# ‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet

Measurements
Base SI Units Kg m s A K mol Number Prefix n (10-9) µ (10-6) m (10-3) c (10-2) d (10-1) K (103) M (106) Average Speed s = ∆d / ∆t SI Unit for mass: Kilogram SI Unit for length: metre SI Unit for time: second SI Unit for current: Ampere SI Unit for Temperature: Kelvin SI Unit for Amount of substance: molar nano micro milli centi deci Kilo Mega For a body in rotational Principle of Moment Σ Anticlockwise Moment equilibrium, = Σ Clockwise Moment Sum of ACW Moment = sum of CW Moment Pressure F 𝐏 = A Pressure of liquid column P = hρg

Pressure
P = Pressure F = Force over area, A A = Area P = Pressure ρ = density, h = height of liquid column g = gravitational field strength. W = work done F= force d= distance in direction of force Work done per unit time, t Ek = Kinetic Energy m = mass v = velocity g = gravity =9.81 m/s h = height m = mass E1 = Total Energy Before E2 = Total Energy After Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed or converted into other forms. P = pressure of fixed mass of gas V = volume occupies by fixed mass of gas T = Temperature of gas Subscript 1 = initial state Subscript 2 = final state

Energy, Work and Power
Work Done W = Fd Power P = W/t = Fv Kinetic Energy 1 𝐄𝐤 = mv 2 2 Gravitational Potential Energy Ep = mgh Conservation of Energy E1 = E2

∆d = total distance travelled (area under speed-time graph) ∆x = total displacement Average Velocity ∆t = total time taken ∆v = change in velocity v = ∆x/∆t Velocity (slope of displacement-time graph) Acceleration Acceleration (slope of velocity-time graph) a = ∆v/∆t v = u + at u = initial velocity v = final velocity x = ut + ½ at2 t = time v2 = u2 + 2ax a = acceleration x = displacement h = height vfree fall = �2𝑔ℎ g = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2 Newton’s First Law ⃑ ∑ 𝐹= 0 at equilibrium

Kinematics

Dynamics

Kinetic Model of Matter
Ideal Gas Law PV ∞ T P1V1 = P2V2

Newton’s Second Law F= ma

Newton’s Third Law

Resolving forces Fhorizontal = Fr cos Ө Fvertical = Fr sin Ө Weight w = mg

A body continues to stay in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line as long as there is no net force/moment acting on the body. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. For every force object A acts on object B, object B will exert an equal and opposite force on object A giving rise to Reaction/Normal Forces Fr Fvertical Ө Fhorizontal

Thermal Properties of Matter
Specific Heat Capacity c = Specific heat capacity (Energy required to raise the temperature of E = m c ∆T 1kg of the object by 1 °C) m = mass ∆T = change in temperature. Lfusion = latent heat of fusion (Energy Latent Heat required to change 1kg of solid to For melting, liquid at the constant temp) E = m Lfusion Lvaporization = latent heat of vaporization (Energy required to For boiling, change 1kg of liquid to gas at the E = m Lvaporization constant temp) m = mass

Mass, Weight, Density
Density m ρ= V w = Weight m = mass g = gravitational field strength ρ = density m = mass V = volume

General Wave Properties
Wave Velocity v=fλ Wave frequency 1 f=
T

v = velocity of a wave f = frequency λ = wavelength T = Period f = frequency

Turning effect of Force
M = Moment F = force d = ⊥ distance from force to pivot

Moment of Force M=Fd

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‘O’ Level Physics Formula Sheet
Light
Law of Reflection Өi = Өr Өi = angle of incidence Өr= angle of reflection Snell’s Law (refraction) n1Sin Өi = n2Sin Өr Өi = angle of incidence Өr = angle of refraction n2 sin 𝚯𝐜 = n1 Critical angle Normal Өi Өr Electric Power
2 P = VI = V2/R = I R

Practical Electricity
P = Power V = voltage R = resistance I = current E = energy output P = power t = time V = voltage I = current V = voltage N = number of coils I = current Subscript p = primary coil Subscript s = secondary coil

Normal Өi Өr n2 = refractive index 2 Normal Өc n1 = refractive index 1 n1 = refractive index 1

Electrical Energy E = Pt = (VI)t

Transformer Vp Np = Vs Ns (ideal transformer) VPIP = VsIs Right hand grip

Electromagnetism

(special case of Snell’s law where Өr = 90°) Refractive Index c 𝐧 = v (n of air ≈ 1) Magnification hi di 𝐌 = = ho do Current I = Q / ∆t Ohm’s Law Resistance R=V/I Resistance of a wire R = ρL/A

n2 = refractive index 2 c = speed of light in vacuum. v = speed of light in medium Higher reflective index of a medium means light travel slower in the medium M = magnification h = height d = distance from lens Subscript i = image Subscript o = object Current = rate of flow of charges Q = Charge t=time V = voltage, R = resistance I = current ρ = resistivity L = length of wire A = cross sectional area

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

Current of Electricity

Fleming’s Left Hand Rule

D.C. Circuits
Kirchoff’s 1st Law � Iin = � Iout � V = E. M. F

Kirchoff’s 2nd Law

Conservation of charges. ∑ Iin = Sum of current going into a junction ∑ Iout = Sum of current going out of a junction ∑ V = Sum of potential difference V across all components in a circuit E.M.F = Voltage supplied by the power supply.
I R1 R2 R3

Resistance in Series Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 1 1 1 1 = + + R total R1 R 2 R 3 Resistance in Parallel

V R1 R2 R3

References

1. PHYSICS Ordinary Level (Syllabus 5058) 2. Education Haven (http://matchtutor.com.sg)

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