University of Iowa

Iowa Research Online
Theses and Dissertations

2010

NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC linkages in nursing care plans for hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure
Hye Jin Park
University of Iowa

Recommended Citation
Park, Hye Jin. "NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC linkages in nursing care plans for hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure." dissertation, University of Iowa, 2010. http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/570.

This dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/570

NANDA-I, NOC, AND NIC LINKAGES IN NURSING CARE PLANS FOR HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

by Hye Jin Park

An Abstract Of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Nursing in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa

May 2010

Thesis Supervisor: Associate Professor Sue Moorhead

1 The purpose of the study was to identify NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC linkages based on a clinical reasoning model to capture accurate nursing care plans for patients with Congestive Heart Failure. A retrospective descriptive design was used to address the research questions. Data were obtained from the records of patients discharged for one year with the medical diagnoses of CHF (DRG 127) from an Iowa community hospital. A total of 272 inpatient records were analyzed to describe the frequency and percentage of NANDA-I diagnosis, NIC interventions, and NOC outcomes for patients with CHF. The top ten NANDA-I diagnoses associated with NOC outcomes and NIC interventions were identified. The results were compared with published NNN linkages. Knowledge Deficit (NANDA- I) -Knowledge: Treatment Regimen (NOC)-Teaching Procedure/Treatment (NIC) (N=94) and Cardiac Output Alteration (NANDA-I) – Cardiac Pump Effectiveness (NOC)-Cardiac Care (NIC) (N=83) were the top two NNN linkages for CHF. In addition, using means, SD, and t-tests, the effectiveness of NIC interventions was examined by comparing admission and discharge NOC scores. The top ten NOC outcomes scores showed significant differences between mean score on admission and discharge (p value < .0001). All of top ten NOC-NIC linkages showed significant results in terms of effectiveness (p value <.05). In conclusion, further research related to SNLs using large clinical databases from health information systems is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care. Abstract Approved: __________________________________________________________ Thesis Supervisor __________________________________________________________ Title and Department __________________________________________________________ Date

NANDA-I. NOC. AND NIC LINKAGES IN NURSING CARE PLANS FOR HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE by Hye Jin Park A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Nursing in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa May 2010 Thesis Supervisor: Associate Professor Sue Moorhead .

D. thesis of Hye Jin Park has been approved by the Examining Committee for the thesis requirement for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Nursing at the May 2010 graduation.D.Graduate College The University of Iowa Iowa City. THESIS ——————— This is to certify that the Ph. Iowa CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL —————————————— PH. Thesis Supervisor __________________________________________________________ Elizabeth Swanson __________________________________________________________ Timothy Ansley __________________________________________________________ Jane Brokel __________________________________________________________ Howard Butcher . Thesis Committee: __________________________________________________________ Sue Moorhead.

I have learned from a great many faculty and fellow students during this doctoral program. With her guidance and persistent help I have not had any difficult times during the doctoral program. She was always opened to me and encouraged me to have an interesting about nursing informatics. Jane Brokel. Mary Clarke. I had a great opportunity to improve knowledge of nursing informatics in discussing many interesting clinical informatics issues with her. In addition. Without innumerable people. I want to specially thank for Dr. She provided me with a very helpful residency experience in her hospital and assistance with data collection. Dr.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is a pleasure to thank those who made this thesis possible. Tim Ansley. who has supported me throughout my thesis and the doctoral program with her patience and knowledge. She was willing to share her knowledge and information. Beginning with my first year. Sue Moorhead. His advice and assistance made my dissertation ii . I would like to thank my committee members. Elizabeth Swanson. Howard Butcher whose assistance made this thesis more valuable. She provided me many opportunities and resources for my academic career. David Reed. Dr. who helped me to manage the data effectively. Dr. Besides my dissertation committee. this thesis would not have been possible. and Dr. I have a great number of people who have helped and supported me during this long process. my research assistant mentor. I would like to thank Dr. First and foremost. It is no exaggeration to say I owe the path of my career to her ideas and encouragement. I had the good fortune to meet Dr. I must thank my advisor. She continually and convincingly conveyed a spirit of adventure in regard to research and scholarship.

She always provided her unlimited support and encouragement when I need her helps. She has been a really supportive person in my life.to be done within a tight timeline. I would also like to thank Aleta Porcella at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. I also thank my family. These experiences helped me to discover new idea for my dissertation. Eunjoo Lee. She and I built nursing care plans using standardized nursing terminologies within a clinical information system. I worked with her for a very short duration but I had wonderful experiences. Finally. I also really appreciate Dr. My mom and sisters instilled in me from the very beginning a hunger for knowledge and the perseverance to purse my dreams. iii .

and NOC outcomes for patients with CHF. and NIC linkages based on a clinical reasoning model to capture accurate nursing care plans for patients with Congestive Heart Failure. further research related to SNLs using large clinical databases from health information systems is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care.05). iv . A total of 272 inpatient records were analyzed to describe the frequency and percentage of NANDA-I diagnosis. Data were obtained from the records of patients discharged for one year with the medical diagnoses of CHF (DRG 127) from an Iowa community hospital. Knowledge Deficit (NANDA. NOC.0001). In addition. using means. The top ten NANDA-I diagnoses associated with NOC outcomes and NIC interventions were identified. the effectiveness of NIC interventions was examined by comparing admission and discharge NOC scores. All of top ten NOC-NIC linkages showed significant results in terms of effectiveness (p value <.ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to identify NANDA-I. In conclusion. SD. The results were compared with published NNN linkages. A retrospective descriptive design was used to address the research questions. The top ten NOC outcomes scores showed significant differences between mean score on admission and discharge (p value < . NIC interventions. and t-tests.I) -Knowledge: Treatment Regimen (NOC)-Teaching Procedure/Treatment (NIC) (N=94) and Cardiac Output Alteration (NANDA-I) – Cardiac Pump Effectiveness (NOC)-Cardiac Care (NIC) (N=83) were the top two NNN linkages for CHF.

. 22 NIC Interventions.................................................. 15 DRG (Diagnostic Related Groups) ........................................................................................... 19 NANDA-I Nursing Diagonoses..... 4 Critcal Thinking Skills and Clinical Reasoning within the Nursing Process...... 27 Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning ......................................................................... 17 Research Involving the Study Population: Congetive Heart Failure (CHF)....................................... 14 NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification)….................................................................................. ............... x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................ 15 NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) …............... ...................................................... 11 Conceptual Model ............................................. .... 30 v .............................................. 17 Overview of Standardized Nursing Terminologies ..viii LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................... 7 Problem Statement ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Significance...................................................... 2 NANDA-I................ 25 The Nursing Minimun Data Set (NMDS)...................... .............................. 26 The Contribution of Standardized Nursing Terminologies ............... 15 NNN Linkages ........ 6 The OPT (Outcome-Present-State Test) Model as a Tool for Enhancing Critical Thinking... 1 Standardized Nursing Terminologies ...........................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Purpose…….................................. 28 Nursing Care Plans .................... ................................................................................................. 16 Summary………….................... 16 CHF (Congestive Heart Failure)…................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Research Questions................................................................... 16 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ....... 12 Definition of Terms...................................................................xi CHAPTER I BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE........................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 NOC Outcomes............. NOC and NIC (NNN) Integrated into the Nursing Process............. 14 NANDA-I (North American Nursing Diagnosese Association International)..........................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 111 Discussion of Limitations .............................................. 63 Question 2 . 53 Procedures for Data Collection.............................................................................. 53 Nursing Diagnostic Reasoning ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 Sample……....................................................... 100 The Patterns of Use of NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .......................................................................................................... NOC..................................... 100 The Patterns of Use of NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF................ 57 Human Subjects .......... 112 Documentation........................ 41 Summary… ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103 The Patterns of Use of NOC Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF........................................ 35 Studies of NANDA-I................................................................................................................. 52 Patient Plan of Care Sheet........................................................... 69 Question 3 ......................................................................................................... 112 Data ............... 61 Analysis of the Research Questions...................................... 84 Question 6 ................................................................................ 33 Relationships Among the OPT model........................................... 106 NNN linkages Using Clinical Reasoning ......................................... 55 Limitations ...................... 79 Question 5 ................................................................ NNN (NANDA-I...... 54 Data Analyses ...................................... 113 System................................................................ 49 Sample.. 115 vi ......................................................................................................... and Nursing Care Plans ......................................................................................................... 91 Question 7 ........................................ 98 V DISCUSSION ......... 63 Question 1 ................................................. 46 III METHODOLOGY ..................................... 58 IV STUDY FINDINGS .. 75 Question 4 ............................. 49 Setting ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................The OPT (Outcome-Present State Test) Model ............................................................................................................ 48 Design ....................... 94 Summary… ............................................................................................................................................................. NOC and NIC . 51 Data Forms......... 108 Identifying the Effectiveness of NIC using NOC Outcomes Scores ............... and NIC) Terminologies............................................................................................................. 92 Question 8 ..........................................

........... 158 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 119 APPENDIX A.................................................................................................................................................. DOCUMENTATION OF SUPPORT ................................................ 116 Education ............. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ....... 118 Conclusions.... 161 vii ........................................... 117 Policy ....................... HUMAN SUBJECT APPROVAL ......................................................................................... 120 APPENDIX B................... 156 APPENDIX E........................................................................ 123 APPENDIX C............. 116 Practice................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 126 APPENDIX D............................................Implications................................................. PATIENT PLAN OF CARE SHEET............. 116 Research...... NURSING DIAGNOSTIC REASONING...................

.............................................................................................................134 viii ............61 4..............74 4..............................................................2 Age by Gender .........................................1 Description of Variables ..................................130 C...88 4..................... NICs per Patient Hospitalized with CHF........................................................................91 4.........................................................................................................................12 NNN linkages for the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF ... NOCs................13 Mean Scores of the Top Ten NOC Outcomes for Admission and Discharge Scores.........................62 4.....................73 4....................5 Top Two Related Factors for the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses.............6 Most Frequently Selected Related Factors for Patietns Hospitalized with CHF.....................................2 Signs/Symptoms below 50% of the total ..........................60 4.................14 Mean of NOC Admission and Discharge Scores for the Top Ten NOC-NIC Linkages...........................................10 Frequency of Selected NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .......................7 Top Two Signs and Symptoms Associated with the Top Ten NANDA-I Doagnoses ..................1 Overall Demographics Characteristics of Patients with CHF................................................LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3...62 4.............................................1 Related factors less than 50% of the total...................95 C.............70 4..................................93 4....3 Number of NANDA-Is............................64 4.8 Overall Signs and Symptoms for Patients Hospitalized with CHF ............9 Frequency of Selected NOC Outcomes for Patietns Hospitalized with CHF............11 Frequency of Selected NNN Linkages for Patients Hospitalized with CHF ...75 4......15 Comparison of NNN linkages according to the top ten NANDA-I Nursing diagnoses with published NNN linkages ...............................127 C...................................72 4....................................3 NOC Outcomes frequency (Below ten times used).............4 Overall Frequencies of NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF................85 4.....................80 4........................................................

..........................4 NIC interventions frequency (Below ten times used)...................135 C..148 C.............137 C..................C...............150 ix .5 NNN linkages for patietns hospitalized with CHF (Below ten times used) ...7 NOC Mean scores changes according to NIC interventions ............6 Comparison of admission and discharge of NOC scores......

.........10 Comparison of NOC and NIC linkages associated with the top ten NANDAI with published NNN linkages..........................83 4......1 Outcome-Present State –Test (OPT) Model ..............................5 Domains of the Top Ten NOC Outcomes for Patietns Hospitalized with CHF ........37 2............4 Selected NOC Outcomes Domains for Patients Hospitalized with CHF ..78 4.............68 4.......81 4.......76 4..82 4........1 Domains of NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF......6 The Total Selected NOC Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .......................................................................40 4........................2 An Example of NNN Linkages with the OPT Model...........77 4.......98 x .......3 Clinical Reasoning Webs (CRW) ....................2 Top Domains of the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patietns Hospitalized with CHF...........................34 2...............LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1................................3 The Total Selected NANDA-I Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF..................67 4.....................66 4.......7 Domains of Selected NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .................8 Top Ten NIC Domains for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .....................14 2..............1 Conceptual Framework for NNN Linkages for CHF using the OPT Model...............9 The Total Selected NIC Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF ................

NOC. and NIC NOC Nursing Outcomes Classification OPT Outcome-Present State Test PCDS Patient Care Data Set SNOMED CT Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms TJR Total Joint Replacement xi .LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACC/AHA American College of Cardiology with American Heart Association ADPIE Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementing Evaluation AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ANA American Nurses Association APIE Assessment Planning Intervention Evaluation CCC Clinical Care Classification CHF Congestive Heart Failure CIS Clinical Information Systems CNDS computerized nursing documentation systems CPT codes Common Procedural Terminology CRW Clinical Reasoning Webs DM Diabetes Mellitus DRG Diagnostic Related Groups EHRs Electronic Health Records ICNP International Classification of Nursing Practice NANDA-I NANDA International NIC Nursing Interventions Classification NMDS Nursing Minimum Data Set NMMDS Nursing Management Minimum Data Set NNN NANDA-I.

& Kitzmiller. S. Using standardized nursing terminologies is viewed as critical in the healthcare industry for quality of care (Clancy et al. Lunney et al. 2008. & Gebbie. Hunt.S. 2007. 2005). 2007. Sproat.. Congressional Budget Office.1 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE The number of elderly over 60 is predicted to gradually increase from 672 million in 2005 to nearly 1. Herdman. 2008. 2005). 2009). CraftRosenberg. 2006). Odenbreit.S. 2005.) (U. . 2008) and the efficiency of nursing data management (Lavin. 2008) and Medicare pays more money for CHF patients than any single cancer or myocardial infarction population (Congress of the U. 2007) because this allows for enhancing the quality of documentation (Muller-Stab et al. & Van Achterberg. Carrington.9 billion by 2050. effective management and treatment of this condition is needed (Sochalski et al. Muller-Stab. Fischetti. Seventy-five to eighty percent of heart failure victims are within the older than 65 age group and with the elderly population tripled. Muller-Staub. Identifying the key nursing diagnoses. Moreover. congestive heart failure (CHF) (DRG 127) will become an even greater major public health problem in the United States (U. Smith & Smith. 2005. Annual health expenditures for hospitalizations for patients with CHF cost over 20 billion dollars (Health Alliance. Thorpe & Howard. 2004. Needham.. Avant. 2009. 2004).S. (CDC. Lavin. Health News. heart failure leads in the substantial causes of mortality and morbidity in the U. 2008. thus the number of elderly around the world will triple (CDC... In order to reduce the economic health care crisis and provide quality care. Rutherford. 2006).

A substantive structure for nursing is provided from the pattern of nursing diagnoses. Accumulated clinical data using these terminologies can provide information to the nursing discipline as well as support the development of practice parameters. they provide the concepts and clear definitions of the phenomena of nursing and enhance nursing care by allowing nurses and other care providers to use the same terminology to describe patient problems. interventions. interventions. & Bulechek. data are extracted for evaluation of the quality of care provided. both nationally and internationally (Thoroddsen & Ehnfors.2 interventions and outcomes with standardized terminologies from the data for this population is important as the incidence increases and identifying the key nursing diagnoses. & Swanson. Johnson. Furthermore. Standardized Nursing Terminologies Nursing terminologies play an important role in describing and defining nursing care (Clark & Lang. 1992). Woodworth. 1996). and outcomes will help build the evidence for caring for patients with CHF. This provides strategies for patient management and assists nurses’ clinical decision-making (Hirshfeld. interventions. 1994). TrippReimer. Moreover. Currently there are 12 standardized nursing terminologies and data set elements . 2007). Maas. nursing interventions and patient outcomes in many settings. and outcomes classifications include lexical elements for the development of these theories built on elements unique to nursing (Moorhead. and outcomes. McCloskey. 2008. these standardized nursing terminologies can contribute to the development of middle range theories because nursing diagnoses.

PCDS (Patient Care Data Set). NMMDS (Nursing Management Minimum Data Set). the work of NANDA-I. Rutherford. and NIC is a tremendous contribution to the naming. NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification). NIC was first published in 1992 and has been translated into ten languages and also used in many . Nursing diagnoses have been used in practice and education since the 1970s. categorizing. In addition. 2008). 2008). These include the following: NMDS (Nursing Minimum Data Set). 2008). OMAHA system. NOC has been translated into seven languages and been used in many countries (Moorhead et al. 2009). NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification).. the Omaha System. 2008) were selected for this study because these languages are used in many settings as a means of more effectively communicating among nurses. and NIC interventions (Bulechek et al. Among the twelve standardized nursing terminologies. and classifying nursing knowledge (Pesut & Herman.. Keenan. PNDS through a review of literature from 1982 to 2006 in CINAHL (Anderson. Work to create NOC began in 1991 and was first published in 1997. & Jones. ICNP (International Classification of Nursing Practice). NANDA-I (NANDA International). and SNOMED CT (Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms) (American Nurses Association. ABC Codes. 2009). NOC outcomes (Moorhead et al. 2009). NOC.. and now more than 20 countries are using these diagnoses (NANDA-I. NANDA-I nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I. NANDA/NOC/NIC.3 recognized by the American Nurses Association that are applied to describe nursing care. 2009. ICNP. CCC (Clinical Care Classification). NOC and NIC as having the most extensive penetration in the pattern of diffusion of five nursing terminologies: CCC. 1999) and one study recognized NANDA.

1998). and can be used by any specialty and across a variety of health care settings. Pesut and Herman (1998) identified how the nursing processes has changed over time: a) the first generation nursing process (19501970) was concerned with problems and process. These three nursing terminologies are the most comprehensive. NANDA-I. an essential core of practice.4 countries (Bulechek et al. 2008). nursing interventions classification (NIC) and nursing outcomes . in clinical settings to deliver patient care (Fesler-Birch. as well as electronic health records (EHRs) using these terminologies. b) the second generation (1970-1990) was focused on the development of nursing diagnoses and diagnostic reasoning. NOC and NIC (NNN) Integrated into the Nursing Process Nurses use the nursing process. and the Iowa Nursing Outcomes Classification Project (Pesut & Herman. New editions of NIC and NOC are published every four years. From the1970s to 1990s tremendous progress in nursing knowledge development and classification were made by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. e) the fifth generation will be models of care (2020-2035) which are the archetypes of care being empirically-based. f) the sixth generation will be predictive care (2035-2050) using tested prototypes of care. c) the third generation nursing process (1990-2010) is focused on outcome-driven models supported by critical thinking and clinical reasoning. interventions. Iowa Nursing Intervention Classification Project. New knowledge based on nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I). d) the fourth generation is focused on knowledge building (2010-2020) from the analysis of the patterns and relationships among nursing diagnoses.. and outcomes. Nurses can describe comprehensive patient situations using the nursing process in both paper-based nursing records. 2005).

. Englebardt & Nelson. 2006). Graves. The accumulated data from linkages among three terminologies become information which has meaning. Outcomes of care are measured by comparing the patient state prior to intervention and after treatment. store. 2008). and transport nursing care data into electronic health records (Pesut. Nurses continuously monitor the patient’s status as part of the evaluation phase of the process and document the care they provide (Kautz. the nurses and patients set achievable and desirable short or long term goals using NOC outcomes. Information becomes knowledge when the relationships between data and information are formalized and this knowledge supports nurses’ decision-making (Harris. New nursing process models can accommodate recent knowledge development activities and support the use of nursing terminologies (Pesut & Herman. 2006). & Williams.5 classification (NOC) is requiring redesigned nursing process models of reasoning with electronic support system instead of using old nursing process models. 385 outcomes in NOC (Moorhead et al. 1998). Pesut. during the assessment phase. Nurses select nursing diagnoses using NANDA-I terminology based on patients’ actual and potential health conditions and needs. 2009). For example. . Kuiper. Solbrig. 2002). 2000. Nursing care is implemented and documented using NIC interventions during the hospitalization. Based on the diagnoses with patients’ desirable goals. Elkin. Currently there are 202 nursing diagnoses in NANDA-I (NANDA. retrieve. and 542 interventions in NIC (Bulechek et al. & Chute. These taxonomies with codes are able to capture.. In each step of the nursing process. nurses use a dynamic and systematic way to collect and analyze patient data. nurses need to use standardized nursing terminologies to describe patient’s situations to communicate among nurses and other care givers to limit or control misunderstanding.

and to select interventions to achieve the outcomes using critical thinking skills (Johnson et al. 2008. 178). to select desired outcomes. & Holm. interventions and outcomes using these nursing terminologies based on patient’s situation. often under conditions of uncertainty and risk (Pesut. Nurses use a decision-making process during the nursing process to determine nursing diagnoses. even from minute to minute. patients’ conditions can change hourly. During the nursing process critical thinking skills are necessary for nurses to select appropriate and accurate nursing diagnoses. The importance of critical thinking skills within the nursing process becomes even more critical because increased information from patient care technology and high patient acuity demands more elements as part of the process of making complex decisions..6 2008) that have been developed and refined with systematic processes to date. For example. Clinical reasoning is defined as “a process that pertains to the thought process. 2003). 2006). Nurses are continuously required to update the matrix of their thinking and reasoning about how patients are responding . 2008). p. Pesut and Herman (1999) assert that critical thinking is the heart of nursing practice. It is a non-linear and recursive process that uses diverse cognitive skills to collect patient data as well as evaluate collected data (Simmons. Hicks. requiring close supervision in the current health care environment. Critical Thinking Skills and Clinical Reasoning within the Nursing Process Nursing is a science and professional discipline that requires critical thinking processes (Lunney. 2008a). organization of ideas and exploration of experiences to reach conclusions” (Banning. Lanuza. Fonteyn.

is a useful structure and tool for critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning (Bartlett et al. the third generation nursing process model developed by Pesut and Herman (1999). and judgment (Pesut & Herman. 2008). described below. 2008). decision-making. A useful tool for critical thinking skills within the nursing process is needed. decision-making processes were linear cause and effect methods.. 2003) Although the American Nurses Association supports the importance of critical thinking skills during the nursing process and critical thinking skills are integrated in BSN curriculum.. 2008).7 (Pesut. 2007). cue logic. allows nurses to use critical thinking skills in addressing patients’ complex and dynamic needs. complexity thinking of recursive and nonlinear pattern is needed for decision-making since diverse and complex patient needs exist. testing. many decisions in practice are based on habits with little critical thinking involved (Wilkinson. The OPT Model allows nurses to consider many patient problems and needs at the same time using clinical . under the current generation (1990-2010). nurses can understand the meaning of patient data and have effective nursing care plans. 1999. The components of the OPT Model include the client-in context story. In addition. a better understanding of the reasoning processes in patient care can help nurses with less experience develop additional thinking strategies (Simmons et al. reflection. keystone issue. The OPT (Outcome-Present State Test) Model as a Tool for Enhancing Critical Thinking The OPT. The OPT (Outcome-Present State Test) Model. By doing this.. framing. However. Bartlett et al. Traditionally.

Contrast.8 reasoning webs. p. 2006. 2005). Clinical reasoning webs are drawn to depict the situation and relationships among the concepts and help to identify which nursing diagnoses are the most important to address (Kautz et al. and knowledge that can be stored in clinical systems for easy reuse by . concurrent considerations of the problem. NANDA-I. Using standardized nursing terminologies. and are increasing in use in a varity of settings. Problem Statement Standardized nursing terminologies are widely used in EHRs. with the OPT Model can influence the development of middle-range theories in nursing (Pesut & Herman. and NIC (NNN) represent nursing data. The four C’s in clinical judgment in the OPT Model involve “reflection about the contrast between present and desired state. 1997. criteria regarding achievement of the desired state. outcome. 1990).. NOC. NOC. Nursing interventions are determined by identifying which interventions reduce the gap between the present state of the patient and desirable state or outcome. Miller & Malcolm. and conclusions or judgments about outcome achievement” (Kautz et al. and conclusions are the “4 C’s” identified by Pesut (2006) as essential thinking strategies that support clinical judgment in complexity theory. criteria. 1998) because the model provides linkages among the three terminologies and facilitates the development of theoretical schema that provide the foundation for theories in nursing (Blegen & Tripp-Reimer. 132). The model contrasts nursing diagnoses of the present state with desirable patient outcomes that measure the impact of nursing interventions on the nursing diagnosis. information. NANDA-I.. and intervention. concurrent considerations. and NIC.

development of policies. CHF. NIC interventions. intervention. Use of the OPT Model with NNN in clinical settings may enable nurses to more effectively manage patients with chronic and high cost diseases such as CHF. Although the use of NANDA-I nursing diagnoses.. and NOC outcomes in 103 children. 2006a. and fall prevention by analyzing patient data from EHRs and identified the patterns of interventions for these conditions. 2006b). Lunney. nurses can use the same clinical terms to describe and clearly . and communication of the value of school nursing practice to stakeholders. Dochterman et al (2005) described the NIC interventions that were used for three populations. Lunney (2006a) described the differences in nursing process between using NNN in EHRs and without using NNN in EHRs. Another study conducted by Lunney (2006b) identified frequently used NANDA-I diagnoses. Advantages and effectiveness of using these standardized nursing terminologies in electronic systems are described in several studies (Dochterman et al. (2004) tested the effect of using NNN in electronic health records on children’s health outcomes and found that the ability to help children was significantly increased.9 nurses. 2004. Lunney. outcomes. and interventions because patient situations change continuously in complex adaptive systems such as hospitals (Pesut. These identified NNN linkages provide data to support evidenced-based school nursing practice. hip fracture. 2005. Lunney et al. education of school nurses. and outcome components of the nursing process. Since NNN linkages provide uniform nomenclature for documenting the diagnosis. many nurses have difficulty selecting accurate and appropriate nursing diagnoses. 2007). Lunney et al.. NOC outcomes and NIC interventions with EHRs in care settings has been shown to affect patient outcomes positively.

using actual clinical data for hospitalized patients with CHF. it is important to identify NNN linkages using a workflow model.. 2005. Kautz et al. Relationships among the three terminologies were determined based on actual patient data. Purpose The purpose of the study was to describe NANDA-I. interventions. such as the OPT Model.10 communicate patient care situations to promote common understanding of care provided to patients. Research Questions The study answered the following questions: 1. What are the nursing diagnoses chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? . Studies done testing the use of critical thinking skills through the OPT Model show that it can play a critical role in selecting accurate nursing diagnoses. interventions and outcomes for CHF patients. Therefore. 2008). The majority of the studies on the use of NNN languages with the OPT Model were conducted in class activities with nursing students or done for nursing curriculum evaluation.. Kuiper & Pesut. and outcomes in nursing practice (Kautz et al. 2006. No studies were found in the literature that included nurses using a workflow process model such as the OPT Model to facilitate their use of NNN linkages with CHF patients in the clinical setting. NOC and NIC linkages by analyzing patients’ nursing care plan records to identify the most frequently used diagnoses. The hospital health system from which the data were obtained is unique in that it incorporates the OPT Model as an important part of the nursing process with EHRs for this organization.

11 2. What is the effectiveness of the ten frequently used NIC interventions according to NOC outcomes for patients hospitalized with CHF? 8. What are the differences between published NNN linkages and the actual NNN linkages from results of the study for patients hospitalized with CHF? This research provides a method of testing the proposed expert opinions on the NNN linkages for care of the patient with CHF. What interventions are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized CHF? 5. and interventions were examined using actual patient data. Significance This study is significant for several reasons. What are the 10 most prevalent linkages of NANDA-I. and NIC for patients hospitalized with CHF? 6. This will be a significant step in establishing evidence-based care plans for electronic health records for patients hospitalized with CHF. NOC. In doing so. we know what standard nursing terms are associated with patients hospitalized with CHF from one organization. we will be able to predict the NNN linkages and eventually prescribe the NNN linkages that are designed as precoordinated care plan sets for patients hospitalized with CHF. What are the NOC scores changes between admission and discharge for patients hospitalized with CHF? 7. outcomes. the relationships among diagnoses. What related factors and signs/symptoms for top ten nursing diagnosis are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? 3. the study was the first to explore . Second. First. Based on the study. What outcomes are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? 4.

and NIC interventions for patients hospitalized with CHF. and the accumulated data will make it possible to compare patient outcomes among facilities using the same nursing languages. Conceptual Model The conceptual model for this study focuses on the patient population with CHF. NNN linkages identified in the study can help novice nurses select appropriate NANDA nursing diagnoses. This model presents the linkages in an executable manner within the nurses workflow with the OPT Model of clinical reasoning (Figure 1. which uses NNN linkages in the context of informatics science. Third. Through the use of large nursing data sets from multiple sites using standardized nursing terminologies. These linkages can be further tested to determine a more effective way to manage patients with CHF. The model illustrates how nurses make decisions in the course of their workflow and also offers standardized nursing care plans.12 NNN linkages with the OPT Model using actual patient data from nursing care plans. as well as adjusting for individual patient risk. Figure 1.1). Finally. the study offers nursing care plan data from NNN linkages for clinical nursing information systems. NOC outcomes. high cost medical condition for most health care organization and affecting primarily older individuals. The standardized nursing care plan box illustrates the improved communication . the NNN linkages based on clinical data can be developed into standardized nursing care plans to decrease nursing error in planning and executing care.1 represents a new conceptual model based on the OPT Model. nurses will be able to determine nursing outcomes which make the work of nursing visible and use the data for nursing effectiveness research. which is a high volume.

and Couey (2008) Standardized care plans could minimize the bias imposed by individual mental models by linking evidence-based nursing diagnoses with interventions and outcomes (Clancy et al. With these NNN linkages in care settings. and interventions and facilitate making accurate decisions using known evidence-based practices when given standardized nursing care plans. This would lead to enhanced indicators of quality of care such as decreased length of hospital stay and increased patient safety. .13 between nurses and health care providers. outcomes.. When experienced nurses are interrupted and rushed. The large arrow between the standardized nursing care plan could affect the quality of care and patient safety as described by Vizoso. they are more likely to choose the right nursing diagnoses and interventions for patients when provided a standardized nursing care plan. Lyskawa. 2006) and help nurses make correct decisions. The use of the OPT Model of critical thinking and clinical reasoning assists in a difficult process when making decisions about CHF care. the large arrow between SNL and Difficulties with Decision Making illustrates when student and novice nurses choose terms for nursing diagnoses.

NANDA-I diagnoses are based on 155 nursing diagnoses including related factors and signs/symptoms (NANDA-I. The classification is recognized as a well established diagnosis terminology which is included in UMLS and recognized by ANA. Each diagnosis has a definition and the actual diagnoses include defining characteristics and related factors. The Nursing Diagnoses: Definition & Classification 2009-2011 includes 21 new diagnoses. and has a total of 202 nursing diagnoses for use in practice. 9 revised diagnoses. Risk diagnoses include risk factors (NANDA-I.1 Conceptual Framework for NNN Linkages for CHF using the OPT Model Definition of Terms NANDA-I (North American Nursing Diagnoses Association International) The NANDA International Classification is used for the identification of nursing diagnoses. 6 retired diagnoses. In this study.14 Figure 1. . 2009). 1999) used in the study hospital.

and community levels. After providing an intervention. 2008). NIC interventions from the third edition with 468 interventions were used in the study hospital as part of the nursing care planning (Dochterman & Bulechek. & Moorhead. 2000). Before providing an intervention. The first step in the process to link NNN is for nurses to determine a nursing diagnosis using NANDA-I diagnoses. It currently contains 34 new interventions and 77 revised interventions (Bulechek et al.15 NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) The current 4th edition Nursing Outcomes Classification has 385 outcomes with definitions... NOC is used to measure the outcome and determine a change score. In the study. and NOC. NIC. The diagnoses that occur most frequently reflect their importance . indicators. In this study. NOC allows nurses to follow changes in or maintenance of outcome states over time and across settings. 2008). 2000) as the available terminology in the study hospital. nurses use NOC to understand the patient’s current problems and nursing diagnoses and rate the chosen outcome to obtain a baseline rating. NOC outcomes are defined as the second edition of NOC with 260 outcomes labels (Johnson. NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) The NIC taxonomy has 7 domains and 30 classes and 542 interventions in the fifth edition. family. Each intervention has a list of more specific activities for implementing the intervention that are selected based on the patients needs. It includes 58 new outcome labels and 67 revised outcomes (Moorhead et al. and measurement scales (1 to 5) for use at the individual. NNN Linkages NNN linkages provide associations between three standardized languages recognized by the American Nurses Organization: NANDA-I. Maas.

. After determining the nursing diagnosis. provides an effective process for nurses to increase the accuracy of nursing care plans in specific care settings or patient situations. and NIC with the OPT Model. such as NANDA-I. and therefore to improve patient outcomes and quality of care. CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) Heart Failure and Shock (DRG 127): This is the primary DRG given to patients based on medical documentation conforming to the criteria for Heart Failure and Shock by coders in the medical information department. and then choose NIC interventions that are most likely to achieve the desired outcome (Johnson. The use of standardized nursing terminologies. NOC. 2006). Summary As the elderly population in the United States increases over the next decades congestive heart failure (CHF) will become an even bigger major public health problem.16 in representing an entire group of patients. DRG (Diagnostic Related Groups) “A classification of patients by diagnosis or surgical procedure into major diagnostic categories for the purpose of determining payment of hospitalization charge based on the premise that treatment of similar medical diagnoses generates similar costs” (Online Medical Dictionary. 2008). nurses consider which NOC outcomes are appropriate for the patient situation.

Despite these organizations’ efforts. CHF is a . Vaccarino. and desirable outcomes (NOC). Research Involving the Study Population: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) According to AHA (2009a). The NANDA-I.. Wang. Baker. interventions (NIC). CHF or heart failure is defined as the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to supply the metabolic demands of the body. CHF still remains a frequent DRG for admission for adult and elderly patients. & Bottorff. Dracuo. quality care can be provided. 2006). The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (Konstam. Parent. & Radford et al. 1997).17 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The rapid increase in the number of older persons is one of the chief reasons for concern about the quality of care provided to patients. 2005) developed evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of patients with CHF to reduce costs of health care and provide high quality care. Nurses as part of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers can promote effective care delivery for patients with CHF (Albert. 2001) and the American College of Cardiology with the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) (Hunt et al. A hospital admission for CHF is quite expensive and approximately thirty to forty percent of patients with CHF are readmitted within six months after discharge (Krumholz. NOC and NIC linkages are important knowledge components to improve patient outcomes so that cost effective. Tu.. It is nurses who focus their care on the patient’s responses to the medical diagnosis through the use of nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I).

Despite the significant . long-term condition. The condition affects 1% of people aged 50 years and older and about 5% of those age 75 years and older. Health News. Levine. 2009c). and (c) surgery and medical devices to improve the survival and quality of care of patients with severe congestive heart failure (American Heart Association. CHF can happen to anyone. Both of these conditions make the heart work harder. Health News. In addition. Guu. 2006). 2005) because medications and treatments allow prolonged survival for those with serious chronic conditions including CHF (U. Lung and Blood Institute.S. including an aging population and a lowered mortality rate for people who have had heart attacks. About 10% of patients diagnosed with heart failure die within one year. 2009). In addition.7 million people and about 670. (AHA.18 complex. The rising incidence of heart failure is related to several factors. Incidence of CHF is equally distributed in men and women and twice as common in persons with hypertension as compared to normal persons. and heterogeneous disease process that afflicts nearly 5.S. 2009b). S. but it is more common in people 65 years of age and older (Green. (b) medications prescribed by physicians for treatment of CHF. 2006). Treatment options for heart failure focus on several factors: (a) lifestyle changes to relieve symptoms of congestive heart failure or prevent the disease from worsening. CHF is five times greater in persons who have had a heart attack compared to persons who have not (National Heart. the high rate of obesity in America has escalated the incidence of diabetes and high blood pressure. & Brower.000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the U. increasing the risk of heart failure (U. and about 50% die within five years of diagnosis.

Approximately 30 to 40 percent of patients with heart failure are readmitted within six months of hospitalization (Vinson.19 resources and strategies expended on the treatment of this disease. outcomes remain poor (Gold et al. 1990. interventions. were introduced in the mid twentieth century (Beyea. 1999. 1999). As the roles of professional nurses in various domains of nursing practice have expanded. 1998). there have been a number of initiatives to develop standardized terminologies for nursing practice (Beyea. organizations. Gordon. 1998). Keenan (1999) also defined standardized terminologies as a common language understood and described by all nurses. and outcomes (Gordon. 1999). 1998). Sperry. two nursing classification systems. Overview of Standardized Nursing Terminologies Standardized nursing terminologies are structured vocabularies that provide nurses with a common means of communication (Beyea. Shah. In nursing. 2001). Rich. The benefits include improving communication among nurses and other . 2008). the origin of terminologies has been more than a hundred years since Florence Nightingale introduced the modern era of nursing (Clark. Abdellah’s classification system (1959) of nursing problems that described therapeutic nursing goals and Henderson’s classification (1966) of basic functional health problems focused on patient needs.. & McNamara. Since then. and the nursing profession and can be used to compare data within and across countries. Hoyt & Bowling. These two early classification systems of nursing were influential in the next phase of knowledge development focused on nursing diagnosis. These standardized nursing terminologies provide many benefits to patients.

Lee et al.20 health care providers as well as patients. Nurse educators use standardized terminologies in the curriculum to teach nursing concepts that are essential in the nursing process and are vital to educating new nurses (Warren. store. Keenan. Finesilver. Connors... and retrieve evidence-based . 2008). 2003). Van De Castle. Powelson. 2008). 2005. Beyond these entities. 1998). the nursing profession benefits from being able to document. Pehler & Bodenbender.. Healthcare organizations benefit by being able to measure nursing care and its impact on quality patient care through electronic health records using these terminologies instead of costly manual methods. Use of standardized terminologies thus allows them to make informed decisions regarding staffing ratios (Lundberg et al. 2003. and evaluation (Clingerman. 2008). increasing visibility of nursing interventions. The determination of nursing’s impact on patient and organizational outcomes is essential to validate the contribution of nursing to health care and patient safety. Nurses in healthcare settings benefit from the use of standardized nursing terminologies to facilitate critical thinking and decision-making during patient care (Dochterman et al. implementation.. the organization benefits from the use of standard terminologies by providing administrators with the actual costs and benefits of nursing care. Furthermore.. 2002. Moorhead et al. & Weaver. Patient benefits from the use of standardized terminologies in nursing are enhanced continuity of care with unambiguous communication among healthcare providers (Lundberg et al. 2003. 1999. 2008). 1999. 2003) and to facilitate nursing assessment. 2000. This strategy has been useful for physicians using the Common Procedural Terminology (CPT codes) in electronic health records for billing purposes (Giannangelo & Fenton. & Leiby. and enhancing data collection to evaluate nursing care outcomes (Rutherford. & Metzler.

The ANA has taken a leadership role in establishing criteria for recognizing nursing classifications. or terminologies recognized by the ANA and by the ANA’s Nursing Information and Data Set Evaluation Center (NIDSEC) for nursing practice information . These reports allow countries to compare nursing’s contribution to care. By using standardized nursing terminologies. Warren. interventions and outcomes for specific populations both nationally and internationally using the International Nursing Minimum Data Set (Goosen et al. ANA and the National League of Nursing have supported efforts related to nursing classification systems at the professional. educational. 2007). data sets. & Delaney. each country benefits by having retrievable data that can be aggregated into informative reports or data sets.. as well as international organizations have promoted development of nursing classification systems. Since standardized nursing terminologies offer many benefits. patient outcomes. Currently there are 12 nursing-related classification systems. and frequently used nursing diagnoses. Many nurses and groups have participated in the development of various nursing classification systems representing diverse nursing care settings (Saba & Taylor.S. 1997). 1999). understanding that identifying the unique elements of knowledge and practice provides the foundation for the professional aspect of nursing. and organizational levels (Beyea. 2006). nursing organizations in the U. and developing and maintaining relationships with the standard organizations as well as collaborating on multidisciplinary health care terminologies (Beyea. The impact also has a global effect on nursing. 1999). 2005) and from an enhanced ability to develop middle range theory (Blegen & Tripp-Reimer.21 practice in a systematic way to facilitate nursing research and reveal the impact of nursing care through electronic means (Weaver.

disease. 2008b). the reference terminology licensed by the U. 2008). NANDA diagnoses are used to identify human responses to risks. In 1973 this publication was introduced to many nurses who were interested in nursing diagnoses by the American Nurses Association. NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses The origin of the NANDA-International nursing diagnoses dates back to the 1970s. Nursing diagnoses in electronic health records provide the nurse with the ability to select nursing interventions to achieve desirable outcomes (NANDA. 2009) and the organization changed its name in 2002 to NANDA International (Von-Krogh.S. which is now an independent volunteer membership organization devoted to developing and validating nursing diagnoses. .22 infrastructure. NOC. family or a community’s health using critical thinking skills (Lunney. 2007). 1994). federal government to promote the national use of a standardized clinical terminology in EHR systems (Saba & Taylor. injury or health promotion and nurses use critical thinking skills and critical reasoning to respond to these human responses. This involves interpretation of human behaviors related to the patient. NIC. The NANDA diagnoses are translated into 11 languages (NANDA I. the Omaha System. the first time that the American Nurses Association used the concept nursing diagnosis in a publication (Gordon. An interest group in 1982 started the work followed by the founding of North American Nursing Diagnoses Association (NANDA). the CCC System. NANDA achieved widespread international acclaim in the 1990s. Only six classifications. and PNDS. have been integrated into the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and into SNOMED-CT. 2001. Lunney. 2007). NANDA-I.

definition. behavior or knowledge.. NIC Interventions The NIC classification a) is a comprehensive set of research-based nursing interventions nurses perform across specialties and settings. The first edition of NIC was published in 1992 with 336 interventions. The current 5th edition of NIC has . physiological. families and communities. Nursing interventions include both direct and indirect care aimed at individuals. p. Each NANDA-I diagnosis consists of a nursing diagnosis concept. 3). based upon clinical judgment and knowledge that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcomes” (Bulechek. functional. 2007). plans of care and clinical pathways as a means to label patient conditions (Lundberg et al. assessments. family or community responses to actual or potential health problems/life processes” (NANDA. (b) the class is a division of diagnostic concepts by type of response: activity/exercise. 2007. NANDA-International nursing diagnoses in an electronic health care record provide a framework for nurses to document care and are used to develop problem lists. 2008. healthcare system. b) facilitates the analysis of the impact of nursing activities on patient outcomes. & Dochterman. and d) is defined as “any treatment. p. Butcher. the second edition was published in 1996 with 433 interventions. defining characteristics or related factors and risk factors with references to support each component (NANDA-I. environmental.23 The NANDA-I taxonomy consists of a hierarchical structure of three levels: (a) the domain is a broad area of interest or study. and (c) the nursing diagnosis is defined as “a clinical judgment about an individual. c) serves as an integral part of the nursing process focused on treating the nursing diagnosis or patient problem. psychosocial. 2008). 332).

French. long-term care and primary care) and all specialties and has been translated into Chinese. hospice care. and implement NIC as a standardized language for nursing interventions using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods including content analysis. The codes are used to facilitate computer use allowing communication with other coded systems.. Physiological: Complex. Portuguese. Each intervention includes a label name with a definition and a unique numeric code that can be used for reimbursement of nursing interventions. and Community and 30 classes. Japanese. Health System. expert surveys. A standardized nursing intervention enables researchers to examine the effectiveness and cost that can be used to allocate nursing care resources (Lundburg et al. It contains 34 new interventions and 77 revised interventions (Bulechek et al. 2008). Each intervention has a list of more specific activities for implementing the intervention. 2008). and Spanish to support worldwide implementation. Safety. hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (Bulechek et al. Italian.24 542 interventions and more than 12. These research methods are .000 activities. Korean. A large research team has been working since 1987 to construct. validate. Dutch. 2008). Behavior.. NIC can be used in all clinical settings (acute care. Family. The use of the NIC classification system in an electronic health record facilitates the appropriate selection of nursing interventions used to demonstrate the impact of nursing by communicating nursing interventions to other clinicians on the interdisciplinary health care team. The use of standardized nursing interventions in nursing education curricula facilitates the teaching of clinical decision-making to nurses at the point-of-care by articulating the nursing process as it is used in clinical practice. intensive care units. The NIC taxonomy has 7 domains: Physiological: Basic. home care..

reviewing the linkages from the field test sites for practicality. information systems and educational programs. family.. It includes 58 new outcome labels and 67 revised outcomes in the fourth edition (Moorhead et al. A major achievement of the research project has been testing the usefulness of NIC and its implementation in growing numbers of client populations. the NIC interventions. indicators. The second edition was published in 2000 with 260 outcomes and was the first edition to include the taxonomy. The current 4th edition of the Nursing Outcomes Classification has 385 outcomes with definitions. applying risk adjustment techniques. critical pathways. order sets. where NIC is housed. 2005). . indicators. The first edition of NOC was published in 1997 with 190 outcomes. and NANDA diagnoses and.25 complementary to NANDA-I and to NOC. patient education and data sets for the evaluation of care at the individual or unit level. validating the links through reported research and. and analyzing the impact of nursing treatments (Dochterman et al. NIC interventions are also used in electronic health records through plans of care. The Center for Nursing Classification and Clinical Effectiveness. and community levels. The development team includes faculty content experts and clinical nurse experts and focuses on reviewing the conceptual links between the outcome label. and measurement scales (1 to 5) for use at the individual.. 2008). NOC Outcomes Initial work to develop outcomes sensitive to nursing care started in 1991. outlines research methods for retrieving clinical nursing data from electronic systems including the storing of data according to privacy requirements.

26 NOC allows nurses to follow changes in or maintenance of outcome states over time and across settings. Before intervening, nurses use NOC to understand the patient’s current problem and nursing diagnoses and nurses rate the chosen outcome to obtain a baseline rating. After implementing the intervention, NOC is used to measure the outcomes and determine a change score. NOC consists of outcomes for individual patients, families, and communities used across all clinical settings and specialties. NOC is organized using a taxonomy consisting of three levels: domains, classes, and outcomes. The outcomes are organized into 31 classes and 7 domains. Each outcome consists of a definition, a 5-point measurement scale with 5 always the most desirable state. Each outcome also has a list of associated indicators for the outcome concept and measurement scales with codes for use in electronic healthcare records. Across all of the NOCs, there are 12 different measurement scales. In addition, NOC can be implemented in many settings to measure outcomes when patients are admitted, discharged or transferred and also for nursing care plans and patient education records. The use of NOC within electronic health records provides an opportunity for effectiveness research using outcome data. Currently, NOC is used in many countries and has been translated into Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish (Moorhead et al., 2008). The Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) The Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) is defined as “a minimum set of items of information with uniform definitions and categories concerning the specific dimensions of nursing, which meets the information needs of multiple data users in the health care system” (Werley & Lang, 1988, p. 301). The purposes of the NMDS are to (a)

27 establish comparability of nursing data across populations, (b) describe nursing care of patients, clients, and families across settings, (c) demonstrate trends of nursing care and resource allocation, and (d) stimulate nursing research through links to the detailed data existing in nursing information systems and other healthcare information systems. In addition to the four nursing care elements; nursing diagnosis, nursing intervention, nursing outcome, and nursing intensity, the NMDS contains five patient demographic elements: personal identification, date of birth, sex, race and ethnicity, and residence, and seven service elements: unique facility or service agency number, unique health record number of patient/client, unique number of principle registered nurse provider, episode administration or termination date, discharge or termination date, disposition of patient/client, expected payer for most of the bill. In 1986, the ANA endorsed a resolution to encourage the collection of the NMDS and the development of nursing information systems. The value of nursing minimum data sets is building the knowledge focused on the nursing needs of patients, the contribution nursing makes to these needs, and the influence of management data for patient safety and outcomes (Butler et al., 2006; Westra, Delaney, Konicek, & Keenan, 2008).

The Contribution of Standardized Nursing Terminologies Standardized nursing terminologies have made unique contributions to the systemic development of nursing knowledge (Mrayyan, 2005; Pesut & Herman, 1999) from massive amounts of clinical data that describe linkages between and among nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes (Iowa Intervention Project, 1992). To link these standardized nursing terminologies nurses select nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and

28 interventions using critical thinking skills during the nursing process. The selected nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions are stored in the information system. Large databases with standardized terminologies from health information systems can provide information to nursing about the effectiveness of nursing practices, charging and contracting, staff performance, and resource allocation (Delaney & Huber, 1996). This facilitates the collection of nursing data. In addition, the data assist in the development of evidence-based guidelines (Moorhead et al., 2008) such as AHRQ’s guidelines to manage patients and assist health providers in decision-making (Hirshfeld, 1994). Standardized nursing terminologies also contribute to the development of middlerange theories. Tripp-Reimer et al (1996) described nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes classification of middle-range theories. According to these researchers, the conceptual model, classification of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes contain the lexical elements. In addition, the pattern of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes provide the vertical shafts for the development of middle-range theories that create a substantive structure of nursing. Thus, using these standard nursing terminologies enable middle-range theories development to build on elements unique to nursing (Retsas, 1995).

Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning There have been a variety of definitions for critical thinking. Watson and Glaser (1964) coined one of the earlier definitions of critical thinking in the 1960s and 1970s. While many of the definitions used in the literature, the most frequently cited definition of critical thinking comes from Facione (1990); Critical thinking is defined as purposeful,

Nelms. 2000. Effken & Pesut. Clinical reasoning pertinent to nursing depends on the development of cognition. 462). inquisitiveness. In addition. 1997. self-directed thinking that is appropriate to a particular domain of thinking and displays a particular mastery of intellectual skills and abilities” (p. Metacognition represents the higher order thinking process involving the active control of cognitive thinking processes and is generally defined as thinking about thinking (Banning.29 self-regulatory judgment with results in interpretation. synthesize and evaluate situations (Banning. analysis. 2008. Scheffer and Rubenfeld (2000) clearly stated the importance of critical thinking in nursing: “Critical thinking in nursing is an essential component of professional accountability and quality nursing care. hypotheses. evaluation. contextual perspective. Hursh. discriminating. Nurses use multiple cognitive processes to make a decision such as evidence based on past experience. predicting and transforming knowledge” (p. and reflection. Tommie et al (1999) determined ways of knowing scheme for women since critical thinking is an essential skill for providing nursing care. creativity. & Todd. open mindedness. logical reasoning. information seeking. Clancy. knowledge. critical thinking or metacognition (Banning. Scheffer & Rubenfeld. intuition. 357). & Lane. Fowler. explanation of conceptual or contextual consideration upon which that judgment was based. 2008). applying standards. 2008. Many studies identified that the diversity and complexity of nursing practice makes it essential to prepare nurses who think critically as well as analyze. inference. Critical thinkers in nursing exhibit these habits of the mind: confidence. Hammond. 1964. . intellectual integrity. perseverance. Paul (1993) also defined critical thinking as a “disciplined. and diagnostic reasoning and reflection. Critical thinkers in nursing practice the cognitive skills of analyzing. 1999). flexibility. 2008). Tommie.

Yura and Walsh (1998) define the nursing process as “An orderly systematic manner of determining the client’s health status. making plans to solve them. 2004. The care plan is the application of the nursing process and is a communication tool for nurses to provide continuity of care for patients. and partnerships to make a decision but organized the information into particular frames by the guiding practice philosophy and service organization. Nursing Care Plans The nursing care plan embodies the nursing process. initiating and implementing the plan. (2005) focused on how nurses use information for reducing uncertainties they face when making a decision. In this study. Bucknall (2003) measured environmental influences on nurses’ real decision-making in the critical care setting and found three main environments such as the patient situation. which is the core and essence of professional nursing. Nurses use the elements of reasoning in critical thinking to develop a nursing care plan.30 The clinical decision-making process in nursing is measured in many studies (Bucknall.making process. Carr. resource availability and interpersonal relationship influenced nurses’ decision. 2005).making process. & Dowding. 2003. specifying problems defined as alterations in human need fulfillment. Thompson. This author recognized that all nurses engage with the same concepts for health. The nurses used the nursing process as a systemic way to plan patient care. Cole. care. One study by Thompson et al.1). Carr (2004) focused on the community nurses’ decision. nurses rarely used text-based and electronic sources of research-based information to make a decision in real time and practice situations. Foster. and evaluating the extent to which the plan was effective in promoting optimum wellness and resolving the problems identified” (p. need. .

intervention. In 1980. and evaluation (ADPIE) published by the American Nurses Association in the Standards of Nursing Practice (American Nurses Association. 1999). Outcome focused nursing practice with complex analysis of the . planning. implementing. Some nurses recognized that the independent domain of nursing practice was needed and the second generation nursing process era using thinking skills began (Pesut & Herman. planning. 1998). This second generation model was influenced by theories and concepts of information processing and decision-making. nursing process consisted of five steps which included assessment. evaluation (APIE) was developed in this period (Yura & Walsh. The first generation nursing processes were transformed to focus on diagnosis and reasoning (1970 to 1990) because of a concern and need to understand diagnostic reasoning. The second generation nursing process model was not a good fit with the outcome focus of healthcare (Pesut & Herman. 1973). In the period from 1990 to the present. & Herman. the healthcare industry in general began focusing attention on the measurement of patient outcomes to reduce hospital length of stay using DRGs. outcome specification and testing became a central issue in health care reform.31 Nursing process has evolved and has been modified with health industry changes over time (Pesut. 1998). nursing workflow processes only focused on problem solving and emphasized the importance of assessment. In the first generation (1950 to 1970). The third generation nursing process was needed to support contemporary needs of the nursing profession in multiple settings. This generation of nursing process focused on nursing care needs with medical conditions and many nursing problems were related to patho-physiologic conditions. 1998). A four step nursing process which included assessment. diagnosis. In the second generation.

32 diverse patient conditions were required, and critical, creative systems, and complexity thinking were needed. In the future, nursing process will be evolving to (a) knowledge building (2010-2025); as hospitals and health care systems use standardized nursing terminologies within health information systems or electronic health records. Nursing knowledge will be built from discovering and analyzing the patterns of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes; (b) models of care (2025-2035); which is empirically based archetypes of care from identifying the occurrence and epidemiology of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes for specific patients’ populations. It will allow systems to obtain data by the type of institutions or level of primary, secondary, or tertiary care needs; and (c) predictive care (2035-2050); the predictive model of care will be developed based on the unique personal characteristics of the patients and that data can be compared with empirical data derived from data aggregated from several institutions or from international database (Pesut & Herman, 1998; Pesut, 2006). The increasing complexity of modern healthcare demands critical thinking in response to the rapidly changing health care environment (Fowler, 1997; Clancy et al., 2008). This has implications for nursing because the role of nursing needs to expand proportionately to cope with the complexities of healthcare, requiring nurses to think critically to be effective (Edwards, 2003; Myrick, 2002; Simpson & Courtney, 2002). Every day, nurses sift through an abundance of data and patient information to assimilate and adapt knowledge for problem generation and solutions to make decisions in their practice (Lindberg, Nash, & Lindberg, 2008). The use of critical thinking is vital in examining simple and complex situations in the nursing process, and it is also an

33 essential means of establishing the accuracy of the information or assessment obtained in order to specifically and distinctly articulate what the knowledge conveys (Pesut, 2007; Lindberg et al., 2008; Rogal, 2008). In this third generation, the OPT (Outcome Present State Test) model fits complex patient needs in these current health environment because it is a meta-model of clinical reasoning that has the ability to consider many problems at the same time. The first and second generation nursing process models which were linear and sequential cannot adequately represent the complex and complicated nature of nurses’ clinical reasoning. New models of thinking are needed to facilitate rapid, accurate, and strategic care planning processes and care delivery for patients in the fast paced, current healthcare arena. The OPT Model has advantages over the traditional nursing process model as it: (a) reinforces the reflective nature of clinical reasoning, (b) captures the concurrent and iterative nature of reasoning, (c) provides a better fit for an outcome focused health care system, (d) builds on and uses a foundation of critical thinking, (e) enhances nursing knowledge development activities, (f) uses diverse settings for teaching, learning, theory development, and research activities (Pesut & Herman, 1999; Pesut, 2008).

The OPT (Outcome-Present State Test) Model The OPT Model is a nursing process model designed to help nurses develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills. The OPT Model is iterative, recursive, and nonlinear and better represents contemporary nursing practice in dynamic health care systems (Pesut, & Herman, 1999) (Figure 2.1).

34

Figure 2.1 Outcome-Present State –Test (OPT) Model
Source: The Outcome-Present State –Test (OPT) Model of Reflective Clinical Reasoning (p 25) in Pesut, D. J., & Herman, J. (1999). Clinical reasoning: The art and science of critical and creative thinking. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

keystone issue. Reflection is a component of the executive thinking process and consists of critical creative and concurrent thinking.35 The OPT Model was by Pesut and Herman in 1999. testing. The clients’ stories provide important information regarding major issues for clinical reasoning. decision-making. 2006). NOC. The client in context story. The OPT Model is an effective way to use NNN linkages in practice as part of the . cue logic. 1999). Nurses listen to their stories and organize and connect concepts in a meaningful way. NNN (NANDA-I. Judgment is the process of drawing conclusions based on the finding from the test of the comparison of present state to a specified outcome state (Pesut & Herman. and NIC) Terminologies. Relationships Among the OPT Model. reflection. The frame process uses mental models that influence and guide nurses’ perception and behavior and offers the big picture when providing care. framing. Decision-making in this model is when nurses consider and select interventions and actions that facilitate the patients’ achievement of a desired outcome state. The keystone issue is recognized from all the potential or actual problems in the stories. and Nursing Care Plans NNN linkages are structured NANDA-I nursing diagnoses with a list of recommended or possible NOC outcomes. and judgments are essential processes contained within the OPT Model. Cue logic is the deliberate structuring of clients in context data to discern the meaning for nursing care. and a list of recommended NIC interventions to meet the selected outcome of the diagnosis. They are used for the development of care plans and critical paths for a population of patients or for individual patients (Johnson.

The first step in using the OPT Model is focused on the nurse listening to the patient’s story. accurate data for clinical information systems (CIS). The "present state" can be defined using NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and the “outcomes state” can be defined in terms of NOC outcomes in the OPT Model. and the accumulated data from the CIS can be evidence for the value of nursing care. NOC. Moreover. NANDA-I. . 2006). The present state can be compared to the outcome state and the identified gaps between them are addressed through implementing NIC interventions in the care planning process (Kautz et al. the OPT Model with NNN language facilitates nursing work processes.36 nurse’s care planning because the model provides a conceptual structure for the use of standardized terminologies. Accumulated data using the OPT Model with the three standardized nursing terminologies. The nurse describes the initial patient conditions which are reflective of the “present state” and selects the desired outcomes which are identified as “outcome state”. This process supports nursing knowledge work in the future by recognizing the best combinations of nursing diagnoses related to interventions with associated desirable outcomes for specific patient populations. can lead to the best NNN linkages through evaluation of outcomes over time. The nurse then identifies the patient’s central issues or problems using “cue logic”. NIC.

International Journal of Nursing Education. & Bell-Kotwall.2 An Example of NNN Linkages with the OPT Model From “Debriefing with the OPT Model of clinical reasoning during high fidelity patient simulation” by Kuiper. L. Graham... R. 5(1).J. 1-13. .. (2008)..37 Figure 2. M. A. Heinrich. Matthias. C.

BP 170/110. emphysema. history of smoking for 34 years. and Risk for Decrease Cardiac Output. the patient scenario is that a 65-year-old male patient admitted to the emergency department of an acute care hospital with dyspnea.38 Figure 2. During the creation of the clinical reasoning web. 2008). ABG’s within normal limits. Then. In addition. The EKG monitor shows arterial fibrillation with a rate of 180 beats per minute.33. In the example. Based on this patient scenario. vital signs. the nurse identifies that some of the actual and potential nursing diagnoses are Impaired Gas Exchange. hypertension and tachypnea. Sa02 < 85%. Atrovent (Kuiper et al. pCO2 48 mm Hg. which is dyspnea and about the patient’s story. Once the keystone issue is identified. Activity Intolerance.. respiratory acidosis. pO2 82 mm Hg. respiration rate 30-38. a clinical reasoning web is drawn (Figure 2. the nurse compares and contrasts two frames such as present state SaO2 < 85%. pain. what is the relationship between Impaired Gas Exchange and Activity Intolerance? How does Activity Intolerance affect the other nursing diagnoses? The nurse identifies the keystone problem by noting the nursing diagnosis with the most arrows in the web supporting that this diagnosis has an impact on the other related diagnoses in the patient’s situations. chronic arterial fibrillation.3. anxiety and desirable outcome states such as SaO2> 90%. the nurse thinks about the patient’s chief complaint. breath sounds symmetrical.Coumadin. and NIC languages. NOC.3). decreased breath sounds. anxiety . and current medications. ABG’s (arterial blood gas) pH 7. For example. multiple nursing diagnoses relationships can be determined.2 shows an example of the OPT Model using NANDA-I. heart failure. as depicted in Figure 2. pain . This web can be shared and validated with the patient.

whether the keystone issue was correctly identified. the possible NIC Interventions are Acid-base Management: Respiratory Acidosis. and whether the patient is moving toward the outcome identified (Bartlett et al.2).. 2008) (Figure 2. The accumulated NNN linkages through the clinical information systems for CHF will give information to make a decision as well as nursing knowledge will be developed by identifying patterns of NNN linkages for patients with CHF. Testing is used to determine whether the interventions are selected correctly or not.. In this scenario. The possible NOC outcome is Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange from the NOC classification. 2008). and Pain Management for the Impaired Gas Exchange nursing diagnosis. Acid-base management: Respiratory Acidosis and Ventilation Assistance can be selected from NIC. Based on thinking strategies. . nurses can develop nursing care plans using NNN (NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. Finally. For example. The nurse identifies the gap between the present and desired states and determines what nursing interventions are needed. and Nursing Outcomes Classification) languages for patients with CHF based on OPT Model. Ventilation Assistance.2). this will enhance nurses’ abilities to develop middle range theory for nursing. Nursing Interventions Classification. the best nursing interventions are selected (Kuiper et al. In addition.39 relieved for the patient (Figure 2. Oxygen Therapy.

40 Figure 2. NY: Delmar Publishers.79) in Pesut. J. J.. (1999). Clinical reasoning: The art and science of critical and creative thinking. D. & Herman.3 Clinical Reasoning Webs (CRW) Source: The Clinical Reasoning Web (CRW) (p. . Albany.

and polyneuropathy. and CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) within EHR in the hospital (Scherb. NOC. and Bowel Management for fall prevention were identified as key interventions. Hip fracture procedures. NICs. 2002. One study analyzed frequently used NANDAs. & Michel. 2006. Scherb. diabetes. CHF. The results identified that Surveillance was used as a nursing intervention for these two populations as a major intervention. De Barros. Dochterman et al. and fall prevention in the hospital by analyzing data from an EHR. Terjesen. Abreu.. Cirminiello. The considered nursing diagnoses for her . 2006. & Lunney. 2008. Shever. NOC and NIC Many studies have been conducted based on NANDA-I. 2006. 2003. 2005. Shever (2006) also identified NIC interventions used with patients having CHF and the frequency of NIC interventions with patients over age of 60 with heart failure and when having a hip procedure. Dochterman et al. and NOCs in three populations: pneumonia. One study identified NNN linkages by a case study for home nursing care focused on a 62-year-old woman who has many health problems including excess weight with hypertension. In this study. 2003). De Limia Lopes. nursing outcome was Knowledge: Illness Care and the intervention was Teaching: Individual. and NIC nationally and internationally with diverse patient populations (Yom et al. (2005) identified frequently used nursing interventions for three elderly patients groups.41 Studies of NANDA-I. Hughes.. 2009). 2009). the major nursing diagnosis for all three groups was Knowledge Deficit. Recently studies about NNN linkages based on case studies for specific populations were conducted (Fischetti. Erdemir & Algier. TJR (Total Joint Replacement). 2005. Kim. 2006. Surveillance for both heart failure and hip fracture procedures.

impaired mobility. Terjesen. & Lunney. Two nursing outcomes classification outcomes were selected with Readiness for Enhanced Self-Health Management: Self Care Status and Self Care: Activities of Daily Living including a majority of the indicators for both outcomes: bathing. finances.. Self Efficacy Enhancement. dressing. managing medications. The most frequently addressed nursing diagnosis for her was Readiness for Enhanced Self-Health Management.42 were imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirement. 2009). A 47-year-old man has type 2 DM and needs education about self-injection and a diet to promote weight loss. personal cleansing. Nutrition Counseling. 2002) and the development and application of a computerized nursing process program for orthopedic surgery inpatients using NANDA-I. NOC. activity intolerance. feeding. ambulating. preparing food. interventions. and Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise (Cirminiello. NOC. and transportation. the nursing diagnosis was Readiness for Enhanced Self Health Management and NOC outcomes were Knowledge: Treatment Regimen and Personal Health Status and the NIC interventions were Health Education. and NIC related to medical . Exercise Promotion. and NIC terminologies (Kim. and NIC have been conducted that demonstrated the use of nursing diagnoses. toileting. 2005). and Health Screening. International studies of the application of NANDA-I. and readiness for enhanced self-health management. The findings show that the frequency of NANDA-I. Three Nursing Interventions Classification interventions were selected: Self Care Assistance: IADL. Based on this situation. and outcomes with patients undergoing abdominal surgery in Korea (Yom et al. NOC. Another study using case studies was conducted by Fischetti (2008) for Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM).

2009).43 diagnoses in Korea. & Michel. Fluid Monitoring. Hydration. Another study was conducted to validate the content of the priority NIC activities and NOC indicators associated with Excess Fluid Volume nursing diagnosis for cardiac patients in Brazil (Lopes. and Safety domains. Three NOC such as Fluid Balance. Hypervolemic Management has 83 activities.eight NIC interventions located in Physiological: Basic.two different nursing interventions were prescribed and the majority of them were mapped to interventions and activities contained in twenty. interventions. de Barros. and outcomes of patients with spinal cord injury within the Irish Spinal Cord Injury Service with standardized nursing terminologies using consensus-based approach. 128 patients had Risk For Infection) with patients undergoing Total Hip Replacement or Total Knee Replacement procedures. The study of NANDA and NIC linkages by Abreu (2006) in Brazil validated NANDA and NIC linkages in the care of orthopedic patients in a Brazilian University Hospital. de Barros. Three NIC such as Fluid Management. For the three most prevalent nursing diagnoses. These studies are being used for . The linkages were for three nursing diagnoses (153 patients presented with a Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. 50 activities were considered as major activities (Lopes. & Michel. Behavioral. Electrolyte and Acid/base balance selected for cardiac patient. Comparisons were made between the acute and rehabilitation centers as well as with results of a similar study conducted previously in the United Kingdom. 26 indicators were considered as useful NOC indicators for cardiac patients in Brazil. Of the total of 53 indicators. Hughes (2006) identified and defined the problems. Of the 83 activities. fifty. 2009). In Ireland. Physiological: Complex.. 134 patients had Impaired Physical Mobility.

(2005) indicated the intentional use of guided reflection coupled with structure and learning tools of the OPT Model significantly enhanced clinical reasoning skill . so the author suggested that researchers and clinicians consider the accuracy issue.44 further study on identification of common nursing terminologies among the spinal cord injury in Ireland and United Kingdom. According to Lunney (2006c) low accuracy of nursing diagnosis results in negative outcomes for patients and families. 2008. Kurashimia. 2005. validity. wasting the nurse’s time and energy. Levin. 2008. Kautz et al. and appropriateness of the determined diagnoses and interventions and activities of each intervention were evaluated through a series of focus group meetings in a Burn Unit in Turkey.. 2006). Lunney.. & Krainovich-Miller. the actual and potential nursing diagnoses leading to nursing interventions in the care of patients in the Burn Unit were identified (Erdemir & Algier. Several studies were completed that focused on clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills using the OPT Model with NNN terms (Kautz et al.. Bland et al. 2006. 1998. NIC and valid NNN linkages for specific populations.. Researchers and clinicians have recognized the importance of having accurate of NNN linkages beyond the NNN linkages based only on the frequency of use.. Thus. 2004. 2006. 2008). 2009). All of these studies are examples of work beginning to identify the frequently used NANDA-I. NOC. Kuiper. Lunney (2003) also identified critical thinking strategies can facilitate improved accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Lunney. Lunney. some studies emphasized accuracy of nursing diagnosis for quality of care (Lunney. In this pilot study. Bartlett et al. Kautz et al. and creating dissatisfaction of customers. In another study the understandability.. 2003. 2008. Kuiper et al.

and Nursing Outcomes Classification languages. increasing use and learning opportunities for standardized nursing terminologies as well as positively affecting patient outcomes. Nursing Interventions Classification. The results of this project challenged faculty to create and manage patient simulation scenarios that coordinate with didactic content and clinical experiences to direct student learning for the best reinforcement of clinical reasoning outcomes. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcomes were explicitly stated in 22%. the OPT Model with NNN languages enhanced the accuracy of nursing care by using critical thinking skills. Kuiper and colleagues (2008) studied used a structured debriefing activity which is the OPT Model of clinical reasoning following high fidelity patient simulation. Interventions matched appropriate Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) activities in 61% of the OPT Model. its promotion. (2008) used the OPT Model as a teaching tool in an undergraduate psychiatric and mental health clinical nursing course and evaluated how quickly students became adept at using it. and provided evidence for the effectiveness of structured teaching learning strategies. (2009) also conducted a study to evaluate the OPT Model as a teaching strategy for . but they also used and learned more about the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. The results of the study were that most students mastered the use of the model. In addition. representation in curriculum development and active use is necessary. Bartlett et al. Bland et al. not only did the students gain clinical reasoning skills. This study suggested that if NNN terminologies are to advance nursing knowledge. and implied in 72% of the OPT Model. In the results of these studies.45 acquisition. Another study of Kautz (2006) found that NANDA nursing diagnoses were correctly stated in 92% of the OPT Model.

benefits and limitations of this teaching method in a psychiatric clinical setting. Summary Standardized nursing terminologies play an important role in describing. interventions. In this study. and outcomes. Kautz et al. 2005. In the literature. The OPT Model helps nurses think critically in a more organized way (Pesut & Herman. research related to standardized nursing terminologies such as NNN with the OPT Model were rarely found. 2008. However. the researchers identified how the model can be used in clinical teaching and also evaluated the model and some strategies.46 undergraduate psychiatric nursing students. interventions. Therefore. Bland et al. Even though the authors identified that critical thinking skills through the OPT Model played a critical role in selecting accurate nursing diagnosis. the majority of these studies about NNN terminologies with OPT Model (Kautz et al. and outcomes in nursing practice.. interventions.. 1992) and facilitating the nursing process. Kuiper et al. many nurses have difficulties selecting nursing diagnoses. 2009) were conducted as part of class activities or done for nursing curriculum evaluation. 2006. communicating.. 1998). During the nursing process critical thinking skills and clinical reasoning are key elements in the selection of accurate and appropriate nursing diagnoses. organizing and defining nursing (Clark & Lang. NNN linkages using actual data . A study based on real patient data using critical thinking skills is necessary.. and outcomes using standardized nursing terminologies since the healthcare industry has became more complex and patient needs are changing over time.

The goal of this research is to develop more accurate standard NNN linkages for patients with CHF. The next chapter will describe the methods used in this research. . which interventions achieve the best outcomes for a particular diagnosis that is related to a specific medical diagnosis.47 generated by nurses using the OPT Model within the workflow need to be identified. and which diagnoses are the most frequently used for a specific medical diagnosis (Johnson. Using actual patient data from an organization that uses the OPT Model as part of the practice standards within the workflow will allow registered nurses to recognize the best NNN linkages through critical thinking process. so nurses are able to offer quality care to the patients with this medical condition and enhance communication among nurses and other caregivers. 2006).

NOC. and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) with the Outcome-Present State Test (OPT) Model. and outcome components of the nursing process. NOC. and NIC (NNN) concepts using the OPT Model for patients with CHF.48 CHAPTER Ш METHODOLOGY As the elderly population in the United States increases over the next decades congestive heart failure (CHF) will become a major public health problem. The OPT Model by Pesut and Herman (1999) allows nurses to use critical thinking skills based on a patients’ complex and dynamic needs and assists the nurse to make accurate nursing care plans using the nursing process. the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). NOC. Since NANDA-I. The 10 most prevalent linkages of NANDAI. 2006). nurses can use the same clinical terms to describe and communicate clearly patient care situations to others providing care. The use of standardized nursing terminologies such as the classification of nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I). NNN linkages based on clinical data can be used as an infrastructure for . The defining characteristics and related factors for each diagnosis were collected from paper-based care plans at a Midwest community hospital. and NIC provide uniform terminologies for documenting diagnosis.. The purpose of this study was to identify frequently used NANDA-I. and NIC were identified and compared to the published NNN linkages (Johnson et al. provides an effective process for nurses to increase the accuracy of nursing care plans in specific care settings or patient situations and improve patient outcomes. intervention.

There is a long tradition in this hospital of being a leader in the use of . and NIC with clinical reasoning and critical thinking. pulmonary. pediatrics. This facility uses NANDA-I. Setting The Midwestern community hospital has two campuses. The east campus has birth services. and clinical areas.49 clinical nursing information systems and accumulated data through these systems will assist in developing nursing knowledge. neurological. orthopedic. Approximately 800 registered nurses and the 450 physicians provide acute and skilled care across the inpatient. cancer. and achieved Magnet status in 2005. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis procedures. NOC. and 3. using nursing care plans based on NANDA-I diagnoses. This 502-bed Medical Center has more than 450 physicians. The hospital is a member of a larger health system that has another hospital in Illinois and a small rural hospital within the system. Secondary data from a Midwestern community hospital located in Iowa. behavioral and substance abuse sources. trauma/emergency and cardiology service. Design A retrospective descriptive research design was used to answer the research questions. NOC outcomes. rehabilitation. neonatal intensive care. and NIC interventions were obtained after obtaining human subjects approval from both the hospital and the University of Iowa IRB. The west campus has medical-surgical. which are critical components for the OPT Model.100 staff members. outpatient. general surgical.

The NIC labels replaced the lengthy descriptions of nursing orders. During the early 1980s the organization implemented a clinical information system which included NANDA diagnosis labels with codes. For nurses and unit specialties. various NIC interventions were identified as competencies and selected NIC activities described the performance criteria. For nursing clinical information solution. Finally. radiology. and nursing interventions selected by nurses in the nursing planning process. patient outcomes. this facility has implemented a competency-based learning program using NIC as a framework. For the documentation of patients’ needs.50 standardized terminologies in nursing practice dating back to the 1970s. Lists of NANDA labels were made available to nurses in all patient care areas after publication of nursing diagnoses generated from the first and second NANDA conferences. related factors. NIC was implemented at the label level without NIC activities. problems. In the early 1990s. “PowerChart” was implemented in most of the inpatient nursing care areas. In addition. Cerner Millennium was implemented in pharmacy. The linkages of NIC interventions to the NANDA diagnostic label were identified by clinical nurse specialists in 1993. defining characteristics. Instead of returning to lengthy hand written care plans. NOC was added to the patient plan of care. Majority of nursing documentation was electronic but the patient plan of care using standardized . The NOC outcome is applied at the label level with ratings and does not identify specific indicators in this facility. nurses in this facility were requested to use NANDA diagnoses. a template needed to be developed that utilized preprinted information with use of a check mark to individualize any element of the diagnostic label. In 2003. laboratory. or response to illness. and emergency care at the facility.

51 nursing terminologies was not included. The sample was 272 patients for the one year time period. The most frequently selected NANDA-I. and the critical need to improve their care outcomes. NOC. (b) NIC interventions at the label level without specific nursing activities. and NIC and critical thinking skills. The nursing units are currently using manual patient care plans with NANDA-I. NOC and NIC are combined on a two page document to facilitate completion of the care planning process. and 3) a . and all ethnic groups. the nursing staff maintained paperbased patient plans of care using NANDA-I. and (c) NOC outcomes at the label level and do not include indicators. all adults over 18 years old. NOC.S. NOC. and NIC languages discharged with the medical diagnoses of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (DRG 127) from January 1 to December 31 of 2007 from inpatient acute care units at this Midwestern community hospital. and NIC. Patients with CHF were chosen as the sampling group in the acute setting because of the high volume of CHF admissions in the U. The sample population included both genders. Inclusion criteria for subjects were: 1) primary diagnosis of Heart Failure and Shock (DRG 127) admitted to the acute care setting 2) age 18 years or older. The content of the nursing care plans and NNN linkages was developed by the clinical nurse specialists group. The paper based nursing care plan format with three standardized nursing terminologies includes (a) NANDA-I nursing diagnoses including defining characteristic and related factors. Sample The study sample was all patient nursing care plan records using NANDA-I. Therefore.

McKeighen. literature review. p 332). In the study. NANDA-I: Nursing Diagnosis is defined as “a clinical judgment about individual. family. 2) below 17 years of age. In this study. NOC. . Exclusion criteria were 1) secondary diagnosis of CHF patients in long term care setting. the second edition of NOC with 260 outcomes was used in the care plans.. the most frequently used three standardized nursing terminologies (NANDA-I. or community responses to actual or potential health problems/life processes” (NANDA-I. p. Maas & Specht (2000). Some reliability testing has occurred in the past using the nursing clinical information system such as the work of Delaney. 2007. or community state behavior or perception that is measured along a continuum in response to nursing interventions” (Moorhead et al. family.52 primary DRG code assigned to patient based on medical documentation conforming to the criteria for Heart Failure and Shock by coders in the Health Information Management. and indicators. NIC) variables were measured for Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) from patient care plan records using descriptive statistical analysis. 155 NANDA I diagnoses including defining characteristics and related factors (1999-2000) were used for the identification of nursing diagnoses. 30). The NOC development team includes faculty content experts and clinical nurse experts and focuses on reviewing the conceptual links between the outcome label. 1991. NOC: The Nursing Outcomes Classification is defined as “an individual. The validity was established by expert opinion. Data Forms In this retrospective descriptive study. and through a few studies completed through nursing clinical information systems (Delaney & Mehmert. 1989). 2008. Mehmert & Dickel. Herr.

NOC labels and scoring. and use of indirect care interventions. .53 NIC: The Nursing Interventions Classification is defined as “any treatment based upon clinical judgment and knowledge that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcome” (Bulechek. After development of the classification and construction of the taxonomy. Ryan. The use of NIC in this research was the 486 interventions from the third edition. Nursing Diagnostic Reasoning Nurses use “Nursing Diagnostic Reasoning” for identifying the patient needs for nursing care based on nursing assessments of signs or symptoms. surveys to individual nurses’ experts. & Miller. projected outcomes and selection of interventions appropriate to meet the patient’s needs (Appendix A). Holzemer. The current plan of care consists of NANDA-I with defining characteristics and related factors. 1997. and NIC interventions at the label level. 3). & Dochterman. validation was completed through conducting surveys of specialty organizations. & Sutton. Patient Plan of Care Sheet The plan of care is a standardized template created at the request of the nursing staff organized around the nursing diagnosis selected by the nurse. Content validity of NIC was done by the Iowa intervention project in 2000. NOCs and NICs were the elements of the two-page paper care plan. p. 1997). Moorhead & Delaney. 2008. Randell. 1997. The most frequently selected NANDA-I. Studies have been completed that demonstrate that interventions performed by nurses are captured in the NIC (Coenen. Hsieh. Butcher. Henry. The nursing care plans are all paper based documents organized by single diagnoses (Appendix B).

NOC outcome. NANDA nursing diagnoses with defining characteristics and related factors. related factor. Extracted patient records were scanned and de-identified and each was given a unique code number by the staff member instead of the actual patient ID or social security number. Descriptions of variables are explained in Table 3-1. NOC outcomes. defining characteristic (signs/symptoms). Every NANDA-I nursing diagnosis. and NIC using the critical reasoning skills were collected including patient ID number. outcomes and interventions with standardized nursing terminologies (NANDA-I. NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. nurses select each NANDA-I diagnosis as a separate plan of care with several options for NOC outcomes and NIC interventions which are important outcomes and treatments for the nursing diagnosis selected. and NIC interventions. demographic variables (age and gender). NOC outcomes labels with scales from 1 to 5. CHF (DRG 127). Paper based nursing care plans for each diagnosis are printed and the nurses check the NOC outcomes and NIC interventions that best represent the patient’s situation using their critical thinking skills.54 Procedures for Data Collection Nurses use nursing diagnostic reasoning (Appendix A) such as OPT Model for selecting accurate nursing diagnoses. For example. Variables for the study are age. These care plans are conveniently located at the nursing station. First. Data from paper based care plans (Appendix B) with NANDA-I. and NIC intervention in the patient record had unique . and NIC) during nursing care. and NIC interventions labels were used for the study. a staff member in the hospital extracted nursing records of discharged patients with medical diagnosis of CHF (DRG 127) from all patient records for one year. NOC. gender. NOC.

demographic information (age and gender). each code of selected NANDA-I. NIC by nurses into Microsoft Access using scanned patient nursing records. and NIC in detail. As a result. and NIC based on clinical data were correlated and compared to the level of agreement with the published NNN linkages book. so the research assistant entered the created unique code number. signs/symptoms. NOC outcomes. The researcher explained to the RA how to code NANDA-I. and NIC interventions selected for patients with CHF. related factors. The percent of use of NANDA-I. NOC outcome scores. 1) What are the nursing diagnoses chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by calculating frequency of each NANDA-I nursing diagnosis documented for CHF with DRG 127 medical diagnosis. accumulated data using the clinical reasoning such as OPT Model can describe and identify more accurate nursing care plans and clinical pathways for patients with CHF based on plans of care using SNLs combined with the clinical reasoning supported by the OPT Model. NOC. The collected data were analyzed according to the following research questions. 2) What related factors and signs/symptoms for top ten nursing diagnosis are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? . NOC. Data Analyses Data compiled within SPSS was analyzed to describe the frequencies and percentages of NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. NOC.55 identified codes.

. 4) What interventions are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized CHF? This was measured by calculating the frequency of each NIC intervention documented on each CHF patient record. and NIC for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by identifying the 10 most prevalent NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and associated NOC outcomes and NIC interventions linked to them. 6) What are the NOC scores changes between admission and discharge for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by the ten most frequently used NOC outcomes using t-test: comparing mean.56 This was measured by calculating frequency of each characteristic or related factor and signs/symptoms for each nursing diagnosis documented on each CHF patient records. 7) What is the effectiveness of the ten frequently used NIC interventions according to NOC outcomes for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by admission and discharge of NOC-NIC linkages outcome scores using t-test. SD of after interventions which are discharge of NOC scores. NOC. SD of before interventions which are admission NOC scores and mean. 3) What outcomes are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by calculating the frequency of each NOC outcome documented on each CHF patient record. 5) What are the 10 most prevalent linkages of NANDA-I.

if there are more than one NOC outcomes selected by the nurse then the detailed link to NIC was not explicit because multiple NOC outcomes linked to multiple NIC interventions for one NANDA nursing diagnosis. Outcomes. 1999). Second. Nursing Diagnoses. In addition the current editions of the languages were not in use at the time data were collected. In addition. Limitations There are limitations in this study. Qualitative methods were used to describe the results. NOC. how the data were collected and coded for entry into the database in must be consistent. accurate. nurses could add nursing diagnoses. the currently used care plans were linked by experts in the facility because selecting nursing diagnoses. & Interventions: NANDA. Third. 2006).57 8) What are the differences between published NNN linkages and the actual NNN linkages from results of the study for patients hospitalized with CHF? This was measured by comparing with NNN linkages from the published book. Fourth.. First. and NNN linkages from actual data. and interventions is time consuming. In addition. However. interventions. and outcomes in special units but the care plans were developed for all units to use across the health system. The use of preformed care plans reduced the total universal list of NIC and NOCs. outcomes. and replicable over time (Pollack. Thus. reliability of data . and NIC Linkages (Johnson et al. outcomes and interventions to the care plan. nurses may have preferred nursing diagnoses. the amount of data can be overwhelming to enter into Microsoft Access. it was not easy to retrieve the data from the paper care plan records.

The procedures used in this research strictly conformed to all HIPAA regulations.e. The researcher carefully adhered to all confidentiality procedures in conducting the study. Personal identifiers removed from the health information using the “safe-harbor” method. Each patient was given a unique identifier upon data download and no personal identifiers were used.514(b) (2) of the regulations governing the HIPAA Rule (National Institutes of Health. i. 2004). Each patient was given a unique identifier upon data download and no personal identifiers were used. No alternative treatments were given to research subjects. Data that are not . Human Subjects Potential Risks The only potential risks for subjects to be included in the study were related to confidentiality of information that may be sensitive and could be used to disadvantage the subject in some way..58 could be a limitation in this study because errors could occur during data coding. removal of all 18 identifiers enumerated at section 164. Recruitment and Informed Consent The use of electronic and paper health record data requires strict procedures to ensure the confidentiality of information and to protect the privacy of the subjects. as the data collected were part of the patient hospital record. Protection against Risk The researcher strictly adhered to study site and federal procedures for the protection of the confidentiality of health information and subject privacy. Intercoder reliability is an issue that threatens reliability for the study.

The de-identified data were transferred for examination and storage to a secure data warehouse at the Midwestern community hospital. Plans for Dissemination of Results Results will be shared with Nursing Leadership and other interested parties at this Midwestern community hospital upon completion of data analysis and the summarization of results. a hospital employee with authorized access to the data. Results will be published in a nursing journal and abstracts will be submitted for presentation at regional. and international conferences as appropriate. the benefits of examining the feasibility of conducting nursing effectiveness research for older persons hospitalized with CHF in hospital settings that have standardized nursing terminologies in their electronic documentation systems will enable subsequent innovative research using standardized clinical data in integrated information systems across multiple sites. Finally for further data security. national. Potential Benefits of the Proposed Research to the Subjects and Others Although there was no direct benefit to the subjects in this study. .59 available in electronic form were collected by a Data Retrieval Assistant. Master data files and data analyses were stored on a secured PC with access password protection. from paper records and linked to electronic records for individual patients. all paper data records and data disks were stored in locked cabinets accessible only to the researcher and on-line data files were password protected with passwords.

60 Table 3.74 ) =3 (75-84) =4 Over 85=5 Male=1 Female=2 Frequency of NANDA-I Code Gender NANDA-I Diagnosis Male and Female The NANDA-I nursing diagnoses with definition. and Signs/Symptoms.1 Description of Variables Variable Age Definition Number of years living since birth Measure Early Adult (18-40) =1 Middle Adult (41-64) =2 Older Adult (65. selected by nurses on patient plans of care Defining characteristics and related factors selected by nurses on patient plans of care The NOC outcomes selected by nurses on patient plans of care The NIC interventions selected by nurses on patient plans of care The primary DRG given to patients based on medical documentation conforming to the criteria for Heart Failure and Shock by coders in the medical information department. related factors. Defining characteristics and related factors NOC Outcomes NIC Interventions CHF: Heart Failure and Shock (DRG 127) Frequency of Defining characteristics and related factors Code Frequency of NOC Code Frequency of NIC Code DRG Code .

1 Overall Demographic Characteristics of Patients with CHF Gender F M Total N 148 124 272 Age Mean 77. The first section represents the demographics of the sample.88. . Only 3 patients were in the age range of 20-40 years (Table 4. Sample The study sample consisted of nursing records of patients admitted with the primary medical diagnosis DRG 127 of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) from January 1. The sample for this year of data consisted of 148 females and 124 males with an average age of 77. The second section addresses findings relevant to the research questions. A total of 272 patient records were collected for analysis.88 75. 2007 from inpatient acute care units at a Midwestern community hospital.98 72. respectively. The age range was from 20 to 98 years (Table 4. and of the 272 patients.58 Age Range 40-96 20-98 20-98 Note.1). 93 male patients were over 65.43 SD 11.29 12. Table 4. SD = Standard Deviation.98 and 72. Almost half of the patients were over 65 and female (N=124).61 CHAPTER IV STUDY FINDINGS The study findings by analyzing patients care plan records are described in this chapter.88 13.2). 2007 to December 31.

15 10.99 nursing interventions with a minimum of 1 to maximum of 13 nursing diagnoses. NOCs.5) 2 (1.0) 148 (54) 124 (46) Total (N/%) 3 (1.0) 50(18.3 Number of NANDA-Is.2 Age by Gender Age 20-40 41-64 65-74 75-84 >85 Total Gender (N/%) F M 1 (0.66 9 Minimum 1 1 1 Maximum 13 35 74 Note.88 7 8. to 35 nursing outcomes.5) 72 (26.62 Table 4.5) 52 (19. and to 74 nursing interventions (Table 4.5) 38 (14.0) 59 (22.0) 86 (31. Table 4. & NICs per Patient Hospitalized with CHF Variables NANDA-I NOC NIC Mean 5.15 nursing outcomes.0) 22 (8.41 nursing diagnoses. and 10. SD = Standard Deviation.0) 23(8.0) 26 (10. .41 8.0) 48(17.30 5 4.3).0) 29 (11. 8.0) 33 (12.0) 272(100) Each CHF patient had an average of 5.99 SD Median 2.

Injury High Risk for. The most prevalent nursing diagnoses were Knowledge Deficit. Cardiac Output Alteration. Fluid Volume Deficit. Infection risk for. Forty -one different NANDA-I diagnoses were selected by nurses for patients with CHF. Injury High Risk for. and Nutrition Less than Body Requirements Altered (Table 4. The patients had an average of 5. These ten nursing diagnoses accounted for almost 90% of the nursing diagnoses for patients with CHF. Pain Acute. Activity Intolerance.4). Airway Clearance Ineffective) accounted for almost 50% of the nursing diagnoses for patients with CHF (Table 4.4).63 Analysis of the Research Questions Question 1 The first research question was to identify the NANDA. Of the ten nursing diagnoses.I nursing diagnoses of patients hospitalized with CHF. . the top four nursing diagnoses (Knowledge Deficit. Cardiac Output Alteration. Airway Clearance Ineffective. Tissue Integrity Impaired.41 nursing diagnoses.

Chronic 3 Coping Ineffectiveness 3 Fatigue 3 Pain.16 97.81 96.94 100.10 99.48 99.19 0.13 0.64 2.96 10. Impaired 80 Fluid Volume Deficit 72 Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered 42 Fear 39 Fluid Volume Excess 24 Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness 14 Health Maintenance.70 69.71 98.00 59.16 95.19 0. Ineffective Family: Compromised 1 Decisional Conflict 1 Fluid Volume Deficit.85 82.23 49.87 99.74 99.65 96.64 Table 4.81 98.19 98.31 10.81 99.13 0. Impaired Verbal 3 Confusion.91 97. % 14.41 7. Toileting 2 Skin Integrity.61 97.65 89. % =Percent.52 0.13 0. Risk For 1 Family Process Alteration 1 Incontinence.4 Overall Frequencies of NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF (N=272) NANDA-I Nursing Diagnosis Freq Knowledge Deficit 232 Cardiac Output Alteration 191 Injury.13 0.68 99.06 0.51 1.26 0. Risk For 3 Communication.96 12.33 95.01 86.71 2.00 98.13 0.55 99.06 0.06 Cum Freq 232 423 593 760 926 1072 1192 1272 1344 1386 1425 1449 1463 1476 1486 1494 1499 1503 1507 1511 1514 1517 1520 1523 1526 1529 1531 1533 1535 1537 1539 1541 1543 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 Cum % 14.19 0.61 99. Bathing/Hygiene 2 Self Care Deficit. Chronic 3 Bowel Incontinence 2 Constipation 2 Self Care Deficit.64 0.06 0.16 4.32 0.55 0.19 0. Risk For 4 Confusion.26 0.06 0.39 98.13 0.12 76. Altered 13 Skin Integrity.27 38. Acute 4 Activity Intolerance. Risk For Impaired 2 Urinary Retention 2 Caregiver Roles Strain 2 Coping. Risk For 166 Activity Intolerance 146 Pain.36 91.74 5.42 97.97 99.32 96. Impaired 10 Gas Exchange Impairment 8 Physical Mobility Alteration 5 Anxiety 4 Aspiration.13 0. The bold are the top ten NANDA-I for patients with CHF.7 9.84 0.84 98.06 0.26 0.36 99.0 Freq = Frequency.19 0.06 0. Dressing/Grooming 2 Self Care Deficit.9 0.58 98. Cum Freq = Cumulative Frequency. High Risk For 170 Airway Clearness Ineffectiveness 167 Infection.42 94.23 99. Acute 120 Tissue Integrity. Impaired 1 Nutrition: Risk For More Than Body Requirements 1 Note.77 10.96 27. Cum % = Cumulative Percent .19 0.88 93.13 0. Functional 1 Memory.

Life Principles and Health Promotion are the least used NANDA domains for CHF (Figure 4. 2009). The data depict diagnoses from 10 of the 13 domains. In contrast. Activity/Rest and Safety/Protection are the most frequently used domains for patients with CHF. . No diagnoses from Domain 6 (Self Perception).65 One way to examine the results of this study is to compare the frequency of the NANDA I diagnoses using the domains of the NANDA I Taxonomy II (NANDA I.1). Domain 8 (Sexuality) or Domain 13 (Growth) were chosen for this sample of patients with CHF during their hospitalization.

Nutrition (Domain 2-The activities of taking in.The human information processing system including attention. Life Principles (Domain 10-Principles underlying conduct.Secretion and excretion of waste products from the body). Coping/Stress Tolerance (Domain 9.The awareness of wellbeing or normality of function and the strategies used to maintain control of and enhance that wellbeing or normality of function). physical injury. and communication). orientation. or balance of energy resources). and behavior about acts.1 Domains of NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF Note: Domains and definitions depicted in the below Health Promotion (Domain 1. Comfort (Domain 12.Sense of mental. and using nutrients for the purpose of tissue maintenance. physical. and the production of energy). perception.Freedom from danger. preservation from loss.66 Figure 4. or social wellbeing or ease). assimilating. expenditure.The positive and negative connections or associations between people or groups of people and the means by which those connections are demonstrated). Activity/Rest (Domain 4. customs. Safety/Protection (Domain 11.The production. cognition. Role Relationships (Domain 7. and protection on safety and security). sensation. tissue repair. Perception/Cognition (Domain 5. thought. or immune system damage.Contending with life events/life processes). . Elimination and Exchange (Domain 3. conservation. or institutions viewed as being true or having intrinsic worth).

67 Examining the top ten NANDA- I diagnoses for patients hospitalized with CHF, Safety/Protection (40%) is the most prevalent NANDA-I domain followed by the domains Activity/Rest (20%), Nutrition (20%), Comfort (10%) and Perception/Cognition (10%). While Activity/Rest is the most frequently used domain in overall selected NANDA-I diagnoses for patients with CHF, the domain Safety/Protection is the most frequently used domain for the top ten NANDA-I diagnoses (Figure 4.2). At the class level of Taxonomy II, Cardiovascular/Pulmonary Responses (10%), Cognition (10%), Coping Responses (10%), and Physical Injury (10%) are the frequently used NANDA-I classes for patients with CHF. Family Relationships, Caregiver Roles are the examples of the least used NANDA-I classes for patients with CHF (Figure 4.3). These classes are not found to be directly related to NANDA-I diagnoses for patients with CHF.

Figure 4.2 Top Domains of the Top Ten NANDA –I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF

Figure 4.3 The Total Selected NANDA-I Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF 68

69 Question 2 The second research question is “What related factors and signs/symptoms for each nursing diagnosis are chosen by nurses for patients with CHF?” For related factors associated with each nursing diagnosis, Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure, lack of recall, information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources) was the most frequently used for Knowledge Deficit and Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure, broken skin, traumatized tissue, decrease in ciliary action, stasis of body fluids, change in pH secretions, altered peristalsis, rupture of amniotic membranes) for Cardiac Output, Infection Risk for, Activity Intolerance, Tissue Integrity Impaired, and Fluid Volume Deficit. Situational (restraints, physical, people, provider, environment, personal) for Injury High Risk For, COPD for Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness, Physical injuring agent for Pain Acute, and Pathophysiological for Nutritional Less Than Body Requirements Altered were used (Table 4.5). Of the total related factors, four related factors were more than 50% of the total related factors chosen for patients with CHF. There are four related factors; 1) Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure, broken skin, traumatized tissue, decrease in ciliary action, stasis of body fluids, change in pH secretions, altered peristalsis, rupture of amniotic membranes), 2) Situational (restraints, physical, people, provider, environment, personal), 3) Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure, lack of recall, information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources), and 4) Pathophysiological (biochemical, immune/ autoimmune, biochemical regulation, biological, chemical) (Table 4.6).

change in pH secretions. physical. people. stasis of body fluids.77 46. biochemical regulation.77 15. decrease in ciliary action.67 12. lack of recall. information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources) Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. rupture of amniotic membranes) Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure. decrease in ciliary action. chemical) COPD Situational (restraints. High Risk For Airway Clearance Ineffective Infection Risk For Activity Intolerance Pain Acute 70 . traumatized tissue. environment. biological. broken skin.18 Cardiac Output Alteration 11 9 97 38 11 9 124 7 8 7 12 6 16. altered peristalsis. stasis of body fluids. broken skin. broken skin. personal) Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. change in pH secretions. altered peristalsis. provider.91 30. rupture of amniotic membranes) Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure.00 80. people. provider. information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources) Physical injuring agent Psychological injuring agent Freq 93 8 % 63. environment. physical.52 17. environment.70 5.67 30.67 80.5 Top Two Related Factors for the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit Related Factors Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure. decrease in ciliary action.00 4.67 13. change in pH secretions. altered peristalsis. people. traumatized tissue.02 14.67 26. rupture of amniotic membranes) Situational (restraints. personal) Situational (restraints. traumatized tissue.15 Injury.52 17.25 23.Table 4. broken skin.38 16. stasis of body fluids.02 31.60 14.48 Cum % 63.70 69.00 84. stasis of body fluids. decrease in ciliary action. altered peristalsis. provider.89 30. rupture of amniotic membranes) Chronic illness Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. immune/ autoimmune.64 60. change in pH secretions.85 14. traumatized tissue.25 83.30 60. physical. lack of recall. personal) Pathophysiological (biochemical.

cirrhosis.03 21. Impaired Related Factors Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. dysphasia. diarrhea. information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources) Freq 6 3 6 4 7 2 % 20. rupture of amniotic membranes) Knowledge deficit Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. rupture of amniotic membranes) Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure. NPO status for extended period.53 Cum % 20.43 35. decrease in ciliary action. altered peristalsis.34 21. sedentary lifestyle) Note: Freq = Frequency. broken skin. change in pH secretions. stasis of body fluids. edentulous condition Deconditioned status (bedrest/immobility.69 10. lack of recall. traumatized tissue.29 36. stasis of body fluids. hypermetabolic/catabolic state.71 36. change in pH secretions. nausea/vomiting.69 31. generalized weakness. decrease in ciliary action.Table 4. Cum % =Cumulative Percent Nutritional Less Thank Body Requirements Altered 71 .5 Continued NANDA-I Tissue Integrity. radiation therapy. altered peristalsis. endocrine disorder. traumatized tissue. broken skin.84 10.84 47.43 14.37 Fluid Volume Deficit Pathophysiological (acute or chronic illness. % =Percent.

72 Table 4.71 13.51 6.00 The Signs/Symptoms for the top ten nursing diagnosis are described in Table 4. Injury High risk for.46 33. Exertional discomfort or dyspnea. . people. and 8) Aversion to eating for Nutritional less than body Requirement Altered. immune/ autoimmune. 6) Damaged or destroyed tissue for Tissue Integrity Impaired. decrease in ciliary action. 122 traumatized tissue. These ten signs/symptoms accounted for over 50% of the total.55 53. provider.32 14. Cum % = Cumulative Percent % 18. physical. 90 information misinterpretation with unfamiliarity information resources) Pathophysiological (biochemical. and Patients self report of (Table 4. Of the ten. rupture of amniotic membranes) Situational (restraints. change in pH secretions. stasis of body fluids. The most prevalent signs/symptoms for each NANDA-I were 1) Verbalization of the problem for Knowledge Deficit.8). Verbal report of fatigue or weakness.32 Cum % 18. altered peristalsis. lack of recall. environment. 98 personal) Unfamiliarity with information (lack of exposure. 3) Adventitious breath sounds for Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness.7.6 Most Frequently Selected Related Factors for Patients Hospitalized with CHF Related Factors Freq Inadequate primary defenses (invasive procedure. % =Percent. chemical) Note: Freq = Frequency. 43 biochemical regulation. 7) Weakness for Fluid Volume Deficit. 5) Patients self report of pain for Pain Acute. 4) Verbal report of fatigue or weakness for Activity Intolerance. 2) Crackles (rales) for Cardiac Output Alteration.03 46. the top five frequently selected signs and symptoms across all diagnoses were Adventitious breath sounds followed by Verbalization of the problem. broken skin. biological.

29 37.85 10 18.7 Top Two Signs and Symptoms Associated with the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit Cardiac Output Alteration Injury.91 55.88 60.65 49.76 31.82 25 Cum % 44.19 21.Table 4.98 56.82 Aversion to eating Reported inadequate food intake less than RDA Note: Freq = Frequency.41 31. Impaired Fluid Volume Deficit Nutritional less than body Requirement Altered Signs/Symptoms Verbalization of the problem Inaccurate follow-through of instructions Crackles (rales) Arrhythmias(tachycardia/bradycardia) Verbalization of the problem Adventitious breath sounds Adventitious breath sounds Chest Congestion Verbalization of the problem Verbal report of fatigue or weakness Verbal report of fatigue or weakness Exertional discomfort or dyspnea Patients self report of pain Restlessness Damaged or destroyed tissue Crackles(rales) Weakness Tachycardia Freq 112 28 49 46 12 8 120 16 7 6 62 61 67 9 38 3 32 10 14 11 % 44.18 48.2 22.34 63.82 56.27 43.80 56.00 22.18 13.16 30.88 4.65 48.8 11.47 55.91 6.19 8.75 31.75 31.27 20.41 37.57 55.91 13. High risk for Airway Clearance Ineffective Infection Risk for Activity Intolerance Pain Acute Tissue Integrity. % =Percent.16 61.34 7. Cum % = Cumulative Percent for each diagnosis 73 .65 11.51 10 8.79 56.

45 38.37 23.44 29.06 34.56 45.61 5.33 8.04 6.81 2. mucous membrane or subcutaneous) Inaccurate follow-through of instructions Weakness Note: Freq = Frequency. % =Percent.07 5.62 42.39 4.33 17.74 Table 4. integumentary. Cum % = Cumulative Percent Freq 123 106 80 74 71 55 52 37 35 35 % 9.66 Cum% 9.95 2.66 2.17 3.37 48.03 50.8 Overall Signs and Symptoms for Patients Hospitalized with CHF (Over 50% of a total) Signs/Symptoms Adventitious breath sounds Verbalization of the problem Verbal report of fatigue or weakness Exertional discomfort or dyspnea Patients self report of pain Crackles (rales) Arrhythmias(tachycardia/bradycardia) Damaged or destroyed tissue (cornea.68 .

09 0.87 83.39 5.16 92.22 88.50 0.17 28.21 4.91 0.95 1.36 87.15 nursing outcomes. Freq 246 199 188 182 179 173 166 119 115 108 46 43 42 28 27 24 20 19 18 16 15 13 13 13 11 10 10 10 % 11.45 0.11 7.09 1.52 8.45 Cum Freq 246 445 633 815 994 1167 1333 1452 1567 1675 1721 1764 1806 1834 1861 1885 1905 1924 1942 1958 1973 1986 1999 2012 2023 2033 2043 2053 Cum % 11.82 71.21 91.02 8.82 0.76 89.93 78. Table 4.22 1.03 90.86 0.84%)(Table 4.69 36.52 5. % =Percent.9 Frequency of Selected NOC Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF NOC Outcomes Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance Respiratory Status: Ventilation Immune Status Energy Conservation Pain Level Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Infection Control Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Diet Pain Control Behavior Symptom Control Behavior Anxiety Control Knowledge: Health Behaviors Comfort Level Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Health Orientation Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Note: The bold represents the top ten NOCs.59 0.73 0.25%). and Fluid Balance (7. Six NOC outcomes accounted for over 50 % of the total: Knowledge: Treatment Regimen (11.06 Freq = Frequency.15 9.96 81.7 92.03 75.59 0.14 84. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness (8. Cum % = Cumulative Percent .44 90. Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes (8. Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention (9.90 2.94 45.45 86.15 20.27 1.75 Question 3 The third research question is “What NOC outcomes were chosen by nurses for patient hospitalized with CHF?” Sixty-three different NOC outcomes were selected by nurses.62 91.15%).43 65.06 52.01 79.25 8.02%).68 0.9).84 7.90 60.03 88.59 0.36 85. Risk Control (8.11%).45 0.90 1.61 93. Each patient with CHF averaged 8.52%).

behavior. The domain Community Health is the only domain that did not have outcomes selected for patients with CHF. Perceived Health (Domain V. Family Health 100% 90% Psychosocial Health Perceived Health 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Domain Health Knowledge & Behavior Physiologic Health Functional Health Figure 4. and actions with respect to health and illness). Functional Health (21%).Outcomes that describe capacity of and performance of basic tasks of life).Outcomes that describe psychological and social functioning). Psychosocial Health (Domain III. Family Health (3%) and Perceived Health (3%) as shown in Figure 4.Outcomes that describe health status. Physiologic Health (Domain II – Outcomes that describe organic functioning). Psychological Health (8%).Outcomes that describe impression of an individual’s health and health care). Physiologic Health (35%) is the most frequently selected NOC domain followed by Health Knowledge & Behavior (30%).4..4 Selected NOC Outcomes Domains for Patients Hospitalized with CHF Note: Domains and definitions of the NOC Taxonomy Health Knowledge & Behavior (Domain IV-Outcomes that describe attitudes. Family Health (Domain VI. comprehension.76 One way to examine the results of this study is to compare the frequency of the NOC outcomes using the domains of the NOC Taxonomy (Moorhead et al. . Functional Health (Domain I. or functioning of the family as a whole or of an individual as a family member). 2008).

Health Knowledge (14%) is the most prevalent NOC class selected by nurses for patients with CHF followed by the classes Cardiopulmonary (10%) and Self-Care (10%). Figure 4. Immune Response (2%). There were no outcomes from the domains Psychological Health or Family Health in the top 10 outcomes identified compared to complete list of selected NOC outcomes (Figure 4. Of the 31 classes.5 Domains of the Top Ten NOC Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF . 19 classes were selected for patients hospitalized with CHF.77 For the top ten NOC outcomes selected.5). and Symptom Status (2%) are the least selected NOC classes for patients with CHF (Figure 4. The NOC Taxonomy has 31 classes. Health & Life Quality (2%). the most frequent domains used for patients with CHF are Physiological Health (50%) followed by Health Knowledge & Behavior (30%).6).

Figure 4.6 The Total Selected NOC Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF 78 .

Safety (8%). Physiological: Complex accounted for 40 % of the NIC interventions selected and the Family Health System domains were not existed in the top 10 interventions identified compared to complete list of selected NIC interventions (Figure 4.three different NIC interventions were selected by nurses for patients with CHF.8). NIC has 30 classes. Infection Protection (N=105). Of the total NIC interventions (N=143). 51. The NIC Taxonomy has 7 domains. The Community domain was not selected for patients with CHF. Nutrition Management (N=100). Of the 7 domains. Family (5%).7). Health system Mediation (1%). Coping Assistance (8%).99 nursing interventions. Of the 30 classes. Information .10). Fall Prevention (N=130). Physiological: Basic (30%) is the most frequently selected domain for patients with CHF followed by Physiological: Complex (28%). For the top ten NIC interventions the domain. and Health System (2%) (Figure 4. Emotional Support (N=130). Infection Control (N=99). Risk Management (8%) and Patient Education (8%) are followed by next. Each patient with CHF averaged 10. Teaching: Procedure/Treatment (N=144). Fluid/Electrolyte Management (N=113). Behavioral (27%). and Respiratory Monitoring (N=98) (Table 4.79 Question 4 The fourth research question is “What interventions are chosen by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF?” One hundred forty. Cardiac Care (N=192). Self-Care Facilitation (11%) is the most prevalent NIC class selected by nurses.03% were represented by only ten NIC interventions which were Fluid Monitoring (N=232). 22 classes were used for patients hospitalized with CHF.

67 Pain Management 69 2.95 Presence 18 0.94 698 26.65 2271 86.81 Cardiac Care 192 7.29 424 16.11 Risk Identification 41 1.79 Coping Enhancement 20 0.32 Environmental Management: Safety 47 1.10 Frequency of Selected NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF Cum Cum Freq %c Fluid Monitoring 232 8. Cum % = Cumulative Percent NIC Interventions Freq % .58 Fall Prevention 130 4.28 Teaching: Prescribed Diet 17 0.68 2236 84.80 1146 43.57 2303 87.9).19 Learning Facilitation 21 0.42 2340 88. Table 4.29 941 35.1 1959 74.99 Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise 21 0.29 1806 68.5 Environmental Management 13 0.14 1930 73.36 Environmental Management: Comfort 22 0.81 232 8.57 Skin Surveillance 25 0.62 78.75 Infection Protection 105 3.03 Weight Management 34 1.62 Electrolyte Monitoring 32 1.03 2043 77.95 2068 Teaching: Individual 24 0.29 1772 67.43 Analgesic Administration 29 1.06 2016 76.74 Nutrition Management 100 3. Freq = Frequency.91 Electrolyte Management 11 0.49 2316 87.65 1439 54.93 Perineal Care 15 0.17 1565 59.42 2351 89.56 1702 64.19 Teaching: Prescribed Medication 30 1.46 Teaching: Disease Process 49 1.72 2218 84.48 Anxiety Reduction 23 0.86 1614 61.67 Oxygen Therapy 36 1.7 Note: The bold represents the top ten NIC interventions.87 2115 80.64 Learning Readiness Enhancement 17 0.99 Venous Access Device (VAD) Maintenance 13 0.22 1838 69.6 Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative 27 1.11 Teaching: Procedure/Treatment 144 5.46 Fluid/Electrolyte Management 113 4.94 828 31.79 1661 63.18 1900 72.47 568 21.76 2199 83.49 Circulatory Care 11 0.54 Infection Control 99 3.55 Energy Management 19 0.8 2179 82.32 Health System Guidance 10 0.53 Nutritional Monitoring 28 1.84 2137 81.33 Wound Care 34 1.99 1046 39.27 Positioning 18 0.76 1245 47.33 Airway Management 29 1.62 1508 57.29 Dysrhythmia Management 57 2.1 1988 75.8 2158 81.72 1343 51. % =Percent.49 2329 88.83 Discharge Planning 31 1.03 Surveillance: Safety 96 3.52 Emotional Support 130 4.38 2361 89.18 1869 71.80 Management (1%) and Neurologic Management (1%) are the least selected NIC classes for CHF (Figure 4.91 2092 79.01 Fluid Management 31 1.65 2288 86.68 2254 85.37 1738 66.3 Respiratory Monitoring 98 3.

Family (Domain 5. Basic (Domain 1. Physiological: Complex (Domain 2.Care that supports the family).Care that supports homeostatic regulation). . Behavioral (Domain 3. Safety (Domain 4.Care that supports physical functioning).Care that supports effective use of the health care delivery system). Health System ( Domain 6.7 Domains of Selected NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF Note: Domains of NIC Selected Physiological.81 Domain Figure 4.Care that supports psychosocial functioning and facilitates life style changes).Care that supports protection against harm).

82 Figure 4.8 Top Ten NIC Domains for Patients Hospitalized with CHF .

9 The Total Selected NIC Classes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF 83 .Figure 4.

Nine hundred and twenty-seven different NNN linkages were used for patients with CHF. and NIC for patients with CHF? Table 4. 4) Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid Monitoring (N=71).1 . The top five prevalent NNN linkages were 1) Knowledge deficit . NNN linkages according to the top ten NANDA are indicated in Table 4. and 5) Injury High risk for-Risk ControlFall Prevention (N=58). 2) Cardiac Output AlterationCardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care (N=83).11 showed at least ten times used NNN (NANDA-NOC-NIC) linkages for patients hospitalized with CHF.84 Question 5 The fifth research question was “What are the 10 most prevalent linkages of NANDA-I.Teaching: Procedure/Treatment (N=94). Of the top ten NNN linkages. 3) Injury High risk for-Safety behavior: fall prevention-Fall prevention (N=76).Knowledge: Treatment Regimen. nursing diagnosis of Injury High Risk for were selected three times with linking to the different NOCs and NICs. the nursing diagnosis of Cardiac Output Alteration was also selected three times with linking to different NOC and NIC. NOC. In addition.

Risk For Infection. Risk For Activity Intolerance Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Cardiac Output Alteration Activity Intolerance Infection. High Risk For Infection. Risk For Pain. Risk For Infection.Table 4.11 Frequency of Selected NNN Linkages for Patients Hospitalized with CHF (Over ten times used) NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit Cardiac Output Alteration Injury. High Risk For Cardiac Output Alteration Injury. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Infection. Risk For Cardiac Output Alteration Injury. High Risk For Airway Clearance Ineffective Infection. High Risk For Infection. Acute Injury. Risk For Injury. High Risk For Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Fluid Volume Deficit NOC Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Risk Control Respiratory Status: Ventilation Immune Status Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Immune Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Pain Level Risk Control Immune Status Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Energy Conservation Risk Control Fluid Balance Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance NIC Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Cardiac Care Fall Prevention Fluid Monitoring Fall Prevention Respiratory Monitoring Infection Protection Fluid/Electrolyte Management Surveillance: Safety Fluid Monitoring Infection Protection Infection Protection Pain Management Surveillance: Safety Infection Control Emotional Support Fluid Monitoring Infection Control Cardiac Care Fluid Monitoring Fluid Monitoring Cardiac Care Infection Control Environmental Management: Safety Cardiac Care Fluid/Electrolyte Management Fluid Monitoring N 94 83 76 71 58 57 57 56 54 53 53 51 49 46 44 41 40 38 37 36 34 33 33 31 29 28 28 85 .

Table 4.11 Continued NANDA-I Activity Intolerance Fluid Volume Deficit Injury. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Pain. Risk For Fluid Volume Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Activity Intolerance Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Tissue Integrity. Acute Infection. High Risk For Knowledge Deficit Cardiac Output Alteration Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Tissue Integrity. Impaired Activity Intolerance Knowledge Deficit Pain. Impaired Activity Intolerance Cardiac Output Alteration Fluid Volume Excess NOC Energy Conservation Fluid Balance Risk Control Knowledge: Disease Process Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Immune Status Fluid Balance Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Energy Conservation Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Pain Level Respiratory Status: Ventilation Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Pain Level Knowledge: Infection Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Energy Conservation Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance NIC Emotional Support Fluid Management Environmental Management: Safety Teaching: Disease Process Dysrhythmia Management Nutrition Management Fluid/Electrolyte Management Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Prescribed Medication Emotional Support Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Individual Infection Control Nutrition Management Teaching: Prescribed Medication Analgesic Administration Airway Management Risk Identification Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Individual Teaching: Disease Process Environmental Management: Comfort Infection Protection Nutrition Management Learning Facilitation Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Prescribed Medication Nutrition Management Infection Control Dysrhythmia Management Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Fluid Monitoring N 25 24 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 20 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 86 . Acute Airway Clearance Ineffective Infection. Risk For Infection.

Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Impaired Cardiac Output Alteration Infection. Impaired Fluid Volume Excess Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Activity Intolerance Infection. High Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Tissue Integrity.11 Continued NANDA-I Infection. Impaired Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Tissue Integrity. Risk For Infection.Table 4. High Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit NOC Risk Control Risk Control Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Medication Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Fluid Balance Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Disease Process Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Fluid Balance Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen NIC Nutrition Management Risk Identification Skin Surveillance Risk Identification Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Nutrition Management Infection Control Discharge Planning Learning Facilitation Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Nutrition Management Electrolyte Monitoring Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Prescribed Diet Nutrition Management Risk Identification Skin Surveillance Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Wound Care Dysrhythmia Management Skin Surveillance Skin Surveillance Risk Identification Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Learning Facilitation Learning Readiness Enhancement N 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Note: The bold items represent the top ten NNN linkages 87 . Risk For Injury. Risk For Injury. Risk For Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Tissue Integrity.

Table 4.12 NNN linkages for the Top Ten NANDA-I Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit NOC Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance NIC Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Emotional Support Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Individual Teaching: Disease Process Learning Facilitation Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Discharge Planning Learning Facilitation Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Prescribed Diet Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Learning Facilitation Learning Readiness Enhancement Cardiac Care Fluid Monitoring Fluid/Electrolyte Management Fluid Monitoring Cardiac Care Fluid/Electrolyte Management Dysrhythmia Management Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Dysrhythmia Management N 94 41 24 20 21 20 18 17 16 16 16 15 15 15 14 14 13 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 83 71 56 34 29 28 23 14 10 Cardiac Output Alteration 88 .

12 Continued NANDA-I Injury.Table 4. High Risk For NOC Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Respiratory Status: Ventilation Respiratory Status: Ventilation Respiratory Status: Ventilation Immune Status Immune Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Immune Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Immune Status Risk Control Risk Control Risk Control Knowledge: Infection Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control NIC Fall Prevention Fall Prevention Surveillance: Safety Surveillance: Safety Environmental Management: Safety Environmental Management: Safety Risk Identification Respiratory Monitoring Airway Management Infection Protection Fluid Monitoring Infection Protection Infection Protection Infection Control Fluid Monitoring Infection Control Fluid Monitoring Infection Control Nutrition Management Risk Identification Infection Protection Nutrition Management Nutrition Management Risk Identification Skin Surveillance Infection Control Risk Identification Skin Surveillance Skin Surveillance Skin Surveillance N 76 58 54 46 31 24 14 57 44 16 57 53 53 51 44 40 38 36 33 23 16 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 11 11 10 10 Airway Clearness Ineffective Infection. Risk For 89 .

12 Continued NANDA-I Activity Intolerance NOC Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Pain Level Pain Level Pain Level Pain Level Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake NIC Cardiac Care Cardiac Care Emotional Support Emotional Support Nutrition Management Dysrhythmia Management Nutrition Management Pain Management Analgesic Administration Environmental Management: Comfort Infection Control Infection Control Nutrition Management Nutrition Management Wound Care Fluid Monitoring Fluid Management Fluid/Electrolyte Management Nutrition Management N 37 33 25 20 17 14 11 49 23 17 16 18 18 15 14 13 13 11 28 24 22 13 15 Pain. Impaired Fluid Volume Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered 90 . Acute Tissue Integrity.Table 4.

474 0.818) 3.938(0.747) 3.413 0.0001* <.0001 (Table 4.413 0.0001* <.752) Membranes Cardiac Pump Effectiveness 2.346(0.825(0.648 to 3.394 0. a t.596) Risk Control 2.329(0.811) 3.322(0.5311) Fluid Balance 2.909(0.393 0.696) 3.509 0.701) 3.0001 Last Mean (SD) 3.651 P value <.527 0.0001* <. The mean of the discharge top ten NOC scores ranged from 3.0001* <.686) Note.630) 3.648(0.0001* <.257(0. SD = Standard Deviation.732(0.413(0.0001* N 230 168 166 168 170 143 154 109 104 98 .219(0.126(0. The mean of the top ten NOC outcomes score ranged from 2.636) Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous 2.257 at the admission.325(0. * p <.387 0.909.0001* <.658) Respiratory Status: Ventilation 2.0001* <.13 Mean Scores of the Top Ten NOC Outcomes for Admission and Discharge Scores (Based on 1 to 5 rating) First Mean NOC Outcomes (SD) Knowledge: Treatment Regimen 2.858) 3.559) Immune Status 3.0001* <.5823) Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention 2.625) Ave Change 0. The entire top ten NOCs showed significant differences between mean score at admission and discharge at p value < .509) Pain Level 3.0001* <.893) 3.172(0.126 to 3.909(0.698(0.91 Question 6 The sixth research question was “What are the NOC change scores between admission and discharge for patients with CHF?” For mean and standard deviations descriptive statistics were used and for comparison of admission and discharge scores.634) Energy Conservation 2. Table 4.783) 3.488 0.13).175(0.836(0.840(0. Pain Level is the biggest difference in NOC outcome scores from admission to discharge.000(0.test was used for differences in NOC outcome scores from admissions to discharges.

92. In addition.24.Surveillance: Safety (NIC).05) (Table 4. and p value of each NOC-NIC linkages are illustrated.NIC linkages ranged from 2. SD. Mean of NOC discharge scores for the top ten NOC-NIC linkages ranged from 3.65 to 3.01). All linkages of NOC and NIC are illustrated in Appendix.14). mean.13 to 3. . All of top ten NOC-NIC linkages showed significant (p value <. others were significant (p value < .92 Question 7 The seventh research question was “What is the effectiveness of the frequently used NIC interventions according to NOC outcomes scores for patients with CHF? The mean of NOC admission scores for the top ten NOC . Except Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention (NOC) .

70) 3.01 **** p<.001 *** p< .52) 2.0001* 0.0001 **p <.32(0.542 0.0001* <.83(0.74(0.0001* <.64) Last Mean(SD) 3.55) 2.72(0.84) 3.673 0.27(0.Table 4.58) 3.24(0.369 0.0001* 0.13(0.89(0. * p<.0156**** 0.0005** N 94 77 65 54 49 46 44 41 38 36 93 .70) 3.77(0.24(0.75) 2.65(0.69) 3. SD = Standard Deviation.76(0.351 0.54) 2.05 First Mean(SD) 2.46(0.71) 3.82) 3.45(0.56) 2.92(0.78(0.42(0.0013*** 0.0002** 0.0002** 0.23(0.84) 3.59) 2.48) 2.84) Ave Change 0.638 P value <.634 0.88(0.340 0.14 Mean of NOC Admission and Discharge Scores for the Top Ten NOC-NIC Linkages (Based on 1 to 5 rating) NIC NOC Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Cardiac Care Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Respiratory Monitoring Respiratory Status: Ventilation Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Pain Management Pain Level Fluid/Electrolyte Management Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Surveillance: Safety Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Fall Prevention Risk Control Cardiac Care Energy Conservation Infection Protection Risk Control Note.13(0.578 0.75) 3.676 0.480 0.0098*** <.58) 2.54) 3.

To compare the actual NNN linkages and published NNN linkages listed in Johnson et al (2006). suggested or optional interventions. three or more NOCs and NICs for each NANDA-I were identified. The bold print in the following table indicates the top three NOC and NIC linkages associated with the top ten NANDA-I diagnoses (Table 4.15).94 Question 8 The eighth research question was “What are the differences between published NNN linkages and the actual NNN linkages from the results of the study for patients with CHF? Johnson et al (2006) linked the NIC interventions with each NANDA-I and NOC outcomes as a major. .

15 Comparison of NNN linkages according to the top ten NANDA-I Nursing diagnoses with published NNN linkages NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit NOC Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Disease Process NIC Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Prescribed Medication Emotional Support Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Discharge Planning Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Individual Teaching: Individual Learning Facilitation N 94 24 22 16 14 10 41 21 17 17 16 15 13 12 11 10 10 10 13 20 18 16 15 Published NNN Major Major Major Major Major Major Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Optional Suggested Suggested Suggested Suggested 95 .Table 4.

15 Continued NANDA-I Cardiac Output Alteration NOC Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Risk Control Respiratory Status: Ventilation Respiratory Status: Ventilation Immune Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Immune Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Risk Control NIC Cardiac Care Fluid Monitoring Cardiac Care Fluid/Electrolyte Management Dysrhythmia Management Dysrhythmia Management Fluid Monitoring Fluid/Electrolyte Management Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Fall Prevention Fall Prevention Surveillance: Safety Surveillance: Safety Environmental Management: Safety Risk Identification Environmental Management: Safety Respiratory Monitoring Airway Management Fluid Monitoring Infection Protection Infection Protection Infection Control Fluid Monitoring Infection Control Fluid Monitoring Infection Control Nutrition Management Risk Identification Infection Protection Nutrition Management Nutrition Management Risk Identification N 83 34 29 28 10 23 71 56 14 76 58 54 46 31 14 24 57 16 53 53 51 44 40 38 36 33 23 16 15 15 14 14 Published NNN Major Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Optional Suggested Suggested Suggested Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Suggested Major Major Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Injury. High Risk For Airway Clearness Ineffective Infection.Table 4. Risk For 96 .

Table 4. Acute Tissue Integrity.15 Continued NANDA-I NOC Knowledge: Infection Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Infection Control Immune Status Immune Status Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Energy Conservation Pain Level Pain Level Pain Level Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake NIC Infection Control Risk Identification Skin Surveillance Skin Surveillance Infection Protection Skin Surveillance Cardiac Care Cardiac Care Emotional Support Emotional Support Dysrhythmia Management Nutrition Management Nutrition Management Pain Management Analgesic Administration Environmental Management: Comfort Wound Care Infection Control Infection Control Nutrition Management Nutrition Management Fluid Monitoring Fluid Management Fluid/Electrolyte Management Nutrition Management N 13 11 11 10 57 10 37 33 25 20 14 11 17 49 17 16 11 18 15 13 14 28 24 22 15 Published NNN Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Suggested Suggested Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Not listed Suggested Major Major Suggested Major Not listed Not listed Not listed Suggested Major Major Suggested Suggested Activity Intolerance Pain. Impaired Fluid Volume Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered 97 .

Of the total.10). sixty-six percent were not-listed (Figure 4. Suggested Interventions (14%). NIC interventions. This result was not surprising because NNN linkages in the published book represent linkages for patients in general with these diagnoses and not specifically for patients hospitalized with CHF. The study . NOC outcomes. Figure 4.10 Comparison of NOC and NIC linkages associated with the top ten NANDA-I with published NNN linkages.98 The distribution of the interventions identified in this study by the categories in the previous linkage work is Major Interventions (16%). Summary This study was to identify the frequently used NANDA-I diagnoses. and NNN linkages for patients with CHF. and Optional interventions (4%).

discussion of the results will be described. outcomes. A few nursing interventions were not significant. The results showed that the majority of NIC interventions for patient hospitalized with CHF had a statistically significant effect on patient outcomes. A total of 272 patient records were collected for analysis. 2007 at a Midwestern community hospital in Iowa. The most frequently used NIC intervention’ effects were identified. nursing interventions. and NNN linkages. In the following chapter 5. These results will provide valuable data for clinical information systems. . The study was able to identify the top ten nursing diagnoses. 2007 to December 31.99 sample consisted of all records of patients admitted with primary DRG CHF from January 1.

2006). and NIC linkages based on a critical reasoning model to capture accurate nursing care plans for patients hospitalized with CHF. A retrospective descriptive design was used for answering the research questions. NOC. forty -one different NANDA-I nursing diagnoses were selected by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF. NOC. The most prevalent . SDs. ata from a total of 272 patients were analyzed to describe the frequency and percentage of NANDA-I diagnosis.100 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The purpose of the study was to identify NANDA-I. The Pattern of Use of NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses for Patients Hospitalized with CHF In this study. and NOC outcomes for patients hospitalized with CHF.41 with a range of 1 to 13. and NIC based on clinical data were compared with published NNN linkages book (Johnson et al. NIC Interventions. NOC and NIC located in Iowa. The top ten most frequently used NANDA-I diagnoses associated with NOCs and NICs were identified and then the linkage of NANDA-I. Effectiveness of NIC interventions was examined by comparison of admission and discharge of NOC scores using means.. Data were obtained after IRB approval from all records of patients discharged with the Medical Diagnoses of CHF (DRG 127) for one year in a hospital using NANDA-I. The average number of nursing diagnoses identified for patients with CHF was 5. and t -tests.

The top four nursing diagnoses (Knowledge Deficit. These results are similar to this study. and Cardiac Output Alteration were top two identified NANDA-I that are common to both studies. Airway Clearance Ineffective. However. Pain Acute. Decreased Cardiac Output. Activity . Injury High Risk for. Airway Clearance Ineffective) represented almost 50% of the total nursing diagnoses for CHF. Fluid Volume Deficit. Impaired Gas Exchanges. When nurses use the OPT Model the focus is on identifying the key stone issue which is the urgent problem or need of a patient rather than identifying multiple patient problems. Injury High Risk for. In this study. according to De Assis and De Barros (2003). The average number of NANDA-I diagnoses for each patient in Scherb’s study was larger than the results from this study. In addition. The reason that a lower number of NANDA diagnoses in this study were identified may be caused by the use of OPT Model. fortyone different NANDA I selected and Knowledge Deficit. Cardiac Output Alteration.1 nursing diagnoses were chosen by nurses with a range of 6-18 diagnoses. Activity Intolerance. Cardiac Output Alteration. Tissue Integrity Impaired. Activity Intolerance and Anxiety. Anxiety and Impaired Gas Exchanges were not found in the top ten NANDA in this study. In this previous study forty different nursing diagnoses were chosen for patients with CHF.101 nursing diagnoses were Knowledge Deficit. Activity Intolerance was identified as the sixth ranked in this study. Infection risk for. Scherb (2003) had identified the frequently used NANDA I diagnoses for CHF in an inpatient population where an average of 10. nursing diagnoses for patients hospitalized with CHF were identified based on CHF types I-IV (N=26). and Nutrition Less than body Requirements Altered. The top five frequently used NANDA diagnoses were Knowledge Deficit.

Fluid Volume Excess is the twelfth NANDA. 2003). and 90% with types III and IV. The reasons for a lack of attention to diagnostic accuracy include inadequate knowledge about the complexity of interpreting human responses and the existence of other priorities in health care settings (Lunney. Cruz. The identified nursing diagnoses in this study focused on physiological rather than the psychosocial problems represented in the results of the other studies (De Assis & De Barros. These results findings were not surprising because hospitalized CHF patients have more physical problems than psychological problems compared with other patients. & Lunney.102 Intolerance was chosen for these patients 100% of the time regardless of severity of CHF. In comparing these studies’ results with this study. 2009) and inadequate knowledge and use of standardized nursing terminologies.I identified in this study. This study is unique because nurses as diagnosticians used diagnostic reasoning to identify the best diagnoses to guide nursing interventions to achieve positive patient outcomes. Pimenta. there is little evidence that nurses attend to the accuracy of their diagnoses in clinical practice. Activity Intolerance is also included in the top ten NANDA-I diagnoses in this study. Scherb. Through the literature. Cardiac Output Alteration. nurses should use clinical judgment and assessment when they select for accurate nursing diagnoses. Fluid Volume Excess was chosen for 79% of patients with type I and II and 92% with type II and IV. according to Lunney (2006). Sleep Pattern Disturbance was identified for 80% of patents classified as type I and II. 2001. nurses should be encouraged to identify psychological nursing diagnoses for holistic care plan of care for patients. However. 2003. we can identify that Knowledge Deficit. Activity Intolerance and Fluid Volume Excess might be the common health problems. . In addition.

provides others with the ability to analysis large data sets and to improve the quality of care provided by nurses to patients. In short. Teaching:Procedure/Treatment. commonly used by nurses to document the provision of nursing interventions. Cardiac Care. Based on this example.. . nurses need to develop diagnostic competencies in order to become good diagnosticians. determining costs of services.03% were often provided which are competences that nurses should have to care for the patients with CHF (Fluid Monitoring. one hundred forty three different NIC interventions were selected by nurses for patients hospitalized with CHF. and planning for resource allocation (Dochterman et al.103 Therefore. Of the total NIC interventions (N=143). Determining the interventions used most frequently by nurses for a specific population helps to determine interventions that should be included in the facility’s nursing information system and content for continuing education needed by care providers. In this study. a first step is to show that the documentation of clinical data using the type and pattern of nursing interventions for the specific population. For this. Thus. this study provides an example of an organization that emphasizes the use of clinical reasoning to select nursing diagnoses. 2005). The Pattern of Use of NIC Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with CHF The data in clinical information systems using standardized nursing terminologies such as NIC. 51. identifying nursing diagnoses for the patients hospitalized with CHF is a fundamental skill for providing high quality of care. it is important to identify the specific interventions commonly delivered for specified groups of patients. This information is also useful in constructing nursing care plans.

A total of 120 different nursing interventions were provided at least once in the heart failure group. According to Dochterman and colleagues (2005).756 in the fall prevention group. and 11. . and risk for falling) were identified in their research. Infection Protection. The top 18 interventions were used for 49% of those treated for heart failure. 567 patients undergoing hip fracture procedures. Emotional Support. and Cardiac Care. IV therapy. and Respiratory Monitoring). Pain Management.104 Fall Prevention. In another similar study by Shever et al. For the study. (2007). The top three frequently used interventions for heart failure patients were Surveillance. IV Therapy. Bed Rest Care. Cardiac Care. Routine Care: Adult. the most frequently used NICs were identified for patients hospitalized with heart failure. and Diet staging) were among the ten most commonly used interventions for all three groups. a broad overview of the nursing interventions for three populations (heart failure. Fluid Management. Surveillance was the most frequently used intervention for all three patient groups. Fluid Management. hip procedures and patients who received the nursing intervention of Fall Prevention. Diet Staging.435 patients with heart failure. Four interventions (Surveillance. Teaching. Nutrition Management. Some studies have shown the patterns of NICs for patients. data were obtained from 33 general inpatient units. Routine care: Adult. The different results might be caused by different facilities policies or difference of patients needs. Fall Prevention: Adult were identified as the top ten most frequently used NIC interventions. Fluid/Electrolyte Management. For heart failure. hip fracture procedures. Infection Control. 1. Based on these two studies results Surveillance was the most prevalent intervention while it was the eleventh most commonly used in this study.

Prevalent NIC domains from the above populations were falling into the domains of Physiological: Basic and Physiological: Complex. and Health Screening were prevalent Safety Domain interventions used in school settings. forty-one nursing interventions were determined to be important for critical patients care. Crawford. Schneider & Slowik. Respiratory Monitoring and temporary pacemaker were the most frequently selected by critical care nurses (Wong. & Kramer. & Hsu. & Slowik. 2009. . By surveying 50 critical care nurses. 114 were used by school nurses at least monthly. White. Emergency Care. Of the 433 NIC interventions. Bariseno. and Cardiac Care (Schneider. Other studies have also identified NICs for specific populations in diverse settings (Dahlen & Roberts. In school settings. 2007). Grasska. Scott. 2006) were Vital Signs Monitoring. Teaching: Disease Process. 2009). the most frequently used NICs for cardiac home care patients were Vital Signs Monitoring. Pavelka. Health Education. Eye Care. Similarly. Alexander. Teaching. Infection Control. while only 32 of them were used at least once a week. 2009). McCarthy and Denehy (1999) identified NICs that were used by school nurses via a mailed survey. 2000. Similarly. Medication Management. 1995. and Fall Prevention are also selected in this study for patients with CHF.105 Cardiac Care. The frequently used NICs for 106 patients admitted to home healthcare (Schneider. First Aid. Weismuller. Laurent-Bopp. Teaching: Individual. This result is similar in this study: Physiological: Basic (29%) is the most frequently selected domain followed by Physiological: Complex (28%). Weismuller and colleagues (2007) also identified NICs for school nurses.

Safety . In addition. the information from multiple studies can reaffirm the types of intervention found useful by practicing nurses.15 nursing outcomes per patient with a range from 1 to 35 and sixty-three different NOCs was selected by nurses. and evidence based practice (Jennings. identifying the patterns of NOC outcomes for a particular patient or a group is the first step. the outcomes for patients hospitalized with CHF were identified. To realize these benefits. The quality of health care services is an ongoing concern.106 The studies about identified NICs for specific populations provide valuable information to evaluate care provided to patients. The Pattern of Use of NOC Outcomes for Patients Hospitalized with CHF The need for standardized information about the patient outcomes documented by nurses has increased as organizations have restructured to achieve greater cost effectiveness and qualitative care with patient safety (Moorhead et al. Further research would discern differences in more diverse settings.. Evidence based practice can be strengthened when clinical information systems include NIC and NOC data that can guide care and when documented are used to study the effect of providers’ interventions on patients’ outcomes. effectiveness research. 2004). The average number of NOCs selected were 8. 2009). Concern about the quality has been advanced by continuous quality improvement. The top six NOCs were Knowledge: Treatment Regimen. The Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) facilitates the identification and analysis of outcome status for specific patients’ populations and also facilitates the identification of realistic standards of care for specific populations. outcomes management. In this study.

Luise. and medical unit (n= 205) during 14 months at tertiary care center. Cavendish. patient characteristics. Family Health (3%) and Perceived Health (3%).six . & Richardson. or standardized care plans or when teaching staff about the use of the classification and outcomes. As a tool for assessment and measurement. patient preferences. the nursing or medical diagnoses and health problems. Functional Health (21%). NOC was used for assessment before interventions and for measurement of outcomes after interventions in this study while other studies only identified the frequency of NOCs in diverse settings such as acute care setting or school settings (Behrenbeck. Lunney. patient resources. One study identified the nursing outcomes that were most relevant for acute care nursing practice and assessed the adequacy of measures in 434 patients including cardiac surgery intensive care (n=76) in cardiac transplant unit (n= 153). These findings were not surprising because the selected NOCs were related to NICs to assess and measure them. NOC domains are reflective of NIC domains. Griebenow. There are a number of aids available that can assist in selecting outcomes for the individual patient. Thirty. Physiologic Health (35%) is the most frequently selected NOC domain followed by Health Knowledge & Behavior (30%). including the type of health concern. Moorhead et al (2008) identified that a number of factors are considered when selecting an outcome. and Fluid Balance. Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes.107 Behavior: Fall Prevention. & Demmer. Psychological Health (8%). 2001). Timm. and treatment potential. 2005. These NOC accounted for almost 50% of the total NOCs selected for patients hospitalized with CHF. However. patient capacities. it is necessary to study what factors could affect selections of NOCs. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness. patient groups. Risk Control.

outcomes and interventions to fit the unique needs of each patient or patient population. NNN Linkages Using Clinical Reasoning Nurses use a decision. NNN linkages are an important step in the organization of nursing information and provide meaningful categories of data for analysis. the additional research to identify NOCs for specific populations can provide further guidelines for appropriate selections of NOCs. 4)Cardiac Output . Timm. nurses continually evaluate the patients’ situation using critical thinking skills and adjust the diagnoses.Teaching: Procedure/Treatment (N=94). In addition. the top ten NNN linkages for patients with CHF were 1) Knowledge deficit .108 NOC outcomes were used 10 or more times and 16 NOCs had an inter-rater reliability of 75% or higher (Behrenbeck.making process to determine a nursing diagnosis. The linkages can assist the nurses in making decisions about the outcome and interventions to be selected. 2005). 2) Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care (N=83). these results suggest that more studies are needed about the effectiveness of nursing interventions using NOC outcomes. & Demmer. 3) Injury High risk for-Safety behavior: fall prevention-Fall prevention (N=76). Finally. In this study. to project a desired outcome. and to select interventions to achieve the outcome.Knowledge: Treatment Regimen. However. Cavendish and colleagues (2001) identified the useful NOCs in school settings for documentation of the effectiveness of nursing interventions. The NNN linkages assist with the organization and structuring of nursing clinical information system that are the most efficient for nurses’ documentation of the practice. Griebenow.

two were major (Knowledge deficit . .Teaching: Procedure/Treatment. Fall Occurrence was selected as a NOC outcome instead of Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention for Injury High Risk nursing diagnosis.Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid/electrolyte Management (N=34). Of the four main linkages.Infection Protection (N=57). For example. and Risk for-Immune Status-Fluid Monitoring (N=53). and Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid Monitoring) were the major linkages. 7) Infection Risk ForImmune Status. Injury High risk for-Safety behavior: fall prevention-Fall prevention.Teaching: Procedure/Treatment and Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care). in the book. Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care. These linkages were used over 70 times for patients with CHF. four (Knowledge deficit Knowledge: Treatment Regimen. Health education or risk identification was selected as NICs for Injury High Risk nursing diagnosis instead of Fall Prevention in the book. Also.Knowledge: Treatment Regimen. and 10) Infection. Some combinations of NNN in the category of “Not listed” were slightly different from the NNN linkages book. Of the ten. and one was suggested (Cardiac Output Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid Monitoring) and another one was not listed (Injury High risk for-Safety Behavior: fall prevention-Fall prevention) in the NNN linkages book by Johnson et al (2006). 5) Injury High risk for-Risk Control-Fall Prevention (N=58). 6) Airway Clearance IneffectivenessRespiratory Status: Ventilation-Respiratory Monitoring (N=57).109 Alteration-Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid Monitoring (N=71). 8)Cardiac Output Alteration. 9) Injury High Risk ForSafety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Surveillance: Safety (N=54).

& Lunney. In this study. NOC. interventions and outcomes (Fischetti. Terjesen. NOC. & Michel. The majority of NICs and NOCs were considered useful by Brazilian Cardiology nurses (De Lima Lopes. the content of the interventions and outcomes was scored by seven expert nurses using a Likert scale. 2009). one study using NANDA-I. and NOC need to add labels to describe life threatening situations when activating rapid response systems (Wong. In the study. For example. 2009). . and outcomes relevant to person who have many health problems in the community setting (Criminiello. In addition nursing care plans using NANDA-I. Knowledge: Health Behaviors was the most frequently used NOCs.110 These linkages from this study were valuable in that they were linked using critical thinking skills while many of studies created NNN linkages without critical thinking skills or validation of NNN linkages. The study provides an example for enhancing management of care for specific population. NIC. and NIC was to provide appropriate nursing diagnoses. De Barros. Another case study using SNL was related medical diagnoses which was Diabetes Mellitus. one hundred three children in the 4th and 5th grades in six schools in New York selected as samples for identifying nursing care plans. 2006). 2009). The study encouraged nurses to use critical thinking skill based on patients’ complex data to select nursing diagnoses. interventions. the recent study identified validation of the priority NICs and NOCs for the diagnosis Excess Fluid Volume in cardiac patients. In addition. 2008). The most frequently used nursing diagnosis was Knowledge Deficit and the frequently used NIC was Active Listening. and NIC were identified in school settings (Lunney. One study also identified that NANDA-I.

t-test was used for patients. Independent variables were interventions chosen by nurses to achieve each outcome.Infection Protection) were not statistically significant at p value <. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid/Electrolyte Management. Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Surveillance: Safety. Seven NOC-NIC linkages . Energy Conservation-Cardiac Care. and Risk Control. Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Surveillance: Safety is significant p value at <. Identifying the Effectiveness of NIC using NOC Outcome Scores For analyzing the effect of nursing interventions on the top ten NOC-NIC linkages with for CHF. Only one NOC and NIC linkage (Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Surveillance: Safety) was not statistically significant for the admission and discharge outcomes scores at p value < 0. Respiratory Status: Ventilation-Respiratory Monitoring.111 Identifying new standardized nursing terminologies for describing patients’ situation continuously is needed. 001. Risk Control-Fall Prevention.NIC linkages (Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Fall Prevention. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care. Moreover. However. Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Surveillance: Safety. evidence based nursing care plans using NNN terminologies should be studied for proving quality of care as well as evidence into the practice. Pain Management-Pain Level. The top ten NOCs associated NIC interventions were Knowledge: Treatment Regimen-Teaching: Procedure/Treatment. Three NOC. and Risk Control-Infection Protection. Research focused on NNN linkages using critical thinking skills is needed. The dependent variables were the outcomes ratings from admission and discharge. 01.05. Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention-Fall Prevention.

Tissue Integrity: Skin and Mucous Membranes. One study also identified NOC outcomes changes in admission and discharge in pediatric patients. For example. . The reason for pre-coordinated NNN linkages is that selecting nursing diagnoses. Twenty -nine patients’ records were analyzed and eight NOC outcomes were identified for standard nursing care plan of dehydration. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Fluid/Electrolyte Management. Child Adaptation to Hospitalization. Risk Control-Fall Prevention. These outcomes were Nutritional Status.112 (Knowledge: Treatment Regimen-Teaching: Procedure/Treatment. Knowledge Status: Illness Care. and Pain Control Behavior (Scherb. Seven of eight outcomes had statistically significant results indicating that there was improvement in the patient’s status from admission to discharge. & Busman. Stevens. outcomes.001. Pain Management-Pain Level. it was not possible to determine a consistent pattern in any of the populations as to what affected the change in outcome ratings from admission to discharge. 2007). Discussion of Limitations Documentation Most selected NNN linkages by nurses were not diverse because the currently used patient plan of care was a template providing links developed by experts in the Midwestern community hospital. Cardiac Pump Effectiveness-Cardiac Care. Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance. and Energy Conservation-Cardiac Care) were statistically significant at p value < . However. Fluid Balance. and interventions is time consuming so that use of preformed care plans has reduced the total universal list of NIC and NOCs. Respiratory Status: Ventilation-Respiratory Monitoring.

and interventions with a high probability of providing quality care to special populations. 2006). For example. outcomes. In addition. The reasons why nurses do not accurately document could be lack of time to complete documentation or might be related to a lack of knowledge regarding standardized nursing terminologies especially for novice nurses. In this study. Guun. it is necessary to build electronic nursing care plans to document and to retrieve data for nursing interventions effectiveness research. continuous education for nurses will be needed in this facility through the continuing education program. Delaney. for specific population sensitive and essential core NNN linkages are the most efficient way for nurses to document the care they provide by supplying linkages of nursing diagnoses. Morrison. Thus. However. But because outcome was placed inappropriately. nursing care plans in this study were paper-based and extracted from not . Therefore. This combination would be a near infinite number and makes nurses’ decision at the point of care very time consuming (Clancy. This would affect the accuracy of the data. inappropriate placement of outcomes within the documentation system was found studying the linkages between the nursing diagnoses. and interventions. Data Large secondary databases have been used for nursing effectiveness studies. These inappropriately placed outcomes related nursing diagnosis have usually small number of frequency. Infection. the correct nursing diagnosis and intervention may not have been added to the care plans.113 there are 153 nursing diagnoses and each diagnosis could be linked to over 300 nursing outcomes and over 500 nursing interventions. outcomes. Risk (NANDA-I) was linked to Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous (NOC) and Fluid Monitoring (NIC).

Thus. For example. the sample size may be too small to detect intervention effects. the sample size was small for the number of the variables in the study. nurses are not the only discipline that impact the outcomes achieved. a patient may not have Fluid Management linked to the outcome of Fluid Balance but Fluid Management could be linked to a different outcome such as Hydration. the researcher was unable to determine the extent of use of the OPT Model by staff nurses. staff nurses were encouraged to use the OPT Model in this organization and it was included in orientation materials and educational offering but this study did not measure the extent to which the nurses actually used this critical thinking model during care planning processes. Even though this study used a large clinical database. intervention effects may be found between interventions and outcomes that are linked to each other within the documentation system. It could affect statistically the results. the interventions . However. So the patient is receiving Fluid Management and it could be affecting more than the one outcome with which it is associated. For example.114 electronic record so it was not easy to retrieve the data from patients’ records. Another data limitation is that some of the interventions were linked to more than one outcome. Many outcomes and their related interventions were not studied because they were not particularly prevalent for the CHF population. For example. when we considered about linked NOC-NIC data. It might be possible that other interventions and outcomes not studied due to sample size could show statistically significant effects with a larger database. In addition. Therefore. Future studies using a large data set are needed to increase the ability to detect significant effects of nursing interventions for NOC-NIC linkages used for patients. the small data were identified. Moreover.

interventions are likely to have already affected the outcome. This would be true with clinic settings as well so it is important that outcomes are measured across the care continuum and not just at admission to acute care nursing units. In addition. It would be beneficial if outcomes were rated in the emergency room prior to the initiation of treatment. many interventions are already provided. Future studies may need to examine a more complete list of outcomes across all populations. It is possible with three shifts of nurses providing care to the patients in this study.115 of physicians and other health providers may have impacted the outcomes of patients in this study. At least four nurses could deliver nursing care to a patient. The initial outcome rating may have been lower if interventions had not been provided prior to the nurse documenting the rating. Only the ten most prevalent outcomes for the population were analyzed. If the patient was seen in the emergency room before admission. Future studies need to include the interventions of these disciplines to obtain a more accurate description of what interventions have the greatest effect on patient outcomes. outcomes were rated on admission to a nursing unit within the hospital. Some variance of outcome ratings might exist among nurses and could be factors that impact the research findings. when the outcome rating is not completed until patient is admitted to a unit. System It is important to measure the nursing outcomes by eliminating bias. Often this is not the first contact the patient has had with nurses or other disciplines. . Thus. This would impact the amount of change that would be seen in outcome ratings from admission to discharge.

this research on studying the NNN linkages using critical reasoning was important. nurses can document more accurate nursing care for specific populations.116 Implications Research For quality of care. Based on the results from this study. ongoing staff education related with standardized nursing terminologies and the nursing process using critical thinking skills is necessary. The terminologies are often updated and modified. 2) identify evidence based NNN linkages to facilitate integrating evidence into practice. and 4) identify the staffing ratios or skill mix required for the number of nursing diagnosis and nursing interventions required for quality patient care. future studies should 1) explore the processes in clinical reasoning when nurses select nursing diagnoses. Practice Documenting nursing care using standardized nursing terminologies is a responsibility for any nurse. . There will be time constraints related to documentation but it is important that nurses realize that they must document accurately for the data to be reused to treat patients care and to measure effectiveness of care provided by nurses. Thus. With the increasing use of technologies in clinical settings. outcomes and interventions. By doing this. Identifying standardized nursing care plans using standardized nursing terminologies are required for clinical information system development. 3) further evaluate the effectiveness of using evidence based nursing care plans for patients with CHF and other populations.

changes of pre-coordinated nursing care plans with NNN terminologies are constantly made in the documentation system. the purpose of the languages.117 Education about the SNLs and critical thinking skills was the primary focus leading during the implementation of the nursing processes. nor the understanding of the importance of the languages to the nursing profession. and NIC) for a long time. To meet this need. Thus. The majority of nurses in this facility are familiar with these NNN terminologies. Education This facility has used standardized nursing terminologies (NANDA-I NOC. They understood these nursing terminologies in this facility through the education. Although some nurses have experienced learning about the theses terminologies. a nurse should add. it was difficult to make changes using paper-based records. delete and revise nursing diagnoses. Recommendations for future implementations would be to focus education efforts on each of the terminology separately to select proper NOC and NIC for NANDA-I diagnoses. it is easy to store data and retrieve data for nursing interventions effectiveness research. For example. During the implementation. Understanding how to measure outcomes is another responsibility for nurses. outcomes and the linkages between them. computerized nursing documentation systems (CNDS) are recommended. A computerized nursing documentation system will be developed in this facility in the near future. Also by using computerized nursing documentation. Inter-rater reliability testing during implementation may have assisted the nurses in understanding the outcomes and the rating process. they could be updated and modified. However. They might not come into practice with a solid understanding of the languages. interventions. it is necessary .

nurses need to demonstrate their contributions to the public and to policy makers. More accurate documentation practices of nurses will be built in the practice. Policy Identifying the NNN linkages using critical thinking skills is essential for nursing to improve accurate nursing care plans. and the necessary interventions needed to assist patients in achieving these outcomes. all educational institutions should adopt standardized nursing terminologies so that nursing students have knowledge about the standardized nursing terminologies. Nurse practitioners students should be encouraged to document medical and nursing practice actives of the care they provide to patients to help build the knowledge base of nursing. By doing this. Because of the pressure on healthcare to demonstrate results and quality of care. nursing must continue to explore its contribution to the achievement of patient outcomes. graduating nurses will have an ability to build quality patient care practices. Additionally. Based on this process. Implementation of standardized nursing terminologies within computerized clinical documentation systems for the development of large clinical data sets are required because through these data sets nursing effectiveness research can be completed. documentation practices will be enhanced.118 for all facilities to educate standardized nursing terminologies continuously for nurses. the data retrieved from the clinical documentation systems using standardized nursing terminologies will better identify the pertinent patient problems. Thus. use the terminologies when learning the nursing process with critical thinking skills and understand the importance of the terminologies to the nursing profession. It can influence health policy because the policy makers will not be responsive to a discipline that cannot provide data supporting its . the desired outcomes. In addition.

it is difficult to select appropriate nursing diagnosis. nursing will positioned to make a substantial contribution to current and future health policy decisions. Conclusions The purpose of the study was to identify NNN linkages using critical thinking skills for patients with CHF. Among the near infinite number of NNN terminologies combination. with the advancing of technology. patients have diverse health problems at the same time. and interventions for a population.119 effectiveness. Thus. Analysis of nursing effectiveness through the use of large data sets will be able to make nursing visible to other health providers as well as policy makers. however. Through these ongoing efforts. With increasing complex health environment. it is possible for assessing the effects of nursing interventions on patient outcomes with standardized nursing terminologies such as NOC and NIC. outcomes. . nursing needs to continue to be present at the discussions related to reference terminologies and standards for the electronic patient record and the importance of this data to evaluating care must be emphasized. outcomes and interventions. Nurses have to select accurate nursing diagnoses. and nursing interventions using critical thinking skills. nursing outcomes. In addition. Identifying NNN linkages from actual clinical data in this study provides guidance for selecting appropriate nursing diagnoses.

120 APPENDIX A: NURSING DIAGNOSTIC REASONING .

Identifies two or more signs or symptoms  2. Recognize the cluster of signs and symptoms as defining  characteristics of the need (Problem)  3. Project outcomes  6. ( ) Observation of Performance Employee__________________________ Preceptor(s) __________________________ . Use nursing standardized languages (NANDA. Identify the related factor (signs or symptoms)  5. Name (select) the need as a nursing diagnosis  4.121 NURSING DIAGNOSTIC REASONING COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT AND VALIDATION Genesis Medical Center 01/2008 Updated Definition NURSING DIAGNOSTIC REASONING-Identifies the patient’s need for nursing care based on nursing assessed signs or symptoms. 1. Employee: Please read performance criteria and √ any item needing review. Assign nursing intervention(s) that alter the sign and  symptoms  7. projects outcomes and assigns interventions appropriate to meet patient needs. NIC and  NOC or Perioperative Nursing Data Set)  Needs Review Validation Date/Preceptor Initials EVALUATION MECHANISMS: ( ) Completion of case study at completion of nursing orientation – 3 completed diagnostic reasoning cycles approved and an annual renewal.

122 .

123 APPENDIX B: PATIENT PLAN OF CARE SHEET .

Heart Rate BP -Restlessness -reported pain 1d00122102 OUTCOMES AD M Pain Management 1E00121400 Analgesic Administration 1E00122210 Patient-Controlled Analgesic (PCA) Assistance 1E00122400 Analgesic Administration: Intraspinal 1E00122214 Environmental Management: Comfort 1E00126482 Anxiety Reduction 1E00125820 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) 1E00121540 Heat/Cold Application 1E00121380 Distraction 1E00125900 Simple Relaxation Therapy 1E00126040 Simple Massage 1E00121480 Grimacing 1B00120006 Increased muscle tension 1B00120007 Whining 1B00120010 Crying 1B00120008 Change in pulse rate 1B00120009 OUTCOME SCORING DC INTERVENTIONS . Iowa PAIN. ACUTE: Experience of an unpleasant sensory and emotional sensation for a duration of less than 6 months. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Observed or reported (select at least 2) Change in BP 1B00120001 Patients self report of pain 1B00120002 Change in respiratory pattern 1B00120003 Restlessness 1B00120004 Diaphoresis 1B00120005 Whimpering 1B00120011 RELATED FACTORS Physical injuring agent 1A00120001 Psychological injuring agent 1A00120002 Pain Control -Recognizes Causal Factors -Uses NonAnalgesic Relief Measures -Uses Analgesics Appropriately -Reports Pain Controlled 1d00121605 Pain Level -Oral/Facial Expressions of Pain -Change in Respiratory Rate.124 PATIENT PLAN OF CARE GENESIS MEDICAL CENTER .Davenport.

125 Diagnosis___________________________________ Date Initiated________________RN Initials______________ Date Resolved__________________ 469-006G 7/00 PATIENT PLAN OF CARE ACUTE PAIN OUTCOME SCORING DC RELATED FACTORS Comfort Level -Reported satisfaction with symptom control -Expressed satisfaction with pain control -Reported physical wellbeing 0d00122100 OUTCOMES AD M Developmental Care 1E00128250 Preparatory Sensory Information 1E00125580 Positioning 1E00120840 INTERVENTIONS Definition of Scoring Scales Pain Controlpersonal actions to control pain Pain Levelseverity of reported pain Comfort Level-extent of physical and psychological lease 1 Never Demonstrated Severe None 2 Rarely Demonstrated Substantial Limited 3 Sometimes Demonstrated Moderate Moderate 4 Often Demonstrated Slight Substantial 5 Consistently Demonstrated None Extensive *IER-In Expected Range *WNL-Within Normal Limits 469-006G 7/00 .

126 APPENDIX C: RESULTS OF THE STUDY .

32 72. humidity Inadequate secondary defenses and immunosuppression (decreased hemoglobin.47 8 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1.28 82.45 0.04 86. impaired swallowing. sedentary lifestyle) Failure to practice preventative measures Oxygen supply and demand imbalance Psychological injuring agent Respiratory muscle fatigue Body position Health status Infection Obesity Over 60 years of age Psychological Deconditioned status Disturbance in pattern of tension release Environment Environmental exposure (pharmaceutical agents.78 78.50 60.127 Table C.06 64.30 0.63 84.65 57. 1. radiation therapy.71 1. development factors.62 69. restraint).1 Related factors less than 50% of the total Related Factors Congestive heart failure Physical injuring agent COPD Chronic illness External (environmental) hyper or hypothermia.60 0.90 0. altered sensation.60 0. altered nutritional state (obesity.60 0.30 0. endocrine disorder.45 0. NPO status for extended period.75 0. altered pigmentation.36 1.53 76.3 .70 55.67 67.45 0.12 74.05 0.45 0. leukopenia. mechanical factors (shearing forces.60 0.36 1.73 83.60 0. generalized weakness. skeletal prominence.78 81.44 85.45 0.45 0.52 70. depressed cough and gag reflexes. dysphasia. malnutrition) Inadequate physical/social resources Pathophysiological (acute or chronic illness.08 84.90 0.90 0.38 78.02 74.53 84.18 80.86 1.35 1.20 1. Chemical substance. nausea/vomiting.18 83. hypermetabolic/catabolic state.98 79. radiation therapy.20 1.35 61.22 73.75 0. pocketing of food) Situational or maturational crises Altered contractility Alveolar-capillary membrane changes Anxiety Freq 18 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 % Cum% 2.75 0.28 77.75 0.26 65. physical immobilization.90 0.50 58.74 86. Retained secretions Altered heart rate/rhythm Altered afterload Altered preload Cognitive and/or physiological limitation Internal (somatic) medication.75 0.45 0. diarrhea. emaciation).77 75. cirrhosis.03 77. altered metabolic state.83 82. radiation.90 0.90 0.60 0.72 68.98 85.42 71. pressure. suppressed inflammatory response.38 81.90 0.45 0.45 0. immunologic Lack of interest in learning Ventilation/perfusion alterations Weakness/tiredness Deconditioned status (bedrest/immobility. increased environmental exposure) Excess ingestion of sodium containing foods or medications Knowledge deficit Musculoskeletal impairment Neurological impairment (reduced level of consciousness.58 80. edentulous condition.30 66. altered circulation.20 63.

94 87. circulation. radiation. shear) Neuromuscular impairment Physiological factors(dehydration. stricture) Caregiver-care-receiver relationship Caregiving activities Cultural barrier Dementia Depression Excessive loss (diarrhea. decreased motility of GI tract.09 93. immunologic reaction. skeletal prominence. hyper/hypothermia. fecal impaction.89 95.30 0.54 93.30 0.15 0.69 93.54 90. excretions/secretions.30 0.74 92.30 0.49 92.30 0.15 0. decreased gastrointestinal motility.15 0. medications.15 0.30 0.15 0. shearing.15 0.15 0.34 92.128 Table C.15 0.44 94.80 .05 95. indwelling tubes) Excessive mucus Family processes Fluid deficit/excess Gastrointestinal impairment (increased intragastric pressure. diuretics.15 0. insufficient fiber intake.29 94.1 Continued Related Factor Delirium Developmental External (pressure.94 93. gastric residual.39 93.30 0. skin turgor.19 92. insufficient fluid intake Physiological insult Poor physical condition Presence of circulatory/ respiratory problems Self concept Social role function Unfamiliarity Airway spasm Alteration/lack of communication skills Altered circulation Alzheimer s disease Asthma Blockage (stone. tumor.15 0. recent environmental changes) Hyperventilation Hypoventilation syndrome Immobility Inadequate resources available Inadequate social support Ineffective coping Mechanical (pressure.15 0.30 0.30 0. inadequate toileting.15 0.30 0.14 91. sensation.15 0.99 94.30 0.84 93.04 89. poor eating habits.30 0.15 0.15 0.94 90. irregular defecation habits.74 94. chemical substance.64 86. friction.15 0.84 88.15 0.24 93.50 95. BPH.24 87.84 91.30 0.15 0. delayed gastric emptying.44 88.30 0.34 89. edema.04 92.24 90.15 0.44 91.14 88. abdominal muscle weakness. emaciation].30 0.30 0.74 89.30 0.15 Cum% 86.30 0.15 0. incomplete esophageal sphincter) History of previous intolerance Humidity Impaired Cognition Impaired mobility status Impaired transfer ability Inability to ingest food or absorb nutrients Increased physical exertion Insufficient knowledge to avoid exposure to pathogens Internal (alterations in nutritional state [obesity. physical immobilization. pigmentation. humidity) Functional Factors (Insufficient physical activity.15 0. psychogenic) Freq 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 0.64 89.54 87.59 94. change in usual foods and eating patterns.20 95.15 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.35 95.79 92. Inadequate dentition or oral hygiene.14 94.65 95.64 92. restraint. metabolic state.

129 Table C.1 Continued
Related Factors Lights Mechanical Factors (Postsurgical obstruction, prostate enlargement, neurological impairment, electrolyte imbalance, hemorrhoids) Multi-infarct dementia Neurological disturbances Noise Nutritional deficit/excess Pain/discomfort Pathophysiological (inhibition or injury of nerve stimulus; anesthesia medications, alcohol, pain, lack of sufficient muscle control) Perceived threat to value system Perceptual and/or cognitive impairment Pharmacological Factors (antidepressants, aluminum-containing antacids, calcium channel blockers, laxative overuse, opiates, sedatives) Prescribed movement restriction(s), e.g.; restraints, bedrest prescription, use of mechanical equipment that restricts movement, therapeutic immobilizations Psychological (anxiety, depression) Psychological barrier (psychosis, lack of stimuli, stress) Psychological factors (depression, emotional stress, mental confusion) Renal failure Resources Role change in family/family dis-organization Secretions in the bronchi Self Care Deficit Toileting Situational/developmental crisis of significant other Smoking Temperature Third spacing of fluid Threat of death Uncertainty Unclear personal values/beliefs Weakened supporting pelvic structures Freq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % Cum% 0.15 95.95 0.15 96.10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 96.25 96.40 96.55 96.70 96.85 97.00 97.15 97.30 97.45 97.60 97.75 97.90 98.05 98.20 98.35 98.50 98.65 98.80 98.95 99.10 99.25 99.40 99.55 99.70 99.85 100.00

130

Table C.2

Signs/Symptoms below 50% of the total
Freq 33 31 29 25 23 21 18 17 14 14 14 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 % 2.50 2.35 2.20 1.90 1.75 1.59 1.37 1.29 1.06 1.06 1.06 0.91 0.91 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.76 0.76 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.38 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 Cum% 53.19 55.54 57.74 59.64 61.38 62.97 64.34 65.63 66.69 67.75 68.82 69.73 70.64 71.47 72.31 73.14 73.90 74.66 75.34 76.02 76.71 77.39 78.00 78.60 79.14 79.67 80.20 80.73 81.18 81.64 82.09 82.55 83.00 83.46 83.84 84.14 84.45 84.75 85.05 85.36 85.66 85.96 86.19 86.42 86.65 86.87 87.10

Signs/Symptoms Abnormal heart rate or blood pressure response to activity Variations in blood pressure readings Dyspnea Chest congestion Inappropriate behaviors Ability to identify object of fear Restlessness Difficulty with sputum Aversion to eating EKG changes indicating arrhythmia s or ischemia Ineffective or absent cough Reported inadequate food intake less than RDA Tachycardia Grimacing Inaccurate performance of test Lethargy Dry mouth Pitting edema Abnormal rate, rhythm,depth of breathing Change in respiratory pattern Dependent edema Lack of knowledge Fatigue Weight gain over short period Change in pulse rate Concentrated urine Interest in improving health behaviors Rales Change in BP Decreased ejection fraction Stroke Volume Index (SVI), Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI) Disruption of skin surface Edema Shortness of breath/dyspnea Whining Reported or observed inability to take responsibility for meeting basic health practice in function patterns area Altered Contractility Restlessness Anxious Apathetic Destruction of skin layers Gait changes, e.g.; decreased walk speed, difficulty initiating gait, small steps, shuffles feet, exaggerated lateral postural sway Hypoxemia Lack of adaptive behaviors Anxiety Cold/clammy skin Crying Decreased vital capacity Difficulty turning

131 Table C.2 Continued
Freq 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 % 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 Cum% 87.33 87.56 87.78 88.01 88.24 88.47 88.69 88.92 89.07 89.23 89.38 89.53 89.68 89.83 89.98 90.14 90.29 90.44 90.59 90.74 90.90 91.05 91.20 91.35 91.50 91.65 91.81 91.96 92.11 92.26 92.41 92.56 92.72 92.87 93.02 93.17 93.32 93.47 93.63 93.78 93.93 94.08 94.23 94.39 94.54 94.69 94.76 94.84 94.92 94.99

Signs/Symptoms Fluctuation in cognition Increased tension Intake exceeds output Normal serum sodium Oliguria Pleural effusion Reports pain is present Use of accessory muscles Apprehension Bladder distention Body weight 20% or more under less than ideal Bounding, full pulse Change in bowel pattern Clinical evidence of organic impairment Cough Decreased frequency Decreased inspiratoyr/expiratory pressure Drowsy Elevated hematocrit Fecal staining of clothing/bedding Fluctuation in level of conciousness Inability to Go to toilet or commode Inability to Manipulate clothing Inability to Obtain or get to water source Inability to Put on clothing on lower body Inability to Put on clothing on upper body Inability to maintenance appearance at satisfactory level Inability to meet role expectations Inability to take off necessary item of clothing Inadequate problem solving Inappropriate Increased anxiety Increased muscle tension Irritability Lack of goal directed behavior/resolution of problem Loss of weight with adequate food intake Murmurs Orthopnea Orthopnea/paroxysmal noctural dyspnea Poor eye contact Residual urine Scared Sleep disturbances Tired Whimpering Worried Abdominal pain Able to completely empty bladder Abnormal arterial blood gases Altered interpretation/response to stimuli

98 96.08 0.19 97.48 98.08 0.08 0.08 0.37 95.05 96.08 0.89 96.25 98.28 96.08 0.80 97.08 0.21 96.08 0.63 98.45 95.08 0.08 0.88 97.08 0.52 95.08 0.08 0.68 95.22 95.04 97.27 97.08 0.34 97.08 0.08 0.08 0.43 96.33 98.50 97.08 0.08 0.08 0.72 97.08 0.42 97.41 98.08 0.08 0.18 98.66 96.08 0.59 96.08 0.08 0.95 98.08 0.56 98.08 0.08 0.08 0.57 97.13 96.07 95.12 97.08 0.71 98.08 0.81 96.03 98.08 0.08 0.14 95. long term) Impaired socialization Inability to carry out proper toilet hygiene Inability to complete caregiving tasks Inability to delay defecation Inability to determine if a behavior was performed Inability to empty bowel or bladder Inability to fasten clothing Inability to get in & out of bathroom Inability to maintain usual routine Inability to purposefully move Inability to recognize & respond to full bladder Inability to recognize urge to defecate Inability to regulate temperature or flow Inability to wash body or body parts Increased agitation or restlessness Insomnia Invasion of body structures Lack of energy/inability to maintain usual level of physical activity Lack of information Lack of motivation to initiate and/or follow through with goaldirected purposeful behavior Limited ability to perform fine motor skills Loss of urine before reaching toilet Low urinary sodium Misperceptions Moaning Movement induced shortness of breath Observed or reported experiences of forgetting .79 Signs/Symptoms Apprehension about possible institutionalization of care receiver Confusion Confusion/disorientation Decreased hematocrit Decreased muscle mass/strength Decreased reaction time Delayed decision-making Depressed mood Difficulties watching the care receiver go through the illness Distended abdomen Distressed Does not or cannot speak Emotional strength Evidence of lack of food Facial tension Fearful Feeling uncertainty with changed relationship Fluctuation in sleep/wake cycle Focus on self Hallucinations Hard stools Hypo or hyperactive Bowel sounds Impaired memory (short term.08 0.08 0.65 97.08 0.36 96.74 96.08 0.08 0.30 95.08 0.97 97.10 98.2 Continued Freq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 0.08 0.132 Table C.08 0.08 0.08 0.90 95.83 95.75 95.60 95.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.51 96.08 Cum% 95.08 0.

etc.86 98.08 0.08 0. restlessness.32 99.62 99.08 0.39 99.08 0.08 0.2 Continued Freq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 0.08 0.0 Signs/Symptoms Orthostatic hypotension Painful and persistent increased helplessness Physical energy Physical signs of distress or tension (increased heart rate.92 100.08 0.08 0.08 0.77 99.08 0.01 99.08 0.08 0.133 Table C.17 99.47 99.) Poor skin turgor Purse lip breathing Questioning personal values and beliefs while attempting a decision Senses need to void Slowed movement Somatic preoccupation Speaks or verbalizes with difficulty Time Unable to speak dominant language Uncoordinated or jerky movements Vacillation between alternative choices Weakness of muscles required for swallowing or mastication .08 0.08 0.08 0.70 99.94 99.08 Cum% 98.54 99.24 99.85 99.09 99. increased muscle tension.

78 96.09 99.14 0.69 97.82 98.09 0.00 99.23 0.27 0.41 0.18 99.14 0.28 98.23 0.14 0.51 95.09 0.46 .55 96.41 0.18 0.27 0.18 0.88 94.05 0.37 99.92 95.27 0.14 0.09 0.32 99.78 96.41 0.18 0.18 0.14 98.32 0.27 0.29 94.24 95.14 0.06 96.18 0.09 0.64 98.96 97.09 0.41 99.09 0.32 0.3 NOC Outcomes frequency (Below ten times used) NOC Outcomes Coping Fear Control Nutritional Status Circulation Status Safety Behavior: Personal Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Cognitive Ability Health Promoting Behavior Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Endurance Hydration Ambulation: Walking Aspiration Control Bowel Elimination Knowledge: Health Resources Mobility Level Neurological Status: Consciousness Cognitive Orientation Communication: Receptive Ability Distorted Thought Control Self-Care: Eating Urinary Elimination Acceptance: Health Status Immobility Consequences: Physiological Self-Care: Dressing Self-Care: Grooming Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Toileting Tissue Perfusion: Peripheral Transfer Performance Ambulation: Wheelchair Bowel Continence Caregiver Stressors Caregiver-Patient Relationship Freq 9 9 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 % 0.91 99.09 0.87 98.05 0.27 99.33 97.73 98.51 97.14 97.33 96.09 0.32 0.41 98.01 98.134 Table C.61 94.47 93.05 0.55 98.18 0.05 Cum Freq 2062 2071 2080 2087 2094 2101 2107 2113 2119 2125 2130 2135 2139 2143 2147 2151 2155 2159 2162 2165 2168 2171 2174 2176 2178 2180 2182 2184 2186 2188 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194 Cum % 93.

01 96.11 0.23 0.15 97.08 0.92 97 97.33 95.23 0.48 92.81 96.26 94.58 96.08 0.38 97.69 96.15 0.53 97.16 93.12 96.3 97.96 91.48 95.27 0.96 94.02 92.19 0.87 95.11 0.15 0.15 0.17 95.08 0.4 NIC interventions frequency (Below ten times used) NIC Interventions Calming Technique Nutrition Therapy Dementia Management Decision-Making Support Distraction Health Education Pressure Management Skin Care: Topical Treatments Aspiration Precautions Bedrest Care Family Support Mutual Goal Setting Pressure Ulcer Care Reality Orientation Counseling Family Involvement Sleep Enhancement Activity Therapy Cardiac Care: Acute Cough Enhancement Exercise Promotion Exercise Therapy: Ambulation Feeding Hair Care Incision Site Care Mood Management Oral Health Maintenance Self Care Assistance Tube Care: Urinary Bowel Management Decision Making Support Embolus Precautions Exercise Therapy: Balance Exercise Therapy: Joint Mobility Foot Care Medication Management Nail Care Safety Simple Relaxation Therapy Active Listening Bathing Bowel Incontinence Care Conflict Mediation Crisis Intervention Dressing Exercise Therapy: Muscle Control Eye Care Heat/Cold Application Freq 9 9 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 % 0.63 95.9 96.15 0.11 0.15 0.39 90.19 0.15 0.11 94.07 97.15 0.23 0.08 0.11 0.41 94.78 95.25 92.22 91.11 0.15 0.57 94.39 93.34 0.11 0.71 92.3 0.15 0.02 95.08 0.34 0.77 93.19 0.11 0.11 0.27 0.23 97.49 91.23 0.47 96.08 0.08 0.27 0.23 0.08 Cum Freq 2370 2379 2387 2394 2401 2408 2415 2422 2428 2434 2440 2446 2452 2458 2463 2468 2473 2477 2481 2485 2489 2493 2497 2501 2505 2509 2513 2517 2521 2524 2527 2530 2533 2536 2539 2542 2545 2548 2551 2553 2555 2557 2559 2561 2563 2565 2567 2569 Cum % 90.58 93.05 90.135 Table C.15 0.72 94.23 0.45 97.08 0.15 0.35 96.93 93.27 0.69 90.15 0.76 92.11 0.11 0.27 0.61 .24 96.

58 99.89 99.04 0.81 99.04 0.08 0.51 99.04 Cum Freq 2571 2573 2575 2577 2579 2581 2583 2585 2587 2589 2591 2593 2595 2596 2597 2598 2599 2600 2601 2602 2603 2604 2605 2606 2607 2608 2609 2610 2611 2612 2613 2614 2615 2616 2617 2618 2619 2620 2621 2622 2623 2624 2625 2626 2627 2628 2629 2630 2631 2632 Cum % 97.14 98.24 99.08 0.04 0.01 99.91 97.63 98.08 0.04 0.04 0.75 98.08 0.47 99.08 0.39 99.35 99.04 0.78 98.04 0.32 99.2 99.28 99.7 99.16 99.04 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.29 98.59 98.62 99.04 0.76 97.04 0.08 0.82 98.04 0.54 99.08 0.9 98. 4 Continued NIC Interventions Hypervolemia Management Immunization/Vaccination Administration Neurologic Monitoring Positioning: Wheelchair Referral Self Care Assistance: Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Assistance: Dressing/Grooming Self Care Assistance: Toileting Touch Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Urinary Catheterization Urinary Elimination Management Wound Irrigation Acid-Base Management Airway Suctioning Allergy Management Analgesic Administration: Intraspinal Behavior Modification Body Mechanics Promotion Bowel Incontinence Care: Encopresis Bowel Irrigation Circulatory Care: Arterial Insufficiency Cognitive Stimulation Communication Enhancement: Speech Deficit Constipation/Impaction Management Delusion Management Ear Care Environmental Management: Attachment Process Family Integrity Promotion Family Mobilization Family Process Maintenance Family Therapy Hemodialysis Therapy Hyperglycemia Management Memory Training Oral Health Restoration Pruritis Management Reminiscence Therapy Security Enhancement Seizure Precautions Self-Responsibility Facilitation Shock Prevention Support System Enhancement Swallowing Therapy Teaching: Infant Care Teaching: Psychomotor Skill Urinary Incontinence Care Values Clarification Ventilation Assistance Wound Care: Closed Drainage Freq 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 0.43 99.04 0.04 0.96 100 .09 99.04 0.37 98.04 0.77 99.71 98.08 0.136 Table C.08 0.68 97.04 0.94 98.08 0.04 0.04 0.83 97.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.85 99.67 98.04 0.04 0.04 0.21 98.97 99.86 98.04 0.99 98.13 99.04 0.44 98.04 0.52 98.06 98.04 0.04 0.66 99.04 0.08 0.73 99.05 99.04 0.92 99.04 0.04 0.

Risk For Infection.5 NNN linkages for patients hospitalized with CHF (below 10 times used) NOC Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Symptom Control Behavior Fluid Balance Immune Status Risk Control Risk Control Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Energy Conservation Respiratory Status: Ventilation Symptom Control Behavior Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Immune Status Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Treatment Regimen NIC Dysrhythmia Management Respiratory Monitoring Nutritional Monitoring Venous Access Device (VAD) Maintenance Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Prescribed Medication Discharge Planning Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Discharge Planning Discharge Planning Teaching: Prescribed Diet Weight Management Oxygen Therapy Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Presence Discharge Planning Risk Identification Wound Care Venous Access Device (VAD) Maintenance Nutritional Monitoring Venous Access Device (VAD) Maintenance Wound Care Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Learning Facilitation Circulatory Care N 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 NANDA-I Activity Intolerance Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Cardiac Output Alteration Infection.Table C. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Tissue Integrity. Risk For Infection. Altered Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Impaired 137 . Risk For Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Activity Intolerance Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Fear Health Maintenance.

Risk For Infection. Altered Infection. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Infection. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit 138 .5 Continued NOC Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Ventilation Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Fluid Balance Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Medication Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Energy Conservation Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Health Orientation Health Orientation Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Prescribed Activity NIC Wound Care Circulatory Care Respiratory Monitoring Teaching: Disease Process Electrolyte Monitoring Emotional Support Fluid/Electrolyte Management Health System Guidance Fluid Monitoring Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Prescribed Medication Positioning Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Oxygen Therapy Teaching: Disease Process Coping Enhancement Discharge Planning Health System Guidance Venous Access Device (VAD) Maintenance Nutritional Monitoring Wound Care Nutritional Monitoring Learning Facilitation Learning Readiness Enhancement Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Learning Readiness Enhancement Learning Facilitation Teaching: Disease Process Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Procedure/Treatment N 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 NANDA-I Tissue Integrity. Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Skin Integrity. Impaired Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Cardiac Output Alteration Fear Fear Fluid Volume Excess Health Maintenance.Table C. Impaired Activity Intolerance Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Fear Health Maintenance. Risk For Infection. Impaired Tissue Integrity. Risk For Infection.

Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit 139 . Acute Skin Integrity. Impaired Activity Intolerance Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Gas Exchange Impairment Gas Exchange Impairment Health Maintenance. Risk For Infection. Acute Pain. Acute Pain. Acute Pain. Altered Health Maintenance. Acute Pain. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Infection. Acute Pain.Table C. Impaired Skin Integrity. Acute Pain.5 Continued NOC Comfort Level Comfort Level Comfort Level Comfort Level Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior Pain Level Pain Level Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Symptom Control Behavior Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Circulation Status Circulation Status Fluid Balance Respiratory Status: Ventilation Respiratory Status: Ventilation Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Orientation Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Prescribed Activity NIC Anxiety Reduction Environmental Management: Comfort Pain Management Positioning Analgesic Administration Anxiety Reduction Environmental Management: Comfort Pain Management Positioning Anxiety Reduction Positioning Perineal Care Pressure Management Skin Surveillance Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Teaching: Disease Process Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Electrolyte Monitoring Fluid Monitoring Electrolyte Monitoring Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Decision-Making Support Health Education Health Education Nutrition Management Wound Care Learning Facilitation Teaching: Prescribed Diet Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Discharge Planning Learning Readiness Enhancement N 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 NANDA-I Pain. Acute Pain. Impaired Skin Integrity. Acute Pain. Acute Pain. Acute Pain.

Impaired Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Fluid Volume Deficit Fluid Volume Excess Gas Exchange Impairment Gas Exchange Impairment Health Maintenance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Infection. High Risk For Knowledge Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Pain. Acute Pain. Altered Health Maintenance. High Risk For Injury. Acute Skin Integrity. Altered Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Impaired Tissue Integrity. Impaired 140 . Impaired Skin Integrity. High Risk For Injury. Acute Pain.Table C. Risk For Injury. Impaired Skin Integrity.5 Continued NOC Nutritional Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Endurance Endurance Anxiety Control Anxiety Control Coping Coping Respiratory Status: Ventilation Fluid Balance Fluid Balance Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Orientation Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Symptom Control Behavior Knowledge: Diet Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Comfort Level Pain Control Behavior Pain Level Nutritional Status Nutritional Status NIC Positioning Bedrest Care Nutrition Management Nutritional Monitoring Energy Management Nutrition Management Anxiety Reduction Calming Technique Anxiety Reduction Calming Technique Oxygen Therapy Electrolyte Monitoring Electrolyte Management Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Coping Enhancement Decision-Making Support Tube Care: Urinary Tube Care: Urinary Tube Care: Urinary Dementia Management Dementia Management Fall Prevention Discharge Planning Nutritional Monitoring Nutrition Management Nutritional Monitoring Distraction Distraction Distraction Perineal Care Pressure Management N 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 NANDA-I Skin Integrity.

Risk For Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Fear Fear 141 .5 Continued NOC Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Anxiety Control Coping Aspiration Control Self-Care: Eating Hydration Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Anxiety Control Respiratory Status: Ventilation Circulation Status Circulation Status Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Anxiety Control Coping Fear Control NIC Pressure Ulcer Care Bedrest Care Nutrition Management Perineal Care Positioning Pressure Management Nutritional Monitoring Exercise Therapy: Ambulation Mutual Goal Setting Activity Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Activity Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Oxygen Therapy Teaching: Disease Process Presence Presence Aspiration Precautions Aspiration Precautions Bowel Incontinence Care Bowel Incontinence Care Bowel Incontinence Care Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Monitoring Dysrhythmia Management Fluid/Electrolyte Management Fluid Monitoring Anxiety Reduction Anxiety Reduction Environmental Management Emotional Support N 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NANDA-I Skin Integrity. Risk For Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Anxiety Anxiety Aspiration. Impaired Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity.Table C. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Aspiration. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Tissue Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity.

Risk For Infection.Table C. Altered Health Maintenance.5 Continued NOC Fluid Balance Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Orientation Health Orientation Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Risk Control Risk Control Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Safety Behavior: Personal Symptom Control Behavior Symptom Control Behavior Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior NIC Electrolyte Management Electrolyte Monitoring Fluid Monitoring Counseling Coping Enhancement Counseling Decision-Making Support Discharge Planning Health Education Health System Guidance Incision Site Care Nutrition Therapy Oral Health Maintenance Perineal Care Nutrition Therapy Oral Health Maintenance Perineal Care Incision Site Care Perineal Care Fall Prevention Environmental Management: Safety Surveillance: Safety Discharge Planning Emotional Support Feeding Nutrition Therapy Weight Management Feeding Nutrition Therapy Analgesic Administration Pain Management N 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NANDA-I Fluid Volume Deficit Fluid Volume Deficit Fluid Volume Excess Fluid Volume Excess Health Maintenance. High Risk For Injury. Chronic 142 . Altered Health Maintenance. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Chronic Pain. Altered Health Maintenance. Risk For Injury. Risk For Infection. High Risk For Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements Altered Pain. Risk For Infection. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. Altered Infection. High Risk For Injury. High Risk For Injury.

Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity.5 Continued NOC Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Nutritional Status Nutritional Status Nutritional Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Endurance Endurance Endurance Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Coping Coping Coping Coping Coping Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Ventilation Symptom Control Behavior Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Anxiety Control Anxiety Control NIC Fall Prevention Bedrest Care Nutrition Management Wound Care Skin Care: Topical Treatments Wound Care Pressure Ulcer Care Skin Surveillance Wound Care Exercise Therapy: Ambulation Mutual Goal Setting Sleep Enhancement Energy Management Family Involvement Sleep Enhancement Weight Management Activity Therapy Cardiac Care Energy Management Nutritional Monitoring Respiratory Monitoring Cardiac Care Energy Management Nutritional Monitoring Cardiac Care Energy Management Nutritional Monitoring Cough Enhancement Cough Enhancement Airway Management Conflict Mediation Coping Enhancement N 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 NANDA-I Physical Mobility Alteration Skin Integrity. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Impaired Skin Integrity. Impaired Skin Integrity.Table C. Risk For Activity Intolerance. Risk For Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Airway Clearance Ineffectiveness Anxiety Anxiety 143 . Risk For Activity Intolerance.

Acute Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness 144 . Acute Confusion. Acute Confusion.5 Continued NOC Coping Coping Coping Bowel Elimination Hydration Hydration Hydration Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Anxiety Control Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Cognitive Ability Cognitive Ability Cognitive Ability Cognitive Ability Distorted Thought Control Distorted Thought Control Distorted Thought Control Distorted Thought Control Acceptance: Health Status Acceptance: Health Status Acceptance: Health Status Acceptance: Health Status Anxiety Control NIC Conflict Mediation Coping Enhancement Mood Management Bowel Incontinence Care Bowel Incontinence Care: Encopresis Bowel Irrigation Perineal Care Bowel Incontinence Care: Encopresis Bowel Irrigation Perineal Care Bowel Incontinence Care: Encopresis Bowel Irrigation Perineal Care Respiratory Monitoring Anxiety Reduction Teaching: Disease Process Cardiac Care: Acute Dysrhythmia Management Electrolyte Monitoring Fluid/Electrolyte Management Calming Technique Emotional Support Fall Prevention Reality Orientation Calming Technique Emotional Support Fall Prevention Reality Orientation Anxiety Reduction Environmental Management Mood Management Presence Environmental Management N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 NANDA-I Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Bowel Incontinence Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Breathing Pattern Ineffectiveness Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Cardiac Output Alteration Confusion.Table C. Acute Confusion. Acute Confusion. Acute Confusion. Acute Confusion. Acute Confusion.

Risk For Infection. High Risk For Injury. Altered Infection. High Risk For Injury. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance. High Risk For Injury. Altered Health Maintenance. Risk For Injury.5 Continued NOC Anxiety Control Coping Coping Coping Fear Control Fear Control Fear Control Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Fluid Balance Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Orientation Health Orientation Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Health Promoting Behavior Immune Status Immune Status Immune Status Immune Status Knowledge: Infection Control Risk Control Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Personal Safety Behavior: Personal Safety Behavior: Personal Symptom Control Behavior NIC Presence Environmental Management Mood Management Presence Coping Enhancement Presence Electrolyte Monitoring N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 NANDA-I Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Coping Ineffectiveness Fear Fear Fear Fluid Volume Deficit Fluid Volume Excess Fluid Volume Excess Health Maintenance. Risk For Infection. Risk For Infection. High Risk For Injury. High Risk For Injury. Risk For Infection.Table C. High Risk For Injury. High Risk For Injury. High Risk For Injury. Risk For Infection. High Risk For Referral Referral Coping Enhancement Counseling Referral Oral Health Maintenance Perineal Care Skin Care: Topical Treatments Tube Care: Urinary Incision Site Care Fall Prevention Reality Orientation Calming Technique Embolus Precautions Reality Orientation Environmental Management: Safety Surveillance: Safety Risk Identification 145 . Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance. Altered Health Maintenance.

Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Acute Pain. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Acute Pain. Acute Pain.5 Continued NOC Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Comfort Level Pain Control Behavior Pain Control Behavior Pain Level Anxiety Control Anxiety Control Ambulation: Walking Immobility Consequences: Physiological Immobility Consequences: Physiological Mobility Level Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Hygiene NIC Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Mutual Goal Setting Mutual Goal Setting Learning Facilitation Teaching: Individual Teaching: Prescribed Activity/Exercise Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Heat/Cold Application Heat/Cold Application Heat/Cold Application Analgesic Administration Pain Management Energy Management Energy Management Fall Prevention Fall Prevention Energy Management Bathing Eye Care Hair Care Nail Care Perineal Care Self Care Assistance Self Care Assistance: Bathing/Hygiene Bathing Eye Care Hair Care Nail Care Perineal Care Self Care Assistance N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 NANDA-I Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Knowledge Deficit Pain. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Chronic Physical Mobility Alteration Physical Mobility Alteration Physical Mobility Alteration Physical Mobility Alteration Physical Mobility Alteration Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene 146 . Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit.Table C. Acute Pain. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Chronic Pain. Acute Pain. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit.

Table C.5 Continued NOC Self-Care: Hygiene Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Dressing Self-Care: Dressing Self-Care: Dressing Self-Care: Dressing Self-Care: Grooming Self-Care: Grooming Self-Care: Grooming Self-Care: Grooming Mobility Level Mobility Level Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Nutritional Status Nutritional Status Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Wound Healing: Secondary Intention Urinary Elimination NIC Self Care Assistance: Bathing/Hygiene Dressing Energy Management Hair Care Self Care Assistance: Dressing/Grooming Dressing Energy Management Hair Care Self Care Assistance: Dressing/Grooming Dressing Energy Management Hair Care Self Care Assistance: Dressing/Grooming Perineal Care Self Care Assistance Perineal Care Self Care Assistance Positioning: Wheelchair Pressure Ulcer Care Positioning: Wheelchair Positioning: Wheelchair Skin Care: Topical Treatments Urinary Catheterization N 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 NANDA-I Self Care Deficit. Toileting Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Impaired Skin Integrity. Impaired Skin Integrity. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Impaired Urinary Retention 147 . Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Impaired Skin Integrity. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Bathing/Hygiene Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Toileting Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Toileting Self Care Deficit. Dressing/Grooming Self Care Deficit. Impaired Skin Integrity. Toileting Skin Integrity.

500 0.000 0.000 3.Table C.287 2.341 1.419 0.0001 <.000 0.609 0.000 0.521 0.767 0.584 0.000 0.759 0.700 3.114 1.000 2.000 2.630 0.000 0.480 0.577 0.634 0.886 0.071 SD 0.000 1.100 2.750 3.217 0.300 4.000 0.000 1.330 0.666 2.516 0.880 2.000 0.000 2.413 2.500 3.750 2.430 0.614 0.709 2.000 2.000 3.500 2.667 2.000 0.000 0.180 0.470 0.750 2.751 1.000 0.000 0.500 0.500 0.666 3.000 0.080 0.0001 <.000 0.250 0.000 2.500 2.187 0.000 0.000 0.163 0.062 3.577 0.000 <.577 0.500 2.000 2.000 1.852 0.000 0.000 1.577 0.690 1 <.500 3.580 1.000 0.755 0.000 3.000 2.200 2.732 0.6 Comparison of admission and discharge of NOC scores First Mean SD 0.000 2.0001 0.000 2.488 Last Mean 2.341 0.000 0.516 0.500 3.849 3.172 3.000 0.485 0.600 3.000 2.000 3.956 2.462 0.622 0.000 2.680 0.512 0.550 1.577 0.000 0.000 0.410 0.000 2.400 2.000 0.666 2.470 0.400 <.000 0.000 0.250 2.438 -0.333 2.577 0.000 0.741 2.516 0.500 -0.485 0.000 0.154 0.010 NOC Acceptance: Health Status Ambulation: Walking Ambulation: Wheelchair Anxiety Control Aspiration Control Bowel Elimination Cardiac Pump Effectiveness Caregiver Stressors Caregiver-Patient Relationship Circulation Status Cognitive Ability Cognitive Orientation Comfort Level Coping Distorted Thought Control Electrolyte & Acid/Base Balance Endurance Energy Conservation Fluid Balance Health Beliefs: Perceived Threat Health Orientation Health Promoting Behavior Hydration Immobility Consequences: Physiological Immune Status Knowledge: Diet Knowledge: Disease Process Knowledge: Health Behaviors Knowledge: Health Resources Knowledge: Infection Control Knowledge: Medication 2.755 0.000 0.428 P value 1.875 2.333 0.000 2.000 0.000 2.516 0.100 0.413 0.330 0.716 N 4 6 2 20 2 4 186 2 2 8 6 4 8 16 4 8 10 116 146 12 8 4 6 4 150 18 46 20 4 32 28 Ave Change 0.125 3.0001 1.280 0.800 3.195 1.200 0.677 0.642 148 .000 0.516 0.0001 1.129 2.125 2.534 0.801 0.250 0.000 0.516 0.166 -0.000 0.667 2.696 0.000 2.500 3.000 3.000 0.462 0.739 2.000 2.

377 0.500 3.000 2.0001 <.000 3.000 0.000 0.553 0.000 3.500 2.000 2.000 0.000 0.666 2.462 0.250 0.000 2.000 0.000 -0.603 0.666 SD 0.603 0.492 0.000 0.000 2.867 0.0001 0.171 2.000 0.010 0.516 Ave Change 0.333 0.000 0.647 2.780 0.000 0.333 3.706 0.333 2.170 <.723 0.000 0.260 0.911 2.000 2.545 0.188 3.500 2.000 3.000 0.000 0.000 4.000 0.000 0.312 2.811 2.0001 0.0001 0.666 2.361 3.330 <.000 0.000 2.000 1.0001 0.070 0.516 0.516 0.516 0.130 <.619 0.721 0.870 0.000 0.798 0.300 3.125 3.000 0.140 0.000 3.0001 <.494 0.333 P value 1.312 0.625 2.000 4.150 <.000 0.160 2.000 0.577 0.000 2.882 0.000 0.588 0.462 0.000 2.000 0.000 0.640 0.913 3.500 2.000 3.666 2.235 3.000 2.500 2.0001 <.000 0.250 0.600 0.780 0.603 0.000 0.440 0.000 3.875 3.000 3.516 Last Mean 3.000 0.554 0.361 0.000 3.838 0.516 0.666 0.604 0.100 <.250 0.290 149 .534 0.000 3.250 2.333 SD 0.840 0.020 <.333 3.000 2.000 1.085 0.6 Continued First Mean NOC Knowledge: Prescribed Activity Knowledge: Treatment Procedure Knowledge: Treatment Regimen Memory Mobility Level Neurological Status: Consciousness Nutritional Status Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake Nutritional Status: Nutrient Intake Pain Control Behavior Pain Level Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Ventilation Risk Control Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention Safety Behavior: Personal Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Self-Care: Bathing Self-Care: Eating Self-Care: Hygiene Symptom Control Behavior Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac Transfer Performance Treatment Behavior: Illness or Injury Urinary Continence Urinary Elimination Wound Healing: Secondary Intention N 12 46 292 2 4 2 6 32 4 16 100 34 174 244 266 6 8 2 2 2 24 216 8 2 12 2 4 6 3.616 2.632 0.0001 <.652 2.839 2.050 0.740 0.Table C.000 2.0001 0.597 0.389 1.000 2.000 -0.000 0.500 0.000 0.000 2.0001 0.755 0.589 0.000 2.900 3.

56 0.00 0.00 0.38 2.51 0.00 <.00 3.0001 4.63 3.50 3.63 0.55 3.50 3.00 5.00 0.33 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.NOC Linkages NIC Airway Management NOC Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange Respiratory Status: Ventilation Analgesic Administration Pain Level Class after before after before after before Cardiac Care Cardiac Pump Effectiveness after before Energy Conservation after before Fluid Balance after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before Cardiac Care: Rehabilitative Cardiac Pump Effectiveness after before Discharge Planning Knowledge: Treatment Procedure after before Dysrhythmia Management Cardiac Pump Effectiveness after before Fluid Balance after before 3 3 18 18 16 16 77 77 38 38 29 29 20 20 14 14 6 6 20 20 12 12 3.00 3.00 5.0193 3.53 0.58 3.00 2.64 0.55 0.00 3.00 5.00 0.00 5.00 2.00 4.77 0.0001 0.0614 3.14 2.00 0.00 3.02983 4.00 3.05 2.69 0.00 3.00 0.00 2.00 4.65 3.00 3.5155 4.00 3.00 N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 150 .00 4.76 0.0002 4.00 3.91 0.65 0.00 4.00 3.00 0.00 5.00 3.70 3.230 0.00 0.75 3.2068 4.00 5.70 0.00 0.00 3.00 5.00 3.57 0.61 2.97 3.62 2.32 2.00 2.00 2.25 2.00 0.140 0.00 3.62 4.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.43 1.13 2.25 3.00 3.00 3.00 <.33 3.Table C.00 0.00 2.00 3.60 3.67 3.00 2.00 3.82 0.00 5.7 NOC Mean scores changes according to NIC interventions NIC.79 3.33 3.00 3.00 2.0515 4.00 2.00 2.74 3.00 0.58 3.00 1.03 0.

00 3.0011 4.00 0.00 2.4939 4.00 2.67 0.00 3.00 1.05 3.28 2.00 2.00 3.00 Class N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 151 .00 5.59 0.66 0.0002 4.00 0.62 0.39 0.00 2.19 2.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 4.14 3.00 0.00 5.62 3.00 0.46 2.00 2.00 2.89 0.1686 4.00 3.82 0.80 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 2.Table C.00 2.00 5.79 3.83 3.7 Continued NIC.32 2.84 0.54 0.00 0.00 5.33 3.53 3.96 0.00 3.56 0.00 3.65 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.52 0.00 0.00 1.NOC Linkages NIC Electrolyte Monitoring NOC Fluid Balance after before Emotional Support Energy Conservation after before Knowledge: Treatment Regimen after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before Environmental Management: Comfort Pain Level after before Environmental Management: Safety Risk Control after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before Fall Prevention Risk Control after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before 15 15 18 18 48 48 21 21 15 15 19 19 14 14 41 41 54 54 3.59 0.00 3.0055 4.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 4.77 0.0388 3.00 2.68 0.00 0.67 3.00 3.00 3.0787 4.89 0.00 3.54 3.0330 4.00 2.00 0.00 5.00 3.89 3.00 3.91 0.0098 4.00 1.00 2.00 3.24 2.

00 3.00 2.86 0.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 5.26 2.00 5.00 5.0375 4.00 3.23 2.00 2.00 2.0001 4.60 3.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 5.63 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 5.00 2.0003 4.48 0.13 3.0514 4.00 3.69 0.00 0.0758 5.66 0.78 0.00 3.13 2.00 N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 152 .88 3.57 3.61 0.60 0.23 2.00 3.00 2.46 3.00 2.00 0.57 2.98 0.00 3.53 0.71 0.2327 4.00 0.60 0.76 3.20 2.00 3.00 3.70 0.73 0.36 2.00 <.00 2.00 2.Table C.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 0.00 5.84 0.58 0.0349 3.95 3.00 2.96 3.53 0.7 Continued NIC-NOC Linkages NIC Fluid Management NOC Fluid Balance Class after before Fluid Monitoring Cardiac Pump Effectiveness after before Fluid Balance after before Immune Status after before Risk Control after before Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Fluid/Electrolyte Management Cardiac Pump Effectiveness after before after before Fluid Balance after before 20 20 52 52 80 80 24 24 7 7 28 28 46 46 35 35 3.00 2.00 2.0013 4.00 3.

42 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.00 2.36 3. 7 Continued NIC-NOC Linkages NIC Infection Control NOC Immune Status Class after before Knowledge: Treatment Regimen after before Risk Control after before Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Infection Protection Immune Status after before after before Risk Control after before Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Learning Facilitation Knowledge: Disease Process after before after before 15 15 13 13 17 17 34 34 11 11 36 36 18 18 9 9 3.51 0.00 0.47 0.00 4.73 0.00 5.00 2.00 2.78 3.00 3.8250 4.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 2.0330 4.82 0.00 3.60 0.92 0.00 3.00 4.85 2.00 0.0917 3.66 0.00 2.00 5.88 3.87 0.00 3.00 2.33 2.00 0.00 N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 153 .00 5.67 3.4829 4.00 0.00 2.67 0.86 0.0005 4.00 2.78 2.00 3.64 0.38 3.00 1.71 3.00 3.7740 4.00 3.80 0.00 3.65 0.84 0.00 5.76 0.84 0.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.0278 4.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 0.00 0.44 2.00 0.0052 4.94 3.27 3.Table C.89 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.

52 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.83 0.00 5.00 0.69 0.0345 4.00 2.00 <.50 3.00 3.00 2.00 0.0242 4.5575 3.00 4.5504 4.00 0.29 2.70 0.75 0.64 0.71 0.15 0.00 2.00 1.85 0.00 0.00 3.45 2.18 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.71 3. 7 Continued NIC-NOC Linkages NIC Nutrition Management NOC Energy Conservation Class after before Immune Status after before Nutritional Status: Food & Fluid Intake after before Tissue Integrity: Skin & Mucous Membranes Nutritional Monitoring Immune Status after before after before Oxygen Therapy Respiratory Status: Gas Exchange after before Respiratory Status: Ventilation after before Pain Management Pain Level after before Respiratory Monitoring Respiratory Status: Ventilation after before 17 17 22 22 16 16 17 17 9 9 8 8 12 12 49 49 65 65 3.00 0.00 5.61 1.00 3.0001 4.00 2.2851 4.0335 4.00 <.88 2.Table C.59 3.00 2.92 3.29 0.00 0.00 4.00 3.00 2.61 0.65 3.00 3.83 3.00 3.75 0.00 3.13 2.00 2.92 2.00 2.39 0.00 5.25 2.00 2.00 3.1081 3.00 2.83 0.00 N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 154 .56 3.00 0.00 1.00 2.73 0.09 3.00 3.24 3.00 5.80 0.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.0001 6.00 5.78 3.00 5.77 0.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.46 0.

00 0.0548 3.58 3.58 0.0901 3.00 0.00 2.84 0.72 3.00 3.74 0.00 5.1473 3.00 2.20 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 1.00 2. 7 Continued NIC-NOC Linkages NIC Risk Identification NOC Risk Control Class after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before Surveillance: Safety Knowledge: Treatment Regimen after before Safety Behavior: Fall Prevention after before Teaching: Prescribed Medication Teaching: Procedure/Treatment Knowledge: Treatment Procedure after before Knowledge: Treatment Procedure after before Knowledge: Treatment Regimen after before Respiratory Status: Ventilation after before Weight Management Energy Conservation after before 8 8 8 8 7 7 44 44 10 10 12 12 94 94 12 12 13 13 3.00 0.27 2.0001 4.63 3.00 4.00 <.88 3.54 0.35 1.49 0.00 3.00 2.00 N Mean SD Median Min Max P value 155 .00 2.60 0.82 0.71 0.00 0.0156 4.00 0.53 0.67 3.00 3.00 2.69 3.00 2.4637 3.46 0.00 3.00 5.43 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.4240 4.67 0.00 3.0352 4.25 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.63 0.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 3.25 2.00 4.00 3.0677 4.00 2.00 3.94 0.00 3.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 1.67 0.23 2.00 2.00 0.00 3.70 3.00 5.00 1.60 3.00 3.00 3.Table C.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 1.89 3.00 5.87 0.23 0.

156 APPENDIX D: DOCUMENTATION OF SUPPORT .

Pranger. TJR (THR. Rusholme St.1000 | www. IA 52242 Dear Ms. Park: I am writing to you to confirm Genesis Medical Center’s intent to serve as a site for your proposed study on “Evidence Based Nursing Care Plan for CHF. 2008 Hye Jin Park Doctoral Student The University of Iowa College of Nursing 50 Newton Road Iowa City. | Davenport. Judith K.421. RN Interim Vice President of Patient Services/Chief Nurse Executive 1227 E. MSN.com . All of us here at Genesis Medical Center look forward to working with you on this very important research project. please feel free to contact us.genesishealth. NOC and NIC” Genesis Medical Center has a long demonstrated commitment to care of the elderly and in using research findings to improve our clinical and functional outcomes. If we can be of any assistance to you in the interim.157 September 2. Sincerely. IA 52803 | 563. TKR) with NANDA.

158 APPENDIX E: HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL .

MD 03/27/09 1811 . NOC. Source of Support: Investigational New Drug/Biologic Name: Investigational New Drug/Biologic Number: Name of Sponsor who holds IND: Investigational Device Name: Investigational Device Number: Sponsor who holds IDE: This approval has been electronically signed by IRB Chair: Catherine Woodman. and NIC Linkages Using OPT (Outcome Present state Test) Model for Congestive Heart Failure.159 IRB ID #: To: From: 200903783 Hye Jin Park IRB-01 Univ of Iowa. DHHS Registration # IRB00000099. Fetuses. DHHS Federalwide Assurance # FWA00003007 Re: NANDA-I. Protocol Number: Protocol Version: Protocol Date: Amendment Number/Date(s): Approval Date: 03/27/09 Next IRB Approval Due Before: Type of Application: New Project Continuing Review Modification Neonates 03/27/10 Type of Application Review: Full Board: Meeting Date: Expedited Exempt Approved for Populations: Children Prisoners Pregnant Women.

genesishealth. If you have any questions.421. Do not initiate any changes in your approved research without IRB review and approval except when necessary to eliminate apparent immediate hazards to the human subjects.160 1227 E. 4. Please include your study title and reference number in all correspondence with this office. Promptly report any changes in the research protocol to the IRB. 5. as outlined in the GHS-IRB Guidelines for Reporting Adverse Events. | Davenport. You have the following responsibilities to the IRB as you conduct your clinical investigation: 1. This submission has received Administrative Review based on the applicable federal regulation. please contact Andy Burman at (563) 421-1395 or burmana@genesishealth. NOC. 3. Promptly report to the IRB any serious or unanticipated problems involving risks to subject or others. by submitting a Study Closure Report. IA 52803 | 563. 2009 TO: Hye Jin Park FROM: Genesis Health System Institutional Review Board STUDY TITLE: [107036-2] NANDA-I. Provide a Continuing Review report concerning the progress of the clinical investigation every year or at any time requested by the IRB. operation and responsibility of Institutional Review Boards. Conduct all research in accordance with this approved submission. Rusholme St. Notify the IRB when your study is terminated. The IRB is governed by Genesis Health System and is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration's standards for the composition. Genesis Health System Institutional Review Board has APPROVED your submission of this new study. .1000 | www. This approval is based on an appropriate risk/benefit ratio and a study design wherein the risks have been minimized. 6.com GENESIS HEALTH SYSTEM INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD A Committee of Genesis Health System for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research DATE: March 20. 2009 EXPIRATION DATE: February 13. and NIC Linkages Using OPT (Outcome Present State Test) Model for Congestive Heart Failure IRB REFERENCE #: 09-004 SUBMISSION TYPE: Response/Follow-Up ACTION: APPROVED APPROVAL DATE: March 20. 2009 REVIEW TYPE: Administrative Review Thank you for your submission of Response/Follow-Up materials for this research study.com. 2.

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