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Berechnungssoftware für den Maschinenbau
KISSsoft, shaft analysis: Introduction to DIN 743, October 2000 Shafts and axles, calculation of load capacity
___________________________________________________________________________ Keywords: DIN743, shaft, axle, fatigue strength, static strength Introduction No.: KISSsoft-theory-03-001 File: G:\KISSDOKU\Beschreibungen\Weitere\Anleitungen\din743-intro-english.doc Erstellt: 12.5.2003, H. Dinner, KISSsoft AG ___________________________________________________________________________
1.1 Purpose The DIN 743 for strength analysis of shafts and axles is a most helpful analysis method available in the KISSsoft software, , for analysis of machine elements. The standard however is available in German only and the theory behind the software KISSsoft is not readily available for non german speaking customers. Therefore, a short introduction to the said standard is given herewith. 1.2 The DIN 743 The German standard DIN 743  has been prepared by the German institute for standardisation and the Institut für Maschinenelemente und Maschinenkonstruktion of the technical university of Dresden, Germany. The objective was to make available for the engineering community a standard focusing on strength analysis of shafts and axles. The standard is based on the standard TGL 19340 of the former German Democratic Republic, the VDI 2226 of the Federal Republic of Germany and the FKM guideline compiled by the IMA Dresden, Germany, see , , . The proof of strength is based on the calculation of a safety factor against fatigue and against static failure. The safety factors have to be higher than a required minimal safety factor. If this condition is fulfilled, proof is delivered. The standard consists of four parts: Part 1: Introduction, analysis method Part 2: Stress concentration factors and fatigue notch factors Part 3: Materials data
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KISSsoft: Shaft analysis, an introduction to the DIN 743 standard
KISSsoft AG Frauwis 1 CH - 8634 Hombrechtikon
Materials data are based on 107 stress cycles with a probability of survival of 97. shear stresses due to shear forces are not considered. hence use of this standard for short shafts requires caution. 2 Proof against fatigue failure 2.Part 4: Examples 1.1 Safety In order to deliver the proof against fatigue failure. bending. The standard does not cover the calculation of the load acting.4. no proof for finite life strength is delivered. Additional safety factors or an increased safety factor due to uncertainties in the load assumptions and due to the effects of a failure are not defined. to be defined by the engineer. Only the fatigue limit is used in the proof.τ ta σ zdADK .5%. an introduction to the DIN 743 standard . According to the standard. The environment has to be non-corrosive for application of this standard. All loads (bending. σ ba .2. strengths 2 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis. tensile/compression. an extension is planned. However.3 Limitations The analytical proof considers bending. These loads are to be calculated according to the nominal stress concept. see section 4. the safety S calculated has to be higher than the minimal required safety Smin. torsion Permissible stress amplitudes. The safety S is calculated from partial safeties according to the following formula: S= 1 σ zda σ + ba σ zdADK σ bADK τ ta + τ tADK 2 2 where σ zda .τ tADK Stress amplitudes due to tension/compression. using standard engineering formulas. σ bADK . Smin has to be at least 1. The notch factors for feather keys are questionable since no difference is made for the different key forms. They have to be defined by the engineer. Uncertainties in the load assumptions and severe effects in case of failure require higher safety factors.4 Loads The loads acting on the part are defined by describing the effective load amplitudes and the mean loads (for the fatigue proof) and the maximum acting load (for static proof). The standard is limited to non-welded steels in the range of –40C° to 150C°. However. shear) are in phase. tensile/compressive and shear stresses due to torsion. 1. The safety factor required in the standard covers only the uncertainty in the analysis procedure.
Surface roughness factor KFσ. leaving the mean stress on a constant level Case 2: The safety is based on the assumption that the stress ratio used for calculation of permissible stress amplitude is equal to the stress ratio as it is for the actual stress amplitude The latter is the more conservative approach and recommended.20 Two different cases are distinguished: Case 1: The safety factor is based only on the comparison between actual and permissible stress amplitude. Condition for delivery of proof is that S ≥ S min ≥ 1.3 Mean stress sensitivity ψσK and ψτK: Effect of mean stress level on permissible stress amplitude. It is a nominal stress considering .The stress amplitudes are calculated based on the nominal stress concept.Surface hardening factor KV: effect of compressive residual stresses. the difference being considered using the technological size factor K1(d). Wp) and external loads (moments. This factor depends on the type of material used and its hardenability / heat treatability: σ B (d ) = K 1 (d ) * σ B (d B ) Where 3 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis.3 * H HB For a part with diameter d>dB lower strength applies. For calculation of the permissible stress amplitudes. Basic assumption is that the ultimate strength Rm or σB is based on a reference diameter dB for which the ultimate strength Rm is tabulated (see part 3 of the standard). considering the cross section of the shaft (A.2. βτ(d): effect of local stress increasers/notches . see section 4.2 Strength of the part The strength of the part (index ADK) is being calculated from the strength of the un-notched material specimen.2 .2 . Rm / σB may also be estimated from measured Brinell hardness values according to: σ B ≈ 0. forces). Wb. see section 2.1 . depending on diameter at time of treatment).Geometrical size factor K2(d): effect of stress gradient on bending strength compared to tensile strength of specimen. 2.Notches. an introduction to the DIN 743 standard The form of the above formula is based on the idea of partial safeties for the specific load types (normal stresses / shear stresses) combined in elliptic form. KFτ.Technological size factor K1(deff): effect of heat treatment (size of shaft). . I. see section 4. see section 4. see section 4. notch factor βσ(d).
bending (index b) and torsion (index t): σ zdWK = σ bWK = τ tWK = Where K1(deff) σ zdW (d B ) * K 1 (d eff ) Kσ Kσ Kτ σ bW (d B ) * K 1 (d eff ) τ tW (d B ) * K 1 (d eff ) Technological size factor Strength of the un-notched specimen with diameter dB These values are listed in Part 3 of the standard σ zdW .τ tW β 1 1 Kσ = σ + K ( d ) K − 1 * K Fσ V 2 βτ 1 1 Kτ = K (d ) + K − 1 * K Fτ V 2 Where K2(d) βσ. tension/compression and shear): σ bw (d ) = 0. σ bW .5 * σ B (d ) σ zdw (d ) = 0.4 * σ B (d ) τ tw (d ) = 0.2 Notch factor for compression/tension. the fatigue strengths are estimated as follows (for bending. bending and torsion Listed in Part 2 of the standard Hence. an introduction to the DIN 743 standard . the effect of the notch is considered in the permissible stress and not in the actual stress (calculated as nominal stress). 4 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis. see section 2. for tension/compression (index zd).τ Geometrical size coefficient. see section 4.3).3 * σ B (d ) The fatigue strength of the notched part then is (influence of mean stress not yet considered.σzB(d) σzB(dB) K1(d) Strength of the part with diameter d Strength of the specimen with diameter dB Technological size coefficient Based on this ultimate strength of the part.
an introduction to the DIN 743 standard Two different cases are to be distinguished.ψ bσK . In both cases.1 Safety For this proof. σ mv . the mean stress sensitivity factor is independent of the level of the mean stress. the mean stress and the mean stress sensitivity: .ψ τ K ) For case 1.2.ψ zdσK . The resulting safety is calculated as follows: 5 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis. we find: σ zdADK = σ zdWK − ψ zdσK * σ mv σ bADK = σ bWK − ψ bσK * σ mv σ zdADK = τ tWK − ψ τK *τ mv And for case 2 (limiting conditions not shown. σ bADK .τ mv .τ tWK . 3 Static proof 3.3 Influence of mean stress σ zdADK . although new findings show that it is higher for low mean stresses and lower for higher mean stresses. see . see standard for more details) σ zdADK = σ zdWK 1 + ψ zdσK * σ mv σ zda σ bADK = σ bWK 1 + ψ bσK * σ mv σ ba τ tADK = τ tWK a + ψ τK * τ mv τ ta Where σ mv = τ mv = 2 (σ zdm + σ bm )2 + 3 *τ tm σ mv 3 The mean stress sensitivity factors ψ themselves depend on the ultimate strength of the material and the alternating strength.τ tADK = f (σ zdWK . σ bWK . the maximum stress occurring during the lifetime of the part is to be compared to it’s strength. see case 1 and case 2 in section 2. According to the formulas used in the standard. the strength of the notched part considering the mean stress is a function of the strength of the notched part not considering the mean stress.1.
from measurement) and is to be estimated from the values of the specimen with diameter dB.1 Notch effects The notch factor β is defined through the permissible stress amplitude against fatigue failure of the un-notched specimen of diameter d compared to the one of the notched part: βσ = βτ = σ zd . whereas the form factor is a function only of the geometry of the part.bWK τ tW (d ) τ tWK Whereas the form factor α is the coefficient of the stress value in the notch compared to the stress value in the un-disturbed cross section (nominal stress). Hence. the effect of notches is not considered.2 Strength of the part In the above formula. Generally.S= 1 Note that for the static proof. The comparisons are than added up in the sense of a elliptic safety criterion.g.bW (d ) σ zd . the notch factor β is also a function of the 6 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis. 3. generally written as σs(d) (yield strength for a part of diameter d) are calculated as follws: σ zdFK = K1 (d eff ) * K 2 F * γ F * σ s (d B ) σ bFK = K1 (d eff ) * K 2 F * γ F * σ s (d B ) τ tFK = K1 (d eff ) * K 2 F * γ F * σ s (d B ) / 3 Where K1(deff) is the technological size coefficient K2F is the static support coefficient depending on the presence of a hardened outer layer of the material γF is a coefficient for increasing the yield strength due to a multi-axial stress state in a notch σS(dB) is the yield strength of the specimen with diameter dB 4 Remarks 4. The yield strengths of the part. strengths of the part (in the denominators) are compared to the acting stresses (in the numerators). an introduction to the DIN 743 standard σ zd max σ b max + σ σ bFK zdFK τ t max + τ tFK 2 2 . the yield strength of the part of diameter d is not known (e.
see for example . It is recommended to use the lower range of the tabulated values or to conduct experiments if the higher values are to be used. 4. With this extension. load spectrums can be considered.β σ . an introduction to the DIN 743 standard material and the stress state. The notch factor β can be calculated from the form factor α as follows: . Based on this damage equivalent load. . The underlying effects covered are the surface hardness and induced compressive stresses. The stress gradient can either be calculated by means of FEM or estimated through formulas given in the standard. the support coefficient n also decreases. The damage equivalent load amplitude is calculated as follows: σ a = σ a1 / f koll Where 7 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis.2 Influence of size The influence of the size of a part on it’s strength is to be considered in three factors: 1) Technological size coefficient K1(deff): With this factor the fact that the effect of hardening / heat treatment and hence the strength is reduced with increasing part diameter. using a S-N curve.τ n Where n is the support coefficient to be calculated from the materials strength and the stress gradient in the notch. a damage equivalent load is calculated. Based on the load spectrum. The coefficient is to be estimated using the effective diameter during heat treatment. 3) Geometrical size coefficient K3(d): Same effect as in 2) but here for the notched part. This is due to the decreasing stress gradient with increasing part diameter. However. bending. This coefficient is independent of the type of load (tension/compression.4 Finite life calculation The standard DIN 743 covers only the proof against fatigue failure for infinite life. 4.3 Influence of surface hardening With the coefficient KV effects due to surface hardening depending on the procedure applied are considered. Different notch factors are given for all three load types considered (bending. The coefficient is to be considered if the strength of the part is not measured but calculated from the strength of the specimen as tabulated in the standard. 2) Geometrical size coefficient K2(d): With this factor. an extension to finite life calculation is planned.τ = α σ . see . 4. shear). tension/compression and torsion). the effect that the strength against bending converges towards the strength against tension/compression with increasing part diameter and that the strength against shear due to torsion is also being reduced. the lifetime is estimated or the proof for infinite life is delivered. With the decreasing stress gradient.
load assumptions and effect of failure . but the usefulness of the standard and the soundness of the design resulting from its use were confirmed in all cases. calculated according to different variations of Miners rule. q=8 for torsion 4. an introduction to the DIN 743 standard σa is the damage equivalent load amplitude σa1 is the highest load amplitude of the collective fkoll describes the shape of the load sepctrum. FKM-Richtlinie . Vergleichende Betrachtungen zum Tragfähigkeitsnachweis der Wellen in Sondergetrieben von Tagebaugrossgeräten. VDI Berichte Nr. Empfehlung für die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile.High temperature is considered in static proof . 1965  B. 1998     8 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis. 5 References KISSsoft Software.The minimal safety factors required also depend on the material.  and .The permissible stress amplitude for a required life time is calculated as follows: σ ANK = q Where ND * σ ADK NL σANK is the permissible stress amplitude for finite life σADK is the permissible stress amplitude for infinite life ND = 1*106 cycles NL is the required life (cycles). shear stress due to shear forces are considered . see  .Differences in notch factors A comparison with the other two methods cited shows that the complete analysis procedure is quite different. www. In comparison with the FKM-guideline. 2000 TGL 19340.5 Comparison to other analysis methods In . No clear tendencies were found when comparing the results.KISSsoft.In the FKM guideline.ch DIN 743. Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile. All authors agree that the deviations in the results strongly depend on the notch considered. the following differences are found: . Schlecht. Nieman  and Hänchen + Decker . 1442. 1*103<NL<ND q=5 for bending and tension/compression. Tragfähigkeitsberechnung von Wellen und Achsen. Teile 1-3. comparisons of the analysis method according to DIN 743 with other methods. März 1983 VDI Richtlinie 2226. VDI-Verlag. are described. Calculation software for machine design.
1998  H. H. Willmerding. I. KISSsoft AG  U. Körner. Linke. VDI Berichte Nr. Belastbarkeit von Wellen und Achsen nach DIN 743. W. Springer 1981  R. Fulda  Entwurf Berechnungsvorschlag FVA – BV 743. Kissling. Decker. Römhild. 1689. Praxisorientierte Berechnung von Wellen und Achsen nach DIN 743. Klos. VDI Berichte 1442. Häckh. Linke. 2. Bachmann. Festigkeitsberechnung von Wellen und Achsen nach neuen Normen.9 von 9 KISSsoft: Shaft analysis.und Zeitfestigkeitsbereich  FKM-Richtlinie 154. 10. Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis für Maschinenbauteile  G. internal report. Depping. Neue Festigkeitslehre für den Maschinenbau. K.te Auflage. 1442.-H. 1967 . Tragfähigkeitsberechnung von Achsen und Wellen. Hänchen. Kissling. Antriebstechnik 36 Nr. VDI Berichte Nr. Ergänzung zu DIN 743. Erfassung von Lastkollektiven und Berechnungen der Sicherheit im Dauer. G. Rechnerische Lebensdauerabschätzung unter Berücksichtigung realer Belastungskollektive für die Hauptwelle eines Nutzfahrzeuggetriebes. VDI/EKV Tagung Welle-Nabe-Verbindungen. April 1998. 1997  H. J. Carl Hanser Verlag. 2002  M. 1998  U. Maschinenelemente. Anwendung der DIN 743 in der Antriebstechnik. an introduction to the DIN 743 standard  T. Festigkeitsberechnung von Wellen – Einführung von neuen Normen. Niemann. Band 1.
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