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CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (CVA) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC TESTS RISK FACTOR CLINICAL MANIFESTATION Hypertension Hemorrhage Diabetes Mellitus Transient

Ischemic Attacks (TIA) Cells swell and cerebral blood vessels swell which blood flow; vasospasm and blood viscosity further impede blood flow Atherosclerosis Substance Abuse Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, heart disease, previous transient ischemic attacks Women: oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, menopause Weakness of the face, arm, leg, especially on one side of the body Trouble speaking Confusion Visual disturbance Loss of balance and coordination Sudden severe headache Motor, sensory, cranial nerve, cognitive and other functions may be disrupted Perceptual defects Aphasia Hemianopsia Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) MRI Exercise Daily Positron Emission Tomography (PET) ASSESSMENT CT Scan Signs and symptoms of ICP Arteriography Maintaining a healthy weight Following a healthy diet PREVENTION

CAUSES Characterized by gradual, rapid onset of neurologic deficits due to compromised cerebral blood flow

Stop smoking

Thrombosis Embolism

Blood flow and oxygenation of cerebral neurons or interrupted; changes occur in 4-5 min.

Penumbra is a central core of dead and dying cells surrounded by band of minimally perfused cells

Neurologic deficits occur on opposite side where stroke occurred in brain: contralateral deficit

Christine Marie S. Barce BSN-3A