;aqmif&GufEdkifonf/ Firewall wGif vHkNcHKrIqdkif&mrl0g'rsm;udk owfrSwfaqmif&GufEdkifonf/

Firewall rS rvkyfaqmifEdkifonfYtcsufrsm;

5/

Firewall rS rvkyfaqmifEdkifonfYtcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Firewall onf rdrd\uGef,ufpepftwGif;rS vHkNcHKrIcsdK;azmufaqmif&Guf

( c) ( *)

jcif;udk rumuG,fEdkifyg/ Firewall onf 4if;udk jzwfoGm;jcif;r&Sdonfh qufoG,frIrsm;jzifh csdwfqufvkyfaqmifaerIrsm;udk rumuG,fEdkifyg/ Firewall onf enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m jynfYpHkaom csdef;ajcmufrItopfrsm; udk rumuG,Eiyg/ f kd f

vHkNcHKrIoabmw&m; 6/ vkyfykdifcGifh tenf;qkH;owfrSwfxm;&Sdjcif;/ atmufygtwkdif; vkyfykdifcGifh tenf;qkH;owfrSwfxm;&Sd&ygrnf(u) tokH;jyKolrsm;? pDrHcefYcGJolrsm;tm; owfrSwfxm;aom tvkyfukd vkyf aqmifEkdif½kHtwGufom vkyfykdifcGifhxm;&Sdoifhygonf/ vkyfykdifcGifhukd vkdonfxuf ykdrkdray;oifhyg/

uGefysLwmvufpJG ( c)

100

jyifyqufo,aqmif&urudk atmufygwduuefowfjcif;jzifh wkucuf G f G f I Yk kd Y d f dk rIrsm;ukd umuG,fEdkifygonf(1) tifwmeufqkdif&m 0efaqmifrIrsm; (e-mail, www, Telnet, FTP, etc.) rS vkdtyfaom0efaqmifrIukdom cGifhjyKjcif;/ (2) vkdtyfaomzkdifrsm;ukd tokH;jyK&eftwGuf oihfawmf vkHavmuf aom qufoG,fvkyfykdifcGifhukdomcGifhjyKjcif;/ (3) owfrSwfxm;aom Administrator rsm;ukd Root password vkyfykdifcGifh tjrifhrm;qkH; Password ay;tyf&ef/

7/ xkjzifh umuG,wm;qD;jcif;/ xkjzifh atmufygtwdi;f umuG,wm;qD;aqmif&uf f k f G &rnfjzpfygonf(u) vHkNcHKrIvkyfaqmifyHkenf;vrf;wpfckwnf;ay:wGif rrSDcdkjcif;rjyKvkyf&ef/ ( c) t&m&mwdkif;tm; vHkNcHKap&efrSm Firewall wpfckwnf;omrubJ tjcm; aom vHNk cKH a&;qdi&m wdi;f wmppfaq;rIrsm;udvnf; wnfaqmuf xm;&Sd k f k k &ef vdktyfygonf/ pufwdkif;wGif vHkNcHKrIxm;&Sdaqmif&Gufjcif;? uGefysLwm pepfqdkif&m pDrHcefYcGJjcif;jzifh vHkNcHKrIxm;&Sdaqmif&Gufjcif;? toHk;jyKolrsm; twGuf vHkNcKHrIqdkif&m A[kokw&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufjcif;ponfwkdUtm; atmufygtwdkif; aqmif½Gufxm;&Sd&ygrnf(1) Firewall pepfwpfckonf E-mail Protocal udk ydwf xm;ygu Host ay:wGif E-mail Service udk jzKwf ypf&ef vdktyfonf/ (2) FTP Service ESifh WEB Service wdkYudk uGefysLwmwpfvHk; xJwGif vkyfaqmifapygu aESmifh,SufzsufqD;olrS rvdkvm; tyfaom y½kd*&rfrsm;ay;ydkYygu WEB Service rS 4if;y½kd*&rf rsm;udk zsufqD;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh jyóemudk ajz&Sif;apEdkif ygonf/ ( *) Firewall pepfukd uGeysLwmwpfv;kH xuf ydíxm;&Soifygonf/ odrom f k d h Yk S t&Htjzpf aqmif&GufEdkifrnf jzpfygonf/

101 Data Communication Network 8/ 0if^xGuf*dwfowfowfrSwfrSwfxm;&Sdjcif;/ 0if^xGuf*dwf udk atmufygtwdkif; owfowfrSwfrSwf xm;&Sd&rnfjzpfygonf(u) xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufolrsm;udk apmihfMuyfMunhf&IEdkifjyD;? vdktyfovdk xdef;csKyfí usOf;ajrmif;onhf qufoG,fa&;vrf;aMumif;udkom toHk;jyK 0ifa&mufEdkif&ef pDrHaqmif&Gufxm;&Sd&rnf jzpfonf/ ( c) 0if^xGuf*dwf wpfaygufudk owfowfrSwfrSwf rxm;&Sdygu 0if^xGuf *dwf tajrmuftrsm;rS umuG,fwm;qD;aqmif½Guf&rnfjzpfonf/ ( *) tjcm; 0if^xGuf oGm;a&mufEdkifonhf atmufazmfjyyg vrf;aMumif;rsm; &Sdygu 0if^xGuf *dwf owfowfrSwfrSwf xm;&Sdjcif;onf t"dyÜg,f &Sdawmhrnf r[kwfyg(1) Firewall onf owfowfrSwfrSwf0if^xGuf*dwf rS rjzwfbJ Dial-up line wpfckjzifh xyfrHtoHk;jyKqufoG,fjcif;/ (2) tifwmeufqufoG,frI aemufwpfvdkif;xm;&dSí Firewall rS rjzwfbJ csdwfqufjcif;/ 9/ vHkNcHKrItm;tenf;qHk;vrf;aMumif;/ atmufygtwdkif; vHkNcHKrI tm;tenf;qHk; vrf;aMumif;udk &SmazGyg(u) vHkNcHKrI tm;tenf;qHk;vrf;aMumif;udk&SmazGNyD; vHkNcHKrIaumif;onfxuf aumif;atmif wnfaqmuf&rnf/ ( c ) vHkNcHKrI tm;tenf;qHk;aom 0if^xGuf*dwfrsm;udk *½kpdkufyg/ 4if;wdkYudk yaysmufatmif tqifhqifhvkyfaqmif&rnf/ ( * ) yaysmufatmif raqmif&GufEdkifygu vHkNcHKrI tm;tenf;qHk; 0if^xGuf *dwfrsm;udk *½kwpdkuf apmifhMuyfMunfh½Iyg/ Firewall Design rl0g' 10/ vHkNcHKpGm&yfwefYapjcif;oabm/ &yfwefYjcif;? ysufpD;cRwf,Gif;jcif;jzpfyGg;ygu System onf qufoG,frIvrf;aMumif;udk jzwfawmufNyD; wdkufcdkufolrsm; (Attackers) tm;vnf;aumif;? w&m;0iftoHk;jyKaeolrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; toHk;rjyKEdkifatmif jiif;qdkrI (Deny) jyKvkyfrnfjzpfonf/ Firewall wGif tvdktavQmufoabmESpfrsdK; &SdEdkif ygonf(u) tvdktavQmuf cGifhjyKjcif;oabm/ ( c) tvdktavQmuf jiif;qdkjcif;oabm/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

102

11/ tvdktavQmufcGifhjyKjcif;oabm/ tvdkavQmufcGifhjyKjcif; oabmrSm atmufyg twdkif; jzpfygonf(u) þoabmonf &yfwefYjcif;? cRwf,Gif;jcif;jzpfay:ygu System onf qufoG,f rIvrf;aMumif;ukdjzwfawmufNyD; rnfodkYaomqufoG,f vkyfaqmifrIudkrqdk txl;wm;jrpfxm;jcif;r&SdbJ cGifhjyKonf/ 4if;oabmonf vHkNcHKpGm&yfwefYapjcif;oabmr[kwfyg/ umuG,fwm;qD;&ef vdktyfaom qufoG,fvkyfaqmifrIwdkif;udk od&Sd&ef trSefwu,ftm;jzifh rjzpfEdkifyg/

( c) ( *)

12/ tvdktavQmufjiif;qdkonfhoabm/ tvdktavQmufjiif;qdkonfh oabmrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) ( c) ( *) þoabmonf rnfonfhtxl;cGifhjyKcsufrqdk wm;jrpfxm;onf/ 4if;oabmxm;onf vHkNcHKpGm&yfwefYapjcif; oabmxm;wpfckjzpfonf/ 0efaqmifrrsm;udk taMumif;t&mwpfcjk cif;tvduf atmufygtcsursm; I k f ay:wGiftajccHí 0efaqmifrIay;rnfjzpfygonf(1) toHk;jyKolrsm;tvkduf0efaqmifrI (Service) vkdtyfcsuf/ (2) vHkNcKHrINidpGef;apaomudpö&yfrsm;/ (3) rSefuefaomvkdtyfcsufrsm;tay:tajccHí vHkNcHKpGmaqmif&Guf ay;Edkifonfh 0efaqmifrI (Service) rsm;udomcGijhf yKonf/ k þoabmw&m;onf vHNk cKH a&;qdi&m vly*Kd¾ vrsm;twGuf odomxif&m; k f k f S ay:vGifaom a&G;cs,frIwpfck jzpfygonf/

(C)

Firewall wnfaqmufxm;&SdrIenf;vrf;rsm;

13/

Firewall wnfaqmufxm;&SdrI enf;vrf;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Packet Filtering Firewall ( c) Dual Homed Host Firewall ( *) Screening Firewall (C) Screening Subnet Firewall

103 Data Communication Network 14/ Packet Filtering Firewall/ yH(7-1)twdi;f Internet ESifh Internal Network k k Mum;wGif Screening Router Mum;cHít0iftxGuf Packet rsm;udk Firewall Policy jzifh wdkufqdkifppfaq;í 0ifxGufcGifh qHk;jzwfrnfjzpfonf/

ykH(7-1) Packet Filtering
Firewall xm;&SdyHk

15/

Dual Homed Host Firewall/ yHk(7-2)twdkif; Internet ES i f h Internal

Network Mum;wGif Dual Port(2-NIC) yg&Sdaom Firewall jzifh Mum;cHí t0iftxGuf Packet rsm;udk Firewall Policy jzifh wdkufqdkifppfaq;í0ifxGufcGifhqHk;jzwfrnfjzpfonf/

ykH (7-2) Dual Homed Host Firewall xm;&SykH d

uGefysLwmvufpJG 16/

104

Screening Firewall/ yH(7-3)twdi; Internet ESifh Internal Network Mum;wGif k k f

Screening Router jzifvnf;aumif;? Bastion Host jzifvnf;aumif; Mum;cHít0iftxGuf h h Packet rsm;udk Firewall Policy jzifh ESpfqifhwdkfufqdkifppfaq;um 0ifxGufcGifh qHk;jzwfrnf

jzpfonf/

ykH (7-3)
Screening Firewall xm;&SykH d

17/

Sereening Subnet Firewall/ yHk(7-4)ygtwdkif; Internet ESifh Internal Interior Router wdkYjzifh

Network Mum;wGif Exterior Router, Bastion Host ESifh

Mum;cHí t0iftxGuf Packet rsm;udk Firewall Policy jzifh ESpfqifh^oHk;qifhtxd wdkufqdkif ppfaq;um 0ifxGufcGifh qHk;jzwfrnfjzpfonf/

ykH (7-4)
Screening Subnet Firewall

xm;&SdyHk

105 Data Communication Network

Chapter (8)

uGeysLwmESiueysLwmuGe,ufpepfrsm;\ f hf G f f vkNH cKH a&;ESipufvnfywfrpepfudk xdcuapaom uGeysLwmAdi;f &yfpf hf I dk f f k (Computer Virus)rsm;taMumif;
uGefysLwmAkdif;&yfpf 1/ uGeysLwmAki;f &yfpqonfrm Program wpfy'jf zpfonf/ Virus Program onf f d f dk S k tjcm; Program rsm; (odkYr[kwf) tcsuftvufzkdifrsm;ukd zsufqD;jcif;? uGefysLwm\ ykrevyaqmifrrsm;ukd &yfwefapjcif; (odr[kw) aESmifaES;oGm;apjcif;? ykrer[kwaom H S f k f I Y Yk f h H S f f vkyfaqmifrIrsm; jzpfay:apjcif;? uGefysLwmtm; tokH;jyK&ef tqifoifhrjzpfapjcif; ponfwkdYukdjyKvkyf&eftwGuf uG,f0Sufykef;vQKd;aewwfMuonf/ uGefysLwmAkdif;&yfpfrsm;\ obm0onf ul;pufEdkifjcif;? yGm;rsm;Edkifjcif;? zsufqD;Edkifjcif; [laom t&nftcsif;rsm; &Sdonf/ Adkif;&yfpful;pufwwfaomenf;vrf;rsm; 2/ Adkif;&yfpful;pufwwfaom enf;vrf;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Virus &Sdaom Program (okr[kw) File rsm;ukd Copy ul;,ljcif;aMumifh Yd f ul;pufjcif;/ ( c ) csdefukdufAkH;uJhokdYjzpfap? tcsdeftykdif;tjcm;t&jzpfap? Program tm; tokH;jyKrItBudrfta&twGuft&jzpfap tcsdefukduful;pufjcif;/ ( * ) Virus &Sdaom Documents (odkYr[kwf)Text zdkifrsm;? Internet? E-mail zdkifrsm;udk zGifhjcif;aMumifh 4if;wdkYwGif wG,fuyfaeaom Adkif;&yfpf ul;puf jcif;/ Adkif;&yfpful;pufyHk 3/ uGefysLwmAkdif;&yfpfrsm;onf Program rsm;? Floppy Disk? Hard Disk, CDROM ESifh Boot Sector (tcsuftvufokdavSmifaomypönf;rsm;\ yxrqkH; tpdwftykdif;twGif;) enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkjzihf 0ifa&mufMuonf/ trsm;pkrSm ¤if;wkdY0ifa&muf aeonfh Program File ukd tvkyfvkyfckdif;onfhtcg PC \rSwfÓPfxJwGif vIyf&Sm; use&pfNy;D ? tjcm; Program rsm;okYd ul;pufom;Ekionf/ (okr[kw) Aki;f &yfpf 0ifaeonfh f G d f Yd f d

uGefysLwmvufpJG

106

Floppy Disk , Hard Disk jzifh tvkyfvkyfonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf zkdiftopfrsm; ESifh Boot Sector rsm;twGif;odkY Adkif;&yfpful;puf0ifa&mufMuonf/ uGefysLwmAkdif;&yfpfonf uGefysLwmwpfvkH;rSwpfvkH;okdY ul;pufEkdifonf/ Akdif;&yfpfrsm;onf Executable Program File rsm;jzpfonfh *.COM (okdYr[kwf) *.EXE rsm;wGifom wG,fuyfavh&Sdaomfvnf; tcsdKU Akdif;&yfpfrsm;rSm *.DLL, *.PRG, *.SYS, *.LOG, *.DAT, *.DOC, *.HTML, k f *.HTM, *.TXT, *.ASP, E-mail File rsm;udyg wG,uyfMuonf/

Adkif;&yfpfy½dk*&rfrsm; jzpfay:vm&jcif;taMumif;rsm; 4/ uGefysLwmAdkif;&yfpfy½kd*&rfrsm;udk atmufyg&nf½G,fcsufjzifh a&;om;avh&SdMu ygonf(u) aESmuf,SufzsufqD;vdkía&;om;jcif;/ ( c ) rdrd&SmazGavhvmod&Sdxm;aom enf;ynmudkprf;oyfvdkía&;om;jcif;/ ( * ) toHk;cs Software xkwfvkyfolrsm;u rdrdxkwfukefrsm;udk w&m;r0if ul;,ljcif;rS wm;qD;vdkí a&;om;jcif;/ (C) Adkif;&yfpfumuG,fa&;y½dk*&rfrsm; a&mif;csvdkía&;om;jcif;/ Adkif;&yfpftrsdK;tpm;rsm; 5/ Akdif;&yfpfrsm; xdcdkuf^ul;pufaomae&mrsm;ay:wGif rlwnfí atmufaz:jyyg twkdif;cJGjcm;Ekdifygonf(u) Executable File ? System File wGif ul;pufaom trsdK;tpm;/ ( c ) Boot Sector wGif ul;pufaom trsdK;tpm;/ ( * ) Document ? Text File ? E-mail ? Web Page File rsm;wGif ul;pufaomtrsdK;tpm;/ uGefysLwmAkdif;&yfpf\aESmuf,SufzsufqD;yHk 6/ uGefysLwmAdkif;&yfpf\ aESmuf,SufzsufqD;yHkrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) uGefysLwm\pGrf;aqmifrIaES;oGm;jcif; (Degradation the System Performance)/ tcsKdUAdkif;&yfpfrsm;onf uGefysLwmpGrf;aqmifEdkifrIudk aES;oGm;apygonf/ (Oyrm- Ping-Pong Virus onf Monitor ay:wGif abmvk;H wpfv;Hk zefw;D í User ukd aESmuf,uonf/ Jurusalem Virus S f onf Computer System udk aES;usoGm;aponf/ Data Sent Virus

107 Data Communication Network onf Printer odkYay;ydkYaom Data udk aESmuf,Sufonf/ Keyperss Virus onf Keyboard Buffer wGif Character rsm;udk tvdtavsmuf k jynhfatmifxnhfjcif;jzihf Keyboard Error toHudk tqufrjywf jrnfaponf/ Stone Virus onf Computer System udk Boot vkyaepOf (odr[kw) toH;k jyKaepOf ]Your Computer is Now Stone } f Yk f [k owday;pmwrf;ay:vmNyD; &yfwefYoGm;aponf/) zdkifrsm;ysufpD;qHk;½HI;apjcif; (File Damage )/ tcsKdUAdkif;&yfpfrsm;onf System File rsm;? Executable File? Data Filersm;udzsuq;ypf\/ k f D (Oyrm-10 Past 3 Adi;f &yfp?f 144 Adi;f &yfp?f 337 Adi;f &yfp?f 382 Adi;f &yfp?f k k k k 927 Ad k i f ; &yf p f ? 1024PSCR Ad k i f ; &yf p f ) tcsKd U Ad k i f ; &yf p f r sm;onf Command.com File wGif roufqdkifonfrsm; 0ifa&;wwf\/ okdavSmifypönf;\ tcsuftvufrsm;tm;ysufpD;qHk;½HI;apjcif; (Disk Damage ) / tcsKUd onf Hard Disk Space trsm;tjym;udk qHk;½IH;ap\/ tcsKdUonf Hard Disk udk Low Level Format jyKvkyfí Data tm;vkH;udk qHk;½IH;ap\/ tcsKdUonf Boot Sector udkzsufqD;um Disk udk Unbootable jzpfap\/ (Oyrm- Aircop Adi;f &yfp?f Antrax Adkif;&yfpf? k Azusa Adkif;&yfpf? Blood2 Adkif;&yfpf? Empire Adkif;&yfpf? Evil Empire A/B Adkif;&yfpf? Evil Empire C/D Adkif;&yfpf) tcsKdUonf Hard Disk \ Partition Table udkzsufqD;um Data rsm;udkqHk;½IH;ap\/ tcsKdUonf File Allocation Table udk Overwrite vkyum Data rsm;\ Address f rsm;udk vrf;vTJwwfonf/

( c)

(* )

uGefysLwmAdkif;&yfpf &Sdwwfonhfae&mrsm; 7/ uGefysLwmAdkif;&yfpfonf atmufazmfjyygae&mrsm;wGif &dSwwfMuygonf(u) Hard disk/ uGeysLwm Hard Disk \ File Allocation Table? Master f Boot Record ESihf Executable File wdwi0ifEiygonf/ Yk G f kd f ( c ) Floppy disk/ Floppy Disk \f Boot Sector ESihf Executable File wdwif 0ifEiygonf/ Yk G kd f ( * ) Memory/ uGeysLwm\ Mian Memory wGif 0ifa&mufaewwfonf/ f (C) Internet E-Mail ESifh Web Page rsm;rSwpfqifh0ifa&mufí HTML File rsm;? E-Mail File rsm;wGif &Sdaewwfygonf/

uGefysLwmvufpJG

108

jrefrmjynfwGiftjzpftrsm;qkH;Akdif;&yfpfrsm; 8/ jrefrmjynfwGif atmufazmfjyygAdkif;&yfpfrsm;rSm tjzpftrsm;qHk;jzpfygonf(u) Anti CMOS ( c ) Stone ( * ) Welcom (C) Michale Angelo ( i ) Die-Hard, Trojen ( p ) CIH, HTT (q) Love Bug, Macro ( Z) Macro Virus, Worm (ps) Sobig, Blaster ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/
Love Bug Virus \ zsufqD;yHk

9/ Love Bug Adkif;&yfpfrSm E-mail ESifhtwl Attachment zdkifyl;wGJyg&SdvmNyD;? ,if; E-mail udkzGifhvdkufygu oHk;pGJaeaom uGefysLwmodkY Adkif;&yfpful;pufoGm;rnfjzpf&m uGeysLwm\ Hard Disk twGi;f &Sd tcsutvufrsm;tm;vH;k ysup;D aprnf jzpfygonf/ f f f Love Bug Virus onf yHk(8-1)ygtwdkif; tqifhqifhzsufqD;ygonf-

ykH (8-1) Love Bug Virus vkyfaqmifyHktqifhqifh

109 Data Communication Network csmEkbdkif;Adkif;&yfpf\zsufqD;yHktqifhqifh d 10/ csmEdkbdkif;Adkif;&yfpfonf Flash BIOS twGif;odkY 0ifa&mufzsufqD;jcif;aMumihf uGeysLwm System Unit udk Power On onftcg Monitor wGif bmrSray:Ediawmhyg/ f h k f csmEdkbdkif;Adkif;&yfpfonf yHk(8-2)twdkif; tqifhqifhzsufqD;ygonf/

ykH (8-2) csmEdkbdkif; Adkif;&yf vkyfaqmifyHk tqifhqifh Adkif;&yfpftEÅ&m,frSumuG,fa&; 11/ uGeysLwmAdi;f &yfponf uGeysLwmwpfv;kH rS tjcm;uGeysLwmwpfv;kH (odr[kw) f k f f f Yk f Network csdwfqufxm;aomuGefysLwmrsm;tm;vHk;udk zsufqD;Edkifojzifh qHk;½IH;rI rsm;pGm jzpfapEdkifygonf/ odkYjzpfí uGefysLwmudk taumif;qHk;taetxm;wGif xm;&SdEdkif&efESifh Adkif;&yfpfzsufqD;rIrS umuG,fxm;&dS&ef Virus Protection Utility tygt0if System Utility rsm;ESifh xda&mufaom Tools Kit rsm;udk aqmifxm;oifhygonf/ vuf&Sdtajc taet& Adkif;&yfpfrsm;udk umuG,f&mwGif txda&mufqHk;[k ,lqxm;aom trsKd; tpm;av;rsKd;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf(u) Antivirus software ( c ) Utility suites ( * ) Diagnostics software (C) Uninstallers/undoers

uGefysLwmvufpJG

110

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