Roges, COMM 5810 Exam 1 Notes Worldview Scientist Humanist Objective - truth exists outside humans, and it is Subjective

- truth lies within our own awaiting to be discovered interpretation It can be objectively evaluated Social Scientist Objectively interpret - we must "know" truth to interpret unique perceptions of individual truths

Dodson 1

Assumptions about human nature

(1) persons are not the sum of components, (2) Can be objectively evaluated they can only be understood within the unique context of human life, which is not the same as other aspects of the natural environment; (3) humans are self-aware and have a sense of who they are vis-à-vis other people; (4) humans make choices; (5) human beings aim to achieve personal meaning and value. Qualitative analysis, such as conducting a content analysis Rhetorical, Semiotic, Phenomenological Critical Would use scientific methods to test the viability of a theory Sociopsychological, Sociocultural, Critical

Methodological Preferences Hypothetico-deductive method or scientific methods Types of traditions of Cybernetic theories Nomaethic tradition - seeks universal or general laws Value-free, judgment-free - is what it is, and it is up to people to decide Must explain the data; replication; testable hypothesis; parsimony - relative simplicity practical utility

Tests

Hypothetico-deductive method Will borrow from the scientist and humanist methodologies Scope Appropriateness Heuristic value Validity Parsimony Openness Tying to develop concensus

Goals

Trying to get to objective truth, some sort of definitive law Wanting generalizability

Trying to get a new understanding of human behavior (alternative interpretations); Clarification of values; Creating a community of agreement; Aesthetic appeal; Reform society

Social order needs communication as its "glue". don t know what they think or want. Rituals. a dialogue of human contact. Subjectivity is a barrier to effectiveness. acknowledgement of difference and Phenomenological tradition common ground Communication is a social arrangement of power and oppression. Communication = between private realities o findividuals who use signs and symbols to elicit meanings. Sociopsychological tradition Focuses in on beliefs. Finding a voice for those who have none. Theories in the nomethetic tradition do not make judgements or offer advice. overload. and it is most often estimated by consistency Value Correspondence Generalizability . behaviors. Multiple meanings of signs. It then evolved to include the process of "adjusting ideas to people and people to ideas".Rogers. People are most often not rational. (2) forming hypothesis. the significance of them. Critical tradition They often ignore that society is shifting away from convention Concentrates on expression. it becomes emblematic Semiotic tradition They study how people use symbols. Need for a common language. Individual power and responsibility are "myths of the mind" generally speaking. Focus on social control. dominant in the experimental natural sciences. and malfunction. ideology. interaction. Scientists simply paint a picture of how something is and leave it up to others to decide how to use this Nomathetic theory knowledge the art of constructing arguments and speechmaking. Focus o signs and symbols. and dominance. and culture. The focus of rhetoric has broadened even more to encomass all of the ways humans use symbols to affect those around them and to construct the Rhetorical tradition worlds in which they live. and (4) formulating theory that which seeks universal or general laws. and mediation. When people us a symbol to replace a word. and thier meaning Communication is info processing. This approach. respect. Communication is a series of imputs and outputs Cybernetic tradition Concentrates on personal experience. etc. Problems of power. and their perceptions are not a clear route to the "real". the explanatio is merely speculation about a single event rather than a theoretical explanation about a range of Scope events Appropriateness Heuristic value Parsimony Openness Reliability the degree to which the construvt is measured accurately. Sociocultural tradition Social structure rules individuals. refers to a theory's comprehensiveness or inclusiveness. conflict. The goal of such theory is to depict accurately how social life works. has been the model for much of the research in the social sciences as well. Theoretical scope relies on the principle of generality or the idea that a theory's explanation must be sufficiently general to extend beyond a single observation. When generalized too narrowly. COMM 5810 Exam 1 Notes Dodson 1 Term Definition Hypothetico-deductive method (1) developing questions. (3) testing hypotheses. Accents interpersonal behavior. and influence. They are focused on noise. a disclosure of self. Communication is a sharing of perosnal experienes. rules. why thse symbols are used.

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