Edcel Climacosa


Analysis of organization is essential to the understanding society. Such study of organization has become significant in the past decades to stress varying theories of organization in an ever increasing degree. It has likewise grown in value and importance with the need to know more of organization structure and context. Despite these developments, however, few attempts have been made to study public administration as an organization. It should be borne in mind that public administration is not only an important aspect of government; it is the business itself of government. On the other hand, the business of public administration is national development. This chapter will, therefore, look into the nature and development of an organization, Specifically, it will attempt to discuss the following subjects. 1. Definition of Organization 2. The different Theories of Organization 3. Trends on Organization Development in the Philippines In this undertaking, the following terms are defined as follows: 1. Theory is a mere hypothesis, conjecture, individual view or notion. 2. Trend is a general direction, course or tendency. Definition of Organization Achievement is the be-all and the end-all of any organization. For any organization to achieve something, it must be organized, operated and administered. Organization is nothing more than the mechanism by which administration directs, coordinates and controls its business. It is, indeed, the very foundation of administration. When the organization is ill-designed structurally, when it passes for a makeshift arrangement, administration has been met. To be more precise, organization seeks to know “who is to do what is to be done.” ¹ A good executive may be able to secure good results with a poor organization, and a good organization may produce results from a poor executive. A social scientist, Robert S. Weiss, has defined organization as a social form with four basic characteristics, namely: 1. a set of individuals in office; 2. individuals responsibility for definite tasks –functional activities- which are parts of a division of labor; 3. an organizational goal to which the activities of the staff contribute 4. a stable system of coordinative relationships, or a structure. Alvin Toffler, defines organization as a “structure of rule filled by humans.”

Different Theories on Organization In most organizations. as earlier stated in chapter 3. 2. 3. The functions of the organization arte differentiated and placed in separate departments (departmentalization). Officials are selected on the basis of competence. As propounded by its discoverer. Max Weber’s contribution to the organization theory. . Rules for carrying out the work. various form s may be adopted to achieve organizational goals effectively with the least cost. each lower office is below a higher one. The bureaucratic type. A reappraisal of this type. clearly resembles Taylor’ scientific management. This type responds well to a society that is becoming increasingly characterized by interdependence. is characterized as follows: 1. a government may adopt not only one but several theories on organization. Impersonality. and not on irrelevant considerations. with specified spheres of competence legitimized as official duties. Taylor suggested fictionalizations as a system of organization. Narrow span of control. 4. will be examined in this chapter. according to Taylor. Taylor. Unity of command and centralization of decision-making. For purposes of comparison. 4. Firstly. For instance. limitations. He applied the concept of functionalization to forcemen. 3. make maximum use of the specialization skills of individuals in the organization. Also. that is. Authority flows down the line of command. 5. For the various parts of the organization to function correctly. Hierarchical arrangements of offices. however. the machine model bears the following peculiarities: 1. Division of labor and specialization. The official is subject to an impersonal order and established norms of conduct and he acts objectively in his contacts with individual inside and outside of the organization. may discard some principles of one theory but adopt what it finds suitable for it purpose. There is a limit to the number of immediate subordinates that any one individual can effectively supervise. some organization theories with their unique characteristics. usefulness and perhaps. This technique would. brought out the fact that it proceeded upon the mistaken assumption that all would be solved if managers expertly applied human relations skills in their dealings with workers. One-way authority. Division of labor. to be applied uniformly to individual cases. Frederick W. A third organization operates on what is called the human relations approach or social ethics theory. there must be unified command at the top of the organization. the bureaucratic model. 2. Another organization operates on the theory of bureaucracy. from the top to the bottom of the organization. there is the machine model or scientific management theory of an organization.

Basing their arguments on pragmatic grounds. the environment within which the task is to be performed. Work must allow man to develop his faculties. 5. Bureaucracy. The worker must have the possibility of controlling. like Warren G. 2.Robert T. no longer works and democracy is a “system of values” characterized by the following factors: 1. work environment. Its performance should not be generally to threaten the individual. Both the organization and the individual must be subject to an external moral order. He showed how jobs. Full and free communication. 4. regardless of rank and power. believe that democracy is an inevitable element in modern organizations. 2. Bennis. A reliance on consensus. Golombiewski. 3. The idea influence is based on technical competence and knowledge rather than on the vagaries of personal whims or prerogatives of power. rather than on the more customary forms of coercion or compromise. the exponent of “man-centered” organization. On the other hand humanist. Work must be psychologically acceptable to the individual. The work task must allow the individual considerable room for selfdetermination. in a meaningful way. The organization should not be the sole and final arbiter of behavior. as follows: 1. they contend. believes that “moral sensitivity can be associated with satisfactory output and employee’s satisfaction. to manage conflict. 3. .