Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array

Chapter 1



1.1 Introduction
The objective of this project has been to design a compact tapered slot Vivaldi antenna array for UWB see through wall radar. Vivaldi antennas have received considerable attention due to their high gain, relatively wide band, simple structure, easy fabrication, and wide use in UWB applications. Their small lateral dimensions and simple integration make them excellent candidates for array development [1.1]. Federal Communication Commission (FCC) approved a 1.99 GHz to 11.6 GHz frequency band for use in UWB through-wall imaging systems [1.2]. Yang [1.3] designed a Vivaldi antenna array around 10 GHz for UWB see through wall radar utilizing antipodal Vivaldi antennas with Wilkinson power divider for the binary feed. However, the size of this 16 element array is relatively too large if the antenna array is duplicated for the lower band UWB applications; i.e. close to 3 GHz. Therefore, we used here only a 4- element array and optimized its performance to sustain similar almost constant gain over its operating band. Similar concepts to that utilized by Abbosh et al. [1.4] to design a compact UWB antipodal Vivaldi antenna have been utilized here. In this project, we have developed a Vivaldi antenna array for see through wall UWB applications. The configuration of the array element was optimized to have a compact size. Then, a 1 × 2 Vivaldi antenna array is developed using tapered slot antennas (TSA) and a 3 dB power divider. After that, a 1 × 4 Vivaldi antenna array is developed using tapered slot antennas (TSA) and Wilkinson power divider. Details of the developed Vivaldi antenna, Wilkinson power divider, Vivaldi antenna arrays, its simulation and experimental results are presented in this project report.

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t i


tenna Array 2011

1.2 Antenna Parameters
The performance of an antenna can be gauged from a number of parameters. Cetain r critical parameters are discussed below [1.5]. 1.2.1 Gain Gain is a parameter which measures the degree of directi it of the antenna's radiation pattern. An antenna with a low gain emits radiation with about the same power in all directions, whereas a high-gain antenna will preferentiall radiate in particular direc tions. Specificall , the ant nna gain, directive gain, or power gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the intensit (power per unit surface) radiated by the antenna in the direction of its maximum output, at an arbitrary distance, di ided by the intensity radiated at the same distance by a hypothetical isotropic antenna. The gain of an antenna is a passi e phenomenon - power is not added by the antenna, but simply redistributed to provide more radiated power in a certain direction than would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna. An antenna designer must take into account the application for the antenna when determining the gain. High -gain antennas have the advantage of longer range and better signal quality, but must be aimed carefully in a particular direction. Low-gain antennas have shorter range, but the orientation of the ante nna is relatively inconsequential. For example, a dish antenna on a spacecraft is a highgain device that must be pointed at the planet to be effective, whereas a typicalWi-Fi antenna in a laptop computer is low-gain, and as long as the base station is within range, the antenna can be in any orientation in space. It makes sense to improve hori ontal range at the expense of reception above or below the antenna. Thus most antennas labeled "omnidirectional" really have some gain. Power gain is a unit less measure that combines an antenna's efficiency and directivity figures: (1.1)

If the radiation intensity U in the desired solid angle is known, then power gain for that solid angle can be calculated:

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Design of a Compact Vi aldi Antenna Array 2011

(1.2) 1.2.2 Radiation pattern The radiation pattern of an antenna is a plot of the relative field strength of the radio waves emitted by the antenna at different angles. It is typically represented by a three dimensional graph, or polar plots of the hori ontal and vertical cross sections. The pattern of an ideal isotropic antenna, which radiates equally in all directions, would look like a sphere. Many non directional antennas, such as monopoles and dipoles, emit equal power in all hori ontal directions, with the power dropping off at higher and lower angles; this is called an omnidirectional pattern and when plotted looks like a torus or donut. The radiation of many antennas shows a pattern of maxima or "obes" at various l angles, separated by "nulls", angles where the radiation falls to zero. This is because the radio waves emitted by different parts of the antenna typically interfere, causing maxima at angles where the radio waves arrive at distant points in phase, and zero radiation at other angles where the radio waves arrive out of phase. In a directional antenna designed to project radio waves in a particular direction, the lobe in that direction is designed larger than the others and is called the "main lobe". The other lobes usually represent unwanted radiation and are called "sidelobes". The axis through the main lobe is called the "principle axis" or "boresight axis".

Fig. 1.1 Radiati n pattern of a directional antenna

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a balun. antenna. a simple straight wire antenna will have Department of Electronics.5 Polarization The polarization of an antenna is the orientation of the electric field (E-plane) of the radio wave with respect to the Earth's surface and is determined by the physical structure of the antenna and by its orientation.2. Mathematically. "vertical" and "circular". CUSAT Page 4 ¡ . showing that SWR alone is not an effective measure of an antenna's efficiency. It has nothing in common with antenna directionality terms: "horizontal". or matching sections such as the gamma match.4 Efficiency Effi iency is the ratio of power actually radiated to the power put into the antenna terminals.2. The ratio of maximum power to minimum power in the wave can be measured and is called the standing wave ratio (SWR). as it absorbs all power and radiates heat but very little RF energy. matching networks composed of inductors and capacitors. and reduces efficiency. etc. Thus. Loss resistance usually results in heat generation rather than radiation. Minimizing impedance differences at each interface (impedance matching) will reduce SWR and maximize power transfer through each part of the antenna system. some fraction of the wave's energy will reflect back to the source. 1.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 1.5:1 is considered to be marginally acceptable in low power applications where power loss is more critical. V/I. depending on the impedance match.). Radiation in an antenna is caused by radiation resistance which can only be measured as part of total resistance including loss resistance. the impedance is adjusted at the load with an antenna tuner. feed line. A dummy load may have an SWR of 1:1 but an efficiency of 0. free space) it may encounter differences in impedance (E/H. A SWR of 2. although an SWR as high as 6:1 may still be usable with the right equipment. At each interface. efficiency is calculated as radiation resistance divided by total resistance. a matching transformer. 1. More commonly. The impedance of an antenna can be matched to the feed line and radio by adjusting the impedance of the feed line. Complex impedance of an antenna is related to the electrical length of the antenna at the wavelength in use. using the feed line as an impedance transformer.2. A SWR of 1:1 is ideal.3 Impedance As an electro-magnetic wave travels through the different parts of the antenna system (radio. forming a standing wave in the feed line.

polarization cannot be relied upon. but pointing it in the direction of the emitter. Polarization is largely predictable from antenna construction but. meaning that the polarization of the radio waves varies over time. Depending on the orientation of the antenna mounting. Many commercial antennas are marked as to the polarization of their emitted signals. In linear polarization the antenna compels the electric field of the emitted radio wave to a particular orientation. it can make a large difference in signal quality to have the transmitter and receiver using the same polarization.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 one polarization when mounted vertically. Circular polarizations. An exception is a class of elongated waveguide antennas in which vertically placed antennas are horizontally polarized. especially in directional antennas. Polarization is the sum of the E-plane orientations over time projected onto an imaginary plane perpendicular to the direction of motion of the radio wave. For radio waves the most important reflector is the ionosphere . In the most general case. A vertical omnidirectional WiFi antenna will have vertical polarization (the most common type). the usual linear cases are horizontal and vertical polarization. and so are opposite to radio engineers use. polarization corresponds to the orientation of the radiating element in an antenna. the antenna continuously varies the electric field of the radio wave through all possible values of its orientation with regard to the Earth's surface. Two special cases are linear polarization (the ellipse collapses into a line) and circular polarization (in which the two axes of the ellipse are equal). like elliptical ones. In circular polarization. not in the direction of propagation. "Electromagnetic wave polarization filters are structures which can be employed to act directly on the electromagnetic wave to filter out wave energy of an undesired polarization and to pass wave energy of a desired polarization. For signals which are reflected by the ionosphere. are classified as right-hand polarized or left-hand polarized using a "thumb in the direction of the propagation" rule. CUSAT Page 5 . Optical researchers use the same rule of thumb. Department of Electronics. the polarization of side lobes can be quite different from that of the main propagation lobe.signals which reflect from it will have their polarization changed unpredictably. polarization is elliptical. and a different polarization when mounted horizontally. For radio antennas. many tens of dB differences are commonly seen and this is more than enough to make the difference between reasonable communication and a broken link. Reflections generally affect polarization. For line-of-sight communications for which polarization can be relied upon.

Design of a Compact Vi aldi Antenna Array 2011 In practice. This discontinuity can be a mismatch with the terminating load or with a devic inserted in the line. and this convention is still widely found in the literature. So horizontal should be used with horizontal and vertical with vertical.2. Transmitters mounted on vehicles with large motional freedom commonly use circularly polarized antennasso that there will never be a complete mismatch with signals from other sources. when expressed in decibels. should be positive numbers However. The second chapter gives an insight into the tapered slot antenna radiation characteristics and design.3 Project Report Organization This repot has been organized in six chapters. Intermediate matchings will lose some signal strength. Pi is the incident power and Pr is the reflected power. loss quantities. lest the received signal strength be greatly reduced. Properly. 1. Caution is required when discussing increasing or decreasing return loss since these terms strictly have the opposite meaning when return loss is defined as a negative quantit . Where RL (dB) is the return loss in dB. it is important that linearly polarized antennas be matched. y 1.6 Return loss Return loss or reflection loss is the loss of signal power resulting from the reflection caused at a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. but not as much as a complete mismatch. Department of Electronics CUSAT Page 6 . return loss has historically been expressed as a negative number. It is usually e expressed as a ratio in decibels (dB). regardless of confusing terminology. Taking the ratio of reflected to incident power results in a negative sign for return loss Where RL'(dB) is the negative of RL(dB).

org Department of Electronics. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. Fathy.1] Sng-Gyu Kim.5] www. CUSAT Page 7 . The sixth chapter discusses the 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array. ³Design of compact directive ultra wideband antipodal antenna´. pp. ³Development of an ultra wideband antipodal antenna´. ³Revision of part 15 of the Commission¶s R les Regarding Ultra Wideband Transmission Systems´.4 References ¢ [1.K. 606 -609. The seventh chapter is conclusion. 2003 £ [1. A comparison between the results of 2-element and 4-element array is also done. Bialkowski. Kai Chang. pp.wikipedia. June 2004.3] Yunqiang Yang. Kan and M. July 2005.M. 2006. Ansoft¶s HFSS software based on FEM is used for antenna simulation in this project.3. [1. vol. Antenna and Propagation Society International Symposium. Dec. Finite Element Method (FEM). [1. 48. The fifth chapter gives the design and fabrication of 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array. 2448-2451. 1. March 12. A brief description of HFSS is also given in this chapter. its simulation and measurement results. its simulation and measurement results. 2269 -2272. no. vol.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 The third chapter gives a qualitative description of the full wave analysis technique. Cemin Zhang. H.12. vol. Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. Abbosh.E. Song Lin and Aly E. The fourth chapter gives the design of Tapered Slot Antenna. [1.4] A. ³A low cross polarized antipodal Vi aldi antenna array for wideband operation´. 1A. pp.2] Federal Communications Commission.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array
Chapter 2


Tapered Slot Antennas

2.1 Introduction
The objective of this chapter is to give an insight into the radiation mechanism and various topologies possible while designing a Tapered Slot Antenna (TSA). Further, comparison of their performances is also given based on the papers published by the other authors. The terms, notch antenna, tapered notch, flared slot antennas are used synonymously to represent TSAs. Tapered slot antennas belong to the class of travelling wave antennas. They are end fire radiators. Tapered slot is formed by gradual widening of a slotline. In 1979 Gibson [2.1] demonstrated an exponentially tapered slot antenna demonstrating a bandwidth of 8-40 GHz and he called it Vivaldi antenna. In the same year Prasad and Mahapatra [2.2] first introduced the linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA). However, the tapered slot antenna was introduced as an array element by Lewis et al. [2.3] in 1974. The conventional resonant microstrip antenna size becomes very small as the operating frequency shifts to millimeter wave frequency band. This increases the cost because fabrication tolerance level decreases. In addition, the skin effect conductor losses in the microstrip feed network tends to become excessive at higher frequencies thus lowering antenna efficiency. Tapered slot antennas can circumvent these problems. The dimensions of tapered slot antennas are several times the free space wavelength at the frequency of operation which eases the fabrication tolerance. Many variations of these antennas were fabricated for frequency of operation of up to about 800 GHz [2.4] and higher within the required fabrication tolerances using standard printed circuit fabrication techniques. Furthermore, active circuits like mixers and amplifiers can be integrated with the antenna using stripline, slotline, microstrip line, finline and coplanar waveguide. In addition to this, other advantages are:
y y y

Multi-octave bandwidth. Moderate gain. Symmetric E and H plane radiation patterns.
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Design of a Compact Vi aldi Antenna Array 2011

Some of the disadvantages as compared to the conventional microstrip patch are: y y y Cannot be designed for dual-frequency operation. Dual polarization cannot be obtained without structure complexity. Loses its planar architecture when used in 2D array.

2.2 Taper Profiles
According to the different taper profile they are generally classified into: y y y Linear tapered (LTSA) Non-linear tapered (exponential, parabolic) Constant width (CWSA)







Fig 2.1. Various Tapered slot Antenna Profiles: a) Step constant b) Exponential c) Linear d) Parabolic e) Linear constant f) Broken linear Various tapered slot profiles are illustrated in Fig 2.1. A variant of the conventional TSA is the antipodal tapered slot antenna, see Fig. 2.2. In practice, the conventional planar TSA is fed by a balanced slotline. One serious drawback of the conventional TSA is in the fabrication and impedance matching of the slotline. Slotline fabricated on a low dielectric constant substrate has relatively high impedance which makes matching to a low impedance microstrip feed very difficult. The antipodal TSA replaces the band limiting microstrip/ slotline transition by a tapered balun section which gives a very wide bandwidth. However, it has exhibited very poor cross polarization characteristics. The antenna is formed by gradually
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Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array


flaring the strip conductors of the balanced microstrip on opposite sides of the dielectic substrate with respect to the antenna axis, thus allowing the antenna to be directly fed by a microstrip feed [2.5]. The antenna suffers from the high cross polarization due to skewing of the E-field components within the antenna with respect to the physical axis of the antenna. At the low frequency end of the band this skew is small because the ratio of slot width to dielectric thickness is large. However as we move to the high frequency end the angle of skew increases and ultimately tends to 90o. Therefore the antenna has poor cross polarization (of the order of 5 dB) and also there is severe polarization tilt as the frequency of operation increases [2.6].

Fi 2.2. Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna

To overcome the high cross polarization problem, Langley et al. [2.6] introduced a new technique. The idea was to negate the effect of skew by applying another dielectric layer and metallization layer. This new antenna, known as balanced antipodal Vivaldi which is fed by stripline, has demonstrated -15 dB lower cross- polarizations across an 18:1 band as compared to the conventional Vivaldi antenna.

2.3 Radiation mechanism
The Vivaldi antenna is essentially frequency independent, since at a given wavelength only a section of the exponential curve actually radiates efficiently. As the wavelength varies, radiation occurs from a different section which is scaled in size in proportion to the wavelength, and has the same relative shape. This translates into antenna with a large bandwidth. The main lobe of the antenna is linearly polarized with the electric field parallel to the aperture.

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Department of Electronics. travelling wave mechanism of radiation is produced by higher order Hankel function (H o(n)) mode generated by waves travelling down a curved path along the antenna [2.output width The main.input slot width Wa. CUSAT Page 11 .4 these regions can be identified as: y y Propagating area defined by Ws < W < Wa Radiating area defined by Wa < W < Wo Where Ws.4. With respect to Fi 2.slot width at radiating area Wo.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 (a) Fi 2. For a given dielectric substrate of certain thickness at a specified frequency. Vivaldi Antenna (b) A TSA can be divided into two regions: a non radiating feed region and radiating slot region [2.3]. If ¶ is less than about 40% of the fields will be adequately contained and the slotline behaves like transmission line. The energy in the travelling wave is tightly bound to the conductors when the separation is very small compared to the free space wavelength and that becomes progressively weaker and more coupled to the radiation field as the separation is increased. non resonant. a 20% increase in slot width leads to 1% increase in / ¶ and 6% increase in Zo.7]. The guide wavelength and characteristic impedance of a slotline increase with the increase in width of the slot.2]. Departure from this condition would result in radiation [2.

5. the operating wavelength in free space. and finally rotate while travelling along the TSA [2.05 ” c/v ” 2. At the higher frequencies (narrower slot width) the skew angle is almost 90o due to which there can be a severe polarization tilt also. side lobe. is typically 5 to 12o The length of TSA. o. Electric field distribution at cross sections a) Conventional microstrip b) Balanced microstrip c) Radiatin ed e 2. over the operating y Department of Electronics. and Determining the dimensions and shape of the antenna in accordance with the required half power (3 dB) beam width. The electric field lines which are spread out in the conventional microstrip structure.3. the design of TSA involves two major tasks: y is The design of a broadband transition and feed structure with very wide frequency range and low return loss.5. This is the reason for higher crosspolarizations in these types of antennas. concentrate between the metal strip of the balanced microstrip.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 2. and back lobe etc.2.4 Desi n Considerations Design of TSA has been primarily based on empirical approach and as a starting point.8]. one can use the following guidelines [2. 2 . L.8]: y y y y The aperture width of slot: W • 2. The taper angle. v is guided wave velocity along the slot.1 Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna: The electric field lines at different cross section along the feed and the antenna are illustrated in Fi . 2. CUSAT Page 12 . (a) Fi (b) (c) 2. is typically 2 to 12 o o Where c is the velocity of light in free space. In general.

Slotline Transition: Coaxial line is useful as a feed structure [2. All of the currents flow inside the line. coplanar microstrip.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 frequency range. i. Fi 2. ground plane size. which could results in significant power loss and serious distortion in radiation pattern [2. thus.5. dielectric thickness. CUSAT Page 13 .5 Feedin Mechanism This is the most critical part of Vivaldi antenna design. the inner connector and the inside of the shield. Some of the feed mechanisms are explained below. For a wide bandwidth operation one should design the feed transition with a wide bandwidth. Department of Electronics. or balanced microstrip to form wideband transitions.profile have direct impact on the impedance. Feeding a balanced antenna with unbalanced coaxial feed may cause currents to flow on the outside of the shield. and radiation pattern of the antenna. The impedance matching of the low impedance stripline/ microstrip line to the high impedance slotline is crucial. Coaxial-Slotline Transition The coaxial feed can be directly used to excite a TSA by extending the center conductor over the slotline section of the TSA and anchor the coaxial feed with solder connection to the ground plane as shown in Fi 2.9] because of its compatibility with the slotline. directivity. 2.e. and taper.6. Further. The disadvantage is that it is not planar and has high losses at higher frequencies. 2.6. coaxial line is an unbalanced feed line.1 Coaxial. it can be used to excite all the variants of planar TSA described earlier. bandwidth.8]. width. The geometric parameters such as length.

the Marchand balun [2.12].7 shows the fourth order Marchand balun. This is essential for broadband antenna performance.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 2. Microstrip. Further broadening of the bandwidth can be achieved when the microstrip is terminated by a radial stub and the slot line is terminated by an elliptical shaped cavity [2. located on the opposite side.13].10.12]. Fi .8. Another practical microstrip to slot transition consists of a slot. has demonstrated a VSWR of 2:1 over an octave bandwidth with an integrated wideband Vivaldi antenna (DETSA) [2. The balun consists of four quarter-wave sections with the end opencircuited section extended past the center of the slotline by about one quarter of a guided wavelength ( m). 2.2. So feeding a TSA with a microstrip line requires a balanced-to-unbalanced transition (balun).Slotline Transition Microstrip line is an unbalanced line and slotline is a balanced line. The slot extends to one quarter of a wavelength ( s) beyond the microstrip and the microstrip extends one quarter of a wavelength ( m) beyond the slot [2. crossing an open circuited microstrip line. CUSAT Page 14 .15] as shown in Fi 2. etched on one side of the substrate.2.5. at a right angle [2. Department of Electronics. 2.7 4th order Printed Marchand Balun The most common microstrip/slot transition.11]. The Fi .

8 provides a very wide bandwidth [2. The signal line and ground plane are on the same side of a printed circuit board in a coplanar waveguide (CPW).9 (b): one half of the CPW transitions into a slotline and feeds a TSA while the other half is terminated in a short circuit [2.3 CPW ± Slotline Transition Another way of exciting the slotline in a Vivaldi antenna is to use a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed. This technique may sometimes yield a bandwidth greater than that obtained with a conventional microstrip feed [2. The normal propagating mode on this transmission line is the quasi-TEM mode with the electric fields in the two slots oriented in opposite directions.17].9 (a) depicts a simple CPW ± slotline transition.slotline transition with radial stubs illustrated in Fi 2. Any transmission line with coplanar conductors can be considered a coplanar waveguide line.19].5. CPW may be used to feed a TSA as shown in Fi 2.16-2. Department of Electronics.19]. This feeding is used in this project. 2. CUSAT Page 15 . which leads to low dispersion and conductive losses [2.18]. The advantage of using a CPW feed is that it can be used in applications where high circuit density is important as in microwave integrated circuit (MIC) applications.8 Microstrip-Slotline Transition A microstrip.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 2. Fi 2. Another benefit is that it has low radiation loss and the center conductor width can be chosen independently for the line impedance.

1).Slotline transition 2. CUSAT Page 16 . As the thickness increases the H-plane pattern becomes narrower. where teff = t(¥ r .26] has done an extensive parametric study of the Vivaldi antenna.6. The increase in substrate thickness causes increase in cross polarization level. For substrate thickness above the upper bound of 1. Increasing the dielectric thickness generally results in increased gain. The substrate thickness primarily affects H plane beam width. The major parameters affecting the performance of the Vivaldi antenna are: y y y y y Dielectric constant of the substrate Diameter of the slotline cavity and the stripline stub Input stripline and slotline width Taper profile Aperture height The following paragraphs describes briefly about the effect of these parameters.028 o. but with higher side lobes.6 Factors Affectin the Radiation Schaubert et al. o. For good performance. [2. 2. a TSA should have an effective substrate thickness in the range of 1.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 (a) (b) Fi 2. is the effective thickness of the substrate.0025 o ” teff ” 1.9 Examples of CPW.2.1 Effect of Dielectric The performance of a tapered slot antenna (TSA) is sensitive to the thickness and dielectric constant of the dielectric substrate.20 . The inferences drawn in his work have set major thought process during this project. The presence of a dielectric substrate has the primary effect of narrowing the main beam of the antenna.028 unwanted substrate modes develop which degrade the antenna performance resulting in low efficiency and narrow Department of Electronics.

10 Effect of Dielectric Permittivity on Infinite Vivaldi Array 2. for millimeterwave operations. CUSAT Page 17 .2 Effect of length. The methods to overcome these problems by increasing the effective substrate thickness and suppressing the excitation of the surface modes are explained in [2. The lowest cross polarization level in the diagonal plane is about 10 to 15 dB higher than that of the principle planes which are typically better than -15 dB.10 illustrates the result from their study. Further. width and taper profiles Tapered slot antennas radiate in the end fire direction with symmetric radiation patterns.28]. Fi 2. the cross polarization characteristics of planar TSA are superior to those corresponding to their antipodal counter part. constrains to using mechanically fragile substrates with thickness of only a few hundreds of microns.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 bandwidth.6. But it has significant cross polarized radiation in the diagonal plane. Fi 2. and have cross polarization level of -20 dB or lower.23] studied the effect of dielectric permittivity on infinite array of single polarized Vivaldi antennas. particularly for dielectrics with high dielectric constants. In general. the upper bound on the effective thickness. Kasturi and Schaubert [2.27 ± 2. Department of Electronics.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 g Being a travelling wave antenna. decrease rapidly as g. Maximum measured gain of 16-17 dB with radiation efficiency of 80% has been o [2. Being a travelling wave antenna.11 illustrates the variation in SWR with variation in tapered slot length at broad side scan for dual Fi 2.31]. In general. the length is increased which is obvious.21]. same aperture size. Varying the tapered angle will change the phase velocity and hence g. and the Vivaldi. followed by the LTSA. which in turn impacts the radiation characteristics of the antenna. And the side lobes are highest for the CWSA. and on the same substrate. Department of Electronics.11 Effect of Tapered Slot len th at Broadside Scan onVSWR The taper profile has been found to have strong effects on both the beam width and side lobe level (SLL) of the antenna. the phase velocity and guide wavelength varies with any change in the geometrical and material parameters of the antenna. Fi 2.30]. the H-plane beam width follows1/¥L dependence. Thus. The H-plane beam width varies more slowly in comparison to the E-plane beam width particularly for L less than 5 polarized Vivaldi antenna array [2. The beam widths. constant beam width in both E and H plane can be achieved with proper choices of L and tapered angles. typically from a few dB to over 10 dB as L increases from 2-5 reported for long TSA with L greater than 6 g [2. The gain of a TSA increases with the length L of the antenna.29]. and then Vivaldi for antennas with the same length. the beam widths are narrower for CWSA. followed by the LTSA. which will in turn change the E-plane beam width. CUSAT Page 18 . while the E-plane beam width depends more on the aperture width or tapered angle [2.

4. CUSAT Page 19 . the slotline cavity act as a poor open [2. The cavity minimizes any reflections at the point of termination of the slotline by acting as an open circuit. The cavity can be made either circular or rectangular.20].Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 2. The stripline feed is terminated either using a via or a virtual short using a radial stub.32] have demonstrated a balanced antipodal antenna with elliptical radiating taper with a constant E and H plane beam width was observed for a LTSA with tapered angles in the range of 15 to 20 degrees [2. At lower frequencies.6.33].12 Effect of Openin Rate at Broadside Scan on VSWR Fi 2. The stripline extending past slotline on opposite sides of the substrate is terminated with a stub. Department of Electronics.3 Effect of slot line cavity and stripline stub The slotline in a Vivaldi antenna is usually terminated with a cavity as can be seen in Fi 2. so is the large reflections in the VSWR at low frequencies [2. 2.12 demonstrates the effect of taper profile on VSWR at broadside scan for a dual polarized Vivaldi antenna array [2.21] Schaubert et.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 2.Gibson.Prasad and S. M. 120 -124 [2. Atlanta.2] S. U. pp.1] P. ³The Vivaldi Aerial´.R. pp-335-337. CUSAT Page 20 . 2. Proc.K. [2.14 illustrates the effect of slotline cavity diameter on the VSWR for a dual polarized Vivaldi antenna array from Chio and Schubert [2. 1979.13 Effect of Slotline Cavity Diameter at Broadside Scan on VSWR Fi 2.Lewis.Hunt. This chapter discusses the work carried out worldwide on this structure and explains the various electrical traits of the structure and its variants. IEEE APS International Symposium. Brighton. ³A Novel MIC Slotline Aerial´. 1979.21]. Mahapatra.8 References [2.. 2..3] L. ³A Broadband Stripline Array Element´.7 Summary In this chapter Tapered Slot Antennas have been studied and explained in detail. Brighton.J.9th European Conf.K. 9th European Microwave Conf.. Various feeding techniques to obtain a good impedance match over a wide bandwidth have been explained. GA. Proc. 1974 Department of Electronics. 101-105. pp.Fassett and J.N. U.

12] A.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 [2.14] Schuppert. vol. [2. ³Review of printed Marchand and Double Y Baluns: Characteristics and application´. vol.IEEE Trans. ³Transmission Line Conversion´. MTT-22. CUSAT Page 21 .2.17. P.13] Knorr J. 1988. 1944. ³Improved design of the Vivaldi antenna´. Branka Jokanovic. 89-92. 1988. IEEE Transactions on Microwave theory and techniques. [2. vol. Symposiums Digest. vol. ³Coaxially fed Tapered Slot Antenna´. pp.10. P S Hall. August 1994. [2.18. Stellan Jacobson. http://gltrs. 4-7 April 1989. pp. pp.8. Atlanta.Newham. 1974.15] Oraisi and Jam. and P.Bell. October 1993. Hans Ekstrom. pp.51. no. Arts. Part H. No. Jaokim F Johansson.142145 [2.5] E. pp. vol. ³Endfire Tapered Slot Antenna Characteristics´. 2001. August 2003. IEEE Proc. Gabriel M Rebeiz.H. 135.B. 1272-1282..432-436 [2. Department of Electronics.Gazit. pp. 143. USA. IEEE Trans. No. On Microwave theory and techniques. 1998 IEEE AP-S Int. ³Slotline Transitions´. pp. Schaubert. IEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 1103-1104.. ³Tapered Slot Antenna at 802 GHz´. pp. ³Optimum Design of TSA profile´.10] N. 2. vol.. pp. ICAP89. [2. MTT-36. vol. no.B. Electronics. June 1998 [2. ³Wideband Antenna Element with Integrated Balun´. April 1996. On antennas and propagation.42. Smolders and M.8] [2. vol. Steven S Gearhart.11] Velimir Trifunovic. 48-554. [2. Electronics Letters.9] Richard Q Lee. 97-102.J. 1987-1995. vol.8. Erik L Kollberg. no. IEEE Trans.7] D.nasa. Antenna Proag.1. 1454-1462 [2. IEEE Proc.6] J D S Langely. no. Aug. vol. pp.41. ³Microstrip/ Slotline Transitions: Modeling and experimental investigations´.4] Pranay Acharya. ³Balanced antipodal Vivaldi antenna for wide bandwidth phased arrays´.grc. ³Notch Antennas´. 1715-1719 [2.37.Knott and A.

³A broadband microstrip to slotline transition´.. Zinieris. 1985.5.16] M. Atwater. pp. [2. Davis. A. On Antennas and Propagation. ³wideband Vivaldi arrays for large aperture antennas´. [2. 6.25] D. 2002. [2. shin and D. John Wiley and Sons. no. June 2000. 48. N.O.H. 1991 IEEE AP-S International Symposium. Boryssenko and D. vol. [2. [2.21] D.Nesic. widescan dual polarized tapered slot antenna arrays´. IEEE Trans. Ontario. ³ Endfire slotline antennas excited by a coplanar waveguide´. ³Parameter study and design of wideband. Proceedings of the 2002 URSI General Assembly.18. IL. R. Maastricht. A.18] A.Schaubert.5. IEEE Transactions on antennas and propagation. ³Effect of dielectric substrate on infinite arrays of single polarized Vivaldi antennas´. 28.2. Department of Electronics. 47.pp. Schaubert and T.23] S. S.H. Monticello. vol.H. Chio. 1992.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 [2. Schaubert. no. proceedings of the 2003 Antenna Applications Symposium. Schaubert and T. vol. Boryssenko and T. 49-57. ³Analysis of finite arrays of wideband tapered slot antennas´. Netherlands.Kasturi. 1997. Chio.Q. Schaubert. chapter 9 in ³Advances in microstrip and printed antennas´.22] S. H. vol. August 5 1988 [2. Dwindeloo. pp.20] J.700-702. 372-390 [2. [2.E. 879-886 [2. pp. no. Apr 1999.26] D. Sept. Microwave and Optical technology letters. May 1999. proceedings of the 2002 Antenna Applications Symposium.19] R. ³Vivaldi antenna arrays for wide bandwidth and electronic scanning´. Schaubert.H.O. 2003. CUSAT Page 22 .17] A.H.Kasturi and D.Kasturi. Microwave J. ³A parameter study of stripline fed Vivaldi notch antenna arrays´. 149 -156. pp. NFRA International Conference on Perspectives in radio astronomy: Technologies for large antenna arrays. A. Sloan and L. 2002.H Chio. Simons.. M.H Schaubert. The Netherlands.24] D.H.O Borryssenko and W. vol. pp.H. [2.M Elsallal. ³Infinite arrays of tapered slot antennas with and without dielectric substrate´.879-886. Lee and R.H. ³The design of the radial line stub: A useful microstrip circuit element´.

H. Lett. Johansson. Rebiz. D.1. no. D. pp.32] T. E. vol.S.L. May 1998.4. [2.S.27] J.28] Thomas J. ³Vivaldi antennas for single beam integrated receiver´. vol. Proceedings of the 12th European Microwave Conference. Feb. Apr 1991. Microwave and optical technology letters. CUSAT Page 23 . 1983. Young-Sik Kim. New York 1997. pp.30] K..Kooi. Pozar.S. no. pp.31] T. Microwave and Optical Tech.L. Erik L. ³Advances in microstrip and Printed antennas´. Microwave and Techniques. 27-32. Sigfrid Yngvesson. 1989.Thungren. 474 . IEEE Trans.L. Rahmat Samii. T. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter waves. T. and K.Yeo. ³Parametric studies of the Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA)´. vol. [2. Yngvesson. ³ The tapered slot antenna. Colbum and Y. 37. 18. [2. Yngvesson. Kollberg and K.33] P. 1996 IEEE MTT-S International Symposium Digest. Chapter 9. Ellis and Gabriel M.S. 2. 1982.S.481. Kollberg. Wiley Interscience.S. 200-206 Department of Electronics.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 [2. 365-374. 443. pp. p. Korzeniowski. Schaubert. 1157-1161. [2. pp. [2.M.29] Kai Fong Lee and Wei Chen. Korzeniowski. ³MM-wave tapered slot antennas on micromachined Photonic Band gap dielectrics´. ³Printed antenna pattern improvement through substrate perforation for high dielectric constant material: An FDTD Evaluation´. and Jaokim F.5. [2.Leong.A new integrated element for millimeter wave application´. ³Imaging system at 94 GHz using tapered slot antenna elements´. no. and M.

4) With associated consecutive equations (3.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Chapter 3 Analysis Methods 3. The strategy employed to determine the coefficients of expansion functions. Department of Electronics. The numerical approximation of Maxwell¶s equations is known as Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) 3. and for realistic problems. The expansion functions that are used to approximate the unknown solution.1 Introduction The numerical electromagnetic simulators solve the Maxwell¶s equations. The Maxwell¶s equations are:  (3.1]: y y y The electromagnetic quantity that is being approximated.2 Numerical Methods The differences between various numerical techniques reside essentially in the following aspects [3. approximations are usually required.2) (3. CUSAT Page 24 .5) (3.3) (3.1) (3.6) The actual solution of the Maxwell equations is complex.

CUSAT Page 25 . is based on FEM. While these quantities are related. subject to certain boundary conditions.5].2. For most applications. The latter also starts with the PDE form of Maxwell¶s equations. The former finds a variational functional whose minimum corresponds with the solution of the PDE. the unknown field is discretized using a finite element mesh. In both cases. a brief description of FEM and HFSS are given. the other weighted residuals. The various existing numerical methods employ different combinations of these aspects. typically. 3. potential. while unknown charge or current distributions are expanded into functions defined mostly on boundaries (boundary methods). although many other types of elements are available.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 The solution of an electromagnetic problem may require finding the electric or magnetic field. and then introduces a ³weighted´ residual (error). Department of Electronics. In the following sections. It is a method for solving a differential equation subject to certain boundary values. using Green¶s theorem. The widely used full-wave techniques are: y y y Method of Moments (MoM) Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) Finite Element Method (FEM) The electromagnetic simulation tool HFSS which is used in this project. hence. they have different properties. evolutionary algorithms etc. which involve the inversion of large matrices. triangular elements are used for surface meshes and tetrahedrons for volumetric meshes. or a distribution of charges and/or currents. a potential function.3-3. Finally. problem formulations for field. these procedures result in identical equations.3 Finite Element Method (FEM) The Finite Element Method (FEM) is one of the best-known methods for the solution of partial differential equations. Both start with the partial differential equation (PDE) form of Maxwell¶s equations. one of the differentials in the PDE is ³shifted´ to the weighing functions [3. there exists a variety of strategies for computing the unknown coefficients. Finding fields or potentials will require expansion functions in the field space (domain methods). and charge or current solutions are different. implicit and explicit iteration schemes. The FEM may be derived on two view points: one uses variational analysis. 3.

g. However. Using FEM / MoM hybrids. A fairly recent entry. Ability to handle eigen problems. Potentially better frequency scaling than the MoM ± although the requirement to mesh a volume rather than a surface means that the number of unknowns in the problem is usually much larger. although time domain formulations have also been used for specialized applications. In conclusion. FEMLAB. the FEM does not include the radiation condition. CUSAT Page 26 . The strong points of the FEM are the following [3. As with the FDTD method. For closed regions (e. Ansoft¶s HFSS package is widely regarded as the market leader among the commercially available packages based on FEM. Very simple handling of dispersive materials (i. the FEM has been formulated in the frequency domain. has also attracted users. this requires special treatment. waveguide devices or cavities) this is of no concern. scattering problems involving Department of Electronics. materials with frequency dependant properties). microwave circuit and periodic structure analysis. radiation or scattering problems).g. radar cross-section.e. the FEM is the preferred method for microwave device simulation and y eigen problem analysis. The weak points of the FEM include the following [3. and this must be incorporated using either an artificial absorbing region within the mesh (the numerical analogy of an anecholic chamber) or using a hybridization with the MoM to terminate the mesh. including antenna. It is also possible to use conformal elements to better approximate curved geometries. for open regions (e.2]: y y Very straightforward treatment of complex geometries and material in-homogeneities. The FEM meshes can become very complex to implement than the FDTD method.2]: y y y y Inefficient treatment of highly conducting radiators when compared to the MoM (due to the requirement to have some mesh between the radiator and the absorber). Traditionally.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 This represents a very large class of electromagnetic engineering applications of the FEM. Straightforward extension to higher-order basis functions.

The final solution is then computed by reconnecting all the elements and combining their solutions. These processes are named assembly and solution respectively in the FEM [3. components of the field tangential to the three edges meeting at that vertex are stored. A first-order tangential element basis function is used for performing the interpolation.1.1 Tetrahedral Element FEM is the basis of the simulation in HFSS [3.6]. CUSAT Page 27 . The other stored component is the vector field at the midpoint of selected edges. see Fi 3. Each tetrahedron is composed of four equilateral triangles and the collection of tetrahedra forms what is known as the finite element mesh.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 electromagnetically penetrable media and specialized antenna problems can be accurately and efficiently solved.4 Hi h Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) The basic approach of FEM is to divide a complex structure into smaller sections of finite dimensions known as elements. which is also tangential to a face and normal to the edge. Using these stored values. These elements are connected to each other via joints called nodes. 3. Fi 3. At each vertex of the tetrahedron. HFSS divides the geometric model into a large number of tetrahedral elements.3]. Each unique element is then solved independently of the others thereby drastically reducing the solution complexity. Maxwell¶s equations are then formulated from the field Department of Electronics. the vector field quantity such as the H-field or the E-field inside each tetrahedron is estimated.

Fi 3. Then. such an inversion requires a significant amount of computing power and memory. and the amount of available computing resources. the desired level of accuracy. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of each of the individual elements (tetrhedron).4. called an adaptive analysis. For meshes with a large number of elements.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 quantities and are later transformed into matrix equations that can be solved using traditional numerical techniques. Department of Electronics. Fi 3. Generally speaking. Accuracy There is a trade-off among the size of the mesh. To generate a precise description of a field quantity.2 illustrates the meshing of a Vivaldi antenna in HFSS. solutions based on meshes using thousands of elements are more accurate than solutions based on course meshes using relatively few elements. it generates a solution based on a course initial mesh. in which the mesh is automatically refined in critical regions.1 Size of Mesh Vs. To produce the optimal mesh.2 Meshin of Vivaldi antenna in HFSS 3. it refines the mesh in areas of h error igh density and generates a new solution. Therefore. it is desirable to use a mesh fine enough to obtain an accurate field solution but not so fine that it overwhelms the available computer memory and processing power. HFSS breaks out of the loop. generating a field solution involves inverting a matrix with approximately as many elements as there are tetrahedral nodes. each element must occupy a region that is small enough for the field to be adequately interpolated from the nodal values. CUSAT Page 28 . First. HFSS uses an iterative process. When selected parameters converge within a desired limit. However.

the various full wave techniques widely used for computational electromagnetics is specified. reducing the full 3D electromagnetic behavior of a structure to a set of high frequency circuit parameters. Hoefer. Next chapter will describe about the design of Tapered slot antenna. Computes the full electromagnetic field pattern inside the structure. The resulting S-matrix allows the magnitude of transmitted and reflected y y signals to be computed directly from a given set of input signals.2 The HFSS Solution Process To calculate the S-matrix associated with a structure with ports.5]. CUSAT Page 29 .4.4. 3. 2003 Department of Electronics. The parameters of the initial model can be easily modified.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 3. 3. The simulation tool used in this project. It can be used to easily generate antenna models and assist in learning proper usage of HFSS for antenna design.3 HFSS Antenna Design Kit HFSS Antenna Design Kit is a guide that creates parametric HFSS models for a variety of common antenna types [3.. The taper profile of the antenna is drawn with the help of Antenna Design kit. Swanson Jr.. Computes the generalized S-matrix from the amount of reflection and transmission that occurs. The FEM method is explained briefly. Inc. which is Ansoft¶s HFSS. Computes the modes on each port of the structure that are supported by a transmission line having the same cross-section as the port. at first. and its simulated results. HFSS does the following: y y Divides the structure into a finite element mesh. R. assuming that one mode is excited at a time. Artech house.6 References [3. has been explained.5 Summary In this chapter. ³Microwave Circuit Modeling Using Electromagnetic Field Simulation´. Wolfgang J. 3.1] Daniel G.

3] Anastasis C. Ridgway Scott. Davidson.5] John L. 2008 [ Department of Electronics. ³Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering´. Leo C. Kempal. 2005 [3. Springer.4] Susanne C. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 [3. 2006 [3. Third Edition. ³Introduction to the Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics´. Arindam Chatterjee. ³Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics´.ansoft. L.6] http://www. Brenner. Polycarpou. 1998 [3.2] David B. ³The Mathematical Theory of Finite Element Methods´.Volakis. IEEE Press. Cambridge University Press. CUSAT Page 30 .

6mm and dielectric loss tangent of 0. Modeling and Optimization of antenna using CAD software. CUSAT Page 31 . So.0025 0 ” teff ” 0. an optimum thickness for the substrate has to be chosen for the correct design. Department of Electronics. where teff = t(¥ r .1) Bandwidth and efficiency are generally having an inverse relationship with the substrate dielectric constant. Hence.4.2] has been used. 4.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Chapter 4 Desi n of Tapered Slot Vivaldi Antenna 4. The line width becomes smaller with increase in dielectric constant. thickness of 1. r = 4. it becomes difficult to realize microstrip lines especially at higher frequencies. In this project.1].2 Choice of substrate Performance of tapered slot antennas is very sensitive to thickness and dielectric constant of the substrate. Choice of substrate material 2. the Finite Element Method (FEM) based software by Ansoft Corporation.028 o. 3. HFSS v12 [4. Choice of primitive antenna dimensions to start with [4.02 has been chosen in this project. Substrate thickness and dielectric constant are chosen such that microstrip / stripline trace is realizable. FR4 epoxy substrate with dielectric constant. Line width increases with substrate thickness.1 Introduction Computer Aided Design (CAD) of the Vivaldi antenna can be described in the following hierarchical manner: 1. The acceptable range of dielectric thickness for good antenna operation was found to be 0.

the In addition. instead of 50 .3 Tapered Slot Antenna Confi urations The design parameters of the proposed TSA are shown in Fi .1.1 Confi urations of the proposed tapered slot antenna Given the highest frequency of operation (fH). The top layer shows the microstrip line and the series radial stub used for feeding the tapered slot antenna. the TSA has been designed to match at 100 width of the microstrip line feeder Wm should be defined to give the characteristic impedance Department of Electronics. which is drawn with the help of an HFSS tool called ³Antenna Design Kit´ [4. the width.3].2]. CUSAT Page 32 . Wtaper of the tapered slot antenna should satisfy equation given below to circumvent the grating lobes of Vivaldi array. Wtaper < c fh¥ e Where e is the effective relative dielectric constant.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 4. Therefore. Fi . 4. The bottom layer indicates the exponential taper profile [4. 4.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 (Z0) of 100 [4. [4. all other parameters are optimized with HFSS to get both the compact size and good performance at the operating band.5] demonstrated that the wideband performance of the Vivaldi notch antenna arrays fed by microstrip line could be improved systematically. After defining the parameters cited above.4]. The values of all the parameters shown in Fi 4. The relationship between characteristic impedance and width Wm is given by the equation: Shin et al.6866455mm 5mm 55mm 70mm 110mm 10mm 8mm 0.686645mm 35mm Department of Electronics. The structural design had undergone many optimizations before reaching the final design specifications. CUSAT Page 33 .1 are given below: Wslot Lfeed Ltaper Wtotal Ltotal Dcavity Rstub Wm Wtaper = = = = = = = = = 0.

2 Tapered Slot Vivaldi Antenna The designed Vivaldi antenna has been modeled in HFSS based on primitive design [4. The six faces of the air box have been selected and assigned radiation boundary. 4.3. The microstrip port excitation is shown in Fi 4.6]. Department of Electronics. CUSAT Page 34 . An air box is defined surrounding the antenna which defines the boundary condition.2.4 HFSS simulation setup Fi .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 4.1] as shown in Fi 4. The conductors are assigned perfect electric boundary condition [4.

1)) Setup1 : Sw eep1 -10.00 3.00 1.00 dB(S(1. CUSAT Page 35 .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 4.00 Freq [GHz] 5.3 Port Excitation 4.00 XY Plot 2 Vivaldi_Antenna_ADKv1 Curve Info dB(S(1.00 -40.00 7.6 to 5.5.1 Return loss Ansoft LLC 0.5 Simulation Results 4.00 -50.00 2.00 6.00 Fi 4.1)) -30. Department of Electronics.4 Simulated Return loss of TSA Fi 4.00 4.00 -20.4 shows that TSA can operate between 2.24 GHz with a return loss of lower than -10dB.

CUSAT Page 36 .com/edtn/europe/mwee/pdf/CAD. Knoxville. 2nd ed. Brighton. The design and fabrication of 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array is explained in the next chapter. University of Tennessee. ³Antenna theory´. And the impedance at the input port of this array is 50 . 1997. [4. [4. On Antenna and Propagation. P. ³The 2000 CAD Benchmark´. pp. Yazhou Wang. The network analyser will have a perfect match with the antenna only if the impedance of the antenna is 50 . ³The Vivaldi aerial´. May 1999. [4.4.1].5.1). ³A parameter study of stripline-fed Vivaldi notch-antenna arrays´. (Fi . 4. 47. Gibson. in Proc. Newyork.. 1979. Schaubert. Constantine A. no.pdf Department of Electronics.. 879-886. USA.4]. This antenna is expected to be useful for wide bandwidth arrays. ³Design of a Compact Tapered Slot Vivaldi Antenna Array for See Through Concrete Wall UWB Applications´.ansoft. Fathy.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 4.J. pp.6]. Vol.6 Vivaldi Antenna Array The TSA antenna designed above is not fabricated because the width Wm of the antenna.3]. Aly E.. The simulation resuts are plotted and discussed. http://img. 4.K. [4.5]. 9th European Microwave Conf. http://www.2].7 Summary The Tapered Slot Vivaldi antenna was designed. [4. Microwave Engineering Europe. EECS Department.8 References [4. IEEE Trans. So. Balanis. as the next step we have designed and fabricated a 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array and a 3dB power divider was designed and fabricated to compose the feed network for the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array. U. Wiley. Joon Shin and Daniel H.cmpnet. is designed to give a characteristic impedance of 100 .

1 3dB power divider The widths of the microstrip lines of port 2 and port 3 are designed to match at 100 . is not manufactured due to its matching problem with the Network analyzer. The width of Department of Electronics. 5.1 Introduction As mentioned earlier. The two element array uses the tapered slot antenna as the array element and a 3dB power divider is used for feeding the array elements. discussed in previous chapter. A brief description of 3 dB power divider is given in the next section followed by the design and fabrication of 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array and its simulated and measured results. Fi 5.2]. and are connected at the ends of microstrip line feeders of the 2 TSA elements. a 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array is designed and fabricated because the Tapered slot antenna. There is high isolation between the two output signals.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Chapter 5 1×2 Vivaldi Antenna Array 5.1 indicates the 3dB power divider used for the 2-element array. CUSAT Page 37 . And the insertion loss is 3dB.2 3dB power divider Basically. Fi 5. a 3dB power divider is a passive device which accepts an input signal and delivers multiple output signals with 0 o phase relationship and equal amplitude [5.

5mm × 140mm. Therefore Ltotal becomes 110 + 12. the TSA elements are not separated by any distance.5 mm. the Ltotal × Wtotal of the array becomes 122. 5.3 Desi n of the 1×2 Vivaldi Antenna Array The design parameters of the 2-element Vivaldi antenna array is shown in Fig. impedance and it acts as the input 5. Remember that the area in which there Department of Electronics.5mm. 5.5 = 122.2 Fi .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 the microstrip line at port 1 is designed to match at 50 port of the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array.4 Fabrication process Following steps are involved in the fabrication process: y A precision mask of the top and bottom layers of the antenna are first drawn using the Corel Draw software and its printout is taken. So. 5. CUSAT Page 38 . The width of the 3dB power divider is 12.2 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array The dimensions of the TSA are remained as such. Also.

So the other side is coated with cello-tape to protect the conductor layer of that side while etching. Chemical etching of unprotected metal layer leaving behind the desired conductor pattern. Rinse in water. y y y y y y y y y Department of Electronics. The same steps are repeated to develop the conductor pattern on the bottom layer. Place the mask shown in Fi .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 is no conductor parts are given black shades and the area in which there is conductor parts are given white shades. CUSAT Page 39 . The top and bottom layers drawn is shown below: (a) (b) Fi 5. Clean the layer which we are going to etch. Develop the photoresist layer by using a suitable chemical to remove the unexposed part of the photoresist layer. Coat the layer with photosensitive material (generally a negative photo-resist) and dry it in a dark room to improve adhesion.3 (a) above the photo-resist. Irradiate with ultraviolet light. Specified dimension is cut out from it. First we are going to etch the top layer. 5. using wire-mesh and acetone. The chemical used is ferric chloride.3 Top and bottom layer masks y A 2-sided conductor coated pcb board is taken whose substrate is FR4 Epoxy. The layer below the black shield is unaffected and the exposed area gets polymerized.

5 shows the measurement setup.4 shows the top and bottom layers of the fabricated array. CUSAT Page 40 . Fi 5. (a) (b) Fi 5. Department of Electronics. interfacing computer and the antenna array under test [5.5]. The feed line of the antenna is connected to the output port of the network analyzer which is controlled by the computer.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 5.4 Top and bottom view of the fabricated 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array 5.5 Experimental setup Experimental setup consists of network analyzer.

The gain is also measured by aligning the antenna in horizontal axis of the horn at a distance of 2D2/ . To plot the far field radiation pattern. CUSAT Page 41 . Department of Electronics. There is no need of rotation. The antenna should be held in air. After one complete rotation.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 5. the Vivaldi array is aligned in the horizontal axis of a horn antenna and is kept at a distance of 2D2/ . what results is the radiation pattern.5 Measurement setup The return loss can be measured directly by connecting the Vivaldi array to the probe of the analyzer as shown in the above figure. where D represents the length of the diagonal of the horn. Then the Vivaldi array is rotated around its own axis and the power delivered to the horn at each position is noted.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 5.1 Return loss 0 -10 -20 -30 with a return loss of lower than -10dB.75 GHz Page 42 .6. Department of Electronics. 5.225 to 7. CUSAT S11(dB) -40 measured simulated -60 2 4 6 8 10 -50 Frequency(GHz) Fi 5.6 Measured and simulated return loss of the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array Measured result in Fi .6 Measured and simulated results 5.6 indicate that the array can operate from 1.

2 Gain (dB) 12 10 8 6 according to the measured result.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 5.56 GHz. CUSAT Gain(dB) 4 2 measured simulated 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 frequency(GHz) Fi 5. Page 43 .32dB at 3. Department of Electronics.98 to 7.5 GHz. A gain of more than 6dB is sustained over the frequency range of 1.6. The maximum measured gain obtained is 9.7 Measured and simulated Gain Vs. Frequency of the Vivaldi antenna array.

0 .8.3 Radiation pattern Let the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array be aligned in the 3 dimensional space as shown in Fi 5.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 5.5 30 0 60 3 GHz 90 .3.0 -25 -20 -15 -10 Page 44 .6.8 Vivaldi Antenna Array in 3 dimensional space 5.0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 300 330 (a) (b) Department of Electronics.5 -40 . CUSAT ¤ ¥¤ -40 -10 -15 -20 -25 .0 .6.1 Radiation pattern in XY plane 2 GHz 90 0 120 -5 -10 -15 150 -20 -25 -30 -35 180 0 -5 -40 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -35 -30 -25 210 -20 -15 -10 -5 240 0 270 300 240 0 270 330 210 0 -5 0 180 0 -5 30 150 60 120 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 . Fi 5.5 ¤ ¤ 0 -5 0 ¤ ¤¤ ¤ .

2 Radiation pattern in XZ plane 2GHz 90 0 120 -5 60 120 -5 -10 30 150 -15 -20 -15 -25 -30 180 0 -5 -10 -15 -15 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 0 180 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -35 -30 -35 -30 -25 -20 210 -10 330 210 -15 -10 -5 240 0 270 300 240 0 270 300 330 0 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 30 0 60 3GHz 90 150 -10 -5 (a) Department of Electronics.3. As the wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional. Frequency in XY plane It is seen that when frequency increases the main lobe beam width decreases.6.9 Radiation pattern Vs. It can be explained as follows [5. 5. we can say that directivity increases with increase in frequency. And hence beam width decreases with increase in frequency.3]:. the directivity decreases with increase in wavelength.The directivity of an antenna according to Friss transmission formula is given by: D= 4 A/ 2 Therefore. CUSAT (b) Page 45 .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 4 GHz 90 120 -5e+0 -1e+1 -2e+1 150 -2e+1 -3e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 180 -4e+1 -5e+0 -1e+1 -2e+1 -2e+1 -3e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 -4e+1 -4e+1 -3e+1 -3e+1 -2e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -5e+0 -4e+1 -3e+1 -3e+1 210 -2e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -5e+0 240 270 300 330 0 30 60 (c) Fi 5.

10 Radiation pattern Vs Frequency in XZ plane 5.6.3 3D polar plot Fi 5.11 Simulated Far field radiation pattern at 3.8667GH Department of Electronics. CUSAT Page 46 .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 4GHz 90 0 120 -5 60 150 -10 30 -15 -20 180 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 0 -15 210 -10 330 -5 240 0 270 300 (c) Fi . 5.3.

A very good radiation pattern is also obtained at different frequencies. Knoxville. 5. Microwave Magazine. 2011. Antennas and Propagation. The return loss indicates that the array can operate in a very wide bandwidth. New York. Balanis. University of Tennessee. ³Antenna theory´. issue-3. pp: 72-81 Department of Electronics. CUSAT Page 47 . The measured and simulated results are plotted. [5. ³Design of a Compact Tapered Slot Vivaldi Antenna Array for See Through Concrete wall UWB Applications´.4] Chao-Tang Chuang.3] Constantine [5..minicircuits. USA. 6. IEEE Trans. Shyh-Jong Chung. issue-4. 2nd ed. vol. ³Synthesis and Design of new printed filtering antenna´. VOL.5] Martens J.8 References [5. 1036-1042. ³Multiport vector network analyzer measurements´. A moderate gain is sustained over a certain range of bandwidth.7 Summary A 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array was designed and fabricated. Aly E Fathy.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 5.1] Yazhou Wang. Wiley. [5. Bigelow J. 1997 [5. EECS Department. Judge D. IEEE. 59. pp. 2005.2] http://www.

power entering the input port is split equally and with zero phase difference between the output ports. 6.1(b). and is the reason that it is matched at ports 2 and 3. All ports are well matched and the output ports are highly isolated. Department of Electronics.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Chapter 6 1×4 Vivaldi Antenna Array 6. the resistors are decoupled from the input port. as depicted in Fi 6.2 Wilkinson power divider The three-port hybrid is useful both as a power divider and combiner [6. The widths of the two quarter wave sections are designed to give an impedance of ¥2 Z0.1(a). and the reason that ports 2 and 3 are isolated. In the divider application. In this chapter. The divider is often made in microstrip or stripline form. CUSAT Page 48 . Due to symmetry. Z0 represents the characteristic impedance. 6. the Wilkinson power divider is explained first and then the explanation of the design and fabrication of 4-element array is given. Here. 6. Additional sections can provide large increase in bandwidth.5 GHz) is explained in this chapter.1 Introduction An optimized 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array designed for the lower-band UWB (2-4.2].1. The generalized form of the hybrid circuit is a T junction followed by a multiplicity of cascaded pairs of TEM line lengths and interconnecting resistors. but they serve an essential function in providing output-port match and isolation. The resistor had a resistance of 2Z0. the corresponding transmission line circuit is given in Fi . the single Vivaldi antennas are fed by cascaded Wilkinson power divider network. And it is followed by the presentation of measured and simulated results. Each pair of lines and its associated resistor are referred to as a section.

R1.. A 3-section Wilkinson power divider is used in this project so that a high operative bandwidth is obtained. f2 = 3.9048 1. Z1. The exact design configurations given by him for 3-section power divider is given below:If Z0 =1.4GHz. f3 = 4. Z0. two.7979 R1 = 10. Z2 and Z3 respectively.2.7460 R3 = 1. Z2. R2 and R3 are shown in Fi 6. (b) Equivalent transmission line circuit.1124 Z2 = 1. Department of Electronics.5GHz.1 The Wilkinson power divider.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 6. 6. 2 Where. i.1 Design of wide band Wilkinson power divider Cohn et al. had designed Wilkinson power dividers having one. Z0 = 100 .e.2. CUSAT Page 49 .0000 R2 = 3. The input port and two output ports are matched at a characteristic impedance of 100 .4142 Z3 = 1. Z3. The frequencies taken here are f1 = 2. (a) An equal split Wilkinson power divider in microstrip form. The design of this wide band power divider is given below. He showed that additional sections can provide a large increase in bandwidth. and 3 indicate the wave lengths corresponding to the three frequencies which is taken in-between 2 and 5 GHz.8GHz. The widths of the quarter wave sections are designed in order to give the characteristic impedance Z1.1]. then Z1 = 1. [6. three and seven sections.

3 Fabricated 3-section Wilkinson power divider Fi .2 Circuit of a 3-section power divider A fabricated 3-section Wilkinson power divider is shown in Fi 6. Fi 6.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 6.5dB. the return loss is lower than -15dB and output ports have almost equal power level with insertion loss around -3.3]. In the operating band from 2 to 4. Department of Electronics. CUSAT Page 50 . 6.3 [6.5 GHz.4 indicates the simulated return loss and insertion loss of the power divider.

so that the array become more compact.5 S21 S31 -6. Fi . 6.5 -10 -4.5 demonstrates the 1×4 Vivaldi array designed in HFSS.5 -20 -5. CUSAT Page 51 Return loss (dB) Insertion loss (dB) .3 Desi n of 1×4 Vivaldi Antenna Array A small variation has been made to the array element. All other parameters are remained the same.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 -3. Department of Electronics.0 -15 -4.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -25 -30 -35 Frequency (GHz) Fi 6. 4.0 -5 -3.1 has been reduced from 70mm to 45mm.e. Wtotal in Fi .0 S11 -5.4 Simulated return loss and insertion loss of Wilkinson power divider 6. the TSA discussed in chapter 4. i.

Fi 6.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 6.6 demonstrates the top layer and bottom layer of the fabricated array. Department of Electronics. two Wilkinson power dividers were shunted together to make the array matched to 50 .5 Desi n of 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array The TSA and binary Wilkinson power divider network are both matched at 100 . CUSAT Page 52 . At the feed port the 4-element array. The overall size of the array is 180×150mm.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 (a) (b) Fi 6.6 Top and bottom view of the fabricated 1×8 Vivaldi antenna array Department of Electronics. CUSAT Page 53 .

7 Measured and simulated return loss of the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array Measured results in Fi 6.7 indicate that the array can operate from 1.4 Simulated and Measured Results 6.8 GHz Page 54 .Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6. Department of Electronics.75 to 4. CUSAT S11(dB) -30 -40 measured simulated -50 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency(GHz) Fi 6.4.1 Return loss 0 -10 -20 with a return loss of lower than -10 dB.

The Page 55 . Department of Electronics.2 Gain 14 12 10 8 maximum gain obtained is 12.5 GHz.8 Measured and simulated Gain Vs.4.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6.4dB at 4.5 GHz. Frequency of the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array A gain of more than 7dB is sustained over the operating range 2 to 4. CUSAT Gain(dB) 6 measured simulated 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency(GHz) Fi 6.

9 Ali nment of 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array in 3-dimensional space 6.3.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6.1 Radiation pattern in XY plane 2 GHz 3 90 120 -1e+1 60 120 -1e+1 -2e+1 150 -3e+1 30 150 -3e+1 -4e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -5e+1 180 -1e+1 -2e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 -3e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -5e+1 0 180 -1e+1 -2e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -6e+1 -6e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 -3e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -6e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 330 -2e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -1e+1 240 270 300 240 270 300 210 -3e+1 330 -6e+1 0 30 -2e+1 -4e+1 -3e+1 210 (a) (b) Department of Electronics.4. Fi 6.4.3 Radiation pattern Let the 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array be aligned in 3 dimensional space as shown in Fi 6.9. CUSAT §¦ 90 z 60 Page 56 .

e+ .e+ .e+ .e+ .e+ .4. which shows that the side lobes 15 dB lower than the main beam in XY plane.5 GHz 90 0 60 -10 "0 % "         "(  "        "& "% "$ "# "! "# "$ "% "& " # "$     " %& " #% " % "& ©   "!& "& % "  ")& -20 30 -30 -40 -50 -50 -40 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 0 -30 330 -20 -10 300 0 270 (d) 3 GHz 90 60 -1e+1 -2e+1 30 -3e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 -4e+1 0 -3e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -3e+1 330 -2e+1 -1e+1 300 270 (b) Page 57 . CUSAT " "$$ "& " % "$ ""$ " # "! - " "$ -    .10 Radiation pattern Vs.e+ (c) Fi 6.e+ .e+ .2 Radiation pattern in XZ plane 2 z - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (a) Department of Electronics. Frequency in XY plane Fi 6.e+ .e+            ©          ©  ©   "'   150 180 0 -10 210 120 150 180 -1e+1 -2e+1 210 240 ¨ 120 -20 -30 -40 240 -3e+1 -4e+1 4.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 4 GH 2011 .3.e+ .e+ . 6.e+ .e+ .10 demonstrates a good radiation pattern of the 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array.e+ .e+ .e+ .e+ .

5 GH Department of Electronics.3 3D polar plot Fi 6.5 90 60 -20 150 -30 30 150 -3e+1 -2e+1 30 -40 -4e+1 180 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -50 -40 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 0 180 -1e+1 -2e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 -4e+1 0 -3e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -30 210 -20 330 210 -3e+1 330 -2e+1 -10 240 0 270 300 240 -1e+1 300 270 (c) (d) Fi 6.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 4 GHz 90 0 120 -10 60 120 -1e+1 2011 4.12 Simulated farfield radiation pattern at 4.4. CUSAT 321 Page 58 .3.11 Radiation pattern Vs Frequency in XZ plane 6.

CUSAT Page 59 .13 E-field pattern Vs.4 Field plot 2GH (a) 3GH (b) 4GH (c) Fi 6.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6.4. Frequency Department of Electronics.

8 GHz. 6.225 to 7.14 Measured return loss of 1×2 and 1×4 Vivaldi antenna arrays Fi 6.l m .14 indicates that the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array can operate in a wider operating range with a return loss of lower than -10dB.13 we can observe the sinusoidal field variation along the edges of the curve.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 From Fi 6. while for 4-element array the return loss is lower than -10dB in the range 1. CUSAT Page 60 . Department of Electronics.75 to 4. Above figure shows that the return loss of 2-element array is lower than -10dB in the range of 1.5 Comparison between the results of 1×2 and 1×4 Vivaldi antenna arrays 6.l m t rr y t rr y ( B) - Fr cy (GHz) Fi 6.5.75 GHz.1 Return loss - - - S . The Figure indicates that the magnitude of the E-field near the flared region increases with the increase in frequency. The flared region contributes to most of the radiation.

Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6. CUSAT Page 61 .5.15 shows that the gain of 4-element array is far more better than the 2-element array.l t rr y t rr y Fr cy ( Hz) Fi 6.15 Measured Gain Vs Frequency Fi 6.l .2 Gain i ( B) . Department of Electronics.

12 Radiation pattern Vs Frequency in XY plane of 2-element and 4-element array Department of Electronics.3 Radiation pattern in XY plane 2 GHz 3 GHz 90 0 120 -10 60 120 -10 150 0 60 90 -30 -40 -50 0 -10 - -30 -40 -40 -50 -40 -30 - -30 - -10 -10 240 0 270 300 240 0 270 300 2 element 2 element rr 4 element 4 element rr (a) 4 GHz 90 4.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 6.5. CUSAT A @9 9 @9 9 86776 86776 54 210 54 54 180 -50 54 -10 -20 30 150 -30 -40 30 0 0 180 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -60 -60 -60 -50 -40 330 210 -30 -20 330 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 (b) 0 Page 62 .5 G z 90 0 60 120 -10 60 120 -1e+1 -2e+1 150 -3e+1 30 150 -20 30 -30 -4e+1 -40 0 180 -5e+1 -1e+1 -2e+1 -3e+1 -4e+1 -5e+1 -4e+1 -3e+1 -2e+1 -1e+1 -4e+1 180 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -50 -40 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -3e+1 210 -2e+1 330 210 -30 330 -20 -1e+1 240 270 300 240 -10 300 0 270 2 element array 4 element array 2 element array 4 element array (c) (d) Fi 6.

Department of Electronics. Yazhou Wang. 6. Aly E. 6. 2005. Knoxville. D. the measured and simulated results are plotted. Cohn. the design of optimized 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array is discussed. ³A class of broadband three-port TEM-mode hybrids´. Feb 1968. University of Tennessee. The comparison between 2-element array and 4-element array show that 4-element array perform more better than the 2-element array.Fathy.7 References [6. Wiley.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Fi 6. CUSAT Page 63 .6 Summary In this chapter.M. EECS Department. ³Microwave Engineering´. Pozar.2] [6.. MTT-16. IEEE Trans.B.3] S. Vol. pp. USA. ³ Design of a compact Tapered Slot Antenna Array for See Through Concrete Wall UWB Applications´. Then.12 shows that the pattern of 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array is more directive than that of 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array.1] [6. 110-116. New York. on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 3rd ed.

5 GHz for the 4-element array. At certain frequencies the gain is more than 12dB. CUSAT Page 64 . The measured results of the return loss. Tapered slot antennas and Wilkinson power divider were utilized to compose the 1×4 Vivaldi antenna array. A moderate gain of about 7dB is sustained over the operating range 2-4. a tapered slot Vivaldi antenna array was developed to be a part of the see through concrete wall detection.Design of a Compact Vivaldi Antenna Array 2011 Chapter 7 Conclusion In this project. Tapered slot antennas and 3dB power divider were utilized to compose the 1×2 Vivaldi antenna array. Department of Electronics. gain and radiation patterns demonstrated the good performance of the Vivaldi antenna array. The configurations of the tapered slot antennas were optimized to get a compact size.

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