Diseases of The Abomasum

By Dr. Ali H. Sadiek
Prof. of Internal Veterinary Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis
Dept. of Animal Medicine Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Assiut University- Assiut, EGYPT

E-mail: Sadiek59@yahoo.com

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Diseases of Abomasum
Diseases of Abomasum includes: • Left Displacement of Abomasum (LDA)
• • • • Right Displacement of Abomasum (RDA) Abomasal ulcers. Impaction of Abomasum. Abomasal reflux.

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:Abomasal displacement
 DA Occurs more frequently in highproducing, heavily fed adult dairy cattle, within first 6 weeks of calving and possibly under stress.  Prevalence in well managed herd ~ 0.2 – 2.5%  It is ch. by: gradual loss of appetite, passage of soft, scanty, may black feces, pinging” of the abdomen, ketonuria, dehydration and metab. alkalosis

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Types of Displaced abomasum
1-Left Displaced Abomasum (LDA):
• The most common type (90 %) • The great curvature of the abomas. passes under the rumen between the rumen and the left abdominal wall and lies in the left lower flank.

2-Right displacement (RDA) 10%
• The abomas. is displaced to the right and lying between the liver and the right abdominal wall. • It is always associated with some degree of torsion of the pylorus.

3-Anterior displacement (ADA);
• The clinical picture is very similar to LDA but the abomasum or the major part of it, displaced interiorly and comes to lie between the reticulum and the diaphragm.
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Left Displaced Abomasum (LDA)

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LDA
Rumen

Percussion Auscultation line

Distended LDA

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How the Abomasum Displaced

DA
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How the Abomasum Displaced

Direction of Displacement
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Causes of LDA: Multifactorial
Abomasal atony and Excess gas production – High grain/low roughage diets [VFA] Gas accumulation Distention • Roughage stimulates rumination & Increases salivary buffer action Contributing factors for Ab. Atony and displac. 1- Hypocalcemia and Milk fever smooth muscle tone and motility • 4.8 x risk of developing LDA than normocalcemic

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Contributing factors for Abom. Atony and DA

2- Metritis, retained placenta, severe mastitis
• Endotoxins and endogenous pyrogens depress motility • Result in hypocalcemia

3- Electrolyte disturbances 4-Lack of exercise/confinement

5- High producing diary cows
– Large abdominal cavities – Genetic selection more room DA

6- Finally, subclinical and clinical ketosis increase the risk of DA

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Clinical signs.
1-General symptoms of indigestion
 Sudden decreased appetite  Sharp decrease in Milk yield.

2-Soft pasty scanty black feces, may diarrhea. 3-Obvious bulge may be observed and palpated behind the last rib in the left Para-lumbar fossa” “slab-sided” abdomen 4-Muffling of ruminal sound. 5-Rectal palpation, the rumen is felt small while the abomasum is palpable to its left or may be felt so high in the right
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Clinical signs.
6-Auscultation at each intercostals space: Reveal the characteristic tinkling or splashing sounds (church belling) Steal band effects on Auscult / Percus. • Tympanic swelling -gives resonant sound on percussion (gasses + fluid).
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Auscultation -percussion space

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(Clinical Signs (continued
7-Variable degrees of second. ketosis. 8- Fatty liver 9- Deteriorat, loss of weight and death (20 %) 10- Signs of Mild hypocalcemia (Atonic

rumen, cold ears, widely dilated pupils).

11-DA is usually complicated by : – Dehydration. – Metabolic Alkalosis. – Hypochloremia. – Hypokalemia
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Diagnosis of DA
• Age: older lactating dairy cattle. • Timing: 90% during first 6 wks postpartum • Nutrition: Dry cow rations of High grain/ low roughage
Concurrent disease:

40% of DA’s have retained placenta, mastitis, or metritis
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Clinical pathology
• • • • • • • • Normal CBC, or increased PCV, Hb & protein Metabolic alkalosis (slight) Hypo: Ca, K, Cl Ketosis (mild) Dehydration Hypoglycemia ? Hyperbilirubinemia Puncture of displaced objects: No protozoa, pH (2)
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Differential Diagnosis
• LDA
– 1ry ketosis (non-pinging LDA)

• RDA
– 1ry ketosis (non-pinging RDA) – Other Right-sided pings:
• Uterus, cecum, peritoneum, colon, rectum • “off feed” ping

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Therapeutic Goals
• Return Abomasum to proper position • Create a permanent attachment • Correct electrolyte, acid-base, & hydration deficits • Treat other concurrent diseases

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Non-Surgical Technique: Rolling
• Cast cow with ropes into right lateral recumbency • Roll onto back & extend the rear legs • Roll in a 90-degree arc for 3 minutes, ending in left lateral recumbency • Bring the cow to sternal position & allow to stand • Ascult. the left thorax to ensure LDA is relieved

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Rolling Technique
• Advantages
– Quick & easy technique – No invasive surgery

• DISADVANTAGES
– >50% relapse. – If RDA or RTA are present, can exacerbate problems

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Surgical Techniques- Roll & Toggle
• +/- Tranquilization or Sedation • Cast cow onto right side & roll onto back • Clip & scrub operational site:
– Area of loudest “ping” – 4-7 inches behind Xiphoid

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Surgical Techniques: Right Flank Omentopex
• Paravertebral/Inverted L/ Line Block • 20 cm vertical incision in right paralumbar fossa • Left arm moves over top of rumen to left side of abdomen, locates abomasum
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Right Flank Omentopexy
• Feel abomasum for adhesions • Deflate gas • Bring arm under rumen, grab top of abomasum & scoop back to ventral position

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Right Flank Omentopexy
• Pull out omentum through incision until pylorus can be seen • Mattress sutures through peritoneum, omentum, & muscle • Continuous sutures on inner layers of muscle incorporating omentum

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Right Flank Omentopexy
• Advantages:
– High success rate in experienced surgeons – Standing procedure – Can perform exploratory

• Disadvantages:
– Omentum can tear & redisplacement – Cannot see abomasum to evaluate – Need long arms to reach across abdomen!
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Abomasal Ulcer
It occurs in adult cows and calves and ch. by:

• Acute bleeding, indigestion, melana • It may penetrate abomasal membrane leading to: 1- Acute pain 2- Acute local peritonitis. 3- Diffuse peritonitis and death

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Probable Causes
Stress of parturition, High lactation, excessive feeding on grains. Ingestion of F. bodies, or tough food. Associate BVD, DA, A. Torsion, Vagus indigestion. Probably genetic predisposition
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Pathogenesis
▼ Excess H+, Pepsin onto the wounded epithelium ▼ Damaged epith and wall ▼ pain and bleeding. Types of Abomasal Ulcer: 1- Non penetrating Ulcer.
2- Ulcer causing blood loss. 3- Penetrating Ulcer with Acute Local peritonitis 4- Penetrating Ulcer with Acute diffuse peritonitis
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Ulcers

Clinical signs
Varies acc. to type and consequence of ulcer Acute abdominal Pain. Black tarry feces (Melana) may continue for 4-6 days, then animal may recover or die within 24 hrs with acute bleeding. Signs of anemia and Tachycardia Death rate (25, 100, 50, 100 %) in types 1, 2, 3, 4 respect. Bouts of diarrhea may occurs. Sudden loss of appetite Shock and Death in 7 hrs if acute local or diffuse peritonitis occurs.
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Lab. Findings and Diagnosis
• Occult test: To detect hidden blood in stool • Neutrophilia ► Peritonitis • Acute anemia: ▼ PCV, Hb, RBCs Diagnosis: • History of High lact. Heavily fed cows. • Clinical signs is sufficient (melana, anemia, abd. Pain)

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Treatment :
• Blood transfusion, fluid therapy (if PCV < 12 %) • Vit. K & Ca • Caolin and pectin • Antacids (100 g Mg silicate daily). • Surgical inteference is gaurded.

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Abomasal impaction
• Associate V. indigestion. • Feeding on fine ground grains, sandy feed. • In suckling calves (Excess casein in milk )

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:It Ch. Clinically by
• • • • Abd. Distension (Lower right abd.) Ruminal atony Constipation and absence of feces. Loss of appetite & weight

• On auscult: ping over rumen similar to that of DA. • salivation
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Diagnosis and treatment
• Rectal palpation may help in sever omaso-abomasal impaction • Laparotomy reveals distended hard abomasum • Treatment: unfavorable. • Animal may die due to dehydration, Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypochloremia.
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Abomasal impaction

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