THE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL OF
EXPLORATION PERMIT (APPLICATION) (EPA) 175
ONSHORE SOUTHEASTERN BONAPARTE BASIN
Roger Meaney R.A.MEANEY & ASSOCIATES November 2010
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
EPA 175 CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY THE COMPANY TENEMENTS AND WORK PROGRAMS INFRA-STRUCTURE GEOLOGY 7.1 Regional Geology 7.2 Tectonic Setting 7.3 Stratigraphy 8. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY 8.1 Source Rocks 8.2 Maturity 8.3 Reservoirs 8.4 Sealing Units 8.5 Traps 9. PREVIOUS EXPLORATION 9.1 Coal Exploration 9.2 Petroleum Exploration 10. R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010 UNTESTED PLAYS
EPA 175 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. RECOMMENDATIONS RISKS CONCLUSIONS DECLARATIONS SELECTED REFERENCES GLOSSARY
LIST OF FIGURES AND ENCLOSURES FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Location Map Bonaparte Basin Structural Elements Bonaparte Basin Offshore, Stratigraphic Column Bonaparte Basin Generalized Onshore Stratigraphic Column Southern Bonaparte Basin, Stratigraphic Column Onshore Bonaparte Basin Seismic Line and Well location Map Two way Time Map to Base Treachery Shale-Lead Alpha Southern Bonaparte Basin Structural Elements Map Structural Elements, Play Concepts and Seismic and Well Data Base Map
ENCLOSURES Enclosure 1 Shot point and Well Data Base Map Enclosure 2 Structural Elements, Play Concepts and Seismic and Well Data Base Map
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
in poorly sited wells and shallow mineral holes. both live and residual.
R. within the permit. has hydrocarbon shows and recoveries from units ranging in age from Lower Devonian through Lower Carboniferous. contains structural traps formed by salt tectonics. However there are indications that much reservoir damage has been done during drilling operations. amongst many. The area of EPA 175 is well placed with regard to infra-structure to deliver either oil or gas to unsatiated markets. transects EPA 175 and connects with the Amadeus-Darwin Gas Trunkline.A. In light of the above observation it is recommended that extreme care should be taken in drilling fluid selection. the basin’s southernmost and deepest depocentre. The Petrel Sub-basin is now producing gas and condensate from the Early Permian Keyling Formation at the offshore Blacktip Gas Field. The highly truncated basin geometry lends itself readily to hydrocarbon migration The onshore and near offshore sector of the Petrel Sub-basin. Hence the basin is prospective for both oil and gas. by late generated dry gas. mature source rocks and is prospective for shallow accumulations of oil and for deeper gas accumulations. The other sub-basins of the offshore Bonaparte Basin are also oil and gas productive from the Mesozoic section. These points prove that the basin contains rich. Lower Permian to Early Triassic. are of this genesis. whereby early generated oil has been displaced up-dip and margin-ward. particularly the Petrel Sub-basin. from units ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Triasssic. The Wadeye Condensate Loading Facility is located immediately offshore from Wadeye. It is generally thought that reservoir quality and continuity is problematical in the onshore sector of the basin. Unusually for Australia the Bonaparte Basin. The above point is empirical confirmation that Gussow’s Theorem. close to the basin edge. have encountered oil staining. The quality of seismic data acquired in the onshore Bonaparte Basin is extremely poor and an extensive experimental recording program will be required before new data is to be acquired. both oil and gas. The gas pipe which connects the Blacktip Gas Processing Plant at Wadeye.EPA 175
The onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin is characterized by many hydrocarbon shows. Most of the wells drilled to date are not valid crestal tests. Many shallow mineral and stratigraphic boreholes. The famous Spindletop and Jennings salt domes. These types of traps are particularly productive in the Gulf Coast Basin of Texas and Louisiana in the United States of America.Meaney &Associates November 2010
In an attempt to address this objective the company applied for and was subsequently awarded Exploration Permit (EP) 175 in the Wadeye. This report is exclusively focused on Bonaparte Oil‟s onshore Bonaparte Basin acreage. of the Cooper/Eromanga Basin Complex. A range of structures. and sub-commercial accumulations of oil and gas have also been discovered in the onshore sector of R. the tenement will be formally awarded to Bonaparte Oil. southwest of Darwin. discovering and eventually developing. formerly known as Point Keats. Exploration should be restricted to the southwestern portion of EPA 175. Several leads of this play have been identified. If the structure was found to host gas then the corresponding possible gas resource cases would be 2. Using indicative reservoir parameters the identified structural Lead Alpha situated on the down thrown side of the Moyle Fault could host a possible oil in place resource of 248 million barrels (MMBBLS) or a recoverable possible resource of 157 MMBBLS. in particular Lead Alpha. the company has acquired an under-explored but prospective petroleum exploration tenement. The offshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin produces both oil and gas. hydrocarbon accumulations in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin in the Northern Territory (NT). extending east to west. Other companies associated with Bonaparte Oil and its principal hold other exploration tenements or have submitted applications for acreage in the onshore Canning Basin of Western Australia (WA) and in the sector.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. respectively. from adjacent to the down thrown side of the Moyle Fault to the coast. have also been recognized. of a similar areal extent. in South Australia (SA). Several leads of the play have been identified.
Bonaparte Oil Limited (Bonaparte Oil) is a private company incorporated on 18th January 2010. west of the Moyle Fault. And as such is versed in overseeing exploration projects. The principal of the company is involved in the petroleum exploration in other sedimentary basins in the NT and some of the States of Australia. An offer of this permit has been made to the company.EPA 175 Structural traps immediately adjacent to and on the down thrown side of faults should be seismically delineated and tested. To fulfill its aim. with the objective of exploring for. Structures of a salt or diapiric genesis should also be seismically delineated and unambiguously tested. should be tested. Several leads of a similar size and origin have been identified and several leads of a salt induced nature.6 trillion cubic feet (TCF) or 2.A. until then its formal designation is Exploration Permit (Application) (EPA). area of the Northern Territory. Bonaparte Oil and its associated companies are actively assessing exploration opportunities in other prospective basins in Australia. ABSTRACT
1. and subject to an appropriate Native Title settlement being concluded.2 TCF. in the onshore sector of the hydrocarbon productive Bonaparte Basin. producing and commercializing. EPA 175. which abuts the coast and contains and surrounds the Aboriginal settlement of Wadeye.
both liquids and gas. Besides Darwin other. light Australian crudes which normally commands the Tapis price which sells at a premium to the more commonly known West Texas Intermediate oil price. Modest oil discoveries could also be developed. from which hydrocarbon indications are also reported. from which a sub-commercial gas flow was recorded in 1969. Keep River 1. and Ningbing 1&2 and Waggon Creek 1/1A and Vienta 1 in WA. a stratigraphic test which penetrated a thinner section. whilst lightly explored. is also located to the south. northwest of Darwin.EPA 175 the basin in both WA and the NT. Infrastructure to produce a gas discovery in EPA 175 is already in place with the gas processing plant at Wadeye and the pipeline connection via the Amadeus-Darwin Gas Pipeline to Darwin.
This permit. Oil. contains three wildcat exploration wells which were drilled by Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty Ltd (Aquitaine) in the mid 1960‟s. EPA 175. gas markets are present in the NT. did not encounter any hydrocarbon indications. liquefaction and loading facilities. amongst others. but sub-commercial gas flows. an offshore liquids loading facility is located at Wadeye. Two of which. Further south in the onshore sector the yet to be developed Weaber Gas Field is located in RL 1. These wells are Kulshill 1. These facilities were constructed to produce the large Bayu-Undan gas and condensate accumulations in the Timor Sea. The Territory capital is a ready market and port. Kulshill 1&2. Oil could also readily disposed of as offshore oil and/or condensate loading facility is located some two kilometres offshore Wadeye. Moyle 1. for local markets in northern Australia. Hence liquefied natural gas (LNG) could be exported from Darwin if a large enough discovery is made. is more easily transportable. The alumina plant at Nhulunbuy. The Keep River 1 well. have recorded strong hydrocarbon indications.A. There is a ready market for sweet. not surprisingly. at the Weaber Gas Field in Retention Lease (RL) 1 in the NT. This infra-structure is associated with the recent development of the offshore Blacktip Gas Field. with modular.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. a long standing potential gas market. The third of these wells. Spirit Hill 1. with gas-processing. R. unsatiated. Condensate rich. Corallina and Buffalo. more profitable and more readily able to be developed than is gas. Kulshill 1 and Kulshill 2. Kulshill 2 and Moyle 1 all located in the southwest of the tenement. on-site dieseline refining facilities. which has been discovered and produced in the Timor Sea at the Laminaria. is still to be supplied. located in EPA 175. Oil Fields. just south of the tenement. As indicated above. has
been encountered in quite a few wells in the onshore sector of the basin. as is the very rudimentarily located well.
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
is shown as Figure 7.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. This lead. It too will require seismic acquisition. which is representative of this type of play. As a consequence of this drilling. This drilling which was conducted for the South Australian Department of Mines began in 1906 and deep bores were drilled in the Port Keats. drilled in the mid 1960‟s. An appreciable amount of coal drilling has also been conducted in the Port Keats area. as with all others. and Kulshill 2 petroleum exploration wells. R. Deeper buried Early Permian coals were intersected in the Kulshill 1. will require additional seismic detailing. discontinuous and of no appreciable areal extent. Bonaparte Oil has no interests in either RL 1.EPA 175
Further to the southeast is the Bulloo River 1 well. This indicates that the so far un-scientifically tested play. This has been confirmed by drilling. These intersections spurred on a second phase of coal exploration in the Port Keats area. the potential for coal bed methane drainage (CBM) within EPA 175 is considered by the author to be negligible. Cape Hay. The results of this exploration were the same as those of the earlier drilling. A two way time structure map. This play. eastern margin.A. that is again it was found that the coals were thin. This coal later became known as the Upper Permian coal seam. thought to be halites. namely the presence of rich and mature source rocks. has been met in the basin. It was also concluded that the coals were contained within unconsolidated sediments and hence could not be mined by either open cut or underground methods. structural traps which are located immediately down dip of the basin margin. prepared by a former operator Aquitaine. These indications of oil are located near the basin‟s southeastern margin. The area south and east of EPA 175 also contains many mineral exploration drill holes in which significant intervals of oil staining and some live oil were encountered. should be pursued as a matter of priority. The perceived timing of generation and migration of hydrocarbons will determine the ideal test site. This drilling was abandoned in 1909 when the coal seams were found to be thin and not continuous. This indicates that a large charge of oil has reached the basin margin and it proves in an empirical sense that one the most important requirements for an accumulation of hydrocarbons. warrants investigation as well. which appears to be minimal. It should also be noted that salt diapirism has been proven in the near offshore area and near coastal sections of Petrel Sub-basin. Gravity surveys in adjacent onshore acreage in WA indicate the presence of low density section. Bulloo River 1 was a wildcat/ stratigraphic well located without seismic data. sited to investigate the Bulloo River oil seep. of Lead Alpha. This is very significant and is supported by geochemical analyses of cores from deeper oil and gas exploration wells drilled further away from the basin margin. the basin‟s deepest and most southerly depocentre. Several leads of this type have been recognized on the sparse poor quality seismic grid present in the block. Extensive drilling would have to be undertaken to fully evaluate the CBM potential of EPA 175. Cliff Head and Anson Bay areas. nor in EPA 126. and to a lesser extent. which is also unambiguously tested.
This is also proven by the empirical results of some of the wells within and near the permit area. Aquitaine. namely:-
R. for some time at least. are not valid tests. As a consequence the well was plugged and abandoned without a test. It has been. It is known that most of the wells drilled in and around the permit. is a commercial rate. Amity Oil Limited N. and duplicated in appraisal wells. and still is. Whilst the most recent target in the onshore Bonaparte Basin has been gas. In a practical sense this is also important as oil is far more profitable than gas and the oil is more likely to be located near the basin margin at shallower depths. reentered and tested the well and obtained the abovementioned flow. and empirical results from drillstem tests. at the request of the NT Department of Mines and Energy. at commercial rates. conducted on core and cuttings samples from onshore and offshore wells. hence drilling costs will be cheaper than for the deeper. the results of this study indicate that the permits are very prospective for oil as well as gas.5 million cubic feet a day (MMCFD). conventional wisdom that the greatest impediment to successful exploration and of eventual hydrocarbon production from the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin is the lack of good quality and continuous reservoir rocks. Reservoir damage is a serious problem in some intervals of hydrocarbon saturation of basins in eastern Australia. gas exploration wells. This is also supported by sedimentological studies. In due course the well began leaking gas and a subsequent operator. Salt formed structures should be tested on both the crest and flank of the structure to unambiguously evaluate the feature. these studies also show the presence of sealing units in an inter-bedded sequence of coarse sandstones (=clastics) and finer siltstones and shales. given the uncertainty of the timing of hydrocarbon migration. Most wells in the area have encountered indications of hydrocarbons.A. The best of these was at the Weaber1 gas discovery well which flowed gas at the rate of 4. In a similar sense. nor of the reservoir‟s deliverability. It is the author‟s opinion that this may be in error as studies from cores from deep petroleum wells.EPA 175 on any salt generated structure.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. (Amity). and all through the onshore sector of the basin.L. Interestingly the operator of the abovementioned discovery well. several of which flowed. was of the view that the section with hydrocarbon shows was tight and not worth drillstem testing. Clearly this value. as they are not located on the crests of the structures and hence are not definitive evaluations of the structure‟s hydrocarbon bearing potential. if sustained. The results of this study have established that the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin fulfils all the requirements for the hosting of hydrocarbon accumulations. It is the author‟s opinion that the reservoirs may have been damaged during drilling. indicate the presence of reservoir quality rock. more basin-ward. by several former operators in the Bonaparte Basin. This is also true of one of the last operators in the Weaber area and the adjacent permit in WA. Santos Limited (Santos).
The abovementioned problem should be able to be solved relatively cheaply. both conventional and non-conventional coal bed methane (CBM). They also evaluated the deeper Lower Permian coals which were encountered in the Kulshill 1. However as a result of this study it has become apparent that the CBM potential of the permit area is ill-defined and appears to be significantly constrained. INTRODUCTION
Bonaparte Oil Limited applied for EP 175 during 2009 and were subsequently offered the tenement in September 2010. will be surrendered after 10 years. and Kulshill 2 oil exploration wells drilled by Aquitaine in 1965-1966 and 1966. The initial term is for five years and then the tenement can be renewed after a fifty percent areal relinquishment for a second 5 year term.EPA 175 The presence of rich mature source rocks The presence of reservoir quality rocks and carrier beds The presence of sealing units The presence of traps. due to the poor coupling ground conditions of the black soil plains and the rocky sandstone out crops.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Coal exploration drilling in the Port Keats area by Thiess Brothers Exploration in 1966 and 1967. Utah Development Company in 1972 and Consolidated Zinc Rio Tinto Australia (CRA) 1982 and a literature search by Western Mining Corporation Limited (WMC) in 1982 indicates that the coal potential of the Port Keats area is limited as the coal seams are thin and discontinuous. These companies investigated the shallow Upper Permian coals seen in outcrop around the Port Keats area and later investigated by a drilling program from 1906-1909 of the South Australian Department of Mines. the lack of commercial exploration success in the area of Bonaparte oil‟s permit. They concluded that neither open cut mining nor underground mining would be economic in this area. and the entire onshore sector of the basin. Whilst there may be other un-drilled localized depocentres R. The NT was originally the Northern Territory of South Australia until it was transferred to the Federal Government in 1913. This prevents the preparation of accurate sub-surface two way time (TWT) maps and hence the identification of valid and robust traps. other than areas converted to Production Leases or Retention Leases. again with a second fifty percent of the original permit to be relinquished. both of a structural and stratigraphic genesis The appropriate timing of formation of structures with regard to the prime hydrocarbon charge
It is the author‟s view that. The tenement is currently held by Bonaparte Oil as an Exploration Permit (Application) (EPA) until a satisfactory agreement is reached with the various clans who constitute the Native Title claimants for the areas containing the tenement. This coal drilling was located in the areas which were considered to be the most prospective areas for coal development. The initial exploration target was gas. 2. Hence all of the tenement. Upon such an agreement being reached the NT department of Mines and Energy will formally award the tenement to Bonaparte Oil. respectively.A. has been due to the difficulty in acquiring acceptable quality seismic data. Bonaparte Oil have the first right of refusal for EPA 175. to the present.
underground coal gasification would also appear to uneconomic and unsuitable in EPA 175. These features are fault dependent closures and have been confirmed by the consulting group Petroconsultants Australasia Pty Ltd (Petroconsultants) and by the author of this report. play concepts and seismic and well data base map. and Vienta 1 wells in the WA sector of the onshore portion of the basin. These leads. on the limited seismic coverage present in the permit. the sub-commercial gas flow from a drillstem test of the Permian section of the Aquitaine Keep River 1 well. Fortuitously Aquitaine has recognized several structural leads. Lead Alpha. as well as the paucity of coal seams. Given the many aquifers present in the section and the high water table. but still valuable. Waggon Creek 1/1A. such areas will not be areally extensive. which require further seismic delineation. the oil show in Spirit Hill 1. Oil has been discovered. the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin has received a gas charge and hence is prospective for conventional gas. Garimala 1. Ningbing 2. Any oil exploration drilling should commence near the basin margin and move basin-ward. Given the good hydrocarbon shows in Kulshill 1 and Kulshill 2.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. This is empirical confirmation of the operation of Gussow‟s Theorem. whereby source rocks are buried deeply enough to generate dry gas. This usually indicates the following conditions: The source rocks have passed through both the oil and gas generative windows Rich and mature source rocks are present in the basin The presence of conduits from the deeper hydrocarbon generating kitchens to the shallower traps A corollary of this is that stratigraphic traps deeper in the basin may contain oil down dip of gas accumulations
Hence the permit is also quite prospective for oil. This dry gas spills earlier generated and trapped oil from the base of structural traps. target.A. but not in commercial quanties. in the near-shore sector of the Petrel Sub-basin. Skull 1. This is also evidenced by gas shows and/or flows from Bonaparte 2. is shown as Figure 7. Ningbing 1. The locations of these leads are shown on Enclosure 2. Lead Alpha corresponds to Lead (iv) and is shown in Petroconsultant‟s report on the Bonaparte Basin which was prepared for the NT Department of Minerals and Energy.EPA 175 containing thicker and more extensive coal seams. Given the many oil shows in shallow mineral holes and oil exploration wells it is evident that an oil charge has reached the basin edge. a fullscalecomposite structural elements. up-dip and towards the basin margin. A condensed A4 sized version of this drawing is also included as Figure 9. A two way time map of the Base of the Permian Treachery (Shale) Seismic Marker for one of these leads. the similar sub–commercial gas flows from some of the Weaber wells. close to the basin margin.
R. Consequently. should be addressed in the first stages of any exploration program. both oil and gas. It is the view of the author that the EPA has negligible potential for CBM production and hence nonconventional gas production. the focus of future exploration should be biased towards oil and that gas should be a secondary.
most of the later oil discoveries made since the 1980‟s. were quickly placed on production. Again the producing intervals were mainly Jurassic or Triassic in age. was formed and an unsuccessful shallow well was drilled nearby in 1923. after conversations with American soldiers in France during World War One. It is now known that the well is located near the zero edge of the Bonaparte Basin. A company. to discount the oil potential of Australia.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. and that it could have been sited in a more optimal. Oakes Durack Oil Company. but to date undeveloped. and Londonderry High areas to the west. Sunrise and Troubadour gas fields on the Sahul Platform in the far north of the basin. in the Petrel Sub-basin. The Burmah Oil Company of Australia Limited (Burmah) and Woodside Offshore Petroleum (Woodside) consortium discovered the huge. A Minad field party located and confirmed the existence of a reported oil seep near the Bulloo River in this general area. R. the technical arm of the Associated Group. respectively. in the Paleozoic Ord Basin. Later several other yet to be developed. The sub-domains of the Bonaparte Basin are shown in Figure 2. gas and condensate discoveries were made in the Timor Sea. by Queensland Petroleum Limited in their Bulloo River 1 oil exploration well. They were specific indicators of the large. Sunrise 1 and Troubadour 1. in the southern Timor Sea sector of the basin. the Middle East. south of Bonaparte Oil‟s acreage. in the Vulcan Graben. soon to be developed. The lack of oil seeps in Australia was used. Another earlier reported oil seep in the Bonaparte Basin area was confirmed during field mapping in 1956 by Mines Administration Limited (Minad). An oil seep is also reported to the south west of Bonaparte Oil‟s block just across the State border in WA. a returned service man. amongst many academic geologists and major oil companies. Ashmore Platform. They used the bitumen recovered from these wells to caulk their long boats.A. 1974. This oil seep was drilled. ironically on Texas station. This well was sited with gravity data without seismic recording and is probably not a valid structural test. gas discoveries in the Early Permian Hyland Bay Formation at the Tern and Petrel Gas Fields in the offshore sector of the basin made in the 1970‟s by the Atlantic Richfield Company (Arco) and Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty Ltd (Aquitaine) consortium. This seep was discovered by Walter Oakes. These hydrocarbons are reservoired in the younger Jurassic aged Plover Formation in the two discovery wells. erroneously. These were made in both WA and the NT waters. He discovered a seep at the junction of the Ord and Negri Rivers in 1919. who had become familiar with oil. The presence of oil seeps has lead to the discovery of many major oilfields around the world namely in the United States of America (USA). Due to the better economics of oil. At a similar time. In 1839 sailors from HMS Beagle recovered oil in shallow water wells dug on the banks of the Victoria River. structural elements of the Bonaparte Basin. to intersect a thicker sequence of sedimentary rocks.EPA 175 Interestingly this area of northwest Australia hosts the first reported encounter of one of Australia‟s few recorded oil seeps. which discovered and developed the Roma Shelf Gas Fields of Queensland. and basin-ward location. unsuccessfully in 1984. that at the mouth of the Victoria River in the NT. These seeps were the harbingers of the fact that the Bonaparte Basin is hydrocarbon bearing and were precursors of the large gas discoveries made in the offshore sector of the basin in the 1970‟s and the more recent oil discoveries. Middle East and the area of the Black and Caspian Seas formerly in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Many of these drill holes are located to the south east of Bonaparte Oil‟s block. with a greater seismic acquisition effort and the better instrumentation available now. they are ideal for producing distillate which is widely used in northern Australia There is a ready market for dieseline across northern Australia. A new focus of exploration should be instigated with exploration activity and drilling biased towards the shallower. drilling fluids and formation evaluation techniques will also be of great assistance. railheads or refineries. easily expandable portable refineries are available and can be installed on-site. In spite of the very high success rate in drilling in the offshore Bonaparte Basin there has been little commercialization to date. Oil staining is also reported from the western margin of the basin in onshore WA. The first of these two constraints are steadily being overcome due to the general and accelerating development of northern Australia and the shortage of gas which is able to be developed cheaply and quickly. The second constraint is still to be addressed. cheaper to drill and oil prone basin margin. but with the added complication of decreasing and hence non-commercial. have been intersected in diamond drill holes at depths ranging from 45 to 235 metres. This
R. This non-optimal siting of wells may be affecting apparent reservoir performance and deliverability. should speedily follow. The above constraints also apply equally to the onshore sector of the basin.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The greatest impediments to development have been primarily a lack of markets and the remoteness of the area. gas flows with time and the intersection only of oil staining. In a search for Mississippi Valley type base metal mineralization many intervals of oil staining. and commercial development of. Modular. Elang. during the 1990‟s. in the southeast. amongst others. now the Joint Development Area. EPA 175. Hence a commercial accumulation is yet to be discovered in the onshore sector of the basin. With these improvements. Improved drilling procedures. a gas field discovered by Woodside Offshore Petroleum Limited but developed by the Italian company ENI. This problem can also be overcome. Traditionally oil is six times more profitable than gas and the cash flow is almost instantaneous as it can be trucked to ports. with wells sited in non-optimal locations. including Bayu and Undan and some large oil discoveries.EPA 175
Several large gas discoveries. The exceptions being the combined Bayu-Undan Gas Field developed by Conoco-Phillips and Blacktip. This has resulted in almost blind drilling. and not oil flows. which will also result in increased seismic resolution and eventually better subsurface maps.A. successful exploration for. It should also be noted that much further evidence that the onshore sector of the basin is hydrocarbon bearing has been encountered in shallow mineral drilling near the basin edge. The better seismic processing suites in current use will also aid in noise suppression. were made in the Zone of Co-Operation. Yet another impediment has been the failure to record seismic data of sufficient quality to clearly image the subsurface and to be able to prepare accurate sub-surface maps. up 15 metres thick. the hydrocarbon resources thought to be hosted in the onshore sector of the basin.
the limit of possible migration. Reports from mineral and coal exploration drilling were also reviewed. Much data from the near shore portion of the offshore sector of the basin was also reviewed as well as published literature on the Bonaparte Basin in general. THE COMPANY
Bonaparte Oil Limited is fully owned by the principal of the company He has much experience in resource exploration. A study of the potential of the Bonaparte Basin done for the NT Department of Mines and Energy by Petroconsultants Australasia Pty Ltd was most helpful. gravity survey final reports. geological and geophysical reports. Some of the reports listed on the Departments data register do not appear to have been submitted to the Department. geochemical reports and relinquishment reports were reviewed to obtain a better understanding of the basin and its prospectivity. However a former operator graciously provided a copy their shot point and well data base for portion of the NT and WA sectors of the onshore portion of the basin. All available well completion reports. The onshore portion of the Bonaparte Basin appears to be quite prospective for hydrocarbon accumulations. METHODOLOGY
The basis of this study was an open file study of all the data available on the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia. Upon reaching a successful
R. which are not available in the NT Department of Minerals and Energy library in Darwin. 3. particularly oil. a smaller A4 sized version. holds the first right of refusal to a prospective exploration permit (application) in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin. The company has been offered the permit by the NT Department of Mines and Energy. However the Department was most helpful in providing access to the data in their possession. That company also provided some well completion reports of some of the more recently drilled wells. 4. 5. both in a technical and a business sense. The principal is associated with other private companies with interests in or investigating acquisitions in other petroleum tenements in producing basins in Australia. nor in digital form. The same data base is shown at a larger scale in Figure 6.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The company also has access to very experienced consultant geoscientists with extensive experience in oil and gas exploration. drilling and development in both offshore and onshore environments.A. The study was hampered and delayed by the unavailability of many open file reports. seismic survey final reports.EPA 175 illustrates that a major oil charge has been generated and expelled and that it has reached the basin margin. namely EPA 175. TENEMENTS AND WORK PROGRAM
The company in its own right. A full scale seismic shot point and well data base map is included as Enclosure 1.
Meaney &Associates November 2010
although the gas processing plant and condensate loading facility are situated in the Wadeye area of the NT. with a renewal of fifty percent of the original permit area. This is particularly the case for some of the Weaber wells and also for Keep River 1. the Sturt Block and metamorphosed Pine Creek Geosyncline. namely Kulshill 1 and Kulshill 2.A. The western half of the tenement. The proposed work program and estimated minimum expenditure is: YEAR 1 Geological and Geophysical studies Seismic reprocessing Field work Estimated minimum expenditure $200. which then has first right of refusal. closer to Australia in the Petrel Sub-basin. The other well in the tenement. EPA 175. The eastern half of the permit only has a thin veneer of sediments present and is not prospective. The area of exposed or shallowly buried basement which is non-prospective is shown in Figure 2 as the area of exposed crystalline basement.600 km2 or all or part of 174 graticular blocks. Each graticular block is equivalent to an area of 25 square nautical miles. but unfortunately the flows diminished to sub-commercial levels. respectively. the Blacktip Gas Processing Plant and the Blacktip Condensate Loading Facility is located just offshore Wadeye.000 R. This basin is hydrocarbon productive in the offshore sector and the hosts the giant Bayu-Undan Gas Field which has been developed. Application was for a five year term. The tenement covers some 12. position across the regional Moyle Fault from the Kulshill wells. is located in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin. Other large gas and condensate discoveries have been made. The tenement is transected by the gas pipeline from the Blacktip Gas Plant to the Darwin-Amadeus Gas Pipeline. These fields are located in the Sahul Platform in the Joint Development Area. Exploration should be concentrated in the southwest of the tenement. in Australian territorial waters in the Petrel and Tern Gas Fields located in the NT and WA sectors of the Sub-basin. or 5 minutes of latitude by 5 minutes of longitude. numerically commercial.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The permit. Permit EPA 175 covers the northeastern onshore sector of the basin. amongst others.EPA 175 agreement with the Native Title claimant groups for the areas containing EPA 175. Due to the sparse seismic grid used to position these wells it is problematic that these wells are valid crestal tests. eastward. Gas has been flowed from inappropriately sited exploration wells located to the south of EPA 175. as well the soon to developed Sunrise and Flamingo Gas fields. main trunkline. which is administered jointly by Australia and Timor Leste (=East Timor). Oil and/or condensate have also been recovered from some of these wells and from shallow mineral exploration drill holes. The recently developed Blacktip Gas field is also located in the WA sector of this Sub-basin. southwest of Darwin. is essentially a stratigraphic well which drilled a much thinner section located in a more marginward. west of the basin bounding faults has a much thicker sedimentary section and is prospective. the tenement will be formally awarded to the company. Several drillstem tests had flows which were initially. It contains the Wadeye Aboriginal Settlement. Moyle 1. Good gas and oil shows are reported from two of the three petroleum wells drilled in EPA 175.
owned by the Italian multi-national company.000 metre exploration well Appraisal drilling. ENI.000. The company‟s permit is located in the Wadeye (=Port Keats) area of northwestern Australia.500. if applicable Geological and Geophysical studies Estimated minimum expenditure
$1. A gas pipeline connects the Blacktip Gas Field to the processing plant at Wadeye and a further pipeline connects with the Amadeus-Darwin gas pipeline to the Darwin domestic gas market and the gas fired power station in Darwin. which has been submitted to the NT Department of Minerals and Energy. It is likely that the work program will be varied in light of the results of this study. either oil or gas present. built to produce the offshore Blacktip Gas Field. This pipeline transects Bonaparte Oil‟s permit.000
$4.A. R. if warranted Initiate production.000
$1. immediately east of the recently developed Blacktip Gas Field. The soon to be developed Petrel and Tern Gas Fields are located further offshore to the northwest. INFRA-STRUCTURE
EPA 175 is well placed with the necessary infra-structure to quickly commercialize a discovery. however this program can be varied to some degree but the listed expenditure must be met.EPA 175
YEAR 2 Acquire 100km of seismic data Seismic processing and interpretation Ongoing Geological and Geophysical studies Estimated minimum expenditure YEAR 3 Drill site preparation Drilling of a 300 metre exploration well Ongoing Geological and Geophysical studies Appraisal drilling if warranted Initiate production.000
$4. if applicable Estimated minimum expenditure YEAR 4 Acquire 100km of seismic data Seismic processing and interpretation Sub-surface studies Estimated minimum expenditure YEAR 5 Drilling of a 4.000
The above expenditure is associated with a proposed detailed work program. Wadeye is the location of the onshore gas processing plant.000. 6.500.Meaney &Associates November 2010
More importantly a marine oil/condensate loading facility is located two kilometers offshore from Wadeye for the shipment of liquid hydrocarbons. Hence infrastructure is well established in the area and is shown, with the permit location, in Figures 1 and 6 and Enclosures 1and 2. Ready gas markets exist in Darwin and possible markets are in Kununurra, Wyndham, Katherine and the long mooted market at Alumina Plant at Nhulunbuy in east Arnhem Land, amongst others. In the event of the discovery of modest oil or gas accumulations other marketing options could become viable. Gas could be compressed, liquefied and transported by road to local markets in northern Australia, such as Katherine, Kununurra and Wyndham, amongst others. Such a procedure was utilized with some smaller Amadeus Basin gas fields. Markets for dieseline locally refined from oil are even more widespread. Oil could be shipped to the refinery at Kwinana, WA or those in the eastern States or even to those in Victoria. Oil could also be exported from Wadeye, if a large enough discovery is made. If a modest oil accumulation is discovered then a modular on-site dieseline refinery could be established and diesel trucked to local markets in northern Australia for transport, use in mines and even local power generation amongst others. Such refineries exist at Eromanga and Inland in Queensland. Australian crudes are rich in the gasoline and dieseline fractions and only require rudimentary processing and as such lend themselves readily to these simple refineries. Northern Australia is a very large per capita user of dieseline. Australia is rapidly becoming very deficient in oil production, hence oil has a ready market is present. If local processing is pursued, then in either case, a graveled road connects Wadeye to Darwin via the settlements of Daly River and Adelaide River and the Stuart Highway. There is an all weather connection via the Stuart Highway to Alice Springs. There is also a connection to the Kimberly via the Victoria Highway and via the Barkley Highway to western Queensland. In either case small accumulations could be developed quickly and profitably. 7. GEOLOGY
The Bonaparte Basin is one of a number of sedimentary basins located along the western and northwestern margins of Australia. Hydrocarbons have been discovered in all of these basins. Several of the northern-most basins have a similar genesis and geological section. 7.1 Regional Geology
The Bonaparte Basin is located in northwest Australia in both the NT and WA and covers an area of approximately 270,000 square kilometres. It is believed to contain, in the basin depocentre, up to18 kilometres of sedimentary section along with some volcanic flows. These rocks range from Cambrian to Cainozoic in age and hydrocarbons have been discovered in many R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
EPA 175 intervals. Much of the sequence has been eroded from the onshore sector of the basin. It is essentially triangular in shape with the apex located onshore in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf area. The onshore sector extends over an area of approximately 18,000 square kilometers, spread pretty much equally in WA and the NT. The basin outline and its location are shown in Figure 2. This drawing shows the area of outcrop of crystalline and/or metamorphic basement. The basin results from failed rifting and is fringed by strike slip faulting, particularly in the onshore portion of the basin near its southern margin. The basin is floored by tilted fault blocks, which dip basin-ward. In the onshore sector, these blocks are believed to be composed of course to medium grained clastic, evapouritic and carbonate sediments of Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous age. These sediments are predominately marine in nature and are interpreted to be pre-rift and are believed to have been deposited before the development of the Bonaparte Rift, a distinct linear, down faulted depression. Crustal thinning and subsequent subsidence occurred in the central part of the rift between the two major bounding faults and the pre-rift fault blocks which were unconformably overlain by fine grained, predominately syn-rift, sediments which were in turn blanketed by post-rift sediments. These latter sediments, which thicken northward and basin-ward, have been eroded from the onshore sector of the basin but are quite thick in much of the offshore sector. 7.2 Tectonic Setting
The Bonaparte basin has its genesis in Early to Mid Palaeozoic transcurrent wrench faulting within the northeast trending Halls Creek Mobil Zone. The basin abuts the Proterozoic Kimberly Block to the west and the similarly aged Sturt Block to the east. Areas of basement rock are shown on Figure 2, a regional structural elements map. The basin overlies the Halls Creek Mobile Zone, which controlled its genesis, via predominately northeast trending strike slip faulting, from the Mid Proterozoic until the Mid Paleozoic The eastern boundary of the Halls Creek Mobile Zone, the Cockatoo Fault, coincides with the eastern boundary of the Bonaparte Basin. However conjugate northwesterly faulting is present on the southwestern margin of the basin in onshore WA. It is thought that that both the Bonaparte and the nearby Canning Basins are the products of a failed rifting system which formed part of a major Devonian rift extending down what is now the continental margin of northwest Australia. The basin plunges northwards under the Timor Sea, where the thickest and youngest section is encountered. The basin was laid down on a relatively unmetamorphosed economic basement of Proterozoic rocks and Lower Cambrian volcanics, both of which can be seen in outcrop on the southern edge of the basin. The Pincombe Ridge, a northeast trending basement Inlier, subdivides the onshore sector of the basin into the Carlton Shelf of WA and the Burt Range Shelf (=Syncline) of the NT. Both of these Shelves open into the offshore Petrel Sub-basin. The southern end of this sub-basin extends onshore. The major structural elements are shown in Figure 2. The Bonaparte Basin is floored with tilted, rotated fault blocks of Upper Devonian to Late Carboniferous sediments of a marine origin. They are predominately coarse to medium grained clastics, evapourites and carbonates of pre-rift genesis and they are contained in the Cockatoo, R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
EPA 175 Ningbing and Langfield Groups. These rocks were deposited in a distinct linear fault-bound depression. During rifting and subsidence the syn-rift sediments of the Carboniferous aged Weaber Group were laid down, unconformably, on the pre-rift tilted and rotated fault blocks. This unit ranges in composition from basal submarine fans, through offshore sandstones, deltaic, interbedded fluvio-deltaic to fluviatile sediments reflecting a shallowing of the basin. It is thought that since the Lower Permian, in which the entire Bonaparte Basin slowly down warped, the Central Rift of the basin was a locus for sedimentation. This deposition finally encroached onto the adjacent shelves of Proterozoic basement rock. These post Lower Permian sediments are post-rift in nature and blanket the earlier pre-rift and syn-rift sediments. The postrift sediments were uniform across the basin proper but have been eroded from most of the onshore sector. Prior to the- post rift sedimentation, the basin was composed of several distinct sub-basins, each of which had its own depositional regime, each of which is unique. 7.3 Stratigraphy
There is some confusion regarding the stratigraphic sequence contained in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin. The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report is a composite of that of Amity, the last active operator in the onshore area, and that of the previous operator Santos, whose stratigraphic column is more consistent with that of Aquitaine, an even earlier and long standing former operating company in the onshore and offshore sectors of the basin. Santos and Amity explored south of EPA 175 in the Keep River-Spirit Hill-Weaber area and in WA. A stratigraphic column for the Southern Bonaparte Basin as used by Broken Hill Propriety Limited Petroleum (BHPP) in the offshore Petrel Sub-basin is also referred to for the near offshore sector of the Petrel Sub-basin. Most of the exploration drilling and studies relevant to Bonaparte Oil‟s permits was conducted by Aquitaine. The stratigraphic columns used by Santos, Amity and BHPP are included as Figures 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The former column is applicable to the onshore Carlton Sub-basin of WA, the onshore Burt Range Shelf of the NT and the onshore/offshore Petrel Sub-basin, whilst Amity‟s is restricted to the onshore sector of both states, particularly around the Weaber Gas Field, and does not include the Petrel Sub-basin. The BHPP stratigraphic column is similar to that of Santos. A much thicker Triassic and Jurassic section is present in the Vulcan Graben to the west and Malita Graben and Sahul Platform to the north. The nature of these Mesozoic sediments will not be further discussed in this report. Post Carboniferous rocks are missing, due to erosion from most of the onshore sector of the basin. Prior to the Lower Permian, the Bonaparte Basin was composed of a number of distinct sub basins, each with its own depositional system. However since the Lower Permian, the greater basin has acted as a single down warping depocentre. Basement to the Bonaparte Basin is relatively unmetamorphosed Proterozoic rocks which are in turn overlain by the basalt flows of the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of Cambrian age Sedimentation, which is not present in the Burt Range Shelf of the NT, began in the Carlton Subbasin of WA when the shallow water marine Carlton Group was deposited from Cambrian until R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
They did a similar thing to the Ningbing Limestone of WA. Most of the latter unit is not present in Bonaparte Oil‟s block and as such will not be discussed in detail here. However some members of the unit group are recorded in the NT and these will be discussed. No rocks of Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian age have been encountered in outcrop. This potential play should be followed up by reviewing all the available gravity data acquired in the permit and acquiring new high resolution gravity data in the northwest of the permit. Diapiric structures have been recognized and drilled in the near offshore and onshore sectors of the basin. marine. as it has not been scientifically nor exhaustively evaluated. Amity‟s very detailed subdivision of the Cockatoo Formation is: The Ragged Range Conglomerate the lowermost unit which consists of a massive pebble boulder conglomerate and thick cross bedded pebbly sandstones is of alluvial fan origin and contains potential reservoir units The Cyril Sandstone which was deposited coevally in a fluvial environment also contains potential reservoir intervals The Steeple Peak Sandstone which was deposited coevally in a more basin ward fluviotidal enviroment is more interbedded and contains probable juxtaposed reservoir and sealing units. nor in the subsurface in onshore wells. Diapiric salt structures. the nearest being Pelican Island. finer grained unit with more potential sealing intervals
R. an ideal target zone The Kellys Knob Sandstone a unit of similar genesis to the previous interval Kununurra Formation a shallow. form excellent trapping locii. It is believed that an Early Devonian evapouritic unit could be present in the onshore sector. Any new acquisition of gravity data should be done after a thorough review of existing gravity data. The formation is at least 1542 metres thick on the Burt Range Shelf. just 8 km north of the coastline in WA.A. Deposition recommenced in the Late Devonian when the Cockatoo Formation was deposited on the Burt Range Shelf of the NT and the coeval Ningbing Limestone in the Carlton Sub-basin of WA. Salt induced structures are known to be present in EPA 175 and offshore Cape Hay. Amity undertook additional sedimentological studies on the Cockatoo Formation and raised it to group status by subdividing it into many new members. Evidence for this is that many salt diapiric structures have been drilled offshore. which deform younger overlying rocks. Additionally gravity data indicates a less dense section between the Pelican Island 1 and Bonaparte 1 wells. It is not known whether this hiatus is due to non-deposition or subsequent erosion. probably the latter as a result of renewed tectonics.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. This unit is not relevant to Bonaparte Oil‟s permit and will not be discussed in this report.EPA 175 Early Ordovician time. This salt induced structure play needs to be fully evaluated within Bonaparte Oil‟s permit. where appropriate. south of EPA 175. the latter being located onshore in WA.
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R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
Amity‟s. parallel bedded and cross bedded. quartz arenite with minor dolomitic sandstones and siltstones of shallow marine origin. which was laid down in a reef margin environment. is a potential reservoir interval and should also contain sealing units
During the deposition of the bulk of the overlying Ningbing Limestone (=Group) in the Carlton Sub-basin. It is thought that this unit is a correlative of the Sorby Beds known in outcrop further east of the area of investigation The Enga Sandstone a unit of fine to medium grained quartz arenites and calcareous sandstones of barrier genesis. It too. the divide between the Carlton and Burt Range Shelves and the presence of shallow marine section may indicate that the Pincombe Inlier was a paleo high at the end of Late Devonian time. medium to fine grained. In the more basin ward section of the acreage.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. quartz arenites and quartz greywackes. The spatial configuration of these rocks should be conducive to hydrocarbon entrapment. cross bedded sandstones also exhibits reservoir potential The Hargreaves Formation a medium grained. A definitive test of a reef play has not been drilled in the onshore Bonaparte Basin. a unit of well-bedded limestones and marine sandstones. grained well. subdivision for the Langfield Group is: The Burt Range Formation a unit of back reef and inter-fingering calcarenites overlain by non-reefal rocks. The only exception to this was during the deposition of the Button Beds. the Burt Range Shelf was an area of uplift where no deposition occurred. as well as laminated siltstones and shales. sorted cross bedded. glauconitic. This Early Carboniferous unit has been further subdivided by Amity into the Langfield Group and overlying Weaber Group. The Keep River Group of both Aquitaine and Santos unconformably overlies the Buttons Beds in the area of EPA 175.A. quartz arenites and pebbly.EPA 175
The Abney Sandstone another interbedded clastic unit of tidal-fluvial origin with probable juxtaposed sealing and reservoir intervals. nearer to the coast in the Petrel Sub-basin the combined Langfield
R. This is a known reservoir interval which hosts the gas accumulation at the Weaber Gas Field The Septimus Limestone a unit of sandy limestone and thick planar cross bedded limestone and coarse trough cross bedded calcareous sandstone of foreshore and shoreface origin The Zimmerman Sandstone a unit of bioturbated and fossiliferous. is restricted to the Burt Range Shelf The Maudoobar Sandstone a medium. Amity also proposed a further subdivision of each group. This unit has all the attributes for hydrocarbon entrapment
Most of the Langfield Group has been eroded off the Carlton Shelf of WA. This may also indicate that the inlier was a locus for reef growth during the Late Devonian. clastic unit of eolian genesis is also of reservoir quality The Cecil Sandstone a clastic unit composed of fine to medium grained. The different depositional environments east and west of the Pincombe Inlier.
silts and sandstones and is estimated to
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. It is entirely marine and consists of thick fossiliferous dark carbonaceous shales.EPA 175 and Weaber Groups are known as the Bonaparte Formation (=Beds).
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
This inter bedded unit. Garimala 1 and Bonaparte 1&2 wells in WA and in the Weaber 1 well in the NT. which is not present in the Petrel Sub-basin. It is believed to be a submarine fan The Utting Calcarenite a unit of sandy limestone and shale which is of offshore genesis
The Weaber Group is unconformably overlain by a unit known to Amity as the Keep Inlet Formation and to Santos. exhibits reservoir. are present immediately above the Milligans Formation. these units are not recognized in the Burt Range Syncline. It consists of medium grained sandstones. pebbly laminated massive and cross bedded sandstones. but extends onto the adjacent shelves of Proterozoic basement. In the Carlton Sub-basin. Amity has further subdivided this unit into the following members:The Milligans Formation a deep water marine unit of black partly calcareous and fossiliferous shales. several additional members of. Unlike the earlier discussed sediments. This considered to be a prime sourcing unit and is present in all three sub-basins and was known to Santos and Aquitaine as the Milligans Beds The Burvill Formation a unit of fine grained. the lower sequence which consists of highly faulted Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous shallow marine sediments restricted to the proto-rift and thick. This section has been intersected in the Ningbing 1&2. The Border Creek Member a unit of fluvio-deltaic pebbly sandstones with minor laminated shale and siltstones. medium grained oolitic calcrudite and sandy calcarenites of deltaic origin. Hence there are two distinct sedimentary sequences in the Bonaparte Basin. respectively.EPA 175 be 5000 metres thick in the depocentre. This Late Carboniferous to Permian unit forms a blanket cover over all three sub-basins. the Keep Inlet Formation is not confined to the fault bound proto rift that set up the Bonaparte Basin.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Their composition is: The Waggon Creek Formation a fine to coarse grained. massive parallel sandstone and minor conglomerates with locally abundant shale and dolomitic boulders. the Waggon Creek Formation and the Utting Calcarenite. This unit is not present in the Petrel Sub-basin. The Tanmurra Formation a unit of fine grained sandy calcarenites calcareous and dolomitic quartz sandstones. source and cap rock potential. the Weaber Group. as well as minor shale with drop stones. This member is of offshore genesis and it is not present in the Petrel Sub-basin The Point Spring Sandstone this clastic unit is composed of bioturbated and fossiliferous parallel and cross bedded sandstones.A. thickly bedded sandy limestones. BHPP and Aquitaine as the Kulshill Formation. It is believed to be of fan delta and glacio-marine origin. Much of the upper portion of this sequence has been eroded from the onshore sector of the basin
R. The deposition of the Langfield Group was followed by that of the Late to Early Carboniferous Weaber Group which was laid down unconformably on the Langfield Group. Such a section could have generated large amounts of hydrocarbons. bioturbated and fossiliferous sandstones with parallel and low angle cross bedding and minor medium to coarse grained. fossiliferous. generally unfaulted Late Carboniferous and Permian marine-deltaic rocks which extend beyond the rift and onlap adjacent basement.
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. However these post Carboniferous source rocks could have or could still be contributing to the known onshore accumulations because of the geometry of the erosional truncation of these beds. Water is more dense than is oil.EPA 175 and as such it will not be discussed in this report. These traps can either be of either a structural or stratigraphic genesis. Many of these are in Permian or even younger rocks which generally are not present in the onshore sector of the basin. usually shales The burial of these source rocks to depths whereby the organic material begins to expel hydrocarbons. which results from the principle of flotation in which less dense materials float on those which are more dense. which can be reached with the drill bit. In summary in EPA 175 the primary target interval is the Carboniferous-Permian section. which are also absent from the onshore sector of the basin. hydrocarbon accumulations can be destroyed by later earth movements which can breach traps and igneous events which can oxidize entrapped hydrocarbons.
Once trapped. It is believed that up to two kilometers of post Carboniferous section has been eroded from the onshore part of the basin and the basin extended a lot further onshore. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
The fundamental tenets of petroleum geology are quite simple and follow from some of the basic laws of both Chemistry and Physics. 8. which can reduce fluid transmissivity and consequently destroy reservoir quality. The presence of sealing units overlyng the carrier and reservoir beds which inhibit the upward migration of hydrocarbons. 8. oil first and then with deeper burial dry gas The presence of porous and permeable carrier and reservoir beds to allow the migration of generated hydrocarbons from the hydrocarbon generating kitchens near the basin depocentres to shallower sites of entrapment. The existence of traps when the main phase of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion occurred.A. Deeper burial of the potential reservoir rocks which can reduce porosity and permeability. Although where present the late Devonian rocks will also be targets. the Milligans Beds (=Formation) and the shallower Kulshill Formation. Hydrocarbons generated offshore could be leaking through the erosional zero edges of the R. nor will the Mesozoic sediments of the offshore sector of the basin. These are the units which exhibited gas and oil shows in the Kulshill wells. which in turn is more dense than gas.1 Source Rocks
There are many intervals of known source rocks in the Bonaparte Basin sequence. To have a hydrocarbon accumulation the following conditions must be met: The presence of organically rich and un-oxidized source rocks.
Not a lot of quantitative data is available on maturity. This is similar to the case in the western sector of the basin in and around the Vulcan Graben where oil is hosted in the Mesozoic section. However good oil shows were also noted in the overlying Permian units.EPA 175 Permian and younger beds and could be down-loading the older Devonian and Carboniferous units. It is thought that the offshore wells are not representative of the more marginal areas in the southeast. The Permian section is known to have generated. given the relative nearness of the large hot and dry gas fields at Petrel and Tern in the Petrel Sub-basin of the southern Bonaparte Basin. The oil reservoired on and around the Sahul Platform in the northern offshore sector of the basin is hosted in Jurassic rocks. This hypothesis would be a simple example of Gussow‟s Theorem whereby later generated dry gas displaced previously generated and entrapped oil which could have pushed towards the basin edge as a result of the Principle of Flotation. However all the qualitative data indicates that analyses carried out on samples from wells on the Burt Range Shelf. Interestingly samples analyzed from the Keep River Group (= lower Langfield Group) taken from wells and mineral bores on the Burt Range Shelf also indicate the presence of oil prone source rocks. It should be noted that all the oil shows encountered in the mineral bores are located in reservoirs immediately beneath the transgressive Bonaparte Beds and Milligans Formation. Analyses conducted by Aquitaine on samples from the Bonaparte Beds taken from wells located in more basin-ward locations near to the coast. These analyses were undertaken on samples from wells drilled in more basin-ward locations in the basin. although some oil prone samples were encountered near the base of the sequence. This is not the case at the Barnett Oil Field in NT RL 3 nearby in the Bonaparte Gulf. which are believed to have generated it.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Using a geothermal gradient of 30 degrees Celsius per kilometre. Shales and limestones of the Ningbing Limestone also exhibit good source potential. not as much geochemical analysis has been conducted and most of this was done by Aquitaine in the late 1970‟s and early 1980‟s. although the onshore Aquitaine wells were considered. and hosts. indicate that the organic matter contained in the source rocks is gas prone. as do the micritic shales of the Milligans Formation and the shales of the fluvio-deltaic Border Creek Member of the Weaber Group.A. Kellys Knob Formation and Abney Sandstone and the marine sedimentation of the Kununurra Formation. where the oil was recovered from the Carboniferous Kuriyippi Formation. nearby. gas offshore. 8. which appear to be the most prospective portions of the onshore sector of the basin. Amity‟s later sedimentological work indicates the presence of many possible source rock intervals within the onshore section. and of Bonaparte Oil‟s block. Aquitaine calculated the R. These include fluvio-tidal intervals within the Steeple Peak Sandstone. It is the author‟s opinion that this is most likely. all members of the Cockatoo Group. In the onshore sector of the basin. which could be acting as both source and seal to the underlying units. Other later offshore operators undertook some studies. indicate oil prone source rocks. Barnett is located in the Petrel Sub-basin. obtained from the more basinally located wells of Keep River 1 and Bonaparte 1&2.
This higher geothermal gradient would reduce the depth of burial to the oil and gas windows. and that its maturity is of the same level as samples taken from the overlying shales at similar depths. Gussow‟s theorem would be operative and this later dry gas would push previously reservoired oil towards the basin margin.46 degrees Celsius per 100 metres at the Weaber 5 appraisal well on the Pincombe Inlier. and the continuity of. even though it is in different units. the same unit flowed gas at Weaber 4. They estimated that the top of the gas generating window was at 600 metres. Also analyses carried out on samples from wells on the Burt Range Shelf confirm this and indicate oil prone source rocks are now in the oil window near surface ground level. Historically the prime reservoir targets have been: The Milligans Beds.3 Reservoirs
Traditionally the presence of. These facts are most important as they indicate that the Devonian-Carboniferous section is mature for oil generation and it may still be generating oil at shallow depths near the basin margin. There have been four gas flows from reservoirs within the R.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. This is supported by the view of earlier operators who identified better quality reservoirs around the basin margins in both the NT and in WA. It is the author‟s view that this merely represents the fact that most of the early drilling was conducted in more basin-ward locations where the section is finer grained.A. the carbonates of the Ningbing Limestone and the clastics of the Buttons Beds
Reservoirs from within these units have either flowed gas or have had oil recoveries made from them. The largest gas flow was 4. or have passed through. the dry gas generating window. Another former operator. 8.EPA 175 depth to the oil generating window at 2000 metres. indicating much uplift and erosion. the source rocks would now be in. particularly the carbonates of the Septimus Limestone Member and the sandstones of the Enga Sandstone Member of this unit The Ningbing Group.5MMCFD from the Enga Sandstone at Weaber 1. Interestingly these analyses and studies of samples from shallow mineral holes indicate that the Late Carboniferous rocks are now in the oil window near surface ground level. Another very interesting point is that the oil recovered from shallow mineral bores near the basin margin is from the same source. Critically. again indicating much up lift and erosion. out in the more basinal area where the section is more deeply buried. reservoirs has been considered to be the greatest impediment to commercial exploration success in the onshore Bonaparte Basin. This is postulation is confirmed and supported by empirical evidence. Alliance Petroleum International Limited (Alliance) using data from more marginal wells calculated the depth to the oil window to be 900 metres or near the base of the Milligans Beds. It would seem that Alliance‟s calculation is closer to the mark as Amity calculated a geothermal gradient of 3. particularly the sandstones of this unit The Langfield Group. There are many known and potential reservoir intervals within the onshore Bonaparte Basin sequence.
The underlying Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous units are more arenaceous. and include: The Ragged Range Conglomerate The Cyril Sandstone The Steeple Peak Sandstone The Kellys Knob Sandstone The Abney Sandstone The Maudoobar Sandstone The Cecil Sandstone These are in addition to the traditional reservoirs around Port Keats. the Cockatoo Group has flowed gas at Garimala 1 and an oil recovery was also made from this unit at Ningbing 1.A. The previously mentioned vertical juxtaposition of fluvial and tidal units should ensure sealing of R. The comments made above on reservoir performance also apply to this unit. Keyling and in the Milligans Formation. Oil has been recovered from the Ningbing Limestone at Ningbing 1. which are briefly discussed in the section on stratigraphy. Whilst not a traditional target.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. at Bonaparte 2. Much better drilling muds are now available. however siltstones and shales are reported by Amity within these units.55 MMCFD and then declined. This is a common problem in some basins in eastern Australia and if it is an impediment in the Bonaparte Basin it can be readily overcome by a more judicious selection of drilling mud. The better formation evaluation techniques now available will also help in identifying intervals of hydrocarbon saturation. Both wells are located in WA. may be potential targets in the south of EPA 175. The other three flows were. It is now known that most of the early wells are not crestal tests of structural traps and these declining flows may only represent intersections of the hydrocarbon columns low down the flank of the accumulation. hence inhibiting flow to the well bore.12 MMCFD after eight hours. The reduced reservoir performance could also mean that the drilling fluids used have damaged the reservoirs and have reduced both permeability and porosity. which declined to 0. Better quality seismic data should resolve this quandary.00 MMCFD. much the same as in the discovery well and minor amounts of oil were recovered from a well test. namely: The Tanmurra Formation The Milligans Formation Various units of the Kulshill Group 8. which flowed at an initial rate of 1. the first from Keep River 1 in the NT at an initial rate of 3. Amity‟s sedimentological studies have identified many potential reservoir intervals within this group. alleviating another complication.EPA 175 Milligans Formation. in WA. Much borehole damage is reported from the wells in the Weaber Gas Field. These intervals. It does not definitively mean that the sands are isolated and discontinuous. where oil was also recovered. and at Ningbing 1 and Garimala 1.4 Sealing Units
Regional seals in the form of shales are known to be present in both the Bonaparte Beds and the Milligans Formation. if present.
A. Reservoir quality is known. 8. from mineral exploration drilling. There is evidence from the Bonaparte 2 well. The inter-fingering of coarse grained sandstones with finer grained units. If the view of laterally discontinuous sands is correct. in the order of 2000 metres. The paleo-high of the Pincombe Ridge. Most oil shows in the mineral core holes are in units directly overlain by the Milligans Beds. Much of the faulting in this area is strike slip in nature and this style of faulting often provides fault seal due to the presence of fault plane gouge. The area around the Keep River 1 well on the Pincombe Ridge. of fault closure and stratigraphic sand pinchout acting as a seal. In the more basin-ward part of the block to the northeast. or its analogues in EPA 175. unless destroyed by later earth movements. would be ideal places to look for this style of trap and similar areas are likely to be present in EPA 175. many structural traps can be expected to be present.5 Traps
The onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin is known to be highly structured and as such. south of Bonaparte Oil‟s tenement. these structures are more deeply buried and due to the thicker cover are more likely to have not been breached. south of EPA 175. further north in EPA 175 should also be locii for structural traps. The marine nature of the sandstones may also help in providing trapping geometry as they parallel strike and cut across the anticlines providing the opportunity for combination structural/stratigraphic traps. Its analogue fault zones. should also provide stratigraphic trapping geometry. in the area of the Keep River 1 well. It attains considerable thickness. is known to have been an emergent high and trapping focus. so there is empirical evidence of the presence of seals. if present. Hydrocarbons have been encountered in most wells. should be good traps. The reservoir quality sandstones fringing the basin margin are buried to reasonably shallow depths. R. Both platform atoll and pinnacle reef developments are present. to improve towards the eastern margin in the Burt Range Syncline. if present. Many northeast trending and northeast plunging anticlines are known to be present. (in the order of 1025 metres) of which nearly 300 metres was reefal and of potential reservoir quality. any well targeted at closures on the Milligans Beds should be drilled through these deeper units. and it communication with. the Milligans Beds should provide ideal trapping geometry for either structural or stratigraphic traps. As a consequence of this. then this too will aid in providing seals to hydrocarbon accumulations. as much potential exists for drape and compaction traps along and surrounding these regional features. hence the zone where these latter units are truncated by. due to lateral facies changes.Meaney &Associates November 2010
.EPA 175 reservoir beds. Structural closure can also be expected in the syn-rift units overlying and draping these blocks. much oil in Canada has been discovered in similar traps of a similar age. Closure should be present in the tilted and rotated fault blocks with anti-regional dip and fault closure. They are thought to be of Late Carboniferous origin and are doubly plunging and. The Ningbing Limestone is present in EPA 126. Both regional and intra-formational sealing units have been recognized in the section.
Cape Ford. failed to find coal seams of economic importance. The thinness and discontinuous nature of the coals resulted in the company surrendering the Coal Licence 172. The coals drilled are bituminous and highly volatile and as such. soon relinquished the Coal Licence. discontinuous and of no appreciable areal extent and concluded that the coals were contained within unconsolidated sediments and hence could not be mined. the deepest of which was approximately 230 m deep. These bores. when they undertook drilling in Coal Licence 1. and the search was abandoned.A. without undertaking drilling. Cliff Head. 9.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The results of Utah‟s drilling were also very disappointing. discontinuous coal seams. and in what is now EPA 175 in particular. these coals and deeper Lower Permian aged coals were intersected. An appreciable amount of coal drilling was conducted in the Port Keats area. was undertaken from 1906-1909 by the South Australian Mines Department. Utah soon surrendered their Coal Licence. and the drilling ceased in 1909 when the coal seams were found to be thin and not continuous. The potential for CBM is considered by the author to be negligible as the thickest coal seam. Extensive drilling would have to be undertaken to evaluate the CBM potential of EPA 175. Thiess Brothers Pty Limited commenced a drilling program for coal in 1967 which continued in 1968. however this is considered to be most unlikely. These coal seams have been dated as of Upper Permian age. thin. This re-ignited the search for coal and spurred a second round of coal exploration in the Port Keats area. They were followed in 1973 by Utah Development Company (Utah) in Coal Licence 173. Anson Bay and Cape Hay where the coal is in outcrop. Most coal drilling has been conducted in areas which have suffered significant erosion however coals of economic thicknesses may be present in the un-deformed synclinal areas. if present over an appreciable area. The results that they obtained were the same as their predecessors and they too. which does not appear to be widespread over the permit is approximately 2 feet thick. by either open cut or underground methods. In 1983 Western Mining Corporation Limited (WMC) obtained Coal Licence 2 in the Keep River area and undertook a literature search but then surrendered the Coal Licence. This drilling was instigated as a result of coal outcrops noticed in the Port Keats area and was aimed at providing energy and export income for the remote Northern Territory of South Australia. R. The SA Mines Department drilled approximately six coal bores around Port Keats. After drilling a significant number of exploratory holes these companies found that the coals were thin. The next coal drilling in the area of EPA 175 was conducted by CRA Exploration during 1983. In 1965 and 1966.1
PREVIOUS EXPLORATION Coal Exploration
The first exploration drilling undertaken in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin. during the drilling of the Kulshill 1 and Kulshill 2 petroleum exploration wells.EPA 175
9. could be of interest in coal bed methane (CBM) drainage.
In spite of its inappropriate location this well encountered good oil shows in the Upper Devonian Ningbing (=Spirit Hill) Limestone section. The location of all wells and seismic lines is shown in Encloure1n and Figure 6. The above data was subsequently used by Westralian Oil Limited to site the Spirit Hill 1 well. This was followed by the WA Geological Survey (WAGS). R. gravity surveying and stratigraphic drilling in the Oil Permit (OP) 2 in the Spirit Hill area and in OP 3 in the area of the Keep River. looked at the Bonaparte Basin of the NT and WA for the Standard Oil-Vacuum Oil (Stanvac) consortium of Standard Oil of New Jersey. The company effectively deepened a water bore from which hydrocarbon indications had earlier been reported. also in 1948. Frank Reeves. Seismic data acquired subsequently by Geosurveys Pty Limited shows that this well is many kilometres off the crest of the Spirit Hill Structure. which undertook field mapping in the Ord and southern Bonaparte Basins in WA. close to the NT-WA border. along with the near offshore wells is shown in Figures 1. further west and basin-ward. formerly known as the Standard Oil Company of New York. the technical arm of AAO. This was then followed up from 1949-1955 by a combined Bureau of Mineral Resources. the underlying Cockatoo Limestone was intersected in Kulshill 1.2
Scientific exploration began in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin in 1948 when the respected American Petroleum Geologist. During the mid 1950‟s a Joint Venture group composed of Associated Australian Oilfields Limited (AAO) and Westralian Oil Limited (WOL) conducted further field mapping.
9. This was followed in the late 1950‟s when Mines Administration Limited (Minad). Reeves‟ report was critical of the oil potential of the Bonaparte Basin and the Stanvac consortium did not continue with exploration in the basin. This unit is thought to be present west of the Kulshill wells. The location of this well and all other onshore wells located in the Bonaparte Basin. gravity data acquisition. However correlative rocks to the Ningbing Limestone may be present. close to the NT border. The Spirit Hill Structure is located well south of Bonaparte Oil‟s permit. then Exxon and the Vacuum Oil Company. south of the Weaber Gas Field in RL 1. Geology and Geophysics (BMR) and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) effort which began field mapping. Hence there does not appear to be any appreciable CBM potential in the tenement. Minad also conducted an aeromagnetic survey.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. It was suspended above the programmed total depth due to the arrival of the wet season. which was spudded in 1959.A.EPA 175 EPA 175 does not appear hold any significant potential for coal production either in open cut nor underground mining methods. and Mobil later. later known in Australia as Esso. adjacent to the Moyle fault. stratigraphic drilling and sedimentological and lithological studies as part of their extensive Northern Australia Mapping Project. in the south of EPA 175. and also the BMR acquired gravity data in the region mainly in the area to the south of Bonaparte Oil‟s permit. and 6 and Enclosures 1 and 2.
from a drillstem test of a Carboniferous-aged sandstone. both mapping and stratigraphic drilling. acquired after the drilling of Bonaparte 1 showed that the well was not a crestal test and the crest of the structure was subsequently tested by the Bonaparte 2 well. AAO retained an Over Riding Royalty Interest in OP 2. The company also utilized structural and stratigraphic data from the subsequent minerals exploration programs they. It was plugged and abandoned after encountering hydrocarbon shows. and acquired the Spirit Hill Seismic Survey in 1961. in 1963. This expanded consortium then drilled Bonaparte 1 in WA. conducted in the area. Oil Development N. Hence it was concluded that the prospective Spirit Hill Limestone was not fully tested at the well location.EPA 175
The BMR. hence some reservoir quality rocks are present. to 915 metres. farmed into OP 3. both gravity and aeromagnetic surveys in the Port Keats–Moyle River area in 1959 and 1960. in the Bonaparte Beds. The shows are probably from the Milligans Beds.L. No drillstem tests are reported from this well. This well flowed gas at the rate of 1. later Alliance Oil Development N L (AOD) and subsequently Alliance Petroleum Limited (Alliance). respectively. now Geoscience Australia. Alliance. most of which was Lower Carboniferous. Following this Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty Limited farmed into OP 2 which was held by AAO and became the operator of the tenement. Hence Aquitaine and Alliance was exploring in the entire onshore Bonaparte Basin. Seismic data. which is equivalent to the combined Milligans Beds. gas. was considered to be sub-commercial and the well was plugged and abandoned. This rate in such a remote location. and others. in 1960. Aquitaine subsequently joined the WOL-Alliance Joint Venture exploring in OP 3 and in WA. Alliance then deepened the Spirit Hill 1 well. conducted studies on cores from Spirit Hill 1 taken down to 736 metres. with lesser amounts of Lower Permian. the original total depth of this well. which was not sustained. Later petrological studies indicated that the general section at Spirit Hill had low porosity and permeability.5 MMCFD. Keep River Group of Early Carboniferous age and the Upper Devonian aged Ningbing Limestone and Cockatoo Formation. The former company became operator for all tenements and acquired additional seismic data and also widely used gravity data to augment this seismic data in the selection of well sites. either side of the WA/NT border. However these observations are negated by the fact that the well flowed water on a drillstem test. R. also farmed into WOL‟s WA onshore Bonaparte Basin acreage. As a result of these studies it was recognized that the well had bottomed in Spirit Hill Limestone and that a much thicker Carboniferous section than was prognosed was present at the well site. The AAO-WOL Joint Venture acquired geophysical data.Meaney &Associates November 2010
.530 feet of section. in 1964. which drilled through 10. at that time. Additional seismic data acquired by General Geophysical Company (Bahamas) in 1962 in their Spirit Hill Seismic Survey shows that the well location is approximately 4 kms off the crest of the Spirit Hill Structure. These surveys consisted of geological field work. This is the first work done with any immediate relevance to the petroleum potential of the area of what is now EPA 175.A. It was followed by the Keep River Seismic Survey which was acquired in 1962 in the then OP 2. from the Spirit Hill Limestone (=Ningbing Limestone). Oil shows were also recorded in the Milligans Beds in this well.
1963. The following year.EPA 175
The last seismic survey conducted by AAO as operator of the tenement was the Keep River Seismic Survey in the Keep River area south of EPA 175. like most acquired by Aquitaine also involved the acquisition of gravity and magnetic data. in the Sugarloaf area. They also recorded the Legune Seismic and
R. Aquitaine acquired the Point Pearce Seismic Survey in what is now EPA 175.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. given the frontier nature of the acreage. In 1964 Aquitaine conducted a shallow scout core drilling program south of the Port Keats area.A. This survey.
1965.A.EPA 175 Gravity Survey immediately south of EPA 175 in the same year.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The following year. the
from palynological. 6000 feet of Lower Permian aged sediments. Drilling was suspended late in 1965 due to the wet season. namely. formed by deep seated salt tectonics. which drilled 14. Many good oil and gas shows were recorded in Lower Permian and Lower Carboniferous sections of Kulshill 1.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Most of these shows were in impervious section. calcareous sandstone and coquina.416 feet. tillites and silicified sandstones.A. At the completion of the 1965-1966 wet season drilling recommenced at Kulshill 1 and and when the well was plugged and abandoned the rig moved to. And the Lower Carboniferous section into: The Lower Carboniferous Tanmurra Formation of brackish water sedimentation with minor marine calcareous sandstones. electric log and facies variation. which were unconformably underlain by 6165 feet of Lower Carboniferous and finally 2076 feet of Upper Upper Devonian section. reached total depth in sediments of the Upper Devonian Cockatoo Formation. It penetrated 185 feet of weathered post Paleozoic (Mesozoic) sandstone. divided the Lower Permian section into three formations. The well was designed to evaluate a heavily faulted structural trap. The well. defined by a rather coarse grid of very poor quality. The upper Sugarloaf Formation. The Kulshill Formation of fluvioglacial units of greywackes. with marine and deltaic genesis and composed of black shales and sandstones with minor coal. immediately south of EPA 175. and it was recommenced in May 1966. During 1966 the Moyle River Seismic and Gravity Survey was recorded in the area of what is now EPA 175. and subsequent inaccessibility.EPA 175
company recorded the Queens Channel Marine Seismic Survey in the territorial waters of Queens Channel. During June 1965 Aquitaine spudded Kulshill 1 some 9 miles south of the Port Keats Mission. low fold seismic data. It is probably wise to use the nomenclature used by Aquitaine in and around Port Keats as shown in Figures 3 and 5 in the onshore section. The Lower Carboniferous Milligans Beds (=Milligans Formation) The Upper Devonian Cockatoo Limestone
The various operating companies in the onshore and onshore sectors of the basin have used various and differing stratigraphic nomenclature and the result is quite confusing. Aquitaine. and all drillstem tests of porous and permeable zones flowed salt water. Good gas only shows were reported from the below the top of the Tanmurra Formation. An unnamed basal formation of siltstone. and commenced drilling at Kulshill R.
R.Meaney &Associates November 2010
R. This was followed by 900 feet of weakly calcareous sandstones.EPA 175 2. The next well drilled Moyle 1. The Hyland Marine Seismic Survey was acquired in OP 2 and 3 by Western Geophysical Company of America (Western) for Aquitaine and the Keep River Reflection Seismic Survey was acquired south of EPA 175 for WOL. which contained calcareous oolitic sandstones. the top most 140 feet of these being weathered fine grained sandstones overlying sandstones with minor silty and micro-conglomeratic inter-beds and thin seams of vitreous but friable coals. a land survey acquired in the following year. in this stratigraphic investigatory well. This well evaluated the stratigraphic section between outcropping basement east of the seismically delineated Moyle Fault of the Cockatoo Fault System. Procedures were taken to enable the drilling to continue during the wet season and the well was plugged and abandoned in March 1969. The well drilled through 1550 feet of fluvio-glacial deposits. However subsequent drillstem tests of the permeable and porous sections of the well. Kulshill 2 was sited in a structurally higher. 1967.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. often good reservoirs.695 feet of Lower Permian section reached total depth at 1767 feet in gabbro. The well which drilled 1. This was in turn unconformably underlained by 1050 feet of Lower Carboniferous Septimus Formation. with only with stratigraphic objectives. Aquitaine spudded Keep River 1 approximately 65 miles north of Kununurra. The well. east of the Kulshill Structure. a further 360 feet of unconformable Burt Range Formation and some 840 feet of an un-named formation of Lower Carboniferous–Upper Devonian age. The well reached total depth in of 6. WA in September 1968. only salt water. with traces of pure limestone of the upper part of the Lower Carboniferous aged Tanmurra Formation. The objective of the well was to test the Tanmurra Formation at a structurally higher position than in Kulshill 1. During 1966 Aquitaine acquired the Cape Hay-Cape Ford Marine Seismic Survey in NT territorial waters west of Port Keats. failed to flow hydrocarbons. Good oil and shows were noted in the impervious intervals of the Lower Permian to Lower Carboniferous Kulshill Group (=Weaber Group).432 feet in the Lower Carboniferous after drilling through Mesozoic sandstone and Lower Permian section. it was then conformably underlain by 700 feet of Enga Formation (=Sandstone). The well was commenced late because of the unseasonal early onset of heavy rain in the normally dry season. crystalline basement. This was followed by the Oakes Creek Seismic Survey. which exhibited shows. which unconformably underlies the Lower Permian. on the greater Kulshill Structure.A. This was unconformably underlain by 7070 feet of Lower Carboniferous aged Milligan Beds. but separate fault block. a shallower well was a deliberate stratigraphic test to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern portion of the basin. some 12 miles south of Port Keats and 3 miles south of Kulshill 1. The well site is sited west of the basin bordering Tom Turners Fault which separates the Proterozoic aged and highly mineralized and metamorphosed Pine Creek Geosyncline from the Bonaparte Basin. No indications of hydrocarbons are reported. was spudded with a smaller rig in July 1966. During 1967 a detailed study of the geology of the south and southeast of the Bonaparte Basin was undertaken by Aquitaine utilizing their newly acquired geological and geophysical data. on the up-thrown side of the Moyle Fault. not surprisingly.
A. Poor reservoir development was encountered in the primary target of the well and it is thought that the trap was breached. However good oil shows were reported from this well. In 1969 Atlantic Richfield Limited (Arco) the Australian affiliate of the United States major. It should be noted that economic basement to the sedimentary section of the Bonaparte Basin is the Antrim Plateau Volcanics (=Antrim Basalts). one of the early explorers of the offshore Bonaparte drilled Lacrosse 1 in near shore waters of the Petrel Sub-basin. the generally accepted view. This was followed by the Lone Hill Seismic and Gravity acquired for Aquitaine in OP 162. Atlantic Richfield. However the fact that the well was open for so long may indicate serious reservoir damage. the Stzelecki Formation in the Gippsland Basin of Victoria are very prone to reservoir damage. Both oil and gas shows are reported from this well. weather to “swelling clays” rich in montmorillinite. Aquitaine drilled the Kinmore 1 well in offshore permit NT/17P during July and August 1974.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Arco one of the early explorers of the offshore Bonaparte drilled the Pelican Island 1 well in near offshore waters in the WA sector of the Petrel Sub-basin of the Bonaparte Basin in 1972. The target of the well was what Aquitaine called “the Greywacke Member” of the Lower Permian aged Kulshill Formation. A review of exploration results and the petroleum potential Aquitaine‟s permits in the NT was undertaken during 1971. flowed gas at a smaller rate. associated with fractures. In 1972 the Border Creek Land Seismic Survey was conducted south of EPA 175 by Aquitaine. especially from fresh water based drilling fluids. The reservoir section in this well was also poorly developed.0 MMCFD which after 8 hours decreased to 0. The Kinmore Prospect was a very large salt cored structure located approximately 32 kms offshore.623 feet in this latter unit. A total of eight drillstem tests were conducted in this well. the Septimus Formation and part of Enga Formation flowed gas to surface at an initial rate of 3. The well was deliberately sited to intersect the target zone several hundred metres down-dip of the crest of the structure as Aquitaine thought that the target interval was not present in the crestal location. No indications of hydrocarbons are recorded and the well was plugged and abandoned at a total depth of 3250 m in the Pre-Devonian rocks of the salt “diapir core”. And after drilling a further 113 feet of conformably underlying Upper Devonian Cockatoo Limestone the well reached total depth of 15. Oil traces were also noted in cores from the Ningbing Limestone in this well. The R. in the Upper Devonian. Many good gas shows were noted in the Lower Carboniferous section and several. The section becomes more calcareousdolomitic below the top of the Burt Range Formation. as they thought the salt was within a kilometre of the sea-floor. which appears to be breached by faulting.2 MMCFD. A second drillstem. The diminishing flow rate mentioned above may indicate a reservoir of very limited areal extent. test over an interval of the Milligans Beds.EPA 175 Some 3320 feet of Ningbing Limestone unconformably underlies the previous unit. The best of these over a combined portion of part of the Milligans Beds. who also recorded the Quinns Seismic Survey in 1974 as exploration activity began to slow in Australia. Rocks with a similar provenance. which was open for up to six months. particularly basalt. Volcanics.
R.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
The next well drilled.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Up until 1973. Aquitaine‟s attention was directed towards the area south of EPA 175 and away from the Port Keats area. Hence neither the Permian nor Lower Carboniferous intervals of the well were tested in structurally high. Much of the Joint Venture‟s drilling in the mid 1980‟s was directed towards the WA portion of the onshore basin. Lacrosse 1. and sedimentological. Weaber 1. In an effort to obtain improved structural definition. Hydrocarbons are reported from the Skull 1 well and gas flows are reported from both Ningbing 1 and Garimala 1. a near offshore well in the WA sector of the Petrel Sub-basin of the Bonaparte Basin in 1984. Following the encouraging drilling results encountered at Keep River 1. Skull 1. Skull 1 (1984) and Garimala 1 (1988) were drilled. little exploration occurred in the basin during the early to mid 1970‟s. and Pelican Island 1 and the disappointing results at Kinmore 1. given previous experience.A. Gas cut mud is reported from a drillstem test of the Ningbing Limestone and also from the Milligans Beds from this well. Consequently the well was plugged and abandoned. valid crestal locations. Anecdotal hydrocarbon shows are also reported from this well. It was spudded by Aquitaine in 1984. lithology. The operator felt that the section was tight and perhaps of limited lateral extent. Exploration picked up in the late 1970‟s as a result of the effects of the first oil price shock. Oil was recovered
R. It was found that the considerable thickness of Precambrian clastics and Cambrian volcanics greatly limited the effectiveness of the aeromagnetic data whereas surface conditions degraded seismic data quality. Many analytical geochemical studies.early 1980‟s. as are indications of oil. approximately 2. In line with world trends. diagenesis. along with associated gravity data acquisition occurred in the early 1980‟s and a second wave of drilling began. In the former well gas was flared from the Milligans Beds and importantly from the Cockatoo Group in the latter. where Ningbing 1 (1982). This well exhibited good hydrocarbon shows in the Enga Sandstone. including source richness and maturity.000 line kilometres of seismic data was acquired in the onshore sector of the basin. However the very important Weaber 1 was drilled in the NT sector. and elected not to test these shows. the operating companies acquired a substantial amount of gravity and aeromagnetic data as well as seismic data. in the late 1970‟s . was spudded in the NT portion of the basin in September 1982. were conducted. Western Mining Corporation Limited (WMC) spudded Turtle 1. also located in the WA sector of the basin in the WA sector of the basin. All of this data is of poor quality and much is unusable. A significant amount of seismic recording.EPA 175 entire Lower Carboniferous section was considered by Aquitaine to be “diapir sheath”. The location of this data is shown on Enclosures 1 and 2 and Figure 6. The most important well drilled in the onshore of the basin. Indications of oil were also encountered in the Ningbing Limestone and Cockatoo Group in Ningbing 1. Aquitaine also drilled the Ningbing 1 exploration well in the WA sector of the basin in 1982. often by Aquitaine‟s Technical Laboratory in France.
The target zones the Tanmurra and Milligans Formation had poorly developed reservoir section. shown on the mud logs and electric logs. The section penetrated had no porosity. During the mid 1980‟s many mergers of companies occurred and Santos acquired Alliance and Aquitaine subsequently decided to withdraw from exploration in onshore Australia and operatorship of the onshore permits reverted to Alliance and by default to Santos.EPA 175 from a combined drillstem test of the Lower Permian aged Keyling and Kuriyippi Formations and the Lower Carboniferous aged Tanmurra and Milligans Formations. an appraisal well was located. This well was drilled on gravity data without seismic data near an early reported oil seep which was relocated and confirmed by a Minad geological party in the 1950‟s. 1985. with poor geophysical control. south of Bonaparte Oil‟s tenement. Additional exploration was conducted when Santos recorded the Spirit Hills Seismic Survey to the south of EPA 175 in 1984 and Queensland Petroleum Pty Ltd drilled the Bulloo River 1 well south of EPA 175 in 1984 in the Proterozoic Victoria River Basin in an area of recorded accidental oil shows and a seep.3 kms westnorthwest of Weaber 1 and was spudded by Santos but plugged and abandoned at a depth of 445m due to extreme hole damage. ethane and propane were observed on the gas detector during. The first.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Aquitaine. In the same year Santos also recorded the reconnaissance Pincombe Seismic Survey south of EPA 175 to locate and detail a prospect on the once emergent Pincombe Range. Two further wells were drilled in 1988 in the onshore sector of the basin. The two hydrocarbon bearing sands in the Enga Sandstone were intersected low to prediction and were found to be water wet and of diminished reservoir quality and continuity. Weaber 2. However well-bore damage occurred and the drill pipe had to be cemented into the well bore to secure the hole and the hole was again plugged and abandoned. however these are thought to have been released from shales during drilling. The well is located beyond the edge of the Bonaparte Basin. The following year. Oil shows were encountered in the well.
R. Eventually both companies were to be effectively taken over by Santos. hence it is an ambiguously sited test. who had remained the operator in the offshore permits.5 MMCFD from the two hydrocarbon bearing sandstones in the Enga Sandstone. Santos re-entered Weaber 1 in 1985 and conducted drillstem tests on gas saturated intervals. No Bonaparte Basin sequence was penetrated. drilled the Barnett 1 well in shallow near-shore waters of the Petrel Sub-basin. The rig was skidded some 125 metres north and Weaber 2A was spudded. They obtained a combined gas flow of 4. approximately 2.A. Minor indications of methane. In the interim the Weaber 1 well had begun to leak gas and at the instigation of the NT Department of Minerals and Energy. which is known from subsequently acquired seismic data to be a non crestal and hence invalid structural test. During 1987 Santos recorded the Weaber Plains Seismic Survey around the sub-commercial Weaber Gas Field. nor permeability. where it was thought that better quality oolitic reservoirs may be present. which had been recognized on a re-evaluation of electric logs.
In 1992 the Broken Hill Propriety Limited (BHPP) led consortium drilled the Billawock 1 well in September 1992 approximately 3 kms offshore from the NT coast. No resistivity anomalies were noted on the electric logs and comprehensive pressure data indicated a water gradient. Three drillstem tests were also combined conducted on zones with good oil shows in the Lower Permian aged Kuriyippi Formation of the Kulshill Group. The well. a basin margin fault. These units. those of the Kulshill Group. One of these tested flowed water but two others flowed oil at rates of 752 and 921 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). Garimala 1 flowed gas from a drillstem test of the Upper Devonian Cockatoo Limestone at non-commercial rates. appear to be immature in the vicinity of the Billawock Structure.
By now Santos had acquired Aquitaine and they then drilled the Barnett 3 well some 300 metres southwest of the Barnett 1 discovery well.EPA 175 Gas shows were encountered in the Milligans Formation. The well evaluated a large rollover anticline on the downthrown side of the Moyle Fault.34 MMCFD. was designed to appraise the hydrocarbon recoveries obtained in the Barnett 1 and Barnett 2 wells and the oil flows from Barnett 2. The second well drilled onshore in 1988 was Garimala 1. off Cape Hay. which were established as mature at the Turtle and Barnett oil discoveries further south. The primary target the Kuriyippi Formation was penetrated low to prediction and the reservoir was poorly developed. The primary target of this well was the Early Permian Treachery Shale with secondary targets in the overlying and underlying Keyling and Kuriyippi Formations. The older source rocks of the Weaber Group. Good oil fluorescence and brown oil staining. WMC drilled the Turtle 2 appraisal well in 1989 and the well produced good oil shows and flowed oil at the rate of 900 bopd from drillstem tests of the Keyling and Milligans Formations. hence the well was plugged without drillstem testing or Formation Interval Testing (FIT). who had retained their offshore acreage. Keep River and Weaber Plains areas were not present at the well location R. The first test resulted in tool plugging whilst the second test flowed gas to surface at the non-commercial rate of 0. . drilled the Barnett 2 well in a more crestal location on the Barnett Structure in November 1989. No hydrocarbon shows were encountered in the primary targets in the Enga Sandstone. The primary target. which are known to be mature onshore around the Port Keats. it was also spudded by Santos but in the WA sector of the basin. now considered to be residual or dead oil. was observed in cuttings of the Keyling Formation whilst poor oil shows are also recorded from the Early Permian Fossil Head Formation of the Port Keats Group. which produced oil flows in Turtle 2. Aquitaine. the Milligans Formation. just beyond the NT territorial limit. The expected source rock. respectively.Meaney &Associates November 2010
.A. below the lowest known gas saturated section in the discovery well. and the Kuriyippi and Tanmurra Formations as well. All targets are members of the Early Permian–Late Carboniferous Kulshill Formation. was drillstem tested and gas at the noncommercial rate of 0. which were drillstem tested.09 MMCFD was flowed. which were intersected some 70 and 50 metres respectively. where they are more shallowly buried. the Tanmurra and Milligans Formations. Very good reservoir development was found in the target zones and good sealing shales were encountered in the Keyling and Kuriyippi Formations. had good oil shows in Turtle 1. which was spudded in August 1990.
was granted over the Weaber Gas Field and subsequently Weaber 3 was spudded by Capital Energy N. The Japanese company Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Gulf) Co.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. a structural elements map prepared by BHPP. Furthermore it is separated by two regional anticlinal trends from this main depocentre which has sourced the two major discovered. but as yet undeveloped. The encountered reservoir section was of much poorer quality than at Weaber 1 & 2/2A. The Kingfisher Structure is a salt induced structure and its failure to host hydrocarbons may be explained. and the supply problems caused by the rains of the wet season resulted in the well being plugged and abandoned. Better shows. Petrel and Tern.EPA 175 and are known to pinch-out southwest of Billawock 1. The above-mentioned caving and other difficulties precluded the running of a drill stem test and the hole was plugged and abandoned. It seems that the Billawock 1 well tested a valid structural prospect which was shielded from charging by an oil pulse.L.A. was plugged and abandoned. however the well suffered hole damage and the gas productive section at Weaber 1 could not be logged with wire line tools. Kingfisher 1.5 kms north of Weaber 1 and targeted the gas saturated sands of the Enga Sandstone. Gas shows which were unable to be tested occurred in this well. mainly gas. if the formation of the structure post-dates the migration of hydrocarbons. A Retention Licence. But the mud logs indicated gas saturation. the deterioration of the mud. were present in the Milligans and Bonaparte (=Ningbing Limestone) Formations. The well was located 1. Good gas shows were noted on the mud logs through these sands. Both of these fields host gas in the Permian aged Hyland Bay Formation. Reprocessing of the Spirit Hill and Weaber Plains Seismic Surveys data was undertaken in 1993 by Santos. as the well tested the crest of the structure. Treachery (Shale) and Fossil Head Formations. No oil indications were noted in the cuttings. The long interval of time for which the hole was open. Weaber 3.in November 1994. Hence the Billawock was starved of a hydrocarbon charge and it seems that the anticlinal trend to the south west of the Billawock Structure acted as a barrier to hydrocarbon migration from the more remote major hydrocarbon generative kitchen in the central Petrel Sub-basin. gas fields in the Southern Bonaparte Basin. RL 1.
R. Minor oil cut fluorescence was recorded in the Kuriyippi. This drawing illustrates that the Billawock Structure is widely separated from the major depocentre of the Petrel Sub-basin in the head of the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. Limited drilled two wells in 1994 in near shore waters of Queens Channel in what is now EPA 136. Also as shown by Figure 8. The reservoir at Weaber 1 is of the best quality. without testing in August 1994. As wire line log and pressure data analysis indicated that no movable hydrocarbons were present the well was plugged and abandoned without testing. The failure of this well has no real bearing on the prospectivity of EPA 175 as the best source rock interval is not present in the area of the Billawock Structure. which became heavily over-balanced. The Lower Permian Kuriyippi and Point Spring Formations exhibited showed poor oil shows. The above mentioned kitchen has also sourced the recently developed Blacktip gas/condensate accumulation.. The first of these wells.
A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
During the mid 1990‟s Amity also extensively explored in the WA sector of the basin. respectively and some oil was recovered. south of EPA 175.A. as well as many intervals of elevated gas readings. Amity then drilled an additional well on the Ningbing Structure when they spudded Ningbing 2 near to Ningbing 1 in 1996. A drill stem test of an interval within the Ningbing Group recovered a near full string of fresh water indicating possible flushing of the rocks by meteoric water. However the result of this test also indicates the presence of some reservoir R. The well which was located almost on the WA border was drilled in 1996 on the Pincombe Ridge and was located by seismic mapping.EPA 175 The company‟s second well.34 and 1. Like many wells in the basin Ningbing 2 encountered hole problems. The last exploration well drilled in the NT. not penetrated in Waggon Creek 1 as well as investigating the underlying Ningbing and Cockatoo Groups. Hydrocarbon indications in the Burt Range Formation were drillstem tested and gas flowed to surface at a rate too small to measure. Drillstem tests of two intervals in the upper Milligans Formation flowed gas at the rates of 1. nor was any significant reservoir found in the Cockatoo and Ningbing Groups. Some minor oil shows are recorded in the Tanmurra Formation and some moderate gas shows were present within the lower Milligans Formation. Amity spudded the Waggon Creek 1 well in the WA sector of the basin in 1995 and the company successfully flowed gas from a drillstem test of the Milligans Formation. in very tight rocks. two of these. Its failure may be due to breaching of the trap. northwest of Spirit Hill 1 and southwest of the Weaber Gas Field. was also operated by Amity. No significant hydrocarbon shows were encountered. over intervals in the Milligans Formation. It was located in the area of EPA 126. Minor hydrocarbon shows are reported from the Kuriyippi Formation with better shows occurring in the Port Spring Formation. The Sunbird Structure is a fault related drape structure. Due logistical problems. Pincombe 1. was also plugged and abandoned without testing in October 1994. if the trap was valid. It was sited down-dip of oil staining in mineral holes in the Langfield Group and up-dip of the Weaber Gas Field. Another aim was to appraise the hydrocarbon accumulation discovered in the upper Milligans Formation in Waggon Creek 1. Log analysis indicates some low level oil saturation in sandstones of the Ningbing Group.0 MMCFD. Six drill stem tests were attempted of which three were mechanically successful. due to faulting.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Waggon Creek 1A. Another two made recoveries of gas cut water. between these two wells. Section as well as potential reservoirs appear to have been lost. Ningbing 2 and Vienta 1 wells. The major aim of this deeper well was to investigate the deeper lower Milligans Formation and Langfield Group. The targets of the well were the Cockatoo Group and overlying Langfield Group. drilling the Waggon Creek 1. Sunbird 1. the lower Milligans Formation and Langfield Group were not penetrated in Waggon Creek 1 and the rig was skidded to the Waggon Creek 1A location some 60 metres northwest of the discovery well in 1996. flowed gas to the surface at a rate too small to measure. No hydrocarbon indications were noted in the upper Milligans Formation.
as well as high gas detector readings. The objective of this well was to test a different package of sandstones to that present in Waggon Creek 1/1A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. surprizingly. In the same year Amity spudded the Vienta 1. The Milligans Beds were also unsuccessfully tested. This discovery.26 MMCFD which declined to 0. The well was plugged and abandoned after a drillstem test of the upper Enga Formation sand flowed gas to surface at a rate too small to measure. The section was found to be tight however. The deeper gas saturated sandstone at Weaber 1 was not developed at Weaber 5.3 kilometres northeast of the discovery well in October 1998 to test to appraise the northern extent of the sub-commercial Weaber Gas Field. Amity then recorded the Weaber Plains Seismic Survey south of EPA 175 in 1996 and Amity reprocessed the poor quality seismic data of the Weaber Plains Seismic Survey in 1997. The well was plugged and abandoned after the target zone was found to be water wet and the structure is thought to be breached. The objective of this well was to conducted long term production tests of the gas saturated sandstone. in 1997. Waggon Creek 1/1A and Vienta 1. which flowed gas to the surface at a rate too small to measure. in 1998 in the WA sector of the basin. The second. approximately 20 metres north of the Weaber 1 discovery well. flowed gas at a commercial rate from the Keyling Formation. The discovery well could not be production tested due to well damage. This remains the last exploration drilled in the onshore sector of the basin. Two drillstem tests were conducted on his well. The well was plugged and abandoned. spudded the Weaber 4 well. Amity held the view that hydrocarbons were trapped in the Waggon Creek Embayment. The Weaber 5 appraisal well was drilled 2. The Enga Sandstones targets of the well were found to be tight and several drillstem tests were attempted but unfortunately most were unsuccessful due to packer failure. stratigraphically. This well flowed gas from a drillstem test of an interval in the Early Carboniferous Langfield Group. the first in the upper Milligans Formation. the well was cased and suspended as a future producer. . They then.EPA 175 quality rock.17 MMCFD. of WA.A. was made at Blacktip 1 in offshore waters in the WA sector of the Petrel Sub-basin. unfortunately no hydrocarbons were recovered. Ningbing 2. over an interval of the deeper Enga Sandstone. a non-commercial rate. The offshore discovery with the most relevance to onshore exploration in general. Reservoir quality was inferior to that at the discovery well. which was successfully tested by Woodside Offshore Petroleum (Woodside). and EPA 175 in particular. which flowed gas to surface in 5 minutes at an initial rate of 0. which flowed gas at Weaber 1 after the re-entry and testing of the discovery well. Following the drilling of the Weaber appraisal wells and Vienta 1 onshore exploration ceased and all exploration in the basin was conducted in the far offshore sector of the basin. Not a lot of sand was intersected and much over-pressuring was encountered. The gross gas column height in the Keyling Formation was 339 metres and a smaller accumulation in the Triassic Mount Goodwin R. which had to abandoned due to hole damage. eventually a successful test was conducted. as evidenced by the hydrocarbon indications at Ningbing 1.
Many untested plays are present in Bonaparte Oil‟s acreage and many more plays have not been definitively tested. about to be developed fields. The former include: Structural traps down dip of the basin margin and the oil stained shallow mineral drill holes. are located offshore of the tenement.14 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCF) and associated condensate reserves of 1. has been located in the southwest of the tenement. Recently released reserves figures indicate that the Blacktip Gas.EPA 175 Formation has a gross column height of 20 metres. This type of play will be more deeply buried in R. Statigraphic traps down dip of the basin margin and the oil stained mineral drill holes Composite structural/stratigraphic traps down dip of the basin margin and the oil stained mineral drill holes Dolomitic and/or oolitic calcareous sandstones with increased porosity and permeability and consequently better reservoir quality Salt diapiric structures in the southwest of EPA 175 Atoll reefs along any postulated once emergent high Pinnacle reefs adjacent to any postulated once emergent high
The existence of the diapiric structures is established in the area around Port Keats and the nearest of these to the axial trace of the Petrel Sub-basin should be tested. ENI drilled the Blacktip North 1 well in 2008 which was plugged and abandoned. Woodside later sold their interest in the field to the Italian major ENI.Meaney &Associates November 2010
10.Condensate Field holds in place gas reserves of 1. which have reefal limestones or oolitic and/or calcareous sandstones.A. the Weaber Gas Field has been found onshore. south of the tenement. which needs further seismic delineation. It is possible that structures which have been emergent. like those in outcrop in the Burt Basin or in the subsurface in the Keep River area may be present in EPA 175. who recently developed the field with a gas pipeline to the AmadeusDarwin gas trunk line. Hence the infra-structure for oil and gas development is present in Bonaparte Oil’s acreage.9 MMBBLS. A sub-commercial gas field. respectively. It would be wise to test both the crest and the flanks of any salt diapiric structure to test for pre and/or syn and post depositional hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. Such a possible structure. And many oil and gas shows are recorded as are a significant number of oil and gas flows. the connection spur runs through EPA 175 and the gas plant at Wadeye and the Wadeye offshore condensate loading facility. One developed and several.
EPA 175 EPA 175 than in and around the Burt Range Syncline near the basin‟s southeastern margin. which has a finer grained section and consequently less reservoir potential. Much of the drilling done to date in the NT has been aimed at large structures in the Petrel Subbasin. Post mortems conducted on these wells indicate that most are several kilometres off the crest of the structure and as such are not definitive tests of the structure. It is quite likely that with further exploration drilling and improved seismic acquisition.85 0. nor of the play.29
.2 0. These inadequately tested plays include: Structural traps within the Petrel Sub-basin beneath the Bonaparte and Milligans Beds Fault bound traps within the Petrel Sub-basin beneath the Bonaparte and Milligans Beds Fracture or dolomitically enhanced porosity in the Ningbing Limestone Oolitic reservoirs on old emergent highs Calcareous sandstone reservoirs on old emergent highs Salt induced structures
Valid crestal tests of the prospects need to be drilled to exhaustively evaluate the plays.A. Whilst no seismically defined are present in the permit several plays namely fault dependent structural traps and salt generated traps have been identified.45
GAS (recoverable) 2. could contain the following possible resources:OIL (in place) 248 MMBBLS GAS (in place) 2. other plays will be identified. The large lead.28 Metres3to barrels x 6. this will require the acquisition of seismic data of markedly improved quality to delineate prospects. An indicative possible resource determined for this lead using representative parameters and the area of fault dependent closure.2 TCF Conversion Factors:Metres3 to Feet3 x 3.Meaney &Associates November 2010 78 km2 10 m 0.65 0. if confirmed by additional seismic acquisition. as the onshore sector of the basin is at a very immature stage of exploration.6 TCF
OIL (recoverable) 157 MMBBLS Representative Parameters:Area of fault dependent closure Height of net effective hydrocarbon column Porosity Oil saturation Gas saturation Oil Recovery Factor R. One of the former Lead Alpha is shown in Figure 7.
They may also be the largest.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. This indicates that a late oil charge has reached the basin margin. The oil recoveries are matched to deeper rich and mature shales in the offshore sector of the basin. Furthermore shallow source rocks are in the oil window onshore. The locations of these leads are shown on a combined play concepts. structural elements and seismic and well data base map shown as Enclosure 2. This is empirically confirmed by the large number of oil. A modest gas discovery would be economic in these permits given their nearness to gas markets in Darwin and the connection to the Amadeus-Darwin gas trunk line to Darwin.85 0. 11. adjacent to the coast.83
There are several leads of this style and of similar magnitude. which appear to be more gas prone. it is view of the author that the basin edge is oil prone. drilling should then proceed in a basin-ward direction. often residual. Langfield and Weaber Groups beneath the basal seals of the Milligans Group as well as in the shallower Kulshill Group. the drilling costs will be cheaper
No oil prospects that are ready to be drilled have been identified within EPA 175. hence they could hold even larger possible hydrocarbon resources. The salt cored structures around Wadeye are a similar areal extent. a previous operator and confirmed by Petroconsultants and the author. shows in shallow mineral bores. are likely to be over or flanking salt diapirs. RECOMMENDATIONS
Whilst both oil and gas shows and gas recoveries have been made in the onshore sector of the Bonaparte Basin.66 0. These leads are of a diapiric genesis and others are fault dependent closures adjacent to the Moyle Fault. but could host larger net effective hydrocarbon columns. although several leads have been recognized by Aquitaine. Diapiric structures should be tested in both crestal and flank locations for a complete R. to the west southwest and south to test intact traps within the Cockatoo.EPA 175 Gas Recovery Factor Trap Geometry Factor Formation Volume Factor 0.A. It is strongly recommended that drilling commence near the Moyle Fault and regardless of the outcome of such a test. Hence both oil and/or gas discoveries in EPA 175 could be speedily developed in the tenement. Hence the prime recommendation of this report is that the emphasis of exploration in Bonaparte Oil‟s tenement be re-directed towards oil rather than gas. All those leads require seismic delineation. Since the development of the Blacktip Gas Field the economics of a gas discovery have improved markedly. This is because oil is: More profitable More quickly developed The production costs are less Given its expected location near the basin’s edge and at relatively shallow depths. which have been identified on old seismic data by Aquitaine. The most intact traps in the more basin-ward portion of the Petrel Sub-basin. Hence it is migrated oil.
Katherine and Wyndham. even though scientific methods are used to reduce risk. On the rocky outcrops areal receiver arrays and standing vibroseis source sweeps should be tested as to their effect of getting more energy into the ground. It is also recommended that an intensive experimental recording program be done before any new seismic acquisition is undertaken to improve data quality. For smaller gas discoveries consideration should be given to the compression and liquefaction of gas for markets in Darwin. it is expected that fault gouge will R. reducing both porosity and permeability and hence reservoir performance. to maximize resolution. If salt is indicated by such a survey it should be followed up by regional seismic recording to locate and then to define a trap.A. the presence of mature source rocks. As much trans-current (wrenching or lateral) movement has been established on the faults present. The sub-surface of the Earth is variable due to variances in the natural processes which control sedimentation and tectonic events. Some perpendicular strike lines should also be recorded to tie the lines together. Fault bound traps are also likely to be present in this area which would also be identified by seismic mapping. the presence of a reservoir and the presence of a seal and the presence of conduits from the mature hydrocarbon generative kitchens to the shallower intact traps. Any seismic data recorded should be biased towards the dip direction. It is the author‟s opinion that damage has been done to the reservoirs during drilling. as have diapiric structures. These too should also be pursued. The risk on sealing units is also low in EPA 175. it still exists.EPA 175 evaluation of the structure‟s potential and the uncertainty in knowledge of the time of hydrocarbon migration in the Petrel Sub-basin. Damage was evident in several of the wells in the Weaber Field. As a consequence of the known presence of salt tectonics it is recommended that modern regional gravity data be acquired in the north of EPA 175 to evaluate the area for presence of salt. This may overcome the declining gas flows encountered in many of the wells in the area.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The reservoirs may be composed of volcanoclastic material which is hydrophilic and which swells in the presence of fresh water. as previous drilling has shown an inter-bedded section with good reservoir development juxtaposed against impervious sealing shales. northwest-southeast. The main risks to exploration success are the existence of a trap. Kununurra. Seismic line placement should be biased towards the black soil plains. with both reservoirs and seals. To maximize reservoir deliverability it is recommended that any future wells be drilled with either air or brine as the drilling fluid. This should include the use of water spraying trucks on the black soil plains to improve ground coupling. as fault dependent traps have been recognized on seismic data. The risk on the existence of traps in EPA 175 is low. as the seismic acquisition problem should be more readily solvable there. 12 RISKS
No hydrocarbon exploration is without risk. The extensive Antrim Plateau basalts are the likely provenance of any volcanoclastic material.
An effort needs to be made to improve the resolution of any seismic data to be acquired. However the main untested plays are structural targets within the Kulshill Group. or if it has been re-migrated due to later tectonics. beneath the seals of the basal shales of the Milligans Beds. The presence of reservoir units has been confirmed empirically and analytically by laboratory studies. diapiric traps. These inappropriately sited wells may be giving an inaccurate and adverse indication of the reservoir deliverability of the area. The risk on mature source rocks does not exist. that a second down the flank test be drilled to fully search for any entrapped hydrocarbon column regardless of the time of emplacement of the hydrocarbon charge. Such a test will test for a late or post trap formation oil charge. hence they are not definitive. dry gas. most. and the Langfield. These plays include atoll and pinnacle reefs and dolomitic.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. high resolution seismic data. oolitic and/or calcareous sandstone targets and stratigraphic pinch outs. It is recommended that for prospects of a salt tectonic genesis. if not all. This nomenclature is from the BHPP Southern Bonaparte Stratigraphic Column as shown in Figure 5. whilst the deeper more basin-ward sector to the north. which warrant evaluation. appears to be more gas prone. Ningbing and Cockatoo Groups of the Bonaparte Formation. this can be reduced by drilling the top and flanks of salt induced structures. There are several untested plays. present within the tenement. good quality. west of the Moyle Fault.EPA 175 seal fault dependent structural traps. The stratigraphy of the onshore sector of the basin is confusing and requires detailed study and simplification. This will identify any hydrocarbon column if it is present and has been emplaced after the creation of the trap. It appears that Gussow‟s Theorem is operational in the onshore sector of the basin in that oil has been driven to the basin edge by later generated hot. It is imperative that any structural trap be tested in a crestal location. of the existing tests do not appear to be in valid crestal positions.surface R. deeper in the Petrel Sub-basin. All in all the risks are considered moderate in EPA 175 but the sites of test wells must be positioned with modern. This crestal location will also improve and sustain the flow rates from any drillstem test likely to be conducted. The major risk to exploration is the timing of the formation of salt induced.A. This should be readily achievable and should result ultimately in better and more reliable sub. given the results of analytical studies and more importantly the intersection of hydrocarbons in many petroleum exploration wells and even in shallow mineral wells. Furthermore. This being the case it makes the areas fringing the basin edge prospective for oil. near the basin edge and out to the coast. Weaber Group. Empirical evidence of shallow oil proves the connection of the hydrocarbon kitchens to the conduit carrier beds.
The major conclusion of this report is that Bonaparte Oil‟s tenement is quite prospective for both oil and gas.
This should alleviate reservoir damage whilst drilling. This combined structural. Oil could be exported from Wadeye or refined on-site for sale as diesel in northern Australia. Coal and mineral exploration data was also utilized. It was supplemented with public domain data as listed in the Bibliography (see below). west of the Moyle Fault. given the pipeline connection to Darwin and the export facilities.EPA 175 mapping. Previous Independent Geological Reports R. Even a modest discovery of oil could be readily exported or transported to the southern refineries or refined in a modular in-field simple distillate refinery. as were websites of various operating companies in the WA and NT onshore and offshore sectors of the Petrel Sub-basin of the Bonaparte Basin and the Principal of Bonaparte Basin Oil Limited. It should also reduce the chance of masking of hydrocarbon shows.A.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. The outcome of this will be the drilling of more robust and definitive plays and prospects. Gas could be compressed onsite and transported by road to other smaller users.
Sources of Information Data on Bonaparte Oil‟s onshore Bonaparte Basin acreage was obtained from the open file data held in the Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy Library and the Department‟s website. for sale in northern Australia. It will be required for both diapiric and fault bound and fault dependent structural closures. Data was also accessed on the website of the WA Department of Industry and Resources. Exploration should be directed towards oil as it is more profitable and more readily able to be developed. This means that activity should be concentrated in the southwest of the block. Lead Alpha. A review of drilling fluids to be used in future wells should be undertaken and the use of air or brine as a drilling fluid should be considered. Several potential markets have been identified. These are the major recognized plays within EPA 175. Large structures may be present. Mr Rodney Illingworth. In due course. such as the Alumina Plant at Nhulunbuy. Several fault dependent leads and several salt generated leads have been identified by previous operators and confirmed by the author A lead which was identified by earlier operators. It was augmented by knowledge in the possession of the author. should be delineated by modern high resolution seismic data. such as those used at the Eromanga and Inland Oil Fields in Queensland. a search should be made in the north of EPA175 for the presence of additional salt and diapiric structuring present on the Moyle Platform of the Petrel Sub-basin. Even a modest gas discovery should be economic in this area. however they are likely to contain gas. fault-dependent test will be a good evaluation for oil entrapment near the basin margin. Seismic delineation of leads previously identified by Aquitaine will be required before any drilling can be undertaken.
There is. appropriate and reasonable. In this Report discussion of potential traps. in relation to this Report. should not be taken to imply that a commercial accumulation is known to exist. Title Verification of title was not within the brief of Mapcourt Pty Ltd. or due to ineffective seal or later disruption of the trap. Inspection As is usual for exploration permits the author has not undertaken an inspection of the properties dealt with in this Report. There is always the risk that any potential trap may not contain hydrocarbons by virtue of inappropriately located or timed hydrocarbon generation or migration. The author referred to a previous report that he prepared for another operator of onshore Bonaparte Basin in the Northern Territory. Meaney and Associates. as well as the Geological Surveys of the NT and WA and other nearby and earlier operators in the basin.A. features and culminations. to explore for and develop conventional hydrocarbon resources in Bonaparte Oil Limited‟s Bonaparte Basin acreage. and of related potential hydrocarbon volumes. The author thinks that the proposed project is sound. EPA 175. no direct method for determining the presence of hydrocarbons prior to drilling of an exploration well. It is also based on recent developments in the establishment of infra-structure used in the transmission of hydrocarbons. including structures. Limitations and risk In preparing this Report the author has relied on the sources indicated above. and Industry and Resources respectively. trading as R. is soundly based on the results of previous exploration. A draft of this Report was supplied to Bonaparte Oil for comment regarding any errors of fact. both liquid and gaseous and the subsequent sale and export of them. Northern Territory.EPA 175
This is the first independent report prepared for Bonaparte Oil Limited on their petroleum exploration tenement.A. R. as outlined in this report. studies by the company and the NT and WA Departments of Mines and Energy. Comment It is the author‟s view that the proposed programme. A draft of this Report was supplied to Bonaparte Oil Limited for comment regarding any errors of fact. A potential trap may also contain non-commercial volumes due to adverse reservoir conditions or inadequate charge of hydrocarbons.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Exploration for and development of hydrocarbons is inherently speculative. Limitations and risk The author has relied on the sources indicated above. as yet.
Sc.Sc. AAR Limited and Santos Limited and worked in all facets of hydrocarbon exploration and production. He has more than 31 years experience in oil and gas exploration. graduated from LaTrobe University with a B. Conformity This report has been prepared to conform to the requirements of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Policy 75 (Independent expert reports to shareholders) and Practice Note 42 (Independence of Expert‟s Reports) and 43 (Valuation Reports and Profit Forecasts) as applicable. (Honours) in Physics and a Diploma of Education in 1973.500 (exclusive of GST) is all the remuneration that Mapcourt Pty Ltd is to receive in providing this Report. He has extensive technical experience in both the onshore and offshore sectors of the industry in Australia and some in the United States of America.EPA 175
Independence Mapcourt Pty Ltd is not operating under an Australian financial services license in providing this Report. Canada and Papua New Guinea. Neither Mapcourt Pty Ltd nor any of its directors. Indonesia. nor in any adjacent permits. Burma and Thailand and in management. Consent Mapcourt Pty. Date of report This report is dated November 30th 2010. as well as knowledge of underground coal gasification and gas to liquids synthesis. in Geology from the same institution. Qualifications Roger Meaney. employees or Associates has any beneficial interest in Bonaparte Oil Limited.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Roger also has experience in the coal bed methane drainage industry.He later completed the requirements for a B. He was employed as a Petroleum Geophysicist by Esso Australia Limited. and is subject to the code of ethics of these bodies. Roger has completed several Independent Geologist Reports for Australian companies in accordance with the R. nor in the permit which is the subject of this Report. He is a member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and of the Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia. part time.A. Associate Consultant Petroleum Geologist. A turnkey figure of $12. consents to the issue of this Independent Geologists‟ Report in the form and context in which it is intended. Ltd.
Report to Amity Oil Limited by Geosystems Pty.EPA 175 requirements of the Australian Stock Exchange. MSEG.Sc. Roger is a past President and past Vice President of the Queensland Petroleum Exploration Society (QUPEX). (Hon).
---------(Signed)-----------R. 1997 Spike Seismic Survey EP 66 and RL 1 Northern Territory Field Acquisition and Operations Report. Report to Barbara Investments Pty. Ltd Combined exploration in EP‟s 32 and 57. (PR19970003A) Weaber 5 Well Completion Report compiled by Greg Irwin November1998. Ltd (PR19930126). The Hydrocarbon Potential of Exploration Permit (EP) 3 Southeast Bonaparte Basin Northern Territory. Report to Halliburton Geophysical Services Inc .and Santos Limited Western Australia December 1988. 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY Weaber Plains (1996) Seismic Survey EP 66 Onshore Bonaparte Basin Spirit Hills Northern Territory Field Acquisition and Operations Report. (PR19870036) Farmin Opportunity EP 126 Western Australia. Ed. Ltd. Report to the NT Department of Mines and Energy by Amity Oil Ltd.. Ltd by Dynamic Satellite Surveys. July 1996 (PR19970003) 1995 Sandy Creek Seismic Survey EP 66 (Field Supervision Report). Report to Amity Oil Limited by Terracorp Pty Ltd October 1997. Report to NT Department of Mines and Energy by Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Gulf) Co. (PR19970003B) Final Operations Report on 1996 Waggon Creek and Weaber Plains Seismic Surveys EP 386(WA) AND EP 66 (NT) Report to Amity Oil Ltd by Geosystems Pty. (PR19990002) Annual Report EP 32 May 2 1992 . (PR/19980056) Seismic Data Processing Report 1996 Waggon Creek and Weaber Plains Seismic Surveys. Australia‟s oldest petroleum industry body.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Meaney B. Ltd.A. Report to Amity Oil Limited by Geosystems Pty. Report to Amity Oil Ltd by Robertson Research. By R W Fisher and Associates May 1987. (PR19960003E) Final Survey Data Sandy Creek Seismic Survey Bonaparte Basin EP 66. October 1996 (PR19960003) Seismic Data Processing Report 1995 Sandy Creek Seismic Survey EP 66 N. February 1991. Ltd. EP 352 Western Australia and EP 31 Northern Territory Bonaparte Basin. MPESA
. Final Report Offshore Navigation (Australia) Pty Ltd.T Report to Amity Oil Limited by Robertson Research. Dip. Ltd.A.May 1 1993-Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Gulf) Co. (PR19910012)
R. Report to Geosystems Pty. Project 1626M.
Meaney &Associates November 2010
.A.L. 30th April 1958. E. May 30th 1958. 1610-58. (PR19580003) Gravity and Geological Investigations North of the Moyle Rive-Port Keats area Northern Territory. Utting. Geophysical International. Mines Administration Pty Ltd 1957. Westralian Oil Limited. Minad. (PR19540002) Report on the southern portion of Westralian Oil Limited‟s permit area Bonaparte Gulf Basin. (PR19890033) Final Report on the geology of Northern Territory EP 31 Onshore Bonaparte Gulf Basin Surface and Subsurface Mapping of Southern Portion of OP 186. Report to Alliance Oil Development Australia N. J. 1955.(PR19850061) Hydrographic Survey and Sea Bed Investigation Timor Sea North West Australia. Burbury. Oil Development N.L.E.Burbury. (PR19570003) Report on Plane-tabled areas in Bonaparte Permit 3N.D. (PR19550002) Report on the Keep River Party 1956. Minad (PR19570001) Petroleum Prospects in Bonaparte Gulf Basin North-West Australia.D.Burt Range Seismograph Survey Part 2 Oil Permit (OP) 3 Northern Territory. (PR19610003B) Spirit Hill 1(deepened) Well Completion Report. D. Gravity Survey Burt Range Sub-basin Northern Territory. Westralian Oil Limited.E. December 1961 (PR19610012) Spirit Hill Seismic Survey conducted for Oil Development N.T.. J. (PR19580002) The Ningbing . Leo W Stach MSc Consulting Petroleum Geologist.(PR 67/08) Geological and Geophysical Report on the Keep River Area Bonaparte Gulf Basin1955. J. E. Rade.L. (PR19610014) Seismic Survey Report Keep River Area 0P 2 Northern Territory. General Geophysical Company (Bahamas) Limited 1962. Mines Administration. (PR19620015)
R. March 1959 (PR19590002) Bonaparte Gulf Basin Oil Permit 3 Northern Territory Interpretations of Geoseismic Survey 1960.Mines Administration. Ltd.EPA 175 Petroleum Prospects of Bonaparte Gulf Basin North West Australia. January 1964. July 1967 Report to Arco Limited by Australian Hydrographic Services Pty. Stach. (PR19580002) Progress Report Permit No 3 Bonaparte Gulf Basin.Starkey. Utting. E. R. 1957.J. Burbury (Minad) September1958. PR19570005) Regional Gravity Survey Bonaparte Gulf Basin North-western Australia. E.(PR19560009). Northern Territory. Utting. Westralian Oil Limited 1956. Westralian Oil Limited (PR19600007) Seismic Ledger Keep River Seismic Survey Port Keats area. (PR19580001) Preliminary Notes on Aeromagnetic Survey-Permit 2. December 1986 Internal Santos Limited Report compiled by M Majedi. J. Leo W.L by United Geophysical Corporation Exploration Permit 3 Final Annual Report Year Ended May 15th 1989 year Four of First Term. 1956 (PR19560009) Report on Exploration and Geology within Permit 3 Northern Territory during 1956. Allen. J.
E. Western Geophysical Company of America 1967. (PR19660006) Aquitaine Kulshill 2 OP 2 Northern Territory Well Completion Report.) Optical and Geological Matter (1. (PR1970002C) Seismic Ledger Quinns Seismic Survey. R.area south of Port Keats) A. December 1981. Laws and . Geophysical Service International Party 826 (PR 19680005) Keep River 1 Well Completion Report OP 2 Northern Territory. Mulle and K. Aasted.)Comparison with Lesueu 1. (PR19820008)
R.J. Aquitaine France (PR19820008) Bonaparte 2 (Australia) 1. Caye and A. AAP Pty Ltd. August 1980.P. November 1974 (PR19740021) Sedimentological Study of Ningbing Limestone (Upper Devonian) in Aquitaine Keep River 1 (from 11. Compagnie Generale de Geophysique. January 1971. J. Well Completion Report. J.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. June 1969 (PR19690009) Seismic Ledger Lone Hill Seismic and Gravity Survey. Keep River 1and mining exploration holes. AAP Pty Ltd 1964 (PR19640013) Seismic Ledger Kulshill Seismic and Gravity Survey. (PR1965002) Seismic Ledger Moyle River Seismic and Gravity Survey. Creevey.A. Northern Territory Well Completion Report. P. K. (PR19660012A) Aquitaine Moyle 1 OP 2. 9PR 19740004B) AAP Pty Ltd Kinmore 1 P17 Northern Territory Well Completion Report.EPA 175 Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty Ltd Point Pearce Seismic Survey. December 1966. (PR19710021) Seismic Ledger Border Creek La. Elloy. (PR19680003) Seismic Ledger Hyland Marine Seismic Survey. (PR19690012) Review of Exploration Results and Petroleum Potential in the NT/P17 and OP 162Permits (Northwestern Australia) S. B.623‟) Northern Territory. 1963 (PR19630019) Seismic Ledger Point Pearce Seismic Survey (PR19630019B) Experimental Recordings Point Pearce Seismic Survey (PR19630019B) Shallow Core Drilling Report-Sugarloaf (OP 2.6. (PR19660007) Seismic Ledger Cape Hay-Cape Ford Marine Seismic Survey 1966. (PR19640014B) Seismic Ledger Queens Channel Marine Seismic Survey. Duchemin AAP Pty Ltd. (PR19686003E) Final Report Keep River Reflection Project for Westralian Oil Limited. R. Aquitaine France. AAP Pty Ltd September 1966 (PR19660022) An Attempt at the Geological Interpretation of the south and southeast of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin Permits OP2. Kemp. F Brophy AAP Pty Ltd.Caye.700‟-15. Creevey.000‟) 2.500‟. Aquitaine France. Clerc. (PR19660009) Seismic Ledger Oakes Creek Seismic and Gravity Survey. OP 83 and PE 127H. (PR19800030) Analyses of Lower Carboniferous to Upper Permian core samples from mineral exploration core holes (onshore Bonaparte Basin-Australia). (PR 19670019B) Aquitaine Kulshill 1 Authority to Prospect OP 2 Northern Territory. AAP Pty Ltd. Duchemin and N. April 1967 (PR19670021) Final Report Hyland Marine Seismic Survey Bonaparte Basin Northern Coast of Australia O2 and OP 3 for AAP Pty Ltd. AAP Pty Ltd. AAP Pty Ltd.
(PR19950035) Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Basin) Co.L. Australia. Santos Limited. Dames and Moore. Gordon (PR19950087) Petrographic Analysis of 12 Side Wall Cores from Kingfisher 1. October 1994 (PR19950086) Log Interpretation Report Kingfisher 1. (PR19950036 Palynology Onshore Report Sunbird 1 EP 32 Bonaparte Basin. Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Basin) Co. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. A. February 1994 (PR19940060) Positioning Report for Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Gulf) Co. January 1993 (PR19940004) Report on Seismic Attribute Work relevant to depth mapping of the Barnett Kuriyippi Formation Oil Field. Australia. Limited of the positioning of the drilling rig “Ron Tappmeyer”. Le Provost. (PR19950035) Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Basin) Co. Paul Walsh. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. (PR19940067) Sidewall Core Descriptions Kingfisher 1. January 1994 (PR19950035L) Hydrocarbon Characterization Study Sunbird 1 Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. January 1993 (PR19940005) NT/P28 Barnett Structure Near Top Kuriyippi Formation Depth Mapping Review. David Grybowski.. Rahdon Shell Development (Australia) Pty Ltd.L. Falloon. January 1993 (PR19940007) Core Analysis Report Sunbird 1. Grybowski. February 1995. January 1993 (PR19940006) Reservoir Potential of the Langfield Group in the Barnett Area.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Northern Territory. Limited Kingfisher 1 offshore Bonaparte Basin EP 57. July 1994 (PR 19950088)
R. January 1995. and M. (PR 19950080) Onshore Petrographic Analysis Sunbird 1. Browne. (PR19940061) Baker Hughes Integrated Drilling Fluids Report prepared for Teikoku Co. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. January 1994 (PR19950084) Kingfisher 1 Paleontological Examination of Drill Cuttings and Side wall Cores from Kingfisher 1. Santos Limited. Grybowski. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. January 1995. A Pilot Study. Santos Limited. Northern Territory Environmental Report. April 1982 (PR19890029) Permit NT/P28 Barnett Oil Field Kuriyippi Formation oil-in-place. RL 1 onshore Bonaparte Basin Northern Territory Weaber 3 Well Completion Report. November 1994 (PR 19940059) Exploration Drilling EP32 and EP 57Joseph Bonaparte Gulf.. Limited Kingfisher 1 Well Completion Report.. D.A. Northern Territory.E. December 1994 (PR 19950081) Paleontological Examination of Drill Cuttings and Side wall Cores from Sunbird 1 Bonaparte Gulf. Limited (PR 19940068) Capital Energy N.EPA 175 Diagenesis of Sandstones from the Bonaparte Basin North Australia. Limited Sunbird 1 Well Completion Report.T. S.. August 1994 (PR19950085) Palynology Report Kingfisher 1 EP 57 Bonaparte Basin. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. Mark Brown. D. Santos Limited.
Turner and M.. November 1998 (PR 19990002) Data Processing Report area Southern Bonaparte/ Petrel Basin Survey-Shakespeare 3D Block NT/57. Barnett North and Northwest 2D grid and Siren 2D. AAP Pty Ltd. July 1989 (PR19880053) Vitrinite Reflectance Determinations and Maceral Analyses. Taylor and Al Panting. (PR19970003) Weaber 4 Well Completion Report. C Ford.J. Santos Limited. May 1985 (PR19850049) Offshore Bonaparte Basin. Woodside Australian Energy Limited. (PR19900089) Milligans Formation Well Log Facies Study onshore Bonaparte Basin WA and NT. March 1990 (PR19899974) Barnett 3Well Completion Report (Interpreted Data).Meaney &Associates November 2010
.A. J.L. Santos Limited. APP Pty Ltd. Lee and Ph Baffray. Santos Limited. Santos Limited. 8-4-„83 (PR19830044) Weaber 1 Core Photographs (Core #2). November 1994 (PR 19950089) Pincombe 1 Well Completion Report Shane Hibberd.EPA 175 Hydrocarbon Characterization Study Kingfisher 1.J. Amity Oil N. (PR20010013) Seismic Interpretation Report NT/P57 Shakespeare 3D Survey Bonaparte Basin. R. Amity Oil N. December 2003 (PR20030105) APP Weaber 1 Well Completion Report.L. I. APP Pty Ltd (PR19840116) Petroleum Geochemistry. June 1991. December 1988 (PR 19880096) Barnett 2 Final Well Report for Elf Aquitaine Exploration Australia Pty Ltd. Santos Limited. (PR19880085) Seismic Ledger 1987 Pincombe Seismic Survey. Santos Limited. February 1994 (PR199800040 Seismic Ledger Weaber Plains Seismic Survey (1997Reprocessing) (PR19980058) Weaber 5 Well Completion Report. Analabs. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd (PR 19890074) Barnett 2 Well Completion Report (Basic Data). M majedi. Greg Irwin. Bonaparte Basin. Report to Woodside Energy Ltd from Western Geco. R.. Gausden (PR19910078)
R. Garside.. Coisyand R DeLastic. Badcock. (PR19970001) Seismic Ledger 1996 Weaber Plains Seismic Survey. Australia.-Geochemical Data from eleven wells from the Bonaparte Basin of the Northern Territory. PH. August 2002 (PR 20030017) Well Completion Report Shakespeare 1 Interpretive Data NT/57. Woodside Australian Energy Limited. Report for WMC BY Amdel. AAP Pty Ltd. Geotechnical Services Pty Ltd. Simon Mc Guire. M. September 1983 (19870025) Seismic Ledger 1987 Weaber Plains Seismic Survey. (PR 19850033) Barnett Seismic SurveyPermitNT/P28 Bonaparte Basin. June 1991 (PR 19910071) Seismic Ledger 1984 Barnett-Siren Marine Seismic Survey (1990 Reprocessing) Seismic Ledger Barnett 1990 (B90) 3D Seismic Survey (PR19900089) Geophysical Interpretation Report of the B90 2D/3D Seismic Survey incorporating Barnett 3D. Paul Faehrmann. (PR19880087) Weaber 2/2A Well Completion Report (Raw Data). (PR19850061) Barnett 1 Well Completion Report. G Irwin.L. August 1985(PR198500800) Seismic Ledger 1984 Spirit Hill Seismic Survey (Santos Limited) Weaber 2/2A Well Completion Report. Amity Oil N.
P. March 1967 (PR19670003) Report on Coal Exploration in Coal Licence 172 Port Keats area Northern Territory. Australia (Keep River 1. (PR67/19) Overview of OP 186 Exploration Result and Proposed 1986 Geologic Field Work.EPA 175 BHP Petroleum Billawock 1 Well Completion Report (Interpretive Data) BHPP.Kulshill 1. Bonaparte 1.D. (PR82/09)
R.M. October 1983 (PR 19830300) Geology of Victoria River Area. December 1992 (PR19920117) Shallow water (Teikoku Oil) Marine Seismic Survey Bonaparte Gulf 1992. Report to Thiess Brothers Pty Limited by Geotechnics (Australia) Pty Ltd. Februart 1968 (PR 19680070) Quarterly Report for August-October on Coal Licence 173Northern Territory. Bonaparte 2 (Australia) Optical and Geochemical Study of Organic Matter (1500 feet to 6000 feet) and Comparison with Lesueur 1 and Keep River 1 (PR82/008) Vitrinite Reflectance Determinations and Maceral Determinations for Western Mining Corporation Ltd. Santos Limited July 1986 (PR86/084) 1988 Forsyth Seismic Survey Bonaparte Basin O. Limited Bonaparte GulfAustralia1992 Survey 11th July 1992-6th August 1992. (PR19930052) Seismic Ledger 1992 Reprocessed Spirit Hill Seismic Survey (PR19930019) Final Operations Report for Teikoku Oil (Bonaparte Basin) Oil Co. Kulshill 2. Report to Associated Freney Oil Fields by Minad (compiled by A. Kulshill 2 and Yampi 1) Technical Research Centre. (PR19930004(A.Barnett 2..L Permit 1 Northern Territory. Report to NT Department of Mines and Energy.Ltd by Compagnie Generale de Geophysique. Laing and R. Allen). CRA Limited.J. September 1993 (PR 19930068) Southern Bonaparte Basin Thermal History Assessed using Apatite Fission Track Analysis and Vitrinite Reflectance. Ltd. (PR56/003) Oakes Creek Seismic and Gravity Survey August.October 1967.T Tjhin and M.July 17 1986. Majedi. September 1993 (PR19930070) Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of 110 core samples from eight wells.J and M) Report on Coal Exploration in Coal Licence 172 Port Keats area Northern Territory. Australia (Keep River 1.Turtle 1.C. Turtle 1. Compiled by K.B.A.Barnett 2. Utah Development Company (PR19730082) Coal Licence 1 Bonaparte Basin NT Final Report. Quarterly Report April 18 1986 . WMC.and Yampi 1. (PR 19920176 and PR 19920077) Petrographic Study on conventional cores from eight wells. Party 130. May 1956.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Ltd. Limited. September 1991. Bonaparte 1. Western Geophysical Co of America.C. Associated Freney Oil Fields N. Japan. Report to Thiess Brothers Pty Limited by Geotechnics (Australia) Pty Ltd. Report to Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty . Teikoku Oil Co. Report to the NT department of Mines and Energy by Santos Limited Survey Report JMR – 1 Sat /Dop Observations for Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. Technical Research Centre. May 1983 (PR19830177) Licence to Search for Coal Number 2 Keep River Final Report. Teikoku Oil co. Ningbing 1. 186 Northern Territory. Kulshill 1. M/V Western Orient. Ningbing 1. Geotrack International Report 8337. Japan.
September 2002 Victoria River Downs SE 52-4 1:250.000 Geological Map Series Explanatory Notes (2nd Edition) Northern Territory Northern Territory Geological Survey Department of Business.G and R. Internal Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. O. Purcell in The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia Edited by P. 186 Northern Territory A Review of Reflection Seismic Data.000 Geological Series – Explanatory Notes Department of Minerals and Energy Bureau of Mineral Resources. Industry and Development. Report to the NT Department of Mines and Energy by Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. Industry and Resource Development. Ltd. O. Internal Santos Limited Report compiled by S.P.EPA 175 Review of Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of OP 186. Auvergne SD 52-15 1:250. In 1981 APEA Journal The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia :An Introduction P. (PR80/028) Northern Territory Geological Survey Basin Petroleum Basin Study Bonaparte Basin compiled by Petroconsultants Australasia Pty.
R. R.P.A. 1 Gas in Place Report. Jones. (PR92/17) Proposed Howland Marine Seismic Survey NT/P28 (Petrel and Tern Detail) Report to the NT Department of Mines and Energy by Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. Geology and Geophysics 1972 Limbunya SE-07 1:250. a hydrocarbon trap formed by the upward bowing of strata into a dome or arch. Ltd. Ltd report compiled by G.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. Magnien April 1980.L. Laws Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. June 1990 The Petroleum Geology of the Onshore Bonaparte Basin. 186 Northern Territory BNT–81 Seismic Survey Bonaparte Basin.R.000 Geological Map Series Explanatory Notes (2nd Edition) Northern Territory Geological Survey Northern Territory Department of Business.P.000Geological Map Series Explanatory Notes Northern Territory Geological Survey Department of Mines and Energy 2000
Below are simple and brief explanations of some of terms used in this report.G and R. Northern Territory. Geology and Geophysics 1973 Port Keats Northern Territory 1:250. Report to the NT Department of Mines and Energy by Australian Aquitaine Petroleum Pty. Internal Report for Alliance Petroleum International compiled by R Blake March 1984 (PR GP 125 Northern Territory BNT80 Seismic Survey Interpretation Report. (PR80/18). R. Purcell 1994 Waterloo Northern Territory 1:250. (PR82/01) GP 135 Interpretation Report O. Ltd.000 Geological Series-Explanatory Notes Department of National Development Bureau of Mineral Resources. Ltd. (PR82/78) Weaber Field Northern Territory R. August 2002. 186 Bonaparte Basin. other terms are defined within the report:Anticline: Anticlinal trap: a tectonic structure in which strata are folded so as to form an arch or dome. Ltd.
Gallons = 35 Imperial Gallons (approx. See four-way dip closure. also. the highest point on a four-way dip closed structure.317 million cubic metres. limestone. a geological time period approximately 545 to 490 million years ago. the area within the lowest closing contour of a structure.) BCF: bopd: Basin: Cambrian: Carbonates: billion cubic feet (109 cubic feet) = 28. a geological time period approximately 410 to 354 million years ago. also used to indicate that a four-way dip closure exists. sedimentary rocks composed of calcium and/or magnesium carbonate e.e. a depression of large size in which sediments have accumulated. hydrocarbons (predominantly pentane and heavier compounds) which spontaneously separate out from natural gas at the wellhead and condense to liquid. the angle of the plan of a bed relative to the horizontal.
Cretaceous: Depocentre: Depression:
Deposition: Devonian: Dip:
R. a geological time period approximately 141 to 65 million years ago an area or site of maximum deposition in a sedimentary basin. a low place of any size on the Earth’s surface. a closed structure.) or 159 litres (approx. a geological time period approximately 354 to 298 million years ago a sedimentary rock composed predominantly of particles less than silt size usually comprising clay minerals.S. the unit of volume measurement used for petroleum and its products. also may refer to a sedimentary trough or basin the laying down of potential rock forming material i.EPA 175
Appraisal well: a well drilled to determine the extent of hydrocarbons discovered in previous well on the same structure.g.A. barrels of oil per day. sediments.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. 1 barrel = 42 U.
a bend in strata. naturally occurring organic compounds containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon that may exist as solids. sediments deposited in a lake environment. liquids or gases. for example a single shale bed in an alternating sequence of sands and shales may be an intraformational seal. due to fault displacement. the science relating to the history and development of the Earth’s crust. inferred geologic feature or structural pattern requiring investigation.
Field: Fold/Folding: Formation: Four-way dip:
Gas in Place (GIP):
Jurassic: Lacustrine: Lead:
R. a structural feature seen on orthogonal seismic lines to dip away in all four possible directions. the physics of the Earth. the rock record of any sedimentary environment. closure indicating that any hydrocarbons beneath a sealing stratum will be trapped in this feature. an estimated measure of the total amount of gas contained in a reservoir and. a hybrid discipline involving a combination of physical and geological principles. A hydrocarbon trap which relies on the termination of a reservoir against a seal. a term used in seismic interpretation to identify the signal reflected from a particular layer of rock.EPA 175
Dry hole: Exploration well: a well drilled without finding gas or oil in commercial quantities. a fracture in the Earth’s crust along which the rocks on one side are displaced relative to those on the other. existing within a geological formation. a higher figure than Recoverable Gas. including both physical and organic characters. commonly a product of deformation. a unit in stratigraphy defining a succession of rocks of the same type. a geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. a well drilled to determine whether hydrocarbons are present in a particular area or structure. as such.A. a geological time period approximately 205 to 141 million years ago.
a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights. a measure of the capacity of rock or stratum to allow water or other fluids such as oil to pass through it. The geological era extending approximately from 225 to 65 million years ago Mesozoic: Migration: MMSTB: MMCFD: Net Pay: the movement of hydrocarbons from regions of higher to lower pressure. technical analysis of the results of well logging leading to quantitative estimates of various rock properties including contained liquids and gases. A monetary value for future cash flows which is discounted to allow for the time value of money. millions of standard barrels. millions of cubic feet per day = 28. ‘Net present value’. deposited in the sea.Meaney &Associates November 2010
Limestone: Lithology: Log(s): Log interpretation:
Marine: Mature (source):
Oil: Oil Field: Oil in Place (OIP):
R.317 cubic metres per day. in which organic matter in a potential source rock will be converted to hydrocarbons.A. see well log. a rock composed of calcium carbonate. the subsurface geological layer where a deposit of oil or gas is found in potentially commercial quantities. temperature and time. caused by pressure. as such. a geological time period approximately 490 to 434 million years ago. an estimated measure of the total amount of oil contained in a reservoir and. a higher figure than Recoverable Oil. the condition. the physical and mineralogical characteristics of a rock. a geological time period approximately 298 to 251 million years ago.EPA 175
Licence: an authority to explore for or produce oil or gas in a particular area issued to a company by the governing state. a geographical area under which an oil reservoir lies.
Petroleum system: Petrophysical: Pipeline:
R. Pressure vs compressibility. an estimated measure of the total amount of oil which could be brought to the surface from a given reservoir.EPA 175
Petroleum: a generic name for hydrocarbons. an Engineering analysis used to calculate reserves of gas. an expression of uncertainty (high risk) or uncertainty (no risk) often relating to the presence of principal geological factors controlling oil accumulations. the set geological conditions which give rise to petroleum accumulations. this is usually of order 60% . usually quartz.8 million years ago. an impermeable rock (usually claystone or shale) that prevents the passage of hydrocarbons. the physical properties of rocks. a pipe through which oil. a sedimentary rock composed predominantly of sand sized grains. its products. often caused by unstable formation or by poor drilling practice. the ratio of the volume of pore space in rock to its total volume. a feature sufficiently defined to warrant the drilling of a well without the necessity of further investigation. expressed as a percentage. in this context.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. either offshore or onshore. as measured by well logs. natural gas and their products. a mineral composed of silicon dioxide. commencing approximately 1. pervious and porous rocks (usually sandstone. this is usually less than 50% of the estimated Oil in Place and commonly in the 20% to 40% range. or gas is pumped between two points. including crude oil. limestone or dolomite) capable of containing significant quantities of hydrocarbons.A. the irregularity or roughness of a borehole. an estimated measure of the total amount of gas which could be brought to the surface from a given reservoir. natural gas liquids. the most recent geological era.70% of the estimated Gas in Place.
a rock formed as a result of the consolidation of sediments. faulting or a combination of both.EPA 175
Seismic survey: a technique for determining the detailed structure of the rocks underlying a particular area by passing acoustic shock waves into the strata and detecting and measuring the reflected signals. which has been moved from its position of origin and redeposited. solid material. where the resultant bed configuration is such as to form a trap for migrating hydrocarbons. a geological time period approximately 251 to 205 million years ago.A. vertically or laterally sealed. a trap formed as a result of folding. an indication of oil or gas from an exploratory well. and the results of those movements. Total organic carbon (content – as a %age) a body of reservoir rock. lack of parallelism between rock strata in sequential contact. an era of geological time approximately 65 to 1. correlation and character. caused by a time break in sedimentation. elevation of any extensive part of the Earth’s surface relative to some other
Sedimentary rock: Shale: Show: Silt/siltstone:
Stratigraphy: Structural Trap: Structure:
Tertiary era: TOC Trap:
Trend: Triassic: Unconformity (angular) Updip:
R. whether mineral or organic. the attitude of which allows it to retain the hydrocarbons that have migrated into it.Meaney &Associates November 2010
. a claystone exhibiting a finely laminated structure. deformed sedimentary rocks. especially their age. the direction leading most directly to higher elevations on an inclined stratum or structure. rocks (usually claystone or coal) that have generated or are in the process of generating significant quantities of hydrocarbons. the study of stratified rocks. a strike direction of a geological feature.8 million years ago. rock intermediate in texture and grain size between sandstone and claystone. descriptive of all movements of the Earth’s crust caused by directed pressures.
Meaney &Associates November 2010
R. Well-log (log): a recording of rock properties obtained by lowering various instruments down a drilled well by means of a wireline.EPA 175