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You are on page 1of 2

Z

sin x

I= dx.

cos x − sin x

We start by noticing that by multiplying the numerator and denominator of the integrand by

(cos x + sin x) the bottom becomes the difference of two squares, namely (cos2 x − sin2x) = cos 2x

Z Z Z

sin x cos x

I= dx = dx + dx.

cos 2x cos 2x cos 2x

Z Z

1 2 sin x cos x 1 1 − cos 2x

I= dx + dx

2 cos 2x 2 cos 2x

Z Z Z

1 sin 2x 1 1

= dx + dx − dx .

2 cos 2x 2 cos 2x

We integrate these individually. We notice the first integrand of the form g(f (x))f ′(x) where

f (x) = cos 2x. So we solve this by substitution which yields

Z

1 sin 2x 1

dx = − ln|cos 2x|.

2 cos 2x 4

The second is a combination of a standard result and the chain rule. We integrate to obtain

Z

1 1

dx = ln|tan 2x + sec 2x|.

cos 2x 2

The final integrand is a constant and so can be written down straight away. Combining

everything, and adding the constant of integration at the end, we have

Z

sin x 1 1 x

I= dx = − ln|cos 2x| + |tan 2x + sec 2x| − + k

cos x − sin x 4 4 2

1 tan 2x + sec 2x x

= ln − 2 + k.

4 cos 2x

This question was taken from an OCR FP2 textbook by Cambridge University Press, the answer

1 x

they give in the back is − 2 ln|cos x − sin x| − 2 + k, which looks similar to ours, but how can we

check? Well if we plt both functions on a graph, they should differ by no more than a constant

thanks to the fundamental theorem of calculus. I plotted the functions using maxima, and it

appeared to only show a single plot, this was encouraging. But I did add a constant on the end

of one of the functions hoping to spread them out, and this is what the graph looked like

1

Although not very clear, it’s easy to see that the two functions differ only by a constant, and

we’re able to sleep easy at night, knowing that we got a sensible answer.

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