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A Transmission Medium

A Transmission Medium

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Published by Saket Lalpura

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Published by: Saket Lalpura on Jan 05, 2012
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A transmission medium (plural transmission media) is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy

waves. For example, the transmission medium for sound received by the ears is usually air, but solids and liquids may also act as transmission media for sound. The absence of a material medium in vacuum may also constitute a transmission medium for electromagnetic waves such as light and radio waves. While material substance is not required for electromagnetic waves to propagate, such waves are usually affected by the transmission media they pass through, for instance by absorption or by reflection or refraction at the interfaces between media. The term transmission medium also refers to a technical device that employs the material substance to transmit or guide waves. Thus, an optical fiber or a copper cable is a transmission medium. Not only this bt also is able to guide the transmission of networks. A transmission medium can be classified as a:
• • • •

Linear medium, if different waves at any particular point in the medium can be superposed; Bounded medium, if it is finite in extent, otherwise unbounded medium; Uniform medium or homogeneous medium, if its physical properties are unchanged at different points; Isotropic medium, if its physical properties are the same in different directions.

Coaxial cable, one example of a transmission medium Electromagnetic radiation can be transmitted through an optical media, such as optical fiber, or through twisted pair wires, coaxial cable, or dielectric-slab waveguides. It may also pass through any physical material that is transparent to the specific wavelength, such as water, air, glass, or concrete. Sound is, by definition, the vibration of matter, so it requires a physical medium for transmission, as does other kinds of mechanical waves and heat energy. Historically, science incorporated various aether theories to explain the transmission medium. However, it is now known that electromagnetic waves do not require a physical transmission medium, and so can travel through the "vacuum" of free space. Regions of the insulative vacuum can become conductive for electrical conduction through the presence of free electrons, holes, or ions.

[edit] Telecommunications
Many transmission media are used as communications channels.

This term can apply to both guided and unguided media. radio or infrared. vacuum and seawater. and optical fibers. half-duplex. Wireless media may carry surface waves or skywaves. In full duplex operation. coaxial cables. Unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do not guide them. The term direct link is used to refer to the transmission path between two devices in which signals propagate directly from transmitters to receivers with no intermediate devices. both stations may transmit simultaneously. [edit] See also • • • • Vacuum permittivity Transmission (telecommunications) Excitable medium Duplex (telecommunications) [show]v · d · e Telecommunications (general) . A transmission may be simplex. both stations may transmit. examples are propagation through air. With guided transmission media. In both cases. but only one at a time. or full-duplex. one station is a transmitter and the other is the receiver. communication is in the form of electromagnetic waves. In simplex transmission. transmission media are classified as one of the following: • • Guided (or bounded)—waves are guided along a solid medium such as a transmission line. In the latter case. Wireless (or unguided)—transmission and reception are achieved by means of an antenna. the medium is carrying signals in both directions at same time. either longitudinally or transversely. and are so classified. examples of guided media include phone lines. the waves are guided along a physical path. signals are transmitted in only one direction. Federal Standard 1037C. In the half-duplex operation. Examples of this include microwave. Unguided transmission media are methods that allow the transmission of data without the use of physical means to define the path it takes. other than amplifiers or repeaters used to increase signal strength. twisted pair cables.For telecommunications purposes in the United States.

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