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Physics

Physics

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Published by: Partha Datta on Jan 04, 2012
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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ PHYSICS
2002 Edition List of Physical Constants
Name Universal gravitational constant Acceleration due to gravity Speed of light in a vacuum Speed of sound in air at STP Mass of Earth Mass of the Moon Mean radius of Earth Mean radius of the Moon Mean distance—Earth to the Moon Mean distance—Earth to the Sun Electrostatic constant 1 elementary charge 1 coulomb (C) 1 electronvolt (eV) Planck’s constant 1 universal mass unit (u) Rest mass of the electron Rest mass of the proton Rest mass of the neutron me mp mn h k e Symbol G g c Value 6.67 × 10–11 N•m2/kg2 9.81 m/s2 3.00 × 108 m/s 3.31 × 102 m/s 5.98 × 1024 kg 7.35 × 1022 kg 6.37 × 106 m 1.74 × 106 m 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m 8.99 × 109 N•m2/C2 1.60 × 10–19 C 6.25 × 1018 elementary charges 1.60 × 10–19 J 6.63 × 10–34 J•s 9.31 × 102 MeV 9.11 × 10–31 kg 1.67 × 10–27 kg 1.67 × 10–27 kg

Prefixes for Powers of 10
Prefix tera giga mega kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k d c m µ n p Notation 1012 109 106 103 10 –1 10 –2 10 –3 10 –6 10 –9 10 –12

Approximate Coefficients of Friction
Rubber on concrete (dry) Rubber on concrete (wet) Rubber on asphalt (dry) Rubber on asphalt (wet) Rubber on ice Waxed ski on snow Wood on wood Steel on steel Copper on steel Teflon on Teflon Kinetic 0.68 0.58 0.67 0.53 0.15 0.05 0.30 0.57 0.36 0.04 Static 0.90 0.85

0.14 0.42 0.74 0.53

42 1.03 × 1014 4.84 × 1014 .47 2.20 × 1014 5.33 1.09 × 1014 Hz) Air Corn oil Diamond Ethyl alcohol Glass.10 × 1014 5.92 3. FM AM Radio Waves 1021 1020 Frequency (Hz) 1019 1018 1017 1016 1015 1014 1013 1012 1011 1010 109 108 107 106 105 Visible Light (not to scale) Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red 7.54 1.The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength in a vacuum (m) 10–13 10–12 10–11 10–10 10–9 X rays Gamma Rays Ultraviolet Infrared 10–8 10–7 10–6 10–5 10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 103 104 Long Radio Waves Microwaves TV.59 × 1014 6.69 × 1014 6. flint Glycerol Lucite Quartz.36 1. crown Glass.82 × 1014 Absolute Indices of Refraction (f = 5.00 1.46 1.47 1.66 1. fused Sodium chloride Water Zircon 1.52 1.50 1.

52 –5.00 –0.38 –0.48 –2.54 –0. there is a corresponding antiparticle with a charge opposite that of its associated particle.00 –1.85 –1.56 –1.60 a Ground State –10.40 i h g f e d c b Ionization 0.57 –2.68 –3.Energy Level Diagrams Hydrogen Level n=∞ n=6 n=5 n=4 n=3 n=2 Ionization Mercury Level Energy (eV) Energy (eV) 0.95 –5.71 –4.74 Ground State n=1 –13. .51 j –3.38 Energy Levels for the Hydrogen Atom A Few Energy Levels for the Mercury Atom Classification of Matter Matter Particles of the Standard Model Quarks Name Symbol Charge up u +2 e 3 charm c +2 e 3 top t +2 e 3 Hadrons Leptons down d –1 e 3 strange s –1 e 3 bottom b –1 e 3 Baryons Mesons Leptons electron e –1e electron neutrino νe 0 muon µ –1e muon neutrino νµ 0 tau τ –1e tau neutrino ντ 0 three quarks quark and antiquark Note: For each particle.

72 × 10–8 2. . .82 × 10–8 1. Parallel Circuits I = I1 + I2 + I3 + . Circuit Symbols cell battery switch V A Resistivities at 20°C Material Aluminum Copper Gold Nichrome Silver Tungsten Resistivity (Ω•m) 2. 1 1 1 1 Req = R1 + R 2 + R3 + . .Electricity Fe = kq1q2 r2 A = cross-sectional area E = electric field strength Fe = electrostatic force I = current k = electrostatic constant L = length of conductor P = electrical power q = charge R = resistance Req= equivalent resistance r = distance between centers t = time V2 R V = potential difference W = work (electrical energy) ∆ = change ρ = resistivity F E= e q V= W q ∆q I= t R= V I ρL R= A P = VI = I 2R = V 2t W = Pt = VIt = I2Rt = R Series Circuits I = I1 = I2 = I3 = . × 10–8 1.59 × 10–8 5. . . . . . Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . . .60 × 10–8 voltmeter ammeter resistor variable resistor lamp .44 × 10–8 150. V = V1 + V2 + V3 + . V = V1 = V2 = V3 = . .

Waves and Optics v = fλ T= 1 f c = speed of light in a vacuum f = frequency n = absolute index of refraction T = period v = velocity λ = wavelength θ = angle θi = angle of incidence θr = angle of reflection θi = θr n= c v n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 n2 v1 λ1 n1 = v2 = λ 2 Modern Physics Ephoton = hf = hc λ Ephoton = Ei – Ef E = mc 2 c = speed of light in a vacuum E = energy f = frequency h = Planck’s constant m = mass λ = wavelength Geometry and Trigonometry Rectangle A = bh Triangle A= Circle A = πr 2 C = 2πr Right Triangle c 2 = a2 + b 2 sin θ = a c cos θ = b c tan θ = a b a 90° b c 1 bh 2 A = area b = base C = circumference h = height r = radius θ .

000) 93-93705 93-043 CDC .Mechanics d v = t a = ∆v t vf = vi + at d = vit + 1 2 at 2 a = acceleration ac = centripetal acceleration A = any vector quantity d = displacement/distance ET = total energy F = force Fc = centripetal force Ff = force of friction Fg = weight/force due to gravity FN = normal force Fnet = net force Fs = force on a spring g = acceleration due to gravity or gravitational field strength G = universal gravitational constant h = height J = impulse k = spring constant KE = kinetic energy m = mass p = momentum P = power PE = potential energy PEs = potential energy stored in a spring Q = internal energy r = radius/distance between centers t = time interval v = velocity/speed v = average velocity/average speed W = work x = change in spring length from the equilibrium position ∆ = change θ = angle µ = coefficient of friction vf2 = vi2 + 2ad Ay = A sin θ Ax = A cos θ F a = net m Ff = µFN Fg = g= Gm1m2 r2 Fg m p = mv pbefore = pafter J = Ft = ∆p Fs = kx PEs = 1 2 kx 2 Fc = mac 2 ac = v r ∆PE = mg∆h KE = 1 mv2 2 W = Fd = ∆ET ET = PE + KE + Q P = W = Fd = F v t t DET 611 (8–03–200.

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