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© Frick Collection, New York
The Life of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
"The King's good servant, but God's first."
Thomas More was born in Milk Street, London on February 7, 1478, son of Sir John More, a prominent judge. He was educated at St Anthony's School in London. As a youth he served as a page in the household of Archbishop Morton, who anticipated More would become a "marvellous man."1 More went on to study at Oxford underThomas Linacre and William Grocyn. During this time, he wrote comedies and studied Greek and Latin literature. One of his first works was an English translation of a Latin biography of the Italian humanist Pico della Mirandola. It was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1510. Around 1494 More returned to London to study law, was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1496, and became a barrister in 1501. Yet More did not automatically follow in his father's footsteps. He was torn between a monastic calling and a life of civil service. While at Lincoln's Inn, he determined to become a monk and subjected himself to the discipline of the Carthusians, living at a nearby monastery and taking part of the monastic life. The prayer, fasting, and penance habits stayed with him for the rest of his life. More's desire for monasticism was finally overcome by his sense of duty to serve his country in the field of politics. He entered Parliament in 1504, and married for the first
He refused to endorse King Henry VIII's plan to divorce Katherine of Aragón (1527). It was the beginning of a lifelong friendship and correspondence. More was soon married again. They produced Latin translations of Lucian's works. he wrote Encomium Moriae. More was also instrumental in quelling a 1517 London uprising against foreigners. More attracted the attention of King Henry VIII. More accompanied the King and court to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. and a patron to the poor. In 1518 he became a member of the Privy Council. possibly by Shakespeare. More became a close friend with Desiderius Erasmus during the latter's first visit to England in 1499. While his work in the law courts was exemplary. a matter which did not escape the King's notice. 1535. 1534. More had garnered Henry's favor. and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17. As Speaker. but God's First. . In 1510. More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy. More helped establish the parliamentary privilege of free speech. the nun of Kent who opposed Henry's break with Rome. in 1509. More's final words on the scaffold were: "The King's good servant. During the next decade. In 1515 he accompanied a delegation to Flanders to help clear disputes about the wool trade. and was knighted in 1521. printed at Paris in 1506. After the death of the King in 1509. the King had imprisoned More's father and not released him until a fine was paid and More himself had withdrawn from public life. or Praise of Folly. but was not attainted due to protection from the Lords who refused to pass the bill until More's name was off the list of names. but the reason was probably his disapproval of Henry's stance toward the church. he gained a reputation for being impartial.time in 1504 or 1505. portrayed in the play Sir Thomas More.Utopia opens with a reference to this very delegation. dedicating it to More. More was found guilty of treason and was beheaded alongside Bishop Fisher on July 6. during Erasmus' second visit. More's first wife died in childbirth. and wrote an answer to Luther's reply under a pseudonym." More was beatified in 1886 and canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935.1 In April. and was made Speaker of the House of Commons in 1523 and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1525. More became active once more. citing ill health. (1509). One of More's first acts in Parliament had been to urge a decrease in a proposed appropriation for King Henry VII. In 1534 he was one of the people accused of complicity with Elizabeth Barton. he was appointed one of the two undersheriffs of London. On Erasmus' third visit. after the fall of Thomas Wolsey in 1529. He resigned in 1532. his fall came quickly. In this capacity. In 1511. In revenge. More helped Henry VIII in writing his Defence of the Seven Sacraments. He refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn in June 1533. More became Lord Chancellor. to Dame Alice. Nevertheless. a repudiation of Luther. the first layman yet to hold the post.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.Born 6 September 1766 Eaglesfield. Cumberland. Daltonism Influences John Gough . Law of Multiple Proportions. England Notable students James Prescott Joule Known for Atomic Theory. England Died 27 July 1844 (aged 77) Manchester.
makes an omission of such importance that it cannot be allowed to pass unchallenged. but his projects were not met with encouragement from his relatives ±Dissenters were barred from attending or teaching at English universities ± and he remained at Kendal until. during the succeeding 57 years. The son of a weaver. occur in Dalton¶s laboratory note-books. was published in 1801. a blind philosopher and polymath from whose informal instruction he owed much of his scientific knowledge. Mainly through John Gough. However. Dalton's first publication was Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793). which contained the seeds of several of his later discoveries. IN the review of ³A New View of the Origin of Dalton¶s Atomic Theory. and is confirmed by the entries in his laboratory note-books of the time. Dalton contributed solutions of problems and questions on various subjects to the Gentlemen's and Ladies' Diaries.´ Now these researches. he entered more than 200. Around 1790 Dalton seems to have considered taking up law or medicine. a date which is assigned to them by Dalton himself. in summing up the evidence as to the origin of the atomic theory. A second work by Dalton. . a competent meteorologist and instrument maker. in spite of the originality of his treatment. were begun in the summer of 1804. but not referred to by your reviewer. a dissenting academy. in the spring of 1793. so that Thomson¶s statement amounts to saying that the atomic theory first occurred to Dalton in the summer of 1804. He attaches great weight to Thomson¶s statement that in 1804 Dalton himself informed him ³that the atomic theory first occurred to him during his investigations of olefiant gas and carburetted hydrogen gas. 28 of the work under review.000 observations. little attention was paid to them by other scholars. your reviewer. England. and in 1787 he began to keep a meteorological diary in which. he joined his older brother Jonathan at age 15 in running a Quaker school in nearby Kendal. He remained in that position until 1800. one of these tables being reproduced in facsimile at p. he moved to Manchester. Elements of English Grammar. who got him interested in problems of mathematics and meteorology.´ published in your issue of April 16. Cumberland. when the college's worsening financial situation led him to resign his post and begin a new career in Manchester as a private tutor for mathematics and natural philosophy. as pointed out by your reviewer. Dalton was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophyat the "New College" in Manchester.John Dalton was born into a Quaker family at Eaglesfield. Dalton's early life was highly influenced by a prominent Eaglesfield Quaker named Elihu Robinson. During his years in Kendal. which are dated September 1803. near Cockermouth. This conclusion appears to us to be entirely discredited by the fact that several detailed tables of atomic weights and lists of atomic symbols. He also rediscovered George Hadley's theory of atmospheric circulation (now known as the Hadley cell) around this time.
Greek philosopher. . Largely ignored in ancient Athens.C. 460 BC ± ca. 370 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera. taken from Leucippus. pupil of Leucippus. who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos. Democritus was nevertheless well known to his fellow northern-born philosopher Aristotle. Thrace. Democritus of Abdera . Their speculation on atoms. elaborated idea that matter consisted of atoms having physical size and shape which constantly moved in a void and interacted in different ways. He was an influential pre-Socratic philosopher and pupil of Leucippus. Greece. however their ideas rested on very different bases. Many consider Democritus to be the "father of modern science". Greek word atoma means indivisible. developed atomic theory. Plato is said to have disliked him so much that he wished all his books burned. as they are often mentioned together in texts. bears a passing and partial resemblance to the nineteenth-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers. Democritus (Greek: . D mokritos. "chosen of the people") (ca. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from his mentor Leucippus.460-370 B.
"he had foretold them some things which events proved to be true. He was cheerful. the founder of the atomism. To his fellow citizens he was also known as "The Mocker´ . Democritus died at the age of 90. and although Thrasyllus placed his birth in 470 BC. spoke of him as a man who had seen many countries. After returning to his native land he occupied himself with natural philosophy. A certain "Ostanes". Democritus said that he was a "young man (neos)" during Anaxagoras' old age (circa 440±428). Democritus spent the inheritance which his father left him on travels into distant countries. and was always ready to see the comical side of life. He mentions many Greek philosophers in his writings. since according to Diogenes Laërtius ix. Leucippus. which later writers took to mean that he always laughed at the foolishness of people. although some called him a Milesian.Democritus was born in the city of Abdera in Thrace. He was highly esteemed by his fellow-citizens." which may refer to his knowledge of natural phenomena. are derived from Democritus. and his wealth enabled him to purchase their writings. Diogenes Laertius says that he was friends with Hippocrates." Aristotle placed him among the pre-Socraticnatural philosophers. Popularly known as the Laughing Philosopher (for laughing at human follies). whose knowledge he praises. him deliberately blinding himself in order to be less disturbed in his pursuits. seen more countries. which means scoffing. one of the magi accompanying Xerxes was also said to have taught him. according to Diogenes Laërtius. He was born in the 80th Olympiad (460±457BC)according to Apollodorus. He also praises Anaxagoras. the terms Abderitan laughter. he became acquainted with the Chaldean magi.41. "I came to Athens and no one knew me. Theophrastus. He particularly mentions theEgyptian mathematicians. According to Diodorus Siculus. "because.He may have been acquainted with Socrates. incessant laughter. which means a scoffer. the later date is probably more likely. and Diodorus Siculus states that he lived there for five years. During his travels. He traveled to Asia. an Ionian colony of Teos. or even 109. too. It was said that Democritus' father was so wealthy that he received Xerxeson his march through Abdera. it may well be true that he lost his sight in old age. which would put his death around 370 BC. John Burnet has argued that the date of 460 is "too early". but Plato does not mention him and Democritus himself is quoted as saying. and Abderite. and was even said to have reached India and Ethiopia." as Diogenes Laërtius says. and met more scholars than himself. he must also have visited Egypt. He traveled throughout Greeceto acquire a knowledge of its culture. but other writers have him living to 104. was the greatest influence upon him. We know that he wrote on Babylon and Meroe. to satisfy his thirst for knowledge. He himself declared that among his contemporaries none had made greater journeys.
They were both strict determinists and thoroughmaterialists. while teleological questions can be useful in biology. while their opponents search for explanations which. The atomists looked exclusively for mechanistic questions. and he carried on the scientific rationalist philosophy associated with that city. which arguably hindered progress. or final cause. Unlike Aristotle or Plato. especially in physics.Philosophy and science Democritus followed in the tradition of Leucippus. also included the formal and teleological ("What purpose did this event serve?"). the atomists attempted to explain the world without reasoning to purpose. who seems to have come from Miletus. believing everything to be the result of natural laws. . in adaptationist reasoning at providing proximate explanations. For the atomists questions should be answered with a mechanistic explanation ("What earlier circumstances caused this event?"). and only admitted mechanistic answers. in addition to the material and mechanistic. Modern science has focused on mechanistic questions. Their successors until the Renaissance became occupied with the teleological question. which have led to scientific knowledge. though the deeper evolutionary explanations are often held to be thoroughly mechanistic. prime mover.
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