An Introduction to Total Productive Maintenance (TPM

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What is Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM ) ?
It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.

Why TPM ?
TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below. • • • • • • • Avoid waste in a quickly changing economic environment. Producing goods without reducing product quality. Reduce cost. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Goods send to the customers must be non defective. Involve equipment operators in the simple, day-to-day basics of equipment cleanliness and checks to enhance employee ownership in maintaining and identifying equipment problems immediately.

Types of Maintenance:
1. Breakdown Maintenance :
It means that people wait until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

2. Preventive maintenance:
It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

2a. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance - TBM) :

servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were required. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment. By then Nippon Denso had made quality circles. The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment. predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. 2b. however with the automation of Nippondenso. easier maintenance and prevents of defects. . Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention. Compared to periodic maintenance. TPM . designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM. by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability 4. Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein. Thus Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators. Predictive maintenance : This is a method in which the service life of important parts are predicted based on inspection or diagnosis. (This is Autonomous maintenance. It manages trend values.Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. one of the features of TPM ).History: TPM is a innovative Japanese concept. in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance. However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment. This lead to maintenance prevention. Corrective maintenance: It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. involving the employees participation. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification. Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works. Maintenance prevention It indicates the design of new equipment. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for improving reliability. by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers ( JIPE ). operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines. 3. The origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan.

TPM Targets: Obtain Minimum 90% OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness ) Run the machines even during lunch and breaks without compromising equipment reliability.5 or 2 times. Keep the work place clean. 6. You ( Maintenance department ) fix" is not followed. Uniqueness of TPM The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve in the maintenance process. Satisfy the customers needs by 100 % (Delivering the right quantity at the right time. in the required quality. The use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the cause of failure. Operate in a manner. Higher confidence level among the employees. Achieve Zero Defects. 2. Involve people in all levels of organization. 1. Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. 2. 3. Motives of TPM 1. Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1. Increase the number of improvement suggestions by 3 times. Rectify customer complaints. Follow pollution control measures. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible workers. Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization. Form different teams to reduce defects and Self Maintenance. Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. 3. Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by job enlargement. Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer. Maintain an accident free environment. 2. so that there are no customer complaints. Reduce accidents. Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment. Indirect benefits of TPM 1. 3. 3. 4. ) 5. Favorable change in the attitude of the operators. TPM Objectives . neat and attractive. Direct benefits of TPM 1. possible plant and equipment modifications. The concept of "I ( Production operators ) Operate. 2.

.4. Rate efficiency (RE) : Actual average cycle time is slower than design cycle time because of jams. Senior management should have an awareness program. 7.Performance Efficiency. OEE ( Overall Equipment Efficiency ) : OEE = A x PE x Q A .Refers to quality rate. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented. PE .Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization : Proper understanding.Availability of the machine. 5. A = ( MTBF – MTTR ) / MTBF. It is given by RE X SE. Which is percentage of good parts out of total produced sometimes called “yield”. Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization. Output is reduced because of jams Speed efficiency (SE) : Actual cycle time is slower than design cycle time machine output is reduced because it is running at reduced speed. after which announcement is made to all. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Share knowledge and experience. MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures = ( Total Running Time ) / Number of Failures. Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization : Step A .Initial education and propaganda for TPM : Training is to be done based on the need.PREPARATORY STAGE : STEP 1 . Q . Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. etc. MTTR – Mean Time To Repair. Achieve goals by working as team. 6. Availability is proportion of time machine is actually available out of time it should be available. STEP 2 .

STEP 4 . Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output. STEP 5 .IMPLEMENTATION In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity. quality maintenance etc.INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage.A master plan for institutionalizing : Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.STEP 3 . Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. STAGE D . Now is the time for applying for PM award. Quality and Engineering.INTRODUCTION STAGE This is a ceremony and we should invite all. one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level. .Establishing the TPM working system and target : Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement. STEP B .. as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs and involve people from Maintenance. STAGE C . Production. autonomous maintenance. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers.Setting up TPM and departmental committees : TPM includes improvement. sanitation as working environment. Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency. one for initial control system of new products and equipment. sisters concerns etc.

Organization Structure for TPM Implementation : .

Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. Japanese Term English Translation Equivalent 'S' term Seiri Organization Sort Seiton Tidiness Systematize Seiso Cleaning Sweep Seiketsu Standardization Standardize Shitsuke Discipline Self .5S : TPM starts with 5S. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems.Discipline .Pillars of TPM PILLAR 1 . Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized.

Once per week Store together but offline High Once Per Day Locate at the workplace SEITON .Organize : The concept here is that "Each items has a place. following work procedures. waste. For this step. SEISO . the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. frequently used items. and only one place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. Store away from the workplace Low Less than once per year. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose. should be stored in some place. . Unwanted items can be salvaged. As a result of this step. These standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly. Once per month. SEIKETSU .Shine the workplace: This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs. grease. or items that are not need as of now. SHITSUKE . To identify items easily. important. useless. Once per year< Average At least 2/6 months. Priority Frequency of Use How to use Throw away. punctuality. oil. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future.Self discipline: Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. name plates and colored tags has to be used. This includes wearing badges. scrap etc.SEIRI . No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines. and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.Sort out : This means sorting and organizing the items as critical. the search time is reduced.Standardization: Employees have to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. dedication to the organization etc.

Train the Employees : Educate the employees about TPM. Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. 3. General inspection 6. unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts. Its advantages. Reduce oil consumption by 50% 3. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed. . Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments. loose wires. Dust.PILLAR 2 . Stepwise implementation of JH activities.JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous maintenance) : This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks. Policy : 1. JISHU HOZEN Targets: 1. Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH. employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department. 3. Initial cleanup of machines. 1. Uninterrupted operation of equipments. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. Take counter measures 4. After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below. 2. thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. Reduce process time by 50% 4. 2. Standardization and 8. Increase use of JH by 50% Steps in JISHU HOZEN : 1. Autonomous inspection 7. Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation. They are Oil leakage. oils and grease has to be removed. stains. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments. Preparation of employees. 4. JH advantages and Steps in JH. White tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. Fix tentative JH standards 5. Initial cleanup of machines : o o o o o o Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1 Arrange all items needed for cleaning On the arranged date. 2. Autonomous management. 2.

Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust. nuts and Safety. Up to the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. Autonomous Management : . Tentative Standard : 5. what and how. Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item. To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken. Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured. bolts. such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced. Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor. Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen. E. The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience. OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen. By acquiring this new technical knowledge. electrical. Counter Measures : o o o o 4. hinge door can be used. Including good quality machine parts. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine.g. the operators are now well aware of machine parts. lubricant and coolant. General Inspection : o o o o o o o o o o o 6. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized.o o o o Contents of tag is transferred to a register. hydraulics. The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics. This avoid defects due to poor JH. drives. acrylic sheets can be used. Make note of area which were inaccessible. New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used. Autonomous Inspection : 7. Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly. 3. This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly. Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH. JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly. Schedule should be made regarding cleaning. Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine. Do. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door. PDCA ( Plan. After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others. Standardization : o o o o o 8. Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. Necessary items should be organized. inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when. Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience.

By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. Summary of losses 4. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. operator and material and energy utilization that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen pursues efficient equipment. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. PM analysis 2.KAIZEN : "Kai" means change. Why . These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well. 4. Focus of easy handling of operators. Kaizen register 5. Basically kaizen is for small improvements.Why analysis 3. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities. Tools used in Kaizen : 1. Relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources 3. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses. 5. and "Zen" means good (for the better ). Kaizen Target : Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops. . TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.PILLAR 3 . Kaizen summary sheet. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction. Kaizen Policy : 1. measurement and adjustments. The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. Kaizen requires no or little investment. defects and unavoidable downtimes. 2.

jig and tool breakage loss 16. Management loss 10.Breakdown loss 2. Line organization loss 12. Operating motion loss 11. Start up loss 5. Logistic loss 13. . Yield loss. Measurement and adjustment loss 14. Setup / adjustment losses 3.16 Major losses in an organization: Loss 1. Cause-effect relationship is simple to trace. Failure losses . Even if various counter measures are applied Remedy This type of losses are caused Easy to establish a remedial measure because of hidden defects in machine. Minor stoppage / Idling loss. Cutting blade loss 4. Speed loss . Energy loss 15. 7. A single cause is rare . Die. 6. Category Losses that impede equipment efficiency Loses that impede human work efficiency Loses that impede effective use of production resources Classification of losses : Aspect Causation Sporadic Loss Causes for this failure can be easily traced. The frequency of loss is more. Scheduled downtime loss 9.operating at low speeds. Defect / rework loss 8. Chronic Loss This loss cannot be easily identified and solved.a combination of causes trends to be a rule Impact / Loss A single loss can be costly Frequency of occurrence The frequency of occurrence is low and occasional. equipment and methods.

4. PILLAR 4 . Optimum maintenance cost. 5. Maintenance Prevention With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment. Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 % 3. Ensure availability of spares all the time. 2. Preventive Maintenance 2. Specialists in process engineering. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and 6. Evaluation of planned maintenance. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which were defined earlier. Equipment evaluation and recoding present status. Breakdown Maintenance 3. parts and members and map out plan. Six steps in Planned maintenance : 1. 1. Prepare time based information system. Improve reliability and maintainability of machines. Achieve and sustain availability of machines 2. 3. Zero equipment failure and break down. Reduces spares inventory. Policy : 1. Restore deterioration and improve weakness. 3. 2. Corrective Maintenance 4.Corrective action Usually the line personnel in the production can attend to this problem. Building up information management system. 4.PLANNED MAINTENANCE : It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. quality assurance and maintenance people are required. Target : 1. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 % 4. . select equipment.

( fool proof system ) 5. ladle/furnace lining etc. Focus of prevention of defects at source 4. and then move to potential quality concerns. 3. 2. Severity of the defect and its contribution – major/minor 3. (Like pattern change. In-line detection and segregation of defects. For customer-end data. based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. Focus on poka-yoke. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality . 6. Data requirements : Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance. data include data related to products and data related to process Data related to product : 1. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement 5. Product wise defects 2.QUALITY MAINTENANCE : It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Reduce in-process defects by 50 % 3.PILLAR 5 . Reduce cost of quality by 50 %. Customer end line rejection 2. Field complaints. Policy : 1. QM activities are to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects. we have to get data on 1. The conditions are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. QM activities to support quality assurance. Location of the defect with reference to the layout 4. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).) 6. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. Target : 1. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero 2. In-house. Defect free conditions and control of equipments. much like Focused Improvement.

The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phase of skills are Phase 1 : Do not know. 2. 2. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men. 6. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. By experience they gain. Policy : 1. skills and techniques. 3. .TRAINING : It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. 4. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process 3.components. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme. Steps in Educating and training activities : 1. The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. 5. Kick-off of the system for training. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques 3. Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach Phase 4 : Can do and also teach. Preparation of training calendar. Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence. material and machine. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization 4. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable. Focus on improvement of knowledge. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach. Target : 1. 2. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. 2. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". PILLAR 6 . Data related to processes: 1. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines. method. 3.

Zero accident. Drama. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part. but in construction. Posters. In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. with competition in industry at an all time high. an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals. transportation. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another "program of the month" and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. Conclusion: Today.SAFETY. Zero health damage 3. Zero fires. Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant.PILLAR 8 . 2. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT : Target : 1. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. Quiz. etc. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis. and in a variety of other situations. building maintenance. TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers. It has been proven to be a program that works. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans. . The committee is headed by Senior vice President ( Technical ).

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