This hand book has been written and produced by the Service Publications Department of Perkins Engines .

Ltd., of Peterborough,
.

England. contained

Every endeavour has been made to ensure that the information in this book is correct at the date of publication, developments, without notice.

but due to continuous

Perkins Engines Ltd .• reserve the right to alter the contents

handbook for 4.212 4.236 4.248 diesel engines

Publication

No. 20 I SER 107":;

Published by.->

Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough
Telephone Peterborough Telex 32132 Cables 'Perkoil' Peterborough Date June 1972
1

67474

PERKINS PARIS

for
PERKINS PRODUCIS
To ensure you obtain the best results from your engine and to safeguard your guarantee, fit only genuine Perkins Parts. These are readily obtainable throughout the world.

,

index
Air Air Cleaner Air Restriction Altitude Anti-Freeze Approved Approved Atomiser
-"'J _
' .. oil ~ •


I

32
20
• i.

Indicator·

, r .. ",

20 39
10

Fuel Oil Specifications Lubricating Oils Faulty

3~

Atorniser Replacement
Cold Weather Starting Aids Data De-aerating (bleeding) the Fuel System Dynamo Rear Bush Engine Identification Engine Number Engine Views Fan Belt Fault Finding Fuel Filter Element Change F uel Oil and Storage ... Hints
Introd uction

34 35
)()

I) 12

25
'::}

9
7

24
36

26

29 35
5

Leaks Lubricating Oils Oil Filter Element

33
32
Change

27
4 51

Overseas Companies ...
Parts Illustrations Post Delivery Checkover Precautions against Frost Preparing the Engine for Return Preventive Maintenance Runn ing Adjustment Running-in Starting Starting Difficulty

IX
~9

tn Service

4X
19

18
18

15 34
15

Stopping
Valve Tip Clearance Withdrawing an Engine from Service

2X
41

Motores Perkins S. Rakovica .62-Y92 Telex: YVGOSLA VIA 11141 YlT IMR Cub lc-: •< Indrn. Ontario.' no 40 'Tele1( ~ 27:'24 f"abll'. Box 156. Telephone 31_'-l-477._'I9{}O Telex: m_1-5300 t:'ahlc\: "Perkoil·· F::Irmin!lll)!) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ASSOCIATE A... Peterborough or l(l 4 .A. Rexdale.l. Telephone: 20.1A. LId. For further details. S_A. Telephone: MEXICO Morores Perkin.: Sao Pau lo . 55 Boulevard Ornano . ~ 671/4961) Telex: 0221125 Cables:'· Perkni!" Torcmt o Moteurs Perkins S. Victor ia .O. 8752 Kleinostheim . Tefcphone : 50481::(':.l Cab lex : "I'r.. Dunwe ll Building. Pnt.(l28 J. (Division Perkins).'36 Telex: 1211{-.'. apply to Per k ins Fngine" lid. 6!l ler Pi so a l Mexico 5 V.. Tclephone ~ 4::1·1499 Te le x : 021 R.A . Telephone: 243-04-40 Telex: ()Z251 S'.. Mudr ax 2_ Telephone: Madras 8309! (PABX . '. Avenid a de Aragon 130.iimpson & Co.A_.OVERSEAS AVSTRALLA Perkins Engine." Argentina COMPANIES S.td addition to the abovc . Michigan 41:1024.oil" Perkins Engines (Pty) Ltd.• 22100 Como-Carner lata . Belgrade Telephone: _"ifi2-043iSli2-322.F. BUenos Aires Telephone: 3'1·!Q31.FRANCE (·. there arc Perkin" Distr ibut ors in the n.. Braarnfontcin...RGENTINA Perkin. P. Ltd" 6041 Fucho-Machi .C . Farmington.1l1riJ Iridustr ija Malora Rakovic a . P.ajority throughout the world.ou ir" Beogf<.: ··Perk.':. t)th Floor. 00::17 C3hle~: "PcrkoiJ" Joharmc sburu Perkins Engines Inc .P.Jbll:'· "PdkoiJ·· Paris GERMANY ITALY Motori Perkins S. & MANUFACTURING LICENSEES Bolivar 368.2 (\lhks:" Perkin<. Box 303.· M.0411 Te lex : 30X If) C"hfes COMP_AHIES ··P~rkoil·· Me lbourne BRAZIl. Madrid 27. one of the above companies In of le a ding courur ie . 202/203 Mount Road ..13 Saint-Dents.O. Telex: 31W63 Cabtes : "Per/'. Hiroshima Telephone: Hiroshima 62-1111 Telex: Japan INDIA 41-'iJH (abies "Simp.a" :-. Aki-aun .~m"" JAPAN 6:'i2·11_1 Tiber No.A . Austr a lia Ply Ltd . Fstado do: Sao Paulo. 24175 Research Drive. Road. Patr ijarha D'imitr ija 7-l3. Via Pasquale Paoli 9.47 C'ub lc-c : .O.].Jinl· Deni" Perkins Motoren GmbH. Telephone ~ 79~.:rkoil" Sao r'aulD CANADA Per kins Engines 7 Meridian Telephone Canada Ltd. Box 283. Dandenong .. Telephone: 725-57l5 Tc!ex: (-am~data SOUTH AFRICA 35 Jor isscn Street. Postf ach 12_ Telephone : 06027 (29 I Tc lex ~ 418~86ij . 521-1·61·('7 Telex: Perkins Me x 071·71·:..'. P.A.'lilmn"· SPAIN Motor Iber ica S. Caixa Postal 30.10 lines) Telex Toyo KOgYD Cv...

with lack of attention to the LUBRICATING OIL CHANGE.248 engines will vary in accordance with the type of application to which it is fitted. arduous conditions then YOll should carry out the preventive maintenance more often than is indicated in this handbook.212. are also available from the same sources for a . due to normal wearing of the engine component parts. Over many years. We cannot stress enough the importance of KEEPING YOUR ENGINE CLEAN INSIDE as well as outside.Introduction This handbook has been written to assist the owner/operator in the correct starting. Distributor or Overseas Distributor for assistance. the FUEL AND OIL FILTERS and the AIR CLEANER. If this is not possible. advice as well as the benefit of a trained engineer may be had at your Jocal Industrial Distributor in the United Kingdom. are those who obtain the best service from their engine. We have also found that a majority of complaints raised against our engines have been associated with bad maintenance. there are devices known as RESTRICfION INDICATORS which can be fitted to the induction system to indicate that the air cleaner needs attention. stopping and maintenance procedure he should use so that his engine can give him continued reliability until repairs or replacement parts become necessary. in particular. our various Overseas Companies and Distributors will offer the same service. Spare parts. it .. or for overseas operators. Workshop Manuals reasonable charge. Repairs or adjustments to your engine should be carried out by a Perkins trained engineer whose services are usually available at the supplier of the vehicle or machine. Should you consider you are working in unusually dusty or heavy. The ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT fitted to 4. 5 . or any problems concerned with the ancillary equipment can be dealt with by the supplier of the vehicle or plant. and it is suggested that you have one fitted to your engine to warn you of the necessity to CLEAN your AIR CLEANER. service.K.236 and 4. you should contact your nearest (J. Repairs or replacements for worn parts. 4.has been our experience that owners who conform to the maintenance periods listed in our Service Publications and to the recommended procedures. For engines fitted with DRY TYPE AIR CLEANERS.

. .) Plug Drain 23 24 25 26 Fuel Lift Pump Block Tap Manifold Manifold . ." ". PHOTOGRAPHS Alternator 2 3 4 5 6 Pulley Housing Pipe Oil Filler Car Pump Water Pump Pulley Thermostat Atomiscr Breather Lubricating Fuel Injection 7 X 9 F uel Oil Filter Exhauster 10 1I 12 1) Dipstick Starter Timinp: Motor Oil Filter Case Lubricating : -+ 15 16 Crankshaft Water Water Rocker Water Fan Sump Sump Cylinder Exhaust Induction Drain Alternator Helt Pump Pulley Inlet Cover Outlet 17 1g 19 ~O 21 '1. . INDEleTO-ENGINE .

View or Fuel Pump s ide or Engine. 1 .

._j Fig... Torque tightening sequence for Cylinder Head Nuts (90 lbf ft (12.:.5 kgf m) for /n in studs) YOU MUST ENSURE THAT THE MAINTENANCE JOBS ARE DONE AFTER THE CORRECT PERIOD HAS ELAPSED OR EVEN EARLIER IF CONSIDERED ADVANTAGEOUS OR NECESSARY. 1.. .~in studs) (60 Ibf ft (8.V.-------"".000 ft (600 metre) then it may be necessary to derate the engine by reducing the amount of fuel being fed into the engine. ALTITUDE If it is necessary to operate continuously at altitudes above 2.. dealer in your territory or Perkins Engines Ltd.. will advise.5 k gf m) for .~---. The C. · '- i ...A.

. The exhaust manifold is on the same side.:_ it": . ~ . . The ENGINE NUMBER will be found stamped on a machined pad on the side of the cylinder block to which the fuel lift pump is fitted.24~ and if you have cause to communicate with anyone concerning Service or Parts requirements then you should always quote the type of engine... ~: ~. ! I~ "2 I: n gill e N Iill I h. I 1.H] l) .: a! Il._~-- d«--"4!:-- -9--' .ENGINE IDENTIFICATION This particular engine is known as the 4.' .~. its full engine number and the vehicle or machine it is fitted in.....~t'{I'fiI'.. The found illustration below indicates where the engine number may be ~~~~~~~0 . ~-'~.236 or 4. " y:..' .... 4._.d. Please q uote all the numbers and letters in the same sequence they are stamped on the engine. A typical engine number would be: 236 U 1784 but there may be other letters following the letter U as well as after the last number. .212.11.

Nos. 9140-335-1404 (1965) Fuel Oils available in territories other than those Iisted above wh ich are to an equivalent specification may be used.2 Grades DF-A.S:r. M.0. OF -lor DF-2 A. I-D or 2-D Gas Oil or Fuel Dornestique Grade Special or Grade A 14/9/57) (1967) IS: l460/1968 DIN-51601 CUNA-Gas Oi1 NC· 630-01 (1957) SIS. United States France India Germany Italy Sweden Switzerland BS. 15 54 32 (1969) Federal Military Spec.I or A.2869: 1967 VV-F-800a Class A. 10 ./D975-66T (J .approved fuel oil specifications United Kingdom .

) Bore (4.43 mm) Nominal ~.24S) liring Order 1.975 in (IOO.20. 24X in:! (4. Usc indior level \)11 I in the dipstick wi lh vehicle rn.1-----+.X75 in (98.0 I 2 in (0.30 nun) Cold Valve tip clearance lugine Number Location Ex hauxr lO--60 ture. .24~) ~.4.236.uh inc 1J level grt1und.engine data " Type Four cylinder. Direct Injection Bure (1. : 1 Cubic Capacity' (4.212) 212_~ in:' nAs [it res) Cubic Capacity (4.Y() nun) Nominal Stroke Comprexsion Ratio 5 in (] 27 111m) \ (-. side of engine. Four Stroke.u ing nil pressure (2. 1bf/in': and \ .uhr ic.ucd ~lCL'I)nling to application.3.2 normal kgf/cnl'-') operating at maxi- mum speed tempera- Sump Capacity Varies c.212 and 4.23(.06 l it res) Cubic Ca pacitv (4.

4. vdra ul ic Governor) see fig.. head locking screw on the side Unscrew.de-aerating the fuel system This procedure is otherwise called "bleeding the system erratic (of air). Pig 3 Fig 4 . loss of power. Air can enter the fuel system. Bleed the system as follows:-Slacken the air vent screw near the top of the governor control cover (Mechanical Governor) sec fig. 5. the vent plug on the top of the fuel filter cover. or any disturbance of any fuel connection. 6. changing filters or pipes. ... .. running and Air in the fuel system can cause difficult starting.. 3: or on the control aca r housing (H ~.. "__. by two or three turns. leaks in the system. see fig. see fig. (Not the return pipe to the La n k).-. Slacken the vent screw on the hydraulic of the fuel pump body. as the result of running out of fuel.__.

issues from both the unions on the f'uel pipes. Governor vent screw. free frum air btl bbles. 7) a nd when fuel. issues from around the threads. Turn the engine fuel pipes. 5 Fig. h Operate the priming lever of the fuel lift pump (sec fig. Tighten that the stop untiJ fuel oil. 13 . -. free from air bubbles.Fig. free from air bubbles. issues from each venting point. tighten the screws in the following order:I. Slacken the pipe union nut at the fuel injection pump inlet. Head locking screw. (see fig. and the engine is ready for starting. the unions at the atorniser ends of two of the high pressure and ensure fuel Set the accelerator at the fully open position contro1 is in the "run" position. 3. Slacken pipes. R) operate the priming lever on the lift pump and re-tighten when fuel. Fuel filter cover vent screw.

If such a condition arises then the engine should be turned one complete revolut ion. Fig. after bleeding the fuel system. the engine starts and runs satisfactorily for a few moments and then the same symptoms recur and when checked the system is found to he full of air. 14 . 7. it will not be possible to operate the hand primer. then a lea k on the suction side is indicated.If the cam on the engine camshaft operating the fuel tift pump is on maximum lift. If.

l'i . 3. may starts. Ensure the engine movement has completely stopped before returning the control t o t he norma I "runni ng" condition.starting the engine Under warm conditions it is only necessary to engage starter motor by turning the "ignition" type key to the position "HS~~ at the same time adjusting the engine speed control. or both. Switch. 2. Heat and Start Position To Stop the Engine A spring loaded slop control is usually si t uated ncar the normal engine controls and it is only necessary to pull out the stop control until the engine ceases to rotate. On some applications a button type switch is fitted. Heat/Start I. 9. Always and starter pinion have stopped rotating before the starter motor. Al ways ensure the stop control is in the "run" position. OtT Position. Fig. As soon as the engine ensure that the flywheel attempting to re-engage pinion gear. Turn start switch to the "0" position. otherwise the starter ring or be damaged. -l. Heat Position. Run Position. release the starter switch or button.

" on the bowl. and the Turner Quick-Start. If the engine fails to start after about fifteen seconds. If any difficulty is ex pcrienccd. To attempt to usc the Therrnosta in the unit becoming burned out. but with the starter disengaged.e. In very cold conditions it may be necessary to assist engine running with a further one or two strokes of the pump to attain steady funning.cold weather starting aids Different types of cold starting devices may be found fitted to Perkins Diesel Engines depending upon the manufacturer of the vehicle or machine. the Start Pilot To operate the Therrnostart. lift the hinged cover of the VISO-F reservoir. disengage the starter and return to the heat position for a further ten seconds before reengaging the starter 1110tor. or by push button.A. it is turned to the "ON" position. Turn the rotary switch to the "H" position or push the button marked "I-IEATER" and hold for fifteen seconds. Having started the engine turn off the tap that may he fitted in the fuel supply pipe to the Thermostart. Cold starting aids consist of the C. Viso-F. use of any heater is strictly prohibited. onto the filler valve and retain in a square position until fluid flows into the transparent bowl. Adjust the engine speed control to maximum speed position and turn the rotary switch key to the "HS" position or depress the "STARTER" button whilst still holding down the "HEATER" button. . Under certain cold conditions i. When rt without a SLI ppJy of fuel wi ll result device Start Pilot equipment is fitted. Operation may be an electrical ignition type of rotary switch. Thermostart. Do not allow the fluid level tn rise above the maximum indicated by arrow nmrking. head down. check that fuel is reaching the starting aid. ensure that if a tap is fitted in the fuel pipe to the unit in the induction manifold. The pump should not be used until the starter motor has been engaged. The unit should glow when the "Heat" position is engaged and the fuel becomes ignited on engagement of the starter motor. Press the can. To charge the container wi th fl uid using only Start Pilot Mult i-fill Can Type F. temperature below O°F (-18°C) it may be found helpful to retain the "HEAT~' position for a further ten seconds after the engine has started. by removing the air cleaner or induction trunking. Operation of the Thermostart can be seen in most cases.V.

removed 'and washed in Kerosene. as diesel engine manufacturers. The spray nozzle may become partially blocked and this can be cleaned by dismantling from the engine induction manifold and washed in Kerosene. Turner Quick-Start devices may only be found fitted to vehicles or machines manufactured in the U.The Start minimises the Pilot risk Viso-F of fluid unit incorporates an outlet check valve which loss during engine ru nning time. 1f any damage does occur for the reasons stated. Pull out the "Quick Sta rt " knob prior to starting. Procedure for using this cold starting aid is as follows:--- If any starting Crank the engine over to break the drag of the oil film and when engine Ilywheel has stopped rotating. A thin smear of light lubrica ting oil 111ay be a pplied to the cylinder.s. therefore you are warned that these aids should only be used to start very cold engines. especially when the unit is mounted near the engine. inject a measure of "Quick Start" by pulling out the knob and pushing it hack just once. 17 . serious damage can occur to the engine for which we. difficulty is experienced do not continue using the Start Pilot pump but have the problem investigated by an experienced fitter.A. they are USliaHy readily identified. cannot he held liable. The air filter titled at the outward end of the V20S pump cylinder should occasionally be examined and if necessary. If used carelessly or excessively or for the purpose of obtainmg a boost of power. by injecting more fluid CAUTION The Start Pilot VISO-F unit and the Turner Quick Start device both use high energy fuels with low combustion temperatures Of flash points. Ex pcriencc will show how much fluid JS required f of a single start under various ternperatures and it 1S desirable to charge the reservoir with just sufficient fluid for a single start.S. Engage the starter motor and after engine push in the "Quick Start" knob. one complete revolution of the It may be necessary by further to assist contin UOLIS funning strokes of the "Quick Start" knob. Very little maintenance is required for the Start Pilot equipment but observation of the following points will ensure efficient operation. At the time of writing we have no knowledge of manufacturers outside the U.A. who fit Turner Quick Start but there may be some.

studs. Renew lubricating oil filter clement. With the engine thoroughly warmed through. it should be operated within reasonable limits and not at maximum engine speed for the first 500 miles (ROOkm) or 25 hours. the rocker assembly. 60 lbf ft (8. mountings etc. coolant leaks.3 mm) with the engine cold (see page 28).• • running In To obtain the best results from your new or replacement 4. Check the tension of the fan belt (see page 24).·.5 kgf m) for -1 in studs. RUNNING ADJUSTMENT or lubricating The driver or user of this engine should not interfere with the idling or maximum speed settings. Reset the valve tip clearance to 0. Drain the lubricating oil sump and refill to the correct level with clean new oil.000 miles (800/1. setscrews. (Do not overfill). 4. Use correct temperature grade and specification.236 engines as from the following Eng.248 engine.212. the breaking or interference of the fuel pump seals by an unauthorised person may possibly render the guarantee null and void. the service should include the foHowing:I. 5. Check oil feed to rockers.248 engines and to 4.012 in (0. 1.236/ 4.5 kgf m) for 1'.in 3. Start the engine and check for any fuel.212 and 4. l ) and to the correct torque of 90 lbf It (12. a general service must be carried out after the first 500/1. 18 . Sec Page 38. because interference with the speeds set by the manufacturer can cause considerable damage to the engine and/or transmission. tighten the cylinder head nuts in the correct sequence (sec fig. Whilst the engine unit is under the manufacturers guarantee. Check the tightness of all external nuts. oil 6. 4.600 km) or 25/50 hours in service and must include the re-tightening of the cylinder head nuts in the correct sequence. Nos. 2. Remove studs are fitted to all 4. FIRST 25/50 HOURS SERVICE After a customer has taken delivery of his engine. General 4702000 Exclusive to International Harvester Co. 4102000 Exclusive to Gebr Claas 4202000 Exclusive to Commer Cars 4402000 Later engines have studs and setscrews for securing the cylinder head.

000 MILES (WHICHEVER OCCURS FIRST) Drain and renew engine lubricating (7. Service atornisers.preventive mai ntenance DAILY Check coolant level.400 HOURS. Check drive belt tension. Renew lubricating oil filter element. OCCURS 10.e. dynamo etc.000 MILES (30. EVERY 2. water or fuel leaks Clean fuel water trap (where fitted). on dry type air cleaner.000 km) (WHICHEVER OCCURS FIRST) Arrange for examination pressor/exhauster. 20. 60. (WHICHEVER EVERY 400 HOURS. or renew (if not indicated of dry type air cleaner earlier) (WHICHEVER EVERY 800 HOURS.000 MILES (90. In extreme dust conditions.000 MILES (15.000 km or 12 MONTHS) FIRST) and industria I). equipment I. Check oil pressures (where gauge fitted). starter and service of proprietary motor. clean oil bath air cleaner or empty dust bowl EVERY 200 HOURS. Clean oil bath air cleaner or empty dust bowl on dry type cleaner. 5.000 km)OCCURS FIRST) Renew final fuel filter element (vehicle applications). com- Check and adjust tappets. 19 .500 km) or 4 MONTHS oil (see page 32). Check for oil. Renew final fuel filter clement (agricultural Check hoses and clips. Clean lift pump sediment Clean element chamber. Check sump oil level. Lubricate dynamo rcar bush (where fitted).

guidance for the method of servicing is shown on the body of the air cleaner.instructions for maintenance AIR CLEANERS Operating conditions play an important part in deciding how frequently it is necessary to service the air cleaner. 10 The dust bowl collects the heavier particles which are thrown out by the centrifuge path of the air. If you are working ln dusty conditions then the air cleaner should he attended to every day. which gives access to the dust for removal.__ . but this type of indicator IS usually only used with the two stage extreme heavy duty cleaners. The type of air cleaner filled to your vehicle or machine depends upon the manufacturer of your equipment. the upper body containing the replaceable dry type element and the lower body contains tubes which perform the initial separation of the dust. you should consider the lilting of a 22 in wa tcr gauge RESTRlCTION INDICATOR in the air trunking between the air cleaner and the engine induction manifold. Usually. Renew the element or dean by back How air pressure no more than 100 lbf/in" or washing III a non foaming detergent :jS recommended bv 20 - . The element C£:I n he removed by releasing the wing nut. . Renl0VC the dust bowl by releasing the pinch screwed clamp. Some types of two stage cleaners have an upper body and a lower body. With horizontal insta llat ions the slot ill the halllc is loca ted at the top. A means of visual signaJling for the "Rotopamic" type air cleaner failure is the use of the '4DUST SIGHT". The level of dust in the bowl must not he allowed to reach to within half an inch of the slot in the bafTle plate. fitted. __ ._------ . Remove the baffle from the interior of the dust cup by lifting it out. ] t indicates by means of a visua I signal when the air cleaner clement needs servicing. but the following advice will also help. If not already DRY TYPE TWO STAGE HCYCLOPAC" See fig. This dust enters the bowl by the slot in the baffle plate.. A window in this device becomes cloudy when the system has failed. as indicated under "Preventive Maintenance".

whichever occurs first. Inspect the element by placing a bright light in its centre. Do not lise oven heat. 9<. With all dry type clements.)_ Nut and Gasket Assembly. Cup Assembly 21 . There is a danger that some of the dust rcrnatrung in the element after it is washed will be pulled through into the engine if the element is replaced in a wet condition.5 As:-.'OQ. This c1eaning procedure reduces the effective life of the element. Rinse the element with clean water and allow to dry. be renewed after Sl x (leanings 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Any pin holes. 10 Dry Type Two Stage Ail L 4 Body Asscmh~y Cleaner . Allow the element to soak for at least len minutes and then gently agitate. 00000 00000 rig. they should or once a year. Never Lise petrol (gasoline) for c1eani ng.. WARNING. E~emcnl . thin spots or ruptures render the element unfit for further use. The reason for this is that the wa ter acts as a carrier for the dust.emh'y Clamp Assembly Baffle Sk 1 rt.the air cleaner manufacturers. h.

EXTREME ELEMENTS

HEAVY

DUTY

TWO -

STAGE,

WITH

MULTIPLE

uROTOPAMIC"

See Fig. 11

The "Rotopamic" type air cleaner may be fitted where the application is designed to work in heavy concentrations of dust and a restriction indicator must be fitted. air cleaner elements are replaceable and no attempt made to clean or re-use dirty elements or cartridges.
The should

be

For cartridge replacement. unclamp and remove the moisture eliminator or pre-cleaner panel. pull out the dirty cartridges and insert the new ones. Refit the pre-cleaner.
Never use petrol (gasoline) for cleaning any of the air induction system.

Fig. Heavy Duty, Multiple

n
Element Air Cleaner,

22

OIL BATH

AIR CLEANERS -

See Fig. 12

To service the oil bath type cleaner. the lid shou1d be removed and the element lifted out. The oil in the container should be drained out and the dirt and sludge thoroughly cleaned out with a proprietary cleaning fluid or Kerosene. Refill the container with clean new engine lubricating oil, grade SAE 40 to the indicated level. The woven filter element should be cleaned in a bath of Kerosene. Do not use petrol (gasolene) as this highly volatile fuel could cause explosive damage within the engine. The indicated filling mark level should never be exceeded. otherwise oil can be drawn up into the engine which could lead to uncontrolled engine speeds. and excessive engine wear. ~ The heavy duty oil bath air cleaners are usually fitted with a centrifugal pre-cleaner mounted on top of the main cleaner. this should be removed and the air inlet vanes in the bottom plate of the assembly. the ejection slots on the side of the cone and the vanes in the outlet tube, cleaned of dust and dirt. The detachable element is accessible by lowering the oil container which may be attached by clips or a pinch screwed clamp. Thoroughly clean the container and refill to the indica ted level with new engine lubricating oil. The separate element should be cleaned in a Kernsene bath. The upper element which is permanently attached inside the body should be periodically cleaned by washing in a Kerosene bath. Drain the element thoroughly before reassembly and do not use petrol (gasolene) for cleaning purposes.

Fig. 12. Oil Bath Air Cleaner. 23

TO ADJUST

FAN BELT TENSION

The tension of the belt should be such that it is not loose to a degree that it can slip at the crankshaft pulley. thus preventing the full operation of the water pump and also not turning the dynamo or alterna tor a t sufficient speeds to charge the ba ttcry, If the belt is overtightened this can cause overloading of the bearings fitted in the water pump and alternator Of dynamo. The hell itself can he damaged internally creating an early failure condition. When fitting a belt never prise it onto a pulley by using a lever, always close in the adjustment on the dynamo or alternator and "place" the belt in position. At least "wind" the belt over the pulley by tu rning belt and pulley together by hand. There balances is an engineering method of tensioning and correct dimensioning but the practical belts by using spring way' as installed. IS to

.j ~_ \

t v,::

L L.

.,

Fig. Checking

13.

Fan Belt Tension 24

A.decide which is the longest ru n of belt bet ween any two pu Ileys and apply pressure in the centre of the run and adjust the tension until the belt deflects about ~_in (lO mm) as shown in fig. 30 engine oil to III brica tc the bush. Sec fig.E. remove the rubber plug at the rear end of commutator end bearing housing and inject a few drops of S. it is necessa ry to recheck the adjustment after a short funning period when the belt will have settled into the grooves of the pulleys and the initial stretch. When a new belt is fitted. 13. TO LUBRICATE DYNAMO REAR BUSH Where a dynamo is fitted. location Blish lu hr rcat ron of Oil Hole 25 . Fig_ Dynamo Rear 14. When making adj ustrncnts loosen at! the setscrews and/or nuts securing the dynamo or alternator to its brackets as well as both ends of the adjustable linkage. retighten a] I the securing points. On obtaining the correct tension. if any. 14. A lternators do not need lu bricaring. will have been completed.

(d) Thoroughly clean the filter bowl in cleaning fluid. no excessive tightening will he required to obta in a leak proof seal. tighten the vent pI ug. il is necessary £0 remove ai r from the fuel system. fi II wi rh fresh clean fuel and offer up the bowl firmly and sq ua rely so (ha t the top rim of the filter bowl loea tcs centrally aga i nst the sealing ring in the filter head. (f) Place the new element in position inside the filter bowl. If the scaling rings are in good order and the bowl is located correctly. (g) Hold in this position whilst the securing bolt is located and screwed home. free from ai r bu bbles. issues from the vent point. Unscrew by two or three turns the vent plug on top of the filter head. rc) Lower the filter bow I clear (see fig. (b) Unscrew the filter bowl in the centre of the head (see fig. (e) Inspect the sealing rings and replace if damaged in any way. I (l Bll\vl Removing the Fuel Oil Filler Bowl 26 .TO RENEW FINAL FUEL FILTER ELEMENT (a) Thoroughly clean the exterior of the fuel filter assembly. Unscrewing Fig. 16) and discard the fuel therein together with the old element. After the fuel filter has been reassembled. 15). J 5 the Fuel Oil Filter Securing Boll Fig. Operate the priming lever on the fuel lift pump and when fuel.

around the threads. (c) Remove clement from filter bowl and discard. Slacken l he prim ing issll~s from TO RENEW (a) Unscrew ELEMENT IN LUBRICATING of the filter top OIL FILTER Cl the hoi t in the centre rver (see fig. ~ ~ R un engine and check for lu br icat inu oil leaks. - Fig. This should be cleaned periodically. Retighten the nut when Iucl. ) 8}. IH Frltcr Ck'rnl:llt B~ml K crn o Vl~U 27 . (c) Fi 1 the new' rubber joint in the filter headcast ing.000 miles (1.the pipe union at the fuel pump j nlet. ~ NOTE: The bolt securing the filter bow'] should he checked for tightness after the first 1. I n some insta llations a gauze stra incr will be found in the oi I filler tu he. 17. (f) Rc-assem hie fi her with new element: tichtcn fi Iter howl sccu ri nu bolts. Irec from air bubbles. 17) (b) Lower filter bowl clear (see fig. fd) Clean the inside of bowl with cleaning tiuid.500 km) or 50 hours funning. Unscrewing (he Oil Securi ng Filler BO\\ I Oil Fillt:r with Bult Fig. operate lever. The engine is then ready' for starling.

4 cylinder (i.3 mm) with the engine cold. on No. Fig. This is set between the top of the valve stem and rocker arm (see fig. 3 cyJinder. 1 cylinder. (b) With the valves rocking (c) With the valves rocking No.. on No. Setting Valve Clearance 28 .TO CHECK VALVE TIP CLEARANCES that the oil flow to the With the engine ru nning at fast id ling. the period between the opening of the inlet valve and the closing of the exhaust valve).e.2 cylinder. 19) and should be 0.2 cylinder. set the valve clearances set the valve clearances set the valve clearances on on on No.3 cylinder. 19.012 in (0.4 cylinder. I cylinder. set the valve clearances on No. check rocker assembly is satisfactory. When adopted:(a) setting valve clearances the following procedure should be With the valves rocking on No. on No. (d) With the valves rocking No.

000 gallons (13. fuel you may wish to install a bulk storage tank and whilst YOUf fuel suppliers may be able to advise you we offer some guidance which is published in this handbook by the kind permission of Shell-Mex and np who also provided the original drawings of the installations. If you use la rge quant ities of diesel BULK STORAGE FOR FUEL OIL ABOVE GROUND Before installing any storage tanks you are advised to consult your local authority when planning the storage.500 Iitrcs) and over. then the engine should give you a satisfactory service. a diesel engine does not rely upon an electric spark Ior ignition. Never leave fuel oil stored wa ter and d List will be absorbed in a container by the fuel. its proper measure of clean fuel. that each cylinder has proper compression and the engine cooling water temperature is maintained at its designed level. an adequate supply of approved lubricating oil properly circulated and filtered. exposed according to as In order that the fuel to atmosphere Never store fuel oil in a ga Iva niscd conrai ncr as a chemical react ion wi II ta kc place between the fuel and the galvanised coati ng.general advice to the user As you may know. The feed to your vehicle or machine may be by gravity using a flow meter instead of the pumps as ill ust ra ted and the tank mounted in such a way so as to give a head of fuel. L2() T1l m per 29 . Never usc pet rol (gasoline) for clean ing any parts of the fuel system. They are listed on page 10. but only if you maintain it in the proper manner as indicated in this handbook. considera hly (ontaminat ing the fuel. so providing it has an adequate supply of clean air. such as filter bowls. The fuel oil should conform to a pa rticular specification the country you are operating in. In the installation of tanks with a capacity of 3. the ta Ilk xhou Id he mounted wit h a fa II ()I" 1 i 11 per ft. the fuel filters must be regularly maintained in accordance with our instructions on page 19. FUEL OIL oil is always clean and free from any water or foreign matter which can damage the finely built fuel injection pump.

( orn hincd bnlal 4 i ng val vc Fillcr Spring-luadcd PII rll P check valve .metre) towa rdx the sludge va Ivc and shou Id he increased to 1 in pCI' ft. a spring loaded check valve must be IIltcd het ween the filter and the pump. T. Where a pump IS installed..J. Metering pumps and [l owmctcrs should always he mounted (111 a concrete hast: 30 .. (40 in the case of sma llcr tanks III m per" metre). this is required 10 hold hack the head of fuel in the tank. th is fa II Fig.nk cradle A filler should always be fined in the draw-ell pipe. Above Ojfset ground fuel <to rage tank Jill pi pc fill pipe. 20. d ip pipe and vent.

21 Hclov v ground fuel storage Suction Filter.1. tank pipe I. I . (40 rnrn per n-etre).T Q) ® ~ @---- II I I 1. A tiltcr must a hvays he ti tied in t he fuel I. Vent.1. and bottom plate Cornb incd flI1 and dip pipe BULK As suited STORAGE OF FUEL OIL your BELOW local GROUND should with above ground storage. a uthor ity he ('(111- should be installed with a fall of !. Offset till (al tc r nat ivc ) (I ~ :. II II" Irlh " " ~_(~W ® Fig.lj I SIIl'l inn pi pc.000 gallons (13. Gr ound Pump Adaptor manhole.500 lit rcsj or more. The tank 31 . Smaller tanks rcqu ire it fa II of 1 in per rt. {20 mrn per metre) towards the sludging pipe if its capacity is 3.I' II. 4 'I ~ H 9 Top sludgi ng pipe. when planni ng the instullation.in per It.1. I II I' I~ I ..

AIR Air in sufficient quantity must be allowed to reach chambers to mix with the f nely a tornised fuel in order take place. In the U. clea n engine The I ubrica ting oi I in the engi ne is filtered by a ella rsc til ter in the su a nd then by a replacca hie cart ridge rvpc clement fi Iter contu ined in an mr assembly attached fo the engine. a s condensa and dust will conta mina te the oi 1 rna king it unfi t for lISC. at Shell-Mex House._ . . L. the type will depend upon the appli- The satisfactory running of the engine wi II depend. upon the regular ma intenance of the air clca ncr as advised a t the bcninninj.. Adequate cation.. Strand. _. . of the section "Tnst r uct ions for Maintenance". air cleaners arc provided. otherwise dust and dirt can enter the internals of the engine and Calise accelerated wea r conditions on the piston rings.K.2. Further information on the handline ~ and storage of diesel fuel is obtain"able from the Industrial Markets Division of Shell-Mex and BP Ltd. London. erra tic running loss of power had starting.. the that compression ignition can then If there the results (a) (b) (c) (d) black is not sufficient could be :-exha list smoke air reaching the cylinders for compression.. bores. thereby shortcni nc the elfccti vc work inc Iifc of the engine. a mong other th ingx. Heavy Hydrocarbon Oil used as a fuel for road vehicles (July 1962) or with any subsequent regulations that may be issued from time to time. LUBRICATING Do not have OILS t ion oil stored in open eonta iner s.. 75 by the Commissioners of Customs and Excise _ . Copies of the Notice No... bca ring su rfaccs and journa Is..there a re now no statutory regulations a pplica ble to the storage and use of fuel oil._. Ai r entering the engine must always be adeq na tcly filtered. 75 can be obtained from booksellers or the COJll~ missioners of Customs and Excise.. W.C. but users should be familiar with the provisions of Notice No.

care should be taken to ensure that oils not listed meet the a hove reg uirement. It is important req uiremcnts of page 3R will be Beca lise it is not FUEL. which. joi nts etc . wh ich ca n ca lISC 111isfiring. it may be found in the handbook supplied by the vehicle or machine manufacturer. and on found a list of oils which are within this req uircrnent. Fuel leaks from the low or high pressure pipes or unions can he detected wi th the engine runni ng. and With the engine ru n ning hot check remedy where necessary. ca uses the engi ne to stop. from the Iif't pump to the fuel injection pump is the low pressure. or you should ask the supplier of the vehicle or machine. but will allow air to enter the fuel system until it reaches the injectors. of course. and have a minimum Viscosity Index of HO. possible to list all suitable oils. from the fuel injection pump to the atornisers or injectors is the high pressure side. Watch place. WATER It is good AND OIL LEAKS wipe the engine over with a non-Il utfv practice to regularly rag or have it properly steam cleaned at the time the machine is cleaned. Ordnance Specification MIL-L-21 04 B. 33 .If you need to know the capacity of your sump. The suction side lea ks can sometimes be seen as a weep when the engine is not running or in bad cases the drain of fuel call he detected [rom the evidence 1I ndcr the engine aftcr OVCfn ight parking. a II pipe unions.S. Such a situation means that the system must be de-aerated as described earlier in this handbook. as would happen with a bad leak on the suction side. for pipes chafing and wearing away where the fretting is taking A bad leak on the suction side can ca use in vol unta ry stopping of the engine but always beware of a low level of fuel in the tan k . for leaks The fuel system from the ta nk to the Iift pump is known as the suction side. to usc only those lubrica ling oils which come within the the U. but leaks on the suction side arc not Sp easily detected as t hey allow air to enter the point of lea kage.

The fa ulty a iomiscr will have little or no effect upon the cngi ne note as the union is slackened nIT.i'itC'BI nnIi rc and ca n he detected hy ru nning the cngi IlC a 1 a fa 'it idl i ng speed a Ild slacken i ng ofT each a tom iser pipe union in tu rn tak i ng pa rt ic LIla r not icc of the note of the eng: nc. Battery capacity )0\\. Stop Control Fuel system Air cleaner still opera ling. blocked. FAUL TV ATOMISER (INJECTOR) A faulty a[Pllli. Poor compressions Bloc ked fuel tan" Ex ha list systcrn lncorrcct grade vent. blocked. choked. of III br ica ti ng oi I. In replace the washer upon which the ~ltom i scr scat s in the cylinder head. Air in fuel system.~ Some of the reasons Poor sta rtcr ca ble connections.. not fnrgcl1 ing.("Cf may show itself as all intcr nuucnt Ilr l·. d lie t (l worn engi ne.DIFFICULT STARTING for had sta rting are: . Incorrect lise of cold sta rt i ng aid. 34 . A ny 01 her mocha nica I rca sons for had sta rting lion of a skilled should rCt:CI vc t he a uen Perkins trained fitter.IIl:-. Replace wi t h a k nown gond a t orniscr.

.REPLACING Never injection Fit pulling the bend pump... that the cnuinc ~ When tu u: as i. Having ing" from fitted atoruiscr and pipe. cnsu re 1he plll~ i. put the drain rcmi ndcr there js no IIIbrica li ng oil in {he cngi nco pa rt iClIla rl y if you go off and do an. is at rest. rud ia t or L'ap when d ra ininu alld pu: the cap on the d nvers cont.. t D() not lise the starter mot or unless the Ilywhccl Do not opera te the veh iclc or mach 1IlC v. Ih 'i think ing you are obiaini n~ more Alwa ys check Should a brass VI he air clca ncr more removed wear. run the engine scat which stops. ~ 35 .'1 h obvi t fuel. AN ATOMISER pressure (INJECTOR) pipe between the atomiser and the fuel the high Remove the pipe completely.'i xccu r. you need open the d ru incock cngl in the Illll \ radia tor and on the side of the cvl indcr hln\... you are obtaining: iur III br ica t i ng oi I and to drain the cooling wa icr level L·:VFRY svxtcru. it is not square with and the cyl inder retighten Carefully sccuri ng nuts in turn nuts... A FEW Dl) PRACTICAL HINTS OIlS not r un the engine \\. a t orniser as sq lilt replacement with re as possi hie at a time.uns nu coolunt plug in <t L"llIhPI1 . into t he head hy down the securing nuts a lillie each side in turn. wa tcr or oi I lea ks. lII1llS : POSI- RCJl10ve the seat as a wa r ninu. sump drain J111l~ ()11 replacement <IS this call crack the su III p. ()!\ Y.. unt iI the "blowing" for fuel leaks a t omiser at the pi pc unions. will indicate Check case off the a tomiser and listen for any "blowthat the atomiser head..I changing the SUlllp oi l.' k of the nc \\ h ich he t:ypc plug. the a tomiscr WA RN ING-Do may Ily out! not sta rt cnurnc wi th loose .. power. uher Do not ovcrt iph tcn the job wh ile the \)i I is d ru i ni ng down..

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hL' I". :"1\\ 1(1\'-/ \11 11)\\1 :'11\\' I ~ \1' .' 'I'L'c'1I1. L.' In\\' 11)\\' iw 211 ~q :'1 I I '" \ 1 '" 2()\V :21)\'\. . we give a ii"l of sornc o l these oi lx. i...t '1 "'..lr .." ~lb.. '1111 .d '\ I )11l.1.1 KOI (:'7 (') 21 ~ ~II ~I H. I "O[llhl \ lei ~ ~r i :'11 1 \11 I Hili' Ill) \.~\. 11)\\' S' ( )~ ( 1 1 ~\oV V~ II~\V 211\\'.lubricati ng oils Lu hricat i ng oils sho uld meet the J''-'411 i rcmcnt-.'"'' "II.'d '1'1".[llh. II '\.llll'-."I\\-' .0:) '.S.III 'II _::.I~1( 'I ~o 1 c'~""'"'" 1111.)\V 1~2rl M"hil I)il (" 1.ILl1lO "\.:ni'JI!' :11" 'lrl'in'~ II' :Jllc"r':ill<lIl "illh"'[ 3H ..lldl )PH It> bCllil I~I" ill VlII·[·:.o \11 dahl\.)I ~ lOW 21~\V :: r \'~111.1 tl \11 I" . HP \~ltH::IIIJ".I)II\.l!1I._ ( .' .'IIC'.:h.\.Ii 1 'I J .11 . BP 'It P. of CUll rxe .Ill l I . hill an: riot Iislet! here are. f '''>lnlH' ilL)\.:ri"'~l'lr.. I 11.rlLll"L)1 •{ ~I"I I ( .1r I' " I" !(1 Nil ( )Vl:1" r' 1"!_7 ( ) . .10 lOW. Djcxc l l"llgLlle'i'ihnu!J have a minimum Brand 1l l I' 1X t () ( l I . l..IL' 1. c'.'iliL:d lILli' i rm .] · I ) .lllc-d SL'nl" -' S]1". d [11._" The lubricating V isco.iry Index or o ils for ~O..111I'- I (:~".\. \':([ll.1\ .. ~. I):'I'..td.r. 1{. use LIl Perkin . 1~ • .' W . lei I 1':-JI ::'11\\' . p.1". .. (" III H) i . Any ut he r o i ls which ~tlsn conform to th is specification. Ordnance Spec iticat ill]) 1\1I1.' I::'. llf the U. L'lIgillc" 1[1 I k~1' \ I :11 IlL \. a l-..)i I.i r i.II In . III\'V 11)\ .1...-L-2104B and be low..Ic'!1 I{ .\L'I'h" 12111 I \ 1I ~ III\\' 111\\ .:11 211 1\ ..1(1\ III'~ ~'qll!l)[I"'lll rH'\I.u u l It . "1"1.s \.:1 B il1'l. RB I{]) 10\\-..

all lin! nhi bi led waters are at least sl igh tty corrosive. The I. Rain water in most citv. chosen up coolant ") The coolant 3. Salty wa Icr or acid wa tcr should not he used. he bused upon water L1SCU for drink ing pu rposcs. sure that the cyl indcr head bolts or securing to the correct toru ue as ind icated on page I R. 6. condition. PREPARING THE COOLANT Engine coolants should. 39 . circulating pump must in a good work water efficiently 5. ~ these condit ions. in general. therefore. all coolant solutions should contain a suitable corrosion inhi bi t or in lhe cooling system and since most engines used in territories cx pcriencing freezing ~ conditions Lise antifreeze :. con N ormall y. certain very hard wu tcrs may reduce heat transfer from engine to coolant by depositing heavy coatings of scale. town or industrial areas can contain acidic tents or is eonta minu ted in some way a nd iIs lise is nut recommended. as may be seen in the ordinary domestic water hca ling ket tlc and in these cases il is prefera b1e to use de-mineral ized or distilled wa ter. However. corrosion . Ensure occur ~. that the hoses are maintained at the joints. condition and and no leaks not leak. then that antifreeze solution should contain suitable corrosion inhibitors.n hibitors should be used based IIpun the British Specification 3 J 51 in the amounts that would be present j n a 2) per cent solu Li( In of the an 1 i-frcezc. In territories where freezing conti ilions do not occur. Ensure that there are 110 Make nuts a re tightened leaks jn the rad ia tor or heu t ers.01 uti on d 1I riru. The should be non-corrosive to the waterways.precautions against frost COOLING Where achieved. SYSTEM MAINTENANCE is being used or a dean cooling system has been be no great difficulty Il1 rna intaining it in a good a new engine there should principa I feat urcs which rcq UI re consideration is al ways clean are: --and that the correct Ensure that the topping level is maintained.

The degree measuring its of frost specific protection gravity.1.070 I. oil coolers. <. (0 Different corrosion inhi biters should not he mi xed j n It does not follow need be replaced hy general.043 ( --19°(') (~26°C) (-37°C) 1J)53 -. the enola nt level checked. It is common practice in the United Kingdom to use 25 per cent per vol LIme of antifreeze. temp for ini tial ice crysta I formation at a temperature Percentage volume 20 25 331 J 40 50 15°[-" 10°F --~ 3 ° F --14°F -35°F (--- 9°(') (-12°C) BS3151 Specific Gravity' at {JooF (lS.064 -1. poured into the empty cooling system and further water added to the required level in the header tank.When preparing an antifreeze solution for lISC under freezing conditions. the engi ne run lip and after stopping.used.SOC) 1.035 1. Some form driving of label or tag should he attached to the rad ia tor and at the positron to red Lice the risk of draining without replacement of the correct coolant.040 . those quoted. hoses etc. MAINTAINING THE ANTIFREEZE COOLANT It is essential that any' topping lip should be done with a si mila r coolant that being". this kind of from the beginning of tha t an antifreeze solut ion man ufuctured to US3151 water as soon as freezing conditions have passed. the concentration of the antifreeze mix t 1I re in the coolant should he chosen so that the solution will circulate freely below the expected minimum ambient temperature. allowa rices should he made for extra capacities of heaters. the sa me engine.079 1. A guide perature which below to an approximate first appear concentration for a given minimum ternof the is given in the following ice crystals table which shows the tempera t ure at of antifreeze in aq ueous sol ution specified concentration. 40 . pipes.OR6 The required amount of antifreeze should be mixed with its own volume of water.05X 1. In antifreeze solution may be left in the cooling system one winter to the beginning of the next.1. heat exchangers. per The solution only freezes solid Appr ox. by in the earlier table.1. A ir locks should be properly vented.l coolant affords n1lJY be assessed as indicated using a hydrometer.032 ~". When calcula ling amounts of antifreeze.

It is much more difficult to determine whether an antifreeze solution retains an adequate degree of corrosion inhibition. Nothing more was done until the machine was required q or 10 months later. from the point of view of corrosion. and then left by (he driver. but also to safeguard it and its ancillary parts when taken out of service is very apparent. There is no simple test that will reliably indicate the concentration of inhibitors in a water coolant. . but as you are coming towards the end of your seasonal operation of the engine. unattended for very long periods . The changing of lubricating oil a t the correct periods as laid down in this handbook can help to combat the adverse effect of combustion by-products. or covered by a tarpaulin sheet. We have seen the interior of engines which have been lett standine ~ during an out-of-season period. This safeguard is very necessary due to the corrosive effect of a tmospheric conditions. The proportion of money spent on the power unit when purchasing a machine can amount to a substantial part of its overall cost. ~iOL1 rnav have considered stretching the oil change period a little further. therefore the economics in properly maintaining the engine not only in service. it has been found necessary to recommend that the solution be rejected after an arbitrarily determined life. In one instance investigation revealed that on completion of the last job of work. and in general a safe life of 12 months may be reasonably ex peered. Some people leave the engine and the machine out in the open air. the owner may well be faced with hea vy cost" when next he puts the engine into service. and also to the acidic content of the lubricating oil which may have been in the engine for a longer period than that during which the alkaline additives in fresh oil can effectively neutralize these acidic by-products of com bustion.K. instead of "Laying-up". - 41 . withdrawing an engine from service Experience has shown that insufficient care is taken by owners when they decide that they will not want the use of their Perkins engine for a few months and simply discard it in a shed or barn. Beca use of the difficulty in determining the safe life of antifreeze solutions in Perkins diesel engines.As a result of negligence. the machine was parked in a barn and the cooling water drain taps opened. The coolant solution containing 25 per cent antifreeze manufactured to B53151 in water in a properly maintained engine should maintain its antifreeze and anti-corrosive properties throughout the winter season in the U.

but if he buys oil in hulk. before all the coolant had drained away. See page 38 for a list of some of the approved oils. Because of severe winter conditions during the laying-up period. we have written these instructions in the knowledge that such practice as we recommend will result in continued performance from the engine. which had built up inside the cylinder block behind the water drain hole. for oils recommended for use in normally aspirated Perkins engines are the British specification DEF 2101D or the American specification MlL-L-2104B particularly where conditions such as continuous high speeds. Sludge.On this particular engine the cooling system was filled with water and the driver pressed the starter button . an he did was to open the taps on the radiator and engine cylinder block. high ambient temperatures and frequent intermittent full loading are met with. BEFORE PROCEEDING MOVING THE ENGINE WiTH THE WORK INVOLVED FROM SERVICE PROPERLY. The latest specification at the time of writing. TN RECARE- FULLY READ THROUGH THESE rNSTRUCTfONS AND IT MAY BE POSSlBLE TO CARRY oi rr MORE THAN ONE JOB AT ONCL_ LUBRICATION SYSTEM Quite a lot has been written about lubricating oil and we feel that quoting "BRITISH MINTSTR Y TESTS~' specification and ··U.S. but after a period of about 30 minutes. then he should consider asking his suppliers to confirm that the lubricating oil they supply for his use in Perkins engines docs comply with these British and American specifications. and in the process of expansion had cracked the base of the cylinder liner parent bores and it was through these cracks that the water had escaped into the sump when the engine was returned to service. Tnvestigation revealed that there was no cooling wa ter in the radiator. To guide owners on the proper procedure that should be adopted when taking engines out of service.the battery was flat. see that water was running and then walked away. and an overall financial saving over the years. 42 . the engine seized. the water left in the cylinder block froze.nothing happened . ORDNANCE SPECIFICATION" to the average owner. means very little to him. Eventually the engine was started and the driver commenced work. although the driver had re-filled the cooling system. clogged lip the drain hole. What had happened was that when the driver drained the water the previous season. The battery was replaced after considerable delay in telephoning the local garage to supply another one.

in which case it is advisable to use a flushing oil. 4. 6. Run the engine to circulate this fresh oil. Replace the lubricating the bowl with Kerosene. t FUEL INJECTION I. say 4 or :) complete revolutions to disperse the oil over the upper part of the cyl inders fina Ily replacing the injectors using new joint washers. remove aJJ the injectors and pour into the cylinders to ! pint fresh engine oil divided equally to cover the piston tops. 2. SYSTEM Drain all the fuel from the main fuel tank and all filter and water trap housings and replenish the main tank with at least one gallon of oil recommended for the preservation of the fuel system (page 44). drain off the engine oil. With the engine thoroughly how long it has been in usc. You should consider attending to the fuel injection system and the cooling system at the same time as this operation. If possible.Before storing be adopted. the machine or vehicle the following procedure should I. Remove the rocker cover and if heavy deposits of sludge are to be found then this could indicate that sludge may be present within the engine. Al10w plenty of time to fully drain off the fl ushing oil. it is better to remove the breathing system completely for c1eaning purposes. De-aerate . Fill the sump to the indicated level with the flushing oil and run the engine until the cooling water is at normal operating temperature. no matter at the same time cleaning oil filter element. Run the engine for a further ] 5 to 30 minutes after which period it may be stopped and the flushing oil drained out whilst still hot. RefilJ the sump to the correct level with lubricating oil which should be of the specification referred to earlier. the fuel system according to the instructions given on page 12. around 180 degrees F (82 degrees C). 43 2. Renew the lubricating oil filter element. t 3. warm. The engine breather pipe should be thoroughly cleaned of any sludge deposits. one gallon of fuel is inadequate and you do not wish to buy more. 5. because of the construction of the fuel tank. Turn the engine by hand. If. the fuel feed pipe to the filter should be disconnected and an auxiliary tank fitted. Before finally storing the engine. In this respect it is advisable not to have too much fuel oil in the tank when nearing the laying-up period.

) 25°F ( . Start the engine and run until the preserving fuel has circulated through the injection pump. _ .) Calibration Fluid . it s oils can seriously damage any' rubber or rubber type rna terials. but suitable oils may be obtained by reference to the appropriate Companies.4°("') i.•8" (Overseas) Fusus "A~' Fusus "A" R 1476 (Old Type ~ 44 25°F (-_.4°C) OaF (-1 X0C') O°F (-·18°(') -70°F (--57~)C) -15°F ( ·--26°(..3. Every precaution should be taken when draining oils to prevent oil falling on to electrical equipment.____.owest Tempera t lire to he expected during lay-up Esso Esso Shell Shell Shell Shell lLHI) ILI047 Calibra t ion Fluid "'e" (LJ . the lowest tern perat ure likely to be met by the engine during the Lay-up period should he estimated and the oil should be such that the temperature given in the table is as low as or lower than this estimate. at the lowest Pour Point The pour point IIIlist be at least 15:' I. NOTE: I n choosing a suitable oil. rubber installations or drive belts or tyres. Whilst the proprietary brands of oils as listed below are recommended for this specific purpose by the respective oil companies. it docs not necessarily mean that they are a vaila ble in all parts of the world. (l)j('} lower than the lowest ambient temperature li kcly to he ex pcricnccd 011 re-starting and shou Id prcfcra bly be lower than the lowest temperature likely to he met during the lay-up period. OILS RECOMMENDED FUEL SYSTEM FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE l. . For your guidance the specification for preserving oils for the fuel system should include the following:~ VISCOSITY The viscosity should not be greater than ambient temperature likely to be experienced 22 centistokes on restarting..K. This will take about 10 to 15 minutes with the engme running at about half speed with no load applied. No attempt should be made to restart the engine until the temperature has been at least 15 degrees F (9 degrees C) above that shown in the table for not less than 24 hours: otherwise there may be difficulty in obtaining a free flow of fuel. feed pipe and injectors. The oils selected below arc not necessarily suitable rot calibrating or testing fuel injection pumps.

At the end of every working season. usually in the form of a stop-cock or other type of val VC. 2 Park Street. On the later build of engines these va lvcs a re now replaced. discarding and replacing if with a similar solution at the beginning of the next years lay-up.l. a safe life of 12 months may reasonably' be expected. Where heater systems arc fitted. when laying-up your Perkins diesel cngi ne you a rc advised to fill the cooling system with a suitable concentra lion or a ntifrccze to BS3 I 51. it is recommended that it should be removed completely from the cylinder block and during draining the hole shou1d be probed to ensure it is not clogged by sl udge. London W. in some cases. Where the tap or valve arrangement is to be found. So. then the whole of the cooling system should be cleaned and a corrosion inhibited ant if reeze manufactured to the British Standard 3151 should be used for refilling and storing during the Jay-up period. If an antifreeze coloured by rust. the coolant ca n be dra ined from the engine and radiator. the cooling system could be filled with an a ntifreeze solution to the British Standard 3151 at the beginning of the Jay-up period and replaced again at the beginning of the next lay-up period or after a 12 month period has elapsed.COOLING SYSTEM The following information and inst ructi ons for a llcntion to the cooling system are based on British Standard 3926 : 1965 "The Use and Maintenance of Engine Coolant Solutions" by permission of the British Standards Institution. A la bel or tag should be used 10 i ndicate clca rly tha t the cool ing system is empty and it should be placed in a conspicuous position. Throughout the lay-up. On all Perkins diesel engines there arc facilities for draining off the coolan-t. solution has not been used a nd the drained liq uid is disOf the presence of sed imcnt or other evidence suggests deterioration of the waterways. these should also be drained. The machine or vehicle may be left without any cooling water in the system throughout the lay-up period or it should be filled with a suitably inhibited antifreeze solution. by a brass plug which we feel is a safer method of draining as it affords a larger hole to allow the coolant and any deposits to How out. the safe life of which is dependent upon the rate of depletion of the corrosion inhibitors but if the cool ing system has been well cleaned and the coolant properly maintained. See "Precautions against Frost". the cooling system should he periodically examined for leaks and where necessa rv. corrected 45 . scale or other deposits. Therefore. whichever l)CCUr~ first.

is an indication of an internal short circuit. At this point the operator is advised to ascertain the efficiency of his ba ttcry by checking the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell. that a cell is in ternally shorted the battery must be rerepairs made. and a high rate discharge test should be applied or the Iacil ities of a competent electrician should be sought. If the variation is greater tha n 0. making sure that the top edges guards are just covered. On no account be left where there is a risk of freezing. and replace source of mains electricity 'supply (c) Recharge the battery from a separate to a state of free gassing. 1. A fully cha rged battery should give specific gravity readings of:1. If facilities for mended that the [f it is confirmed newed or suitable a high rate discharge test arc not available.239 to 1. and gassing does not take place the cells should be tested for internal short circuits. the addition of distilled wa tcr only will result in lowering the specific gravity. removing all dirt.025. (f) shou1d the batten' rate of charge as in Re-charge the battery once a month at the normal paragrapb (c). Jf after five hours continuous charging the specific gravity fails to rise. dust and moisture. This can be corrected by adding a diluted solution of sulph uric acid. it is recornoperator seeks the assistance or a competent electrician.272 to 1. dry. (b) Top lip the cells with distilled of the separators or separator the vent plugs. A large variation in the readings from cell to cell which is not the result of loss of electrolyte. dust-free place. If electrolyte (e) Store in a cool. then the reason should be looked into.283 in temperate climates and 1. There should be little variation in the specific gravity readings from cell to cell on any battery in good condition. 46 . (d) Clean the terminals and lightJy smear them with petroleum jelly. and thoroughly water. has been spilled. taken on a suita bJe hydrometer.ELECTRICS BATTERIES (a) Remove the battery (or batteries) from the engme clean.255 in tropical climates. until the specific gravity of the electrolyte is again standard. or lost owing to a leak in the casing.

This should be replaced if found to be in a deteriorated state i. generator and control board are protected from water falling directly on to them. (c) orifice with water- Seal the breather pipe orifice with wa tcrproof'ed adhesive tape. cracked or perished. The water pump/fan driving belt should be removed from the engine and stored in a coot dry place for refitment when the engine is returned to service. If the machine or vehicle is to stand in the open. and seal the manifold proofed adhesive tape. STARTERS AND GENERATORS Clean the terminals and lightly smear them with petroleum jelly.e. (b) Remove the exhaust pipe. it is essential that the starter.WARNING DO NOT USE UNDILUTED ACID FOR THIS PURPOSE. ad- (d) Seal the air vent in the fuel tank or filler cap with waterproofed hesive tape. • IT IS DANGEROUS TO ADD WATER TO ACID . ALWAYS ADD ACID TO THE WATER WHEN PREPARING ELECTROLYTE. SEALING THE ENGINE (a) Remove the air cleaner and any air intake pipe which may be fitted between the air cleaner and air intake. stretched. This will reduce the risk of water condensation. Carefully seal the air intake orifice with water-proofed adhesive tape. 47 . 2.

Remove the sealing tape from air-intake. Rota te the fresh water pump by hand to ensure freedom of the seals. where necessary. If the engine was stored with a solution to paragraph 5 of "The Cooling System". See "Air Cleaners" for Maintenance". and where a dynamo is tilled lubricate the dynamo rear bush by means of an nil can inserted into the small a pert u re at the rca r of dynamo. If this was not replaced at the time of storage it is advisable to re-examine the belt for deterioration to a void fa iIII rc a Iter the first few hou rs of running due tn perishing whilst in xtoragc. of anti-freeze then refer back Check for leaks and remedy the air cleaner beunder . If an a ux iliary tank was fitted. Air vent the fuel system in accordance in this handbook. with the instructions to he found Drain the lubricating oil from Before starting the engine on its retu rn to service after a period of "laying-up" ensure that the cooling system is fined with a coolant. Remove the seal from the breather pipe orifice. Remove the adhesive tape from the fuel tank vent or filler cap. . Refit any pipe which and refit air cleaner. or with an anti-freeze solution as described in the section headed Cooling System.arc sound. replace the fuel filter elemenus). may be fitted between air-intake Remove the sealing tape from the ex ha list man ifold orifice and refit the exha ust pipe. and refill with fresh fuel oil.preparing the engine for return to service the sump and ref 11 to the correct level with fresh oil to the specification referred to earlier.. drain the fuel tank and all filter and water trap housings of the preservative fuel oil which may have become contaminated with condensed water. The water pump fan driving belt should now be fitted lo the engine. Dependent upon the decision made at the time of storage the engine will have been stored either dry. Examine fore fitment to ensure cleanliness. taking carl' 1101 tl) over lubricate Check that all tcrrnina l. Remove the rocker cover and lubricate the rocker assembly and replace cover. this should be disconnected prior to refilling and connection made to the main tank. Remove the petroleum jelly smeared on the terminals of the starter and generator. Instructions and air cleaner.

High pressure and leak off pipes to atornisers and pipe to the cord start reservoir (where fitted). taking ea re that the gasket is fitted properly to prevent oil leakage. water pump joints. filter unions. cah heater connections. refit the top rocker assembly cover. (d) Excessive black exhaust smoke is not being emitted. lift pum p unions or lift pump joints.m. water connections. timing case cover joints. (h) No coolant is leaking from radiator hoses.1-" WARNING CARE MUST BE EXERCISElJ TO PREVENT THE HANDS OR FACE FROM COMING INTO CONTACT WITH THE NOZZLE SPRAY AS THE WORKING PRESSURE WrL. Filter to fuel injection pump pipes and unions. oJ' Examination of the atorniser nozzles ma v reveal that it is on) v necessarv to probe the nozzles to effect the clca ranee. This symptom will occur with uneven firing and overheating. water manifold connections. With the engine still funning. rocker cover joints or rea r rna in oil seal (small drain hole in bottom of flywheel housing). If the flow of oil from the rocker assembly is found to be satisfactory. (c) No fuel oil is leaking at any pipe from fuel tank to lift pump. cylinder head gasket. If black smoke is found. thoroughly check by visiual examination that:(a) No Itt bricating oil is leaking from sump joints.The engine IS now ready for starling. using the procedure normally adopted when the unit is in service. . unions and joints. suspect dirty atomisers or partially blocked air intake (oil bath air cleaner over filled). When the engine is running remove the top cover to ensure that a flow of oil is coming from and maintained in the rocker shaft assembly.. Lift pump to filter pipes. Adjust the throttle position so that the engine is running at a fast id ling speed of approximately 1000 r. TO PENETRATE THE SKIN 49 .p.L CAUSE FUEL 011. oil pipes. If no oil flow is observed shut down the engine immediately and take steps to ascertain the cause of the stoppage and remedy it. lu b. If fu rther attention is requ ired it is advisa ble to seek ex pert assistance. thermostat housing. for 20/30 minutes when the engine should be thoroughly warmed through.

..would remind the . might i nstruci ions are ca rr icd out efficiently. be ready tn give [u rthcr troll blc f fCC service a nd a t ' this stage \\'C. Perkins Engines Ltd . cannot accept liabili ly for direct or consequentia I da mage tha t periods of laying LIp. however.owner/upcru t or t ha t t rou hie free service can . no difficulty will be ennor should the engine suffer any harm.mly he maintained if reasonable care is taken tn carry out the "Proventi vc Ma intcnuncc' as l{Liti down in this hand hook at 1 he mi Il'a~c or time intervals ad v iscd NOTE: If these countered.. arise rollnwing 'if) .The engine wi II nov .

description and serial nu mber so that your requirements can be identif ed. SOURCE OF SUPPLY P arts are avai lab Ie fro III Perk ins Overseas Co rn pan ies. parts should be obtai ned by pi aci n 9 a fi rm 0 rder with one of th e afo re ment i oiled sco u ree s of supply. Manufacturing Licensees. "I . Associate Companies. NOTE W hen parts are req ui red for yo u r Perkins engine always quote the engine number. We are una b Ie to deal direct with th e ope rator and therefore.parts section Whilst every effort is made to ill u strate latest pa rts. owi ng to the company's policy of continuous improvement some slight variations may occur. the machine name. Distributors and the applicable Franchise holders of Perkins powered Mach ine Man ufactu rers.

- .- . "..". ~ I 41 iU - I 'It ..: . 'ttrn o o o PLATE A CYLINDER BLOCK SECTION 52 .

s =====() PLATE CYLINDER HEAD B SECTION .. ~(J a::::c.

.. -~ PLATE C SECTION 'i4 CRANKSHAFT .

.~ ...9 ....:Q£.. ..... I I i ..2=__ 2 _ _.... _.. PLATE CYLINDER HEAD COVER D SECTION ~.....~ ~ 1 ~ "" I I I ®® II . W_E) @j~ ...

•• .M PLATE E A'R INDUCTION SECTION .--_-. .~- . -------.-'" < -.~ . .

...0... PLATE TIMfNG 57 F GEAR SECTION l . ..... _ .

PLATE G1 OIL SYSTEM SECTION LUBRICATING IL _ .

. I PLATE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM G2 SECTION ..-- -I t~ ~.-" ~=-.-:.-.--..-- ..":. • ~ .' .-..-. ..--_" - - .~:~. .' <>: . -:. . =>:' .-.~. .---.....:.-----__ ._.-.".' '-:~~~-:: '_" ..6 • 5- ~ _- • . ~._.. .-: .---::.--- .---. " ... - _.---~.-" :--:'-:. _.-.' ".'_---. ..-_.

PLATE H WATER PUMP SECTION 60 .

_------- ..---- .........._-_ 1 PLATE FUEL INJECTION 61 11 EQUIPMENT SECTION .".... .1 -1----... '" ! .... ... ~ ...~- : .. -- .... -. ..

.Q o PLATE 12 SECTION FUEL INJECTION EQUlPMENT 62 ..

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