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TECHNICAL POLICY BOARD

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS




0030/ND







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Please check the website below for the current version.





15 Apr 09 3 RLJ Technical Policy Board
01 Apr 05 2 JR Technical Policy Board
22 Sep04 1 RJP Technical Policy Board
18 May 04 0 JR Technical Policy Board
DATE REVISION PREPARED AUTHORISED BY
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 2
PREFACE

This document has been drawn with care to address what are likely to be the main concerns
based on the experience of the Noble Denton organisation. This should not, however, be taken
to mean that this document deals comprehensively with all of the concerns which will need to be
addressed or even, where a particular matter is addressed, that this document sets out the
definitive view of the organisation for all situations. In using this document, it should be treated
as giving guidelines for sound and prudent practice on which our advice should be based, but
guidelines should be reviewed in each particular case by the responsible person in each project
to ensure that the particular circumstances of that project are addressed in a way which is
adequate and appropriate to ensure that the overall advice given is sound and comprehensive.

Whilst great care and reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document
to ensure that the content is correct and error free, no responsibility or liability can be accepted
by Noble Denton for any damage or loss incurred resulting from the use of the information
contained herein.

© 2009 Noble Denton Group Limited, who will allow:
- the document to be freely reproduced,
- the smallest extract to be a complete page including headers and footers but smaller
extracts may be reproduced in technical reports and papers, provided their origin is
clearly referenced.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 3

CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE NO.
1 SUMMARY 8
1.1 CONTENT AND SCOPE 8
1.2 THE APPROVAL PROCESS 8
1.3 DOCUMENTATION 8
1.4 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS, VESSEL MOTIONS & LOADINGS, &
SEAFASTENING DESIGN 8
1.5 STABILITY 8
1.6 BARGE, TRANSPORT VESSEL & TUG SELECTION, TOWING EQUIPMENT,
MANNED TOWS 9
1.7 PLANNING & CONDUCT OF THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE 9
1.8 MULTIPLE TOWAGES 9
1.9 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 9
2 INTRODUCTION 10
3 DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS 13
4 THE APPROVAL PROCESS 20
4.1 GENERAL 20
4.2 NOBLE DENTON APPROVAL 20
4.3 CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL 20
4.4 SCOPE OF WORK LEADING TO AN APPROVAL 20
4.5 LIMITATION OF APPROVAL 22
5 CERTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION 23
5.1 GENERAL 23
5.2 DOCUMENTATION DESCRIPTION 23
5.3 ICE CLASS 25
5.4 REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION 26
6 DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 27
6.1 INTRODUCTION 27
6.2 OPERATIONAL REFERENCE PERIOD 27
6.3 WEATHER-RESTRICTED OPERATIONS 27
6.4 UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS 28
6.5 CALCULATION OF “ADJUSTED” DESIGN EXTREMES, UNRESTRICTED
OPERATIONS 28
6.6 CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE 29
6.7 CALCULATION OF VOYAGE SPEED 29
6.8 CALCULATION OF EXTREMES 29
6.9 COMPARISON WITH PERCENTAGE EXCEEDENCE 30
6.10 CRITERIA FROM TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS 30
6.11 METOCEAN DATABASE BIAS 31
6.12 DESIGN WAVE HEIGHT 31
6.13 DESIGN WIND SPEED 31
6.14 METOCEAN DATA FOR BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS 31
7 MOTION RESPONSE 32
7.1 GENERAL 32
7.2 SEASTATE 32
7.3 PERIODS 32
7.4 VESSEL HEADING AND SPEED 33
7.5 THE EFFECTS OF FREE SURFACES 33
7.6 THE EFFECTS OF CARGO IMMERSION 33
7.7 MOTION RESPONSE COMPUTER PROGRAMS 33
7.8 RESULTS OF MODEL TESTS 34
7.9 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA 34
7.10 DIRECTIONALITY AND HEADING CONTROL 35
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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8 LOADINGS 38
8.1 INTRODUCTION 38
8.2 LOADCASES 38
8.3 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA 39
8.4 LONGITUDINAL BENDING 39
8.5 CARGO BUOYANCY AND WAVE SLAM 39
9 DESIGN AND STRENGTH 40
9.1 COMPUTATION OF LOADS 40
9.2 FRICTION 41
9.3 SEAFASTENING DESIGN 43
9.4 CRIBBING 44
9.5 STRESS LEVELS IN CARGO, GRILLAGE & SEAFASTENINGS 45
9.6 SECURING OF PIPE AND OTHER TUBULAR GOODS 46
9.7 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS 47
9.8 FATIGUE 48
9.9 USE OF SECOND HAND STEEL SEAFASTENINGS 48
10 STABILITY 49
10.1 INTACT STABILITY 49
10.2 DAMAGE STABILITY 50
10.3 WIND OVERTURNING 51
10.4 DRAUGHT AND TRIM 52
10.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY 52
11 TRANSPORT VESSEL SELECTION 54
11.1 GENERAL 54
11.2 SUITABILITY AND ON-HIRE SURVEYS 54
12 TOWING VESSEL SELECTION AND APPROVAL 55
12.1 GENERAL 55
12.2 BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS 55
12.3 MAIN & SPARE TOWING WIRES & TOWING CONNECTIONS 58
12.4 TAILGATES/STERN RAILS 58
12.5 TOWLINE CONTROL 59
12.6 WORKBOAT 59
12.7 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT 59
12.8 NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT 59
12.9 SEARCHLIGHT 59
12.10 PUMP 60
12.11 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT 60
12.12 BUNKERS & OTHER CONSUMABLES 60
12.13 TUG MANNING 60
13 TOWING & MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ON TOW 61
13.1 TOWING EQUIPMENT & ARRANGEMENTS - GENERAL 61
13.2 STRENGTH OF TOWLINE & TOWLINE CONNECTIONS 62
13.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOWLINE LENGTH AND STRENGTH 64
13.4 TOWLINE CONNECTION POINTS 64
13.5 BRIDLE LEGS 64
13.6 BRIDLE APEX 65
13.7 SHACKLES 65
13.8 INTERMEDIATE PENNANT OR SURGE CHAINS 65
13.9 SYNTHETIC SPRINGS 66
13.10 BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM 66
13.11 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR 66
13.12 CERTIFICATION 67
13.13 NAVIGATION LIGHTS & SHAPES 67
13.14 ACCESS TO TOWS 68
13.15 ANCHORING & MOORING EQUIPMENT 68
13.16 DAMAGE CONTROL & EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 69
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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14 VOYAGE PLANNING 70
14.1 GENERAL 70
14.2 PLANNING 70
14.3 ROUTEING 70
14.4 WEATHER ROUTEING & FORECASTING 70
14.5 DEPARTURE 71
14.6 PORTS OF SHELTER, SHELTER AREAS, HOLDING AREAS 71
14.7 BUNKERING 71
14.8 ASSISTING TUGS 72
14.9 PILOTAGE 72
14.10 LOG 72
14.11 INSPECTIONS DURING THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE 72
14.12 REDUCING EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT & THE SHIPPING OF WATER 72
14.13 NOTIFICATION 72
14.14 DIVERSIONS 72
14.15 RESPONSIBILITY 72
14.16 TUG CHANGE 73
14.17 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 73
14.18 BALLAST WATER 73
14.19 RESTRICTED DEPTHS, HEIGHTS & MANOEUVRABILITY 73
14.20 UNDER-KEEL CLEARANCES 74
14.21 AIR DRAUGHT 74
14.22 CHANNEL WIDTH & RESTRICTED MANOEUVRABILITY 75
15 PUMPING AND SOUNDING 76
15.1 GENERAL 76
15.2 PURPOSE OF PUMPS 76
15.3 PUMPING SYSTEM 77
15.4 PUMP TYPE 77
15.5 PUMP CAPACITY 77
15.6 WATERTIGHT MANHOLES 78
15.7 SOUNDING PLUGS AND TAPES 78
15.8 VENTS 78
16 ANCHORS AND MOORING ARRANGEMENTS 79
16.1 EMERGENCY ANCHORS 79
16.2 SIZE AND TYPE OF ANCHOR 79
16.3 ANCHOR CABLE LENGTH 79
16.4 ANCHOR CABLE STRENGTH 79
16.5 ATTACHMENT OF CABLE 79
16.6 ANCHOR MOUNTING AND RELEASE 80
16.7 MOORING ARRANGEMENTS 80
17 MANNED TOWS AND TRANSPORTATIONS 81
17.1 GENERAL 81
17.2 INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS 81
17.3 RIDING CREW CARRIED ON THE CARGO 81
17.4 SAFETY AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 82
17.5 MANNED ROUTINE 82
18 MULTIPLE TOWAGES 83
18.1 DEFINITIONS 83
18.2 GENERAL 83
18.3 DOUBLE TOWS 84
18.4 TANDEM TOWS 84
18.5 PARALLEL TOWS 84
18.6 TWO TUGS (IN SERIES) TOWING ONE TOW 84
18.7 MULTIPLE TUGS TO ONE TOW 85
19 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF JACK-UPS 86
19.1 GENERAL 86
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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19.2 MOTION RESPONSES 86
19.3 LOADINGS 86
19.4 HULL STRENGTH 86
19.5 STRESS LEVELS 87
19.6 STABILITY AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY 87
19.7 TUGS, TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS 88
19.8 SECURING OF LEGS 88
19.9 DRILLING DERRICK, SUBSTRUCTURE AND CANTILEVER 89
19.10 HELIDECK 89
19.11 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND SOLID VARIABLE LOAD 89
19.12 SPUD CANS 90
19.13 PUMPING ARRANGEMENTS 90
19.14 MANNING 90
19.15 PROTECTION OF MACHINERY 90
19.16 ANCHORS 91
19.17 SAFETY EQUIPMENT 91
19.18 CONTINGENCY STAND-BY LOCATIONS 91
20 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF SHIPS 92
20.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 92
20.2 TUG SELECTION 93
20.3 TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS 93
20.4 STABILITY, DRAUGHT AND TRIM 94
20.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY 94
20.6 ANCHORS 94
20.7 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND MOVEABLE ITEMS 95
20.8 EMERGENCY PUMPING 95
20.9 CARRIAGE OF CARGO 95
21 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF FPSOS 96
21.1 GENERAL AND BACKGROUND 96
21.2 TOWAGE MANUAL 96
21.3 THE ROUTE AND WEATHER CONDITIONS 96
21.4 STRUCTURAL ISSUES 96
21.5 TUG SELECTION 97
21.6 BALLAST, TRIM AND DIRECTIONAL STABILITY 97
21.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT 98
21.8 SELF-PROPELLED OR THRUSTER-ASSISTED VESSELS 98
21.9 MANNING AND CERTIFICATION 99
21.10 EMERGENCY ANCHOR 99
21.11 MOORINGS & UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE 99
22 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF VESSELS AND
STRUCTURES IN ICE COVERED WATERS 100
22.1 GENERAL 100
22.2 VESSEL ICE CLASSIFICATION 101
22.3 TOWAGE WITHOUT INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT 102
22.4 TOWAGE OPERATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT 104
22.5 MANNING 104
22.6 MULTIPLE TOWS AND MULTI-TUG TOWS 104
22.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT 106
22.8 TUG SUITABILITY 109
22.9 CARGO LOADINGS 109
22.10 SEA-FASTENING DESIGN AND STRENGTH 109
22.11 STABILITY 110
22.12 BALLASTING 110
22.13 VOYAGE PLANNING 111
22.14 WEATHER /ICE RESTRICTED OPERATIONS 112
22.15 DAMAGE CONTROL AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 112
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 7
REFERENCES 113
APPENDIX A - EXAMPLE OF MAIN TOW BRIDLE WITH RECOVERY SYSTEM 114
APPENDIX B - EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR 115
APPENDIX C - EXAMPLE OF SMIT-TYPE CLENCH PLATE 116
APPENDIX D - EMERGENCY ANCHOR MOUNTING ON BILLBOARD 117
APPENDIX E - ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROVISION & USE OF AN EMERGENCY
ANCHOR 118
APPENDIX F - FILLET WELD STRESS CHECKING 120

TABLE
Table 5-1 Principal Documentation 23
Table 5-2 Required Documentation 26
Table 7-1 Value of JONSWAP γ, ratio of T
p
:T
z
and T
p
:T
1
for each integer value of K 32
Table 7-2 Default Motion Criteria 34
Table 7-3 Reduced Seastate v Heading 36
Table 9-1 Maximum allowable coefficients of friction & minimum seafastening forces 41
Table 9-2 Typical Friction Coefficients 46
Table 10-1 Intact stability range 49
Table 10-2 Minimum draught & trim 52
Table 12-1 Towing Vessel Categories 55
Table 12-2 Meteorological Criteria for Calculating TPR (Towline Pull Required) 56
Table 12-3 Values of Tug Efficiency, T
e
57
Table 12-4 Selecting Bollard Pull from TPR for H
sig
= 5 m 58
Table 13-1 Minimum Towline Breaking Loads (MBL) 62
Table 13-2 Fairlead Resolved ULC 63
Table 13-3 Default Shackle SWL 65
Table 22-1 Polar Class Descriptions 101
Table 22-2 Previous Icebreaker Classifications 102
Table 22-3 Previous Vessel Ice Classifications 102
Table 22-4 Minimum Towline MBL in Ice 106

FIGURE
Figure 10.1 Wind Overturning Criteria (Intact Case) 51
Figure 10.2 Wind Overturning Criteria (Damaged Case) 51
Figure 12.1 Tug efficiencies in different sea states 57
Figure 12.2 Effective Bollard Pull in Different Sea States 58
Figure 13.1 Definition of angle o with and without a bridle 63
Figure F 1 Effective Throat Dimension ‘a’ for Concave and Convex Fillet Welds 120
Figure F 2 Normal and Shear Stresses acting on the plane of Weld Throat 121
Figure F 3 Bracket connected by Double Fillet Weld 122
Figure F 4 Stresses and Forces acting on Fillet Weld 123


GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 8
1 SUMMARY
1.1 CONTENT AND SCOPE
1.1.1 This document describes the guidelines which will be used by Noble Denton for
approval of specialised marine transportations, including:
a. Cargoes on towed barges or ships
b. Towage of self-floating marine and oilfield equipment, civil engineering
structures and ships.
1.1.2 This document is not intended to apply to “standard” cargoes such as bulk liquids,
bulk solids, refrigerated cargoes, vehicles or containers.
1.1.3 This Revision 3 includes changes described in Section 2.6.
1.1.4 It should be noted that this document cannot cover every case of all transportation
types. The reader should satisfy himself that the guidelines used are fit for purpose
for the actual transportation under consideration.
1.1.5 In general, in addition to compliance with these Guidelines, towing operations
should comply with the mandatory parts of relevant IMO documents. The approval
of any transportation by Noble Denton does not imply that approval by any other
involved parties would be given. These Guidelines are intended to ensure the
safety of the transported equipment. They do not specifically apply to the safety of
personnel or protection of the environment, for which more stringent guidelines may
be appropriate.
1.1.6 These Guidelines are not intended to exclude alternative methods, new technology
and new equipment, provided an equivalent level of safety can be demonstrated.
1.2 THE APPROVAL PROCESS
1.2.1 A description of the Approval Process is included, for projects where Noble Denton
is acting as a Warranty Surveyor. The extent and limitations of the approval given
are discussed.
1.3 DOCUMENTATION
1.3.1 The documents and certificates which are expected to be possessed or obtained for
differing operations/equipment are described and tabulated.
1.4 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS, VESSEL MOTIONS & LOADINGS, &
SEAFASTENING DESIGN
1.4.1 Guidelines are presented for determining the design meteorological conditions, for
differing operational durations and exposures.
1.4.2 Alternative means of computing vessel motions are given, as are default motion
criteria.
1.4.3 Methods of deriving the loadings resulting from vessel motions are stated.
1.4.4 Considerations are given for the design of grillage and seafastenings, and assessing
the strength of the cargo.
1.5 STABILITY
1.5.1 Guidelines for intact and damage stability are presented, with reference to
International Codes where appropriate.
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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 9
1.6 BARGE, TRANSPORT VESSEL & TUG SELECTION, TOWING
EQUIPMENT, MANNED TOWS
1.6.1 Considerations in the selection of a suitable transport barge or vessel are listed.
1.6.2 Tug specification, bollard pull requirements and equipment are stated.
1.6.3 Towing and miscellaneous equipment to be provided on the tow is also stated,
including pumping systems, anchoring and mooring systems.
1.6.4 Reasons for manning a tow in certain circumstances are discussed, and the
equipment and precautions to be taken in the event of manning.
1.7 PLANNING & CONDUCT OF THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE
1.7.1 The planning and conduct of the towage or voyage are discussed in Section 14.
1.8 MULTIPLE TOWAGES
1.8.1 The different types of multiple towages are defined in Section 18, and the practical
problems and acceptability of each are discussed.
1.9 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Special considerations are given for:
a. Transport or towage of jack-ups in Section 19.
b. Towage of ships, including demolition towages in Section 20.
c. Towage of FPSOs and similar vessels in Section 21.
d. Towages of vessels and structures in ice covered waters in Section 22.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 10
2 INTRODUCTION
2.1 This document describes the guidelines for approval of specialised marine
transportations, including:
a. Transportation of cargoes on towed barges
b. Transportation of specialised cargoes on ships
c. Transportation of specialised cargoes on submersible, heavy lift vessels
d. Towage of ships including demolition towages
e. Towages of self-floating marine and oilfield equipment such as mobile offshore
drilling units (MODUs), self floating jackets, floating docks, dredgers, crane
vessels and Floating Production Storage and Offload vessels (FPSOs)
f. One-off towages of self-floating civil engineering structures such as caissons,
power plants, bridge components and submerged tube tunnel sections.
2.2 Where Noble Denton is acting as a consultant rather than a Warranty Surveyor,
these Guidelines may be applied, as a guide to good practice.
2.3 These Guidelines are not intended to be applicable to “standard” cargoes such as
bulk liquids, bulk solids, refrigerated cargoes, vehicles or containers.
2.4 The document refers to other Noble Denton guidelines as appropriate.
2.5 Revision 2 included an additional Section 22, relating to towages in ice covered
waters. It also superseded and replaced earlier Noble Denton guidelines:
a. Guidelines for the transportation of specialised cargoes on ships and heavy
transport vessels - 0007/NDI
b. Self-elevating platforms - guidelines for operations and towages (towage
section only) - 0009/ND [Ref. 1]
c. Guidelines for Marine Transportations - 0014/NDI
d. Guidelines for the Towage of Ships - 0026/NDI.
2.6 This Revision 3 supersedes Revision 2, and includes:
a. Modification of spectra definition in Section 7.3.3.
b. Clarification of forward speed for motion analysis in Section 7.4.2.
c. Minor changes to loadings in Sections 8.2, 8.3, and pump capacity in Section
15.5.1.
d. Changes to friction in seafastenings in Section 9.2.
e. Additional comments on the use of chain in seafastenings in Section 9.3.8.
f. Changes of the use of 1/3 overload in Section 9.5.4 to 9.5.7
g. Addition of Section 9.9 for use of second hand steel seafastenings.
h. Default wind speed added for intact stability in Section 10.3.2.
i. Removing the definition on “Field Move” for jack-ups and replacing it with 24-
hour moves, with revised bollard requirements in Section 12.2.3 and tug
efficiencies in Table 12-3.
j. Amplification of tug efficiencies in Sections 12.2.8 to 12.2.10.
k. Clarification of the ULC for fairleads in Section 13.2.4.
l. Implications of large bridle apex angles in Section 13.5.2.
3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 11
m. Introduction of surge chains in Section 13.8.5.
n. Increase in safety factor for bridle recovery .system in Section 13.10.5
o. Addition of paragraphs on Hazardous materials in Section 14.17 and Ballast
Water in Section 14.18.
p. Addition of Sections 14.19 to 14.22 on vertical and horizontal clearances on
passage.
q. Changes to the philosophy of emergency anchors in Sections 16.1 and 16.2.
r. Amplification of Flag State approval of riding crews on transported cargo. In
Sections 17.1.3 and 17.1.4.
s. Additional restriction for carrying drill pipe etc in the derrick for field moves
(Section 19.9.3)
t. Reference is made to the IMO Stability code for icing in Section 22.11.1.
u. Introduction of the IACS Polar class for vessels operating in ice in Section
22.2.2
v. Additional Reference documents in the Reference Section.
w. Addition of fillet weld stress checking in APPENDIX F - .
2.7 It should be noted that this document cannot cover every case of all transportation
types. The reader should satisfy himself that the guidelines used are fit for purpose
for the actual transportation under consideration.
2.8 Further information referring to other phases of marine operations may be found in:
a. Self-elevating platforms – Guidelines for Elevated Operations 0009/ND
[Ref. 1]
b. Guidelines for Loadouts - 0013/ND [Ref. 2]
c. Concrete Offshore Gravity Structures – Guidelines for Approval of
Construction, Towage and Installation - 0015/ND [Ref. 3]
d. Seabed and Sub-Seabed Data Required for Approvals of Mobile Offshore
Units (MOU) - 0016/ND [Ref. 4)
e. Guidelines for the Approvability of Towing Vessels - 0021/ND [Ref. 5]
f. Guidelines for Lifting Operations by Floating Crane Vessels - 0027/ND [Ref. 6]
g. Guidelines for the Transportation and Installation of Steel Jackets 0028/ND -
[Ref. 7].
2.9 All current Noble Denton Guideline documents can be downloaded from
www.nobledenton.com.
2.10 The approval of any transportation by Noble Denton does not imply that approval by
designers, regulatory bodies, harbour authorities and/or any other involved parties
would be given, nor does it imply approval of the seaworthiness of the vessel.
2.11 These Guidelines are intended to ensure the safety of the transported equipment.
They do not specifically apply to the safety of personnel or protection of the
environment, which are covered by other International and National Regulations. In
some cases more stringent guidelines may be appropriate in order to protect
personnel and the environment.
2.12 These Guidelines refer both to towages of barges and other self-floating equipment,
and to voyages of self-propelled vessels. Where applicable, and unless particular
distinction is required, the term “vessel” may include “barge”, and “voyage” may
include “towage”, and vice versa.
3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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2.13 The “Special Considerations” Sections 19 through 22 may amend, add to or
contradict the general sections. Care should be taken to ensure that the special
requirements are considered as appropriate.
2.14 These Guidelines are not intended to exclude alternative methods, new technology
and new equipment, provided an equivalent level of safety can be demonstrated.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 13
3 DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS
3.1 Referenced definitions are underlined.
Term or acronym Definition
24-hour Move A jack-up move taking less than 24 hours between entering
the water and reaching a safe airgap with at least two very
high confidence good weather forecasts for the 48 hours
after entering the water, having due regard to area and
season.
ABS American Bureau of Shipping
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
API American Petroleum Institute
ASPPR Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations
Assured The Assured is the person who has been insured by some
insurance company, or underwriter, against losses or perils
mentioned in the policy of insurance.
Barge A non-propelled vessel commonly used to carry cargo or
equipment.
Benign area An area that is free from tropical revolving storms and
travelling depressions, (but excluding the North Indian Ocean
during the Southwest monsoon season, and the South China
Sea during the Northeast monsoon season). The specific
extent and seasonal limitations of a benign area should be
agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.
BL (Breaking
Load)
Breaking load (BL) = Certified minimum breaking load of wire
rope, chain or shackles, measured in tonnes.
BP (Bollard Pull) Bollard pull (BP) = Certified continuous static bollard pull of a
tug measured in tonnes.
BV Bureau Veritas
Cargo Where the item to be transported is carried on a barge or a
vessel, it is referred to throughout this report as the cargo. If
the item is towed on its own buoyancy, it is referred to as the
tow.
Cargo ship safety
certificates
(Safety
Construction)
(Safety
Equipment)
(Safety Radio)
Certificates issued by a certifying authority to attest that the
vessel complies with the cargo ship construction and survey
regulations, has radiotelephone equipment compliant with
requirements and carries safety equipment that complies with
the rules applicable to that vessel type.
Certificate validities vary and are subject to regular survey to
ensure compliance.
CASPRR Canadian Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations
Certificate of
Approval
A formal document issued by Noble Denton stating that, in its
judgement and opinion, all reasonable checks, preparations
and precautions have been taken to keep risks within
acceptable limits, and an operation may proceed.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 14
Term or acronym Definition
Class A system of ensuring ships are built and maintained in
accordance with the Rules of a particular Classification
Society. Although not an absolute legal requirement the
advantages (especially as regards insurance) mean that
almost all vessels are maintained in Class.
COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Cribbing An arrangement of timber baulks, secured to the deck of a
barge or vessel, formally designed to support the cargo,
generally picking up the strong points in vessel and/or cargo.
Demolition
towage
Towage of a “dead” vessel for scrapping.
Deratisation Introduced to prevent the spread of rodent borne disease,
Certification attesting the vessel is free of rodents (Derat
Exemption Certificate) or has been satisfactorily fumigated to
derat the vessel (Derat Certificate). Certificates are valid for
6 months unless further evidence of infestation found.
Design
environmental
condition
The design wave height, design wind speed, and other
relevant environmental conditions specified for the design of
a particular transportation or operation.
Design wave
height
Typically the 10-year monthly extreme significant wave
height, for the area and season of the particular
transportation or operation.
Design wind
speed
Typically the 10-year monthly extreme 1-minute wind velocity
at a reference height of 10 m above sea level, for the area
and season of the particular transportation or operation.
DNV Det Norske Veritas
Double tow The operation of towing two tows with two tow wires by a
single tug. See Section 18.3.
Dry Towage (or
Dry Tow)
Transportation of a cargo on a barge towed by a tug.
Commonly mis-used term for what is actually a voyage with a
powered vessel, more properly referred to as ‘Dry
Transportation’
Dry
Transportation
Transportation of a cargo on a barge or a powered vessel.
Dunnage See cribbing.
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
Flagged vessel A vessel entered in a national register of shipping with all the
appropriate certificates.
Floating offload The reverse of floating onload
Floating onload The operation of transferring a cargo, which itself is floating,
onto a vessel or barge, which is submerged for the purpose.
FPSO Floating Production, Storage and Offload vessel
GL Germanischer Lloyd
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 15
Term or acronym Definition
Grillage A steel structure, secured to the deck of a barge or vessel,
formally designed to support the cargo and distribute the
loads between the cargo and barge or vessel.
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
IMO International Maritime Organisation
Independent leg
jack-up
A jack-up where the legs may be raised or lowered
independently of each other.
Insurance
Warranty
A clause in the insurance policy for a particular venture,
requiring the approval of a marine operation by a specified
independent survey house.
IOPP Certificate International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (see also
MARPOL)
ISM Code International Safety Management Code - the International
Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for
Pollution Prevention - SOLAS Chapter IX [Ref. 8]
Jack-up A self-elevating MODU, MOU or similar, equipped with legs
and jacking systems capable of lifting the hull clear of the
water.
Line pipe Coated or uncoated steel pipe sections, intended to be
assembled into a Pipeline
LOA Length Over All
Load line The maximum depth to which a ship may be loaded in the
prevailing circumstances in respect to zones, areas and
seasonal periods. A Loadline Certificate is subject to regular
surveys, and remains valid for 5 years unless significant
structural changes are made.
Loadout Transferring a cargo onto a vessel or barge, from the shore
or from another vessel or barge.
Location move A move of a MODU or similar, which, although not falling
within the definition of a field 24-hour move, may be expected
to be completed with the unit essentially in 24-hour field
move configuration, without overstressing or otherwise
endangering the unit, having due regard to the length of the
move, and to the area (including availability of shelter points)
and season.
LRFD Load and Resistance Factor Design
LRS Lloyds Register of Shipping
Marine operation See Operation
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships 1973/78, as amended.
Mat-supported
jack-up
A jack-up which is supported in the operating mode on a mat
structure, into which the legs are connected and which
therefore may not be raised or lowered independently of
each other.
MBL Minimum Breaking Load (see Sections 13.2.1 and 22.7.3.2)
MODU See MOU
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0030/ND REV 3 Page 16
Term or acronym Definition
MOU Mobile Offshore Unit. For the purposes of this document, the
term may include mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs), and
non-drilling mobile units such as accommodation,
construction, lifting or production units
Multiple tow The operation of towing more than one tow by a single tug.
See Section 18.1.
NDT Non Destructive Testing
Noble Denton Any company within the Noble Denton Group including any
associated company which carries out the scope of work and
issues a Certificate of Approval, or provides advice,
recommendations or designs as a consultancy service.
Ocean towage Any towage which does not fall within the definition of a
restricted operation, or any towage of a MODU or similar
which does not fall within the definition of a 24-hour move or
location move.
Ocean
transportation
Any transportation which does not fall within the definition of
a restricted operation
Off-hire survey A survey carried out at the time a vessel, barge, tug or other
equipment is taken off-hire, to establish the condition,
damages, equipment status and quantities of consumables,
intended to be compared with the on-hire survey as a basis
for establishing costs and liabilities.
Offload The reverse of loadout
On-hire survey A survey carried out at the time a vessel, barge, tug or other
equipment is taken on-hire, to establish the condition, any
pre-existing damages, equipment status and quantities of
consumables. It is intended to be compared with the off-hire
survey as a basis for establishing costs and liabilities. It is
not intended to confirm the suitability of the equipment to
perform a particular operation.
Operation, marine
operation
Any activity, including loadout, transportation, offload or
installation, which is subject to the potential hazards of
weather, tides, marine equipment and the marine
environment,
Operational
reference period
The planned duration of an operation including a contingency
period.
Parallel tow The operation of towing two tows with one tow wire by a
single tug, the second tow being connected to a point on the
tow wire ahead of the first tow with the catenary of its tow
wire passing beneath the first tow. See Section 18.1.4.
Pipe carrier A vessel specifically designed or fitted out to carry Line pipe
Port (or point) of
shelter
See Shelter point
Port of refuge A location where a towage or a vessel seeks refuge, as
decided by the Master, due to events occurring which
prevent the towage or vessel proceeding towards the
planned destination. A safe haven where a towage or
voyage may seek shelter for survey and/or repairs, when
damage is known or suspected.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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Term or acronym Definition
Procedure A documented method statement for carrying out an
operation
Registry Registry indicates who may be entitled to the privileges of the
national flag, gives evidence of title of ownership of the ship
as property and is required by the need of countries to be
able to enforce their laws and exercise jurisdiction over their
ships. The Certificate of Registry remains valid indefinitely
unless name, flag or ownership changes.
Restricted
operation
See Weather-restricted operation.
Risk assessment A method of hazard identification where all factors relating to
a particular operation are considered.
Safety
Management
Certificate (SMC)
A document issued to a ship which signifies that the
Company and its shipboard management operate in
accordance with the approved SMS.
Safety
Management
System (SMS)
A structured and documented system enabling Company
personnel to implement the Company safety environmental
protection policy.
SART Search and Rescue Radar Transponder
Seafastening The means of preventing movement of the cargo or other
items carried on or within the barge, vessel, or tow.
Semi-submersible A MODU or similar designed to operate afloat, generally
floating on columns which reduce the water-plane area, and
often moored to the seabed when operating.
Shelter point (or
shelter port, or
point of shelter)
An area or safe haven where a towage or vessel may seek
shelter, in the event of actual or forecast weather outside the
design limits for the transportation concerned. A planned
holding point for a staged transportation
Single tow The operation of towing a single tow with a single tug.
SLS Serviceability Limit State
SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
Staged
transportation
A transportation which can proceed in stages between
shelter points, not leaving or passing each shelter point
unless there is a suitable weather forecast for the next stage.
Each stage may, subject to certain safeguards, be
considered a weather-restricted operation.
Submersible
transport vessel
A vessel which is designed to ballast down to submerge its
main deck, to allow self-floating cargoes to be on-loaded and
off-loaded.
Suitability survey A survey intended to assess the suitability of a tug, barge,
vessel or other equipment to perform its intended purpose.
Different and distinct from an on-hire survey.
Survey Inspection of commodity, structure or item for the purposes of
determining condition, quantity, quality or suitability.
Tandem tow The operation of towing two or more tows in series with one
tow wire from a single tug, the second and subsequent tows
being connected to the stern of the tow ahead.
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0030/ND REV 3 Page 18
Term or acronym Definition
Tonnage A measurement of a vessel in terms of the displacement of
the volume of water in which it floats, or alternatively, a
measurement of the volume of the cargo carrying spaces on
the vessel. Tonnage measurements are principally used for
freight and other revenue based calculations. Tonnage
Certificates remain valid indefinitely unless significant
structural changes are made.
Tow The item being towed. This may be a barge or vessel (laden
or un-laden) or an item floating on its own buoyancy.
Approval by Noble Denton of the tow will normally include, as
applicable: consideration of condition and classification of the
barge or vessel; strength, securing and weather protection of
the cargo, draught, stability, documentation, emergency
equipment, lights, shapes and signals, fuel and other
consumable supplies, manning.
Towage The operation of transporting a non-propelled barge or vessel
(whether laden or not with cargo) or other floating object by
towing it with a tug.
Towing (or
towage)
arrangements
The procedures for effecting the towage. Approval by Noble
Denton of the towing (or towage) arrangements will normally
include consideration of towlines and towline connections,
weather forecasting, pilotage, routeing arrangements, points
of shelter, bunkering arrangements, assisting tugs,
communication procedures.
Towing vessel See Tug
Towing Vessel
Approvability
Certificate (TVAC)
A document issued by Noble Denton stating that a towing
vessel complied with the requirements of Ref [5] at the time
of survey, or was reportedly unchanged at the time of
revalidation, in terms of design, construction, equipment and
condition, and is considered suitable for use in towing service
within the limitations of its Category, bollard pull and any
geographical limitations which may be imposed.
Towing Vessel
Approvability
Scheme (TVAS)
The scheme whereby owners of towing vessels may apply to
have their vessels surveyed, leading to the issue of a TVAC.
Towline
connection
strength
Towline connection strength (TC) = ultimate load capacity of
towline connections, including connections to barge, bridle
and bridle apex, in tonnes.
Towline pull
required (TPR)
The towline pull computed to hold the tow, or make a certain
speed against a defined weather condition, in tonnes.
Transportation The operation of transporting a tow or a cargo by a towage or
a voyage.
Tug The vessel performing a towage. Approval by Noble Denton
of the tug will normally include consideration of the general
design; classification; condition; towing equipment; bunkers
and other consumable supplies; emergency and salvage
equipment; communication equipment; manning.
Tug efficiency
(Te)
Defined as:
Effective bollard pull produced in the weather considered
Certified continuous static bollard pull
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 19
Term or acronym Definition
TVAS Towing Vessel Approvability Scheme
ULS Ultimate Limit State
Ultimate Load
Capacity (ULC)
Ultimate load capacity of a wire rope, chain or shackle or
similar is the certified minimum breaking load, in tonnes. The
load factors allow for good quality splices in wire rope.
Ultimate load capacity of a padeye, clench plate, delta plate
or similar structure, is defined as the load, in tonnes, which
will cause general failure of the structure or its connection
into the barge or other structure.
Vessel A marine craft designed for the purpose of transportation by
sea.
Voyage For the purposes of this report, the operation of transporting
a cargo on a powered vessel from one location to another.
Watertight A watertight opening is an opening fitted with a closure
designated by Class as watertight, and maintained as such,
or is fully blanked off so that no leakage can occur when fully
submerged.
Weather un-
restricted
operation
An operation with an operational reference period generally
greater than 72 hours. The design environmental condition
for such an operation shall be set in accordance with extreme
statistical data.
Weather-
restricted
operation
An operation with an operational reference period generally
less than 72 hours. The design environmental condition for
such an operation may be set independent of extreme
statistical data, subject to certain precautions.
Weathertight A weathertight opening is an opening closed so that it is able
to resist any significant leakage from one direction only,
when temporarily immersed in green water or fully
submerged.
WMO World Meteorological Organisation
WPS Welding Procedure Specification
WSD Working Stress Design
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4 THE APPROVAL PROCESS
4.1 GENERAL
4.1.1 Noble Denton may act as a Warranty Surveyor, giving Approval to a particular
operation, or as a Consultant, providing advice, recommendations, calculations
and/or designs as part of the Scope of Work. These functions are not necessarily
mutually exclusive.
4.2 NOBLE DENTON APPROVAL
4.2.1 Noble Denton approval means approval by any company within the Noble Denton
Group including any associated company which carries out the scope of work and
issues a Certificate of Approval.
4.2.2 Noble Denton approval may be sought where the towage, voyage or operation is the
subject of an Insurance Warranty, or where an independent third party review is
required.
4.2.3 An Insurance Warranty is a clause in the insurance policy for a particular venture,
requiring the approval of a marine operation by a specified independent survey
house. The requirement is normally satisfied by the issue of a Certificate of
Approval. Responsibility for interpreting the terms of the Warranty so that an
appropriate Scope of Work can be defined rests with the Assured.
4.2.4 Noble Denton approval may be required for the loadout and offload operations,
either in addition to the transportation, or where such operations are deemed to be
part of the transportation.
4.3 CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
4.3.1 The deliverable of the approval process will generally be a Certificate of Approval.
4.3.2 The Certificate of Approval is the formal document issued by Noble Denton when, in
its judgement and opinion, all reasonable checks, preparations and precautions
have been taken to keep risks within acceptable limits, and an operation may
proceed.
4.3.3 A Certificate confirming adequate preparation for a transportation will normally be
issued by the attending surveyor immediately prior to departure, when all
preparations including seafastening and ballasting are complete, the barge or
vessel, cargo, tug and towing connections (as applicable) have been inspected, and
the actual and forecast weather are suitable for departure.
4.4 SCOPE OF WORK LEADING TO AN APPROVAL
4.4.1 In order to issue a Certificate of Approval, Noble Denton will typically require to
consider, as applicable, the following topics:
a. History, condition and documentation of the tow or cargo
b. Voyage or towage route, season and design environmental conditions, with
shelter points if applicable
c. Capability of the vessel or barge to carry the cargo
d. Vessel, barge or tow motions
e. Strength of the tow, cargo, seafastening and cribbing to withstand static and
motion induced transportation loads
f. Stability of the vessel, barge or tow
g. Towing resistance and required bollard pull
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h. Towing vessel specification and documentation
i. Towing connections and arrangements
j. Weather protection of the tow or cargo
k. Seafastening of items and substructures within the tow or cargo
l. Arrangements for receiving weather forecasts along the route
m. Transportation procedures, including arrangements for holding or deviating to
shelter points if required.
4.4.2 If approval is also required for the onload and/or offload operations of a self-floating
cargo onto/from a submersible vessel or barge, then the following will typically
require consideration:
a. Location details, water depth, tidal conditions and meteorological exposure.
b. Vessel or barge moorings.
c. Stability and ballasting conditions during the load transfer operation and the
critical parts of the deballasting/ballasting operation.
d. Cribbing position and securing during submergence.
e. Towing and handling arrangements for the cargo.
f. Cargo positioning arrangements.
g. Reactions between vessel or barge and cargo.
h. Limiting weather conditions for the operation.
4.4.3 If approval is required for loadout from the shore onto a vessel or barge, offload from
a vessel or barge to the shore, or lifting from a vessel or barge to a platform,
reference should be made to documents 0013/ND [Ref. 2] and 0027/ND [Ref. 6] as
appropriate.
4.4.4 Technical studies leading up to the issue of a Certificate of Approval for
transportation may consist of:
a. Reviews of specifications, procedures and calculations submitted by the client
or his contractors, or
b. Independent analyses carried out by Noble Denton to verify the feasibility of
the proposals, or
c. A combination of third party reviews and independent analyses.
4.4.5 Surveys required in order to issue a Certificate of Approval will typically include:
a. Survey of the transport vessel or barge
b. Survey of the tow or cargo
c. Survey of completed seafastenings and other voyage preparations including
vessel or barge readiness, ballast condition, cargo securing, weather-tightness
and internal seafastening
d. Survey of tug and towing connections, if applicable
e. Inspection of documentation for vessel, barge and tug as appropriate
f. Review of actual and forecast weather for departure
4.4.6 The above surveys may be carried out immediately before departure, but the client
may consider it in his interests to have initial surveys carried out in advance, to
reduce the risk of rejection of any major item.
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4.4.7 Tugs in possession of a Noble Denton Towing Vessel Approvability Certificate
(TVAC) may be pre-approved in principle in advance. It may be advisable to
request a survey of an unknown tug prior to mobilisation.
4.4.8 Whilst not forming part of the surveys required for approval, the client may also
consider it in his interests to have on- and off-hire surveys performed of equipment
taken on charter, in order to establish inventories of equipment and consumables,
and liability for degradation or damage.
4.5 LIMITATION OF APPROVAL
4.5.1 A Certificate of Approval is issued for a specific towage, voyage or operation only.
4.5.2 A Certificate of Approval is issued based on external conditions observed by the
attending surveyor of hull, machinery and equipment, without removal, exposure or
testing of parts.
4.5.3 A Certificate of Approval shall not be deemed or considered to be a general
Certificate of Seaworthiness.
4.5.4 A Certificate of Approval for a towage or voyage does not include any moorings prior
to the start of the towage or voyage, or at any intermediate shelter, bunkering or
arrival port, unless specifically approved by Noble Denton.
4.5.5 No responsibility is accepted by Noble Denton for the way in which the towage or
voyage is conducted, this being solely the responsibility of the master of the tug or
vessel.
4.5.6 The towage is deemed to be completed and the related Certificate of Approval
invalidated when the approved tug(s) is/are disconnected.
4.5.7 Fatigue damage is excluded from any Noble Denton approval, unless specific
instructions are received from the client to include it in the scope of work.
4.5.8 Any alterations in the surveyed items or agreed procedures or arrangements, after
issue of a Certificate of Approval, may render the Certificate void unless the
alterations are specifically approved by Noble Denton.
4.5.9 The Certificate covers the surveyed items within the agreed scope of work only. It
does not, for instance, cover any other cargo on board a vessel or barge, or any
damage to the surveyed cargo as a consequence of inadequacy of any other cargo
or its seafastenings, unless specifically included in the scope of work.
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5 CERTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION
5.1 GENERAL
5.1.1 In general, some or all of the documentation listed in the Table 5-1 and Table 5-2
below will be required. Some documentation is mandatory to comply with
international legislation and standards. The documentation and certification
requirements for any particular structure, vessel or operation should be determined
in advance. Where new documentation is needed, the issuing authority and the
Rules to be applied should be identified.
5.2 DOCUMENTATION DESCRIPTION
5.2.1 Principal documentation and certification is described in the following Table 5-1:
Table 5-1 Principal Documentation
Document/Certificate Description
Cargo Ship Safety
Construction
Covers the hull, machinery and equipment of a
cargo ship, and shows that the ship complies with
the construction and safety regulations applicable to
the ship and the voyages she is to be engaged in.
Issued by the Flag State, or appointed Classification
Society.
Cargo Ship Safety
Equipment
This is a record of the safety equipment carried on
the vessel, in compliance with SOLAS, including life
saving appliances, fire fighting equipment, lights and
shapes, pilot ladders, magnetic compass etc.
Issued by the Flag State, or appointed Classification
Society.
Class (Hull and machinery) Vessels and their machinery, built and maintained in
accordance with the Rules of a Classification Society
will be assigned a class in the Society’s Register
Book, and issued with the relevant Certificates,
which will indicate the character assigned to the
vessel and machinery. Issued by the Classification
Society.
Customs clearance Issued by Customs confirming that so far as they are
concerned the vessel is free to sail. Issued after
light dues have been paid, and on production of
various other mandatory documentation.
De-rat, or De-rat
Exemption
A De-rat Certificate is issued after a vessel has been
fumigated, or dealt with be other means to rid her of
rats. A De-rat exemption is issued where inspection
has shown no evidence of rats on board. Issued by
a Port medical officer.
Garbage Management
Plan
A Class-approved document for management of
waste.
International Oil Pollution
Prevention
Certifies that the vessel complies with international
oil pollution regulations (MARPOL Annex 1). Unless
stated otherwise, all vessels over 400 grt must
comply with the requirements of the code. Issued by
the Flag State, or appointed Classification Society.
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Document/Certificate Description
Lifesaving Appliances Normally covered under Cargo Ship Safety
Equipment Certificate. Where temporary equipment,
e.g. liferafts or fire fighting equipment, is placed on a
structure not in possession of a Cargo Ship Safety
Equipment Certificate, it is expected that each would
be individually certified, with an in-date inspection.
Load Line Issued after a vessel has been marked with her
assigned load line marks. The Certificate gives
details of the dimensions related to the freeboard,
and the various special marks, e.g. TF (Tropical
Fresh), WNA (Winter North Atlantic) etc. The vessel
must be periodically inspected, to confirm that no
changes have occurred to the hull or superstructure
which would render invalid the data on which the
assignment of freeboard was made. Issued by the
Flag State, or appointed Classification Society.
Load Line Exemption Where a vessel or structure is exempt from some or
all of the provisions of the above, it may be issued
with a Load Line Exemption Certificate, which will
include any qualifying provisions. Issued by the Flag
State, appointed Classification Society, or Port
Authority.
Navigation Lights and
Shapes
Normally covered under Cargo Ship Safety
Equipment Certificate. Where temporary lights are
placed on a structure not in possession of a Cargo
Ship Safety Equipment Certificate, it is expected that
they would be individually certified, or in possession
of a manufacturer’s guarantee of compliance.
Panama Canal
documentation
For transit through the Panama Canal, drawings are
required showing the extent of visibility from the
bridge, and the extension of bilge keels, if fitted.
Registry The Certificate of Registry is required by all
commercial vessels. It contains the details from the
Flag State Register in which the vessel has been
registered, including principal dimensions, tonnage,
and ownership. Issued by the Flag State Register.
Safe Manning document A document issued by Flag State, showing the
minimum safe manning for a vessel
Safety Management
Certificate (SMC) -
Document of Compliance
A document issued to a ship which signifies that the
Company and its shipboard management operate in
accordance with the approved Safety Management
System. Issued by the Flag State, or appointed
Classification Society.
Safety Radio

Issued by the Flag State after survey of the vessel’s
radio installation, declaring that it is satisfactory for
the intended service.
SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan - Class
approved
Tonnage Shows the Tonnage as obtained by measurement,
and is a measure of volume rather that weight. 1 ton
equals 2.83 cu.m (100 cu.ft). Measured by a
surveyor appointed by the Flag State.
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Document/Certificate Description
Trim and Stability booklet A booklet setting out the vessel’s stability particulars,
and allowing the actual draught, trim and stability
characteristics and limitations to be determined for
any cargo arrangement. Usually prepared by
designers, and must be approved by the Flag State.
5.3 ICE CLASS
5.3.1 See the comments relating to Ice Class vessels in Section 22.2.
3
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5.4 REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION
In general the following documentation (shown as “”) will be required or
recommended (those shown as “*” will depend on the regulatory bodies) for the
transportation of various types of vessels and floating structures. Some regulatory
bodies may require extra documentation.
Table 5-2 Required Documentation
Document
C
a
r
g
o

v
e
s
s
e
l
s

(
N
o
t
e

1
)

T
u
g
s

(
N
o
t
e

1
)

B
a
r
g
e
s

(
N
o
t
e

2
)

F
P
S
O

/
F
P
U

e
t
c

t
o
w
a
g
e
s

D
e
m
o
l
i
t
i
o
n

t
o
w
a
g
e
s

O
t
h
e
r

t
o
w
a
g
e
s

Certificate of registry    - - -
Certificate of class (hull)     - -
Certificate of class (machinery)    - - -
Tonnage certificate    - - -
Cargo ship safety construction certificate    - - -
Cargo ship safety equipment certificate    - - -
Certificates for navigation lights & shapes - -   
Load line certificate or load line exemption    - - -
Load line exemption (if unmanned) - - -  * 
IOPP Certificate     - -
Safety Management Certificate (SMC)   - - - -
Customs clearance      
Deratisation certificate, or exemption     - 
Radio certificate, including GMDSS   - - - -
Trim and Stability booklet     - -
Bollard pull certificate -  - - - -
Certificates for bridle, tow wires, pennants,
stretchers and shackles
-     
Suez or Panama Canal documentation (if
relevant)
     
Manned tows
Load line or Load Line Exemption - -
   
Certificates for life saving appliances - -
   
Crew list - -
   
Radio Certificate - -
   
Notes:
1. Smaller vessels may be exempt from some Certification requirements.
2. Unmanned barges will not be required to have Safety Equipment Certificates,
Derat Certificate or IOPP, unless fitted with machinery.
3. Some documentation is not required for inland voyages or inland towages.
3
3
3
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6 DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.1 Each transportation shall be designed to withstand the loads caused by the most
adverse environmental conditions expected for the area and season through which it
will pass, taking account of any agreed mitigating measures.
6.1.2 For each phase of a transportation or marine operation, the design criteria should be
defined, consisting of the design wave, design wind and, if relevant, design current.
It should be noted that the maximum wave and maximum wind may not occur in the
same geographical area, in which case it may be necessary to check the extremes
in each area, to establish governing loadcases.
6.1.3 Except as allowed by Sections 6.3 and 6.5 below, the transportation should
generally be designed to the 10-year monthly extremes for the area and season, on
the basis of a 30 day exposure.
6.2 OPERATIONAL REFERENCE PERIOD
6.2.1 Planning and design of marine transportations shall be based on an operational
reference period equal to the planned duration of the operation plus a contingency
period.
6.2.2 The planned duration for a transportation shall include, typically:
a. The time anticipated, after the departure decision, preparing for departure or
waiting for the correct tidal conditions
b. The time anticipated for the voyage or towage itself
c. Time anticipated on arrival, waiting for the correct tidal conditions to enter
harbour
d. If the operation following the transportation is a weather-dependent marine
operation such as installation, the time required after arrival at the installation
site to reach a safe condition.
6.2.3 The contingency period shall include, as appropriate, an allowance for:
a. slower than predicted voyage or towing speed, because of adverse weather
conditions or vessel performance below specification
b. the time required to reach and enter the planned shelter point, in worsening
weather conditions if the operation following the transportation is a weather-
dependent marine operation such as installation, and the contingency action is
to return to shelter.
6.3 WEATHER-RESTRICTED OPERATIONS
6.3.1 A transportation with a reference period generally less than 72 hours may be
classed as a weather-restricted operation. The design environmental conditions for
such an operation may be set independent of extreme statistical data, provided that:
a. The statistics indicate an adequate frequency and duration of the required
weather windows
b. Dependable weather forecasts are available
c. The start of the operation is governed by an acceptable weather forecast,
covering the reference period
d. A risk assessment has been carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable.
e. Adequate marine procedures are in place.
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6.3.2 A transportation with a reference period greater than 72 hours may exceptionally be
classed as a weather-restricted operation, provided that:
a. An adequate shelter point which can be entered in worsening weather is
always available within 48 hours or the transport has sufficient speed to avoid
the area of forecast severe weather
b. An acceptable weather routing service is contracted and is available for advice
at any time
c. Weather forecasts are received at appropriate intervals
d. The weather forecast service is contracted to issue a warning should the
weather forecast deteriorate
e. Management resources of interested parties are always available with the
right authority level to monitor any decision to proceed to shelter
f. A risk assessment has been carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable.
g. Adequate marine procedures and equipment are in place.
6.3.3 For weather-restricted operations, the maximum forecast operational criteria should
be lower than the design criteria by a margin depending on the area and season, the
delicacy of the operation, and the typical reliability of the forecast. The factor is
dependent on the duration of the operation and the level of the design criteria set.
Typically a factor of 0.7 times the design maxima may be used to determine the
maximum forecast operational criteria.
6.4 UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS
6.4.1 Except as allowed in Section 6.3.2, transportations with an operational reference
period greater than 72 hours shall be defined as un-restricted operations.
6.5 CALCULATION OF “ADJUSTED” DESIGN EXTREMES, UNRESTRICTED
OPERATIONS
6.5.1 The risk of encounter of extreme conditions by a particular transport is dependent on
the length of time that it spends in those route sectors where extreme conditions are
possible. If the length of time is reduced, then the probability of encountering
extreme conditions is similarly reduced.
6.5.2 It is generally accepted that for a prolonged ocean transport the wind and wave
design criteria should be those with a probability of exceedance per voyage of 0.1 or
less. For an ocean transport of 30 days (or more), through meteorologically and
oceanographically consistent areas, this corresponds to the 10 year monthly
extreme.
6.5.3 Many transports last less than 30 days, or are potentially exposed to the most
severe conditions for less than 30 days. Consequently, for shorter exposures, the
10 year monthly extreme may be adjusted for reduced exposure. This value is
equivalent to the 10 voyage extreme and is also referred to as the 10% risk level
extreme. This must not be confused with the 10% exceedance value for the
transport, as discussed in Section 6.9.
6.5.4 If the 10 year extremes are due to a tropical cyclone it may not be appropriate to
design to adjusted extremes. This is likely to be the case for barge or MODU
towages that are not able to respond effectively to weather routeing.
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6.6 CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE
6.6.1 For the purpose of the calculation of “adjusted” extremes the exposure time to
potentially extreme or near extreme conditions is calculated taking consideration of
the points discussed below.
a. The initial 48 hours of the transportation, is assumed to be covered by a
reliable departure weather forecast and is excluded
b. The speed of the transport is reduced by taking the monthly mean wave
heights along the route into consideration as described in Section 6.7.2
c. The speed of the transport is adjusted to take into consideration the mean
currents as described in Section 6.7.3.
d. A contingency time of 25 percent of the time is added. This allowance is to
account for severe adverse weather, for tug breakdowns or other operational
difficulties
e. A minimum exposure time of 3 days is considered.
6.7 CALCULATION OF VOYAGE SPEED
6.7.1 Voyage duration shall be calculated using the speed in the monthly mean sea state
for each route sector and shall allow for adverse currents as described below.
6.7.2 The effect of the mean sea state on the transport speed in each route sector is
calculated assuming that the wave height in which the transport will come to a dead
stop is b (metres). This is typically 5m for barge towages, and 8m for ships. The
calm weather speed is multiplied by a factor, F, defined by:
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
b
H
F
m

where H
m
is the monthly mean wave height in that route sector.
6.7.3 The effect of the mean current on the transport speed in each route sector is
calculated by adding the current vector (resolved with respect to the transport
heading). For the calculation of exposure to the extreme conditions only negative
currents which act to delay the transport shall be taken into account.
6.8 CALCULATION OF EXTREMES
6.8.1 The probability of non-exceedance of a value of wind speed or significant wave
height in a particular route sector is expressed as a cumulative frequency
distribution (e.g. a Weibull distribution).
6.8.2 The probability that during some 3 hour period for waves (or 1 hour for wind) the
transport will experience a significant wave height (or wind speed) less than some
value x is given by F
X
(x).
6.8.3 If it takes M hours to pass through the route sector and making the assumption that
consecutive wave height and wind speed events are independent then the
probability of not exceeding the value x is given by [F
X
(x)]
N
where N=M/T where T=1
hour is applied for winds and T=3 hours for waves, which are a more persistent form
of energy.
6.8.4 If it is reasonable to expect that extremes of wind speed or wave height could occur
in more than one route sector then the probability of not exceeding the value x is
given by the product
[
i
N
X
i
i
x F ) (
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6.8.5 The probability of encountering an extreme value of wind speed or significant wave
height, during a particular transport, that is reached or exceeded once on average
for every 10 transports is 0.1. The value of x is varied until
[
÷
i
N
X
i
i
x F ) ( 1 is equal to 0.1
to give the 10 transport extreme for the voyage or towage.
6.8.6 This value is also referred to as the “adjusted” extreme for the transport, or as
having a risk level of 10%. The method may be adjusted to give other risk levels
(e.g. 1% or 5%).
6.9 COMPARISON WITH PERCENTAGE EXCEEDENCE
6.9.1 Given a series of values of wind speed or significant wave height, as may be
observed during a complete transport, some value y will be exceeded at some times
but not others and the percentage exceedance of value y is equal to:
ns observatio of number total
exceeded y times of number ) ( 100×

6.9.2 If each observed value of wind speed or significant wave height is assumed to last
for some duration (typically 1 hour for winds and 3 hours for waves) then for
example, during a transport lasting 10 days there will be 240 wind events and 80
wave events. On the transport, if a wind speed greater than 30 knots is observed
during 24 separate, hourly occasions then the percentage exceedance of 30 knots is
10%.
6.9.3 The 10% risk level (as defined in Section 6.5.3) for a transport along a specific
route, departing on a specific date is expected to occur only once, on average, in
every 10 transports. However a value with a 10% exceedance level for the same
route and departure date is likely to occur on average for 10% of the time on every
transport.
6.9.4 Thus a 10% exceedance value is far more likely to occur than a 10% risk level
value, or an adjusted, 10 year extreme value.
6.10 CRITERIA FROM TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS
6.10.1 If continuous time series of winds and waves are available along the entire transport
route (e.g. from hindcast data or satellite observations), an alternative way to
develop criteria with a specified risk of exceedance in a single transport is to perform
tow simulations. A large number of simulations can be performed, with uniformly
spaced (in time) departure times during the specified month of departure over the
number of years in the database. For each simulated transport, the maximum wind
speed and the maximum wave height experienced somewhere along the tow route
are retained. Then the probability distribution of these transport-maxima can be
used to determine the design value with a specified risk of exceedance. For
example, the value exceeded once in every 20 transports, on average, can be
determined by reading off the value of wave height from the distribution of transport-
maximum wave heights at the 95th percentile level.
6.10.2 If fatigue during tow is an issue, the complete distributions of winds and waves
experienced during the simulated transports (not just the transport-maximum values)
can be retained. These can be used to give scatter diagrams of wave height against
period and/or direction, and wind speed against direction.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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6.10.3 The transport simulation method can be made to be very realistic and account for.
variation of speed due to inclement weather or ocean currents, weather avoidance
en route through forecasting/routing services, or the use of safe havens, etc. If the
transport simulator cannot accommodate all these features, a reasonably
conservative estimate of criteria can be derived by using a conservative (slow)
estimate of the average speed. Care should be taken when choosing the average
speed estimate - a slow speed may not be conservative if it results in the vessel
apparently arriving in a route sector late enough to miss severe weather, which
might have been encountered if arrival had been earlier.
6.11 METOCEAN DATABASE BIAS
6.11.1 Regardless of whether the method described in Section 6.8 or the method described
in Section 6.10 is used, it is important to know the accuracy of the metocean
database being used. Specifically, if there is a known bias in the wind or wave
statistics for any segment of a tow, it is essential to adjust the criteria accordingly.
6.12 DESIGN WAVE HEIGHT
6.12.1 The design wave height shall be the significant wave height (H
sig
), where H
sig
= 4\m
0

where m
0
is the sea surface variance. In sea states with only a narrow band of
wave frequencies, H
sig
is approximately equal to H
1/3
(the mean height of the largest
third of the zero up-crossing waves). Advice should be provided as to the
appropriate spectra.
6.13 DESIGN WIND SPEED
6.13.1 The design wind speed shall be the 1 minute mean velocity at a reference height of
10m above sea level. The 1 hour wind may also be needed in the calculation
process.
6.14 METOCEAN DATA FOR BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS
6.14.1 The design extremes are not normally used for calculation of bollard pull
requirements, which are covered in Section 12.2.
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7 MOTION RESPONSE
7.1 GENERAL
7.1.1 Design motions may be derived by means of motion response analyses, from model
tank testing, or by using the default equivalent motion values shown in Section 7.9.
7.2 SEASTATE
7.2.1 For the motion analyses, seastates shall include all relevant spectra up to and
including the design wave height for the most severe areas of the proposed voyage
route. A wave height smaller than the design wave height, at the natural period of
roll and/or pitch of the tow, should also be checked if necessary. "Long-crested"
seas will be considered unless there is a justifiable basis for using "short-crested"
seas. Consideration should be given to the choice of spectrum which should be
applicable to the geographic area and H
s
of the design sea states.
7.2.2 The most probable maximum responses are to be based on a 3 hour exposure
period.
7.3 PERIODS
7.3.1 For all seastates considered, the peak period (T
p
) should be varied as:
\ (13.H
sig
) < T
p
< \ (30.H
sig
)
where Hsig is in metres, Tp in seconds.
7.3.2 The relationship between the peak period T
p
and the zero-up crossing period T
z
is
dependent on the spectrum. For a mean JONSWAP spectrum (γ=3.3) T
p
/T
z
=
1.286; for a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum (γ=1) T
p
/T
z
= 1.41.
7.3.3 The following Table 7-1 indicates how the characteristics of the JONSWAP wave
energy spectrum vary over the range of recommended seastates. The constant, K,
varies from 13 to 30 as shown in the equation in Section 7.3.1 above. T
1
is the
mean period (also known as T
m
).

Table 7-1 Value of JONSWAP γ, ratio of T
p
:T
z
and T
p
:T
1
for each integer value of K
Constant
K
γ T
p
/T
z
T
p
/T
1
Constant
K
γ T
p
/T
z
T
p
/T
1

13 5.0 1.24 1.17 22 1.4 1.37 1.27
14 4.3 1.26 1.18 23 1.3 1.39 1.28
15 3.7 1.27 1.19 24 1.1 1.40 1.29
16 3.2 1.29 1.20 25 1.0 1.40 1.29
17 2.7 1.31 1.21 26 1.0 1.40 1.29
18 2.4 1.32 1.23 27 1.0 1.40 1.29
19 2.1 1.34 1.24 28 1.0 1.40 1.29
20 1.8 1.35 1.25 29 1.0 1.40 1.29
21 1.6 1.36 1.26 30 1.0 1.40 1.29





3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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7.3.4 Alternatively, if a detailed analysis of the joint probability distribution of significant
wave height vs. peak wave period (T
p
) is carried out, the following criteria may be
applied:
a. Analyse the transport for the period of the design wave for Tp ± 1 sec, and:
b. Analyse the transport for combinations of significant wave height and peak
period having the same joint probability of occurrence as the design wave
height and the most probable peak period. The effect of swell shall be
considered.
7.4 VESSEL HEADING AND SPEED
7.4.1 The analyses should be carried out for zero vessel speed for head, bow quartering,
beam, stern quartering and stern seas.
7.4.2 In addition the analysis should be carried out for non-beam sea cases for the
maximum service speed of the vessel or the maximum speed that can be
maintained in the given seastate. The range of probable peak wave periods, Tp,
should be adjusted for the speed of the vessel as follows:
where V
SHIP
is the ship speed in m/s and θ is the ship’s heading in degrees (0 =
head seas, 180 = following seas).
7.5 THE EFFECTS OF FREE SURFACES
7.5.1 The application of free surface corrections to reduce metacentric height (GM) and
hence to increase natural roll period will not generally be accepted. The effect of
any reduction in GM must, however, be considered in intact and damage stability
calculations.
7.6 THE EFFECTS OF CARGO IMMERSION
7.6.1 The effect of cargo immersion in increasing GM and hence reducing natural roll
period as well as increasing damping should be considered in motion response
analyses.
7.7 MOTION RESPONSE COMPUTER PROGRAMS
7.7.1 Computer programs shall be validated against a suitable range of model test results
in irregular seas. The validation is to be made available to Noble Denton and is to
contain appropriate analytical work which must be compared with applicable model
tests.
7.7.2 When applying the results of a first-order motion response analysis program, heave
shall be assumed to be parallel to the global vertical axis. Therefore the component
of heave parallel to the deck at the computed roll or pitch angle (theta) is additive to
the forces caused by the static gravity component and by the roll or pitch
acceleration.


( ) ( )
S
SHIP
S
P
S
SHIP
S
H
V
H
T
H
V
H
30 56 . 1
cos
1
30
13 56 . 1
cos
1
13
u u
+
s s
+
3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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7.8 RESULTS OF MODEL TESTS
7.8.1 Model tests may be used to derive design motions, provided the tests pass the
usual review of overall integrity. Generally, for transportation analyses, the model
test results should present the standard deviation of the relevant responses. The
standard deviation of the responses should then be multiplied by \(2.log
n
(N)), where
N is the number of zero-upcrossings, to obtain the most probable maximum in 3
hours, which is required for design. The individual measured maxima from model
tests should generally not be used in design as these vary between different
realisations of the same sea conditions, and are therefore unreliable for use as
design values.
7.8.2 Maximum values of global loads, motions or accelerations from model test results
can be used provided ten similar realisations, or greater, are carried out to ensure
that variations between individual tests are accounted for. The mean and standard
deviations of the maxima should be calculated. The design value should be the
mean plus two standard deviations. Scale effects should also be accounted for by
increasing the design loads by a further 10% or a mutually agreed value.
7.9 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA
7.9.1 If neither a motions study nor model tests are performed, then for standard
configurations and subject to satisfactory marine procedures, the following motion
criteria may be acceptable.
Table 7-2 Default Motion Criteria
Single amplitude Vessel or towed object, type,
size and nature of transport
Full cycle
period
Roll Pitch
Heave
Large vessels
L > 140 m LOA and B > 30 m
10 secs 20° 10° 0.2 g
Medium vessels
L > 76 m and B > 23 m
(other than large vessels)
10 secs 20° 12.5° 0.2 g
Small vessels
L <76 m or B < 23 m
10 secs 30° 15° 0.2 g
Large cargo barges
L > 76 m LOA and B > 23 m
10 secs 20° 12.5° 0.2 g
Small cargo barges
L <76 m or B < 23 m
10 secs 25° 15° 0.2 g
Independent leg jack-ups, 24-
hour or location move
10 secs 10° 10° 0.0
Independent leg jack-ups,
ocean tow on own hull
10 secs 20° 20° 0.0
Mat-type jack-ups, 24-hour or
location move
13 secs 8° 8° 0.0
Mat-type jack-ups, ocean tow
on own hull
13 secs 16° 16° 0.0
Vessels and barges, weather
restricted operations in benign
areas (see Section 7.9.2.d)
10 secs 5° 2.5° 0.1 g
Inland and sheltered water
transportations (see Section
7.9.2.e)
Static
Equivalent to 0.1 g in
both directions
0.0


GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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7.9.2 The default motion criteria shown in Section 7.9.1, shall only be applied in
accordance with the following:
a. Roll and pitch axes shall be assumed to pass through the centre of floatation.
b. Heave shall be assumed to be parallel to the global vertical axis. Therefore
the component of heave parallel to the deck at the roll or pitch angles shown
above is additive to the forces caused by the static gravity component and by
the roll or pitch acceleration.
c. Phasing shall be assumed to combine, as separate loadcases, the most
severe combinations of
- roll + heave
- pitch + heave
d. The criteria stated for weather-restricted operations in benign areas, are given
as general guidance for short duration barge towages and vessel transports.
The actual criteria should be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned,
taking into account the nature of the vessel or barge and cargo, the voyage
route, the weather conditions which may be encountered, the shelter available
and the weather forecasting services to be utilised.
e. For inland and sheltered water transportations, the loadings caused by a 0.1 g
static load parallel to the deck, the static inclination caused by the design
wind, or the most severe inclination in the one-compartment damage
condition, shall be taken, whichever is the greatest.
7.9.3 Alternative default motion criteria may be acceptable, as set out, for instance, in
DNV Rules for the Classification of Ships, January 2003, Part 3, Chapter 1, Section
4 [Ref. 9], or IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing, 2003
Edition, Section 7 [Ref. 10]. Care should be taken to ensure that the criteria
adopted are applicable to the actual case in question.
7.10 DIRECTIONALITY AND HEADING CONTROL
7.10.1 The incident weather shall be considered to be effectively omni-directional, as stated
in Section 7.4. No relaxation in the design seastates from the bow-quartering, beam
and stern-quartering directions shall be considered for:
a. Any transport where the default motion criteria are used, in accordance with
Section 7.9, or similar
b. Single tug towages, or voyages by vessels with non-redundant propulsion
systems (see Section 7.10.3 below).
c. Any transport where the design conditions on any route sector are effectively
beam on or quartering, of constant direction, and of long duration, including,
for example, crossing of the Indian Ocean or Arabian Sea in the south-west
monsoon
d. Any towage in a Tropical Revolving Storm area and season
e. Any un-manned towage.
f. Any transport where the vessel does not have sufficient, redundant systems to
maintain any desired heading in all conditions up to and including the design
storm, taking account of the windage of the cargo.



GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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7.10.2 Relaxation in the non-head sea cases may be considered for:
a. Manned, multiple tug towages, where after breakdown of any one tug or
breakage of any one towline or towing connection, the remaining tug(s) still
comply with the criteria of Section 12.2
b. Voyages by self-propelled vessels with redundant propulsion systems. A
vessel with a redundant propulsion system is defined as having, as a
minimum:
- 2 or more independent main engines
- 2 or more independent fuel supplies
- 2 or more independent power transmission systems
- 2 or more independent switchboards
- 2 or more independent steering systems, or an alternative means of
operation of a single steering system (but excluding emergency steering
systems that cannot be operated from the bridge)
- the ability to maintain any desired heading in all conditions up to and
including the design storm, taking account of the windage of the cargo.
7.10.3 Any vessel not complying with all the above shall be considered non-redundant.
7.10.4 An advance survey may be required, to establish whether or not a vessel can be
considered to have a redundant propulsion system.
7.10.5 In general, where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Section 7.10.2, the
following is a guide to the acceptable sea state values. This should be confirmed as
being suitable on a case-by-case basis.
Table 7-3 Reduced Seastate v Heading
Incident angle
(Head Seas = 0°)
Applicable H
sig
, as % of design sea state
(adjusted as appropriate)
0° - + 30° 100%
+ (30° - 60°) Linear interpolation between 100% and 80%
+ 60° 80%
+ (60° - 90°) Linear interpolation between 80% and 60%
+ 90° 60%
+ (90° - 120°) Linear interpolation between 60% and 80%
+ 120° 80%
+ (120° - 150°) Linear interpolation between 80% and 100%
+ (150° - 180°) 100%

7.10.6 For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7.10.2
and 7.10.5, a risk assessment shall be carried out and the risks shown to be
acceptable.
7.10.7 Such relaxation shall only apply to considerations of accelerations, loads and
stresses. It shall not be applied to considerations of stability.





GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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7.10.8 For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7.10.2
and 7.10.5, the towage/voyage arrangements shall contain, in a format of use to the
Master:
a. The limitations on critical parameters
b. Procedures for monitoring and recording of critical parameters
c. Procedures for heading control
d. Results of the risk assessment, and any recommendations arising
e. Contingency actions in the event of any breakdown.
7.10.9 Critical parameters should preferably be ones the Master can observe or measure.
The Master should confirm that he can accept that the effects of these restrictions
are practicable.
7.10.10 For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7.10.2
and 7.10.5, it is strongly recommended that an independent Company (Cargo
Owner’s) Representative is on board to witness events. He should be qualified to
discuss with the Master weather conditions forecast and encountered, routing
advice received and avoidance techniques adopted.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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8 LOADINGS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.1.1 The structure of the cargo or tow, including the legs, hull and jackhouses of self-
elevating units, shall be shown to possess adequate strength to resist the loads
imposed due to the specified or calculated motions and wind, combined with the
additional loading caused by any overhang of the cargo over the side of the vessel
or barge.
8.1.2 The cargo shall be shown to possess adequate strength to withstand the local
cribbing and seafastening reactions.
8.2 LOADCASES
8.2.1 Loadcases for each heading shall be derived by the addition of fluctuating loads
resulting from wind and wave action to static loads resulting from gravity and still
water initial conditions.
8.2.2 The fluctuating components shall be the worst possible combination of the loads
resulting from calculations or model tests carried out in accordance with Sections
7.1 through 7.8, with due account to be taken of the effects of phase. All influential
loadings shall be considered: however the following static and environmental
loadings are the most likely to be of importance:
S
1
: Loadings caused by gravity including the effects of the most onerous ballast
condition on the voyage.
F
1
: Loadings caused by the wind heel and trim angle.
F
2
: Loadings caused by surge and sway acceleration
F
3
: Loadings caused by pitch and roll acceleration
F
4
: Loadings caused by the gravity component of pitch and roll motion
F
5
: Loadings caused by direct wind
F
6
: Loadings caused by heave acceleration, including heave.sin(theta) terms
F
7
: Loadings caused by wave induced bending
F
8
: Loadings caused by slam and the effects of immersion.
8.2.3 One of the following three methods shall be used to determine the design loadings:
8.2.3.1 Except as noted in Section 7.9.2, the effects of phase differences between the
various motions can be considered, if resulting from model test measurements, or if
the method of calculation has been suitably validated.
8.2.3.2 In cases where it is not convenient or possible to determine the relative phasing of
extreme wind loadings and heave accelerations with roll/sway or pitch/surge
maxima, a reduction of 10 percent may be applied to fluctuating loadcases F
1

through F
8
which combine maximum wind and wave effects. However, if wind
induced or wave induced loads individually exceed the reduced load, then the
greatest single effect shall be considered.
3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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8.2.3.3 Alternatively, the total loads may be calculated by combination of loads as follows:
S
1
+ F
1
(
1hr
) + F
5
(
1hr
) + \ {[F
2
+F
3
+F
4
+F
6
]
2
+ [F
1
(
1min
)+F5(
1min
)–F
1
(
1hr
)–F
5
(
1hr
)]
2
}
Where:
F
(1hr)
= Loads based on 1 hour mean wind speed
F
(1min)
= Loads based on 1 minute mean wind speed.
8.3 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA
8.3.1 For loads computed in accordance with Section 7.9, the loads applied to the cargo
shall be:
S
1
+ F
1
+ F
3
+ F
4
+ F
6

where: S
1
, F
1
, F
3
, F
4
and F
6
are as defined in Section 8.2.2. The effects of buoyancy
and wave slam loading shall also be considered if appropriate.
As stated in Section 7.9.2 c) roll and pitch cases are to be considered separately.
Combined roll and pitch are not required.
8.4 LONGITUDINAL BENDING
8.4.1 The potential effects of longitudinal wave bending effects need to be considered if:
a. The towed hull is not a classed, seagoing vessel or barge, or
b. The cargo is longer than about
1
/
3
rd of the transport barge or vessel length, or
c. The cargo is supported longitudinally on more than 2 groups of supports, or
d. The relative stiffness of the hull and cargo could cause unacceptable stresses
to be induced in either, or
e. The seafastening design allows little or no flexibility between cargo and barge.
8.4.2 Some cargoes, such as large steel jackets, may be inherently much stiffer than the
barge, and will reduce barge deflections, at the expense of increased cargo
stresses.
8.4.3 See also Sections 9.2.2 for friction, 9.3 for seafastening design and 19.4 for jack-
ups.
8.5 CARGO BUOYANCY AND WAVE SLAM
8.5.1 Cargo overhangs which are occasionally immersed, and which may receive loadings
due to wave slam and/or immersion, will require special consideration.
8.5.2 Buoyant cargoes, particularly where the buoyancy contributes to stability
requirements, shall be adequately secured against lift-off unless it can be shown
that lift-off will not occur.
3
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9 DESIGN AND STRENGTH
9.1 COMPUTATION OF LOADS
9.1.1 The loads acting on grillages, cribbing, dunnage, seafastening and components of
the cargo shall be derived from the loads acting on the cargo, according to Sections
6, 7 and 8, as applicable.
9.1.2 The loads shall include components due to the distribution of mass and rotational
inertia of the cargo. This is of particular importance in the calculation of shear forces
and bending moments in the legs of self-elevating units and similar tall structures.
9.1.3 If the computed loads are less than the “Minimum allowable seafastening force”
shown in Table 9-1, then the values in the Table shall apply.
9.1.4 Care should be taken in cases where the cargo may be designed for service loads
in the floating condition, but is being dry-transported. Its centre of gravity may be
higher above the roll centre in the dry-transportation condition than in any of its
floating service conditions. Even though the transportation motions may appear to
be less than the service motions, the loads on cargo components and ship-loose
items may be greater.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
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9.2 FRICTION
9.2.1 For certain cargo weights, cargo overhangs and arrangements of cribbing and
seafastenings, the effects of friction may be used, as shown in the following Table
9-1 and subject to Section 9.2.2, to resist part of the computed loadings on the
cribbing and seafastenings. This shows the maximum coefficient of friction which
may be considered, and the minimum allowable seafastening force, expressed as a
percentage of cargo weight, below which the actual seafastening design capability
shall not be allowed to fall.
Table 9-1 Maximum allowable coefficients of friction & minimum seafastening forces
Cargo weight, W, tonnes
<100
100
<W<
1,000
1,000
<W<
5,000
5,000
<W<
10,000
10,000
<W<
20,000
20,000
<W<
40,000
>
40,000
Overhang
Maximum allowable coefficient of friction
None 0 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
< 15 m 0 0 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
15 – 25 m 0 0 0 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.20
25 – 35 m 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.20 0.20
35 - 45 m 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.10
> 45 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minimum allowable seafastening force, %W
Transverse 10% 10% 10% 10% 10%
See
Note 1
5%
Longitudinal 5% 5% 5% 5%
See
Note 2
See
Note 3
1.5%
Notes:
1) For 20,000 ≤ W < 40,000 tonnes, the minimum allowable seafastening force,
transversely, shall be not less than 15 - W/4,000 (%W)
2) For 10,000 ≤ W < 20,000 tonnes, the minimum allowable seafastening force,
longitudinally, shall be not less than 7.5 - W/4,000 (%W)
3) For 20,000 ≤ W < 40,000 tonnes, the minimum allowable seafastening force,
longitudinally, shall be not less than 3.5 - W/20,000 (%W)
4) For transport of pipes and similar tubular goods, the above table does not
apply. See Section 9.6.
5) The friction coefficient may be interpolated as a function of overhang using the
maximum cargo overhang.
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9.2.2 Friction is allowed as a contribution to seafastening restraint subject to the following:
a. Loadings are computed in accordance with Sections 7.2 though 7.8 and 8.2
above. Friction may not be used if the loadings are computed in accordance
with the default criteria in Sections 7.9 and 8.3, except as allowed by Section
9.6.
b. Friction forces shall be computed using the normal reaction between the
vessel and cargo compatible with the direction of the heave.sin(theta) term
used in computing the forces parallel to the deck in Section 8.2.2. Thus, when
heave.sin(theta) increases the force parallel to the deck, it also increases the
normal reaction and vice-versa.
c. The cargo is supported by wood dunnage or cribbing – friction is not allowed
for steel to steel interfaces.
d. The overhang is the distance from the side of the vessel to the extreme outer
edge of the cargo.
e. For wood cribbing less than 600 mm high, with a width not less than 300 mm,
the friction force due to the friction coefficient permitted in Table 9-1 may be
assumed to act in any direction relative to the cribbing provided that:
(i) the cribbing is reasonably well balanced in terms of the proportion in the
fore-aft and transverse directions, AND
(ii) each of these groups is reasonably well balanced about the cargo CoG
in plan.
f. Provided that the conditions in (e) above are met, for cribbing heights between
600 and 900 mm, with a width not less than 300 mm, then the percentage
computed friction force shall not exceed (900 - H)/3 %, where H = the height of
cribbing above deck, in mm.
g. For wood cribbing over 900 mm high, or with a width less than 300 mm, no
friction force is assumed to act in a direction at right angles to the line of the
cribbing.
h. If greater cribbing friction is required than available according to (f) and (g)
above, stanchions may be fitted to provide transverse cribbing restraint.
Where such stanchions are fitted, they should be designed to carry loads due
to a friction coefficient of 0.5 (to ensure they are able to carry loads due to
upper-bound friction assumptions).
i. The underlying assumption in the approach given above is that the
seafastenings have sufficient flexibility to deflect in the order of at least 2mm
without failing. This will be reasonable in most cases, but when this is not the
case the more detailed approach given in (j) below shall be used.
j. As an alternative to (e) through (h) above, a more detailed approach may be
used. In such cases, the friction permitted in Table 9-1 can be doubled, but
the relative flexibility of the cribbing and seafastenings shall be taken into
account. The arrangements shall be such as to ensure that the required
lateral load can be carried by the combination of friction & seafastening
reactions BEFORE the seafastenings are overstressed. Where stanchions
are used, they shall comply with (h) above.
k. The “Minimum allowable seafastening force” is the minimum allowable value
of seafastening restraint, expressed as a percentage of cargo weight, in the
event that the total required seafastening force, as computed, is less than this
value.
l. For very short duration moves in sheltered water, such as turning a barge
back alongside the quay after a loadout, then friction may be allowed to
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contribute. The entire load path, including the potential sliding surfaces, shall
be demonstrated to be capable of withstanding the loading generated.
9.3 SEAFASTENING DESIGN
9.3.1 In this context, seafastenings include any grillage, dunnage, cribbing or other
supporting structure, roll, pitch and uplift stops, and the connections to the barge or
vessel.
9.3.2 Seafastenings shall be designed to withstand the global loadings as computed in
Sections 7 and 8.
9.3.3 Seafastenings shall be designed to accept deflections of the barge or vessel in a
seaway, principally due to longitudinal bending. In general, longitudinal bending
should be considered for the cases described in Sections 8.4.1 and 8.4.2.
9.3.4 Where longitudinal bending is a consideration, suitable seafastening designs
include:
a. Chocks which allow some movement between the barge and cargo
b. Pitch stops at one point only along the cargo, with other points free to slide or
deflect longitudinally
c. Vertical supports at only 2 positions longitudinally
d. An integrated structure of barge-seafastenings-cargo, capable of resisting the
loads induced by bending and shear.
9.3.5 Additionally, for towed objects such as FPSOs, which may have permanently
installed modules with piping or other connections between them, there should be
adequate flexibility in the connections to avoid overstress. It should be noted that
the transport wave bending condition may be more severe than the operating
condition. In long modules carried as cargo, internal pipework should be similarly
considered.
9.3.6 In the absence of more detailed information, it should be assumed that the barge will
incur bending and shear deflection as if unrestrained by the cargo. Quasi-static
barge hogging and sagging should be considered in a wave of length L equal to the
barge length, and height = 0.61\L, metres.
9.3.7 Grillage and seafastening design is frequently influenced by the loadout method.
Cargoes lifted onto the transport barge or vessel, or floated over a submersible
barge or vessel, are frequently supported by timber cribbing or dunnage to distribute
the loads and allow for minor undulations in the deck plating. Cargoes loaded by
skidding normally remain on, and are seafastened to, the skidways. Cargoes
loaded out by trailers normally need a grillage structure higher than the minimum
trailer height. The grillage or cribbing height must allow for any projections below
the cargo support line.
9.3.8 Welded steel seafastenings are preferred, but for smaller cargoes, typically of less
than 100 tonnes, chain or wire lashings with suitable tensioning devices may be
acceptable. Chain binders or turnbuckles shall be tensioned before departure to
spread the load between the seafastenings and secured so that they cannot
become slack. Lashings should be inspected regularly and after bad weather to
ensure that tension is maintained. Wire lashings are not recommended for
unmanned transportations unless such inspections can be made. Guidance on
good practice for lashings and similar devices may be found in the IMO Code of
Safe Practice for Cargo Securing and Stowing, 2003 Edition [Ref. 10].
9.3.9 The design load in any chain used for seafastening should not exceed the certified
(lifting) WLL or SWL of the chain. When the WLL /SWL is not known, it shall be
taken as no more than the certified BL / 2.25.
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9.3.10 Connections to the deck of a barge or vessel should be carefully considered,
particularly tension connections. Calculations should be presented to justify all
connections. It should not be assumed, without inspection, that underdeck
connections between deck plating and stiffeners or bulkheads are adequate.
Seafastenings landing on doubler plates are not generally acceptable as tension
connections.
9.3.11 Care should be taken to avoid welding onto fuel oil tanks or oil cargo tanks, unless
the tanks are empty, and gas free certification has been obtained.
9.3.12 Final welded connections, particularly those which may be influenced by longitudinal
deflections of the barge or vessel, should be carried out with the barge or vessel
ballasted to the transportation condition, or as close as draught limitations permit.
9.3.13 Welding of seafastenings should not be carried out in wet conditions. Weather
protection should be used to minimise the effects of wet conditions.
9.3.14 For cargoes that will be removed offshore, the seafastenings should be capable of
being released in stages, such that the cargo is secure for a 10 degree static angle
until the release of the final stage. The release of seafastenings, and the removal of
any one item, should not disturb the seafastenings of any other item.
9.3.15 Where a lift is made onto a barge offshore, the seafastenings should be designed
accordingly, normally by means of guides or a cradle, which will hold the cargo
whilst it is being seafastened.
9.3.16 Items of the cargo which are vulnerable to wave action, wetting or weather damage
shall be suitably protected. This may require provision of breakwaters or
waterproofing of sensitive areas.
9.3.17 Internal seafastenings may be needed to prevent items moving inside structures or
modules. See also the caution in Section 9.1.4 for dry transportations.
9.3.18 Guide posts should not be used for seafastenings unless specifically designed for
that purpose.
9.4 CRIBBING
9.4.1 Where the cargo is supported on wooden cribbing or dunnage, rather than steel-to-
steel supports, then sufficient material should be provided to ensure an adequate
distribution of load to the underside of the cargo and to the deck of the transport
vessel, under the static loadings and the design environmental loadings as shown in
Sections 7 and 8.
9.4.2 Cribbing designed to pick up structural members in the underside of the cargo, the
transport vessel deck, or both, and fixed to the deck of the vessel, should not
normally be less than 200 mm high. See also the comments on cribbing width in
Sections 9.2.2.f and 9.2.2.g.
9.4.3 A minimum clearance of 0.075 m should be provided between the lowest protrusion
of the cargo and the deck of the barge or vessel.
9.4.4 The nominal bearing pressure on the cribbing should not normally exceed 4 N/mm
2

for softwood. Should it be demonstrated that the cargo, vessel and cribbing, without
crushing, can withstand a higher pressure, then this may be acceptable. The
cribbing pressure should be calculated taking into account the deadweight of the
cargo plus the loads caused by the design environmental loadings.
9.4.5 Ideally the type of timber selected should withstand the computed cribbing
pressures without crushing. Localised crushing to accommodate cargo and cribbing
imperfections is permissible. A satisfactory arrangement may consist of hardwood
for the main cribbing structure, topped by a soft packing layer, say 50 mm thick.
9.4.6 In the case of a random or herring-bone dunnage layout supporting a flat-bottomed
cargo, without taking into account the strong points, then the maximum cribbing
pressures should not exceed 1 N/mm
2
, subject to consideration of the overall
allowable loads on the deck of the vessel and the underside of the cargo.
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9.4.7 For cargoes floated on and/or off a grounded or partially grounded transport barge
or vessel, the cribbing should be designed to withstand loads caused by point loads
and trim or heel angles during on-load and off-load. A minimum of 5º should be
considered.
9.5 STRESS LEVELS IN CARGO, GRILLAGE & SEAFASTENINGS
9.5.1 The cargo, grillage and seafastenings shall be shown to possess adequate strength
to resist the loads imposed during the voyage. Any additional loadings caused by
any overhang of the cargo over the side of the transport vessel, buoyancy forces
and wave slam loadings shall be included.
9.5.2 The cargo shall be shown to have adequate strength to withstand the local cribbing
and seafastening loads.
9.5.3 Stress levels shall be within those permitted by the latest edition of a recognised and
applicable offshore structures code.
9.5.4 The structural strength of high quality structural steelwork with full material
certification and NDT inspection certificates showing appropriate levels of inspection
(see Section 9.7) shall be assessed using the methodology of a recognised and
applicable offshore code including the associated load and resistance factors for
LRFD codes or safety factors for ASD/WSD codes. Traditionally AISC has also
been considered a reference code. If the AISC 13
th
Edition is used, the allowables
shall be compared against member stresses determined using a load factor on both
dead and live loads of no less than:
WSD option LRFD Option
SLS: 1.0 1.60
ULS: 0.75 1.20
9.5.5 Stress in fillet fillet welds for brackets loaded by a force acting in a direction parallel
to the weld bead shall be assessed using the method presented in APPENDIX F - .
The allowables shall be compared against member stresses determined using a
load factor on both dead and live loads of no less than
SLS: 1.40
ULS: 1.05
9.5.6 Any load case may be treated as a normal serviceability limit state (SLS) / Normal
operating case.
9.5.7 Infrequent load cases, occurring no more frequently than the maximum design
wave, which are dominated by extreme environmental forces may generally be
treated as an ultimate limit state (ULS) / Survival storm case. This does not apply
to:
- Steelwork subject to deterioration and/or limited initial NDT unless the condition
of the entire loadpath has been verified, for example the underdeck members of
a barge or vessel.
- Steelwork subject to NDT prior to elapse of the recommended cooling and
waiting time as defined by the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and NDT
procedures. In cases where this cannot be avoided by means of a suitable
WPS, it may be necessary to increase the strength or impose a reduction on the
design/permissible seastate.


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9.6 SECURING OF PIPE AND OTHER TUBULAR GOODS
9.6.1 This section refers to the transport of tubulars, including line pipe, casing, drill pipe,
collars, piles, conductors marine risers and similar, hereafter called “pipes”, on
vessels and barges. Transport of drill pipe, collars etc on jack-ups is covered in
Section 19.11. The degree and design of securing required will depend on the type
of vessel, the nature of the cargo, the duration of the towage or voyage, and the
weather conditions expected.
9.6.2 For these types of cargoes, friction may be assumed to resist longitudinal
seafastening loads, and Sections 9.2.1 and 9.2.2.a do not apply. The following
friction coefficients may be used, as examples:
Table 9-2 Typical Friction Coefficients
Materials in contact Friction coefficient
Concrete coated pipe - concrete coated pipe 0.5
Concrete coated pipe - timber 0.4
Timber - timber 0.4
Uncoated steel - timber 0.3
Uncoated steel - uncoated steel 0.15
Epoxy coated pipe - timber 0.1
Epoxy coated pipe - epoxy coated pipe 0.05

9.6.3 Caution should be exercised where sand may be present between the friction
surfaces as this may considerably reduce the friction coefficient.
9.6.4 Generally speaking, pipes should be stowed in the fore and aft direction.
9.6.5 Where pipes are stacked in several layers, the maximum permissible stacking
height shall be established, in order to avoid overstress of the lower layers.
Reference may be made to API RP 5LW “Recommended practice for transportation
of line pipe on barges and marine vessels” [Ref. 14].
9.6.6 Smaller diameter pipes such as drill pipe may be stacked without individual chocking
arrangements and restrained transversely by means of vertical stanchions. Timber
dunnage or wedges shall be used to chock off any clearance between the pipes and
the stanchions. The stanchions, taken collectively, shall be capable of resisting the
total transverse force computed.
a. For weather-restricted operations, and 24-hour or location moves of jack-ups,
the stack may be secured by means of transverse chain or wire lashings over
the top, adequately tensioned. Provided it can be demonstrated that sufficient
friction exists to prevent longitudinal movement, no end stops need be
provided.
b. For unrestricted operations, including ocean transportations of jack-ups, steel
strongbacks should be fitted over the top layer, and each stow (group of pipes)
set up hard by driving wooden wedges between the strongbacks and the top
layer of pipe. End stops or bulkheads shall be provided.





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9.6.7 Line pipe on pipe carrier vessels may be stacked between the existing
stanchions/crash barriers, on the wooden sheathed deck. Timber dunnage or
wedges should be used to chock off any clearance between the pipes and the
stanchions.
a. For weather restricted operations, provided it can be demonstrated that
adequate friction exists to prevent longitudinal movement, no end stops need
be provided. This is likely to apply to concrete coated pipe, but uncoated or
epoxy coated pipe should be treated with caution.
b. For unrestricted operations, steel strongbacks should be fitted over the top
layer, and each stow set up hard by driving wooden wedges between the
strongbacks and the top layer of pipe. End stops or bulkheads shall be
provided.
9.6.8 Larger diameter pipes such as piles are often individually chocked, and end stops
provided, often at one end only. Unless it can be demonstrated that the piles cannot
roll out of the chocks further restraints may be necessary, such as individual wire or
chain lashings, stanchions or strongbacks.
9.6.9 In all cases of transportation of coated line pipe, the transportation and securing
arrangements must be designed so that the coating will be protected from damage.
The manufacturer’s and/or shipper’s recommendations should be sought.
9.6.10 Where end stops are provided for pipes with prepared ends, the end preparation
should be protected, either with protectors on the pipe, or by wood sheathing on the
end stops.
9.6.11 When open ended pipes are carried as deck cargo and the pipes could become
partially filled with water, care should be taken to ensure that:
a. the vessel’s stability meets the requirements of Section 10, with particular
reference to the effects of entrapped water, and
b. the deck and pipe layers are not overstressed.
Otherwise, it may be necessary to seal the ends of at least the lowest level of the
stack.
9.6.12 Note: the trim and stability booklet of some vessels may include suitable example
loading conditions and should be considered.
9.7 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS
9.7.1 For newly-constructed cargoes, an adequate system of construction supervision,
weld inspection and testing shall be demonstrated. For other cargoes, the extent of
inspection and testing shall be agreed.
9.7.2 Principal seafastening welds shall be visually checked and the weld sizes confirmed
against the agreed design.

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9.7.3 Non-destructive testing (NDT), by a suitable and agreed method, shall be carried out
on the structural members of the seafastenings. NDT acceptance criteria should be
to EEMUA 158 “Construction specification for fixed offshore structures in the North
Sea” [Ref. 15], AWS D1.1 “Structural welding code – steel” [Ref .16] or equivalent.
The following is a guide to the minimum recommended extent of NDT:
a. 100% visual
b. Penetration welds - 40% UT and 20% MPI
c. Fillet welds - 20% MPI
d. All welds to barge/vessel deck - 100% MPI with additional 40% UT for
penetration welds
e. In any case, the extent of NDT should be not less than the Project
specification requirements
f. For critical areas or where poor welding quality is suspected, then 100%
inspection may be required.
9.7.4 Care should be taken where the seafastening load path depends on the tension
connection of the deck plating of a barge or vessel to underdeck stiffeners or
bulkheads. In cases of any doubt about the condition, an initial visual inspection
should be undertaken, to establish that fully welded connections exist, and that the
general condition is fit for purpose. Further inspection may be required, depending
on the stress levels imposed and the condition found.
9.7.5 Any faulty welds discovered shall be repaired and re-tested.
9.8 FATIGUE
9.8.1 Notwithstanding the exclusion in Section 4.5.7, clients may wish the effects of
fatigue on the towed object, cargo and/or seafastenings to be considered, in which
case they should instruct Noble Denton accordingly.
9.9 USE OF SECOND HAND STEEL SEAFASTENINGS
9.9.1 When second hand steel seafastenings are used, any wastage caused during
previous removal(s) or use should not affect its fitness for purpose, and there should
be sufficient documentation to ensure the traceability of the steel and in particular
documentation relating to the grade of steel.
9.9.2 There should be NDT inspection reports for areas of previous fabrication, old welds,
burnt off attachments etc, to demonstrate no cracking or lamellar tearing in critical
areas.
9.9.3 Should sufficient documentation of the steel grade be unavailable, coupon testing is
acceptable to determine the steel characteristics.

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10 STABILITY
10.1 INTACT STABILITY
10.1.1 The intact range of stability, defined as the range between 0º degrees heel or trim
and the angle at which the righting arm (GZ) becomes negative, shall not be less
than the values shown in the following Table 10-1. Objects which do not fall into the
categories shown in the Table, which are non-symmetrical, or which have an initial
heel or trim which is not close to 0º, may require special consideration. Where there
is a significant difference between the departure, arrival or any intermediate
condition, then the most severe should be considered, including the effects of any
ballast water changes during the voyage.
Table 10-1 Intact stability range
Vessel or towed object, type and size Intact range
Large and medium vessels, LOA > 76 m and B > 23 m 36°
Large cargo barges, LOA > 76 m and B > 23 m 36°
Small cargo barges, LOA <76 m or B < 23 m 40°
Small vessels, LOA <76 m or B < 23 m 44°
Jack-ups: 24-hour or location moves 28°
Jack-ups: ocean towages 36°
Inland and sheltered water towages (in ice areas)
36°
Inland and sheltered water towages (out of ice areas) 24°

10.1.2 Alternatively, if maximum amplitudes of motion for a specific towage or voyage can
be derived from model tests or motion response calculations, the intact range of
stability shall be not less than:
(20 + 0.8θ)
where θ = the maximum amplitude of roll or pitch caused by the design seastate as
defined in Section 6.1.3, plus the static wind heel or trim caused by the design wind,
in degrees.
10.1.3 Metacentric height (GM) shall be positive throughout the range shown in Section
10.1.1 or 10.1.2. The initial metacentric height, GM
0
, should include an adequate
margin for computational and other inaccuracies. A GM
0
of around 1.0 m will
normally be required, and in any case shall not be less that 0.15 m.
10.1.4 Cargo overhangs shall generally not immerse as a result of heel from a 15 m/s wind
in still water conditions.
10.1.5 Subject to Sections 8.5 and 10.1.4, buoyant cargo overhangs may be assumed to
contribute to the range of stability requirement of Section 10.1.1.
10.1.6 The effects of free surface shall be considered in the stability calculations. The
effects of free surface liquids in the cargo must also be taken into account, as must
residual free surface due to incomplete venting, such as may occur if ballasting
when trimmed.
10.1.7 Vessels shall comply with the mandatory parts of the International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) Resolution A.749 (18) as amended by Resolution MSC.75 (69) -
“Code on Intact Stability” [Ref. 17], and the IMO International Convention on Load
Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002 [Ref 18].
10.1.8 In areas and seasons prone to icing of superstructures, the effects of icing on
stability should be considered as described in Section 22.11.
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10.2 DAMAGE STABILITY
10.2.1 Except as described in Sections 10.2.4 and 10.2.5 below, towed objects, including
cargo barges, MODUs and structures towed on their own buoyancy, shall have
positive stability with any one compartment flooded or broached. Minimum
penetration shall be considered to be 1.5 metres. Two adjacent compartments on
the periphery of the unit shall be considered as one compartment if separated by a
horizontal watertight flat within 5 m of the towage waterline.
10.2.2 The emptying of a full compartment to the damaged waterline shall be considered if
it gives a more severe result than the flooding of an empty compartment.
10.2.3 If buoyancy of the cargo has been included to meet intact stability requirements,
then loss of cargo buoyancy or flooding of cargo compartments, shall be considered
as a damage case, as appropriate.
10.2.4 One-compartment damage stability is not always achievable without impractical
design changes, for the following and similar structures:
a. Concrete gravity structures, particularly when towing on the columns
b. Submerged tube tunnel sections
c. Bridge pier caissons
d. Outfall or water intake caissons.
10.2.5 For those structures listed in Section 10.2.4, or similar, damage stability
requirements may be relaxed, provided the towage is a one-off towage of short
duration, carried out under controlled conditions, and suitable precautions are taken,
which may include:
a. Areas vulnerable to collision should be reinforced or fendered to withstand
collision from the largest towing or attending vessel, at a speed of 2
metres/second, and:
b. Projecting hatches, pipework and valves are protected against collision or
damage from towing and handling lines.
c. Emergency towlines are provided, with trailing pick-up lines, to minimise the
need for vessels to approach the structure closely during the tow.
d. Emergency pumping equipment is provided.
e. Potential leaks via ballast or other systems are minimised.
f. Ballast intakes and discharges, and any other penetrations through the skin of
the vessel or object, shall be protected by a double barrier system, or blanked
off.
g. Vulnerable areas are conspicuously marked.
h. Masters of all towing or attending vessels are aware of the vulnerable areas.
i. A guard vessel is available to warn off other approaching vessels.
j. A risk assessment is carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable.
10.2.6 The extent and adequacy of the precautions necessary for a particular towage will
be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
10.2.7 The relaxations allowed by Sections 10.2.4 and 10.2.5 do not apply in ice-affected
areas, where the vessel or structure should comply with Section 22.11.
10.2.8 The damage stability recommendations of this Section do not apply to transport of
cargoes on flagged trading vessels, sailing at the assigned ‘B’ freeboard or greater.
The ‘B’ freeboard is the minimum freeboard assigned to a Type B vessel, which is
generally defined as any vessel not carrying a bulk liquid cargo. Reduced
freeboards may be assigned to a Type B vessel over 100 m in length, depending on
the arrangements for protection of crew, freeing arrangements, strength, sealing and
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security of hatch covers, and damage stability characteristics. See the IMO
International Convention on Load Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002, [Ref. 15] for
further details.
10.3 WIND OVERTURNING
10.3.1 For the intact condition, the area under the righting moment curve shall be not less
than 40% in excess of the area under the wind overturning arm curve. The areas
shall be bounded by 0º heel or trim, and the second intercept of the righting and
wind overturning arm curves, or the downflooding angle, whichever is less.
10.3.2 The wind velocity used for intact wind overturning calculations shall be the 1-minute
design wind speed, as described in Section 6.13. In the absence of other data, 50
metres /second shall be used.
0.0
0.8
0 40
HEEL ANGLE (DEGREES)
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G

A
R
M

(
G
Z
)

Figure 10.1 Wind Overturning Criteria (Intact Case)
10.3.3 For the damage condition, the area under the righting moment curve shall be not
less than 40% in excess of the area under the wind overturning arm curve. The
areas shall be bounded by the angle of loll, and the second intercept of the righting
and wind overturning arm curves, or the downflooding angle, whichever is less.
0
0.6
0 40
HEEL ANGLE (DEGREES)
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G

A
R
M

(
G
Z
)

Figure 10.2 Wind Overturning Criteria (Damaged Case)
(A + B) > 1.4 (B + C)
Downflooding
angle
Damaged GZ
Angle of
Loll
Wind
Overturning
Arm
Intercept angle
B
A
(A + B) > 1.4 (B + C)
Intact GZ
Downflooding
angle
Wind
Overturning
Arm
A
C
B
Intercept angle
C
3
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10.3.4 The wind velocity used for overturning moment calculations in the damage condition
shall be 25 metres /second, or the wind used for the intact calculation if less.
10.4 DRAUGHT AND TRIM
10.4.1 For vessels and barges with a load-line certificate, the draught shall never exceed
the appropriate load-line draught, except for temporary on-load and off-load
operations under controlled conditions.
10.4.2 The draught should be small enough to give adequate freeboard and stability, and
large enough to reduce motions and slamming. Typically, for barge towages, it will
be between 35% and 60% of hull depth, which is usually significantly less than the
load-line draught.
10.4.3 For barges and large towed objects, such as FPSOs, the draught and trim should be
selected to minimise slamming under the forefoot, to give good directional control,
and to allow for the forward trim caused by towline pull.
10.4.4 For guidance, and for discussion with the Master of the tug, the tow should be
ballasted to the following minimum draughts and trims:
Table 10-2 Minimum draught & trim
Length of Towed Vessel Minimum Draught Forward Minimum Trim by Stern
30 metres 1.0 metre 0.3 metre
60 metres 1.7 metres 0.6 metre
90 metres 2.4 metres 0.8 metre
120 metres 3.1 metres 1.0 metre
150 metres 3.7 metres 1.2 metres
200 metres 4.0 metres 1.5 metres

10.4.5 Where barges with faired sterns are fitted with directional stabilising skegs, it may be
preferable to have no trim. This should normally be documented in the Trim and
Stability booklet. However allowance should be made for trim caused by the towline
force and there should be adequate freeboard at the bow (and possibly a
breakwater) to minimise damage from “green water” coming over the bow.
10.4.6 It may be preferable to tow structures such as floating docks, at minimum draught
with zero trim, in order to minimise longitudinal bending moments.
10.4.7 Draught marks forward and aft shall be easily readable and, if necessary, re-painted
in the area above the waterline.
10.4.8 Where the tow is unmanned, and in order that the tug may monitor any increased
draught during the towage, it may be advantageous to paint a broad distinctive line
of contrasting colour around the bow approximately 0.5 metre above the waterline.
10.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY
10.5.1 Where the watertight integrity of any tow is in question, particularly for demolition
tows, part built ships and MODUs, it shall be checked by visual inspection, chalk
test, ultrasonic test, hose test or air test as considered appropriate by the attending
surveyor.
10.5.2 Any opening giving an angle of downflooding less than 20 degrees, or (θ + 5)
degrees if less than 20 degrees, where θ is the angle as defined in Section 10.1.2,
shall be closed and watertight, or protected by automatic closures in operable
condition.
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10.5.3 Hatches, ventilators, gooseneck air pipes and sounding pipes shall be carefully
checked for proper closure and their watertight integrity confirmed. Where such
equipment could be damaged by sea action or movement of loose equipment, then
additional precautions should be considered.
10.5.4 Outboard accommodation doors shall be carefully checked for proper closure and
their weathertight integrity confirmed. All dogs shall be in good operating condition
and seals shall be functioning correctly.
10.5.5 Watertight doors in holds, tween decks and engine room bulkheads, including shaft
alleyway and boiler room spaces, shall be checked for condition and securely
closed.
10.5.6 Any watertight doors required to be opened for access during the transportation,
shall be marked, on both sides, “To be kept closed except for access” or words to
that effect. In some cases a length of bar or pipe may be required to assist opening
and closing.
10.5.7 Portholes shall be checked watertight. Porthole deadlights shall be closed where
fitted. Any opening without deadlights that may suffer damage in a seaway shall be
plated over.
10.5.8 Windows which could be exposed to wave action shall be plated over, or similarly
protected.
10.5.9 All tank top and deck manhole covers and their gaskets shall be in place, checked in
good condition, and securely bolted down.
10.5.10 All overboard valves shall be closed and locked with wire or chain. Where
secondary or back-up valves are fitted for double protection, they shall also be
closed.
10.5.11 Closure devices fitted to sanitary discharge pipes, particularly near the waterline,
shall be closed. Any discharge pipe close to the waterline not fitted with a closure
device, may need such a facility incorporated, or be plated over.
10.5.12 All holds, void spaces and engine room bilges shall be checked before departure
and should be pumped dry.
10.5.13 All other spaces shall be sounded prior to departure. It is recommended that all
spaces should be either pressed up or empty. Slack tanks should be kept to a
minimum.
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11 TRANSPORT VESSEL SELECTION
11.1 GENERAL
11.1.1 The following points should be considered in the selection of a suitable transport
barge or vessel:
a. Is there adequate deck space for all the cargo items planned, including room
for seafastenings, access between cargo items, access to towing and
emergency equipment, access to tank manholes, installation of cargo
protection breakwaters if needed, and for lifting offshore if required?
b. Has the barge or vessel adequate intact and damage stability with the cargo
and ballast as planned, including any requirement for ballast water exchange?
c. Does the barge or vessel as loaded have sufficient freeboard to give
reasonable protection to the cargo?
d. If a floating loadout is planned, is there sufficient water depth to access and
leave the loadout berth? Can the loadout be carried out in accordance with
Noble Denton document 0013/ND - Guidelines for Loadouts [Ref. 2]
e. If a submerged loadout is planned, can the barge or vessel be submerged,
within its Class limitation, so as to give adequate clearance over the deck, and
adequate stability at all stages, within the water depth limitations of the loadout
location?
f. Is the deck strength adequate, including stiffener, frame and bulkhead spacing
and capacity, for loadout and transportation loads?
g. For a vessel, does securing of seafastenings require welding in way of fuel
tanks?
h. For a barge, is it properly equipped with main and emergency towing
connections, recovery gear, pumping equipment, mooring equipment,
anchors, lighting and access ladders?
i. Will the motion responses as calculated cause overstress of the cargo?
j. Is all required equipment and machinery in sound condition and operating
correctly?
k. Does the barge or vessel possess the relevant, in date, documentation as set
out in Section 5?
11.2 SUITABILITY AND ON-HIRE SURVEYS
11.2.1 In his interest, the charterer is advised to have a suitability survey and an on-hire
survey of the barge or vessel carried out prior to acceptance of the charter.
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12 TOWING VESSEL SELECTION AND APPROVAL
12.1 GENERAL
12.1.1 The tug(s) selected should comply with the minimum bollard pull requirements
shown in Section 12.2 below, and should also comply with the appropriate Category
in Section 3 of Noble Denton document 0021/ND - Guidelines for the Approvability
of Towing Vessels [Ref. 5]. The categories are summarised in the following table.
The appropriate category should be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.
Table 12-1 Towing Vessel Categories
Category Used for
ST – Salvage Tug
U - Unrestricted
Single tug towages in benign or non-benign weather areas
C - Coastal Towages in benign weather areas or weather routed
R1 - Restricted Assisting in multi-tug towages
R2 - Restricted Benign weather area towages
R3 - Restricted Assisting in multi-tug towages in benign weather areas

12.1.2 The tug(s) used for any towage to be approved by Noble Denton should be
inspected by a surveyor nominated by Noble Denton before the start of the towage.
The survey will cover the suitability of the vessel for the proposed operation, its
seakeeping capability, general condition, documentation, towing equipment,
manning and fuel requirements.
12.1.3 For tugs entered in the Noble Denton Towing Vessel Approvability Scheme (TVAS),
it will generally be possible to issue a statement of acceptability in principle, prior to
departure. The extent and frequency of surveys as required by the TVAS is defined
in Ref. [5]. A survey on departure will still be required, to ensure that the vessel still
complies with the rules of the scheme.
12.1.4 Vessels not entered into the scheme will require to be surveyed before any formal
opinion on acceptability or approvability can be issued. For vessels not known to
Noble Denton, a survey well in advance of departure is recommended.
12.2 BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS
12.2.1 For towages where adequate searoom can be achieved within the departure
weather forecast and maintained thereafter, and except as allowed or required by
Sections 12.2.2 to 12.2.6, the minimum Towline Pull Required (TPR) shall be
computed for zero forward speed against a 20 metres/second wind, 5.0 metre
significant seastate and 0.5 metres/second current acting simultaneously as shown
in Table 12-2.
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12.2.2 For towages which pass through an area of restricted navigation or manoeuvrability,
outside the validity of the departure weather forecast and which cannot be
considered a weather-restricted operation, TPR should be computed for:
- the design wave height (see Section 6), and
- 1 hour design wind speed (see Section 6), and
- 0.5 metres/second current, or the maximum predicted surface current if greater
acting simultaneously, if this results in a greater TPR than would be obtained by
Section 12.2.1.
12.2.3 For 24-hour moves of jack-ups the following reduced criteria may be used for
calculation of TPR: 15 metres/second wind, 3.0 metres significant seastate and the
greater of 0.5 metres/second current and the maximum predicted surface current for
the tow-route, acting simultaneously.
12.2.4 For benign weather areas, the criteria for calculation of TPR shall be agreed with the
Noble Denton office concerned. Generally these should not be reduced below 15
metres/second wind, 2.0 metres significant seastate and 0.5 metres/second current,
acting simultaneously.
12.2.5 For towages partly sheltered from wave action, but exposed to strong winds, the
criteria shall be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.
12.2.6 If the tow route passes through an area of continuous adverse current or weather, or
if a particular towing speed is required in calm or moderate weather, a greater TPR
may be appropriate. In any event, an assessment should be made that a
reasonable speed can be achieved in moderate weather.
Table 12-2 Meteorological Criteria for Calculating TPR (Towline Pull Required)
Para Condition Hsig (m) Wind (m/sec) Current (m/sec)
12.2.2 Limited searoom Design
Design
(1 hour mean)
0.5 or predicted
current if greater
12.2.6
Continuous adverse
current or weather
As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned to ensure
a reasonable speed in moderate weather.
12.2.1 Standard 5 20 0.5
12.2.3 24-hour jack-up move 3 15
0.5 or predicted
current if greater
12.2.4
Benign weather
areas
As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned but not less
than: 2 15 0.5
12.2.5 Sheltered from waves As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.

12.2.7 TPR shall be related to the continuous static bollard pull of the tug(s) proposed (BP)
by:
TPR = ¿(BP x T
e
/100)
where: T
e
= the tug efficiency in the sea conditions considered, %
(BP x T
e
/100) is the contribution to TPR of each tug
¿ means the aggregate of all tugs assumed to contribute.
3
3
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12.2.8 Tug efficiency, T
e,
depends on the size and configuration of the tug, the seastate
considered and the towing speed achieved. In the absence of alternative
information, T
e
may be estimated for good ocean-going tugs according to the
following Table 12-3. However tugs with less sea-kindly characteristics will have
significantly lower values of T
e
in higher sea states.
Table 12-3 Values of Tug Efficiency, T
e

Tug Efficiency, Te %
Continuous Bollard
Pull (BP), tonnes
Calm H
sig
= 2 m H
sig
= 3 m H
sig
= 5 m
BP < 30 80 50 + BP 30 + BP BP
30 < BP < 90 80 80 52.5 + BP/4 7.5 + 0.75 x BP
BP > 90 80 80 75 75

12.2.9 These efficiencies are shown graphically in the following Figure.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
STATIC CONTINUOUS BOLLARD PULL (tonnes)
T
U
G

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y
,

T
e

%

Figure 12.1 Tug efficiencies in different sea states
3
2m H
sig
3m H
sig
5m H
sig
calm
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12.2.10 The resulting effective bollard pull in the different sea states is shown in the
following Figure:
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
STATIC CONTINUOUS BOLLARD PULL (tonnes)
E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

B
O
L
L
A
R
D

P
U
L
L

(
t
o
n
n
e
s
)


Figure 12.2 Effective Bollard Pull in Different Sea States

12.2.11 Alternatively, for the H
sig
= 5.0 m case, BP can be related to TPR by:
Table 12-4 Selecting Bollard Pull from TPR for H
sig
= 5 m
Towline Pull Required (TPR), tonnes Continuous Bollard Pull (BP), tonnes
TPR < 9 \(100 x TPR)
9 < TPR < 67.5 \[25 + (300 x TPR) /2.25] - 5
TPR > 67.5 TPR /0.75

12.2.12 Only those tugs connected so they are capable of pulling effectively in the forward
direction shall be assumed to contribute. Stern tugs shall be discounted in the
above calculation.
12.3 MAIN & SPARE TOWING WIRES & TOWING CONNECTIONS
12.3.1 The main and spare towing wires, pennants and connections shall be in accordance
with Section 13.
12.4 TAILGATES/STERN RAILS
12.4.1 Where a towing tailgate or stern rail is fitted, the radius of the upper rail shall be at
least 10 times the diameter of the tug’s main towline, and adequately faired to
prevent snagging.
5m H
sig

3m H
sig

< 2 m H
sig
Calm
2m H
sig
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12.5 TOWLINE CONTROL
12.5.1 Where a towing pod is fitted, its strength shall be shown to be adequate for the
forces it is likely to encounter. It should be well faired and the inside and ends must
have a minimum radius of 10 times the towline diameter.
12.5.2 Where no pod is fitted, the after deck should be fitted with a gog rope, mechanically
operated and capable of being adjusted from a remote station. If a gog rope
arrangement is fitted then a spare shall be carried. Where neither a towing pod nor
gog rope is fitted, then an alternative means of centring the tow line should be
provided.
12.5.3 On square-sterned towing vessels, it is preferred that mechanically or hydraulically
operated stops be fitted near the aft end of the bulwarks, to prevent the towline
slipping around the tug's quarter in heavy weather.
12.6 WORKBOAT
12.6.1 A powered workboat must be provided for emergency communication with the tow,
and must have adequate means for launching safely in a seastate associated with
Beaufort Force 4 to 5. An inflatable or RIB may be acceptable provided it has
flooring suitable for carriage of emergency equipment to the tow.
12.7 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
12.7.1 In addition to normal Authorities’ requirements, the tug shall carry portable marine
VHF and/or UHF radios, for communication with the tow when tug personnel are
placed on board for inspections or during an emergency. Spare batteries and a
means of recharging them shall be provided.
12.8 NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT
12.8.1 Towing vessels shall be provided with all necessary navigational instruments, charts
and publications that may be required on the particular towage, including information
for possible diversion ports and their approaches.
12.9 SEARCHLIGHT
12.9.1 The tug shall be fitted with a searchlight to aid night operations and for use in
illuminating the tow during periods of emergency or malfunction of the prescribed
navigation lights. The searchlight(s) should provide illumination both forward and
aft, thereby allowing the tug to approach the tow either bow or stern on.

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12.10 PUMP
12.10.1 On any tow outside coastal limits, the tug shall carry at least one portable pump,
equipped with means of suction and delivery and having a self contained power unit
with sufficient fuel for 12 hours usage at the pump’s maximum rating. The pump
shall be suitable for the requirements outlined in Section 15.2.1.e through 15.2.1.h,
but may not be considered to be a substitute for the pump(s) required by Section 15.
The methods and feasibility of deployment should be considered.
12.11 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
12.11.1 Anti-chafe gear should be fitted as necessary. Particular attention should be paid to
contact between the towline and towing pods, tow bars and stern rail.
12.11.2 All tugs should be equipped with burning and welding gear for use in emergency.
12.12 BUNKERS & OTHER CONSUMABLES
12.12.1 The tug should carry fuel and other consumables including potable water, lubricating
oil and stores, for the anticipated duration of the towage, taking into account the
area and season, plus a reserve of at least 5 days supply. If refuelling en route is
proposed, then suitable arrangements must be made before the towage starts, and
included in the towing procedures.
12.13 TUG MANNING
12.13.1 Notwithstanding minimum manning levels for tugs as described in Ref. [5], or those
required by State or Port Authorities, consideration shall be given to the fact that in
an emergency situation, two or more of the tug crew may need to board and remain
on the tow for an extended period. This should be taken into account when
approving the manning level of a towing vessel.
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13 TOWING & MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ON TOW
13.1 TOWING EQUIPMENT & ARRANGEMENTS - GENERAL
13.1.1 Towage should normally be from the forward end of the barge or tow via a suitable
bridle as shown in Appendix A. The components of the system are:
a. Towline connections, including towline connection points, fairleads, bridle legs
and bridle apex
b. Intermediate pennant
c. Bridle recovery system
d. Emergency towing gear.
13.1.2 There may be a case for towing some structures by the stern. These could include:
a. Part-built or damaged ships, or any structure when the bow sections could be
vulnerable to wave damage.
b. Part-built ships, converted ships or FPSOs without a rudder or skeg, or with a
turret or spider fitted forward, where better directional stability may be
obtained if towed by the stern.
c. Any structure with overhanging or vulnerable equipment near the bow, which
could be vulnerable to wave damage, or could interfere with the main and
emergency towing connections.
13.1.3 A decision whether to tow by the stern should be based on the results of a risk
assessment which shall be presented to Noble Denton for review.
13.1.4 If two tugs are to be used for towing, then in general the larger tug should be
connected to the bridle, and the smaller tug to a chain or chain/wire pennant set to
one side of the main bridle. Alternatively two bridles may be made up, one for each
tug. For two balanced tugs, the bridle may be split and the tugs should tow off
separate bridle legs, via intermediate pennants. This is not generally preferred for
tows with rectangular bows. Whichever system is used, a recovery system should
be provided for the connection point for each tug.
13.1.5 For tows where a bridle is not appropriate, such as multiple tug towages, then
normally each tug should tow off a chain pennant and an intermediate wire pennant.
13.1.6 It is normal that the towline and the intermediate pennant are supplied by the tug.
However, the strength requirements are presented here, to bring together the
requirements for towlines and towing connections.
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13.2 STRENGTH OF TOWLINE & TOWLINE CONNECTIONS
13.2.1 The Minimum Breaking Loads (MBL) of the main and spare towlines, and the
ultimate load capacity of the towline connections to the tow including each bridle leg,
shall be related to the actual continuous static bollard pull (BP) of the tug as follows,
(BP, MBL and ULC are in tonnes):
a. Towline breaking load MBL shall be computed as follows:
Table 13-1 Minimum Towline Breaking Loads (MBL)
Bollard Pull (BP) Benign Areas Other Areas
BP < 40 tonnes 2.0 x BP 3.0 x BP
40 < BP < 90 tonnes 2.0 x BP (3.8 - BP/50) x BP
BP > 90 tonnes 2.0 x BP 2.0 x BP

b. The Ultimate Load Capacity (ULC) of towline connections to the tow, including
bridle legs, chain pennants, and fairleads, where fitted, shall be not less than:
ULC = 1.25 x MBL (for MBL > 160 tonnes) or
ULC = MBL + 40 (for MBL <160 tonnes)
See Section 13.5.2 for bridle apex angle >120
o.

13.2.2 A certificate to demonstrate the MBL of each towline shall be available. MBL may
be obtained by testing, or by showing the aggregate breaking load of its component
wires, with a spinning reduction factor.
13.2.3 Each bridle leg, and the connections to which it is attached, shall be designed to the
full value of ULC, as shown in Section 13.2.1.b.
13.2.4 Fairleads, where fitted, shall be designed to take loadings as the tug deviates from
the nominal towing direction, as follows, where:
o = a. the horizontal angle of towline pull from the nominal towing direction
when a bridle is not used, as shown in Figure 13.1, OR
b. the horizontal angle of the bridle leg from its normal direction (with
bridle apex angles of less than 120
o
- see Section 13.5.2).
ULC is as defined in Section 13.2.1.b.

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Figure 13.1 Definition of angle o with and without a bridle
Table 13-2 Fairlead Resolved ULC
Horizontal angle, o Fairlead ultimate load capacity, resolved as appropriate
0 < o < 45° ULC
45° < o < 90° Linear interpolation with o between ULC and (0.5 x ULC)
o > 90° 0.5 x ULC

13.2.5 Where no fairleads are fitted, the towing connections shall be similarly designed.
13.2.6 If a fairlead or towing connection is to be used either with or without a bridle, it
should be designed for both cases.
13.2.7 For tows where it may be operationally necessary to apply the full value of towline
pull at any angle, the connections and fairleads may require special consideration,
and the reduction shown in Section 13.2.4 may not be appropriate.
13.2.8 Where towing connections or fairleads may be subjected to a vertical load, the
design shall take account of the connection or fairlead elevation, the proportion of
bridle and towline weight taken at the connection or fairlead, and the towline pull, at
the maximum pitch angle computed.
13.2.9 It should be noted that the above requirement represents the minimum values for
towline connection strength. It may be prudent to design the main towline
connections to allow for the use of tugs larger than the minimum required.
13.2.10 In particular circumstances, where the available towing vessel is oversized with
regard to TPR (see Section 12.2), and the towline connections are already fitted to
the tow, then the towline connections (but not the towline itself) may be related to
the required BP rather than the actual BP. Such relaxation shall be with the express
agreement of the Master of the tug, and shall be noted in the towing arrangements.
It shall not apply for towages in ice areas.

Nominal
towing
direction
Deviated
towline
direction
Nominal towing
direction with
bridle
Deviated
bridle leg
direction
o
o
3
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13.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOWLINE LENGTH AND STRENGTH
13.3.1 Except in benign areas and sheltered water towages, the minimum length available
of each of the main and spare towlines (L) shall be determined from the “European”
formula:
L > (BP/MBL) x 1800 metres
except that in no case shall the available length be less than 650 metres, apart from
coastal towages within a good weather forecast when this may be reduced to 500m.
13.3.2 For benign areas, the minimum length available shall be not less than:
L > (BP/MBL) x 1200 metres
except that in no case shall the available length be less than 500 metres.
13.3.3 The available length shall take into account the minimum remaining turns on the
winch drum, and the distance from the drum to the stern rail or roller. One full
strength wire rope pennant which is permanently included in the towing
configuration may be considered when determining the available length.
13.3.4 MBL as shown in Section 13.2.1 shall be increased if required for L to comply with
Section 13.3.1 or 13.3.2 as appropriate. ULC shall be correspondingly increased.
13.4 TOWLINE CONNECTION POINTS
13.4.1 Towline connections to the tow shall be of an approved type. Preferably they should
be capable of quick release under adverse conditions, to allow a fouled bridle or
towline to be cleared, but must also be secured against premature release. A
typical bracket design is shown in Appendix C.
13.4.2 Towline connections and fairleads shall be designed to the requirements of Section
13.2.
13.4.3 Sufficient internal/underdeck strength must be provided for all towline connections
and fairleads.
13.4.4 Where fitted, fairleads should be of an approved type, located close to the deck
edge. They should be fitted with capping bars and sited in line with the towline
connections, to prevent side load on the towing connections.
13.4.5 Where the bridle might bear on the deck edge, the deck edge should be suitably
faired and reinforced to prevent chafe of the bridle.
13.4.6 Where towing connections are of a quick-release type, then the fairlead design shall
allow all the released parts to pass easily through the fairlead.
13.5 BRIDLE LEGS
13.5.1 Each bridle leg should be of stud link chain or composite chain and wire rope. If
composite, the chain should of sufficient length to extend beyond the deck edge and
prevent chafing of the wire rope.
13.5.2 The angle at the apex of the bridle should normally be between 45 and 60 degrees.
If it exceeds 120
o
then the strength of the bridle legs, fittings and towing connections
will need to be increased to allow for the increased resolved load in the bridle from
the towline force.
13.5.3 The end link of all chains shall be a special enlarged link, not a normal link with the
stud removed.
13.5.4 All wire ropes shall have hard eyes or sockets.
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13.6 BRIDLE APEX
13.6.1 The bridle apex connection should be a towing ring or triangular plate, often called a
Delta, Flounder or Monkey Plate, or an enlarged bow shackle.
13.7 SHACKLES
13.7.1 The breaking load of shackles forming part of the towline shall be at least 110% of
the actual breaking load of the towline to be used.
13.7.2 The breaking load of shackles forming part of the bridle shall be not less than 110%
of the required breaking load of the connected parts.
13.7.3 If the breaking load of a shackle cannot be identified then the minimum Safe
Working Load (SWL) may be related to the continuous static bollard pull (BP) of the
largest tug proposed, as follows:
Table 13-3 Default Shackle SWL
Continuous bollard pull, BP, tonnes
Minimum Safe Working Load,
SWL, tonnes
BP < 40 1.0 x BP
BP > 40 (0.5 x BP) + 20

13.8 INTERMEDIATE PENNANT OR SURGE CHAINS
13.8.1 An intermediate wire rope pennant should be fitted between the main towline and
the bridle or chain pennant. Its main use is for ease of connection and
reconnection. All wire rope pennants shall have hard eyes or sockets, and be of the
same lay (i.e. left or right hand) as the main towline.
13.8.2 A synthetic spring, if used, should not normally replace the intermediate wire rope
pennant.
13.8.3 The length of the wire pennant for barge tows is normally 10-15 metres since this
can be handled on the stern of most tugs without the connecting shackle reaching
the winch. Longer pennants may be needed in particular cases.
13.8.4 The breaking strength of the wire rope pennant shall not be less than that of the
main towline with the possible exceptions in Section 13.8.6.
13.8.5 A surge chain may be used, especially in shallow water when a long towline
catenary cannot be used, to provide shock absorption. If a surge chain is supplied
then the MBL shall not be less than that of the main towing wire. The surge chain
shall be a continuous length of welded studlink chain with an enlarged open link at
each end (see Section 13.5.3). A method of recovery of the chain shall be provided
in case a tow wire breaks.
13.8.6 Noble Denton may approve a “fuse” or “weak link” pennant provided that:
a. The strength reduction is not more than 10% of the actual strength of the main
towline, and
b. The resulting strength of the pennant is at least equal to that required for the
towline.
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13.9 SYNTHETIC SPRINGS
13.9.1 Where a synthetic spring is used, its breaking load shall be at least 1.5 times that
required for the main towline. As synthetic springs have a limited life due to
embrittlement and ageing, they must be in good condition, and have been stored to
protect them from wear, solvents and sunlight. See Section 22.7.7 for towages
when icing can occur.
13.9.2 If used, a synthetic spring should normally be connected between the main towing
wire and the intermediate pennant, rather than connected directly into the bridle
apex.
13.9.3 All synthetic springs shall have hard eyes. A synthetic spring made up as a
continuous loop with a hard eye each end is generally preferable to a single line with
an eye splice each end.
13.10 BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM
13.10.1 A system shall be fitted to recover the bridle or chain pennant, to allow reconnection
in the event of towline breakage. The preferred type of bridle recovery system is
shown in Appendix A. It consists of a winch and a recovery line connected to the
bridle apex, via a suitable lead, preferably an A-frame.
13.10.2 The recovery winch shall be capable of handling at least 100% of the weight of the
bridle, plus attachments including the apex and the intermediate pennant. It shall be
suitably secured to the structure of the tow. Except for very small barges, the winch
should have its own power source. It should be noted that an adequate winch will
be useful for initial connection of the towline. Adequate fuel should be carried.
13.10.3 If the winch is manually operated, it should be fitted with ratchet gear and brake, and
should be geared so that the tow bridle apex can be recovered by 2 persons.
13.10.4 Should no power source be available, and manual operation is deemed impractical,
then arrangements shall be made, utilising additional pennant wires as necessary,
which will allow the tug to reconnect.
13.10.5 The breaking load of the recovery wire, shackles, leads etc shall be at least 6 times
the weight of the bridle, apex and intermediate pennant. The winch barrel should be
adequate for the length and size of the wire required.
13.11 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR
13.11.1 Emergency towing gear shall be provided in case of towline failure, bridle failure or
inability to recover the bridle. Preferably it should be fitted at the bow of the tow. It
may consist of a separate bridle and pennant or a system as shown in Appendix B.
Precautions should be taken to minimise chafe of all wire ropes.
13.11.2 The emergency system will typically consist of the following:
a. Towing connection on or near the centreline of the tow, over a bulkhead or
other suitable strong point
b. Closed fairlead
c. Emergency pennant, minimum length 80 metres, with hard eyes or sockets,
preferably in one length. This length may be reduced for small barges and in
benign areas
d. Extension wire, if required, long enough to prevent the float line chafing on the
stern of the tow
e. Float line, to extend 75-90 metres abaft the stern of the tow
f. Conspicuous pick-up buoy, with reflective tape, on the end of the float line.
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13.11.3 The strength of items a, b and c above should be as for the main towline
connections, as shown in Section 13.2.1. The breaking load of the handling system,
items d and e above should be not less than 25 tonnes, and must be sufficient to
break the securing devices.
13.11.4 If the emergency towline is attached forward, it must be led over the main tow bridle.
It should be secured to the outer edge of the tow, outside all obstructions, with soft
lashings, or metal clips opening outwards, approximately every 3 metres.
13.11.5 If the emergency towing gear is attached aft, the wire rope should be coiled or flaked
near the stern, so that it can be pulled clear. The outboard eye should be led over
the deck edge to prevent chafe of the float line.
13.11.6 For towage of very long vessels, alternative emergency arrangements may be
approvable but any arrangement shall be agreed with the Master of the tug to
ensure that reconnection is possible in an emergency.
13.11.7 Whatever the arrangement agreed, care shall be taken that no chafe can occur to
the floating line when deployed.
13.11.8 It is good practice to have swivels at the connection of the float line to the pennant
line or extension wire, and at the connection of the float line to the buoy.
13.11.9 The following reconnection equipment should also be considered, and placed on
board if the duration and area of the towage demand it:
a. Heaving lines
b. Line throwing equipment
c. Spare shackles.
13.12 CERTIFICATION
13.12.1 Valid certificates shall be available for all chains, wires and shackles utilised in the
towing arrangement. Where certification is not available or attainable for minor
items the surveyor may recommend that oversized equipment shall be fitted.
13.12.2 The Noble Denton surveyor may reject any items that appear to be unfit for purpose,
or are lacking valid certification.
13.13 NAVIGATION LIGHTS & SHAPES
13.13.1 The tow shall carry the lights and shapes required by the International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 amended 1996 (COLREGS [Ref. 19]) and
any local regulations.
13.13.2 Navigation lights shall be independently powered (e.g. from an independent electric
power sources or from gas containers). Fuel or power sources shall be adequate
for the maximum duration of the towage, plus a reserve. Spare mantles or bulbs
should be carried, even if the tow is unmanned.
13.13.3 It is desirable that a duplicate system of lights be provided.
13.13.4 Towed objects which may offer a small response to radar, such as barges or
concrete caissons with low freeboard, should be fitted with a radar reflector. The
reflector should be mounted as high as practical. Octahedral reflectors should be
mounted in the “catch-rain” orientation.
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13.14 ACCESS TO TOWS
13.14.1 Whether a tow is manned or not, suitable access must be provided. This may
include at least one permanent steel ladder on each side, from main deck to below
the waterline.
13.14.2 Where practical, ladders should be recessed, back painted for ease of identification,
be clear of overhanging cargo, and faired off to permit access by the tug’s workboat.
13.14.3 Alternatives may be accepted if it can be demonstrated that they will provide a safe
and reliable means of access during the towage. For example, a pilot ladder on
each side or over the stern, secured to prevent it being washed up on deck, may be
accepted for short tows or where it can be deployed from a manned tow.
13.14.4 Objects with high freeboard (e.g. over about 10 m) may need special consideration.
Ladders should be enclosed, except within 5 m of the towage waterline, with resting
platforms every 10 metres. Where practical, stairways are preferable to ladders.
13.14.5 Where practical, a clear space should be provided and appropriately marked, with
access ladders if necessary so that, in an emergency, men may landed or recovered
by helicopter. If it is required to land a crew on board prior to entering port, for
instance to start pumps and reduce draught, then a properly marked and certified
helideck or landing area would be an advantage.
13.14.6 A boarding party should be appropriately equipped with survival suits, lifejackets and
communication equipment.
13.14.7 Even if the tow is not manned, consideration should be given to placing life saving
appliances on board, appropriate to the hazards a boarding party may face once
aboard.
13.14.8 Not withstanding the potential for piracy in some areas, means of boarding shall still
be available.
13.15 ANCHORING & MOORING EQUIPMENT
13.15.1 See Section 16.
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13.16 DAMAGE CONTROL & EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
13.16.1 When the length and area of the towage demand it, the following equipment should
be carried on the tow in suitable packages or in a waterproof container secured to
the deck:
a. Burning gear
b. Welding equipment
c. Steel plate - various thicknesses
d. Steel angle section - various sizes and lengths
e. Plywood sheets - 25 mm thick
f. Lengths of 3” x 3” (75mm x 75mm) timber
g. Caulking material
h. Sand and cement (suitably packaged)
i. Nails - various sizes
j. Wooden plugs – various sizes
k. Wooden wedges – various sizes
l. A selection of tools, including a hydraulic jack, hammers, saws, crowbars,
Tirfors.
m. Portable coamings 60 cm minimum height, with a flange and boltholes to suit
the manhole design. The top should be constructed to avoid damage to hoses
and cables
n. A sounding tube extension, of 60 cm minimum height, threaded so that it can
be screwed into all sounding plug holes
o. Sounding tapes
p. Fire fighting equipment as appropriate
q. Personal protection equipment - gloves, goggles, hard hats, survival suits etc
r. Emergency lighting.
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14 VOYAGE PLANNING
14.1 GENERAL
14.1.1 The following recommendations apply with respect to the way in which the towage
or voyage is conducted. The Certificate of Approval is based on agreed towage or
voyage arrangements, which shall not be deviated from without good cause, and
where practical with the prior agreement of Noble Denton.
14.2 PLANNING
14.2.1 Planning of the voyage or towage shall be carried out in accordance with the
requirements of the IMO International Safety Management Code [Ref. 8].
14.3 ROUTEING
14.3.1 Routeing procedures shall be agreed with the Master prior to commencement of the
towage or voyage, taking into account the transport vessel or tug’s capacity and fuel
consumption, the weather and current conditions and normal good navigation and
seamanship.
14.3.2 Piracy in some areas, for instance South East Asia, is prevalent, and slow moving
vessels or tows are particularly at risk. Maintaining sufficient distance from land
throughout the tow will reduce this risk and also ensure there is sufficient sea room
in case of emergency. Guidance on prevention of piracy may be found in IMO
MSC/Circ.623 - Piracy and armed robbery against ships [Ref. 20].
14.4 WEATHER ROUTEING & FORECASTING
14.4.1 Weather forecasts for the departure area should be commenced at least 48 hours
before the anticipated departure date. Whenever possible a second weather
forecast should be obtained from a different independent source prior to departure.
14.4.2 For any towage, the weather conditions for departure from the departure port or any
intermediate port or shelter area shall take into account the capabilities of the towing
vessel, the marine characteristics of the tow, the forecast wind direction, any
hazards close to the departure port or shelter area and the distance to the next port
or shelter area. A suitable weather forecast may be one that predicts a minimum 48
hour period with winds not in excess of Beaufort Force 5 and a favourable outlook
for a further 24 hours.
14.4.3 If appropriate, a weather routeing service, provided by a reputable company, should
be arranged prior to the start of the towage or voyage. The utilisation of a weather
routeing service may be a requirement of the approval. See also Section 6.3.2. In
any event, every effort shall be made by the Master to obtain regular and suitable
weather forecasts from a reputable source during the towage.
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14.5 DEPARTURE
14.5.1 Prior to departure, a departure condition report for the tow or vessel shall be
provided by the owners or their agents, for the Master and the Noble Denton
surveyor. This report should contain as a minimum:
a. The documentation referred to in Section 5 as appropriate
b. Lightship weight
c. Tabulation and distribution of ballast, consumables, and cargo, including any
hazardous materials
d. Calculated displacement and draughts
e. Actual draughts and displacement
f. For ships, a statement that the longitudinal bending and shear force are within
the allowable seagoing limits
g. Calculated VCG
h. Calculated GM and confirmation that it is within allowable limits
i. GZ Curve and confirmation that it is within allowable limits.
14.5.2 Departure condition shall be verified to be satisfactory regarding the stability of the
tow with proper allowance made for any slack tanks.
14.5.3 If no stability documentation is available then it may be necessary to perform an
inclining experiment to check that the GM is satisfactory. Calculations may be
needed to establish righting and overturning lever curves.
14.5.4 It shall be verified that the tow floats in a proper upright attitude and at a draught and
trim appropriate to the calculated weight and centre of gravity.
14.5.5 The Certificate of Approval shall be issued on agreed readiness for departure and
on receipt of a suitable weather forecast.
14.6 PORTS OF SHELTER, SHELTER AREAS, HOLDING AREAS
14.6.1 Ports of shelter, or shelter areas on or adjacent to the route, with available safe
berths, mooring or holding areas, shall be agreed before departure and all
necessary permissions obtained.
14.6.2 Where such shelter points are required as part of a weather-restricted operation, as
described in Section 6.3, they shall be capable of entry in worsening weather.
14.7 BUNKERING
14.7.1 Bunkering ports, if required, shall be agreed before departure. If it is not practical to
take the tow into port, then alternative arrangements must be agreed which may
include:
a. Where the towage is by more than one tug, each tug in turn may be released
to proceed to a nearby port for bunkers, subject to a favourable weather
forecast. The remaining tug(s) should meet the requirements of Section 12.2,
or some other agreed criterion.
b. Relief of the towing tug by another suitable tug, which itself is considered
suitable to undertake the towage, so that the towing tug may proceed to a
nearby port for bunkers.
c. Bunkering at sea from a visiting vessel, subject to suitable procedures and
calm weather conditions.
14.7.2 Such procedures shall form part of the approved towage or voyage arrangements.
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14.8 ASSISTING TUGS
14.8.1 Assisting tugs shall be engaged at commencement of the towage, at any
intermediate bunkering port and at the arrival destination, as appropriate.
14.9 PILOTAGE
14.9.1 The Master shall engage local pilotage assistance during the towage or voyage, as
appropriate.
14.10 LOG
14.10.1 A detailed log of events shall be maintained during the towage or voyage.
14.11 INSPECTIONS DURING THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE
14.11.1 Unless the tow is manned, it should be boarded on a regular basis by the crew of
the tug, particularly after a period of bad weather, in order to verify that all the towing
arrangements, condition of the cargo, seafastenings and watertight integrity of the
tow are satisfactory. Suitable access shall be provided - see Section 13.14.
14.11.2 For manned tows, and self propelled vessels, the above inspections should be
carried out on a daily basis as relevant - see also Section 17.5.
14.11.3 Any adjustable seafastenings or lashings should be re-tensioned as necessary.
14.12 REDUCING EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT & THE SHIPPING OF WATER
14.12.1 The Master should take any necessary measures to reduce excessive movement or
the shipping of water which may damage the cargo, cribbing or seafastenings. This
may entail changes of course, or speed, or both.
14.13 NOTIFICATION
14.13.1 After departure of an approved towage or voyage, regular notification shall be sent
to Noble Denton regarding progress, the reporting of any unusual or abnormal
events, or necessary deviation from the agreed towing arrangements.
14.14 DIVERSIONS
14.14.1 Should any emergency situation arise during the towage or voyage which
necessitates diversion to a port of refuge, then Noble Denton shall be advised.
Noble Denton will review and advise on the validity of the existing Certificate of
Approval for continuing the towage or voyage depending on the circumstances of
the case. A further attendance at the port of refuge may be required in order to re-
validate the Certificate of Approval.
14.15 RESPONSIBILITY
14.15.1 The Towmaster is responsible for the overall conduct of a tow, and towing
arrangements during the towage.
14.15.2 If any special situations arise during the towage or voyage and it is not possible to
comply with any specific recommendations, agreed procedures or International
Regulations, then such measures as appropriate for the safety of life and property
shall be taken. Noble Denton shall be informed as soon as practical of any such
circumstances.
14.15.3 Nothing in this document shall set aside or limit the authority of the Master who
remains solely responsible for his vessel during the voyage in accordance with
maritime laws.
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14.16 TUG CHANGE
14.16.1 The tug(s) approved for any towage, as noted on the Certificate of Approval, shall
be the only tug(s) approved for that specific towage and should remain with the tow
throughout the towage. Should it be required to change the tug(s) for any reason,
except in emergency or where special arrangements have been agreed for
bunkering, the replacement tug must be approved by Noble Denton and a new
Certificate of Approval issued.
14.17 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
14.17.1 Hazardous substances may be considered as materials which, when released in
sufficient quantities or improperly handled, have the potential to cause damage to
the asset, personnel or the environment through chemical means or combustion.
Unless it is necessary the carriage of such materials should be avoided, unless it
can be shown that the substances are effectively controlled. Stowage of such
materials should take into account that the transportation may be unmanned and
therefore remedial action in the case of inadvertent release will be limited.
14.17.2 The properties of such material should be contained in the COSHH (Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health) data sheets and the recommended method of
stowage and handling is found in the IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous
Goods) Code.
14.17.3 Where identifiable hazardous material is found on board prior to a tow /
transportation taking place, it should be controlled either through isolation or
removal ashore.
14.18 BALLAST WATER
14.18.1 The IMO Ballast Water Convention of 2004 (Resolution A.868(20)) requires the
monitoring and recording of ballasting and de-ballasting operations. Vessels
flagged in signatory states are required to have on board and to implement a Ballast
Water Management Plan. This plan is specific to each vessel and the record of
ballast operations may be examined by the Port State Authorities.
14.18.2 Vessels may need to change ballast water before or at their arrival port for
operational reasons (loading /discharging). There may be local laws that will have
an impact on these activities. In the U.S.A. there are numerous state laws that
cover these operations. Compliance with these rules may need to become part of
the voyage planning.
14.18.3 The necessary ballast plan and records should be available for any attending
surveyor.
14.19 RESTRICTED DEPTHS, HEIGHTS & MANOEUVRABILITY
14.19.1 The following recommended clearances are general, and each towage should be
assessed on its own, taking into account
a. environmental conditions,
b. length of areas of restricted manoeuvrability,
c. any course changes within the areas of restricted manoeuvrability,
d. cross section of areas of restricted manoeuvrability in relation to underwater
area/shape of the base structure, and
e. capability of the tugs.
14.19.2 The recommended values give guidance. If it can be proved that smaller values
give the same or even better level of confidence these values should be taken.
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14.19.3 For areas where the under-keel or side clearance is critical, a survey report that is
not older than 3 months shall be available. If not, the tow route should be surveyed
with a width of 5 times the beam, with a minimum of 500 metres. Side-scan sonar
and bathymetric data should be provided. The equipment used should be of a
recognized industry standard. The spacing between depth contour lines should be
appropriate for the purpose. Current surveys should be made in restricted parts of
the tow route.
14.19.4 The survey requirements can be relaxed if it can be shown that the on-board
bathymetry measurement systems and position management systems have
sufficiently high precision.
14.19.5 Ideally passages through areas of restricted manoeuvrability and passing under
bridges and power cables should not take place in darkness.
14.20 UNDER-KEEL CLEARANCES
14.20.1 The under-keel clearance allowing for protrusions below the hull shall account for
the effects of
a. roll and pitch,
b. heave,
c. tow-line pull,
d. wind heeling,
e. tolerance on bathymetry,
f. changes in draught of the transport or towed object,
g. differences in water density,
h. tidal height variations,
i. squat effects and
j. deflections of the structure
and shall include a margin of not less than one metre or ten percent of the maximum
draught, whichever is greater.
14.20.2 If sections of the passage are tidally dependent, holding areas should be identified
in the vicinity with adequate sea room and water depth to keep the structure afloat at
low tide, while maintaining the minimum under-keel clearance.
14.20.3 Immediately before critical sections of the passage the tidal level shall be confirmed
by measurement.
14.21 AIR DRAUGHT
14.21.1 When passing under bridges and power cables, the overhead clearance shall be
calculated allowing a margin of not less than one metre plus dimensional tolerances
on the items listed in Section 14.20.1 excluding squat . Where clearance is limited
then a dimensional survey of the barge/vessel and structure shall take place just
prior to sailaway in order to ensure that the required clearance exists.
14.21.2 Power cables need a 'spark gap', as well as a physical clearance; the transmission
company will have their own criteria on the minimum allowable clearance. It should
be noted that the catenary of the power cable will change depending on the load
being carried in the cable; the lowest position should be used.
14.21.3 The actual clearance shall be confirmed with all appropriate authorities including
those responsible for the obstruction.
14.21.4 Immediately before the passage the tidal level shall be confirmed by measurement.
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14.22 CHANNEL WIDTH & RESTRICTED MANOEUVRABILITY
14.22.1 The minimum channel width along any inshore legs of the tow route with the
underkeel clearance and air draught required in Sections 14.20 and 14.21 should be
three times the maximum width of the towed object after allowances for yaw.
Additional channel width may be required in exposed areas, if there are significant
cross currents or if needed for the tugs to manoeuvre safely.
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15 PUMPING AND SOUNDING
15.1 GENERAL
15.1.1 Emergency-pumping arrangements should be available for any tow.
15.1.2 Pumps in accordance with this section are primarily required for barges. The need
for, and specification of, pumps for other tows, including self-floating objects,
MODUs, FPSOs and ships, will be assessed on a case-by-case basis, depending
on the nature of the towage and the extent and availability of any installed system.
15.1.3 Some relaxation may be possible, agreed on a case-by-case basis, for a towage
considered as a weather-restricted operation.
15.1.4 Whatever pumping system is agreed, and whether or not a tow is manned, the
pumping system shall be available at short notice. Any time required for connection
or warm-up should be included in the pumping times and capacities shown in
Section 15.5.
15.1.5 Where a tow is not manned, then the tug master and chief engineer shall be aware
of the available pumping system. Members of the tug crew shall be familiar with the
systems, and be able to board the tow and run the pumps at short notice.
Procedures for pumping shall be known and available, including any restrictions
arising from considerations of stability or hull stresses, and any vents, which must
be opened before pumping starts.
15.2 PURPOSE OF PUMPS
15.2.1 Pumps may be required for the following:
a. Ballasting before, during and after loadouts
b. Ballasting to the agreed departure condition
c. Restoration of draught and trim after discharge (especially at sea)
d. Deballasting to reduce draught to enter port
e. Damage control, including counterflooding
f. Deballasting after accidental grounding
g. Trimming to allow inspection and repair below normal waterline
h. Access to a flooded compartment (e.g. pump room, anchor winch room).
15.2.2 The use of a barge compressed air system may not be practicable for all these
cases, especially if manhole covers have been removed, or the barge is holed
above the waterline. A compressed air system should have a compressor on board
and available, connected into the permanent lines.
15.2.3 It should be possible to sound and pump into or from critical compartments (defined
in Section 15.3.2) in severe weather. The following shall be provided:
a. Pumping system
b. Watertight manholes
c. Portable coamings
d. Sounding plugs, extensions and tapes or rods. An additional remote sounding
system may be needed for compressed air ballasting systems
e. Vents to all compartments.
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15.3 PUMPING SYSTEM
15.3.1 It is recommended that barges have one of the following systems, able to pump into
and from all critical spaces, in order of preference:
a. Two independent pumprooms or one protected pumproom, as described
below
b. An unprotected pumproom with an independent emergency system that can
pump out the pumproom
c. A system of portable pumps.
15.3.2 A critical space is defined as any tank or compartment which, when flooded or
emptied, at any stage of the voyage, may lead to:
a. non compliance of intact or damage stability criteria, or
b. non compliance of structural load limits, or
c. heeling or trimming that may prevent the tow from continuing its passage
safely and free from obstructions in shallow water, or
d. maximum allowable transit draught being exceeded.
15.3.3 Independent pumprooms should have separate power supply, pumps, control and
access. Each pumproom should be able to work into all spaces.
15.3.4 To be considered protected, a pumproom, and any compartment required for
access, should be separated from the bottom plating by a watertight double bottom
not less than 0.60 m deep and from the outer shell by other compartments or
cofferdams not less than 1.5 metres wide.
15.4 PUMP TYPE
15.4.1 If portable pumps are used then either they should be portable enough to be moved
around the barge (and cargo) by two men, or enough pumping equipment should be
carried so that any critical compartment can be reached.
15.4.2 Each portable pump should be able to pump out from the deepest space (with
portable coaming installed). This requires submersible pumps for barges over about
6 metres depth, due to suction head. Portable submersible pumps must be able to
fit through tank manholes.
15.5 PUMP CAPACITY
15.5.1 The total capacity of the fixed or portable pumps should be such that any one wing
space (or other critical tank or pumproom) can be emptied or filled in 4 hours for an
unmanned tow, or 12 hours for a manned tow. At least two pumps shall be
provided, except where there is a protected pump room.
15.5.2 Whatever type of pumps are fitted or supplied, sufficient fuel shall be carried for at
least 72 hours continuous operation.
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15.6 WATERTIGHT MANHOLES
15.6.1 If manholes to critical compartments are covered by cargo then either alternative
manholes should be fitted, or cutting gear should be installed and positions marked
for making access. Welding gear and materials shall be carried to restore watertight
integrity.
15.6.2 Where the barge is classed, the owner should inform the classification society in
good time of any holes to be cut or any structural alterations to be made.
15.6.3 Access shall always be available to pumprooms and other work areas.
15.6.4 Ladders to the tank bottom are required from each manhole position.
15.6.5 Suitable tools shall be provided for removal and refastening of manhole covers and
sounding plugs. All manhole covers should be properly secured with bolts and
gaskets, renewed as necessary.
15.6.6 Portable coamings to suit the manhole design should be carried, if required by
Section 13.16.1.m.
15.7 SOUNDING PLUGS AND TAPES
15.7.1 For vessels or barges with compressed air ballast systems, gauges should be
provided in lieu of sounding pipes.
15.7.2 A sounding plug shall be installed in each compartment (in manhole covers if
necessary) to avoid removing manhole covers. Sounding tapes and chalk shall be
carried on board the tow.
15.7.3 For spaces that will be sounded regularly, a tube and striker plate are
recommended.
15.8 VENTS
15.8.1 All compartments connected to a pumping system should have vents fitted,
preferably of an approved, automatic, self-closing type. If not automatic, then the
vents should be sealed for towage with wooden bungs or steel blanks, but with a 6
mm diameter breather hole fitted. This will give audible warning or reduce pressure
differentials in event of mishap, and compensate for temperature changes. The
breather hole can be drilled into the gooseneck of the vent or through the wooden
bung used to close the vent.
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16 ANCHORS AND MOORING ARRANGEMENTS
16.1 EMERGENCY ANCHORS
16.1.1 Emergency anchors have traditionally been required to reduce the risk of a tow
running aground if a towing vessel is disabled or a towline broken. However in
many cases the disadvantages (described in Section E.4 of Appendix E) associated
with using such anchors may outweigh the advantages.
16.1.2 If a tow passes through an area of restricted sea room, a comparative risk
assessment should be performed to determine the preferred arrangements.
Appendix E sets out topics to be taken into account in this risk assessment. One
possible outcome may be the provision of suitably sized extra tugs in some sectors
of the tow.
16.1.3 The same requirements apply for towed ships, including demolition towages. See
Section 20.6. Where such towages may need to wait for a few days on arrival at the
end of a voyage before documentation is completed then, if this is in a high-current
area, anchoring or mooring arrangements may be required.
16.1.4 For self-elevating platforms, see also Section 19.16.
16.2 SIZE AND TYPE OF ANCHOR
16.2.1 For classed vessels and barges, the anchor(s) fitted in accordance with Class
requirements will generally be acceptable unless there is deck cargo.
16.2.2 In other cases the minimum weight of the emergency anchor should be 1/10 of the
towline pull required (TPR) for the tow, as defined in Section 12.2. A high holding
power anchor with anti-roll stabilisation is preferred.
16.3 ANCHOR CABLE LENGTH
16.3.1 The normal minimum effective length of anchor cable required is 180 metres,
preferably mounted on a winch. If the cable runs through a spurling pipe, or other
access, to storage below decks, then the pipe or access should be capable of being
made watertight.
16.4 ANCHOR CABLE STRENGTH
16.4.1 For cable on a winch, or capstan, which can be paid out under control, the minimum
breaking load of the cable should be 15 times the weight of the anchor, or 1.5 times
the holding power of the anchor if greater.
16.4.2 For cable flaked out on deck, the minimum breaking load of the cable should be 20
times the weight of the anchor, or twice the holding power if greater, to allow for the
extra shock load.
16.4.3 The last few flakes of cable on deck should have lashings that will break and slow
down the cable before it is fully paid out.
16.5 ATTACHMENT OF CABLE
16.5.1 The inboard end of the cable should be led through a capped fairlead near the barge
centre line and be securely fixed to the barge. Precautions should be taken to
minimise chafe of the cable.
16.5.2 The breaking load of the connections of the cable to padeye or winch, and padeye
or winch to the barge structure should be greater than that of the cable.
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16.5.3 For towed ships, and tows with similar arrangements, the anchor cable(s) shall be
properly secured, with the windlass brake(s) applied. Any additional chain stopper
arrangements that are fitted shall be utilised, or alternatively, removable preventer
wires should be deployed.
16.5.4 Spurling pipes into chain lockers should be made watertight with cement plugs, or
another satisfactory method.
16.6 ANCHOR MOUNTING AND RELEASE
16.6.1 If there is no suitable permanent anchor housing the anchor should be mounted on
a billboard, as shown in Appendix D, at about 60 degrees to the horizontal.
16.6.2 The anchor should be held on the billboard in stops to prevent lateral and upwards
movement. It should be secured by wire rope and/or chain strops that can be easily
released manually without endangering the operator.
16.6.3 The billboard should normally be mounted on the stern. It should be positioned
such that on release the anchor will drop clear of the barge and the cable will pay
out without fouling.
16.6.4 For any system, it shall be possible to release the anchor safely, without the use of
power to release pawls or dog securing devices. If the anchor is held only on a
brake, an additional manual quick release fastening should be fitted.
16.6.5 The anchor arrangement should be capable of release by one person. Adequate
access shall be made available.
16.7 MOORING ARRANGEMENTS
16.7.1 All vessels and floating objects should be provided with at least four mooring
positions (bollards / staghorns etc.) on each side of the barge unless it is
impracticable to moor them, e.g. because of draught limitations.
16.7.2 If fairleads to the bollards are not installed then the bollards should preferably be
provided with capping bars, horns, or head plate to retain the mooring lines at high
angles of pull. Suitable chafe protection should be fitted as required e.g. to the deck
edge for low angles of pull.
16.7.3 At least four mooring ropes in good condition of adequate strength and length,
typically about 50-75 mm diameter polyprop or nylon, and each 60-90 metres long,
should be provided.
16.7.4 Mooring ropes should be stowed in a protected but accessible position.
16.7.5 Objects with very large freeboard such as FPSOs may advantageously be fitted with
mooring and towing connection points along the side, at a convenient height above
the towage waterline. These may provide a more convenient connection for
mooring lines and harbour tugs than bollards at deck level. Care should be taken
that the connection points cannot damage, or be damaged by, attending vessels.
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17 MANNED TOWS AND TRANSPORTATIONS
17.1 GENERAL
17.1.1 Manning of tows should generally be limited to those where early intervention by a
riding crew can be shown to reduce the risks to the tow, for example tows of
MODUs, passenger ships and Ro-Ro vessels.
17.1.2 Where a riding crew is carried on a tow for commissioning and/or maintenance,
sufficient marine personnel shall be included to operate the equipment listed in
Section 17.4 and to carry out the duties in Section 17.5. A riding crew may be
carried on an FPSO for similar reasons.
17.1.3 There is sometimes a requirement for a riding crew on a dry transportation to
maintain or commission systems or to carry out general maintenance. Riding crew
carried on any dry transportation must be within the carrying vessel’s Flag State
limits for life saving appliances; any exceedance of the Flag State limit must be
approved by the Flag State in advance.
17.1.4 Noble Denton will only be able to approve the transport with respect to the riding
crew when the documented flag state approval for the proposed number of riding
crew has been seen. The transportation contractor is therefore advised to obtain
this Flag State approval in good time. The underwriters should also be informed if a
large riding crew is proposed.
17.1.5 The health and safety of the riding crew shall be assured at all times.
17.1.6 A risk assessment shall be carried out to demonstrate the acceptability of the
proposed arrangements.
17.2 INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS
17.2.1 Accommodation, consumables, lifesaving appliances, pumping arrangements and
communication facilities with the tug shall comply with International Regulations.
17.3 RIDING CREW CARRIED ON THE CARGO
17.3.1 Where a riding crew is carried on the cargo, for instance a maintenance crew on a
dry-transported jack-up rig, the total number of persons on board may exceed the
capacity of the vessel or barge. Subject to Flag State approval (see Section 17.1.3)
this may be permissible. Additional precautions which may be necessary include:
a. Access to/from the cargo /rig forward and aft, and to the liferaft launching area
b. The cargo /rig’s liferafts and lifeboats should be relocated and the falls
lengthened, if necessary, so that on launching they will land in the water.
c. A firewater supply should be made available to the cargo /rig.
d. The cargo /rig’s and vessel’s alarm systems should be linked, so that an alarm
on the cargo /rig is repeated on the vessel, and vice versa.
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17.4 SAFETY AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
17.4.1 Notwithstanding the requirements of SOLAS and any or all international regulations
for Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting Equipment, the minimum complement
of safety and emergency equipment carried aboard the tow shall be as follows:
a. Certified liferafts located on each side of the tow, clear of any possible wave
action, provided with means of launching and fitted with hydrostatic releases.
The liferaft or liferafts on each side of the tow shall be capable of taking the full
crew complement. Adequate means of access to the water shall be provided
b. 4 lifebuoys, two located on each side of the tow and including two fitted with
self igniting lights and two with a buoyant line
c. Approved life jackets to be provided for each crew member plus 25% reserve
d. If appropriate, a survival suit to be provided for each crew member
e. First aid kit
f. Fire fighting equipment, which may consist of an independently powered fire
pump with adequate hoses, and portable fire extinguishers as appropriate.
g. 6 parachute distress rockets and 6 hand held flares
h. A daylight signalling lamp and battery
i. 2 portable VHF radios, fitted with all marine VHF channels, with appropriate
battery charging equipment
j. Hand held GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver
k. GMDSS radio (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System)
l. Charts covering the route
m. An EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) emergency
transmitter
n. 2 SARTs (Search and Rescue Radar Transponder)
o. Heaving line(s) and/or line throwing apparatus if appropriate.
17.4.2 All members of the riding crew shall be adequately trained in the use of the safety
equipment. At least 1 crew member shall possess the appropriate radio operator’s
licences.
17.5 MANNED ROUTINE
17.5.1 The riding crew shall take the following actions during the towage:
a. Maintain a daily log and include all significant events
b. Inspect towing arrangements and navigation lights
c. Inspect all seafastenings and any other accessible, critical structures
d. Tension any adjustable seafastenings or lashings as necessary
e. Check soundings of all bilges and spaces
f. Monitor any unexpected or unexplained ingress of water
g. Pump out any ingress of water
h. Maintain regular contact by radio with the tug, reporting any abnormalities.
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18 MULTIPLE TOWAGES
18.1 DEFINITIONS
18.1.1 This section expands on the definitions in Section 3 for multiple towages:
18.1.2 Double tow – 2 tows each connected to the same tug with separate towlines. One
towline is of sufficient length that the catenary to the second vessel is below that of
the first.
18.1.3 Tandem tow – 2 (or more) tows in series behind 1 tug, i.e. the second and following
tows connected to the stern of the previous one.
18.1.4 Parallel tow – the method of towing 2 (or more) tows, using one tow wire, where the
second (or subsequent) tow(s) is connected to a point on the tow wire ahead of the
preceding tow, and with each subsequent towing pennant passing beneath the
preceding tow.
18.1.5 Two tugs (in series) towing one tow – where there is only 1 towline connected to
the tow and the leading tug is connected to the bow of the second tug.
18.1.6 More than 1 tug (in parallel) towing one tow – each tug connected by its own
towline, pennant or bridle to the tow.
18.2 GENERAL
18.2.1 Compared with single towages, multiple towages have additional associated
problems including those of:
a. Manoeuvring in close quarter situations
b. Reconnecting the towlines after a breakage
c. Maintaining sufficient water depth for the longer and deeper catenaries required.
18.2.2 With the exception of the cases described in Section 18.1.6, multiple towages may
only be approvable in certain configurations, areas and seasons, and subject to a
risk assessment.
18.2.3 When approval is sought, then full details of the operation, including detailed
drawings, procedures and equipment specifications shall be submitted to Noble
Denton for review and comment. An initial assessment of the method will then be
made, and if the basic philosophy is sound, recommendations may be made for the
approval process to continue.
18.2.4 Approval may be rejected if any doubt exists as to the viability of the operation
proposed.
18.2.5 For those multiple towages that are approvable, each tow shall be prepared as
described in these Guidelines.
18.2.6 Additional factors may be applied to the towing arrangements, so that the probability
of breakage is further reduced.
18.2.7 The bollard pull requirement of the tug shall be according to the number and
configuration of the tows connected. The Towline Pull Required (TPR) should be
the sum of those required for each tow. The towing arrangements on each tow shall
have sufficient capacity for the Bollard Pull (BP) of the tug(s).
18.2.8 The tug shall be equipped as in Ref. [5], although additional or stronger equipment
and longer towlines may be necessary. Where longer towlines are required, these
may be formed by the utilisation of pennant wires of no less Ultimate Load Capacity
than the main tow wires.
18.2.9 Where the towing configuration requires the use of 2 towlines from 1 tug, a third tow
wire shall be carried on board the tug, stowed in a protected position, whence it can
be safely transferred at sea to either towing winch.
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18.2.10 It may be necessary to include (surge) chain or a stretcher to improve the spring, or
to provide the required catenary in any towing arrangement.
18.2.11 If a synthetic stretcher is included in any towing arrangement, it shall comply with
Section 13.9. A spare stretcher shall be carried aboard the tug for each stretcher
utilised in the towing arrangement.
18.2.12 Multiple tows being towed behind a single tug may yaw in different directions.
Special arrangements shall be made on the deck of the tug to separate the towlines.
18.2.13 It is particularly difficult to reconnect to a tow that has broken loose when another
tow or tows are connected to the same tug. Special procedures must be agreed for
reconnection.
18.2.14 Due to the difficulties that will be encountered if a towline breakage should occur,
Noble Denton may recommend a higher total number of crew on the tug.
18.3 DOUBLE TOWS
18.3.1 These are usually only considered as acceptable:
a. In benign areas
b. For short duration towages covered by good weather forecasts
c. Where there is sufficient water depth along the tow route to allow for the
catenary required for the second tow.
18.3.2 The tug should be connected to each tow with a separate towline on a separate
winch drum. It shall also carry a spare towline, stowed on a winch, or capable of
being spooled onto a winch at sea.
18.4 TANDEM TOWS
18.4.1 These are normally only acceptable in very benign areas or in ice conditions where
the towed barges will follow each other.
18.4.2 In ice conditions the towlines between tug and lead tow and between tows will
normally be short enough for the line to be clear of the water. Care must be taken to
avoid tows over-running each other, or the tug.
18.5 PARALLEL TOWS
18.5.1 This method is generally only approvable in extremely benign areas, and may be
subject to additional safety factors with respect to the capacity of the towing
arrangements.
18.6 TWO TUGS (IN SERIES) TOWING ONE TOW
18.6.1 This is usually only feasible when a small tug is connected to the bow of a larger,
less manoeuvrable tug to improve steering.
18.6.2 This configuration is generally only acceptable if:
a. All the towing gear (towline/pennants/bridles/connections etc.) between the
second tug and the tow is strong enough for the total combined bollard pull
b. The second tug is significantly heavier than the leading tug (to avoid girding the
second tug).
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18.7 MULTIPLE TUGS TO ONE TOW
18.7.1 This is generally considered acceptable, provided that each tug has a separate
towline to the vessel (via bridles or pennants as required). Care must be taken that
the tugs do not foul each other or their towing equipment.
18.7.2 Consideration should be given to matching the size and power of the tugs.
18.7.3 The use of eccentric bridles may be advantageous but care must be taken to avoid
chafe.
18.7.4 Normally there will not be more than 3 tugs, except for the towage of very large
objects, such as FPSOs and concrete gravity structures.
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19 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF
JACK-UPS
19.1 GENERAL
19.1.1 This Section is intended to cover the special requirements of jack-up platforms, not
covered by other sections. The terms 24-hour move, location move, ocean towage
and ocean transportation have the meanings shown in Section 3.
19.1.2 Reference [24] – “UKOOA Guidelines for Safe Movement of Self-Elevating Offshore
Installations” and Reference [25] “The Safe Approach, Set-Up And Departure of
Jack-Up Rigs to Fixed Installations” describe good practice for jack-up moves within
the North Sea and many of these practices can be usefully followed in other areas.
19.2 MOTION RESPONSES
19.2.1 The motion responses for towage of a jack-up on its own hull, or for transport on a
barge or vessel, may be derived from Section 7, either by calculation, from the
standard motion criteria in Section 7.9, or by model tests.
19.3 LOADINGS
19.3.1 Loads in legs, guides, jack-houses and jack-house connections into the hull, as
appropriate, shall be derived in accordance with one of the methods set out in
Section 8.
19.3.2 For jack-ups transported on a barge or vessel, the loads in cribbing and
seafastenings shall be similarly derived in accordance with Section 8.
19.4 HULL STRENGTH
19.4.1 For units transported on their own buoyancy, either the hull shall be built to the
requirements of a recognised Classification Society, and be in Class or verified to
comply with Class building and inspection requirements. Otherwise the
requirements of Section 19.4.2 through 19.4.5 shall apply.
19.4.2 If not in Class, the hull shall be demonstrated to be capable of withstanding the
following loadings:
a. Static loading, afloat in still water, with all equipment, variable load and legs in
towage position, plus either:
b. Longitudinal or transverse bending, as derived from Section 19.4.3, or
c. Loads imposed on the hull and guide support structures by the legs, when
subjected to the agreed motion criteria.
19.4.3 Longitudinal and transverse bending may be derived by quasi-static methods,
assuming a wave length, L
w
, equal to the unit’s length or beam, and height:
H
w
= 0.61\L
w
,
where L
w
is in metres.
19.4.4 External plating shall be demonstrated to have adequate strength to withstand the
hydrostatic loads due to the immersion of the section of shell plating considered, to
a depth equivalent to that which would be caused by inclining the hull, in towage
condition, to the static angle equal to the amplitude of motion as considered in
Section 7.9.1.
19.4.5 Hull and superstructure construction, details, materials and workmanship shall be
shown to be in accordance with sound marine practice, and shall be in sound
condition.
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19.5 STRESS LEVELS
19.5.1 Stress levels in legs, guides, jack-houses, hull and all temporary securing
arrangements shall comply with Section 9.5. The hull in way of seafastenings to a
barge or transportation vessel shall also be checked to comply with Section 9.5.
See also the caution for dry transportations in Section 9.1.4.
19.5.2 A critical motion curve may be drawn up, or provided in the Operations Manual,
reflecting the motion limits for the legs or any other component. This may be used
as a guide during the towage or voyage, indicating whether course or speed should
be changed, or the legs lowered, as appropriate.
19.5.3 Prior to an ocean transportation of a jack-up, an inspection programme, including
non-destructive testing, for critical structural areas shall be implemented. Typically,
this should include, as appropriate, the areas of legs from just below the lower
guides to 2 bays above the upper guides, with the legs in any proposed transport
condition. It should also include the guide connections, the jack-house connections
to the deck and connections of the spudcans to the leg chords.
19.5.4 The exclusion stated in Section 4.5.7 regarding fatigue damage should be noted.
Local areas of jack-up platforms may be particularly prone to fatigue damage. The
effects of fatigue damage will be excluded from any Certificate of Approval issued by
Noble Denton unless specific instructions are received from the client.
19.6 STABILITY AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY
19.6.1 For units transported on their own buoyancy, the following shall apply:
a. The intact stability requirements set out in Sections 10.1 and 10.3.
b. The damage stability requirements of Sections 10.2 and 10.3.
19.6.2 For ocean towages, the compartmentation and watertight integrity requirements of
Section 10.5 shall be particularly addressed. Engine room intake vents and
exhausts, shall comply with Section 10.5.2. Other special considerations for jack-
ups include:
a. All compartments and their vents, intakes, exhausts and any other
appurtenances or openings shall be effectively watertight up to the waterline
associated with the minimum required downflooding angle (see Section
10.5.2), or 3 m above main deck level, whichever is the higher.
b. All compartments and their vents, intakes, exhausts and any other
appurtenances or openings shall be structurally capable of withstanding
hydrostatic pressure due to inclination to the minimum required downflooding
angle, and direct loadings from green water.
c. All air intakes and exhausts for equipment that must be kept running and/or
which must be available for emergency use must extend above the waterline
associated with the minimum required downflooding angle, or 3 m above main
deck level, whichever is the higher.
d. Any jetting lines and pumping nipples in lines shall be checked closed and
watertight before departure.
e. All pre-load dump valves shall be closed and secured.
f. Mud return lines from shale shaker pumps etc, leading below main deck, shall
be blanked off.
g. Dump valves in mud pits shall be checked closed secured.
h. Overboard discharges shall be blanked off, or fitted with non-return valves.
19.6.3 For all towages, liquid variable loads shall be minimised and shall be in pressed up
tanks where possible.
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19.6.4 Free surface in the mud pits is not generally acceptable, except for very short 24-
hour moves in controlled conditions.
19.6.5 Free surface effects of all remaining liquid variables, except those in pressed up
tanks, shall be taken into account in the stability calculations.
19.6.6 Stability calculations shall accurately reflect the position and buoyancy of the spud
cans. Spud can water shall be taken into account in weight and centre of gravity
calculations, where appropriate.
19.7 TUGS, TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS
19.7.1 Tugs shall be selected in general accordance with Section 12, using the categories
required in Section 4 of 0021/ND - Ref [5] as applicable to:
a. ocean towages
b. 24-hour or location moves.
19.7.2 The particular requirements for manoeuvring on and off location may be taken into
account when selecting the towing fleet, unless additional tugs are used for
manoeuvring. Similarly additional tugs may be required when in congested waters
or when approaching a lee shore when there may not be sufficient time to reconnect
a tug after a broken towline or breakdown in the forecast weather conditions.
19.7.3 Towlines and towing connections shall, as a minimum, be in accordance with
Section 13. The cautions in Section 13.2.8 (for vertical loads) and 13.2.9 (for larger
tugs) should be noted.
19.8 SECURING OF LEGS
19.8.1 For ocean transportations, legs shall be properly secured against excessive
horizontal movement by means of shimming in the upper and lower guides, or by
means of an approved locking device. Shim material specification should take into
account the pressures expected, particularly for units with guides having a small
contact area.
19.8.2 For 24-hour and location moves, leg position and securing arrangements shall be
agreed, and shall comply with designers’ recommendations.
19.8.3 For electric jacking systems, all motors should be checked for torque and equalised
in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions.
19.8.4 Hydraulic and pneumatic jacking systems shall be secured in accordance with
manufacturers’ recommendations.
19.8.5 For jacking systems fitted with elastomeric pads, clearances should be shimmed or
preload applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
19.8.6 For tilt-leg jacking systems, tie bars shall be fitted to by-pass the tilt mechanism.
19.8.7 Where lowering of legs or jacking on a standby location is envisaged during the
towage, then any leg securing arrangements shall be quickly removable.
19.8.8 Where a critical motion curve, or equivalent limitation, is provided for the legs, it may
be necessary to lower the legs in order to comply. Instructions and limitations for
this operation shall be clearly defined in the Operations Manual, taking into account
any lesser motion limitation during the lowering operation. The lowering operation
shall be carried out well before the onset of forecast bad weather.
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19.9 DRILLING DERRICK, SUBSTRUCTURE AND CANTILEVER
19.9.1 The drilling derrick, substructure and cantilever shall be shown to be capable of
withstanding the motions as derived from Sections 7 and 19.2. For 24-hour and
location moves the crown block may be left in place. For ocean transportations the
derrick shall be considered in the condition proposed for transportation, with the
crown block lowered if required. Other machinery and equipment are to be similarly
considered.
19.9.2 For ocean transportations and location moves, no setback shall be carried.
19.9.3 For 24-hour moves, towage with setback in the derrick may be considered, provided
it can be demonstrated that all of the following apply:
a. The derrick, with the setback proposed and after suitable allowance for wear,
corrosion or fatigue, can withstand the motion criteria derived from Section
19.2.
b. All pipe, collars and other equipment racked in the derrick are secured to meet
the same criteria.
c. The seabed conditions at the arrival location are confirmed as presenting
virtually zero risk of a punch-through.
d. The stability of the unit can meet the requirements of Section 19.6.
e. The carriage of setback in the derrick is clearly documented. The limitations
thereof, the securing method, and any special precautions shall be clearly
stated.
19.9.4 For ocean transportations the travelling block and/or topdrive should be lowered and
secured. The drill line should be tightened, and secured against movement.
19.9.5 The cantilever and substructure shall be skidded to their approved positions for tow,
and secured in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations.
19.10 HELIDECK
19.10.1 For ocean towages, it shall be shown that at an inclination in still water of 20
degrees about any horizontal axis, no part of the helideck plating or framing is
immersed.
19.10.2 Alternatively, model tests may be used to demonstrate that the helideck remains at
least 1.5 m clear of wave action, in any seastate up to the design seastate as
defined in Section 6.
19.10.3 If neither Section 19.10.1 nor 19.10.2 can be satisfied, then all or part of the helideck
shall be removed for the towage.
19.11 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND SOLID VARIABLE LOAD
19.11.1 Weight of equipment variable load carried on board shall not exceed the maximum
variable load allowed for jacking.
19.11.2 All items of equipment above and below decks shall be secured to resist the motions
indicated in Sections 7 and 19.2.
19.11.3 For 24-hour and location moves, drill pipe, collars and other tubulars shall be
properly stowed on the pipe deck and in the bays provided with stanchions erected.
Chain lashings over each stack shall be used. See also Section 9.6.
19.11.4 For ocean transportations, drill pipe, collars and other tubulars shall be stowed in the
piperacks, to a height above the rack beams of no more than 1.8 metres. Drill pipes
should normally be stowed on top of collars. Timber battens should be placed
between each layer of pipe. See also Section 9.6.
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19.11.5 For ocean transportations, the well logging unit shall be secured in position and
stops fitted to prevent rotation.
19.11.6 All crane and lifting derrick booms shall be laid in secure boom rests. For ocean
transportations, the booms should be shimmed or wedged against transverse and
vertical movements, but left free to move axially. Fitted brake systems for
prevention of crane rotation shall be implemented. Electric power shall be isolated
at the main switchboard. Cranes shall not be used at sea except in an emergency.
19.11.7 Deepwell and leg well pumps shall be fully raised and secured.
19.12 SPUD CANS
19.12.1 For 24-hour and location moves, the spud cans should normally be full. See also
Section 19.6.6 for stability calculations.
19.12.2 For ocean towages, the spud cans may be full or empty. See also Section 19.6.6. If
empty, and if the towage procedures call for lowering of legs (see Section 19.8.7),
then the lowering procedures must include procedures for filling the spud cans.
19.12.3 For dry transports, the spud cans should be empty and vented. Safety notices
should be posted at each spudcan, and at the control panel.
19.13 PUMPING ARRANGEMENTS
19.13.1 For units transported on their own buoyancy, the general pumping requirements of
Section 15 shall apply. The requirements of Sections 19.13.2 and 19.13.3 shall also
apply.
19.13.2 All spaces should be capable of being pumped by the unit’s own pumping systems.
Sufficient generator capacity should be available to operate bilge and ballast
systems simultaneously.
19.13.3 Additionally for ocean towages, 2 no x 3 inch portable, self-contained, self-priming
salvage pumps shall be on board, with not less than 30 metres each of suction and
delivery hose.
19.14 MANNING
19.14.1 Units transported on their own buoyancy should usually be manned, and the general
manning requirements of Section 17 shall apply.
19.14.2 Units transported on a barge or vessel need not be manned. However, it may be
advantageous for person(s) familiar with the unit’s structure, machinery and systems
to be on board the tug or the transport vessel, and to inspect the unit periodically.
19.15 PROTECTION OF MACHINERY
19.15.1 Where practical, and where the unit is manned, main and auxiliary machinery should
be run periodically during the transportation.
19.15.2 For ocean transportation, electrical equipment which cannot be run, including
motors, switchgear and junction boxes, should have dehumidifying chemicals placed
inside, and then be wrapped against wetting damage. Heaters, where fitted, should
be run periodically.
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19.16 ANCHORS
19.16.1 The general emergency anchor /risk assessment requirements of Section 16 shall
apply.
19.16.2 For ocean towages where anchors are fitted, the forward anchors should normally
be removed, and secured on deck. The aft anchors should be left in place and
stopped on the racks to prevent lateral movement. A retaining wire tightened by a
turnbuckle and incorporating a quick-release system should be passed through the
anchor shackle and secured on deck. The turnbuckle and quick-release system
shall be on deck and accessible.
19.17 SAFETY EQUIPMENT
19.17.1 For towages on a unit’s own buoyancy, safety equipment in accordance with SOLAS
and any or all regulations for Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting Equipment
shall be carried. Consideration should be given to any additional safety and
emergency equipment listed in Section 17.4.1.
19.17.2 For ocean towages, it may be necessary to relocate liferafts stowed forward or
overboard to a secure area protected from wave action. Securing arrangements for
liferafts stowed aft should be checked.
19.18 CONTINGENCY STAND-BY LOCATIONS
19.18.1 Where the towing arrangements envisage jacking up at any intermediate location,
suitable procedures shall be written to cover location feasibility, preloading
requirements, airgap requirements, local clearances and Customs formalities etc.
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20 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF SHIPS
20.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
20.1.1 This Section sets out the technical and marine aspects, which would be considered
by Noble Denton for approval of the towage of ships, including demolition towages
and as appropriate, towages of FPSOs.
20.1.2 It is recognised that all ships are different and these guidelines are therefore general
in nature. Each specific approval depends on a survey to identify any particular
problems which may exist for the vessel(s) in question.
20.1.3 It is preferred that any towed vessel should be in Class with a recognised
Classification Society, and possess a current Load Line or Load Line Exemption
Certificate. It is recognised that for demolition towages, the Class and other
documentation may have expired, and renewal may be impractical. Minimum
certification and documentation requirements are shown in Section 5.
20.1.4 The existence of current classification and certification will be taken into account
when determining the extent of survey required.
20.1.5 After carrying out an inspection, and in order to verify that the structural strength and
watertight integrity of the tow is approvable for the intended voyage, the attending
surveyor may require one or more of the following:
a. An extended, in depth, survey of the vessel structure involving one or more
specialist surveyor(s). Facilities for close-up survey of inaccessible parts of
the hull structure may be required.
b. Thickness determination (gauging) of specified areas of the vessel structure.
This survey may be in limited areas or extend over large parts of the hull
structure. Such surveys shall be carried out by a reputable independent
company. An existing survey report may be acceptable provided that it is not
more than 1 year old, and there is no evidence of damage or significant
deterioration since that date.
c. A Noble Denton review of classification society approved scantling drawings.
d. Calculations to show that the structural strength of particular local areas of the
vessel is adequate. The extent of the calculation required to be determined by
the results of the surveys.
20.1.6 Should any doubt exist as to the ability of the vessel to complete the proposed
towage, after all the necessary surveys and calculations have been undertaken, a
dry dock survey of the vessel may be necessary.
20.1.7 After complying with the requirements of Sections 20.1.2 through 20.1.6 above,
Noble Denton may deem that the vessel is unfit for tow and decline to issue a
Certificate of Approval. Alternatively the vessel may only be considered fit for tow
after specified repairs or temporary strengthening have been carried out.
20.1.8 The towage of any vessel which is damaged below the waterline, is suspected of
being damaged below the waterline or has suffered other damage or deterioration
which could affect the structural strength will not normally be approved except where
it is clearly shown by survey and calculation that the strength of the vessel and its
watertight integrity is satisfactory for the intended towage.
20.1.9 Passenger ships and warships, because of the complex nature of their systems,
pose particular problems with respect to their compartmentation, and require special
consideration. Ro-Ro ships may also pose particular problems, on account of the
potentially large free surface in the event of flooding. Passenger ships and Ro-Ro
ships will generally only be approved for towage if the tow is manned, to permit early
intervention in the event of any problems.
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20.1.10 Any heavy fuel oil within the tanks of the vessel must be identified, and shall be
minimised where possible. In the event of heavy fuel oil being carried, possible
limitations on entry to ports of refuge and ports of shelter shall be noted and taken
into account in the towage procedures. To minimise the risk of pollution, the
requirements of the IMO “Guidelines for Safe Ocean Towing” [Ref. 21], paragraph
13.19, shall be taken into account so far as is practical.
20.1.11 These guidelines assume that the tow will be towed from its forward end or bow. If
a stern-first towage is required (see Section 13.1.2) then approval may be given and
the basic guidance contained in this report is valid. In this case, and depending on
the circumstances, special care shall be taken regarding towing connections,
draught, trim and the control and protection of the tow during the towage.
20.2 TUG SELECTION
20.2.1 Tug selection, including specification and bollard pull, shall be in accordance with
Section 12.
20.3 TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS
20.3.1 Each ship or vessel towage is unique and it is therefore not possible to specify the
connection equipment to be used and how it is to be attached for every case. The
guidelines hereunder are therefore general in nature. In any event, any equipment
used for the towage must be fit for purpose and must be agreed between the Owner
of the tow, the tug master and the Noble Denton surveyor.
20.3.2 Towlines, towline connections, recovery systems and emergency towing gear shall
be in general accordance with Sections 13.1 through 13.12.
20.3.3 Unless the tow has been fitted with proper towing brackets, or the anchor chain and
windlass are used, it may be necessary to utilise attachments such as mooring bitts
to connect to the tow. In such cases it shall be shown that the mooring equipment
has sufficient ultimate strength, above and below deck, to comply with Section
13.2.1. If necessary, reinforcements shall be fitted to achieve the required capacity,
otherwise alternative arrangements must be made.
20.3.4 The configuration of the attachments to the tow may be one of the following
depending on the circumstances and equipment available:
a. Chain bridle with bridle leg from each side of the bow
b. Single chain from centre line location or forward fairlead
c. Anchor chain(s) from vessel’s hawse pipe(s)
d. Single continuous chain with the ends extending out from each bow
e. Single continuous chain, or chain and wire combination, around a part of, or
the whole superstructure of the vessel.
20.3.5 Chain may be substituted by wire rope of the required ultimate load capacity, but
only where chafe cannot occur.
20.3.6 Chafe of chain or wire may occur when unsuitable fairleads have to be used, or the
tow yaws significantly. In these cases, consideration should be given to providing
oversize chain or wire.
20.3.7 A bridle is most suitable for tows which have a wide bow. In any event the angle at
the apex of the bridle should not exceed 60º. A triangle plate, delta plate or towing
ring shall be fitted at the apex of the bridle.
20.3.8 For tows which have a sharp bow configuration a single chain pennant passing
through a bow centre line or forward fairlead may be preferred.
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20.3.9 If deemed appropriate an anchor chain from the tow may be used after removal of
the associated anchor. The condition and capacity of the chain shall be assessed
with reference to Section 13.2. If such a method is utilised then appropriate safety
measures shall be applied as follows:
a. Windlass in gear
b. Windlass brake applied
c. Chain claw or stopper deployed
d. Back-up wire to connect chain to base of windlass or other suitable securing
point.
20.3.10 A single chain passing through one side fairlead, around a strongpoint such as the
windlass base and out of a fairlead on the other side may be approvable. An
alternative arrangement may consist of a single chain passing up one hawse pipe
and out of the other. In either case the outboard ends should be made up into a
bridle. Each leg should have preventers on the inboard side to stop the chain sliding
and it should not interfere with the vessel’s emergency anchoring arrangements.
20.3.11 On a vessel which is not provided with suitable attachments, or where the anchoring
arrangements do not permit the single chain method described above, a chain, or a
combination of chain and wire may be positioned around a part of, or the whole
superstructure of the vessel and made up into a bridle at the bow.
20.3.12 Where mooring bitts are utilised to secure chain to the tow, and in order to ensure
that the towing arrangement is securely anchored on the vessel and does not slip on
the bitts, the chain should be backed-up to further bitts abaft the main connection
points using suitable wire pennants locked into position with clips. If such an
arrangement is used then the first bitts used must have the required ultimate
capacity, unless positive load-sharing can be achieved. Bitts and fairleads shall be
capped with welded bars or plates of sufficient strength to prevent equipment
jumping off or out of the arrangement.
20.4 STABILITY, DRAUGHT AND TRIM
20.4.1 Stability, draught and trim shall be in accordance with Sections 10.1 through 10.4.
20.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY
20.5.1 Compartmentation and watertight integrity shall be in accordance with Section 10.5.
20.6 ANCHORS
20.6.1 An emergency anchor shall be provided if required as a result of the risk
assessment described in Section 16.1 and appropriate access afforded for
deployment by one person.
20.6.2 Port and starboard anchor cables shall be properly secured with the windlass brake
applied. Any additional chain stopper arrangements that are fitted shall be utilised
or, alternatively, removable preventer wires shall be deployed.
20.6.3 Spurling pipes into chain lockers shall be made watertight with cement plugs or
other satisfactory method.
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20.7 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND MOVEABLE ITEMS
20.7.1 In general, all equipment shall be secured to meet the appropriate motion
requirements of Section 7, and seafastenings of loose items designed in accordance
with Sections 8 and 9.
20.7.2 See Section 19.11.6 for securing and use of cranes and lifting derricks.
20.7.3 The rudder shall be positioned in the amidships position, or as agreed with the Tug
Master, and immobilised.
20.7.4 The propeller shaft shall be immobilised, or disconnected, to prevent damage to
machinery during the towage.
20.7.5 Every effort shall be made to limit the carriage of any loose deck equipment to an
absolute minimum. Where equipment must be carried on an exposed deck then it
shall be protected and secured against movement using welded brackets, chain or
wire. Equipment in other areas shall also be secured.
20.7.6 For large equipment, engineering calculations shall be carried out in order to verify
that the securing of items is satisfactory.
20.7.7 Additional protection or securing may be required for equipment exposed to wave
slam.
20.8 EMERGENCY PUMPING
20.8.1 Emergency pumping arrangements shall be available on the tow, in general
accordance with Section 15.
20.9 CARRIAGE OF CARGO
20.9.1 The carriage of manifested cargo on the tow shall not normally be approved unless
the tow is manned and is fully classed by a Classification Society, including the
possession of a current International Load Line Certificate.
20.9.2 International Load Line Regulations shall be strictly followed. Approval shall not be
given to any towage where the prescribed Load Line draught is exceeded.
20.9.3 A cargo plan shall be provided for agreement by the attending surveyor.
20.9.4 The cargo shall be loaded in a seaman-like manner making proper allowances for
load distribution both during loading and for the duration and route of the towage.
Longitudinal strength requirements shall be complied with.
20.9.5 Bulk cargoes shall be properly trimmed to prevent shifting in a seaway. Shifting
boards or other preventative methods shall be utilised where appropriate.
20.9.6 All other cargoes shall be secured in accordance with Sections 7, 8 and 9.
20.9.7 Particular attention shall be paid to the securing of scrap steel, which if carried shall
be properly seafastened. If carried in a hold, it shall not be treated as a bulk cargo.
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21 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF FPSOS
21.1 GENERAL AND BACKGROUND
21.1.1 Many of the foregoing guidelines apply equally to the towage of FPSOs, and similar
large vessels. The aim of this Section is to address the specific marine-related
issues associated with the towage of these units. Although it is recognized that
there are many more marine activities in an FPSO development, towage to field is a
critical and often long operation, which must be addressed by the project team early
in the schedule.
21.1.2 Some FPSO developments are ‘fast-track’, resulting in construction and
commissioning activities being completed during the tow.
21.1.3 New-build or converted FPSOs usually undertake a limited number of towages only,
following construction or conversion. There may be a further towage at the end of
their working life.
21.1.4 Frequently the design weather conditions for towage are more severe than the
service conditions. There is a natural reluctance to build in additional strength or
equipment which will have no practical value during the service life.
21.1.5 Project-specific fit-for-purpose guidelines must be agreed in each case.
21.2 TOWAGE MANUAL
21.2.1 A comprehensive Tow Manual shall be written to identify all aspects of the towage in
detail, cover all likely contingencies and specify exactly how the towage will be
conducted.
21.2.2 If the tow to field and the installation are to be performed by different contractors,
then the scope split between the contractors must be clearly defined, to ensure that
all parties are aware of their responsibilities, handover points and reporting lines.
21.3 THE ROUTE AND WEATHER CONDITIONS
21.3.1 Metocean design criteria should be carefully established early in the project, in
accordance with Section 6. In many cases, the field’s operational criteria may be
less onerous than the tow-to-field criteria, so temporary-phase operational limits
may define structural load cases and equipment motion criteria.
21.3.2 Mitigation of the design extremes may be achieved by the use of a staged towage,
in accordance with Section 6.3.
21.3.3 In such cases the towage route must be planned to incorporate a series of safe-
havens, meaning sheltered locations where the tow can safely ride out severe
weather. It may also be necessary to identify suitable bunker ports. These
requirements may conflict with the requirement for adequate searoom, and such
conflicts should be resolved.
21.3.4 Passage through restricted or busy waters should be considered, and the need for
appropriate additional tugs determined.
21.4 STRUCTURAL ISSUES
21.4.1 FPSOs are intended to remain at sea without dry-docking for their entire working
life, usually in the order of 20 years. In this respect the integrity of the hull must be
maintained and precautions taken to ensure no damage occurs during the tow. A
commercial vessel is usually assumed, for design purposes, to spend about 20% of
its life in port, and is periodically dry-docked. These differences place much greater
emphasis on the reliability, integrity and quality of the hull including its coating.
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These qualities must not be compromised during the tow other than by reasonable
wear and tear.
21.4.2 For long towages, fatigue damage may need to be considered.
21.4.3 The capability of the FPSO to withstand design towage conditions shall be
demonstrated. Checks should include hull girder strength, local plating strength,
operating limit states for process equipment including rotating machinery.
21.4.4 Equipment foundations shall be designed for the temporary phase operations.
Fatigue damage to the connections between the topsides and hull should be
considered.
21.4.5 Any temporary equipment aboard shall be secured to withstand the design
conditions. If construction, completion, or commissioning work is performed during
tow, then all the scaffolding, temporary power packs, work containers etc shall be
installed to withstand the design criteria. Any scaffolding or other temporary works
which cannot comply with the design criteria shall be dismantled or removed.
21.4.6 Green water damage or slamming damage on temporary equipment should be
considered in the location of equipment.
21.5 TUG SELECTION
21.5.1 Tugs shall be selected, as a minimum, in accordance with Section 12, but with
regard to the comments on redundancy below.
21.5.2 Redundancy in the towing fleet is recommended.
21.5.3 The use of additional tug(s) may be required in restricted waters.
21.5.4 Redundancy of towing vessels gives greater freedom for bunkering, where one tug
may divert to bunker whilst the other(s) continue(s) with the towage.
21.5.5 A concern in multiple-tug towages relates to emergency procedures in the event of
loss of a tug's power. If, for example, the lead tug in a three-tug spread blacks out,
then it could be over-ridden by the FPSO, with catastrophic consequences. Suitable
emergency procedures and tow equipment will be required to mitigate such a
possibility.
21.5.6 Additional or larger tugs may be required if it is not possible or practical to provide
an emergency anchor. See also Section 21.10.
21.6 BALLAST, TRIM AND DIRECTIONAL STABILITY
21.6.1 Directional stability under tow may be compromised resulting in the FPSO veering
off the course line. This is due to various factors related to the design and
construction of the FPSO, including but not limited to:
a. The presence of a mooring or riser turret, below the keel of the vessel,
generally at the forward end or midlength.
b. The removal of the vessel’s rudder, where the FPSO is a conversion
c. The hull design of purpose-built FPSOs
d. High windage structure at the fore end.
21.6.2 The lack of directional stability can be hazardous due to:
a. Lack of sea room in congested and/or confined waters, e.g. Dover Strait
b. Accelerated deterioration of the towing gear caused by excessive movement,
especially wear of chains.
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21.6.3 To limit the loss of directional stability the hull must be carefully ballasted, trimmed
by the stern and in the case of a ship-shape hull with the forefoot well immersed.
This will also reduce slamming in heavy weather. The ballast distribution must be
checked to ensure that the shear and longitudinal bending moment are within
acceptable limits.
21.6.4 Consideration may also be given to attaching a towing vessel at the stern of the
FPSO (see also Section 21.6.5 below).
21.6.5 Careful design of the towing gear may mitigate the problem. Consideration may be
given to towing by the stern. If this is proposed then any motions analysis or model
testing shall recognise this configuration. The strength of the hull in way of the stern
shall be checked to ensure that:
a. The stern can withstand the anticipated slamming loads
b. Suitably sized towing connections and fairleads are or can be attached.
21.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT
21.7.1 Requirements for assisting tugs to provide additional manoeuvring control, and to
assist with berthing or connection to the permanent mooring system shall be
assessed for:
a. Departure
b. Any intermediate ports
c. Any shelter areas
d. Bunkering
e. Arrival.
21.7.2 The towing equipment shall be configured to accommodate additional and assisting
tugs and to allow connection and disconnection when required. These activities
may dictate the equipment on board the unit. For example, tugger winches, davits
or cranes could be needed.
21.7.3 As noted in Section 21.6, FPSOs may exhibit a lack of directional stability during
towage. There are two key tow-gear-related issues to address this problem and
minimise the risk of gear failure:
a. The towing brackets on the vessel need to be wide-spaced, preferably more
than one-half of the beam
b. The chafe chains should be generously oversized (typically +50%) to allow for
accelerated wear during the voyage.
21.7.4 At least one emergency towline is mandatory, and means to recover each bridle
after any breakage shall be provided. The possible manning of the vessel will
influence the type and location of any recovery gear.
21.8 SELF-PROPELLED OR THRUSTER-ASSISTED VESSELS
21.8.1 In some cases, the FPSO may have its own propulsion, which may be either the
original ship’s system or thruster units to be used in service. If these are to be used
for the voyage to site, the vessel must comply fully with all regulatory requirements.
21.8.2 The specification of the thruster units, power supplies and manning should be
reviewed, to ensure that they are compatible with the voyage requirements.
21.8.3 A risk assessment shall be undertaken to determine the need for assisting tugs.
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21.9 MANNING AND CERTIFICATION
21.9.1 Most FPSOs are not classed as ships during their service life. The documentation
set out in Section 5 shall be provided.
21.9.2 If the towage is to be manned, then the requirements of Section 17 shall be
considered.
21.9.3 Regardless of the presence of construction or commissioning personnel, a
dedicated marine riding crew is recommended, as shown in Section 17.1.4.
21.9.4 In all cases, whether manned or unmanned, the unit must be fitted with appropriate
means of boarding, in accordance with Section 13.14.
21.10 EMERGENCY ANCHOR
21.10.1 The general emergency anchor requirements of Section 16 shall apply.
21.10.2 FPSO mooring systems (whether turret-type or spread), being only for in-place
conditions, are not configured to act as emergency moorings during transit. On a
conversion the permanent anchors will often be removed. For many designs the
deck space where an emergency anchor might be sited is taken up with the
permanent mooring equipment.
21.11 MOORINGS & UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE
21.11.1 The need for moorings before, during or immediately after the towage shall be
considered. Design and layout of such quayside moorings should be incorporated
into the overall arrangement of the vessel as described in Section 16.7.
21.11.2 Wherever an FPSO hull is moored in shallow water, a minimum of 1m underkeel
clearance must be maintained at all levels of tide for the duration of the vessel’s stay
in a particular location. The clearance should be calculated after consideration of:
a. Lowest predicted astronomical tide,
b. Maximum negative surge
c. Other environmental factors,
d. Weight growth due to construction activities and loading of modules,
e. Ballast, trim and heel changes,
f. Bottom protrusions,
g. Hull girder bending,
h. Water density,
i. Squat (when moored in a river or tidal stream),
j. Seabed conditions.

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22 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF
VESSELS AND STRUCTURES IN ICE COVERED WATERS
22.1 GENERAL
22.1.1 This Section sets out the special technical and marine aspects and issues not
covered elsewhere in these Guidelines, that will be considered by Noble Denton for
the approval of the towage of ships, barges, MODU’s and any other floating
structure towed in ice-covered waters.
22.1.2 It is recognized that towing in ice-covered water is a unique marine operation and
that all vessels and towages in ice are different - making these guidelines general in
nature. Each approval will depend on the result of an in-depth review of the tow-
plan as well as an equipment inspection/attendance by a surveyor to identify any
particular problems that may exist for the specific vessel(s) and towage in question.
22.1.3 Structural safety and towing performance will require careful consideration of the
size and shape of the vessel being towed, especially with respect to the beam of the
towed vessel in comparison to the beam of the towing vessel and the shape of the
bow of the towed unit. The beam difference will affect the level of ice protection
provided by the tug to the tow, as well as the ice interaction and towing resistance
caused when the beam of the tow is greater than that of the tug and/or of any
independent icebreaker support. In addition, special towing techniques used in ice
and manoeuvrability restrictions caused by the ice require that experienced
personnel plan and execute the tow.
22.1.4 Except as allowed by Section 22.1.5, any vessel that is operated and/or towed in ice
shall be in Class with a recognized Classification Society and have a current Load
Line Certificate.
22.1.5 Special cases may be considered for the towage of vessels with a Load Line
Exemption Certificate or for objects with no classification such as caissons and
vessels with expired classification such as a demolition towage. In such special
cases an inspection will be carried out and, in order to verify if the structural strength
and watertight integrity of the tow is approvable for the intended voyage, the
attending surveyor may require one or more of the following:
a. An extended, in depth, survey of the vessel structure involving one or more
specialist surveyor(s). Facilities for a close-up survey of inaccessible parts of
the hull structure may be required.
b. Thickness determination (gauging) of specified areas of the vessel structure.
This survey may be in limited areas or extend over large parts of the hull
structure. Such surveys shall be carried out by a reputable independent
company. An existing survey report may be acceptable provided that it is not
more than 1 year old, and there is no evidence of damage or significant
deterioration since that date.
c. A Noble Denton review of classification society approved scantling drawings.
d. Calculations to show that the structural strength of particular local areas of the
vessel is adequate. The extent of the calculation required to be determined by
the results of the surveys and drawings review.
22.1.6 Should any doubt exist as to the ability of the vessel (object) to complete the
proposed towage, after all the necessary surveys and calculations have been
undertaken, a dry dock survey of the vessel may be necessary.
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22.1.7 After complying with the requirements of Sections 22.1.2 to 22.1.4 listed above,
Noble Denton may deem that the vessel/object is unfit for tow and decline to issue a
Certificate of Approval. For example, the towage of any vessel or object which is
damaged below the waterline, is suspected of being damaged below the waterline
or has suffered other damage or deterioration which could affect the structural
strength and/or watertight integrity will not be approved for towage in ice.
Alternatively, the vessel/object may only be considered fit for tow after specified
repairs and suitable ice strengthening has been carried out.
22.2 VESSEL ICE CLASSIFICATION
22.2.1 The tug(s) and towed vessel shall have an appropriate ice classification or
equivalent for transit through the anticipated ice conditions identified in the Tow Plan
and verified by Noble Denton.
22.2.2 The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) introduced
“Requirements concerning Polar Class” in 2007 [Ref 23] which came into effect on
ships contracted for construction on and after 1 March 2008. These are described
in the following Table:
Table 22-1 Polar Class Descriptions
Polar Class Ice Description (based on WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature)
PC 1 Year-round operation in all Polar waters
PC 2 Year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions
PC 3
Year-round operation in second-year ice which may include
multiyear ice inclusions
PC 4
Year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old
ice inclusions
PC 5
Year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include
old ice inclusions
PC 6
Summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may
include old ice inclusions
PC 7
Summer/autumn operation in thin first-year ice which may include
old ice inclusions

22.2.3 The following tables summarize the previous nominal ice classification equivalencies
for some classification societies and regulators.
22.2.4 It is important to note that the structural requirements of various classification
societies are different and that many requirements have changed substantially over
the years so that the ‘equivalencies’ shown in the tables should only be used for
general guidance. This may result in a vessel’s ice capability being interpreted by
Noble Denton to be different to that indicated by the table.
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22.2.5 Vessels classed as Ice breakers:
Table 22-2 Previous Icebreaker Classifications
Operating Criteria
Polar
Classes
Russian LRS
Canadian
Arctic
Class
CASPRR
DNV
Typical WMO ice
type & thickness
capability
Ice
thicknes
s
PC 5
Ice 05
Winter ice with
pressure ridges
0.5 m
PC 4
(LL4)
LU6
C1 CAC4
Ice 10 1.0 m
Ice 15
Thick first year ice
with old ice
inclusions
1.5 m
PC 3
(LL3)
LU7
AC1.5 CAC3
Polar 10
PC 2
(LL2)
LU8
AC2 CAC2 Polar 20
2.0 m
PC 1
(LL1)
LU9
AC3 CAC1 Polar 30
Multi-year ice
floes and glacial
ice inclusions
3.0 m

22.2.6 Vessels classed For Ice Navigation:
Table 22-3 Previous Vessel Ice Classifications
Canada
(ASPPR)
GL Russian ABS BV DNV LRS
Typical WMO ice
type and thickness
capability
E E
(L4)
LU
D0 1D Ice C 1D
Grey
(0.0 m - 0.15 m)
D E1
(L3)
LU2
1C 1C 1C
1C
(Ice 3)
Grey white
(0.15 m - 0.3 m)
C E2
(L2)
LU3
1B 1B 1B
1B
(Ice 2)
Thin first year (1
st

stage - 0.3 m - 0.5 m)
B E3
(L1)
LU4
1A 1A 1A
1A
(Ice 1)
Thin first year (2
nd

stage - 0.5 m - 0.7 m)
A E4
(UL/ULA)
LU5
1AA
1A
Super
1A*
1A
Super
Medium first year
(0.7 m - 1.2 m)
For Russian Classes L-ICE U-REINFORCED A-ARCTIC
22.3 TOWAGE WITHOUT INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT
22.3.1 Where no independent icebreaker escort is identified in the tow-plan for the intended
voyage, the tug and tow must be of appropriate ice classification and power to
maintain continuous headway in the anticipated ice conditions. When a tow is
anticipated to take more than three (3) days (the maximum for a reasonably
accurate weather/ice forecast) or longer in ice conditions that includes a
concentration of five (5) tenths or more of limiting ice types, the tow-plan must
indicate the location of the nearest icebreaker support and the anticipated time
before independent icebreaker assistance (Coast Guard or Commercial) can be
provided.
22.3.2 With the exception of a vessel pushed ahead (push-towed), the ice classification
requirement for the towed object may be considered for reduction if it is determined
that the tug has a higher than necessary level of ice classification and can protect
the tow from potentially damaging ice interaction.
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22.3.3 CONVENTIONAL TOW OPERATIONS:
a. the tug must have sufficient power and hull strength (ice classification) to be
capable of safely maintaining continuous towing headway through the worst
anticipated ice conditions including, if necessary, the breaking of large
diameter floes and deformed ice with no requirement for ramming and:
b. the tow-plan must show that the towage should not be subjected to ice
pressure.
22.3.4 CLOSE-COUPLE TOWING OPERATIONS
22.3.4.1 Close-couple towing is an operation that allows a specially designed icebreaker to
combine towing and icebreaking assistance. The stern of the icebreaker has a
heavily fendered ‘notch’ into which the bow of a ship is pulled by the icebreaker’s
towline. The towline remains attached and the icebreaker steams ahead, usually
with additional power provided by the towed vessel in the notch. In this way an
icebreaker can tow a low-powered and low ice classed ship quickly (up to 3 times
faster than conventional towing in ice) and safely (better protection of the towed
vessel and less risk of collision due to over-running) through high concentrations of
difficult ice. For close-couple towages:
a. The beam of the icebreaker must be more than that of the towed ship in order
to avoid shoulder damage to the towed vessel and excessive towline stress
and:
b. The icebreaker is fitted with a constant tension winch or equipment that will
reduce the effects of shock-loading:
c. The bow of the towed ship must be compatible with the notch design of the
icebreaker. Preferably the entrance of the towed ship is not so sharp as to
apply excessive force on the stem when going straight ahead. Freedom of
movement of the towed ships bow can cause manoeuvring difficulties as well
as applying heavy side forces on the towed ships bow when turning. The bow
should not be so bluff that all the force is concentrated in localized areas. In
addition the towed ship cannot have a bulbous bow because the underwater
protrusion could damage the icebreakers propellers and:
d. The displacement and freeboard of the towed vessel should not be so
disproportionate with that of the icebreaker that the manoeuvring
characteristics of the icebreaker are seriously compromised:
e. The anticipated ice conditions should not require ramming or passage through
areas where high levels of ice pressure may be experienced without
independent icebreaker assistance.

22.3.5 PUSH-TOW OPERATIONS
22.3.5.1 Push-Tow operations can be carried out using rigid connection (composite unit) or
flexible connections (a push-knee erected at the stern of the pushed vessel). In
some cases where the design and ice strength of the tug and tow is appropriate a
tug may opt to push rather than tow in ice, especially when experiencing ice
pressure, so that headway can be maintained and to remove the stress from the
towline.
22.3.5.2 In some cases a push-tow is a more efficient and a more desirable method of ice
transit to conventional towing, however, in all circumstances where the push-towing
technique may be used, it is important that the pushed vessel has appropriate ice
strengthening, particularly in the bow and shoulder areas.
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22.3.5.3 The ice classification of a tug that is engaged in a ‘push-tow’ operation with no
independent icebreaker support can be reduced if:
a. the vessel being pushed has appropriate ice classification and strength for
unescorted transit in the anticipated ice conditions and:
b. the beam of the pushed vessel is greater than that of the tug. The beam of
the pushed vessel should be at least one third greater than that of the tug to
allow suitable manoeuvring for a flexible connection and:
c. the connection between tug and tow is of suitable strength for emergency
stops and:
d. the tow-plan shows that the ‘push-tow’ will not enter, or be exposed to, an
area where ice pressure may be encountered of sufficient severity to stop the
continuous forward progress of the push-tow without independent icebreaker
assistance.
22.4 TOWAGE OPERATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT
22.4.1 The ice classification requirements indicated in Section 22.2.2 for the tug(s) and
towed vessel(s) may be considered for reduction if it is determined that appropriate
icebreaker escort assistance is provided for the duration of the tow in ice and that:
a. The icebreaker(s) has sufficient capability to allow the towage to maintain
continuous headway through all of the anticipated ice conditions and,
b. The icebreaker(s) has a beam equal to, or greater than, the tug and tow
combination or:
c. The icebreaker(s) is fitted with suitable and operational equipment such as
azimuthing main propulsion units or compressed air systems that are capable
of opening the track wider than the beam of the escorted towage in the
anticipated ice conditions or:
d. More than one icebreaker will be used to provide a broken track equal to, or
wider than, the beam of the tug and tow combination.
22.5 MANNING
22.5.1 In addition to Section 12.13 concerning manning, special consideration should be
given to the number, qualification and experience of personnel required on the
navigating bridge to ensure safe navigation including steering and engine control,
lookout, operation of searchlights and, emergency operation of the towing winch
abort system.
22.5.2 The master in charge of a tow (tow-master) should typically have at least 3 years
experience of towing in ice conditions similar to those anticipated for the proposed
towage. Other navigating officers on tugs involved in a towage in ice should also
have previous experience of towages in ice.
22.6 MULTIPLE TOWS AND MULTI-TUG TOWS
22.6.1 Multiple Towages in ice are subject to the appropriate provisions set out in this
section regarding ice classification, equipment and suitable propulsion power as well
as the general provisions (particularly those presented in Section 18). However,
only in exceptional circumstances of very light ice and/or very low ice concentration
(trace) will a Double Tow (Section 18.1.1) or a Parallel Tow (Section 18.1.4) be
considered for approval. An in-depth risk assessment would be required and the
risks shown to be acceptable.
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22.6.2 In addition to the provisions presented in Section 18 concerning towing operations
that use more than one tug or multiple tows:
a. To avoid collision or over-running each tug shall have a quick release and re-
set system as described in Sections 22.7.2.1 and 22.7.2.2.
b. The most experienced tug Master shall be designated as the tow-master and
give directions to the other vessels. All other tug Masters and senior
navigating officers involved in the multi-tug towage should have an appropriate
level of experience of towing in ice and be familiar with the associated
difficulties and hazards.
c. A multi-tug tow-plan that is presented to Noble Denton for approval that does
not include independent icebreaker escort assistance shall demonstrate
clearly why it is not considered necessary. As an acceptable example, the tow
could be configured such that one or more tugs with the capability to perform
ice management (escort duties) can be released, and the remaining tug(s)
have sufficient BP to continue making towing progress. In some
circumstances a tow-plan can include the contingency of releasing one or
more tugs that are towing in the conventional manner to push-tow provided
that:
- the towed vessel is appropriately ice strengthened:
- the towed vessel is appropriately designed and strengthened in the
pushing location(s):
- the tugs are designed and adequately fendered for pushing:
- such action would only be considered in a high ice concentration where
there is no influence by sea or swell.
d. When two tugs are towing in series as described in Section 18.6 in an ice
infested area, special attention shall be given to the strength of the towing
connections on the foredeck of the second tug in case it is necessary for the
lead tug to break through ice floes of varying thickness that may cause shock-
loading.
e. A tandem tow of barges as described in Section 18.4.2 is sometimes referred
to as ice-coupled. Where the presence of ice increases the potential for rapid
changes to the towing speed, this type of close connection necessitates good
fenders to be in place between each unit in the tow.
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22.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT
22.7.1 GENERAL
22.7.1.1 The towing techniques that are used in ice typically require a short distance between
the tug and tow to increase manoeuvrability and so that the propeller wash from the
towing vessel can assist in clearing ice accumulation around the bow of the towed
vessel. Because of the short towing distance and reduction of towline catenary it is
necessary for the towing arrangement to be suitable for the additional stress that
can be experienced. The stress on the towing arrangement can vary considerably
with:
a. the thickness and concentration of ice as well as ice pressure,
b. the difference in beam between the tug and tow resulting in ice interaction on
the shoulders of the towed vessel and ice accumulation in front of the tow as
well as the use and effectiveness of independent icebreaker escort and
c. large heading deviations due to manoeuvring through and around ice and
d. unintentional tug interaction with heavy ice floes which can result in shock-
loading to towing components due to whiplash and the tow taking charge.
It is for these reasons that additional provisions concerning towing equipment
strength, type and configuration are necessary.
22.7.2 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR TOWING IN ICE
22.7.2.1 In addition to Section 12.5 (Tow-line Control), a tug involved in towing in ice infested
waters must be fitted with an operational towline quick release/reset system (tow-
wire abort system):
a. when towing in ice that could rapidly reduce towing speed or
b. when a tug is involved in a multiple tow or
c. when a tug is involved with a multi-tug tow.
22.7.2.2 The towline quick release system should be capable of immediate winch brake
release for pay out of tow-wire as well as winch brake re-set from the navigation
bridge and the winch control station (if different).
22.7.2.3 With reference to Section 12.9, a tug involved in a towage in ice should be fitted with
at least two searchlights that can be directed from the navigation bridge.
22.7.2.4 As recommended in Sections 12.11.2 and 13.16, every tug that is towing in ice shall
be equipped with burning and welding gear for ice damage control and repair.
22.7.3 STRENGTH OF TOWLINE
With reference to Section 13.2.1 (a):
22.7.3.1 For a tug that is planning a conventional single towline towage in ice the Minimum
Towline Breaking Load (MBL) should be computed as follows:
Table 22-4 Minimum Towline MBL in Ice
Bollard Pull (BP) MBL (tonnes)
BP ≤ 40 tonnes 3.7 x BP + 12
40 < BP ≤ 90 tonnes (4.2 – BP/50) x BP + 24
BP > 90 tonnes 2 x BP + 60

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22.7.3.2 An exception can be made for short tows in very thin ‘new’ ice or in very low
concentrations (<3/10ths) of medium or thick ‘rotten’ ice. In these circumstances the
Minimum Towline Breaking Load (MBL) should be computed as shown for a ‘non-
benign’ tow in Section 13.2.
22.7.3.3 The strength of all other towing connections and associated equipment should be
appropriately calculated as required by the provisions of Section 13.2.
22.7.3.4 Further, ALL tugs involved in a towage in ice must carry a spare tow-wire of the
same length and strength as the main tow-wire that is immediately available on a
reel to replace the main tow-wire. In addition, there must be enough competent
personnel, equipment and spares on board to crop and re-socket the main tow-wire
at least once.
22.7.4 SPECIAL CASES OF REDUCED TOW-WIRE STRENGTH
22.7.4.1 The minimum size of tow-wire that is typically used by icebreaking tugs of 160te BP
for close-couple towing is for example, 64mm EIPS rove through a multiple sheave
floating ‘Nicoliev Block’ system. In this system a single bridle wire, usually of the
same size and strength as tug's main tow-wire, is made fast to each bow of the
vessel being towed.. The tow-wire goes from the towing winch to the floating block
on the bridle and back via a fairlead to a towing damper on the tug. For larger
powered tugs, the tow-wire may be doubled up again by passing the wire through a
standing block on the tug’s deck and around a second sheave on the floating block
before it is made fast to the towing damper. This makes the bridle wire the ‘weak
link’ in the system and because of this an icebreaking tug shall carry sufficient spare
bridle wires, typically at least 6.
22.7.4.2 To meet the minimum towline strength criteria a tug that has an appropriate bollard
pull may, in exceptional circumstances, be considered for approval of a conventional
towage in calm waters containing ice using two towlines provided that:
a. Each of the two independent towlines is a minimum of 90% of the required
strength and
b. Each tow-wire is on a separate towing winch that can be adjusted, quick
released and reset independently from the other and
c. Each tow-wire meets the requirements of a single tow-wire in terms of
minimum length, construction etc. and
d. Each tow-line has a monitoring system to enable load sharing.
22.7.5 TOWING WINCHES
22.7.5.1 Towing winches are required due to the typical manoeuvring restrictions and
hazards that are inherent to towing in ice. Towing hooks do not allow for the rapid
adjustment of towline length.
22.7.5.2 Each towing winch should have sufficient pull to allow the towline to be shortened
under tension. When possible, the navigating bridge and winch operator should be
provided with continuous readouts of towline length deployed and towline tension.
22.7.5.3 Winch controls and winch operating machinery should be suitably protected from
environmental conditions, particularly low temperatures that can result in winch
malfunction.
22.7.5.4 Towing winches shall have a quick release and re-set system as described in
Sections 22.7.2.1 and 22.7.2.2.
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22.7.6 CHAIN BRIDLES
22.7.6.1 A chain bridle is typically used for a towage in ice with a chain pigtail connected to a
‘fuse wire’ or directly to the towline. In some circumstances where high shock loads
are anticipated, an extra long chain pigtail may be considered appropriate. Wire
pennants and bridles are sometimes used for small barge and vessel tows,
especially when the close-couple or ice-couple towing technique is anticipated.
22.7.7 SYNTHETIC ROPE
22.7.7.1 Synthetic rope is prone to rapid cutting both internally by ice crystals and externally
by ice edges and therefore is not approved for use in a towing system for an in-ice
towage. Sections 13.8.2 and all parts of Section 13.9 do not apply in ice transits or
in very low temperatures where icing can occur.
22.7.8 BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM
22.7.8.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 13.10:
a. To reduce direct ice interaction and disconnection of the bridle recovery wire,
the wire should be lightly secured to one leg of the bridle and the end shackled
onto the apex or a chain link close to the apex of the tri-plate.
b. The fuel mentioned in Section 13.10.2 for a motorized recovery winch shall be
appropriate for the anticipated temperatures.
22.7.9 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR
22.7.9.1 With reference to Section 13.11, special arrangements may be required for the
emergency towing gear, especially on an unmanned tow proceeding in ice. For all
towages in ice the emergency towing gear should be fitted and arranged to tow from
the bow unless it can be shown that the object being towed is designed for multi-
directional towing.
22.7.9.2 A floating line and pick-up buoy are susceptible to being cut and lost or snagged by
ice and pulled clear of the soft lashings or metal clips. It is recommended that a
different arrangement is employed in high concentrations of ice. For example, an
intermediate wire may be attached to the end of the emergency tow-wire and lightly
secured to a pole extended astern at least 5 metres. The eye of the intermediate
wire is suspended above the surface of the ice approximately 1 metre above the aft
working deck of the tug where it can be captured for connection to a tugger-winch
wire. The float line and pick-up buoy are shackled to the emergency tow-wire in the
same way as described in Section 13.11.2, but remain coiled on the deck of the tow
for deployment once the towage arrives in open water.
22.7.10 ACCESS TO TOWS
22.7.10.1 With reference to Section 13.14, whether a tow is manned or not, suitable access
must be provided. For towages in ice, a permanent steel ladder should be provided
at the stern from the main deck to just above the waterline. As discussed in Section
13.14.2, ladders, particularly side ladders should be recessed to avoid ice damage.
A tug workboat should carry suitable equipment to de-ice recessed access
arrangements and ladders to tows. Pilot ladders used as a short term alternative
should be closely inspected for ice damage before being used. Typically, a pilot
ladder secured at the stern of the tow is subject to the least amount of ice
interaction.
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22.7.11 TOWING EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS
22.7.11.1 As described in Section 13.12, all equipment used in the main and emergency
towing arrangements for a towage in ice shall have valid certificates. Special
precautions are necessary for equipment that has been, or will be, used in extremely
low temperatures. Regardless of anticipated temperatures during the proposed
towage, a Noble Denton surveyor may request to have sockets, chains, flounder
plates and shackles used in the towing process non-destructively tested (NDT).
Based on the results of a visual inspection of the tow-wire, the surveyor may also
require that the tow-wire is cropped and re-socketed prior to the towage.
22.7.12 RECOMMENDED SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR THE WORKBOAT
22.7.12.1 In addition to Section 12.6, sufficient Arctic survival suits shall be carried on board
the tug for all personnel that may be operating the workboat and personnel
transferred to the tow by the work boat. These additional survival suits should be
fitted with hard soled boots, belts and detachable gloves.
22.8 TUG SUITABILITY
22.8.1 The tug shall have a bollard pull appropriate for the anticipated ice and weather
conditions. The calculated BP should never be less than that necessary for an open
ocean towage, as shown in Section 12.2.
22.8.2 OVERSIZED TUG
22.8.2.1 For all towages in ice, Section 13.2.10 concerning towing connections does not
apply. In the case of an oversized tug (in terms of TPR) all connections should be at
least equal to the MBL of the tow-wire in use. The tow-master must be fully aware
of any strength reduction to the connections, carry adequate replacement spares
and the towing procedures should identify the maximum power setting that may be
applied.
22.9 CARGO LOADINGS
22.9.1 Special attention should be given to cargo overhangs on a case-by-case basis.
22.9.2 In general, cargo overhang for a towage in ice will not be approved unless it can be
shown that the cargo is adequately protected such that no ice interaction can occur.
22.9.3 To determine the potential for ice interaction, calculations must show that the cargo
has at least three meters clearing height above the maximum height of ice deformity
that can be experienced during the tow. In all ice concentrations this minimum
clearing height will be maintained in all conditions of roll, pitch and heave (see
Sections 7 and 8). Due to the potential for ice impact and resulting damage cargo
overhang cannot be allowed to immerse under any circumstance, so that Sections
7.6, 8.5, 10.1.4 and 10.1.5 are not applicable.
22.10 SEA-FASTENING DESIGN AND STRENGTH
22.10.1 The motions of a vessel transiting through low concentrations of ice should be
assumed to be as severe as those experienced in clear open water storm
conditions. Swell waves can persist for many miles even into an ice edge of very
high ice concentration. In high ice concentrations where no waves are evident,
impact or over-running of thick ice floes can cause sudden deceleration, heading
deflections, listing and rolling of the tow. For these reasons the strength of cargo
and sea-fastenings for transportation in ice conditions should be of appropriate
design and not less than that required for unrestricted transportations in non-benign
areas - see Sections 7 and 8. The cargo mass shall include the effect of ice
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accretion calculated in accordance with the IMO Intact Stability Code [Ref. 17],
Chapter 5.
22.10.2 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS
22.10.2.1 With reference to Section 9.7, consideration of special welding procedures and
techniques may be necessary for sea-fastenings installed in very cold temperatures.
22.10.3 PIPES AND TUBULARS
22.10.3.1 With reference to Section 9.6.4 - stress on pipes in a stack, and Section 9.6.10 -
open ended pipes, special consideration should be given to pipes filling with ice due
to freezing spray and/or wave action in low temperatures and the potential to
overstress lower levels of pipe, seafastenings and deck structures. The effect on
the vessel stability should also be considered.
22.11 STABILITY
22.11.1 Stability calculations for vessels, including tugs and tows, operating in very cold
temperatures and in ice conditions shall be submitted to Noble Denton for review
against the IMO Intact Stability Code [Ref. 17], Chapter 5.
22.11.2 The intact range of stability of a towed vessel (see Section 10.1.1) shall never be
less than 36 degrees, including inland and sheltered towages.
22.11.3 For transit in ice-infested waters, the statement in Section 10.1.4 of these guidelines
shall be modified to read ‘Cargo overhangs shall be such that no immersion is
possible in the anticipated environmental conditions’.
22.11.4 Section 10.1.5 referring to buoyant cargo overhangs does not apply to transits in ice.
22.11.5 In addition to the requirements of Section 10.2.1, towed objects shall have positive
stability with any two compartments flooded or broached.
22.11.6 The damaged stability relaxations for towed objects referenced in Sections 10.2.4
and 10.2.5 do not apply in any area where ice interaction can occur. See also
Section 10.2.7.
22.11.7 The integrity of all underwater compartments of a tug and compartments subject to
down-flooding must be safeguarded from flooding by watertight doors and hatches
that access such compartments. This is a critical requirement for an approval to
conduct a towage in ice. All compartment accesses must be checked for watertight
integrity and kept closed at all times throughout the towage.
22.11.8 The draughts mentioned in Section 10.4.4 are the minimum for open water
operations. In an ice environment, additional consideration must be given to the
location of any specially strengthened ‘ice belt’ and to the exposure of areas
vulnerable to ice damage such as propulsion and steering equipment that may
require specific and/or deeper overall ice transit draughts.
22.11.9 A vessel being towed or pushed (regardless of being self propelled) shall not be
excessively trimmed. On manned tows the trim should be appropriate to provide
watch personnel with as much forward visibility as possible for observation of
approaching ice conditions and the movements of other vessels involved in the
towage to reduce the potential for ice impact and/or collision damage.
22.12 BALLASTING
22.12.1 Ballasting of the forepeak (to above the waterline) of a tug and towed vessel is done
to assist with ice impact load dispersal. This also provides protection against
developing excessive trim by the head in the event that a forward compartment is
breached by ice and flooded. In addition, the emptying of a ballasted forward
compartment can assist with exposing damage for emergency repair or to raise the
damaged area clear to avoid continued ice interaction and escalation of damage.
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22.12.2 Special precautions should be taken to avoid structural damage caused by
pressurizing compartments when ballasting and deballasting due to water freezing
in tanks or inside tank vent pipes. This is in addition to the freezing of tank vents
from coating with freezing spray in very low temperatures.
22.13 VOYAGE PLANNING
22.13.1 In addition to the requirements listed in Section 14, a written voyage plan or tow-
plan should be submitted for review and comment by Noble Denton in advance of a
proposed towage in an ice-infested region.
22.13.2 The plan should include:
a. A general description of the proposed voyage (manned/unmanned towage
etc)
b. Tug and tow particulars including ice classifications and certification
c. Research documentation indicating the anticipated ice/weather conditions
d. Routing including shelter and holding locations
e. Navigation and communications equipment appropriate for the region
f. Summary of tow-master and senior officer experience
g. Arrangements for receiving weather and ice information and/or routing
h. Voyage speed and fuel calculations including any bunkering requirements and
procedures to comply with National regulations
i. Contingency fuel, hydraulic & lubricating oils of suitable viscosity for the low
ambient temperatures
j. Main and emergency towing arrangements and certification
k. Stability calculations and location of all cargoes, consumables, ballast and
pollutants for the tug and tow
l. Sea-fastening (cargo securing) arrangements
m. Arrangements for assist tugs for docking etc and for ice management as
required
n. Damage and pollution control equipment as applicable
o. Contingency procedures for ice damage, tug breakdown, fire, broken tow, man
overboard and the nearest icebreaker assistance.
22.13.3 In addition to the list in Section 14.5.1, prior to departure the tow-master of an
unmanned towage should be supplied with the appropriate drawings that indicate
the basic structure, watertight compartments, ballast system, cargo securing
arrangements on the tow, and manuals that provide the tug crew with operating
procedures for emergency equipment such as ballast pumps (see Section 15), the
emergency generator, the emergency anchor system and the tow bridle retrieval
system.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 112
22.13.4 RE-FUELLING THE TUG
22.13.4.1 The tow-plan should indicate the calculated fuel usage during the tow for the
required power in the anticipated ice conditions.
22.13.4.2 For the portion of the voyage that will be carried out in ice conditions, in addition to
the times listed in Section 6.2.2 - the operational reference period, and Section 6.7 –
calculation of voyage speed, the planned duration will include:
a. typical towing speeds of not more than 2 knots in ice covered areas as a
conservative estimate where the actual towing distance is unlikely to be direct.
A towing speed of 5 knots may be used where it can be shown that the tow
will only encounter very thin new ice or alternatively very low concentrations
(<3/10
ths
) of thick rotting ice and:
b. waiting for appropriate ice conditions for departure, transit and arrival and:
c. up to 25% additional fuel (and other consumables) may be required (see
Sections 6.2 and 12.12).
22.13.4.3 The tow-plan must indicate compliance with the International, National and Local
regulations and guidelines concerning the carriage of oil cargoes, the allowable
quantity and distribution of fuel oil or any other pollutant or dangerous cargo. In
addition, where a tow-plan indicates the requirement to re-fuel the tug from the tow
or from another vessel this will normally require special approval from a National
authority and also require that the tug carries appropriate pollution containment and
clean-up equipment. The re-fuelling approval from the appropriate jurisdiction, as
well as the re-fuelling procedure and equipment, shall be provided in the tow-plan
for review.
22.14 WEATHER /ICE RESTRICTED OPERATIONS
22.14.1 In addition to the requirements of Section 6.3, for a towage in an ice infested area,
dependable ice forecasts must be available and the tug must have appropriate
equipment on board to receive ice information including ice maps, bulletins,
advisories and forecasts.
22.15 DAMAGE CONTROL AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
22.15.1 Special consideration should be given to the remoteness of the area and the
anticipated ice conditions where a towage will take place to determine the
availability of emergency response, assistance and equipment. In addition to the
damage control equipment listed in Section 13.16, additional equipment is
recommended for a towage in ice:
a. Portable generator
b. Portable compressor
c. Portable salvage pump(s)
d. Bracing shores
e. Portable de-icing equipment
f. Space heaters
g. Extension ladders
h. Chain falls
i. Collision mat materials.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 113
REFERENCES
[1] Noble Denton document 0009/ND - Self-Elevating Platforms - Guidelines for Elevated
Operations
[2] Noble Denton document 0013/ND - Guidelines for Loadouts
[3] Noble Denton document 0015/ND - Concrete Offshore Gravity Structures - Guidelines
for Approval of Construction, Towage and Installation
[4] Noble Denton document 0016/ND - Seabed and Sub-Seabed data required for
Approvals of Mobile Offshore Units (MOU)
[5] Noble Denton document 0021/ND - Guidelines for the Approval of Towing Vessels
[6] Noble Denton document 0027/ND - Guidelines for Marine Lifting Operations
[7] Noble Denton document 0028/ND - Guidelines for the Transportation and Installation of
Steel Jackets
[8] IMO International Safety Management Code - ISM Code - and Revised Guidelines on
Implementation of the ISM Code by Administrations - 2002 Edition
[9] DNV Rules for the Classification of Ships, January 2003, Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 4
[10] IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Securing and Stowing - 2003 Edition
[11] API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD (RP 2A-WSD), Twenty First Edition, December
2000, Errata and Supplement 1, December 2002.
[12] API Recommended Practice 2A-LRFD (RP 2A-LRFD), First Edition, July 1, 1993
[13] AISC Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design, July 1, 1989, with Supplement 1
[14] API RP 5LW - Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe on Barges and
Marine Vessels
[15] EEMUA 158 - Construction Specification for Fixed Offshore Structures in the North Sea,
[16] AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code - steel
[17] IMO Resolution A.749 (18) as amended by Resolution MSC.75(69) - Code on Intact
Stability
[18] International Convention on Load Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002
[19] International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (amended 1996)
(COLREGS)
[20] IMO MSC/Circ.623 - Piracy and armed robbery against ships - guidance to ship-owners
and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy
and armed robbery against ships
[21] IMO Document Ref. T1/3.02, MSC/Circ.884 - Guidelines for Safe Ocean Towing
[22] IMO BWM/CONF/36 - International Convention for the Control & Management of Ships'
Ballast Water & Sediments, 2004
[23] IACS Requirements concerning Polar Class Oct 2007
[24] UKOOA Guidelines for Safe Movement of Self-Elevating Offshore Installations (Jack-
ups) April 1995
[25] UK HSE circular “The Safe Approach, Set-Up And Departure of Jack-Up Rigs to Fixed
Installations” Sept 03 from www.hse.gov.uk/foi/internalops/hid/spc/spctosd21.pdf
[26] Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of Joints (BS EN 11993-1-
8:2005)
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 114
APPENDIX A - EXAMPLE OF MAIN TOW BRIDLE WITH RECOVERY
SYSTEM

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 115
APPENDIX B - EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 116
APPENDIX C - EXAMPLE OF SMIT-TYPE CLENCH PLATE

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 117
APPENDIX D - EMERGENCY ANCHOR MOUNTING ON BILLBOARD


GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 118
APPENDIX E - ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROVISION & USE OF AN
EMERGENCY ANCHOR

E.1 An anchor may be required in an emergency situation, for instance in the event of a
broken towline, or tug failure due to breakdown or fire. The requirement for an
emergency anchor in areas of restricted searoom may be determined as a result of
a risk assessment as set out in Section 16.1.2 and which should satisfy all parties
that the precautions proposed are adequate.
E.2 For very large tows, such as GBS’s, TLP’s and FPSO’s, an emergency anchor may
be impractical, and alternative means of achieving an equivalent level of safety
should be sought.
E.3 FPSO mooring systems (whether turret-type or spread), being only for in-place
conditions, are not normally configured to act as emergency moorings during transit.
On a conversion the permanent gear is usually removed. For many designs the
deck space where an emergency anchor might be sited is taken up with the
permanent mooring equipment.
E.4 For any tow, there are arguments for and against the provision of anchors:
For:
a. Conventional marine and insurance industry practice is that an anchor is
provided, and any alternative arrangement must be justified.
b. Once access is gained to the tow, or if the tow is manned, an anchor may
provide a “last resort” method of controlling the tow.
Against:
a. A chain locker must be provided together with an anchor windlass, chain
stoppers etc. and these will be for one use only. A billboard arrangement, as
shown in Section 16.6 and Appendix D would almost certainly be ineffective
for large tows.
b. Whereas ships and ship-FPSO conversions may retain a hawse pipe, chain
locker, anchor windlass, chain stoppers etc, most new build FPSO’s are not
fitted with these facilities.
c. For most of an ocean towage, and close to steep-to coastlines, the depth of
water will be too great for an anchor to be effective.
d. If the tow is not manned, then boarding it in bad weather could pose an
unacceptable hazard to the boarding crew, and deploying the anchor may
prove to be impossible. In this respect a spare tug rather than an anchor
would be more useful.
e. In some restricted areas, especially with pipelines, cables or subsea
equipment, anchoring is prohibited, even in emergency situations.
f. Unless the anchor can be paid out under control, the shock loads when the
anchor beds in and the cable comes taut may be excessive, and could result
in damage, loss of the anchor or unacceptable risk to the riding crew.
g. Under adverse conditions the anchor may drag, and the tow could still be lost.
h. If 2 or more tugs are towing, then it is unlikely that any attempt to deploy an
anchor would be made until all tugs or towlines had failed. If, for instance, 2
tugs were towing, dropping an anchor after a single towline failure would
seriously hamper the efforts of the remaining tug to control the situation. An
anchor will probably only be dropped, therefore, if all towlines break.
3
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 119
i. After deployment of an anchor the towage must resume at some point. The
anchor must either be retrieved or cut and abandoned for later retrieval. It is
probable that the tow would then be lacking an anchor, at least for a time. It is
suggested that any anchor used is fitted with a retrieval pennant and buoy.
E.5 If sufficient towing capacity and redundancy is provided, in the towing spread, tugs
will provide a more flexible and manoeuvrable means of controlling the tow.
Reaction time will be faster and control should be possible in all water depths.
E.6 Proposed criteria, if anchor(s) are not used, include:
a. Provision of at least N main towing tugs, any (N-1) of which comply with the
requirements of Section 12.2, or:
b. Provision of at least 2 main towing tugs, which together comply with the
requirements of Section 12.2, and:
c. If 1 or 2 main towing tugs are provided, an additional tug will be required to
escort the tow, if the tow comes within an agreed distance of any coastline or
offshore hazard. (48 nautical miles is suggested as a minimum, assuming the
tow may drift uncontrollably at 2 knots for 24 hours).
d. The escort tug should be approximately equal in specification to the larger
main towing tug.
e. The escort tug is not always required to hook up for escort duties, but
contingency plans and equipment must allow for it to be connected rapidly,
either in place of one of the other two tugs, or in addition, such that the
configuration is still reasonably balanced.
f. In restricted waters, if one of the main towing tugs has a breakdown, it may be
preferable to connect the escort tug to the bow of the broken-down tug, rather
than to the tow
g. The towage route must be drawn up showing the proximity to coastlines or
other hazards, and the route sectors where an escort tug is required.
Planning should ensure that the escort tug has time to arrive and connect up
before the searoom is below the agreed limits.
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 120
APPENDIX F - FILLET WELD STRESS CHECKING


F.1 The effective length of a fillet weld, l, should be taken as the length over which the
fillet is full-size. This may be taken as the overall length of the weld reduced by
twice the effective throat thickness a. Provided that the weld is full size throughout
its length, including starts and terminations, no reduction in effective length need be
made for either the start or the termination of the weld.
F.2 The effective throat thickness, a, of a fillet weld should be taken as the height of the
largest triangle (with equal or unequal leg) that can be inscribed within the fusion
faces and the weld surface, measured perpendicular to the outer side of this
triangle, see Figure F .

a
a
a
a

Figure F 1 Effective Throat Dimension ‘a’ for Concave and Convex Fillet Welds
F.3 A uniform distribution of stress is assumed on the throat section of the weld, leading
to the normal and shear stresses shown in Figure F 2.
σ

= normal stress perpendicular to the throat
σ

= normal stress parallel to the axis of the weld
τ

= shear stress (in the plane of the throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld
τ

= shear stress (in the plane of the throat) parallel to the axis of the weld

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 121
σ

τ

τ

σ

σ

τ

τ

σ


Figure F 2 Normal and Shear Stresses acting on the plane of Weld Throat
F.4 The normal stress σ║ parallel to the axis is not considered when verifying the
design resistance of the weld.
F.5 The two stress conditions perpendicular to the axis of the weld, σ┴ and τ┴ may be
considered to be equal in magnitude in the case where the load P acting on the
bracket is applied parallel to the axis of the weld. This can be seen in the
assumption in Figure F that the load vectors should be drawn with the symmetry
that is illustrated.
F.6 The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following is satisfied:
( ) { }
yield m
o ¸ t t o × s + × +
± ±
5 . 0
2
11
2 2
3 Eqn 1
Where:
σ
yield
is the yield stress of the material
γ
m
is the appropriate material factor selected

Fillet Welded Bracket
F.7 For a bracket subjected to a load P parallel to the weld line as shown in Figure F
and where the base structure to which the bracket is welded is adequately stiff the
bending load applied to the weld line can be considered to vary linearly and the
shearing load at the weld to be constant, as shown in the figure.
F.8 In this case the maximum perpendicular load per unit weld length, f
v
, can be
described as shown in Eqn 2.
2
1
6
l
h P f
v
× × × = Eqn 2
F.9 The uniform shear load per unit weld length, f
h
, is given by
l
P
f
h
= Eqn 3

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 122
h
P
l
a
Plane of
throat of
weld
a.t
-
= shear force per unit length
fv = 6.P.h/(l
2
)= max bending tension
per unit length
h
P
l
a
Plane of
throat of
weld
h
P
l
a
Plane of
throat of
weld
h
P
l
a
Plane of
throat of
weld
a.t
-
= shear force per unit length
fv = 6.P.h/(l
2
)= max bending tension
per unit length

Figure F 3 Bracket connected by Double Fillet Weld
Double Fillet
F.10 For a double fillet weld as shown in Figure F 4 the force f
v
may be considered as
being resisted by a combination of normal and shear stresses acting on the throat of
the weld as illustrated in the diagram. The applied load also produces a shear
stress on the weld throat of τ║ acting at right angles to the other shear stress τ┴.
F.11 These stresses can be combined to form the von Misses equivalent stress (see Eqn
1). The equations for σ┴, τ┴ and τ║ are given in Eqn 4 and Eqn 5.
l a
P
× ×
=
2
ll
t Eqn 5

2
2
3
l a
h P
×
×
× = =
± ±
t o
Eqn 4
GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS
0030/ND REV 3 Page 123
Stresses and
Resultant Forces
f
v
= 6.P.h/(l
2
)
a.σ

a.τ

a.σ

a.τ

Fillet weld #1
Fillet weld #2
f
v
= 6.P.h/(l
2
)
a.σ

a.σ

a.τ

a.τ

Weld #2
Weld #1
Vector Force Diagram Stresses and
Resultant Forces
f
v
= 6.P.h/(l
2
)
a.σ

a.τ

a.σ

a.τ

Fillet weld #1
Fillet weld #2
f
v
= 6.P.h/(l
2
)
a.σ

a.σ

a.τ

a.τ

Weld #2
Weld #1
Vector Force Diagram

Figure F 4 Stresses and Forces acting on Fillet Weld

F.12 The resulting limiting value for the weld throat thickness, a, is given in Eqn 6.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
>
4
3
18 .
2
l
h
l
P
a
yield m
o ¸
Eqn 6

Single Fillet
F.13 For a bracket with a single fillet weld of length l the resulting limiting value for the
weld throat thickness, a, is given in Eqn 7.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
> 3 72 .
2
l
h
l
P
a
yield m
o ¸
Eqn 7

Selection of Yield Stress and Material Factor
F.14 The yield stress used should be the lowest of the yield stress values of the weld
itself and the two parts of metal welded together.
F.15 The material factor, γ
m
, shall be taken as 1.0.
Note: The applied loads shall be factored as follows:
1.40 for serviceability limit state (SLS) checks and
1.05 for ultimate limit state (ULS) checks.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

PREFACE
This document has been drawn with care to address what are likely to be the main concerns based on the experience of the Noble Denton organisation. This should not, however, be taken to mean that this document deals comprehensively with all of the concerns which will need to be addressed or even, where a particular matter is addressed, that this document sets out the definitive view of the organisation for all situations. In using this document, it should be treated as giving guidelines for sound and prudent practice on which our advice should be based, but guidelines should be reviewed in each particular case by the responsible person in each project to ensure that the particular circumstances of that project are addressed in a way which is adequate and appropriate to ensure that the overall advice given is sound and comprehensive. Whilst great care and reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document to ensure that the content is correct and error free, no responsibility or liability can be accepted by Noble Denton for any damage or loss incurred resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

© 2009 Noble Denton Group Limited, who will allow:
  the document to be freely reproduced, the smallest extract to be a complete page including headers and footers but smaller extracts may be reproduced in technical reports and papers, provided their origin is clearly referenced.

0030/ND REV 3

Page 2

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

CONTENTS
SECTION 1 PAGE NO. 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 13 20 20 20 20 20 22 23 23 23 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 35 SUMMARY 1.1 CONTENT AND SCOPE 1.2 THE APPROVAL PROCESS 1.3 DOCUMENTATION 1.4 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS, VESSEL MOTIONS & LOADINGS, & SEAFASTENING DESIGN 1.5 STABILITY 1.6 BARGE, TRANSPORT VESSEL & TUG SELECTION, TOWING EQUIPMENT, MANNED TOWS 1.7 PLANNING & CONDUCT OF THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE 1.8 MULTIPLE TOWAGES 1.9 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS THE APPROVAL PROCESS 4.1 GENERAL 4.2 NOBLE DENTON APPROVAL 4.3 CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL 4.4 SCOPE OF WORK LEADING TO AN APPROVAL 4.5 LIMITATION OF APPROVAL CERTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION 5.1 GENERAL 5.2 DOCUMENTATION DESCRIPTION 5.3 ICE CLASS 5.4 REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 OPERATIONAL REFERENCE PERIOD 6.3 WEATHER-RESTRICTED OPERATIONS 6.4 UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS 6.5 CALCULATION OF “ADJUSTED” DESIGN EXTREMES, UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS 6.6 CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE 6.7 CALCULATION OF VOYAGE SPEED 6.8 CALCULATION OF EXTREMES 6.9 COMPARISON WITH PERCENTAGE EXCEEDENCE 6.10 CRITERIA FROM TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS 6.11 METOCEAN DATABASE BIAS 6.12 DESIGN WAVE HEIGHT 6.13 DESIGN WIND SPEED 6.14 METOCEAN DATA FOR BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS MOTION RESPONSE 7.1 GENERAL 7.2 SEASTATE 7.3 PERIODS 7.4 VESSEL HEADING AND SPEED 7.5 THE EFFECTS OF FREE SURFACES 7.6 THE EFFECTS OF CARGO IMMERSION 7.7 MOTION RESPONSE COMPUTER PROGRAMS 7.8 RESULTS OF MODEL TESTS 7.9 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA 7.10 DIRECTIONALITY AND HEADING CONTROL

2 3 4

5

6

7

0030/ND REV 3

Page 3

1 GENERAL 12.7 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS 9.12 BUNKERS & OTHER CONSUMABLES 12.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 8 LOADINGS 8.11 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT 12.1 COMPUTATION OF LOADS 9.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY TRANSPORT VESSEL SELECTION 11.2 FRICTION 9.5 CARGO BUOYANCY AND WAVE SLAM DESIGN AND STRENGTH 9.2 DAMAGE STABILITY 10.7 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT 12.3 SEAFASTENING DESIGN 9.3 MAIN & SPARE TOWING WIRES & TOWING CONNECTIONS 12.10 BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM 13.10 PUMP 12.2 LOADCASES 8.1 GENERAL 11.2 BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS 12.8 FATIGUE 9.1 INTRODUCTION 8.15 ANCHORING & MOORING EQUIPMENT 13.3 WIND OVERTURNING 10.GENERAL 13.1 INTACT STABILITY 10.6 BRIDLE APEX 13.13 NAVIGATION LIGHTS & SHAPES 13.2 STRENGTH OF TOWLINE & TOWLINE CONNECTIONS 13.4 DRAUGHT AND TRIM 10.2 SUITABILITY AND ON-HIRE SURVEYS TOWING VESSEL SELECTION AND APPROVAL 12.7 SHACKLES 13.5 STRESS LEVELS IN CARGO.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOWLINE LENGTH AND STRENGTH 13.9 SYNTHETIC SPRINGS 13. GRILLAGE & SEAFASTENINGS 9.5 TOWLINE CONTROL 12.1 TOWING EQUIPMENT & ARRANGEMENTS .11 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR 13.9 SEARCHLIGHT 12.14 ACCESS TO TOWS 13.8 INTERMEDIATE PENNANT OR SURGE CHAINS 13.3 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA 8.4 TAILGATES/STERN RAILS 12.9 USE OF SECOND HAND STEEL SEAFASTENINGS STABILITY 10.4 TOWLINE CONNECTION POINTS 13.4 LONGITUDINAL BENDING 8.5 BRIDLE LEGS 13.8 NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT 12.12 CERTIFICATION 13.16 DAMAGE CONTROL & EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 49 49 50 51 52 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 62 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 9 10 11 12 13 0030/ND REV 3 Page 4 .4 CRIBBING 9.6 SECURING OF PIPE AND OTHER TUBULAR GOODS 9.13 TUG MANNING TOWING & MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ON TOW 13.6 WORKBOAT 12.

8 VENTS ANCHORS AND MOORING ARRANGEMENTS 16.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 14 VOYAGE PLANNING 14.4 PUMP TYPE 15.5 MANNED ROUTINE MULTIPLE TOWAGES 18.1 EMERGENCY ANCHORS 16.10 LOG 14.7 SOUNDING PLUGS AND TAPES 15.3 ANCHOR CABLE LENGTH 16.6 PORTS OF SHELTER.4 SAFETY AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 17.8 ASSISTING TUGS 14.2 SIZE AND TYPE OF ANCHOR 16.17 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 14.6 TWO TUGS (IN SERIES) TOWING ONE TOW 18.20 UNDER-KEEL CLEARANCES 14.1 GENERAL 17.1 GENERAL 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 75 76 76 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 86 86 15 16 17 18 19 0030/ND REV 3 Page 5 .4 ANCHOR CABLE STRENGTH 16.7 BUNKERING 14.18 BALLAST WATER 14.12 REDUCING EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT & THE SHIPPING OF WATER 14.7 MOORING ARRANGEMENTS MANNED TOWS AND TRANSPORTATIONS 17.1 GENERAL 15.4 WEATHER ROUTEING & FORECASTING 14.16 TUG CHANGE 14.6 WATERTIGHT MANHOLES 15.22 CHANNEL WIDTH & RESTRICTED MANOEUVRABILITY PUMPING AND SOUNDING 15.4 TANDEM TOWS 18.2 PURPOSE OF PUMPS 15.5 ATTACHMENT OF CABLE 16. SHELTER AREAS.5 PUMP CAPACITY 15.2 GENERAL 18.1 GENERAL 14.15 RESPONSIBILITY 14.3 ROUTEING 14.7 MULTIPLE TUGS TO ONE TOW SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF JACK-UPS 19.1 DEFINITIONS 18.3 DOUBLE TOWS 18.3 RIDING CREW CARRIED ON THE CARGO 17.2 INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS 17.3 PUMPING SYSTEM 15.6 ANCHOR MOUNTING AND RELEASE 16.13 NOTIFICATION 14.19 RESTRICTED DEPTHS.9 PILOTAGE 14.5 PARALLEL TOWS 18.11 INSPECTIONS DURING THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE 14. HOLDING AREAS 14.2 PLANNING 14. HEIGHTS & MANOEUVRABILITY 14.21 AIR DRAUGHT 14.5 DEPARTURE 14.14 DIVERSIONS 14.

3 LOADINGS 19. DRAUGHT AND TRIM 20.2 TUG SELECTION 20.8 SELF-PROPELLED OR THRUSTER-ASSISTED VESSELS 21.15 PROTECTION OF MACHINERY 19.7 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND MOVEABLE ITEMS 20.7 TUGS.4 HULL STRENGTH 19.4 STABILITY.1 GENERAL AND BACKGROUND 21.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT 22.5 STRESS LEVELS 19.3 THE ROUTE AND WEATHER CONDITIONS 21.6 STABILITY AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY 19.9 CARGO LOADINGS 22.3 TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS 20.11 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND SOLID VARIABLE LOAD 19.13 PUMPING ARRANGEMENTS 19.6 MULTIPLE TOWS AND MULTI-TUG TOWS 22.9 MANNING AND CERTIFICATION 21.9 CARRIAGE OF CARGO SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF FPSOS 21.13 VOYAGE PLANNING 22.11 MOORINGS & UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF VESSELS AND STRUCTURES IN ICE COVERED WATERS 22.10 HELIDECK 19.6 ANCHORS 20.8 SECURING OF LEGS 19.16 ANCHORS 19.12 BALLASTING 22.18 CONTINGENCY STAND-BY LOCATIONS SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF SHIPS 20.5 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY 20.5 MANNING 22. SUBSTRUCTURE AND CANTILEVER 19. TRIM AND DIRECTIONAL STABILITY 21.10 SEA-FASTENING DESIGN AND STRENGTH 22.5 TUG SELECTION 21. TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS 19.2 VESSEL ICE CLASSIFICATION 22.17 SAFETY EQUIPMENT 19.14 WEATHER /ICE RESTRICTED OPERATIONS 22.15 DAMAGE CONTROL AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 100 101 102 104 104 104 106 109 109 109 110 110 111 112 112 20 21 22 0030/ND REV 3 Page 6 .3 TOWAGE WITHOUT INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT 22.10 EMERGENCY ANCHOR 21.8 EMERGENCY PUMPING 20.8 TUG SUITABILITY 22.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19.4 TOWAGE OPERATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT 22.2 TOWAGE MANUAL 21.1 GENERAL 22.7 TOWING EQUIPMENT 21.4 STRUCTURAL ISSUES 21.14 MANNING 19.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 20.12 SPUD CANS 19.2 MOTION RESPONSES 19.6 BALLAST.9 DRILLING DERRICK.11 STABILITY 22.

ratio of Tp:Tz and Tp:T1 for each integer value of K Table 7-2 Default Motion Criteria Table 7-3 Reduced Seastate v Heading Table 9-1 Maximum allowable coefficients of friction & minimum seafastening forces Table 9-2 Typical Friction Coefficients Table 10-1 Intact stability range Table 10-2 Minimum draught & trim Table 12-1 Towing Vessel Categories Table 12-2 Meteorological Criteria for Calculating TPR (Towline Pull Required) Table 12-3 Values of Tug Efficiency.ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROVISION & USE OF AN EMERGENCY ANCHOR APPENDIX F .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX A .2 Wind Overturning Criteria (Damaged Case) Figure 12.1 Tug efficiencies in different sea states Figure 12.EXAMPLE OF SMIT-TYPE CLENCH PLATE APPENDIX D .2 Effective Bollard Pull in Different Sea States Figure 13.FILLET WELD STRESS CHECKING TABLE Table 5-1 Principal Documentation Table 5-2 Required Documentation Table 7-1 Value of JONSWAP γ.EMERGENCY ANCHOR MOUNTING ON BILLBOARD APPENDIX E .EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR APPENDIX C . Te Table 12-4 Selecting Bollard Pull from TPR for Hsig = 5 m Table 13-1 Minimum Towline Breaking Loads (MBL) Table 13-2 Fairlead Resolved ULC Table 13-3 Default Shackle SWL Table 22-1 Polar Class Descriptions Table 22-2 Previous Icebreaker Classifications Table 22-3 Previous Vessel Ice Classifications Table 22-4 Minimum Towline MBL in Ice FIGURE Figure 10.1 Definition of angle  with and without a bridle Figure F 1 Effective Throat Dimension ‘a’ for Concave and Convex Fillet Welds Figure F 2 Normal and Shear Stresses acting on the plane of Weld Throat Figure F 3 Bracket connected by Double Fillet Weld Figure F 4 Stresses and Forces acting on Fillet Weld 113 114 115 116 117 118 120 23 26 32 34 36 41 46 49 52 55 56 57 58 62 63 65 101 102 102 106 51 51 57 58 63 120 121 122 123 0030/ND REV 3 Page 7 .EXAMPLE OF MAIN TOW BRIDLE WITH RECOVERY SYSTEM APPENDIX B .1 Wind Overturning Criteria (Intact Case) Figure 10.

Towage of self-floating marine and oilfield equipment.4.2 1. and assessing the strength of the cargo. The reader should satisfy himself that the guidelines used are fit for purpose for the actual transportation under consideration.1 SUMMARY CONTENT AND SCOPE This document describes the guidelines which will be used by Noble Denton for approval of specialised marine transportations. vehicles or containers. civil engineering structures and ships. The extent and limitations of the approval given are discussed. refrigerated cargoes.6.1.4.1. 1.3 1.4 1.3 1. 3 1. with reference to International Codes where appropriate. including: a. bulk solids.4 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS.1.6 This document is not intended to apply to “standard” cargoes such as bulk liquids. They do not specifically apply to the safety of personnel or protection of the environment. Alternative means of computing vessel motions are given.1 1. as are default motion criteria.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 1 1. towing operations should comply with the mandatory parts of relevant IMO documents. VESSEL MOTIONS & LOADINGS.1 STABILITY Guidelines for intact and damage stability are presented. Considerations are given for the design of grillage and seafastenings. for differing operational durations and exposures. for projects where Noble Denton is acting as a Warranty Surveyor. These Guidelines are not intended to exclude alternative methods. In general. The approval of any transportation by Noble Denton does not imply that approval by any other involved parties would be given.4. These Guidelines are intended to ensure the safety of the transported equipment.1 1.4 1. 1. new technology and new equipment.1. It should be noted that this document cannot cover every case of all transportation types.2 1. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 8 .5.2 1. in addition to compliance with these Guidelines. Cargoes on towed barges or ships b.2. for which more stringent guidelines may be appropriate.1 DOCUMENTATION The documents and certificates which are expected to be possessed or obtained for differing operations/equipment are described and tabulated.1 THE APPROVAL PROCESS A description of the Approval Process is included.1.3.3 1.4.5 1.5 1. Methods of deriving the loadings resulting from vessel motions are stated. 1. This Revision 3 includes changes described in Section 2. & SEAFASTENING DESIGN Guidelines are presented for determining the design meteorological conditions. provided an equivalent level of safety can be demonstrated.1. 1.

d.6 1. Towage of FPSOs and similar vessels in Section 21. TOWING Considerations in the selection of a suitable transport barge or vessel are listed.6.2 1.1 1.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 1.6. Tug specification.8 1. MANNED TOWS & TUG SELECTION. 1.8. including demolition towages in Section 20.1 PLANNING & CONDUCT OF THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE The planning and conduct of the towage or voyage are discussed in Section 14.6.1 MULTIPLE TOWAGES The different types of multiple towages are defined in Section 18.3 1. c.9 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Special considerations are given for: a. Transport or towage of jack-ups in Section 19.6. TRANSPORT VESSEL EQUIPMENT.7 1. b. Towing and miscellaneous equipment to be provided on the tow is also stated. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 9 . and the practical problems and acceptability of each are discussed. bollard pull requirements and equipment are stated. Towage of ships. anchoring and mooring systems. and the equipment and precautions to be taken in the event of manning.4 BARGE. Towages of vessels and structures in ice covered waters in Section 22. 1. including pumping systems. Reasons for manning a tow in certain circumstances are discussed.7. 1.

Default wind speed added for intact stability in Section 10.2. floating docks. l.10.1 INTRODUCTION This document describes the guidelines for approval of specialised marine transportations. d.0014/NDI Guidelines for the Towage of Ships . c. f. b. 8. 1] Guidelines for Marine Transportations . h. Implications of large bridle apex angles in Section 13.4. b. Modification of spectra definition in Section 7. i.4 2. crane vessels and Floating Production Storage and Offload vessels (FPSOs) One-off towages of self-floating civil engineering structures such as caissons. Changes of the use of 1/3 overload in Section 9. e. refrigerated cargoes.0026/NDI. Guidelines for the transportation of specialised cargoes on ships and heavy transport vessels . d. including: a. c.0007/NDI Self-elevating platforms .2.5.8.2. power plants.2.9 for use of second hand steel seafastenings. self floating jackets. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 10 . Clarification of the ULC for fairleads in Section 13. Minor changes to loadings in Sections 8.2. vehicles or containers.1. The document refers to other Noble Denton guidelines as appropriate.3.5. g. Amplification of tug efficiencies in Sections 12. 3 2. and pump capacity in Section 15. bulk solids.8 to 12.3.3. b. Removing the definition on “Field Move” for jack-ups and replacing it with 24hour moves.2. e. Changes to friction in seafastenings in Section 9. bridge components and submerged tube tunnel sections. 2. d.5.2. k. Revision 2 included an additional Section 22. and includes: a. these Guidelines may be applied.6 This Revision 3 supersedes Revision 2.3. dredgers.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 2 2.5 Where Noble Denton is acting as a consultant rather than a Warranty Surveyor. Transportation of cargoes on towed barges Transportation of specialised cargoes on ships Transportation of specialised cargoes on submersible. relating to towages in ice covered waters. j. c.3 2. with revised bollard requirements in Section 12. as a guide to good practice.3 and tug efficiencies in Table 12-3. heavy lift vessels Towage of ships including demolition towages Towages of self-floating marine and oilfield equipment such as mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs).0009/ND [Ref.7 Addition of Section 9.2. Additional comments on the use of chain in seafastenings in Section 9.2.5.guidelines for operations and towages (towage section only) .3. These Guidelines are not intended to be applicable to “standard” cargoes such as bulk liquids.4. f.4 to 9. Clarification of forward speed for motion analysis in Section 7. It also superseded and replaced earlier Noble Denton guidelines: a.2 2.

c.12 0030/ND REV 3 Page 11 . f.8 2.11.3 and 17.0021/ND [Ref.0015/ND [Ref. 2. Where applicable.0016/ND [Ref. 2] Concrete Offshore Gravity Structures – Guidelines for Approval of Construction. g. Addition of fillet weld stress checking in APPENDIX F . b. and unless particular distinction is required. regulatory bodies.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS m.1. Further information referring to other phases of marine operations may be found in: a. and to voyages of self-propelled vessels. 4) Guidelines for the Approvability of Towing Vessels . the term “vessel” may include “barge”.1.11 2.com. 3 It should be noted that this document cannot cover every case of all transportation types. 6] Guidelines for the Transportation and Installation of Steel Jackets 0028/ND [Ref.8.nobledenton. Towage and Installation .18.2. Introduction of the IACS Polar class for vessels operating in ice in Section 22. Additional restriction for carrying drill pipe etc in the derrick for field moves (Section 19.10. 2. s.2.5. and “voyage” may include “towage”. The reader should satisfy himself that the guidelines used are fit for purpose for the actual transportation under consideration. 7]. which are covered by other International and National Regulations.system in Section 13. These Guidelines refer both to towages of barges and other self-floating equipment. n. v. 1] Guidelines for Loadouts .5 Addition of paragraphs on Hazardous materials in Section 14. w.1 and 16. They do not specifically apply to the safety of personnel or protection of the environment. In Sections 17. The approval of any transportation by Noble Denton does not imply that approval by designers. Changes to the philosophy of emergency anchors in Sections 16. e. t.. p. In some cases more stringent guidelines may be appropriate in order to protect personnel and the environment. 5] Guidelines for Lifting Operations by Floating Crane Vessels .22 on vertical and horizontal clearances on passage. Amplification of Flag State approval of riding crews on transported cargo.1.0027/ND [Ref. r. q.7 Introduction of surge chains in Section 13.10 All current Noble Denton Guideline documents can be downloaded from www. Increase in safety factor for bridle recovery . 3] Seabed and Sub-Seabed Data Required for Approvals of Mobile Offshore Units (MOU) . o. 2.9.0013/ND [Ref.2 Additional Reference documents in the Reference Section. nor does it imply approval of the seaworthiness of the vessel. harbour authorities and/or any other involved parties would be given.17 and Ballast Water in Section 14. These Guidelines are intended to ensure the safety of the transported equipment.9 2. u.19 to 14. Addition of Sections 14. d.3) Reference is made to the IMO Stability code for icing in Section 22. Self-elevating platforms – Guidelines for Elevated Operations 0009/ND [Ref. and vice versa.4.

provided an equivalent level of safety can be demonstrated. new technology and new equipment. 2. Care should be taken to ensure that the special requirements are considered as appropriate.14 0030/ND REV 3 Page 12 .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 2. add to or contradict the general sections.13 The “Special Considerations” Sections 19 through 22 may amend. These Guidelines are not intended to exclude alternative methods.

If the item is towed on its own buoyancy. ABS AISC API ASPPR Assured Barge Benign area BL (Breaking Load) BP (Bollard Pull) BV Cargo Cargo ship safety certificates (Safety Construction) (Safety Equipment) (Safety Radio) CASPRR Certificate of Approval 0030/ND REV 3 Page 13 . measured in tonnes.1 DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS Referenced definitions are underlined. Term or acronym 24-hour Move Definition A jack-up move taking less than 24 hours between entering the water and reaching a safe airgap with at least two very high confidence good weather forecasts for the 48 hours after entering the water. Canadian Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations A formal document issued by Noble Denton stating that. and an operation may proceed. Bureau Veritas Where the item to be transported is carried on a barge or a vessel. and the South China Sea during the Northeast monsoon season). The specific extent and seasonal limitations of a benign area should be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned. it is referred to throughout this report as the cargo. chain or shackles. Breaking load (BL) = Certified minimum breaking load of wire rope. having due regard to area and season. against losses or perils mentioned in the policy of insurance. A non-propelled vessel commonly used to carry cargo or equipment. Certificate validities vary and are subject to regular survey to ensure compliance. Certificates issued by a certifying authority to attest that the vessel complies with the cargo ship construction and survey regulations. it is referred to as the tow. has radiotelephone equipment compliant with requirements and carries safety equipment that complies with the rules applicable to that vessel type. Bollard pull (BP) = Certified continuous static bollard pull of a tug measured in tonnes. or underwriter.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 3 3. in its judgement and opinion. (but excluding the North Indian Ocean during the Southwest monsoon season. preparations and precautions have been taken to keep risks within acceptable limits. American Bureau of Shipping American Institute of Steel Construction American Petroleum Institute Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations The Assured is the person who has been insured by some insurance company. An area that is free from tropical revolving storms and travelling depressions. all reasonable checks.

Certificates are valid for 6 months unless further evidence of infestation found. Towage of a “dead” vessel for scrapping. formally designed to support the cargo. onto a vessel or barge. Det Norske Veritas The operation of towing two tows with two tow wires by a single tug. for the area and season of the particular transportation or operation. Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon A vessel entered in a national register of shipping with all the appropriate certificates. Commonly mis-used term for what is actually a voyage with a powered vessel. secured to the deck of a barge or vessel. The design wave height. Typically the 10-year monthly extreme 1-minute wind velocity at a reference height of 10 m above sea level. more properly referred to as ‘Dry Transportation’ Transportation of a cargo on a barge or a powered vessel.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym Class Definition A system of ensuring ships are built and maintained in accordance with the Rules of a particular Classification Society. Storage and Offload vessel Germanischer Lloyd Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Global Positioning System COSHH Cribbing Demolition towage Deratisation Design environmental condition Design wave height Design wind speed DNV Double tow Dry Towage (or Dry Tow) Dry Transportation Dunnage EPIRB Flagged vessel Floating offload Floating onload FPSO GL GMDSS GPS 0030/ND REV 3 Page 14 . Although not an absolute legal requirement the advantages (especially as regards insurance) mean that almost all vessels are maintained in Class. Introduced to prevent the spread of rodent borne disease. Transportation of a cargo on a barge towed by a tug. Certification attesting the vessel is free of rodents (Derat Exemption Certificate) or has been satisfactorily fumigated to derat the vessel (Derat Certificate). generally picking up the strong points in vessel and/or cargo. which is submerged for the purpose. See Section 18. Floating Production. which itself is floating. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health An arrangement of timber baulks.3. design wind speed. The reverse of floating onload The operation of transferring a cargo. See cribbing. and other relevant environmental conditions specified for the design of a particular transportation or operation. for the area and season of the particular transportation or operation. Typically the 10-year monthly extreme significant wave height.

which. intended to be assembled into a Pipeline Length Over All The maximum depth to which a ship may be loaded in the prevailing circumstances in respect to zones. International Association of Classification Societies International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code International Maritime Organisation A jack-up where the legs may be raised or lowered independently of each other. formally designed to support the cargo and distribute the loads between the cargo and barge or vessel. Load and Resistance Factor Design Lloyds Register of Shipping See Operation International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973/78. having due regard to the length of the move. 8] A self-elevating MODU.3.2. International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate (see also MARPOL) International Safety Management Code . Coated or uncoated steel pipe sections. secured to the deck of a barge or vessel. without overstressing or otherwise endangering the unit.the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention .2) See MOU IACS IMDG Code IMO Independent leg jack-up Insurance Warranty IOPP Certificate ISM Code Jack-up Line pipe LOA Load line Loadout Location move LRFD LRS Marine operation MARPOL Mat-supported jack-up MBL MODU 0030/ND REV 3 Page 15 . A move of a MODU or similar. requiring the approval of a marine operation by a specified independent survey house.1 and 22. equipped with legs and jacking systems capable of lifting the hull clear of the water. into which the legs are connected and which therefore may not be raised or lowered independently of each other.7.SOLAS Chapter IX [Ref. A clause in the insurance policy for a particular venture. although not falling within the definition of a field 24-hour move. as amended. may be expected to be completed with the unit essentially in 24-hour field move configuration. from the shore or from another vessel or barge. MOU or similar. and remains valid for 5 years unless significant structural changes are made. Transferring a cargo onto a vessel or barge. and to the area (including availability of shelter points) and season. A jack-up which is supported in the operating mode on a mat structure.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym Grillage Definition A steel structure. areas and seasonal periods. A Loadline Certificate is subject to regular surveys. Minimum Breaking Load (see Sections 13.

to establish the condition. barge. recommendations or designs as a consultancy service. construction. It is intended to be compared with the off-hire survey as a basis for establishing costs and liabilities. equipment status and quantities of consumables. A vessel specifically designed or fitted out to carry Line pipe See Shelter point A location where a towage or a vessel seeks refuge. transportation. The reverse of loadout A survey carried out at the time a vessel. For the purposes of this document. Multiple tow NDT Noble Denton Ocean towage Ocean transportation Off-hire survey Offload On-hire survey Operation. due to events occurring which prevent the towage or vessel proceeding towards the planned destination. to establish the condition. or provides advice. offload or installation. any pre-existing damages. tug or other equipment is taken off-hire. Any transportation which does not fall within the definition of a restricted operation A survey carried out at the time a vessel. which is subject to the potential hazards of weather.4. Any activity. the second tow being connected to a point on the tow wire ahead of the first tow with the catenary of its tow wire passing beneath the first tow. The planned duration of an operation including a contingency period.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym MOU Definition Mobile Offshore Unit.1. barge. marine operation Operational reference period Parallel tow Pipe carrier Port (or point) of shelter Port of refuge 0030/ND REV 3 Page 16 .1. when damage is known or suspected. damages. Any towage which does not fall within the definition of a restricted operation. intended to be compared with the on-hire survey as a basis for establishing costs and liabilities. tug or other equipment is taken on-hire. See Section 18. It is not intended to confirm the suitability of the equipment to perform a particular operation. or any towage of a MODU or similar which does not fall within the definition of a 24-hour move or location move. tides. equipment status and quantities of consumables. as decided by the Master. the term may include mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). including loadout. The operation of towing two tows with one tow wire by a single tug. Non Destructive Testing Any company within the Noble Denton Group including any associated company which carries out the scope of work and issues a Certificate of Approval. See Section 18. A safe haven where a towage or voyage may seek shelter for survey and/or repairs. lifting or production units The operation of towing more than one tow by a single tug. marine equipment and the marine environment. and non-drilling mobile units such as accommodation.

A structured and documented system enabling Company personnel to implement the Company safety environmental protection policy. gives evidence of title of ownership of the ship as property and is required by the need of countries to be able to enforce their laws and exercise jurisdiction over their ships. A document issued to a ship which signifies that the Company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved SMS. subject to certain safeguards. A planned holding point for a staged transportation The operation of towing a single tow with a single tug. A survey intended to assess the suitability of a tug. The operation of towing two or more tows in series with one tow wire from a single tug. Restricted operation Risk assessment Safety Management Certificate (SMC) Safety Management System (SMS) SART Seafastening Semi-submersible Shelter point (or shelter port. in the event of actual or forecast weather outside the design limits for the transportation concerned. A vessel which is designed to ballast down to submerge its main deck. See Weather-restricted operation.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym Procedure Registry Definition A documented method statement for carrying out an operation Registry indicates who may be entitled to the privileges of the national flag. Search and Rescue Radar Transponder The means of preventing movement of the cargo or other items carried on or within the barge. structure or item for the purposes of determining condition. A MODU or similar designed to operate afloat. Each stage may. Serviceability Limit State Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan A transportation which can proceed in stages between shelter points. to allow self-floating cargoes to be on-loaded and off-loaded. the second and subsequent tows being connected to the stern of the tow ahead. vessel or other equipment to perform its intended purpose. not leaving or passing each shelter point unless there is a suitable weather forecast for the next stage. Different and distinct from an on-hire survey. be considered a weather-restricted operation. An area or safe haven where a towage or vessel may seek shelter. generally floating on columns which reduce the water-plane area. or tow. Inspection of commodity. flag or ownership changes. The Certificate of Registry remains valid indefinitely unless name. A method of hazard identification where all factors relating to a particular operation are considered. vessel. quality or suitability. or point of shelter) Single tow SLS SOPEP Staged transportation Submersible transport vessel Suitability survey Survey Tandem tow 0030/ND REV 3 Page 17 . and often moored to the seabed when operating. quantity. barge.

leading to the issue of a TVAC. pilotage. Approval by Noble Denton of the tow will normally include. stability. as applicable: consideration of condition and classification of the barge or vessel. a measurement of the volume of the cargo carrying spaces on the vessel. documentation. points of shelter. bollard pull and any geographical limitations which may be imposed. communication equipment. Tonnage Certificates remain valid indefinitely unless significant structural changes are made. Tonnage measurements are principally used for freight and other revenue based calculations. The scheme whereby owners of towing vessels may apply to have their vessels surveyed. shapes and signals.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym Tonnage Definition A measurement of a vessel in terms of the displacement of the volume of water in which it floats. The operation of transporting a non-propelled barge or vessel (whether laden or not with cargo) or other floating object by towing it with a tug. weather forecasting. or was reportedly unchanged at the time of revalidation. securing and weather protection of the cargo. routeing arrangements. The item being towed. strength. lights. in terms of design. bunkers and other consumable supplies. condition. Approval by Noble Denton of the tug will normally include consideration of the general design. The towline pull computed to hold the tow. See Tug A document issued by Noble Denton stating that a towing vessel complied with the requirements of Ref [5] at the time of survey. manning. bunkering arrangements. or alternatively. and is considered suitable for use in towing service within the limitations of its Category. fuel and other consumable supplies. The operation of transporting a tow or a cargo by a towage or a voyage. equipment and condition. This may be a barge or vessel (laden or un-laden) or an item floating on its own buoyancy. emergency equipment. draught. classification. in tonnes. or make a certain speed against a defined weather condition. communication procedures. The procedures for effecting the towage. construction. emergency and salvage equipment. including connections to barge. towing equipment. manning. Towline connection strength (TC) = ultimate load capacity of towline connections. in tonnes. Approval by Noble Denton of the towing (or towage) arrangements will normally include consideration of towlines and towline connections. assisting tugs. The vessel performing a towage. bridle and bridle apex. Defined as: Effective bollard pull produced in the weather considered Certified continuous static bollard pull Tow Towage Towing (or towage) arrangements Towing vessel Towing Vessel Approvability Certificate (TVAC) Towing Vessel Approvability Scheme (TVAS) Towline connection strength Towline pull required (TPR) Transportation Tug Tug efficiency (Te) 0030/ND REV 3 Page 18 .

and maintained as such. For the purposes of this report. is defined as the load. clench plate. in tonnes. in tonnes. when temporarily immersed in green water or fully submerged. which will cause general failure of the structure or its connection into the barge or other structure. An operation with an operational reference period generally greater than 72 hours. An operation with an operational reference period generally less than 72 hours. subject to certain precautions. or is fully blanked off so that no leakage can occur when fully submerged. the operation of transporting a cargo on a powered vessel from one location to another.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Term or acronym TVAS ULS Ultimate Load Capacity (ULC) Definition Towing Vessel Approvability Scheme Ultimate Limit State Ultimate load capacity of a wire rope. World Meteorological Organisation Welding Procedure Specification Working Stress Design Weather unrestricted operation Weatherrestricted operation Weathertight WMO WPS WSD 0030/ND REV 3 Page 19 . A watertight opening is an opening fitted with a closure designated by Class as watertight. The design environmental condition for such an operation shall be set in accordance with extreme statistical data. Vessel Voyage Watertight A marine craft designed for the purpose of transportation by sea. delta plate or similar structure. chain or shackle or similar is the certified minimum breaking load. Ultimate load capacity of a padeye. A weathertight opening is an opening closed so that it is able to resist any significant leakage from one direction only. The design environmental condition for such an operation may be set independent of extreme statistical data. The load factors allow for good quality splices in wire rope.

all reasonable checks. Noble Denton will typically require to consider.4 4.2 4.1 4. or as a Consultant. c.2.1.1 NOBLE DENTON APPROVAL Noble Denton approval means approval by any company within the Noble Denton Group including any associated company which carries out the scope of work and issues a Certificate of Approval. recommendations.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 4 4. the following topics: a. season and design environmental conditions.1 4. 4.3 4.1 SCOPE OF WORK LEADING TO AN APPROVAL In order to issue a Certificate of Approval. An Insurance Warranty is a clause in the insurance policy for a particular venture.1 THE APPROVAL PROCESS GENERAL Noble Denton may act as a Warranty Surveyor. Responsibility for interpreting the terms of the Warranty so that an appropriate Scope of Work can be defined rests with the Assured. preparations and precautions have been taken to keep risks within acceptable limits.3. A Certificate confirming adequate preparation for a transportation will normally be issued by the attending surveyor immediately prior to departure. History. f.2. Noble Denton approval may be required for the loadout and offload operations. cargo.3. with shelter points if applicable Capability of the vessel or barge to carry the cargo Vessel. d.2. the barge or vessel. requiring the approval of a marine operation by a specified independent survey house. cargo.2. and the actual and forecast weather are suitable for departure. or where such operations are deemed to be part of the transportation.3. barge or tow motions Strength of the tow. e. when all preparations including seafastening and ballasting are complete.4 4. or where an independent third party review is required.3 4. either in addition to the transportation. The requirement is normally satisfied by the issue of a Certificate of Approval.2 CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL The deliverable of the approval process will generally be a Certificate of Approval. providing advice. calculations and/or designs as part of the Scope of Work. These functions are not necessarily mutually exclusive.4. seafastening and cribbing to withstand static and motion induced transportation loads Stability of the vessel. Noble Denton approval may be sought where the towage. tug and towing connections (as applicable) have been inspected.2 4. barge or tow Towing resistance and required bollard pull Page 20 0030/ND REV 3 . Voyage or towage route. g. voyage or operation is the subject of an Insurance Warranty.3 4. The Certificate of Approval is the formal document issued by Noble Denton when. and an operation may proceed. 4. condition and documentation of the tow or cargo b. giving Approval to a particular operation. in its judgement and opinion. as applicable. 4.

Limiting weather conditions for the operation. 6] as appropriate. d. c. then the following will typically require consideration: a. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 21 . if applicable Inspection of documentation for vessel. g. 2] and 0027/ND [Ref.2 Towing vessel specification and documentation Towing connections and arrangements Weather protection of the tow or cargo Seafastening of items and substructures within the tow or cargo Arrangements for receiving weather forecasts along the route Transportation procedures. procedures and calculations submitted by the client or his contractors. Survey of the tow or cargo Survey of completed seafastenings and other voyage preparations including vessel or barge readiness. weather-tightness and internal seafastening Survey of tug and towing connections. or A combination of third party reviews and independent analyses. If approval is also required for the onload and/or offload operations of a self-floating cargo onto/from a submersible vessel or barge.4. m.6 The above surveys may be carried out immediately before departure. Independent analyses carried out by Noble Denton to verify the feasibility of the proposals. l. b. Stability and ballasting conditions during the load transfer operation and the critical parts of the deballasting/ballasting operation. 4. f. barge and tug as appropriate Review of actual and forecast weather for departure d. but the client may consider it in his interests to have initial surveys carried out in advance. c. Cargo positioning arrangements.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS h. offload from a vessel or barge to the shore. Location details.4. j. 4. Survey of the transport vessel or barge b.4.4 If approval is required for loadout from the shore onto a vessel or barge. water depth. cargo securing. or b. Cribbing position and securing during submergence. f. 4. c.3 4. including arrangements for holding or deviating to shelter points if required. reference should be made to documents 0013/ND [Ref. or lifting from a vessel or barge to a platform. 4. e. Towing and handling arrangements for the cargo. h. i. to reduce the risk of rejection of any major item. k.5 Surveys required in order to issue a Certificate of Approval will typically include: a. e. Vessel or barge moorings. Reactions between vessel or barge and cargo.4.4. ballast condition. tidal conditions and meteorological exposure. Reviews of specifications. Technical studies leading up to the issue of a Certificate of Approval for transportation may consist of: a.

this being solely the responsibility of the master of the tug or vessel. may render the Certificate void unless the alterations are specifically approved by Noble Denton. A Certificate of Approval for a towage or voyage does not include any moorings prior to the start of the towage or voyage. It does not.and off-hire surveys performed of equipment taken on charter. 4.8 4. It may be advisable to request a survey of an unknown tug prior to mobilisation.4 4. The Certificate covers the surveyed items within the agreed scope of work only. bunkering or arrival port. and liability for degradation or damage.4.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 4. or at any intermediate shelter.5. A Certificate of Approval shall not be deemed or considered to be a general Certificate of Seaworthiness.9 0030/ND REV 3 Page 22 . unless specific instructions are received from the client to include it in the scope of work.3 4. exposure or testing of parts.5.5 4. or any damage to the surveyed cargo as a consequence of inadequacy of any other cargo or its seafastenings. for instance. Fatigue damage is excluded from any Noble Denton approval.5.5. machinery and equipment.2 LIMITATION OF APPROVAL A Certificate of Approval is issued for a specific towage. the client may also consider it in his interests to have on.5. cover any other cargo on board a vessel or barge. No responsibility is accepted by Noble Denton for the way in which the towage or voyage is conducted.5. unless specifically included in the scope of work.4. The towage is deemed to be completed and the related Certificate of Approval invalidated when the approved tug(s) is/are disconnected.5. after issue of a Certificate of Approval. 4. Whilst not forming part of the surveys required for approval.5.7 Tugs in possession of a Noble Denton Towing Vessel Approvability Certificate (TVAC) may be pre-approved in principle in advance. Any alterations in the surveyed items or agreed procedures or arrangements.7 4. A Certificate of Approval is issued based on external conditions observed by the attending surveyor of hull.5. without removal. in order to establish inventories of equipment and consumables.1 4.8 4. voyage or operation only.5 4.6 4. unless specifically approved by Noble Denton.

0030/ND REV 3 Page 23 . A De-rat exemption is issued where inspection has shown no evidence of rats on board. machinery and equipment of a cargo ship. or appointed Classification Society. and on production of various other mandatory documentation.1 CERTIFICATION AND DOCUMENTATION GENERAL In general. Class (Hull and machinery) Vessels and their machinery. Issued after light dues have been paid. all vessels over 400 grt must comply with the requirements of the code. built and maintained in accordance with the Rules of a Classification Society will be assigned a class in the Society’s Register Book. some or all of the documentation listed in the Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 below will be required. De-rat.1 DOCUMENTATION DESCRIPTION Principal documentation and certification is described in the following Table 5-1: Table 5-1 Principal Documentation Document/Certificate Cargo Ship Safety Construction Description Covers the hull. Issued by the Flag State. 5. Issued by a Port medical officer. magnetic compass etc.2 5. Garbage Management A Class-approved document for management of Plan waste. or appointed Classification Society. including life saving appliances. pilot ladders. Cargo Ship Safety This is a record of the safety equipment carried on Equipment the vessel. or De-rat A De-rat Certificate is issued after a vessel has been Exemption fumigated.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 5 5. The documentation and certification requirements for any particular structure. Where new documentation is needed. or dealt with be other means to rid her of rats. Issued by the Classification Society. Issued by the Flag State. Some documentation is mandatory to comply with international legislation and standards. vessel or operation should be determined in advance. Customs clearance Issued by Customs confirming that so far as they are concerned the vessel is free to sail. which will indicate the character assigned to the vessel and machinery. International Oil Pollution Certifies that the vessel complies with international Prevention oil pollution regulations (MARPOL Annex 1). the issuing authority and the Rules to be applied should be identified. lights and shapes. and shows that the ship complies with the construction and safety regulations applicable to the ship and the voyages she is to be engaged in. or appointed Classification Society.1.1 5.2. fire fighting equipment. Unless stated otherwise. and issued with the relevant Certificates. in compliance with SOLAS. Issued by the Flag State.

A document issued by Flag State. drawings are required showing the extent of visibility from the bridge. and the various special marks. or appointed Classification Society. Where temporary equipment.g.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Document/Certificate Lifesaving Appliances Description Normally covered under Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. and ownership. Where a vessel or structure is exempt from some or all of the provisions of the above. which will include any qualifying provisions. showing the minimum safe manning for a vessel A document issued to a ship which signifies that the Company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved Safety Management System. tonnage.ft). and the extension of bilge keels. and is a measure of volume rather that weight. if fitted. Normally covered under Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. Load Line Load Line Exemption Navigation Lights and Shapes Panama Canal documentation Registry Safe Manning document Safety Management Certificate (SMC) Document of Compliance Safety Radio SOPEP Tonnage 0030/ND REV 3 Page 24 . WNA (Winter North Atlantic) etc. Where temporary lights are placed on a structure not in possession of a Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. appointed Classification Society.Class approved Shows the Tonnage as obtained by measurement.83 cu. declaring that it is satisfactory for the intended service. Issued after a vessel has been marked with her assigned load line marks. e. The Certificate gives details of the dimensions related to the freeboard. it is expected that they would be individually certified. e.g. The Certificate of Registry is required by all commercial vessels. Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan . Measured by a surveyor appointed by the Flag State. it may be issued with a Load Line Exemption Certificate. or in possession of a manufacturer’s guarantee of compliance. or Port Authority. For transit through the Panama Canal.m (100 cu. including principal dimensions. with an in-date inspection. Issued by the Flag State Register. to confirm that no changes have occurred to the hull or superstructure which would render invalid the data on which the assignment of freeboard was made. it is expected that each would be individually certified. The vessel must be periodically inspected. Issued by the Flag State. is placed on a structure not in possession of a Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. Issued by the Flag State after survey of the vessel’s radio installation. Issued by the Flag State. 1 ton equals 2. TF (Tropical Fresh). liferafts or fire fighting equipment. It contains the details from the Flag State Register in which the vessel has been registered. or appointed Classification Society. Issued by the Flag State.

Usually prepared by designers.2.3. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 25 . and allowing the actual draught. and must be approved by the Flag State.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Document/Certificate Trim and Stability booklet Description A booklet setting out the vessel’s stability particulars. 3 5.1 ICE CLASS See the comments relating to Ice Class vessels in Section 22. trim and stability characteristics and limitations to be determined for any cargo arrangement.3 5.

Unmanned barges will not be required to have Safety Equipment Certificates. tow wires.4 REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION In general the following documentation (shown as “”) will be required or recommended (those shown as “*” will depend on the regulatory bodies) for the transportation of various types of vessels and floating structures. pennants. 2. Some regulatory bodies may require extra documentation.      stretchers and shackles Suez or Panama Canal documentation (if       relevant) Manned tows     Load line or Load Line Exemption     Certificates for life saving appliances     Crew list     Radio Certificate Notes: 1. Smaller vessels may be exempt from some Certification requirements. (Note 1) 3 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 26 . including GMDSS     Trim and Stability booklet  Bollard pull certificate Certificates for bridle. or exemption   Radio certificate.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 5. unless fitted with machinery. Derat Certificate or IOPP. Some documentation is not required for inland voyages or inland towages. 3. Table 5-2 Required Documentation Barges (Note 2) FPSO /FPU etc towages Other towages Cargo vessels Tugs (Note 1) Demolition towages 3 Document    Certificate of registry     Certificate of class (hull)    Certificate of class (machinery)    Tonnage certificate    Cargo ship safety construction certificate    Cargo ship safety equipment certificate    Certificates for navigation lights & shapes    Load line certificate or load line exemption   Load line exemption (if unmanned) *     IOPP Certificate   Safety Management Certificate (SMC)       Customs clearance      Deratisation certificate.

6. It should be noted that the maximum wave and maximum wind may not occur in the same geographical area. provided that: a.1 OPERATIONAL REFERENCE PERIOD Planning and design of marine transportations shall be based on an operational reference period equal to the planned duration of the operation plus a contingency period. c. The time anticipated for the voyage or towage itself Time anticipated on arrival. d. The planned duration for a transportation shall include.3. design wind and. covering the reference period A risk assessment has been carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable.2 6. The statistics indicate an adequate frequency and duration of the required weather windows b. waiting for the correct tidal conditions to enter harbour If the operation following the transportation is a weather-dependent marine operation such as installation.3 The contingency period shall include.2. the transportation should generally be designed to the 10-year monthly extremes for the area and season. on the basis of a 30 day exposure. the time required after arrival at the installation site to reach a safe condition.2 6.3 and 6. after the departure decision. The design environmental conditions for such an operation may be set independent of extreme statistical data.1.3 6. the design criteria should be defined. if relevant. slower than predicted voyage or towing speed. preparing for departure or waiting for the correct tidal conditions b.1.1 DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS INTRODUCTION Each transportation shall be designed to withstand the loads caused by the most adverse environmental conditions expected for the area and season through which it will pass. and the contingency action is to return to shelter. because of adverse weather conditions or vessel performance below specification b. typically: a. in worsening weather conditions if the operation following the transportation is a weatherdependent marine operation such as installation. For each phase of a transportation or marine operation. Page 27 0030/ND REV 3 . d. c. Adequate marine procedures are in place.3 6. consisting of the design wave. 6.2 6.1 WEATHER-RESTRICTED OPERATIONS A transportation with a reference period generally less than 72 hours may be classed as a weather-restricted operation. design current.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 6 6.2.1. an allowance for: a. Dependable weather forecasts are available The start of the operation is governed by an acceptable weather forecast.2. The time anticipated. Except as allowed by Sections 6. taking account of any agreed mitigating measures.1 6. to establish governing loadcases. in which case it may be necessary to check the extremes in each area. the time required to reach and enter the planned shelter point. 6. as appropriate.5 below. e.

1 CALCULATION OF “ADJUSTED” DESIGN EXTREMES. the delicacy of the operation. through meteorologically and oceanographically consistent areas. for shorter exposures. Consequently.3 6. the maximum forecast operational criteria should be lower than the design criteria by a margin depending on the area and season. 6.2 6.5.7 times the design maxima may be used to determine the maximum forecast operational criteria. The factor is dependent on the duration of the operation and the level of the design criteria set. g. For an ocean transport of 30 days (or more). It is generally accepted that for a prolonged ocean transport the wind and wave design criteria should be those with a probability of exceedance per voyage of 0.4. transportations with an operational reference period greater than 72 hours shall be defined as un-restricted operations. f. 6.2. then the probability of encountering extreme conditions is similarly reduced. This must not be confused with the 10% exceedance value for the transport. An adequate shelter point which can be entered in worsening weather is always available within 48 hours or the transport has sufficient speed to avoid the area of forecast severe weather b. For weather-restricted operations. Typically a factor of 0. provided that: a.5. d. as discussed in Section 6.1 UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS Except as allowed in Section 6.1 or less. Adequate marine procedures and equipment are in place. and the typical reliability of the forecast.2 A transportation with a reference period greater than 72 hours may exceptionally be classed as a weather-restricted operation. If the 10 year extremes are due to a tropical cyclone it may not be appropriate to design to adjusted extremes.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 28 .3 An acceptable weather routing service is contracted and is available for advice at any time Weather forecasts are received at appropriate intervals The weather forecast service is contracted to issue a warning should the weather forecast deteriorate Management resources of interested parties are always available with the right authority level to monitor any decision to proceed to shelter A risk assessment has been carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable. or are potentially exposed to the most severe conditions for less than 30 days.4 6.5 6. This value is equivalent to the 10 voyage extreme and is also referred to as the 10% risk level extreme.9. UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS The risk of encounter of extreme conditions by a particular transport is dependent on the length of time that it spends in those route sectors where extreme conditions are possible.3. c.3. This is likely to be the case for barge or MODU towages that are not able to respond effectively to weather routeing. Many transports last less than 30 days.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 6. 6. this corresponds to the 10 year monthly extreme.5.5. the 10 year monthly extreme may be adjusted for reduced exposure. If the length of time is reduced.3. e. 6.

is assumed to be covered by a reliable departure weather forecast and is excluded b. This allowance is to account for severe adverse weather.2 The speed of the transport is adjusted to take into consideration the mean currents as described in Section 6.g. and 8m for ships.8 6.3.7 6. F.3 2 where Hm is the monthly mean wave height in that route sector. If it is reasonable to expect that extremes of wind speed or wave height could occur in more than one route sector then the probability of not exceeding the value x is given by the product 6.6. e. The effect of the mean current on the transport speed in each route sector is calculated by adding the current vector (resolved with respect to the transport heading).1 6.7. 6.8.8.1 CALCULATION OF EXPOSURE For the purpose of the calculation of “adjusted” extremes the exposure time to potentially extreme or near extreme conditions is calculated taking consideration of the points discussed below.7. For the calculation of exposure to the extreme conditions only negative currents which act to delay the transport shall be taken into account.1 CALCULATION OF EXTREMES The probability of non-exceedance of a value of wind speed or significant wave height in a particular route sector is expressed as a cumulative frequency distribution (e. This is typically 5m for barge towages.4 F i Xi ( x) Ni 0030/ND REV 3 Page 29 .8. The effect of the mean sea state on the transport speed in each route sector is calculated assuming that the wave height in which the transport will come to a dead stop is b (metres). for tug breakdowns or other operational difficulties A minimum exposure time of 3 days is considered. The initial 48 hours of the transportation. The speed of the transport is reduced by taking the monthly mean wave heights along the route into consideration as described in Section 6.3 6. d. a. defined by: H F  1  m   b   6.7.6 6.8. If it takes M hours to pass through the route sector and making the assumption that consecutive wave height and wind speed events are independent then the probability of not exceeding the value x is given by [FX(x)]N where N=M/T where T=1 hour is applied for winds and T=3 hours for waves. which are a more persistent form of energy. The probability that during some 3 hour period for waves (or 1 hour for wind) the transport will experience a significant wave height (or wind speed) less than some value x is given by FX(x).2 6.7. a Weibull distribution). 6. c.2 CALCULATION OF VOYAGE SPEED Voyage duration shall be calculated using the speed in the monthly mean sea state for each route sector and shall allow for adverse currents as described below. The calm weather speed is multiplied by a factor.7.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 6. A contingency time of 25 percent of the time is added.

the maximum wind speed and the maximum wave height experienced somewhere along the tow route are retained. 6. or as having a risk level of 10%. and wind speed against direction. during a transport lasting 10 days there will be 240 wind events and 80 wave events.2 If each observed value of wind speed or significant wave height is assumed to last for some duration (typically 1 hour for winds and 3 hours for waves) then for example. on average. 10 year extreme value.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 6. Thus a 10% exceedance value is far more likely to occur than a 10% risk level value.9.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 30 . hourly occasions then the percentage exceedance of 30 knots is 10%. on average. A large number of simulations can be performed. The method may be adjusted to give other risk levels (e.3) for a transport along a specific route. 1% or 5%). with uniformly spaced (in time) departure times during the specified month of departure over the number of years in the database. during a particular transport. if a wind speed greater than 30 knots is observed during 24 separate.6 This value is also referred to as the “adjusted” extreme for the transport.5 The probability of encountering an extreme value of wind speed or significant wave height. However a value with a 10% exceedance level for the same route and departure date is likely to occur on average for 10% of the time on every transport. or an adjusted.4 6. the complete distributions of winds and waves experienced during the simulated transports (not just the transport-maximum values) can be retained. departing on a specific date is expected to occur only once. from hindcast data or satellite observations). the value exceeded once in every 20 transports. If fatigue during tow is an issue.1 CRITERIA FROM TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS If continuous time series of winds and waves are available along the entire transport route (e. The value of x is varied until 1   FX i ( x) N i is equal to 0.10 6. The 10% risk level (as defined in Section 6.1 i to give the 10 transport extreme for the voyage or towage. in every 10 transports. On the transport. that is reached or exceeded once on average for every 10 transports is 0. an alternative way to develop criteria with a specified risk of exceedance in a single transport is to perform tow simulations.g.8.5. Then the probability distribution of these transport-maxima can be used to determine the design value with a specified risk of exceedance.9. 6. For example.10.10.9.1.9 6.8.3 6. 6. For each simulated transport.1 COMPARISON WITH PERCENTAGE EXCEEDENCE Given a series of values of wind speed or significant wave height.9. some value y will be exceeded at some times but not others and the percentage exceedance of value y is equal to: 100  (number of times y exceeded ) total number of observations 6. can be determined by reading off the value of wave height from the distribution of transportmaximum wave heights at the 95th percentile level.g. as may be observed during a complete transport. These can be used to give scatter diagrams of wave height against period and/or direction. 6.

10 is used.13. If the transport simulator cannot accommodate all these features. it is important to know the accuracy of the metocean database being used.a slow speed may not be conservative if it results in the vessel apparently arriving in a route sector late enough to miss severe weather.14 6.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 6. etc.11.14. 6. Hsig is approximately equal to H1/3 (the mean height of the largest third of the zero up-crossing waves). Advice should be provided as to the appropriate spectra. 6. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 31 . variation of speed due to inclement weather or ocean currents. which might have been encountered if arrival had been earlier.12 6. In sea states with only a narrow band of wave frequencies. it is essential to adjust the criteria accordingly. where Hsig = 4m0 where m0 is the sea surface variance. The 1 hour wind may also be needed in the calculation process.10.1 DESIGN WIND SPEED The design wind speed shall be the 1 minute mean velocity at a reference height of 10m above sea level. 6.13 6. weather avoidance en route through forecasting/routing services.11 6. Specifically.3 The transport simulation method can be made to be very realistic and account for. a reasonably conservative estimate of criteria can be derived by using a conservative (slow) estimate of the average speed. which are covered in Section 12.1 DESIGN WAVE HEIGHT The design wave height shall be the significant wave height (Hsig). or the use of safe havens. if there is a known bias in the wind or wave statistics for any segment of a tow.12. 6.2.8 or the method described in Section 6. Care should be taken when choosing the average speed estimate .1 METOCEAN DATA FOR BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS The design extremes are not normally used for calculation of bollard pull requirements.1 METOCEAN DATABASE BIAS Regardless of whether the method described in Section 6.

seastates shall include all relevant spectra up to and including the design wave height for the most severe areas of the proposed voyage route.40 Tp/T1 1.40 1.26 Constant K 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 γ 1.3.0 1.286.9.6 Tp/Tz 1. varies from 13 to 30 as shown in the equation in Section 7. 7.29 1. 7. The following Table 7-1 indicates how the characteristics of the JONSWAP wave energy spectrum vary over the range of recommended seastates.3.8 1.0 1.34 1. Table 7-1 Value of JONSWAP γ.Hsig) where Hsig is in metres. for a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum (γ=1) Tp/Tz = 1.32 1.39 1. Tp in seconds. the peak period (Tp) should be varied as:  (13.1 MOTION RESPONSE GENERAL Design motions may be derived by means of motion response analyses.0 1.2 7.41. The most probable maximum responses are to be based on a 3 hour exposure period.29 1.3.4 2.3 1.29 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 32 . For a mean JONSWAP spectrum (γ=3.23 1.3 3. K. ratio of Tp:Tz and Tp:T1 for each integer value of K Constant K 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 γ 5.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7 7.27 1. T1 is the mean period (also known as Tm).40 1.0 1. at the natural period of roll and/or pitch of the tow.0 1.28 1.4 1.2.40 1.36 Tp/T1 1.20 1.3 7.24 1.1 PERIODS For all seastates considered.1.25 1.2 7.3. from model tank testing.17 1.29 1.2 7.27 1.29 1. Consideration should be given to the choice of spectrum which should be applicable to the geographic area and Hs of the design sea states.1 above.40 1.2 2. or by using the default equivalent motion values shown in Section 7.40 1.Hsig) < Tp <  (30.26 1. The constant.1 7.37 1.0 Tp/Tz 1.0 4.29 1. A wave height smaller than the design wave height.3 The relationship between the peak period Tp and the zero-up crossing period Tz is dependent on the spectrum.29 1.24 1. 7.21 1.7 2.2.1 1.35 1.1 SEASTATE For the motion analyses.3) Tp/Tz = 1.31 1. "Long-crested" seas will be considered unless there is a justifiable basis for using "short-crested" seas.19 1. should also be checked if necessary.18 1.7 3.40 1.29 1.1 1.

7. Analyse the transport for the period of the design wave for Tp ± 1 sec. Tp. beam. if a detailed analysis of the joint probability distribution of significant wave height vs. Therefore the component of heave parallel to the deck at the computed roll or pitch angle (theta) is additive to the forces caused by the static gravity component and by the roll or pitch acceleration.6 7. 7. The effect of any reduction in GM must. should be adjusted for the speed of the vessel as follows: 1 13H S  TP  V SHIP cos  1.4 7. The effect of swell shall be considered. be considered in intact and damage stability calculations.7. The validation is to be made available to Noble Denton and is to contain appropriate analytical work which must be compared with applicable model tests. heave shall be assumed to be parallel to the global vertical axis.6.4.7. 7. Analyse the transport for combinations of significant wave height and peak period having the same joint probability of occurrence as the design wave height and the most probable peak period.5 7. When applying the results of a first-order motion response analysis program.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 33 .1 THE EFFECTS OF FREE SURFACES The application of free surface corrections to reduce metacentric height (GM) and hence to increase natural roll period will not generally be accepted. In addition the analysis should be carried out for non-beam sea cases for the maximum service speed of the vessel or the maximum speed that can be maintained in the given seastate. bow quartering. however.56 13H S 1 30 H S V SHIP cos  1. The range of probable peak wave periods.56 30 H S 3 where VSHIP is the ship speed in m/s and θ is the ship’s heading in degrees (0 = head seas.4.5.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7.1 7.1 THE EFFECTS OF CARGO IMMERSION The effect of cargo immersion in increasing GM and hence reducing natural roll period as well as increasing damping should be considered in motion response analyses.2 VESSEL HEADING AND SPEED The analyses should be carried out for zero vessel speed for head. peak wave period (Tp) is carried out.7 7. and: b. 180 = following seas).4 Alternatively.3. stern quartering and stern seas.1 MOTION RESPONSE COMPUTER PROGRAMS Computer programs shall be validated against a suitable range of model test results in irregular seas. 7. the following criteria may be applied: a. 7.

2. which is required for design. The standard deviation of the responses should then be multiplied by (2. motions or accelerations from model test results can be used provided ten similar realisations.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7. size and nature of transport Large vessels L > 140 m LOA and B > 30 m Medium vessels L > 76 m and B > 23 m (other than large vessels) Small vessels L <76 m or B < 23 m Large cargo barges L > 76 m LOA and B > 23 m Small cargo barges L <76 m or B < 23 m Independent leg jack-ups.2 g 0.5 Heave 0.e) Full cycle period 10 secs 10 secs 10 secs 10 secs 10 secs 10 secs 10 secs 13 secs 13 secs 10 secs Static Single amplitude Roll Pitch 20 20 30 20 25 10 20 8 16 5 10 12. where N is the number of zero-upcrossings. the following motion criteria may be acceptable. 7.9.0 0.8.9. Scale effects should also be accounted for by increasing the design loads by a further 10% or a mutually agreed value. are carried out to ensure that variations between individual tests are accounted for. Generally. Maximum values of global loads.1 g 0.5 15 10 20 8 16 2.5 15 12.2. weather restricted operations in benign areas (see Section 7. and are therefore unreliable for use as design values.logn(N)).1 g in both directions 0030/ND REV 3 Page 34 . to obtain the most probable maximum in 3 hours. 24hour or location move Independent leg jack-ups.9.2 g 0. The design value should be the mean plus two standard deviations.0 0.d) Inland and sheltered water transportations (see Section 7. for transportation analyses.0 0.8 7.0 Equivalent to 0.1 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA If neither a motions study nor model tests are performed. ocean tow on own hull Mat-type jack-ups.2 g 0. type.9 7. then for standard configurations and subject to satisfactory marine procedures. provided the tests pass the usual review of overall integrity. The individual measured maxima from model tests should generally not be used in design as these vary between different realisations of the same sea conditions.1 RESULTS OF MODEL TESTS Model tests may be used to derive design motions. 24-hour or location move Mat-type jack-ups.0 0.2 7. the model test results should present the standard deviation of the relevant responses.2 g 0. or greater. ocean tow on own hull Vessels and barges.2 g 0. The mean and standard deviations of the maxima should be calculated.8. Table 7-2 Default Motion Criteria Vessel or towed object.

b.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7. 10].9. for example. for instance.9. the shelter available and the weather forecasting services to be utilised. 7. or similar b. Roll and pitch axes shall be assumed to pass through the centre of floatation.9. redundant systems to maintain any desired heading in all conditions up to and including the design storm. Chapter 1. Phasing shall be assumed to combine. roll + heave pitch + heave c. shall be taken. The criteria stated for weather-restricted operations in benign areas. taking account of the windage of the cargo. 2003 Edition. Single tug towages.1 g static load parallel to the deck.1 DIRECTIONALITY AND HEADING CONTROL The incident weather shall be considered to be effectively omni-directional. d. the static inclination caused by the design wind. of constant direction. Section 7 [Ref.10 7. crossing of the Indian Ocean or Arabian Sea in the south-west monsoon Any towage in a Tropical Revolving Storm area and season Any un-manned towage. Section 4 [Ref. Heave shall be assumed to be parallel to the global vertical axis. as set out. Any transport where the vessel does not have sufficient.10.3 below). January 2003. Part 3.9. For inland and sheltered water transportations. The actual criteria should be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned. as stated in Section 7. beam and stern-quartering directions shall be considered for: a. e. 9]. Care should be taken to ensure that the criteria adopted are applicable to the actual case in question. f. or voyages by vessels with non-redundant propulsion systems (see Section 7.4.2 The default motion criteria shown in Section 7.3 Alternative default motion criteria may be acceptable. the weather conditions which may be encountered. including. the loadings caused by a 0. e.10. shall only be applied in accordance with the following: a. are given as general guidance for short duration barge towages and vessel transports. and of long duration. taking into account the nature of the vessel or barge and cargo. or IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing. 7. as separate loadcases. whichever is the greatest.1. in accordance with Section 7. No relaxation in the design seastates from the bow-quartering. Any transport where the design conditions on any route sector are effectively beam on or quartering. the most severe combinations of   d. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 35 . in DNV Rules for the Classification of Ships. Therefore the component of heave parallel to the deck at the roll or pitch angles shown above is additive to the forces caused by the static gravity component and by the roll or pitch acceleration. c. the voyage route. Any transport where the default motion criteria are used. or the most severe inclination in the one-compartment damage condition.

the remaining tug(s) still comply with the criteria of Section 12.10. It shall not be applied to considerations of stability.10.7 For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7.10. Manned. a risk assessment shall be carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable.10.120) + 120 + (120 .2 Relaxation in the non-head sea cases may be considered for: a.10. where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Section 7. Such relaxation shall only apply to considerations of accelerations.4 7. taking account of the windage of the cargo.3 7. to establish whether or not a vessel can be considered to have a redundant propulsion system. or an alternative means of operation of a single steering system (but excluding emergency steering systems that cannot be operated from the bridge) the ability to maintain any desired heading in all conditions up to and including the design storm.2 b.150) + (150 . loads and stresses. An advance survey may be required. A vessel with a redundant propulsion system is defined as having. Table 7-3 Reduced Seastate v Heading Incident angle (Head Seas = 0) 0 . where after breakdown of any one tug or breakage of any one towline or towing connection.  7.180) Applicable Hsig. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 36 .5 Any vessel not complying with all the above shall be considered non-redundant. multiple tug towages.10.2.5.60) + 60 + (60 .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7.10. as % of design sea state (adjusted as appropriate) 100% Linear interpolation between 100% and 80% 80% Linear interpolation between 80% and 60% 60% Linear interpolation between 60% and 80% 80% Linear interpolation between 80% and 100% 100% 7. In general. the following is a guide to the acceptable sea state values. This should be confirmed as being suitable on a case-by-case basis. as a minimum:      2 or more independent main engines 2 or more independent fuel supplies 2 or more independent power transmission systems 2 or more independent switchboards 2 or more independent steering systems.+ 30 + (30 .90) + 90 + (90 . Voyages by self-propelled vessels with redundant propulsion systems.10.2 and 7.6 7.10.

5. He should be qualified to discuss with the Master weather conditions forecast and encountered. 7.10 Critical parameters should preferably be ones the Master can observe or measure.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 7. the towage/voyage arrangements shall contain. e.10. and any recommendations arising Contingency actions in the event of any breakdown.10.2 and 7.10. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 37 .10. For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7. c.8 For any transport where a relaxation is allowed in accordance with Sections 7. in a format of use to the Master: a.10.5.2 and 7. The limitations on critical parameters b. d. The Master should confirm that he can accept that the effects of these restrictions are practicable.10.10. 7. it is strongly recommended that an independent Company (Cargo Owner’s) Representative is on board to witness events.9 Procedures for monitoring and recording of critical parameters Procedures for heading control Results of the risk assessment. routing advice received and avoidance techniques adopted.

the effects of phase differences between the various motions can be considered. or if the method of calculation has been suitably validated. The fluctuating components shall be the worst possible combination of the loads resulting from calculations or model tests carried out in accordance with Sections 7. with due account to be taken of the effects of phase. including heave.1 LOADINGS INTRODUCTION The structure of the cargo or tow.2.2 8. 3 8. if resulting from model test measurements.9.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 38 . a reduction of 10 percent may be applied to fluctuating loadcases F1 through F8 which combine maximum wind and wave effects.2. 8. shall be shown to possess adequate strength to resist the loads imposed due to the specified or calculated motions and wind.3. 8. if wind induced or wave induced loads individually exceed the reduced load. The cargo shall be shown to possess adequate strength to withstand the local cribbing and seafastening reactions. hull and jackhouses of selfelevating units. F2: Loadings caused by surge and sway acceleration F3: Loadings caused by pitch and roll acceleration F4: Loadings caused by the gravity component of pitch and roll motion F5: Loadings caused by direct wind F6: Loadings caused by heave acceleration. All influential loadings shall be considered: however the following static and environmental loadings are the most likely to be of importance: S1: Loadings caused by gravity including the effects of the most onerous ballast condition on the voyage.2. However.1 One of the following three methods shall be used to determine the design loadings: Except as noted in Section 7.2. combined with the additional loading caused by any overhang of the cargo over the side of the vessel or barge. In cases where it is not convenient or possible to determine the relative phasing of extreme wind loadings and heave accelerations with roll/sway or pitch/surge maxima. then the greatest single effect shall be considered.sin(theta) terms F7: Loadings caused by wave induced bending F8: Loadings caused by slam and the effects of immersion.1 through 7. including the legs.2.3 8.1.1.8.2 8.2 8.1 8.2. F1: Loadings caused by the wind heel and trim angle.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 8 8.3.1 LOADCASES Loadcases for each heading shall be derived by the addition of fluctuating loads resulting from wind and wave action to static loads resulting from gravity and still water initial conditions.

at the expense of increased cargo stresses.3 8. e. or The seafastening design allows little or no flexibility between cargo and barge. F1. c. The towed hull is not a classed. seagoing vessel or barge. d. See also Sections 9.5.3.4. may be inherently much stiffer than the barge.4.4 for jackups. F4 and F6 are as defined in Section 8. F3. 8. Combined roll and pitch are not required. The cargo is longer than about 1/3rd of the transport barge or vessel length. the loads applied to the cargo shall be: S1 + F1 + F3 + F4 + F6 where: S1. 8. or The relative stiffness of the hull and cargo could cause unacceptable stresses to be induced in either. or The cargo is supported longitudinally on more than 2 groups of supports. or b.5 8.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 8.2 c) roll and pitch cases are to be considered separately.2 CARGO BUOYANCY AND WAVE SLAM Cargo overhangs which are occasionally immersed.1 DEFAULT MOTION CRITERIA For loads computed in accordance with Section 7. will require special consideration. As stated in Section 7.3 Some cargoes.2 for friction.5. Buoyant cargoes. 9.2. particularly where the buoyancy contributes to stability requirements. and will reduce barge deflections.9.2. 3 8.1 8. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 39 .3 Alternatively.1 LONGITUDINAL BENDING The potential effects of longitudinal wave bending effects need to be considered if: a. the total loads may be calculated by combination of loads as follows: S1 + F1(1hr) + F5(1hr) +  {[F2+F3+F4+F6]2 + [F1(1min)+F5(1min)–F1(1hr)–F5(1hr)]2} Where: F(1hr) F(1min) = = Loads based on 1 hour mean wind speed Loads based on 1 minute mean wind speed. The effects of buoyancy and wave slam loading shall also be considered if appropriate.2 8.9.3 for seafastening design and 19.4. shall be adequately secured against lift-off unless it can be shown that lift-off will not occur. and which may receive loadings due to wave slam and/or immersion.4 8.3.2. 8.2. such as large steel jackets.

1.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 40 . 7 and 8. This is of particular importance in the calculation of shear forces and bending moments in the legs of self-elevating units and similar tall structures.1. The loads shall include components due to the distribution of mass and rotational inertia of the cargo.1 9.3 9. the loads on cargo components and ship-loose items may be greater. 9. If the computed loads are less than the “Minimum allowable seafastening force” shown in Table 9-1. Its centre of gravity may be higher above the roll centre in the dry-transportation condition than in any of its floating service conditions.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9 9.1. according to Sections 6. seafastening and components of the cargo shall be derived from the loads acting on the cargo. but is being dry-transported. dunnage. then the values in the Table shall apply.1 DESIGN AND STRENGTH COMPUTATION OF LOADS The loads acting on grillages. Even though the transportation motions may appear to be less than the service motions. as applicable.1.2 9. Care should be taken in cases where the cargo may be designed for service loads in the floating condition. cribbing.

20 0.000 Maximum allowable coefficient of friction 0.000 (%W) For transport of pipes and similar tubular goods. The friction coefficient may be interpolated as a function of overhang using the maximum cargo overhang.000 ≤ W < 40. longitudinally. as shown in the following Table 9-1 and subject to Section 9.000 20.10 0 0 0 0 0.20 0.20 0.000 10. longitudinally.10 0 Minimum allowable seafastening force. Table 9-1 Maximum allowable coefficients of friction & minimum seafastening forces Cargo weight. to resist part of the computed loadings on the cribbing and seafastenings.20 0.20 0.5% Notes: 1) For 20. shall be not less than 7.10 0 0 0 0. tonnes 100 1.10 0 0 0 0 0 0.000 None < 15 m 15 – 25 m 25 – 35 m 35 .20 0. shall be not less than 15 .20 0.000 tonnes.20 0.000 20.45 m > 45 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.20 0. This shows the maximum coefficient of friction which may be considered. and the minimum allowable seafastening force.000 5. transversely. the minimum allowable seafastening force.W/4.2 9.10 0 See Note 1 See Note 3 Overhang <100 > 40.000 ≤ W < 40. the minimum allowable seafastening force. See Section 9.000 <W< <W< <W< <W< <W< 1.000 40. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 41 .20 0. the above table does not apply.2.6. below which the actual seafastening design capability shall not be allowed to fall. cargo overhangs and arrangements of cribbing and seafastenings.000 ≤ W < 20.20 0.W/4.5 . the effects of friction may be used.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. the minimum allowable seafastening force. shall be not less than 3. %W Transverse Longitudinal 10% 5% 10% 5% 10% 5% 10% 5% 10% See Note 2 5% 1.10 0 0 0. expressed as a percentage of cargo weight.000 tonnes.000 5.20 0. W.2.20 0.000 10.W/20.000 (%W) For 20.2.5 .20 0.1 FRICTION For certain cargo weights.000 (%W) 2) 3) 4) 5) For 10.000 tonnes.

Friction forces shall be computed using the normal reaction between the vessel and cargo compatible with the direction of the heave.8 and 8. stanchions may be fitted to provide transverse cribbing restraint. The “Minimum allowable seafastening force” is the minimum allowable value of seafastening restraint. i.2. For wood cribbing less than 600 mm high. except as allowed by Section 9. As an alternative to (e) through (h) above.2 Friction is allowed as a contribution to seafastening restraint subject to the following: a. in mm. Where such stanchions are fitted. Provided that the conditions in (e) above are met. Thus. j. e.9 and 8. In such cases. but the relative flexibility of the cribbing and seafastenings shall be taken into account. then the percentage computed friction force shall not exceed (900 .sin(theta) increases the force parallel to the deck. The overhang is the distance from the side of the vessel to the extreme outer edge of the cargo.3. where H = the height of cribbing above deck. it also increases the normal reaction and vice-versa.2. such as turning a barge back alongside the quay after a loadout.6. they should be designed to carry loads due to a friction coefficient of 0.2 above. when heave. but when this is not the case the more detailed approach given in (j) below shall be used.5 (to ensure they are able to carry loads due to upper-bound friction assumptions). they shall comply with (h) above. expressed as a percentage of cargo weight. h. This will be reasonable in most cases.sin(theta) term used in computing the forces parallel to the deck in Section 8. Where stanchions are used. For very short duration moves in sheltered water. a more detailed approach may be used. for cribbing heights between 600 and 900 mm. the friction force due to the friction coefficient permitted in Table 9-1 may be assumed to act in any direction relative to the cribbing provided that: (i) (ii) f. The cargo is supported by wood dunnage or cribbing – friction is not allowed for steel to steel interfaces. is less than this value. Loadings are computed in accordance with Sections 7. AND each of these groups is reasonably well balanced about the cargo CoG in plan. The underlying assumption in the approach given above is that the seafastenings have sufficient flexibility to deflect in the order of at least 2mm without failing. d. c. Friction may not be used if the loadings are computed in accordance with the default criteria in Sections 7. then friction may be allowed to 3 g.2. or with a width less than 300 mm. If greater cribbing friction is required than available according to (f) and (g) above. l. the friction permitted in Table 9-1 can be doubled.2 though 7.H)/3 %. b. as computed. with a width not less than 300 mm. the cribbing is reasonably well balanced in terms of the proportion in the fore-aft and transverse directions. no friction force is assumed to act in a direction at right angles to the line of the cribbing.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 42 . For wood cribbing over 900 mm high. k. The arrangements shall be such as to ensure that the required lateral load can be carried by the combination of friction & seafastening reactions BEFORE the seafastenings are overstressed. in the event that the total required seafastening force. with a width not less than 300 mm.

capable of resisting the loads induced by bending and shear. Grillage and seafastening design is frequently influenced by the loadout method.3.4. Cargoes loaded out by trailers normally need a grillage structure higher than the minimum trailer height. or floated over a submersible barge or vessel. dunnage. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 43 . Pitch stops at one point only along the cargo.3. seafastenings include any grillage. shall be demonstrated to be capable of withstanding the loading generated. d. In long modules carried as cargo. Cargoes lifted onto the transport barge or vessel. and are seafastened to. The grillage or cribbing height must allow for any projections below the cargo support line. there should be adequate flexibility in the connections to avoid overstress. Welded steel seafastenings are preferred. Chain binders or turnbuckles shall be tensioned before departure to spread the load between the seafastenings and secured so that they cannot become slack.3. In general. Guidance on good practice for lashings and similar devices may be found in the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Securing and Stowing. The entire load path.3. Cargoes loaded by skidding normally remain on. Seafastenings shall be designed to accept deflections of the barge or vessel in a seaway.3. and the connections to the barge or vessel. When the WLL /SWL is not known.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS contribute. the skidways. The design load in any chain used for seafastening should not exceed the certified (lifting) WLL or SWL of the chain.1 SEAFASTENING DESIGN In this context. chain or wire lashings with suitable tensioning devices may be acceptable. Quasi-static barge hogging and sagging should be considered in a wave of length L equal to the barge length. 9. cribbing or other supporting structure.7 9.4 9. 10].61L.8 9. c. Chocks which allow some movement between the barge and cargo b. with other points free to slide or deflect longitudinally Vertical supports at only 2 positions longitudinally An integrated structure of barge-seafastenings-cargo. Wire lashings are not recommended for unmanned transportations unless such inspections can be made.3.6 9.3. are frequently supported by timber cribbing or dunnage to distribute the loads and allow for minor undulations in the deck plating. metres.1 and 8.25. for towed objects such as FPSOs. which may have permanently installed modules with piping or other connections between them. Where longitudinal bending is a consideration. 2003 Edition [Ref. In the absence of more detailed information.4. Seafastenings shall be designed to withstand the global loadings as computed in Sections 7 and 8. It should be noted that the transport wave bending condition may be more severe than the operating condition.2 9. principally due to longitudinal bending.3 9.9 Additionally. it shall be taken as no more than the certified BL / 2. 9.2. roll. typically of less than 100 tonnes. but for smaller cargoes.5 9. internal pipework should be similarly considered. pitch and uplift stops. suitable seafastening designs include: a.3 9.3. and height = 0. Lashings should be inspected regularly and after bad weather to ensure that tension is maintained. including the potential sliding surfaces. longitudinal bending should be considered for the cases described in Sections 8. it should be assumed that the barge will incur bending and shear deflection as if unrestrained by the cargo.3.

A minimum clearance of 0.4.3.2. should not normally be less than 200 mm high. that underdeck connections between deck plating and stiffeners or bulkheads are adequate.2.3.2 9. 9. vessel and cribbing. Items of the cargo which are vulnerable to wave action. Ideally the type of timber selected should withstand the computed cribbing pressures without crushing. The cribbing pressure should be calculated taking into account the deadweight of the cargo plus the loads caused by the design environmental loadings.3.4. Cribbing designed to pick up structural members in the underside of the cargo. topped by a soft packing layer. such that the cargo is secure for a 10 degree static angle until the release of the final stage. the seafastenings should be designed accordingly.4 for dry transportations.4. or both. normally by means of guides or a cradle. Where a lift is made onto a barge offshore. A satisfactory arrangement may consist of hardwood for the main cribbing structure. and the removal of any one item.3.4 9. particularly those which may be influenced by longitudinal deflections of the barge or vessel. Weather protection should be used to minimise the effects of wet conditions.3. particularly tension connections. subject to consideration of the overall allowable loads on the deck of the vessel and the underside of the cargo.4. should be carried out with the barge or vessel ballasted to the transportation condition.4. then this may be acceptable. or as close as draught limitations permit. and gas free certification has been obtained. under the static loadings and the design environmental loadings as shown in Sections 7 and 8. Seafastenings landing on doubler plates are not generally acceptable as tension connections. say 50 mm thick.13 9.4 9. Should it be demonstrated that the cargo. Internal seafastenings may be needed to prevent items moving inside structures or modules.3. The release of seafastenings. Calculations should be presented to justify all connections. without crushing.f and 9.3.g.18 3 9. then sufficient material should be provided to ensure an adequate distribution of load to the underside of the cargo and to the deck of the transport vessel. the seafastenings should be capable of being released in stages. wetting or weather damage shall be suitably protected. See also the caution in Section 9. the transport vessel deck. For cargoes that will be removed offshore.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. without taking into account the strong points.2.10 Connections to the deck of a barge or vessel should be carefully considered. Final welded connections.16 9.1 CRIBBING Where the cargo is supported on wooden cribbing or dunnage.2.3.4. It should not be assumed. Localised crushing to accommodate cargo and cribbing imperfections is permissible. In the case of a random or herring-bone dunnage layout supporting a flat-bottomed cargo. and fixed to the deck of the vessel.15 9.3 9. Welding of seafastenings should not be carried out in wet conditions.6 0030/ND REV 3 . This may require provision of breakwaters or waterproofing of sensitive areas. Guide posts should not be used for seafastenings unless specifically designed for that purpose.17 9.075 m should be provided between the lowest protrusion of the cargo and the deck of the barge or vessel. Care should be taken to avoid welding onto fuel oil tanks or oil cargo tanks.14 9. See also the comments on cribbing width in Sections 9. which will hold the cargo whilst it is being seafastened. unless the tanks are empty. Page 44 9. should not disturb the seafastenings of any other item.3. without inspection. The nominal bearing pressure on the cribbing should not normally exceed 4 N/mm2 for softwood.1. then the maximum cribbing pressures should not exceed 1 N/mm2.12 9.5 9. can withstand a higher pressure. rather than steel-tosteel supports.11 9.

6 9. occurring no more frequently than the maximum design wave. The structural strength of high quality structural steelwork with full material certification and NDT inspection certificates showing appropriate levels of inspection (see Section 9. A minimum of 5º should be considered.40 1. grillage and seafastenings shall be shown to possess adequate strength to resist the loads imposed during the voyage. which are dominated by extreme environmental forces may generally be treated as an ultimate limit state (ULS) / Survival storm case.5 Stress in fillet fillet welds for brackets loaded by a force acting in a direction parallel to the weld bead shall be assessed using the method presented in APPENDIX F . In cases where this cannot be avoided by means of a suitable WPS.  Steelwork subject to NDT prior to elapse of the recommended cooling and waiting time as defined by the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and NDT procedures.0 0. If the AISC 13th Edition is used. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 45 .5.05 3 9. Stress levels shall be within those permitted by the latest edition of a recognised and applicable offshore structures code.20 9.4 9. for example the underdeck members of a barge or vessel. 9.5.75 LRFD Option 1.5.3 9.7 Any load case may be treated as a normal serviceability limit state (SLS) / Normal operating case.5.1 STRESS LEVELS IN CARGO. the allowables shall be compared against member stresses determined using a load factor on both dead and live loads of no less than: WSD option SLS: ULS: 1. it may be necessary to increase the strength or impose a reduction on the design/permissible seastate.7 For cargoes floated on and/or off a grounded or partially grounded transport barge or vessel.60 1. Infrequent load cases. the cribbing should be designed to withstand loads caused by point loads and trim or heel angles during on-load and off-load.2 9.5 9.5.5. The cargo shall be shown to have adequate strength to withstand the local cribbing and seafastening loads. Any additional loadings caused by any overhang of the cargo over the side of the transport vessel.5.. Traditionally AISC has also been considered a reference code.4. buoyancy forces and wave slam loadings shall be included. GRILLAGE & SEAFASTENINGS The cargo. The allowables shall be compared against member stresses determined using a load factor on both dead and live loads of no less than SLS: ULS: 1.7) shall be assessed using the methodology of a recognised and applicable offshore code including the associated load and resistance factors for LRFD codes or safety factors for ASD/WSD codes.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. This does not apply to:  Steelwork subject to deterioration and/or limited initial NDT unless the condition of the entire loadpath has been verified.

3 0. Transport of drill pipe. friction may be assumed to resist longitudinal seafastening loads.6. 14]. and the weather conditions expected.epoxy coated pipe Friction coefficient 0. the maximum permissible stacking height shall be established. on vessels and barges. Smaller diameter pipes such as drill pipe may be stacked without individual chocking arrangements and restrained transversely by means of vertical stanchions.timber Uncoated steel . the nature of the cargo.2 9.2. steel strongbacks should be fitted over the top layer. collars. conductors marine risers and similar. The stanchions.6 Caution should be exercised where sand may be present between the friction surfaces as this may considerably reduce the friction coefficient. taken collectively.1 SECURING OF PIPE AND OTHER TUBULAR GOODS This section refers to the transport of tubulars. the duration of the towage or voyage. a.4 9. including line pipe.4 0.3 9. The degree and design of securing required will depend on the type of vessel.6.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9.1 and 9.uncoated steel Epoxy coated pipe . including ocean transportations of jack-ups.11.timber Timber .timber Epoxy coated pipe . no end stops need be provided. hereafter called “pipes”. Reference may be made to API RP 5LW “Recommended practice for transportation of line pipe on barges and marine vessels” [Ref. collars etc on jack-ups is covered in Section 19. The following friction coefficients may be used.6.6 9.6. as examples: Table 9-2 Typical Friction Coefficients Materials in contact Concrete coated pipe . shall be capable of resisting the total transverse force computed. For weather-restricted operations.a do not apply. Provided it can be demonstrated that sufficient friction exists to prevent longitudinal movement.4 0.6.timber Uncoated steel . pipes should be stowed in the fore and aft direction. Where pipes are stacked in several layers.5 0. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 46 .2.15 0.6. drill pipe. in order to avoid overstress of the lower layers. adequately tensioned. and Sections 9. For these types of cargoes.concrete coated pipe Concrete coated pipe .1 0. and each stow (group of pipes) set up hard by driving wooden wedges between the strongbacks and the top layer of pipe. Generally speaking. For unrestricted operations.5 9. piles. b. the stack may be secured by means of transverse chain or wire lashings over the top.05 9. End stops or bulkheads shall be provided. and 24-hour or location moves of jack-ups.2. casing. Timber dunnage or wedges shall be used to chock off any clearance between the pipes and the stanchions.

it may be necessary to seal the ends of at least the lowest level of the stack.1 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS For newly-constructed cargoes. Otherwise.6. the vessel’s stability meets the requirements of Section 10. a.6. either with protectors on the pipe. and end stops provided. b. For unrestricted operations. Principal seafastening welds shall be visually checked and the weld sizes confirmed against the agreed design. Timber dunnage or wedges should be used to chock off any clearance between the pipes and the stanchions. with particular reference to the effects of entrapped water. or by wood sheathing on the end stops. This is likely to apply to concrete coated pipe. For weather restricted operations. 9. 9. often at one end only. the transportation and securing arrangements must be designed so that the coating will be protected from damage.12 9.6.10 9. stanchions or strongbacks. the extent of inspection and testing shall be agreed.11 Larger diameter pipes such as piles are often individually chocked. For other cargoes. steel strongbacks should be fitted over the top layer. Where end stops are provided for pipes with prepared ends. provided it can be demonstrated that adequate friction exists to prevent longitudinal movement.6. but uncoated or epoxy coated pipe should be treated with caution. care should be taken to ensure that: a. The manufacturer’s and/or shipper’s recommendations should be sought. the deck and pipe layers are not overstressed. no end stops need be provided. 9.9 9. Note: the trim and stability booklet of some vessels may include suitable example loading conditions and should be considered. the end preparation should be protected.6.7 Line pipe on pipe carrier vessels may be stacked between the existing stanchions/crash barriers. When open ended pipes are carried as deck cargo and the pipes could become partially filled with water. and b.6.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. on the wooden sheathed deck.8 9.7. weld inspection and testing shall be demonstrated. Unless it can be demonstrated that the piles cannot roll out of the chocks further restraints may be necessary. an adequate system of construction supervision. In all cases of transportation of coated line pipe. such as individual wire or chain lashings. and each stow set up hard by driving wooden wedges between the strongbacks and the top layer of pipe. End stops or bulkheads shall be provided.7 9.7.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 47 .

2 9.4 9. shall be carried out on the structural members of the seafastenings. NDT acceptance criteria should be to EEMUA 158 “Construction specification for fixed offshore structures in the North Sea” [Ref.9. e.1 FATIGUE Notwithstanding the exclusion in Section 4. old welds. an initial visual inspection should be undertaken. 9. cargo and/or seafastenings to be considered. The following is a guide to the minimum recommended extent of NDT: a. to establish that fully welded connections exist. d.9 9.8. 15].8 9.7.7.7. the extent of NDT should be not less than the Project specification requirements For critical areas or where poor welding quality is suspected. Penetration welds . f. 100% visual b.1 “Structural welding code – steel” [Ref .9. coupon testing is acceptable to determine the steel characteristics. in which case they should instruct Noble Denton accordingly.3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 48 . and that the general condition is fit for purpose. 9. then 100% inspection may be required. by a suitable and agreed method. depending on the stress levels imposed and the condition found. AWS D1. clients may wish the effects of fatigue on the towed object. In cases of any doubt about the condition. to demonstrate no cracking or lamellar tearing in critical areas. 3 9.20% MPI All welds to barge/vessel deck . and there should be sufficient documentation to ensure the traceability of the steel and in particular documentation relating to the grade of steel.5.16] or equivalent. burnt off attachments etc.100% MPI with additional 40% UT for penetration welds In any case. Any faulty welds discovered shall be repaired and re-tested. Should sufficient documentation of the steel grade be unavailable.40% UT and 20% MPI Fillet welds .9. c.3 Non-destructive testing (NDT). There should be NDT inspection reports for areas of previous fabrication.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 9. Further inspection may be required. any wastage caused during previous removal(s) or use should not affect its fitness for purpose. 9.5 Care should be taken where the seafastening load path depends on the tension connection of the deck plating of a barge or vessel to underdeck stiffeners or bulkheads.7.1 USE OF SECOND HAND STEEL SEAFASTENINGS When second hand steel seafastenings are used.

1. In areas and seasons prone to icing of superstructures. and in any case shall not be less that 0.1.2 Alternatively.749 (18) as amended by Resolution MSC.1 or 10. Vessels shall comply with the mandatory parts of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Resolution A.1. the intact range of stability shall be not less than: (20 + 0. Objects which do not fall into the categories shown in the Table. Consolidated Edition 2002 [Ref 18].5 and 10.6 10. arrival or any intermediate condition. including the effects of any ballast water changes during the voyage. then the most severe should be considered.15 m.1.3.7 10. Jack-ups: ocean towages Inland and sheltered water towages (in ice areas) Inland and sheltered water towages (out of ice areas) LOA > 76 m and B > 23 m LOA <76 m or B < 23 m LOA <76 m or B < 23 m Intact range 36 36 40 44 28 36 36 24 Jack-ups: 24-hour or location moves 3 10. The effects of free surface liquids in the cargo must also be taken into account. plus the static wind heel or trim caused by the design wind.1. may require special consideration.1. and the IMO International Convention on Load Lines. type and size Large and medium vessels.4 10. Cargo overhangs shall generally not immerse as a result of heel from a 15 m/s wind in still water conditions. A GM0 of around 1. Where there is a significant difference between the departure.1. as must residual free surface due to incomplete venting. should include an adequate margin for computational and other inaccuracies.1. The effects of free surface shall be considered in the stability calculations.11. GM0.1. buoyant cargo overhangs may be assumed to contribute to the range of stability requirement of Section 10.1. The initial metacentric height. such as may occur if ballasting when trimmed.5 10. 10. defined as the range between 0º degrees heel or trim and the angle at which the righting arm (GZ) becomes negative. Table 10-1 Intact stability range Vessel or towed object.1.2.8θ) where θ = the maximum amplitude of roll or pitch caused by the design seastate as defined in Section 6. LOA > 76 m and B > 23 m Large cargo barges.4. if maximum amplitudes of motion for a specific towage or voyage can be derived from model tests or motion response calculations. Small vessels. Small cargo barges.75 (69) “Code on Intact Stability” [Ref.1 STABILITY INTACT STABILITY The intact range of stability.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 10 10.0 m will normally be required.1 10. Page 49 0030/ND REV 3 . Subject to Sections 8.1.8 Metacentric height (GM) shall be positive throughout the range shown in Section 10.3 10. the effects of icing on stability should be considered as described in Section 22. which are non-symmetrical. in degrees. shall not be less than the values shown in the following Table 10-1. 17]. or which have an initial heel or trim which is not close to 0º.1.1.

5 For those structures listed in Section 10. as appropriate. A guard vessel is available to warn off other approaching vessels.3 10.4 and 10. with trailing pick-up lines. damage stability requirements may be relaxed. sailing at the assigned ‘B’ freeboard or greater. to minimise the need for vessels to approach the structure closely during the tow. which may include: a.4. i. particularly when towing on the columns b. MODUs and structures towed on their own buoyancy. The damage stability recommendations of this Section do not apply to transport of cargoes on flagged trading vessels.5 do not apply in ice-affected areas. and any other penetrations through the skin of the vessel or object. f. for the following and similar structures: a. The relaxations allowed by Sections 10.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 10. Areas vulnerable to collision should be reinforced or fendered to withstand collision from the largest towing or attending vessel. and: b. 10. Masters of all towing or attending vessels are aware of the vulnerable areas.4 10. Potential leaks via ballast or other systems are minimised. Ballast intakes and discharges.2. Emergency towlines are provided. c.2. Submerged tube tunnel sections Bridge pier caissons Outfall or water intake caissons. c. or blanked off. freeing arrangements. The emptying of a full compartment to the damaged waterline shall be considered if it gives a more severe result than the flooding of an empty compartment. sealing and Page 50 0030/ND REV 3 . d.2. at a speed of 2 metres/second. shall have positive stability with any one compartment flooded or broached.2. Projecting hatches. If buoyancy of the cargo has been included to meet intact stability requirements.2.2.5 below. One-compartment damage stability is not always achievable without impractical design changes. carried out under controlled conditions. including cargo barges. where the vessel or structure should comply with Section 22.6 10.7 10. Reduced freeboards may be assigned to a Type B vessel over 100 m in length. Minimum penetration shall be considered to be 1. 10.2.1 DAMAGE STABILITY Except as described in Sections 10. The ‘B’ freeboard is the minimum freeboard assigned to a Type B vessel.2.2. h. or similar.2 10. Two adjacent compartments on the periphery of the unit shall be considered as one compartment if separated by a horizontal watertight flat within 5 m of the towage waterline. depending on the arrangements for protection of crew. pipework and valves are protected against collision or damage from towing and handling lines.2. then loss of cargo buoyancy or flooding of cargo compartments.2. d. j. provided the towage is a one-off towage of short duration. strength.4 and 10. shall be considered as a damage case.8 The extent and adequacy of the precautions necessary for a particular towage will be assessed on a case-by-case basis.2 10. and suitable precautions are taken. Concrete gravity structures. e. Emergency pumping equipment is provided. Vulnerable areas are conspicuously marked. towed objects. 3 g.11.2. A risk assessment is carried out and the risks shown to be acceptable. shall be protected by a double barrier system. which is generally defined as any vessel not carrying a bulk liquid cargo.2.5 metres.

[Ref. and the second intercept of the righting and wind overturning arm curves. or the downflooding angle. (A + B) > 1. the area under the righting moment curve shall be not less than 40% in excess of the area under the wind overturning arm curve. The wind velocity used for intact wind overturning calculations shall be the 1-minute design wind speed. whichever is less.3. 10.2 Wind Overturning Criteria (Damaged Case) 0030/ND REV 3 Page 51 .6 3 Damaged GZ RIGHTING ARM (GZ) Angle of Loll Wind Overturning Arm A Intercept angle Downflooding angle C 0 B HEEL ANGLE (DEGREES) 40 0 Figure 10. whichever is less.4 (B + C) 0. (A + B) > 1.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS security of hatch covers.3 10. and damage stability characteristics.2 RIGHTING ARM (GZ) Intact GZ Wind Overturning Arm A Downflooding angle Intercept angle C 0 B HEEL ANGLE (DEGREES) Figure 10.13. as described in Section 6.8 10. and the second intercept of the righting and wind overturning arm curves. 50 metres /second shall be used. Consolidated Edition 2002. the area under the righting moment curve shall be not less than 40% in excess of the area under the wind overturning arm curve.3. 15] for further details.3. or the downflooding angle. See the IMO International Convention on Load Lines.1 Wind Overturning Criteria (Intact Case) 40 0. The areas shall be bounded by the angle of loll.4 (B + C) 0.3 For the damage condition.1 WIND OVERTURNING For the intact condition. In the absence of other data.0 10. The areas shall be bounded by 0º heel or trim.

7 metres 2. except for temporary on-load and off-load operations under controlled conditions. It may be preferable to tow structures such as floating docks. re-painted in the area above the waterline.5 10.5.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 52 .5 metres 10. if necessary.0 metre 1.4 10.4. to give good directional control.3.0 metres Minimum Trim by Stern 0.4. For barges and large towed objects.6 10. However allowance should be made for trim caused by the towline force and there should be adequate freeboard at the bow (and possibly a breakwater) to minimise damage from “green water” coming over the bow.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 10. the tow should be ballasted to the following minimum draughts and trims: Table 10-2 Minimum draught & trim Length of Towed Vessel 30 metres 60 metres 90 metres 120 metres 150 metres 200 metres Minimum Draught Forward 1.3 metre 0.8 metre 1.1 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Where the watertight integrity of any tow is in question. part built ships and MODUs. Typically. The draught should be small enough to give adequate freeboard and stability.5 metre above the waterline. Where the tow is unmanned. for barge towages. the draught shall never exceed the appropriate load-line draught.5.4 The wind velocity used for overturning moment calculations in the damage condition shall be 25 metres /second. This should normally be documented in the Trim and Stability booklet.0 metre 1. it may be preferable to have no trim.1 metres 3.7 10. and large enough to reduce motions and slamming. where θ is the angle as defined in Section 10.2. 10.6 metre 0.4. hose test or air test as considered appropriate by the attending surveyor. the draught and trim should be selected to minimise slamming under the forefoot. such as FPSOs.4. and in order that the tug may monitor any increased draught during the towage.7 metres 4. it may be advantageous to paint a broad distinctive line of contrasting colour around the bow approximately 0. at minimum draught with zero trim.4. it will be between 35% and 60% of hull depth. it shall be checked by visual inspection.2 metres 1.4 10. Any opening giving an angle of downflooding less than 20 degrees.1 DRAUGHT AND TRIM For vessels and barges with a load-line certificate.4. 3 10.2 10. and to allow for the forward trim caused by towline pull. in order to minimise longitudinal bending moments.3 10.5 10.4 metres 3.4. and for discussion with the Master of the tug. For guidance. or (θ + 5) degrees if less than 20 degrees. 10.8 Where barges with faired sterns are fitted with directional stabilising skegs. or protected by automatic closures in operable condition.1. particularly for demolition tows. ultrasonic test.4. Draught marks forward and aft shall be easily readable and. which is usually significantly less than the load-line draught. or the wind used for the intact calculation if less. chalk test. shall be closed and watertight.

and securely bolted down.10 10. tween decks and engine room bulkheads.3 Hatches. shall be checked for condition and securely closed. or similarly protected. void spaces and engine room bilges shall be checked before departure and should be pumped dry.5. Slack tanks should be kept to a minimum. then additional precautions should be considered. All other spaces shall be sounded prior to departure. All holds.13 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 53 . Where such equipment could be damaged by sea action or movement of loose equipment.5 10. they shall also be closed.5. Outboard accommodation doors shall be carefully checked for proper closure and their weathertight integrity confirmed. All overboard valves shall be closed and locked with wire or chain. Any opening without deadlights that may suffer damage in a seaway shall be plated over. “To be kept closed except for access” or words to that effect. Watertight doors in holds. on both sides. Porthole deadlights shall be closed where fitted. or be plated over. Any discharge pipe close to the waterline not fitted with a closure device.11 10.8 10.12 10.4 10. All dogs shall be in good operating condition and seals shall be functioning correctly.5. Where secondary or back-up valves are fitted for double protection.5. Closure devices fitted to sanitary discharge pipes.5.9 10. Portholes shall be checked watertight.5.6 10. particularly near the waterline. shall be closed. checked in good condition. may need such a facility incorporated.5. It is recommended that all spaces should be either pressed up or empty. including shaft alleyway and boiler room spaces. Any watertight doors required to be opened for access during the transportation.7 10. ventilators. Windows which could be exposed to wave action shall be plated over.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 10.5. 10. shall be marked.5. In some cases a length of bar or pipe may be required to assist opening and closing. All tank top and deck manhole covers and their gaskets shall be in place.5. gooseneck air pipes and sounding pipes shall be carefully checked for proper closure and their watertight integrity confirmed.5.

h. 11. does securing of seafastenings require welding in way of fuel tanks? For a barge. including stiffener.1 11. access to tank manholes. recovery gear. installation of cargo protection breakwaters if needed.1. in date. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 54 . is it properly equipped with main and emergency towing connections. access to towing and emergency equipment. i. documentation as set out in Section 5? e. so as to give adequate clearance over the deck. mooring equipment. j. within its Class limitation. 2] If a submerged loadout is planned. and adequate stability at all stages. Has the barge or vessel adequate intact and damage stability with the cargo and ballast as planned. k. c. the charterer is advised to have a suitability survey and an on-hire survey of the barge or vessel carried out prior to acceptance of the charter.Guidelines for Loadouts [Ref. can the barge or vessel be submerged.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 11 11. lighting and access ladders? Will the motion responses as calculated cause overstress of the cargo? Is all required equipment and machinery in sound condition and operating correctly? Does the barge or vessel possess the relevant. is there sufficient water depth to access and leave the loadout berth? Can the loadout be carried out in accordance with Noble Denton document 0013/ND . within the water depth limitations of the loadout location? Is the deck strength adequate. Is there adequate deck space for all the cargo items planned. and for lifting offshore if required? b.1 SUITABILITY AND ON-HIRE SURVEYS In his interest. anchors. f. frame and bulkhead spacing and capacity. including any requirement for ballast water exchange? Does the barge or vessel as loaded have sufficient freeboard to give reasonable protection to the cargo? If a floating loadout is planned. d. for loadout and transportation loads? For a vessel.1 TRANSPORT VESSEL SELECTION GENERAL The following points should be considered in the selection of a suitable transport barge or vessel: a.2. access between cargo items. g. pumping equipment. including room for seafastenings.2 11.

For vessels not known to Noble Denton. manning and fuel requirements. prior to departure.1.1. A survey on departure will still be required.2. to ensure that the vessel still complies with the rules of the scheme. The extent and frequency of surveys as required by the TVAS is defined in Ref.2. [5].3 12.2 below. a survey well in advance of departure is recommended.2 12.6.1. its seakeeping capability. documentation. and except as allowed or required by Sections 12.1 TOWING VESSEL SELECTION AND APPROVAL GENERAL The tug(s) selected should comply with the minimum bollard pull requirements shown in Section 12. 5].Restricted R3 . 5. 12.2 to 12.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12 12.Restricted R2 .1. Table 12-1 Towing Vessel Categories Category ST – Salvage Tug U .Coastal R1 . general condition. The appropriate category should be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 55 . and should also comply with the appropriate Category in Section 3 of Noble Denton document 0021/ND .Restricted Used for Single tug towages in benign or non-benign weather areas Towages in benign weather areas or weather routed Assisting in multi-tug towages Benign weather area towages Assisting in multi-tug towages in benign weather areas 3 12. The survey will cover the suitability of the vessel for the proposed operation.Unrestricted C . Vessels not entered into the scheme will require to be surveyed before any formal opinion on acceptability or approvability can be issued. the minimum Towline Pull Required (TPR) shall be computed for zero forward speed against a 20 metres/second wind.1 BOLLARD PULL REQUIREMENTS For towages where adequate searoom can be achieved within the departure weather forecast and maintained thereafter.2.Guidelines for the Approvability of Towing Vessels [Ref. The categories are summarised in the following table.2 12.5 metres/second current acting simultaneously as shown in Table 12-2.1 12.0 metre significant seastate and 0. towing equipment. For tugs entered in the Noble Denton Towing Vessel Approvability Scheme (TVAS).4 The tug(s) used for any towage to be approved by Noble Denton should be inspected by a surveyor nominated by Noble Denton before the start of the towage. it will generally be possible to issue a statement of acceptability in principle.

a greater TPR may be appropriate.5 0.5 12. and 0.2. an assessment should be made that a reasonable speed can be achieved in moderate weather. If the tow route passes through an area of continuous adverse current or weather. For benign weather areas.5 12.2.0 metres significant seastate and the greater of 0. or the maximum predicted surface current if greater 12.4 12. For 24-hour moves of jack-ups the following reduced criteria may be used for calculation of TPR: 15 metres/second wind. and   1 hour design wind speed (see Section 6). but exposed to strong winds. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 56 .3 12.1 12.2.2.2.5 than: 2 As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.0 metres significant seastate and 0.2. outside the validity of the departure weather forecast and which cannot be considered a weather-restricted operation.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12.2.2. 5 3 20 15 0. Generally these should not be reduced below 15 metres/second wind.3 12.2.2. or if a particular towing speed is required in calm or moderate weather.2 For towages which pass through an area of restricted navigation or manoeuvrability.1. TPR should be computed for:  the design wave height (see Section 6).6 acting simultaneously. TPR shall be related to the continuous static bollard pull of the tug(s) proposed (BP) by: TPR = (BP x Te/100) where: Te = the tug efficiency in the sea conditions considered. 2. acting simultaneously.7 Condition Limited searoom Continuous adverse current or weather Standard 24-hour jack-up move Benign weather areas Sheltered from waves Hsig (m) Design Wind (m/sec) Design (1 hour mean) Current (m/sec) 0.2. the criteria shall be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.5 metres/second current. In any event. if this results in a greater TPR than would be obtained by Section 12.2.6 12.5 or predicted current if greater 3 As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned but not less 15 0. the criteria for calculation of TPR shall be agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned.5 metres/second current and the maximum predicted surface current for the tow-route. Table 12-2 Meteorological Criteria for Calculating TPR (Towline Pull Required) 3 Para 12.5 or predicted current if greater As agreed with the Noble Denton office concerned to ensure a reasonable speed in moderate weather.2. 3. % (BP x Te/100) is the contribution to TPR of each tug  means the aggregate of all tugs assumed to contribute.2 12. For towages partly sheltered from wave action.5 metres/second current.4 12. acting simultaneously.

Te Continuous Bollard Pull (BP). Te % Calm 80 80 80 Hsig = 2 m 50 + BP 80 80 Hsig = 3 m 30 + BP 52.5 + BP/4 75 Hsig = 5 m BP 7.5 + 0. Te % 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 STATIC CONTINUOUS BOLLARD PULL (tonnes) 3 calm 2m Hsig 3m Hsig 5m Hsig Figure 12. In the absence of alternative information.8 Tug efficiency.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12. depends on the size and configuration of the tug.75 x BP 75 These efficiencies are shown graphically in the following Figure. However tugs with less sea-kindly characteristics will have significantly lower values of Te in higher sea states.2.1 Tug efficiencies in different sea states 0030/ND REV 3 Page 57 .2. Te. Table 12-3 Values of Tug Efficiency.9 Tug Efficiency. Te may be estimated for good ocean-going tugs according to the following Table 12-3. tonnes BP < 30 30 < BP < 90 BP > 90 12. the seastate considered and the towing speed achieved. 100 90 TUG EFFICIENCY.

2 Effective Bollard Pull in Different Sea States 12. 12. and adequately faired to prevent snagging.0 m case.4. 12. pennants and connections shall be in accordance with Section 13.25] . Stern tugs shall be discounted in the above calculation. tonnes TPR < 9 9 < TPR < 67.1 TAILGATES/STERN RAILS Where a towing tailgate or stern rail is fitted. for the Hsig = 5.12 Continuous Bollard Pull (BP).3 12.2.4 12. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 58 .2.10 The resulting effective bollard pull in the different sea states is shown in the following Figure: 80 EFFECTIVE BOLLARD PULL (tonnes) 70 60 50 40 30 20 < 2 m Hsig 5m Hsig 3m Hsig Calm 3 10 0 0 10 20 30 2m Hsig 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 STATIC CONTINUOUS BOLLARD PULL (tonnes) Figure 12.5 12.3.5 TPR /0. the radius of the upper rail shall be at least 10 times the diameter of the tug’s main towline.75 Only those tugs connected so they are capable of pulling effectively in the forward direction shall be assumed to contribute.1 MAIN & SPARE TOWING WIRES & TOWING CONNECTIONS The main and spare towing wires. BP can be related to TPR by: Table 12-4 Selecting Bollard Pull from TPR for Hsig = 5 m Towline Pull Required (TPR).11 Alternatively. tonnes (100 x TPR) [25 + (300 x TPR) /2.2.5 TPR > 67.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12.

5.1 WORKBOAT A powered workboat must be provided for emergency communication with the tow. On square-sterned towing vessels.2 12. It should be well faired and the inside and ends must have a minimum radius of 10 times the towline diameter.5. it is preferred that mechanically or hydraulically operated stops be fitted near the aft end of the bulwarks.1 SEARCHLIGHT The tug shall be fitted with a searchlight to aid night operations and for use in illuminating the tow during periods of emergency or malfunction of the prescribed navigation lights.1 TOWLINE CONTROL Where a towing pod is fitted.7. and must have adequate means for launching safely in a seastate associated with Beaufort Force 4 to 5. 12. Spare batteries and a means of recharging them shall be provided. the after deck should be fitted with a gog rope. An inflatable or RIB may be acceptable provided it has flooring suitable for carriage of emergency equipment to the tow. including information for possible diversion ports and their approaches. 12.5. If a gog rope arrangement is fitted then a spare shall be carried.8. 12.9 12.6 12. 12. the tug shall carry portable marine VHF and/or UHF radios.6. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 59 .8 12. thereby allowing the tug to approach the tow either bow or stern on.1 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT In addition to normal Authorities’ requirements. mechanically operated and capable of being adjusted from a remote station.7 12.9.1 NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT Towing vessels shall be provided with all necessary navigational instruments.3 12. to prevent the towline slipping around the tug's quarter in heavy weather. its strength shall be shown to be adequate for the forces it is likely to encounter. for communication with the tow when tug personnel are placed on board for inspections or during an emergency. charts and publications that may be required on the particular towage. then an alternative means of centring the tow line should be provided. Where neither a towing pod nor gog rope is fitted.5 12.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12. Where no pod is fitted. The searchlight(s) should provide illumination both forward and aft.

plus a reserve of at least 5 days supply. but may not be considered to be a substitute for the pump(s) required by Section 15. equipped with means of suction and delivery and having a self contained power unit with sufficient fuel for 12 hours usage at the pump’s maximum rating. 12. All tugs should be equipped with burning and welding gear for use in emergency. 12. The pump shall be suitable for the requirements outlined in Section 15.12 12.12.10 12. This should be taken into account when approving the manning level of a towing vessel. Particular attention should be paid to contact between the towline and towing pods.1 12. two or more of the tug crew may need to board and remain on the tow for an extended period. for the anticipated duration of the towage. the tug shall carry at least one portable pump.1. [5].13 12. and included in the towing procedures.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 12.h.11 12. lubricating oil and stores. consideration shall be given to the fact that in an emergency situation. taking into account the area and season.2 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT Anti-chafe gear should be fitted as necessary. or those required by State or Port Authorities.11.1 TUG MANNING Notwithstanding minimum manning levels for tugs as described in Ref.2.13. 12. The methods and feasibility of deployment should be considered.1 PUMP On any tow outside coastal limits.1 BUNKERS & OTHER CONSUMABLES The tug should carry fuel and other consumables including potable water.11.2.1.10. then suitable arrangements must be made before the towage starts.e through 15. tow bars and stern rail. If refuelling en route is proposed. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 60 .

3 13. b. Alternatively two bridles may be made up. or any structure when the bow sections could be vulnerable to wave damage.GENERAL Towage should normally be from the forward end of the barge or tow via a suitable bridle as shown in Appendix A. and the smaller tug to a chain or chain/wire pennant set to one side of the main bridle. Part-built ships. 13. If two tugs are to be used for towing.1.1. a recovery system should be provided for the connection point for each tug. Part-built or damaged ships. bridle legs and bridle apex b. then normally each tug should tow off a chain pennant and an intermediate wire pennant. or with a turret or spider fitted forward. Intermediate pennant Bridle recovery system Emergency towing gear.1. For two balanced tugs.1 13. 13. to bring together the requirements for towlines and towing connections. which could be vulnerable to wave damage. Any structure with overhanging or vulnerable equipment near the bow. including towline connection points. fairleads. one for each tug.2 There may be a case for towing some structures by the stern. then in general the larger tug should be connected to the bridle. c. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 61 .1.1. Whichever system is used. Towline connections. where better directional stability may be obtained if towed by the stern. It is normal that the towline and the intermediate pennant are supplied by the tug. For tows where a bridle is not appropriate.6 A decision whether to tow by the stern should be based on the results of a risk assessment which shall be presented to Noble Denton for review. These could include: a.5 13.1. This is not generally preferred for tows with rectangular bows. c. d.1 TOWING & MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ON TOW TOWING EQUIPMENT & ARRANGEMENTS . such as multiple tug towages. the bridle may be split and the tugs should tow off separate bridle legs.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13 13. However. The components of the system are: a. or could interfere with the main and emergency towing connections.4 13. via intermediate pennants. the strength requirements are presented here. converted ships or FPSOs without a rudder or skeg.

2. chain pennants. ULC is as defined in Section 13.see Section 13.0 x BP 2.8 .2.2.0 x BP 2. where fitted. with a spinning reduction factor. MBL and ULC are in tonnes): a.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13.5.3 13.2.2 for bridle apex angle >120o. as shown in Section 13. shall be not less than: ULC = 1.1. shall be designed to take loadings as the tug deviates from the nominal towing direction. Benign Areas 2.2.2. Towline breaking load MBL shall be computed as follows: Table 13-1 Minimum Towline Breaking Loads (MBL) Bollard Pull (BP) BP < 40 tonnes 40 < BP < 90 tonnes BP > 90 tonnes b. as shown in Figure 13.1 STRENGTH OF TOWLINE & TOWLINE CONNECTIONS The Minimum Breaking Loads (MBL) of the main and spare towlines.25 x MBL (for MBL > 160 tonnes) or ULC = MBL + 40 (for MBL <160 tonnes) See Section 13. shall be related to the actual continuous static bollard pull (BP) of the tug as follows.0 x BP The Ultimate Load Capacity (ULC) of towline connections to the tow. and the connections to which it is attached. Each bridle leg.2). Fairleads.2 13. MBL may be obtained by testing.1. OR b. including bridle legs.0 x BP Other Areas 3. where fitted. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 62 .4 A certificate to demonstrate the MBL of each towline shall be available. or by showing the aggregate breaking load of its component wires.0 x BP (3. (BP.b.BP/50) x BP 2. and fairleads.2 13. where: the horizontal angle of towline pull from the nominal towing direction when a bridle is not used. and the ultimate load capacity of the towline connections to the tow including each bridle leg.  = a. 13. shall be designed to the full value of ULC.5.b. the horizontal angle of the bridle leg from its normal direction (with bridle apex angles of less than 120o . as follows.1.

resolved as appropriate ULC Linear interpolation with  between ULC and (0.  0 <  < 45 45 <  < 90  > 90 13.9 13.2).2.2. the connections and fairleads may require special consideration. Such relaxation shall be with the express agreement of the Master of the tug.5 x ULC 13. the design shall take account of the connection or fairlead elevation.2.1 Definition of angle  with and without a bridle Table 13-2 Fairlead Resolved ULC Horizontal angle. then the towline connections (but not the towline itself) may be related to the required BP rather than the actual BP. It should be noted that the above requirement represents the minimum values for towline connection strength.8 13. It shall not apply for towages in ice areas. and the towline pull. at the maximum pitch angle computed. the towing connections shall be similarly designed. it should be designed for both cases.10 Where no fairleads are fitted.5 13. and the reduction shown in Section 13. Where towing connections or fairleads may be subjected to a vertical load.2. It may be prudent to design the main towline connections to allow for the use of tugs larger than the minimum required. If a fairlead or towing connection is to be used either with or without a bridle. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 63 . For tows where it may be operationally necessary to apply the full value of towline pull at any angle. the proportion of bridle and towline weight taken at the connection or fairlead.7 Fairlead ultimate load capacity.2. In particular circumstances.5 x ULC) 0.2.6 13. where the available towing vessel is oversized with regard to TPR (see Section 12. and shall be noted in the towing arrangements.4 may not be appropriate. and the towline connections are already fitted to the tow.2.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS Nominal towing direction Deviated towline direction Nominal towing direction with bridle Deviated bridle leg direction   3 Figure 13.

For benign areas. fairleads should be of an approved type.3.3 13.3.4. fittings and towing connections will need to be increased to allow for the increased resolved load in the bridle from the towline force. Preferably they should be capable of quick release under adverse conditions.4.2. The available length shall take into account the minimum remaining turns on the winch drum.1 shall be increased if required for L to comply with Section 13.4. The angle at the apex of the bridle should normally be between 45 and 60 degrees.2. not a normal link with the stud removed.4 13.2 13.2 3 13.1 BRIDLE LEGS Each bridle leg should be of stud link chain or composite chain and wire rope. and the distance from the drum to the stern rail or roller. the chain should of sufficient length to extend beyond the deck edge and prevent chafing of the wire rope.4. A typical bracket design is shown in Appendix C. All wire ropes shall have hard eyes or sockets.5.4.1 or 13. the minimum length available shall be not less than: L > (BP/MBL) x 1200 metres except that in no case shall the available length be less than 500 metres.3. located close to the deck edge. Where fitted.3. The end link of all chains shall be a special enlarged link.4 13. then the fairlead design shall allow all the released parts to pass easily through the fairlead. Sufficient internal/underdeck strength must be provided for all towline connections and fairleads.4 13. 3 13.4. Where towing connections are of a quick-release type.2 13. 13.5 13.3 13. but must also be secured against premature release.3.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 64 .5.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOWLINE LENGTH AND STRENGTH Except in benign areas and sheltered water towages. If it exceeds 120o then the strength of the bridle legs.5 13.6 13. They should be fitted with capping bars and sited in line with the towline connections. to prevent side load on the towing connections. Towline connections and fairleads shall be designed to the requirements of Section 13. Where the bridle might bear on the deck edge.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13. ULC shall be correspondingly increased.5. One full strength wire rope pennant which is permanently included in the towing configuration may be considered when determining the available length.1 TOWLINE CONNECTION POINTS Towline connections to the tow shall be of an approved type. the minimum length available of each of the main and spare towlines (L) shall be determined from the “European” formula: L > (BP/MBL) x 1800 metres except that in no case shall the available length be less than 650 metres. 13.3 13. apart from coastal towages within a good weather forecast when this may be reduced to 500m.2 as appropriate. to allow a fouled bridle or towline to be cleared. the deck edge should be suitably faired and reinforced to prevent chafe of the bridle.5. If composite.3 13. MBL as shown in Section 13.3.

4 13. All wire rope pennants shall have hard eyes or sockets.0 x BP (0.8.5.7. and b.7. Flounder or Monkey Plate. Longer pennants may be needed in particular cases.8.1 13.8.3 SHACKLES The breaking load of shackles forming part of the towline shall be at least 110% of the actual breaking load of the towline to be used. The breaking load of shackles forming part of the bridle shall be not less than 110% of the required breaking load of the connected parts. If the breaking load of a shackle cannot be identified then the minimum Safe Working Load (SWL) may be related to the continuous static bollard pull (BP) of the largest tug proposed. A method of recovery of the chain shall be provided in case a tow wire breaks.5 x BP) + 20 13. tonnes BP < 40 BP > 40 Minimum Safe Working Load. BP.3). The surge chain shall be a continuous length of welded studlink chain with an enlarged open link at each end (see Section 13.6.8. 13.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13. and be of the same lay (i. A surge chain may be used.3 13. The strength reduction is not more than 10% of the actual strength of the main towline.8 13. If a surge chain is supplied then the MBL shall not be less than that of the main towing wire. The resulting strength of the pennant is at least equal to that required for the towline.e. The length of the wire pennant for barge tows is normally 10-15 metres since this can be handled on the stern of most tugs without the connecting shackle reaching the winch. to provide shock absorption.6.1 BRIDLE APEX The bridle apex connection should be a towing ring or triangular plate.8. Noble Denton may approve a “fuse” or “weak link” pennant provided that: a. Its main use is for ease of connection and reconnection. as follows: Table 13-3 Default Shackle SWL Continuous bollard pull. 13. left or right hand) as the main towline.6 13.8. often called a Delta.7. SWL.2 13.7 13.5 3 13. The breaking strength of the wire rope pennant shall not be less than that of the main towline with the possible exceptions in Section 13.1 INTERMEDIATE PENNANT OR SURGE CHAINS An intermediate wire rope pennant should be fitted between the main towline and the bridle or chain pennant. if used.8.6 0030/ND REV 3 Page 65 .2 13. or an enlarged bow shackle. tonnes 1. especially in shallow water when a long towline catenary cannot be used. should not normally replace the intermediate wire rope pennant. A synthetic spring.

5 times that required for the main towline. shackles.2 13. Should no power source be available. plus attachments including the apex and the intermediate pennant. with reflective tape. A synthetic spring made up as a continuous loop with a hard eye each end is generally preferable to a single line with an eye splice each end. its breaking load shall be at least 1. As synthetic springs have a limited life due to embrittlement and ageing.5 3 13. they must be in good condition.1 BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM A system shall be fitted to recover the bridle or chain pennant.2 d.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13. The emergency system will typically consist of the following: a. a synthetic spring should normally be connected between the main towing wire and the intermediate pennant. preferably an A-frame. The winch barrel should be adequate for the length and size of the wire required.10. rather than connected directly into the bridle apex. If the winch is manually operated. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 66 . It may consist of a separate bridle and pennant or a system as shown in Appendix B. The breaking load of the recovery wire. e.9. if required.10. utilising additional pennant wires as necessary. All synthetic springs shall have hard eyes. It consists of a winch and a recovery line connected to the bridle apex.4 13. bridle failure or inability to recover the bridle. apex and intermediate pennant. If used. It should be noted that an adequate winch will be useful for initial connection of the towline.3 13. See Section 22.1 SYNTHETIC SPRINGS Where a synthetic spring is used.10. via a suitable lead.10.3 13. then arrangements shall be made. with hard eyes or sockets. it should be fitted with ratchet gear and brake.10 13.1 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR Emergency towing gear shall be provided in case of towline failure.11 13. f. the winch should have its own power source. 13. It shall be suitably secured to the structure of the tow. Except for very small barges. on the end of the float line. and have been stored to protect them from wear. leads etc shall be at least 6 times the weight of the bridle. minimum length 80 metres. solvents and sunlight. Closed fairlead Emergency pennant. 3 13. Towing connection on or near the centreline of the tow.9 13. long enough to prevent the float line chafing on the stern of the tow Float line.11. over a bulkhead or other suitable strong point b. which will allow the tug to reconnect.9.7. preferably in one length. This length may be reduced for small barges and in benign areas Extension wire.11. to extend 75-90 metres abaft the stern of the tow Conspicuous pick-up buoy. The recovery winch shall be capable of handling at least 100% of the weight of the bridle.7 for towages when icing can occur.9. Precautions should be taken to minimise chafe of all wire ropes. c. and manual operation is deemed impractical.2 13. 13.10. Adequate fuel should be carried. Preferably it should be fitted at the bow of the tow. and should be geared so that the tow bridle apex can be recovered by 2 persons. The preferred type of bridle recovery system is shown in Appendix A. to allow reconnection in the event of towline breakage.

outside all obstructions.3 The strength of items a.2.11.13. so that it can be pulled clear. approximately every 3 metres. such as barges or concrete caissons with low freeboard. with soft lashings.12. should be fitted with a radar reflector. Where certification is not available or attainable for minor items the surveyor may recommend that oversized equipment shall be fitted. Heaving lines b. For towage of very long vessels. Fuel or power sources shall be adequate for the maximum duration of the towage.11. If the emergency towline is attached forward. it must be led over the main tow bridle. c. Whatever the arrangement agreed.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 67 . from an independent electric power sources or from gas containers).11. 13. The breaking load of the handling system.11.g. 19]) and any local regulations. or metal clips opening outwards. b and c above should be as for the main towline connections.3 13.1 CERTIFICATION Valid certificates shall be available for all chains.1 NAVIGATION LIGHTS & SHAPES The tow shall carry the lights and shapes required by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. alternative emergency arrangements may be approvable but any arrangement shall be agreed with the Master of the tug to ensure that reconnection is possible in an emergency. Octahedral reflectors should be mounted in the “catch-rain” orientation. wires and shackles utilised in the towing arrangement.6 13.9 13. The outboard eye should be led over the deck edge to prevent chafe of the float line. the wire rope should be coiled or flaked near the stern.8 13. even if the tow is unmanned. plus a reserve.5 13. and must be sufficient to break the securing devices.11. If the emergency towing gear is attached aft.13.12 13. The reflector should be mounted as high as practical. or are lacking valid certification.4 13. 13.13.11. It is good practice to have swivels at the connection of the float line to the pennant line or extension wire.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13. It should be secured to the outer edge of the tow. Navigation lights shall be independently powered (e. care shall be taken that no chafe can occur to the floating line when deployed.2 13.11. and placed on board if the duration and area of the towage demand it: a. Spare mantles or bulbs should be carried.12.13 13. as shown in Section 13. It is desirable that a duplicate system of lights be provided. 13. The Noble Denton surveyor may reject any items that appear to be unfit for purpose. Line throwing equipment Spare shackles. items d and e above should be not less than 25 tonnes. Towed objects which may offer a small response to radar. 1972 amended 1996 (COLREGS [Ref.13.1.2 13. and at the connection of the float line to the buoy.7 13. The following reconnection equipment should also be considered.

may be accepted for short tows or where it can be deployed from a manned tow. Alternatives may be accepted if it can be demonstrated that they will provide a safe and reliable means of access during the towage. Where practical. over about 10 m) may need special consideration.14.14. a pilot ladder on each side or over the stern. If it is required to land a crew on board prior to entering port.14. with access ladders if necessary so that. a clear space should be provided and appropriately marked. Not withstanding the potential for piracy in some areas. ladders should be recessed. Where practical.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13.14 13.14.3 13. 13. in an emergency.15 13.1 ANCHORING & MOORING EQUIPMENT See Section 16.14. secured to prevent it being washed up on deck. men may landed or recovered by helicopter. stairways are preferable to ladders. suitable access must be provided. from main deck to below the waterline. For example. This may include at least one permanent steel ladder on each side. back painted for ease of identification.g.6 13. Even if the tow is not manned.4 13.7 13. and faired off to permit access by the tug’s workboat. consideration should be given to placing life saving appliances on board. lifejackets and communication equipment. Where practical. then a properly marked and certified helideck or landing area would be an advantage. for instance to start pumps and reduce draught. except within 5 m of the towage waterline. A boarding party should be appropriately equipped with survival suits.2 13.14. appropriate to the hazards a boarding party may face once aboard.15.1 ACCESS TO TOWS Whether a tow is manned or not.5 13. Objects with high freeboard (e.8 13. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 68 .14. with resting platforms every 10 metres. be clear of overhanging cargo. means of boarding shall still be available. Ladders should be enclosed.14.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 13. saws. n.various sizes and lengths Plywood sheets . crowbars. e. d.various sizes Wooden plugs – various sizes Wooden wedges – various sizes A selection of tools. survival suits etc Emergency lighting. m. j. l.1 DAMAGE CONTROL & EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT When the length and area of the towage demand it. h.25 mm thick Lengths of 3” x 3” (75mm x 75mm) timber Caulking material Sand and cement (suitably packaged) Nails . with a flange and boltholes to suit the manhole design. c. Burning gear b. Tirfors. of 60 cm minimum height. including a hydraulic jack. f.gloves. g. Portable coamings 60 cm minimum height. q. The top should be constructed to avoid damage to hoses and cables A sounding tube extension. k.various thicknesses Steel angle section .16 13. hammers. p. the following equipment should be carried on the tow in suitable packages or in a waterproof container secured to the deck: a. hard hats. threaded so that it can be screwed into all sounding plug holes Sounding tapes Fire fighting equipment as appropriate Personal protection equipment . Welding equipment Steel plate .16. r. goggles. i. o. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 69 .

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

14
14.1
14.1.1

VOYAGE PLANNING
GENERAL
The following recommendations apply with respect to the way in which the towage or voyage is conducted. The Certificate of Approval is based on agreed towage or voyage arrangements, which shall not be deviated from without good cause, and where practical with the prior agreement of Noble Denton.

14.2
14.2.1

PLANNING
Planning of the voyage or towage shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the IMO International Safety Management Code [Ref. 8].

14.3
14.3.1

ROUTEING
Routeing procedures shall be agreed with the Master prior to commencement of the towage or voyage, taking into account the transport vessel or tug’s capacity and fuel consumption, the weather and current conditions and normal good navigation and seamanship. Piracy in some areas, for instance South East Asia, is prevalent, and slow moving vessels or tows are particularly at risk. Maintaining sufficient distance from land throughout the tow will reduce this risk and also ensure there is sufficient sea room in case of emergency. Guidance on prevention of piracy may be found in IMO MSC/Circ.623 - Piracy and armed robbery against ships [Ref. 20].

14.3.2

14.4
14.4.1

WEATHER ROUTEING & FORECASTING
Weather forecasts for the departure area should be commenced at least 48 hours before the anticipated departure date. Whenever possible a second weather forecast should be obtained from a different independent source prior to departure. For any towage, the weather conditions for departure from the departure port or any intermediate port or shelter area shall take into account the capabilities of the towing vessel, the marine characteristics of the tow, the forecast wind direction, any hazards close to the departure port or shelter area and the distance to the next port or shelter area. A suitable weather forecast may be one that predicts a minimum 48 hour period with winds not in excess of Beaufort Force 5 and a favourable outlook for a further 24 hours. If appropriate, a weather routeing service, provided by a reputable company, should be arranged prior to the start of the towage or voyage. The utilisation of a weather routeing service may be a requirement of the approval. See also Section 6.3.2. In any event, every effort shall be made by the Master to obtain regular and suitable weather forecasts from a reputable source during the towage.

14.4.2

14.4.3

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

14.5
14.5.1

DEPARTURE
Prior to departure, a departure condition report for the tow or vessel shall be provided by the owners or their agents, for the Master and the Noble Denton surveyor. This report should contain as a minimum: a. The documentation referred to in Section 5 as appropriate b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Lightship weight Tabulation and distribution of ballast, consumables, and cargo, including any hazardous materials Calculated displacement and draughts Actual draughts and displacement For ships, a statement that the longitudinal bending and shear force are within the allowable seagoing limits Calculated VCG Calculated GM and confirmation that it is within allowable limits GZ Curve and confirmation that it is within allowable limits. 3

14.5.2 14.5.3

14.5.4 14.5.5

Departure condition shall be verified to be satisfactory regarding the stability of the tow with proper allowance made for any slack tanks. If no stability documentation is available then it may be necessary to perform an inclining experiment to check that the GM is satisfactory. Calculations may be needed to establish righting and overturning lever curves. It shall be verified that the tow floats in a proper upright attitude and at a draught and trim appropriate to the calculated weight and centre of gravity. The Certificate of Approval shall be issued on agreed readiness for departure and on receipt of a suitable weather forecast.

14.6
14.6.1

PORTS OF SHELTER, SHELTER AREAS, HOLDING AREAS
Ports of shelter, or shelter areas on or adjacent to the route, with available safe berths, mooring or holding areas, shall be agreed before departure and all necessary permissions obtained. Where such shelter points are required as part of a weather-restricted operation, as described in Section 6.3, they shall be capable of entry in worsening weather.

14.6.2

14.7
14.7.1

BUNKERING
Bunkering ports, if required, shall be agreed before departure. If it is not practical to take the tow into port, then alternative arrangements must be agreed which may include: a. Where the towage is by more than one tug, each tug in turn may be released to proceed to a nearby port for bunkers, subject to a favourable weather forecast. The remaining tug(s) should meet the requirements of Section 12.2, or some other agreed criterion. b. Relief of the towing tug by another suitable tug, which itself is considered suitable to undertake the towage, so that the towing tug may proceed to a nearby port for bunkers. Bunkering at sea from a visiting vessel, subject to suitable procedures and calm weather conditions.

c. 14.7.2

Such procedures shall form part of the approved towage or voyage arrangements.

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

14.8
14.8.1

ASSISTING TUGS
Assisting tugs shall be engaged at commencement of the towage, at any intermediate bunkering port and at the arrival destination, as appropriate.

14.9
14.9.1

PILOTAGE
The Master shall engage local pilotage assistance during the towage or voyage, as appropriate.

14.10
14.10.1

LOG
A detailed log of events shall be maintained during the towage or voyage.

14.11
14.11.1

INSPECTIONS DURING THE TOWAGE OR VOYAGE
Unless the tow is manned, it should be boarded on a regular basis by the crew of the tug, particularly after a period of bad weather, in order to verify that all the towing arrangements, condition of the cargo, seafastenings and watertight integrity of the tow are satisfactory. Suitable access shall be provided - see Section 13.14. For manned tows, and self propelled vessels, the above inspections should be carried out on a daily basis as relevant - see also Section 17.5. Any adjustable seafastenings or lashings should be re-tensioned as necessary.

14.11.2 14.11.3

14.12
14.12.1

REDUCING EXCESSIVE MOVEMENT & THE SHIPPING OF WATER
The Master should take any necessary measures to reduce excessive movement or the shipping of water which may damage the cargo, cribbing or seafastenings. This may entail changes of course, or speed, or both.

14.13
14.13.1

NOTIFICATION
After departure of an approved towage or voyage, regular notification shall be sent to Noble Denton regarding progress, the reporting of any unusual or abnormal events, or necessary deviation from the agreed towing arrangements.

14.14
14.14.1

DIVERSIONS
Should any emergency situation arise during the towage or voyage which necessitates diversion to a port of refuge, then Noble Denton shall be advised. Noble Denton will review and advise on the validity of the existing Certificate of Approval for continuing the towage or voyage depending on the circumstances of the case. A further attendance at the port of refuge may be required in order to revalidate the Certificate of Approval.

14.15
14.15.1 14.15.2

RESPONSIBILITY
The Towmaster is responsible for the overall conduct of a tow, and towing arrangements during the towage. If any special situations arise during the towage or voyage and it is not possible to comply with any specific recommendations, agreed procedures or International Regulations, then such measures as appropriate for the safety of life and property shall be taken. Noble Denton shall be informed as soon as practical of any such circumstances. Nothing in this document shall set aside or limit the authority of the Master who remains solely responsible for his vessel during the voyage in accordance with maritime laws.

14.15.3

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taking into account a. environmental conditions. Compliance with these rules may need to become part of the voyage planning.19 14.1 BALLAST WATER The IMO Ballast Water Convention of 2004 (Resolution A.18. There may be local laws that will have an impact on these activities. 3 14.17.19. personnel or the environment through chemical means or combustion. b.A.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 14. Unless it is necessary the carriage of such materials should be avoided. Stowage of such materials should take into account that the transportation may be unmanned and therefore remedial action in the case of inadvertent release will be limited. Where identifiable hazardous material is found on board prior to a tow / transportation taking place. it should be controlled either through isolation or removal ashore. c. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 73 . 14.16 14.17. The necessary ballast plan and records should be available for any attending surveyor.1 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Hazardous substances may be considered as materials which. Vessels may need to change ballast water before or at their arrival port for operational reasons (loading /discharging). Should it be required to change the tug(s) for any reason. e.17 14. any course changes within the areas of restricted manoeuvrability.18 14. HEIGHTS & MANOEUVRABILITY The following recommended clearances are general. as noted on the Certificate of Approval.16. the replacement tug must be approved by Noble Denton and a new Certificate of Approval issued. have the potential to cause damage to the asset. This plan is specific to each vessel and the record of ballast operations may be examined by the Port State Authorities.17.1 TUG CHANGE The tug(s) approved for any towage. d. and capability of the tugs.868(20)) requires the monitoring and recording of ballasting and de-ballasting operations. and each towage should be assessed on its own. cross section of areas of restricted manoeuvrability in relation to underwater area/shape of the base structure.3 14.2 14.2 14. length of areas of restricted manoeuvrability. 14. If it can be proved that smaller values give the same or even better level of confidence these values should be taken. when released in sufficient quantities or improperly handled. The properties of such material should be contained in the COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) data sheets and the recommended method of stowage and handling is found in the IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) Code.19.18. Vessels flagged in signatory states are required to have on board and to implement a Ballast Water Management Plan. unless it can be shown that the substances are effectively controlled. except in emergency or where special arrangements have been agreed for bunkering.2 The recommended values give guidance. In the U. shall be the only tug(s) approved for that specific towage and should remain with the tow throughout the towage. there are numerous state laws that cover these operations.S.1 RESTRICTED DEPTHS. 14.3 14.18.

squat effects and deflections of the structure 3 and shall include a margin of not less than one metre or ten percent of the maximum draught. differences in water density. the lowest position should be used.3 14. tidal height variations. tolerance on bathymetry.1 AIR DRAUGHT When passing under bridges and power cables.1 UNDER-KEEL CLEARANCES The under-keel clearance allowing for protrusions below the hull shall account for the effects of a. The survey requirements can be relaxed if it can be shown that the on-board bathymetry measurement systems and position management systems have sufficiently high precision. changes in draught of the transport or towed object.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 14.21. Immediately before critical sections of the passage the tidal level shall be confirmed by measurement.19.21. c. The spacing between depth contour lines should be appropriate for the purpose.21. Immediately before the passage the tidal level shall be confirmed by measurement. roll and pitch. the tow route should be surveyed with a width of 5 times the beam. as well as a physical clearance.20 14.21 14.19. the overhead clearance shall be calculated allowing a margin of not less than one metre plus dimensional tolerances on the items listed in Section 14. Side-scan sonar and bathymetric data should be provided. 14. Current surveys should be made in restricted parts of the tow route. tow-line pull.4 14. with a minimum of 500 metres. f. It should be noted that the catenary of the power cable will change depending on the load being carried in the cable. Where clearance is limited then a dimensional survey of the barge/vessel and structure shall take place just prior to sailaway in order to ensure that the required clearance exists. b. If not.21. holding areas should be identified in the vicinity with adequate sea room and water depth to keep the structure afloat at low tide.19.20. g. h. The actual clearance shall be confirmed with all appropriate authorities including those responsible for the obstruction. 14.5 14.2 14. while maintaining the minimum under-keel clearance.1 excluding squat . j.20. wind heeling. 14. The equipment used should be of a recognized industry standard. 14.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 74 .20.20. whichever is greater. Power cables need a 'spark gap'. i.3 For areas where the under-keel or side clearance is critical. the transmission company will have their own criteria on the minimum allowable clearance.2 If sections of the passage are tidally dependent. d. heave. Ideally passages through areas of restricted manoeuvrability and passing under bridges and power cables should not take place in darkness.3 14. a survey report that is not older than 3 months shall be available. e.

if there are significant cross currents or if needed for the tugs to manoeuvre safely.1 CHANNEL WIDTH & RESTRICTED MANOEUVRABILITY The minimum channel width along any inshore legs of the tow route with the underkeel clearance and air draught required in Sections 14.22.22 14.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 14. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 75 .21 should be three times the maximum width of the towed object after allowances for yaw. Additional channel width may be required in exposed areas.20 and 14.

Pumping system b. which must be opened before pumping starts. and be able to board the tow and run the pumps at short notice.2.1 PURPOSE OF PUMPS Pumps may be required for the following: a.1 15. will be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Ballasting to the agreed departure condition Restoration of draught and trim after discharge (especially at sea) Deballasting to reduce draught to enter port Damage control.g.2) in severe weather.1. c. MODUs. A compressed air system should have a compressor on board and available. including self-floating objects.3 15. 15. Where a tow is not manned. depending on the nature of the towage and the extent and availability of any installed system. 15.2. Pumps in accordance with this section are primarily required for barges. Some relaxation may be possible.4 15. pump room. extensions and tapes or rods. g. the pumping system shall be available at short notice. Ballasting before. The need for. It should be possible to sound and pump into or from critical compartments (defined in Section 15.1.1. connected into the permanent lines. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 76 . Whatever pumping system is agreed. h.5 15. and any vents.2 PUMPING AND SOUNDING GENERAL Emergency-pumping arrangements should be available for any tow. f. Procedures for pumping shall be known and available.2 15. during and after loadouts b. d. Watertight manholes Portable coamings Sounding plugs.3 The use of a barge compressed air system may not be practicable for all these cases.2 15. including any restrictions arising from considerations of stability or hull stresses. including counterflooding Deballasting after accidental grounding Trimming to allow inspection and repair below normal waterline Access to a flooded compartment (e.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 15 15. An additional remote sounding system may be needed for compressed air ballasting systems Vents to all compartments.1. especially if manhole covers have been removed. The following shall be provided: a. pumps for other tows. e. FPSOs and ships. then the tug master and chief engineer shall be aware of the available pumping system. d. e. Any time required for connection or warm-up should be included in the pumping times and capacities shown in Section 15.2. and specification of. anchor winch room).5.3.1 15.1. for a towage considered as a weather-restricted operation. agreed on a case-by-case basis. and whether or not a tow is manned. c. Members of the tug crew shall be familiar with the systems. or the barge is holed above the waterline.

Two independent pumprooms or one protected pumproom.5.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 15. and any compartment required for access.3. when flooded or emptied.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 77 .4 15. c.2 A critical space is defined as any tank or compartment which. Portable submersible pumps must be able to fit through tank manholes. To be considered protected.4. 3 15. as described below b. 3 15. c. or enough pumping equipment should be carried so that any critical compartment can be reached.3. sufficient fuel shall be carried for at least 72 hours continuous operation. 3 15. or b. non compliance of intact or damage stability criteria.3 15.3 15. d. or 12 hours for a manned tow. except where there is a protected pump room.5 15.3. a pumproom.5. 15.1 PUMP CAPACITY The total capacity of the fixed or portable pumps should be such that any one wing space (or other critical tank or pumproom) can be emptied or filled in 4 hours for an unmanned tow. Whatever type of pumps are fitted or supplied. At least two pumps shall be provided. Each pumproom should be able to work into all spaces. Each portable pump should be able to pump out from the deepest space (with portable coaming installed). able to pump into and from all critical spaces. 15.4 Independent pumprooms should have separate power supply.3. due to suction head. should be separated from the bottom plating by a watertight double bottom not less than 0. at any stage of the voyage. This requires submersible pumps for barges over about 6 metres depth.2 3 15.4. in order of preference: a.5 metres wide.1 PUMP TYPE If portable pumps are used then either they should be portable enough to be moved around the barge (and cargo) by two men.1 PUMPING SYSTEM It is recommended that barges have one of the following systems. control and access.60 m deep and from the outer shell by other compartments or cofferdams not less than 1. may lead to: a. An unprotected pumproom with an independent emergency system that can pump out the pumproom A system of portable pumps. pumps. or maximum allowable transit draught being exceeded. or heeling or trimming that may prevent the tow from continuing its passage safely and free from obstructions in shallow water. non compliance of structural load limits.

preferably of an approved.6. if required by Section 13. Sounding tapes and chalk shall be carried on board the tow.6.1 VENTS All compartments connected to a pumping system should have vents fitted. Welding gear and materials shall be carried to restore watertight integrity.5 15. a tube and striker plate are recommended.8.7 15.m.4 15.3 15.7. renewed as necessary.1 15.6. A sounding plug shall be installed in each compartment (in manhole covers if necessary) to avoid removing manhole covers.7. For spaces that will be sounded regularly.8 15. All manhole covers should be properly secured with bolts and gaskets.3 15. Suitable tools shall be provided for removal and refastening of manhole covers and sounding plugs. 3 15. then the vents should be sealed for towage with wooden bungs or steel blanks.6.6 15.1 WATERTIGHT MANHOLES If manholes to critical compartments are covered by cargo then either alternative manholes should be fitted. Ladders to the tank bottom are required from each manhole position. 15. the owner should inform the classification society in good time of any holes to be cut or any structural alterations to be made. self-closing type.6 15.1.2 15.6. gauges should be provided in lieu of sounding pipes. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 78 . Access shall always be available to pumprooms and other work areas.16.2 SOUNDING PLUGS AND TAPES For vessels or barges with compressed air ballast systems. The breather hole can be drilled into the gooseneck of the vent or through the wooden bung used to close the vent. automatic. Where the barge is classed.6. If not automatic. and compensate for temperature changes.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 15. or cutting gear should be installed and positions marked for making access. but with a 6 mm diameter breather hole fitted. Portable coamings to suit the manhole design should be carried. This will give audible warning or reduce pressure differentials in event of mishap.7.

If a tow passes through an area of restricted sea room. See Section 20.1 16.4 of Appendix E) associated with using such anchors may outweigh the advantages.3. or capstan.1. see also Section 19. the anchor(s) fitted in accordance with Class requirements will generally be acceptable unless there is deck cargo. In other cases the minimum weight of the emergency anchor should be 1/10 of the towline pull required (TPR) for the tow. to storage below decks.5 16. Appendix E sets out topics to be taken into account in this risk assessment. 16. 16. Precautions should be taken to minimise chafe of the cable.4. Where such towages may need to wait for a few days on arrival at the end of a voyage before documentation is completed then.16. anchoring or mooring arrangements may be required.3 16. or other access. and padeye or winch to the barge structure should be greater than that of the cable. a comparative risk assessment should be performed to determine the preferred arrangements.1 ANCHOR CABLE STRENGTH For cable on a winch. if this is in a high-current area.3 16.5. then the pipe or access should be capable of being made watertight.1.4 16.4 16.2 16. as defined in Section 12.5.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 79 .5 times the holding power of the anchor if greater.2.1 16.2. However in many cases the disadvantages (described in Section E.3 3 16.4. 16.6.2 SIZE AND TYPE OF ANCHOR For classed vessels and barges.1 ATTACHMENT OF CABLE The inboard end of the cable should be led through a capped fairlead near the barge centre line and be securely fixed to the barge.1. 16.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 16 16. The same requirements apply for towed ships. which can be paid out under control.1. One possible outcome may be the provision of suitably sized extra tugs in some sectors of the tow.2. preferably mounted on a winch. The last few flakes of cable on deck should have lashings that will break and slow down the cable before it is fully paid out. If the cable runs through a spurling pipe.1 ANCHOR CABLE LENGTH The normal minimum effective length of anchor cable required is 180 metres. the minimum breaking load of the cable should be 20 times the weight of the anchor. 16.2 16. the minimum breaking load of the cable should be 15 times the weight of the anchor. A high holding power anchor with anti-roll stabilisation is preferred.1 ANCHORS AND MOORING ARRANGEMENTS EMERGENCY ANCHORS Emergency anchors have traditionally been required to reduce the risk of a tow running aground if a towing vessel is disabled or a towline broken. including demolition towages. to allow for the extra shock load. or 1. The breaking load of the connections of the cable to padeye or winch.4. For cable flaked out on deck.2 16. or twice the holding power if greater. For self-elevating platforms.

7. typically about 50-75 mm diameter polyprop or nylon.5. Mooring ropes should be stowed in a protected but accessible position.6. Spurling pipes into chain lockers should be made watertight with cement plugs. These may provide a more convenient connection for mooring lines and harbour tugs than bollards at deck level. and each 60-90 metres long. 16.4 16.3 For towed ships.7 16. Suitable chafe protection should be fitted as required e.6.) on each side of the barge unless it is impracticable to moor them.3 16. should be provided. Care should be taken that the connection points cannot damage. The anchor arrangement should be capable of release by one person.7. removable preventer wires should be deployed.6.1 16. At least four mooring ropes in good condition of adequate strength and length. to the deck edge for low angles of pull. Objects with very large freeboard such as FPSOs may advantageously be fitted with mooring and towing connection points along the side. with the windlass brake(s) applied. It should be positioned such that on release the anchor will drop clear of the barge and the cable will pay out without fouling. If fairleads to the bollards are not installed then the bollards should preferably be provided with capping bars.g.2 16. the anchor cable(s) shall be properly secured.5 0030/ND REV 3 Page 80 .4 16. Any additional chain stopper arrangements that are fitted shall be utilised. without the use of power to release pawls or dog securing devices. Adequate access shall be made available. If the anchor is held only on a brake. or another satisfactory method. or be damaged by. The billboard should normally be mounted on the stern. horns. an additional manual quick release fastening should be fitted.1 MOORING ARRANGEMENTS All vessels and floating objects should be provided with at least four mooring positions (bollards / staghorns etc.4 16. For any system. as shown in Appendix D.7.6 16. The anchor should be held on the billboard in stops to prevent lateral and upwards movement.3 16. 16. or alternatively. at a convenient height above the towage waterline.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 16. 16. it shall be possible to release the anchor safely.6.7.5. It should be secured by wire rope and/or chain strops that can be easily released manually without endangering the operator.g.5 16. because of draught limitations.2 ANCHOR MOUNTING AND RELEASE If there is no suitable permanent anchor housing the anchor should be mounted on a billboard.6. e. attending vessels. and tows with similar arrangements.7. or head plate to retain the mooring lines at high angles of pull. at about 60 degrees to the horizontal.

consumables. Noble Denton will only be able to approve the transport with respect to the riding crew when the documented flag state approval for the proposed number of riding crew has been seen. 17. 17.4 17. The cargo /rig’s liferafts and lifeboats should be relocated and the falls lengthened.4 and to carry out the duties in Section 17. so that on launching they will land in the water.2 17.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 17 17. There is sometimes a requirement for a riding crew on a dry transportation to maintain or commission systems or to carry out general maintenance.1 17. c.3.1.5. for instance a maintenance crew on a dry-transported jack-up rig. pumping arrangements and communication facilities with the tug shall comply with International Regulations.6 17.1. any exceedance of the Flag State limit must be approved by the Flag State in advance. The transportation contractor is therefore advised to obtain this Flag State approval in good time. d. so that an alarm on the cargo /rig is repeated on the vessel. sufficient marine personnel shall be included to operate the equipment listed in Section 17.3 17.1. and vice versa. A risk assessment shall be carried out to demonstrate the acceptability of the proposed arrangements. for example tows of MODUs.3) this may be permissible.3 3 17. lifesaving appliances.1 MANNED TOWS AND TRANSPORTATIONS GENERAL Manning of tows should generally be limited to those where early intervention by a riding crew can be shown to reduce the risks to the tow. Additional precautions which may be necessary include: a.1.1 RIDING CREW CARRIED ON THE CARGO Where a riding crew is carried on the cargo. passenger ships and Ro-Ro vessels. if necessary. The underwriters should also be informed if a large riding crew is proposed. A firewater supply should be made available to the cargo /rig.2 17. Subject to Flag State approval (see Section 17. A riding crew may be carried on an FPSO for similar reasons. The cargo /rig’s and vessel’s alarm systems should be linked. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 81 . and to the liferaft launching area b. Access to/from the cargo /rig forward and aft.2.1. The health and safety of the riding crew shall be assured at all times. Riding crew carried on any dry transportation must be within the carrying vessel’s Flag State limits for life saving appliances.1.1. the total number of persons on board may exceed the capacity of the vessel or barge. Where a riding crew is carried on a tow for commissioning and/or maintenance.5 17.1 INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS Accommodation.

f. m. clear of any possible wave action. two located on each side of the tow and including two fitted with self igniting lights and two with a buoyant line Approved life jackets to be provided for each crew member plus 25% reserve If appropriate. the minimum complement of safety and emergency equipment carried aboard the tow shall be as follows: a.1 SAFETY AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT Notwithstanding the requirements of SOLAS and any or all international regulations for Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting Equipment.4 17.4.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 17. 17.5 17. l.4. n. 17. Adequate means of access to the water shall be provided b. reporting any abnormalities. 6 parachute distress rockets and 6 hand held flares A daylight signalling lamp and battery 2 portable VHF radios. g. f.1 MANNED ROUTINE The riding crew shall take the following actions during the towage: a. h. k. provided with means of launching and fitted with hydrostatic releases. d. Inspect towing arrangements and navigation lights Inspect all seafastenings and any other accessible. o. fitted with all marine VHF channels. h. and portable fire extinguishers as appropriate. 4 lifebuoys.5. Certified liferafts located on each side of the tow. e. c. The liferaft or liferafts on each side of the tow shall be capable of taking the full crew complement. e. g. a survival suit to be provided for each crew member First aid kit Fire fighting equipment. which may consist of an independently powered fire pump with adequate hoses. critical structures Tension any adjustable seafastenings or lashings as necessary Check soundings of all bilges and spaces Monitor any unexpected or unexplained ingress of water Pump out any ingress of water Maintain regular contact by radio with the tug. j. i. At least 1 crew member shall possess the appropriate radio operator’s licences. d. with appropriate battery charging equipment Hand held GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver GMDSS radio (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System) Charts covering the route An EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) emergency transmitter 2 SARTs (Search and Rescue Radar Transponder) Heaving line(s) and/or line throwing apparatus if appropriate. Maintain a daily log and include all significant events b.2 All members of the riding crew shall be adequately trained in the use of the safety equipment. 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 82 . c.

2.6 18. Parallel tow – the method of towing 2 (or more) tows. 18.6 18.7 18. stowed in a protected position. Additional factors may be applied to the towing arrangements. areas and seasons. pennant or bridle to the tow. multiple towages may only be approvable in certain configurations.1. The bollard pull requirement of the tug shall be according to the number and configuration of the tows connected.9 With the exception of the cases described in Section 18. then full details of the operation. The towing arrangements on each tow shall have sufficient capacity for the Bollard Pull (BP) of the tug(s). multiple towages have additional associated problems including those of: a. and subject to a risk assessment. Where the towing configuration requires the use of 2 towlines from 1 tug. Approval may be rejected if any doubt exists as to the viability of the operation proposed.1 18.e.2.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 18 18.2 MULTIPLE TOWAGES DEFINITIONS This section expands on the definitions in Section 3 for multiple towages: Double tow – 2 tows each connected to the same tug with separate towlines.3 18. and with each subsequent towing pennant passing beneath the preceding tow.1 18. including detailed drawings. procedures and equipment specifications shall be submitted to Noble Denton for review and comment.1. 18.4 18.2. Manoeuvring in close quarter situations b. although additional or stronger equipment and longer towlines may be necessary.2.2. recommendations may be made for the approval process to continue. When approval is sought. using one tow wire. Maintaining sufficient water depth for the longer and deeper catenaries required.2. One towline is of sufficient length that the catenary to the second vessel is below that of the first. Two tugs (in series) towing one tow – where there is only 1 towline connected to the tow and the leading tug is connected to the bow of the second tug. where the second (or subsequent) tow(s) is connected to a point on the tow wire ahead of the preceding tow.8 18.3 18. The Towline Pull Required (TPR) should be the sum of those required for each tow.1.2.2 18.6.1.5 18.2. More than 1 tug (in parallel) towing one tow – each tug connected by its own towline. Page 83 0030/ND REV 3 . For those multiple towages that are approvable. [5]. each tow shall be prepared as described in these Guidelines. these may be formed by the utilisation of pennant wires of no less Ultimate Load Capacity than the main tow wires. and if the basic philosophy is sound.1. The tug shall be equipped as in Ref.1 GENERAL Compared with single towages.1.2 18. An initial assessment of the method will then be made. Where longer towlines are required.1. the second and following tows connected to the stern of the previous one. i. a third tow wire shall be carried on board the tug.4 18. Tandem tow – 2 (or more) tows in series behind 1 tug.5 18. Reconnecting the towlines after a breakage c.2. so that the probability of breakage is further reduced. whence it can be safely transferred at sea to either towing winch.

2.6. Special arrangements shall be made on the deck of the tug to separate the towlines.10 18.14 18. 18.6. It is particularly difficult to reconnect to a tow that has broken loose when another tow or tows are connected to the same tug.2.4.5. or to provide the required catenary in any towing arrangement. and may be subject to additional safety factors with respect to the capacity of the towing arrangements. If a synthetic stretcher is included in any towing arrangement.3.13 18. or capable of being spooled onto a winch at sea.2 TWO TUGS (IN SERIES) TOWING ONE TOW This is usually only feasible when a small tug is connected to the bow of a larger. less manoeuvrable tug to improve steering.11 It may be necessary to include (surge) chain or a stretcher to improve the spring. stowed on a winch.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 18.12 18. It shall also carry a spare towline.2. 18.1 18.4 18. The second tug is significantly heavier than the leading tug (to avoid girding the second tug). or the tug.1 PARALLEL TOWS This method is generally only approvable in extremely benign areas. Noble Denton may recommend a higher total number of crew on the tug.9. This configuration is generally only acceptable if: a. Special procedures must be agreed for reconnection. Multiple tows being towed behind a single tug may yaw in different directions.3. 18.) between the second tug and the tow is strong enough for the total combined bollard pull b. 18.4.1 DOUBLE TOWS These are usually only considered as acceptable: a.2 TANDEM TOWS These are normally only acceptable in very benign areas or in ice conditions where the towed barges will follow each other. Due to the difficulties that will be encountered if a towline breakage should occur.1 18. Care must be taken to avoid tows over-running each other.5 18.3 18. In benign areas b.6 18. In ice conditions the towlines between tug and lead tow and between tows will normally be short enough for the line to be clear of the water.2. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 84 . c.2 The tug should be connected to each tow with a separate towline on a separate winch drum. A spare stretcher shall be carried aboard the tug for each stretcher utilised in the towing arrangement.2. it shall comply with Section 13. For short duration towages covered by good weather forecasts Where there is sufficient water depth along the tow route to allow for the catenary required for the second tow. All the towing gear (towline/pennants/bridles/connections etc. 18.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 18.7. such as FPSOs and concrete gravity structures. except for the towage of very large objects.1 MULTIPLE TUGS TO ONE TOW This is generally considered acceptable. Care must be taken that the tugs do not foul each other or their towing equipment.7. Consideration should be given to matching the size and power of the tugs. provided that each tug has a separate towline to the vessel (via bridles or pennants as required).7.3 18. 18.2 18.7.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 85 . The use of eccentric bridles may be advantageous but care must be taken to avoid chafe. Normally there will not be more than 3 tugs.7 18.

1. 19.4.4.4.5 External plating shall be demonstrated to have adequate strength to withstand the hydrostatic loads due to the immersion of the section of shell plating considered.1 HULL STRENGTH For units transported on their own buoyancy. For jack-ups transported on a barge or vessel. as derived from Section 19. afloat in still water.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19 19. to a depth equivalent to that which would be caused by inclining the hull.5 shall apply.4.1 MOTION RESPONSES The motion responses for towage of a jack-up on its own hull. Hull and superstructure construction.9. as appropriate. and be in Class or verified to comply with Class building and inspection requirements.4. 19.4. Page 86 0030/ND REV 3 . assuming a wave length. materials and workmanship shall be shown to be in accordance with sound marine practice.3. where Lw is in metres. The terms 24-hour move. with all equipment.3.1 LOADINGS Loads in legs.9.4 19.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF JACK-UPS GENERAL This Section is intended to cover the special requirements of jack-up platforms. or by model tests. either the hull shall be built to the requirements of a recognised Classification Society. Lw. when subjected to the agreed motion criteria. the loads in cribbing and seafastenings shall be similarly derived in accordance with Section 8.3 Longitudinal and transverse bending may be derived by quasi-static methods. jack-houses and jack-house connections into the hull. 19.2 19. the hull shall be demonstrated to be capable of withstanding the following loadings: a. not covered by other sections. c.4.3 19. and shall be in sound condition. details.4 19. and height: Hw = 0.2.1. ocean towage and ocean transportation have the meanings shown in Section 3. Longitudinal or transverse bending.2 through 19. Otherwise the requirements of Section 19.4. Set-Up And Departure of Jack-Up Rigs to Fixed Installations” describe good practice for jack-up moves within the North Sea and many of these practices can be usefully followed in other areas.3.1.2 3 19.1 19. either by calculation. from the standard motion criteria in Section 7. Static loading. to the static angle equal to the amplitude of motion as considered in Section 7. 19.61Lw.2 19. or Loads imposed on the hull and guide support structures by the legs.2 19. may be derived from Section 7. location move. equal to the unit’s length or beam. or for transport on a barge or vessel. shall be derived in accordance with one of the methods set out in Section 8. variable load and legs in towage position. 19. plus either: b. If not in Class. Reference [24] – “UKOOA Guidelines for Safe Movement of Self-Elevating Offshore Installations” and Reference [25] “The Safe Approach. in towage condition. guides.

Local areas of jack-up platforms may be particularly prone to fatigue damage.5. The intact stability requirements set out in Sections 10. d. jack-houses. The exclusion stated in Section 4. an inspection programme. or the legs lowered. g. with the legs in any proposed transport condition. indicating whether course or speed should be changed. This may be used as a guide during the towage or voyage. shall comply with Section 10. Any jetting lines and pumping nipples in lines shall be checked closed and watertight before departure. All pre-load dump valves shall be closed and secured. The effects of fatigue damage will be excluded from any Certificate of Approval issued by Noble Denton unless specific instructions are received from the client. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 87 . or 3 m above main deck level. and direct loadings from green water.5. the areas of legs from just below the lower guides to 2 bays above the upper guides. exhausts and any other appurtenances or openings shall be effectively watertight up to the waterline associated with the minimum required downflooding angle (see Section 10.5.1 and 10.2 and 10. reflecting the motion limits for the legs or any other component.3 For all towages. The damage stability requirements of Sections 10. exhausts and any other appurtenances or openings shall be structurally capable of withstanding hydrostatic pressure due to inclination to the minimum required downflooding angle. All compartments and their vents. including non-destructive testing.2. All compartments and their vents.5.5.1 STRESS LEVELS Stress levels in legs. or provided in the Operations Manual.3.2 c. 19. f.6. intakes. for critical structural areas shall be implemented.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19. Other special considerations for jackups include: a. or fitted with non-return valves.5. intakes. 19.3 19. hull and all temporary securing arrangements shall comply with Section 9. b. e. 19. whichever is the higher.7 regarding fatigue damage should be noted. See also the caution for dry transportations in Section 9. All air intakes and exhausts for equipment that must be kept running and/or which must be available for emergency use must extend above the waterline associated with the minimum required downflooding angle. Overboard discharges shall be blanked off.4.1 STABILITY AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY For units transported on their own buoyancy.2 19.4 19. It should also include the guide connections. guides.5.5 shall be particularly addressed. Mud return lines from shale shaker pumps etc. h. the following shall apply: a.2). the jack-house connections to the deck and connections of the spudcans to the leg chords.5. Engine room intake vents and exhausts. as appropriate.6. For ocean towages. shall be blanked off. Typically.6 19. the compartmentation and watertight integrity requirements of Section 10. The hull in way of seafastenings to a barge or transportation vessel shall also be checked to comply with Section 9. or 3 m above main deck level.5 19. leading below main deck. Dump valves in mud pits shall be checked closed secured. A critical motion curve may be drawn up. Prior to an ocean transportation of a jack-up.6. b. liquid variable loads shall be minimised and shall be in pressed up tanks where possible. whichever is the higher. as appropriate.3. this should include.1.5.

8. particularly for units with guides having a small contact area. leg position and securing arrangements shall be agreed. 19.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19.8 19. unless additional tugs are used for manoeuvring.7. and shall comply with designers’ recommendations.7.8 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 88 .6 Free surface in the mud pits is not generally acceptable.Ref [5] as applicable to: a. Where lowering of legs or jacking on a standby location is envisaged during the towage. 19.6.6. 19.8 (for vertical loads) and 13. Towlines and towing connections shall.1 SECURING OF LEGS For ocean transportations.5 19.7. is provided for the legs. TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS Tugs shall be selected in general accordance with Section 12. For tilt-leg jacking systems. or equivalent limitation.5 19. ocean towages b. tie bars shall be fitted to by-pass the tilt mechanism. Hydraulic and pneumatic jacking systems shall be secured in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations.8. where appropriate.2 19. using the categories required in Section 4 of 0021/ND . it may be necessary to lower the legs in order to comply.4 19.2. all motors should be checked for torque and equalised in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions. as a minimum. clearances should be shimmed or preload applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. For jacking systems fitted with elastomeric pads.8. or by means of an approved locking device. Stability calculations shall accurately reflect the position and buoyancy of the spud cans.8. legs shall be properly secured against excessive horizontal movement by means of shimming in the upper and lower guides. Shim material specification should take into account the pressures expected.2. Where a critical motion curve.2 19.8. shall be taken into account in the stability calculations. For 24-hour and location moves. The cautions in Section 13.6 19.6. 3 The particular requirements for manoeuvring on and off location may be taken into account when selecting the towing fleet.7 19. taking into account any lesser motion limitation during the lowering operation. Similarly additional tugs may be required when in congested waters or when approaching a lee shore when there may not be sufficient time to reconnect a tug after a broken towline or breakdown in the forecast weather conditions.9 (for larger tugs) should be noted. Free surface effects of all remaining liquid variables. except for very short 24hour moves in controlled conditions. For electric jacking systems.7 19. be in accordance with Section 13.8.8. The lowering operation shall be carried out well before the onset of forecast bad weather. Instructions and limitations for this operation shall be clearly defined in the Operations Manual. 24-hour or location moves.4 19.1 TUGS.3 19.8. except those in pressed up tanks. then any leg securing arrangements shall be quickly removable.3 19. Spud can water shall be taken into account in weight and centre of gravity calculations.

For 24-hour and location moves the crown block may be left in place.11. Other machinery and equipment are to be similarly considered. If neither Section 19.10. with the setback proposed and after suitable allowance for wear. The carriage of setback in the derrick is clearly documented. d.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 89 . and any special precautions shall be clearly stated. For 24-hour and location moves.3 3 19.3 19. The limitations thereof.1 DRILLING DERRICK.5 m clear of wave action.10.2 19. substructure and cantilever shall be shown to be capable of withstanding the motions as derived from Sections 7 and 19. All pipe.4 19.2 can be satisfied.10 19. The derrick. For ocean transportations and location moves. e. and secured in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations.9.6. For 24-hour moves.11. provided it can be demonstrated that all of the following apply: a.10. to a height above the rack beams of no more than 1.1 nor 19.11. All items of equipment above and below decks shall be secured to resist the motions indicated in Sections 7 and 19.2. See also Section 9.3 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND SOLID VARIABLE LOAD Weight of equipment variable load carried on board shall not exceed the maximum variable load allowed for jacking.9. and secured against movement.8 metres.5 For ocean transportations the travelling block and/or topdrive should be lowered and secured. Alternatively. no part of the helideck plating or framing is immersed.1 19. Drill pipes should normally be stowed on top of collars. with the crown block lowered if required. 19. For ocean transportations the derrick shall be considered in the condition proposed for transportation. in any seastate up to the design seastate as defined in Section 6. model tests may be used to demonstrate that the helideck remains at least 1. it shall be shown that at an inclination in still water of 20 degrees about any horizontal axis. no setback shall be carried. The seabed conditions at the arrival location are confirmed as presenting virtually zero risk of a punch-through. 19. collars and other tubulars shall be properly stowed on the pipe deck and in the bays provided with stanchions erected. The stability of the unit can meet the requirements of Section 19. Chain lashings over each stack shall be used. the securing method.10. The drill line should be tightened. towage with setback in the derrick may be considered.2. drill pipe. collars and other equipment racked in the derrick are secured to meet the same criteria. drill pipe. 19.9. can withstand the motion criteria derived from Section 19.2.11. 19. corrosion or fatigue. then all or part of the helideck shall be removed for the towage. c. b. See also Section 9. SUBSTRUCTURE AND CANTILEVER The drilling derrick.10.6.6.11 19.2 19.2 19.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19.1 HELIDECK For ocean towages. Timber battens should be placed between each layer of pipe.9 19.9. For ocean transportations.9. collars and other tubulars shall be stowed in the piperacks. The cantilever and substructure shall be skidded to their approved positions for tow.

main and auxiliary machinery should be run periodically during the transportation. where fitted.15.3 19. 19.1 PUMPING ARRANGEMENTS For units transported on their own buoyancy.6 for stability calculations. Heaters. the booms should be shimmed or wedged against transverse and vertical movements.1 19. should be run periodically.13. Additionally for ocean towages.13. with not less than 30 metres each of suction and delivery hose. 19.7 19. switchgear and junction boxes. the spud cans should be empty and vented.1 19. Units transported on a barge or vessel need not be manned.15 19.14 19. For dry transports. 19.5 19.2 PROTECTION OF MACHINERY Where practical. Cranes shall not be used at sea except in an emergency. should have dehumidifying chemicals placed inside. Deepwell and leg well pumps shall be fully raised and secured.13. self-contained.14. and the general manning requirements of Section 17 shall apply. For ocean transportations. but left free to move axially. However.11.2 MANNING Units transported on their own buoyancy should usually be manned.6 For ocean transportations. it may be advantageous for person(s) familiar with the unit’s structure. Sufficient generator capacity should be available to operate bilge and ballast systems simultaneously.1 19.3 19. All crane and lifting derrick booms shall be laid in secure boom rests. Fitted brake systems for prevention of crane rotation shall be implemented.14.3 shall also apply.7). For ocean transportation. and if the towage procedures call for lowering of legs (see Section 19. including motors. See also Section 19.2 SPUD CANS For 24-hour and location moves.8.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19.6. machinery and systems to be on board the tug or the transport vessel.6.15. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 90 . and to inspect the unit periodically. Electric power shall be isolated at the main switchboard. Safety notices should be posted at each spudcan. the general pumping requirements of Section 15 shall apply. See also Section 19. The requirements of Sections 19.13. the spud cans may be full or empty.13. and where the unit is manned.13 19.6. For ocean towages. self-priming salvage pumps shall be on board.12 19. the spud cans should normally be full.2 3 19. 2 no x 3 inch portable.11. If empty. 19. and at the control panel. then the lowering procedures must include procedures for filling the spud cans. the well logging unit shall be secured in position and stops fitted to prevent rotation. and then be wrapped against wetting damage.2 and 19.12.12.12.11. electrical equipment which cannot be run. All spaces should be capable of being pumped by the unit’s own pumping systems.

the forward anchors should normally be removed.2 ANCHORS The general emergency anchor /risk assessment requirements of Section 16 shall apply. For ocean towages where anchors are fitted.2 19.18.16 19. preloading requirements. The aft anchors should be left in place and stopped on the racks to prevent lateral movement.1 SAFETY EQUIPMENT For towages on a unit’s own buoyancy. suitable procedures shall be written to cover location feasibility. Securing arrangements for liferafts stowed aft should be checked. it may be necessary to relocate liferafts stowed forward or overboard to a secure area protected from wave action.17. 19. and secured on deck.1 CONTINGENCY STAND-BY LOCATIONS Where the towing arrangements envisage jacking up at any intermediate location. The turnbuckle and quick-release system shall be on deck and accessible. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 91 . 19. airgap requirements.16. safety equipment in accordance with SOLAS and any or all regulations for Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting Equipment shall be carried.18 19.1 19.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 19. A retaining wire tightened by a turnbuckle and incorporating a quick-release system should be passed through the anchor shackle and secured on deck.1.17.17 19.4.16. local clearances and Customs formalities etc. Consideration should be given to any additional safety and emergency equipment listed in Section 17. For ocean towages.

b. After carrying out an inspection.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 20 20.3 20. the Class and other documentation may have expired. to permit early intervention in the event of any problems. Ro-Ro ships may also pose particular problems. The extent of the calculation required to be determined by the results of the surveys.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF SHIPS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS This Section sets out the technical and marine aspects.1. Noble Denton may deem that the vessel is unfit for tow and decline to issue a Certificate of Approval.9 Should any doubt exist as to the ability of the vessel to complete the proposed towage. Minimum certification and documentation requirements are shown in Section 5. Facilities for close-up survey of inaccessible parts of the hull structure may be required. Passenger ships and warships.8 20. It is recognised that for demolition towages.1. It is preferred that any towed vessel should be in Class with a recognised Classification Society.1. on account of the potentially large free surface in the event of flooding. the attending surveyor may require one or more of the following: a. The towage of any vessel which is damaged below the waterline.1. 20. Passenger ships and Ro-Ro ships will generally only be approved for towage if the tow is manned. After complying with the requirements of Sections 20. and require special consideration. including demolition towages and as appropriate. Each specific approval depends on a survey to identify any particular problems which may exist for the vessel(s) in question.2 through 20. It is recognised that all ships are different and these guidelines are therefore general in nature. Alternatively the vessel may only be considered fit for tow after specified repairs or temporary strengthening have been carried out. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 92 . An existing survey report may be acceptable provided that it is not more than 1 year old. after all the necessary surveys and calculations have been undertaken. An extended. and renewal may be impractical. pose particular problems with respect to their compartmentation. The existence of current classification and certification will be taken into account when determining the extent of survey required.1 20. 20.6 20.5 c. and there is no evidence of damage or significant deterioration since that date. towages of FPSOs.1. a dry dock survey of the vessel may be necessary. Such surveys shall be carried out by a reputable independent company. and in order to verify that the structural strength and watertight integrity of the tow is approvable for the intended voyage.1.1. which would be considered by Noble Denton for approval of the towage of ships. This survey may be in limited areas or extend over large parts of the hull structure.1. and possess a current Load Line or Load Line Exemption Certificate.4 20.1. because of the complex nature of their systems.1.6 above. d. in depth.1. Calculations to show that the structural strength of particular local areas of the vessel is adequate. Thickness determination (gauging) of specified areas of the vessel structure. survey of the vessel structure involving one or more specialist surveyor(s).7 20. A Noble Denton review of classification society approved scantling drawings.2 20. is suspected of being damaged below the waterline or has suffered other damage or deterioration which could affect the structural strength will not normally be approved except where it is clearly shown by survey and calculation that the strength of the vessel and its watertight integrity is satisfactory for the intended towage.

3. or the whole superstructure of the vessel.3 20. Towlines. For tows which have a sharp bow configuration a single chain pennant passing through a bow centre line or forward fairlead may be preferred. shall be taken into account so far as is practical. 20. Unless the tow has been fitted with proper towing brackets.1.1 through 13.10 Any heavy fuel oil within the tanks of the vessel must be identified. including specification and bollard pull.6 20.8 Chain may be substituted by wire rope of the required ultimate load capacity. To minimise the risk of pollution. towline connections.7 20. above and below deck.1. special care shall be taken regarding towing connections. otherwise alternative arrangements must be made. A bridle is most suitable for tows which have a wide bow.1 TUG SELECTION Tug selection. These guidelines assume that the tow will be towed from its forward end or bow. or the anchor chain and windlass are used.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 20. In this case. reinforcements shall be fitted to achieve the required capacity.3.3.2. In these cases. In such cases it shall be shown that the mooring equipment has sufficient ultimate strength. possible limitations on entry to ports of refuge and ports of shelter shall be noted and taken into account in the towage procedures. consideration should be given to providing oversize chain or wire. trim and the control and protection of the tow during the towage.3.3.19. draught. or the tow yaws significantly.11 20. If a stern-first towage is required (see Section 13.2 20. In any event. or chain and wire combination. delta plate or towing ring shall be fitted at the apex of the bridle. The guidelines hereunder are therefore general in nature. e.1.2) then approval may be given and the basic guidance contained in this report is valid.3.3 20. d. Chain bridle with bridle leg from each side of the bow b.12. shall be in accordance with Section 12. In any event the angle at the apex of the bridle should not exceed 60º.3. and depending on the circumstances. 21].5 20. paragraph 13.1. the tug master and the Noble Denton surveyor.2. 20.1 TOWLINES AND TOWING CONNECTIONS Each ship or vessel towage is unique and it is therefore not possible to specify the connection equipment to be used and how it is to be attached for every case. to comply with Section 13.3. The configuration of the attachments to the tow may be one of the following depending on the circumstances and equipment available: a. the requirements of the IMO “Guidelines for Safe Ocean Towing” [Ref.4 20. c. any equipment used for the towage must be fit for purpose and must be agreed between the Owner of the tow. If necessary.2 20. Single chain from centre line location or forward fairlead Anchor chain(s) from vessel’s hawse pipe(s) Single continuous chain with the ends extending out from each bow Single continuous chain. it may be necessary to utilise attachments such as mooring bitts to connect to the tow. A triangle plate. 20. recovery systems and emergency towing gear shall be in general accordance with Sections 13. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 93 . but only where chafe cannot occur. In the event of heavy fuel oil being carried. around a part of. Chafe of chain or wire may occur when unsuitable fairleads have to be used. and shall be minimised where possible.

5.3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 94 .6 20.1 STABILITY.6. and in order to ensure that the towing arrangement is securely anchored on the vessel and does not slip on the bitts.4. The condition and capacity of the chain shall be assessed with reference to Section 13. 20. c.1 and appropriate access afforded for deployment by one person.4. or the whole superstructure of the vessel and made up into a bridle at the bow.1 through 10. unless positive load-sharing can be achieved.3. On a vessel which is not provided with suitable attachments. An alternative arrangement may consist of a single chain passing up one hawse pipe and out of the other.9 If deemed appropriate an anchor chain from the tow may be used after removal of the associated anchor. Windlass in gear b.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 20. 20.2. If such a method is utilised then appropriate safety measures shall be applied as follows: a. Port and starboard anchor cables shall be properly secured with the windlass brake applied.6.12 A single chain passing through one side fairlead.5.3. a chain.4 20.1 COMPARTMENTATION AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Compartmentation and watertight integrity shall be in accordance with Section 10.3.1 ANCHORS An emergency anchor shall be provided if required as a result of the risk assessment described in Section 16. or where the anchoring arrangements do not permit the single chain method described above. around a strongpoint such as the windlass base and out of a fairlead on the other side may be approvable.11 20. 20. draught and trim shall be in accordance with Sections 10.6. 20. Where mooring bitts are utilised to secure chain to the tow. d. or a combination of chain and wire may be positioned around a part of.2 20. Spurling pipes into chain lockers shall be made watertight with cement plugs or other satisfactory method. 20.10 Windlass brake applied Chain claw or stopper deployed Back-up wire to connect chain to base of windlass or other suitable securing point.5 20.3. Bitts and fairleads shall be capped with welded bars or plates of sufficient strength to prevent equipment jumping off or out of the arrangement. If such an arrangement is used then the first bitts used must have the required ultimate capacity. Any additional chain stopper arrangements that are fitted shall be utilised or. alternatively. the chain should be backed-up to further bitts abaft the main connection points using suitable wire pennants locked into position with clips. removable preventer wires shall be deployed. DRAUGHT AND TRIM Stability. In either case the outboard ends should be made up into a bridle. Each leg should have preventers on the inboard side to stop the chain sliding and it should not interfere with the vessel’s emergency anchoring arrangements. 3 20.

and immobilised. which if carried shall be properly seafastened.9.9.2 20. All other cargoes shall be secured in accordance with Sections 7. in general accordance with Section 15.2 20. Shifting boards or other preventative methods shall be utilised where appropriate.6 20.3 20.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 20. Approval shall not be given to any towage where the prescribed Load Line draught is exceeded.3 20. The cargo shall be loaded in a seaman-like manner making proper allowances for load distribution both during loading and for the duration and route of the towage.7.7.4 20.4 20. chain or wire. Additional protection or securing may be required for equipment exposed to wave slam.9. or disconnected. all equipment shall be secured to meet the appropriate motion requirements of Section 7. Where equipment must be carried on an exposed deck then it shall be protected and secured against movement using welded brackets.7. 20.7.7 20. 8 and 9. A cargo plan shall be provided for agreement by the attending surveyor.9. to prevent damage to machinery during the towage. and seafastenings of loose items designed in accordance with Sections 8 and 9. or as agreed with the Tug Master. it shall not be treated as a bulk cargo.9.9 20. 20. The rudder shall be positioned in the amidships position.9. including the possession of a current International Load Line Certificate.11.7.1 CARRIAGE OF CARGO The carriage of manifested cargo on the tow shall not normally be approved unless the tow is manned and is fully classed by a Classification Society.5 20. engineering calculations shall be carried out in order to verify that the securing of items is satisfactory.7 0030/ND REV 3 Page 95 . See Section 19. The propeller shaft shall be immobilised.1 SECURING OF EQUIPMENT AND MOVEABLE ITEMS In general.9. If carried in a hold. Every effort shall be made to limit the carriage of any loose deck equipment to an absolute minimum. Equipment in other areas shall also be secured. International Load Line Regulations shall be strictly followed. For large equipment.5 20.8.6 20. Bulk cargoes shall be properly trimmed to prevent shifting in a seaway. Particular attention shall be paid to the securing of scrap steel. 20. Longitudinal strength requirements shall be complied with.8 20.7.1 EMERGENCY PUMPING Emergency pumping arrangements shall be available on the tow.7 20.7.6 for securing and use of cranes and lifting derricks.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

21
21.1
21.1.1

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF FPSOS
GENERAL AND BACKGROUND
Many of the foregoing guidelines apply equally to the towage of FPSOs, and similar large vessels. The aim of this Section is to address the specific marine-related issues associated with the towage of these units. Although it is recognized that there are many more marine activities in an FPSO development, towage to field is a critical and often long operation, which must be addressed by the project team early in the schedule. Some FPSO developments are ‘fast-track’, resulting in construction and commissioning activities being completed during the tow. New-build or converted FPSOs usually undertake a limited number of towages only, following construction or conversion. There may be a further towage at the end of their working life. Frequently the design weather conditions for towage are more severe than the service conditions. There is a natural reluctance to build in additional strength or equipment which will have no practical value during the service life. Project-specific fit-for-purpose guidelines must be agreed in each case.

21.1.2 21.1.3

21.1.4

21.1.5

21.2
21.2.1

TOWAGE MANUAL
A comprehensive Tow Manual shall be written to identify all aspects of the towage in detail, cover all likely contingencies and specify exactly how the towage will be conducted. If the tow to field and the installation are to be performed by different contractors, then the scope split between the contractors must be clearly defined, to ensure that all parties are aware of their responsibilities, handover points and reporting lines.

21.2.2

21.3
21.3.1

THE ROUTE AND WEATHER CONDITIONS
Metocean design criteria should be carefully established early in the project, in accordance with Section 6. In many cases, the field’s operational criteria may be less onerous than the tow-to-field criteria, so temporary-phase operational limits may define structural load cases and equipment motion criteria. Mitigation of the design extremes may be achieved by the use of a staged towage, in accordance with Section 6.3. In such cases the towage route must be planned to incorporate a series of safehavens, meaning sheltered locations where the tow can safely ride out severe weather. It may also be necessary to identify suitable bunker ports. These requirements may conflict with the requirement for adequate searoom, and such conflicts should be resolved. Passage through restricted or busy waters should be considered, and the need for appropriate additional tugs determined.

21.3.2 21.3.3

21.3.4

21.4
21.4.1

STRUCTURAL ISSUES
FPSOs are intended to remain at sea without dry-docking for their entire working life, usually in the order of 20 years. In this respect the integrity of the hull must be maintained and precautions taken to ensure no damage occurs during the tow. A commercial vessel is usually assumed, for design purposes, to spend about 20% of its life in port, and is periodically dry-docked. These differences place much greater emphasis on the reliability, integrity and quality of the hull including its coating.

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS These qualities must not be compromised during the tow other than by reasonable wear and tear. For long towages, fatigue damage may need to be considered. The capability of the FPSO to withstand design towage conditions shall be demonstrated. Checks should include hull girder strength, local plating strength, operating limit states for process equipment including rotating machinery. Equipment foundations shall be designed for the temporary phase operations. Fatigue damage to the connections between the topsides and hull should be considered. Any temporary equipment aboard shall be secured to withstand the design conditions. If construction, completion, or commissioning work is performed during tow, then all the scaffolding, temporary power packs, work containers etc shall be installed to withstand the design criteria. Any scaffolding or other temporary works which cannot comply with the design criteria shall be dismantled or removed. Green water damage or slamming damage on temporary equipment should be considered in the location of equipment.

21.4.2 21.4.3

21.4.4

21.4.5

21.4.6

21.5
21.5.1 21.5.2 21.5.3 21.5.4 21.5.5

TUG SELECTION
Tugs shall be selected, as a minimum, in accordance with Section 12, but with regard to the comments on redundancy below. Redundancy in the towing fleet is recommended. The use of additional tug(s) may be required in restricted waters. Redundancy of towing vessels gives greater freedom for bunkering, where one tug may divert to bunker whilst the other(s) continue(s) with the towage. A concern in multiple-tug towages relates to emergency procedures in the event of loss of a tug's power. If, for example, the lead tug in a three-tug spread blacks out, then it could be over-ridden by the FPSO, with catastrophic consequences. Suitable emergency procedures and tow equipment will be required to mitigate such a possibility. Additional or larger tugs may be required if it is not possible or practical to provide an emergency anchor. See also Section 21.10.

21.5.6

21.6
21.6.1

BALLAST, TRIM AND DIRECTIONAL STABILITY
Directional stability under tow may be compromised resulting in the FPSO veering off the course line. This is due to various factors related to the design and construction of the FPSO, including but not limited to: a. The presence of a mooring or riser turret, below the keel of the vessel, generally at the forward end or midlength. b. c. d. The removal of the vessel’s rudder, where the FPSO is a conversion The hull design of purpose-built FPSOs High windage structure at the fore end.

21.6.2

The lack of directional stability can be hazardous due to: a. Lack of sea room in congested and/or confined waters, e.g. Dover Strait b. Accelerated deterioration of the towing gear caused by excessive movement, especially wear of chains.

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 21.6.3 To limit the loss of directional stability the hull must be carefully ballasted, trimmed by the stern and in the case of a ship-shape hull with the forefoot well immersed. This will also reduce slamming in heavy weather. The ballast distribution must be checked to ensure that the shear and longitudinal bending moment are within acceptable limits. Consideration may also be given to attaching a towing vessel at the stern of the FPSO (see also Section 21.6.5 below). Careful design of the towing gear may mitigate the problem. Consideration may be given to towing by the stern. If this is proposed then any motions analysis or model testing shall recognise this configuration. The strength of the hull in way of the stern shall be checked to ensure that: a. The stern can withstand the anticipated slamming loads b. Suitably sized towing connections and fairleads are or can be attached.

21.6.4 21.6.5

21.7
21.7.1

TOWING EQUIPMENT
Requirements for assisting tugs to provide additional manoeuvring control, and to assist with berthing or connection to the permanent mooring system shall be assessed for: a. Departure b. c. d. e. Any intermediate ports Any shelter areas Bunkering Arrival.

21.7.2

21.7.3

The towing equipment shall be configured to accommodate additional and assisting tugs and to allow connection and disconnection when required. These activities may dictate the equipment on board the unit. For example, tugger winches, davits or cranes could be needed. As noted in Section 21.6, FPSOs may exhibit a lack of directional stability during towage. There are two key tow-gear-related issues to address this problem and minimise the risk of gear failure: a. The towing brackets on the vessel need to be wide-spaced, preferably more than one-half of the beam b. The chafe chains should be generously oversized (typically +50%) to allow for accelerated wear during the voyage.

21.7.4

At least one emergency towline is mandatory, and means to recover each bridle after any breakage shall be provided. The possible manning of the vessel will influence the type and location of any recovery gear.

21.8
21.8.1

SELF-PROPELLED OR THRUSTER-ASSISTED VESSELS
In some cases, the FPSO may have its own propulsion, which may be either the original ship’s system or thruster units to be used in service. If these are to be used for the voyage to site, the vessel must comply fully with all regulatory requirements. The specification of the thruster units, power supplies and manning should be reviewed, to ensure that they are compatible with the voyage requirements. A risk assessment shall be undertaken to determine the need for assisting tugs.

21.8.2 21.8.3

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1 MOORINGS & UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE The need for moorings before. Ballast. Hull girder bending. as shown in Section 17.11.10.1 21.9. 21. j. the unit must be fitted with appropriate means of boarding. Design and layout of such quayside moorings should be incorporated into the overall arrangement of the vessel as described in Section 16.9 21. f. i.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 99 . b. Seabed conditions. If the towage is to be manned. c. being only for in-place conditions. The clearance should be calculated after consideration of: a. 21. a dedicated marine riding crew is recommended. Bottom protrusions.2 21.2 EMERGENCY ANCHOR The general emergency anchor requirements of Section 16 shall apply.9. For many designs the deck space where an emergency anchor might be sited is taken up with the permanent mooring equipment. e. during or immediately after the towage shall be considered. On a conversion the permanent anchors will often be removed.9.1.4 MANNING AND CERTIFICATION Most FPSOs are not classed as ships during their service life. h. d. Wherever an FPSO hull is moored in shallow water.10.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 21. in accordance with Section 13. Weight growth due to construction activities and loading of modules.1 21. Maximum negative surge Other environmental factors. 21. The documentation set out in Section 5 shall be provided. trim and heel changes.3 21. a minimum of 1m underkeel clearance must be maintained at all levels of tide for the duration of the vessel’s stay in a particular location. are not configured to act as emergency moorings during transit. FPSO mooring systems (whether turret-type or spread). Squat (when moored in a river or tidal stream).7. Water density. then the requirements of Section 17 shall be considered.4. g. Regardless of the presence of construction or commissioning personnel.14. whether manned or unmanned.11 21.10 21. Lowest predicted astronomical tide. In all cases.9.11.

Such surveys shall be carried out by a reputable independent company. This survey may be in limited areas or extend over large parts of the hull structure. in order to verify if the structural strength and watertight integrity of the tow is approvable for the intended voyage.2 22. Each approval will depend on the result of an in-depth review of the towplan as well as an equipment inspection/attendance by a surveyor to identify any particular problems that may exist for the specific vessel(s) and towage in question. In addition. special towing techniques used in ice and manoeuvrability restrictions caused by the ice require that experienced personnel plan and execute the tow.4 22.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TOWAGE OF VESSELS AND STRUCTURES IN ICE COVERED WATERS GENERAL This Section sets out the special technical and marine aspects and issues not covered elsewhere in these Guidelines. a dry dock survey of the vessel may be necessary.1. Thickness determination (gauging) of specified areas of the vessel structure. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 100 . in depth. after all the necessary surveys and calculations have been undertaken. Except as allowed by Section 22. 22.3 22. barges.5.1 22. It is recognized that towing in ice-covered water is a unique marine operation and that all vessels and towages in ice are different . Facilities for a close-up survey of inaccessible parts of the hull structure may be required. In such special cases an inspection will be carried out and. survey of the vessel structure involving one or more specialist surveyor(s).1. as well as the ice interaction and towing resistance caused when the beam of the tow is greater than that of the tug and/or of any independent icebreaker support. Structural safety and towing performance will require careful consideration of the size and shape of the vessel being towed. b. MODU’s and any other floating structure towed in ice-covered waters.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22 22. any vessel that is operated and/or towed in ice shall be in Class with a recognized Classification Society and have a current Load Line Certificate.making these guidelines general in nature. The beam difference will affect the level of ice protection provided by the tug to the tow.1. especially with respect to the beam of the towed vessel in comparison to the beam of the towing vessel and the shape of the bow of the towed unit. A Noble Denton review of classification society approved scantling drawings.5 c. 22. Special cases may be considered for the towage of vessels with a Load Line Exemption Certificate or for objects with no classification such as caissons and vessels with expired classification such as a demolition towage. the attending surveyor may require one or more of the following: a.1.1. Calculations to show that the structural strength of particular local areas of the vessel is adequate. An extended. The extent of the calculation required to be determined by the results of the surveys and drawings review.6 Should any doubt exist as to the ability of the vessel (object) to complete the proposed towage. d. and there is no evidence of damage or significant deterioration since that date.1. that will be considered by Noble Denton for the approval of the towage of ships.1. An existing survey report may be acceptable provided that it is not more than 1 year old.

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. This may result in a vessel’s ice capability being interpreted by Noble Denton to be different to that indicated by the table. is suspected of being damaged below the waterline or has suffered other damage or deterioration which could affect the structural strength and/or watertight integrity will not be approved for towage in ice.4 The following tables summarize the previous nominal ice classification equivalencies for some classification societies and regulators.2 22. the towage of any vessel or object which is damaged below the waterline.7 After complying with the requirements of Sections 22.2 to 22.2. The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) introduced “Requirements concerning Polar Class” in 2007 [Ref 23] which came into effect on ships contracted for construction on and after 1 March 2008.4 listed above.2. These are described in the following Table: Table 22-1 Polar Class Descriptions Polar Class PC 1 PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 PC 5 PC 6 PC 7 Ice Description (based on WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature) Year-round operation in all Polar waters Year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions Year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multiyear ice inclusions Year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Summer/autumn operation in thin first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions 3 22. Alternatively. For example. It is important to note that the structural requirements of various classification societies are different and that many requirements have changed substantially over the years so that the ‘equivalencies’ shown in the tables should only be used for general guidance.2 22. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 101 .2.1 VESSEL ICE CLASSIFICATION The tug(s) and towed vessel shall have an appropriate ice classification or equivalent for transit through the anticipated ice conditions identified in the Tow Plan and verified by Noble Denton.2.1. the vessel/object may only be considered fit for tow after specified repairs and suitable ice strengthening has been carried out.3 22. Noble Denton may deem that the vessel/object is unfit for tow and decline to issue a Certificate of Approval.1.1. 22.

2.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22.3.3 22.0. 22.5 m inclusions Multi-year ice floes and glacial ice inclusions 2.0 m 3.3.0.5 Vessels classed as Ice breakers: Table 22-2 Previous Icebreaker Classifications Polar Russian Classes PC 5 PC 4 (LL4) LU6 (LL3) LU7 (LL2) LU8 (LL1) LU9 LRS Canadian Arctic Class CASPRR CAC4 DNV Operating Criteria Typical WMO ice Ice type & thickness thicknes capability s Winter ice with 0.5 m pressure ridges Thick first year ice 1.5 m) Thin first year (2nd stage .2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 102 .5 AC2 AC3 CAC3 CAC2 CAC1 Ice 15 Polar 10 Polar 20 Polar 30 PC 3 PC 2 PC 1 22.1.2 m) For Russian Classes L-ICE U-REINFORCED A-ARCTIC 22. the ice classification requirement for the towed object may be considered for reduction if it is determined that the tug has a higher than necessary level of ice classification and can protect the tow from potentially damaging ice interaction.7 m) Medium first year (0.1 TOWAGE WITHOUT INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT Where no independent icebreaker escort is identified in the tow-plan for the intended voyage.3 m .0 m with old ice 1. When a tow is anticipated to take more than three (3) days (the maximum for a reasonably accurate weather/ice forecast) or longer in ice conditions that includes a concentration of five (5) tenths or more of limiting ice types.2. With the exception of a vessel pushed ahead (push-towed).0.0 m C1 Ice 05 Ice 10 AC1.0.0 m .3 m) Thin first year (1st stage .6 Vessels classed For Ice Navigation: Table 22-3 Previous Vessel Ice Classifications Canada (ASPPR) E D C B A GL E E1 E2 E3 E4 Russian (L4) LU (L3) LU2 (L2) LU3 (L1) LU4 (UL/ULA) LU5 ABS D0 1C 1B 1A 1AA BV 1D 1C 1B 1A 1A Super DNV Ice C 1C 1B 1A 1A* LRS 1D 1C (Ice 3) 1B (Ice 2) 1A (Ice 1) 1A Super Typical WMO ice type and thickness capability Grey (0.7 m .15 m .0. the tug and tow must be of appropriate ice classification and power to maintain continuous headway in the anticipated ice conditions.5 m . the tow-plan must indicate the location of the nearest icebreaker support and the anticipated time before independent icebreaker assistance (Coast Guard or Commercial) can be provided.0.15 m) Grey white (0.

In this way an icebreaker can tow a low-powered and low ice classed ship quickly (up to 3 times faster than conventional towing in ice) and safely (better protection of the towed vessel and less risk of collision due to over-running) through high concentrations of difficult ice. The stern of the icebreaker has a heavily fendered ‘notch’ into which the bow of a ship is pulled by the icebreaker’s towline. 22. especially when experiencing ice pressure.5. d.3 CONVENTIONAL TOW OPERATIONS: a. 22. The towline remains attached and the icebreaker steams ahead.4 22. usually with additional power provided by the towed vessel in the notch. so that headway can be maintained and to remove the stress from the towline.3.3. In addition the towed ship cannot have a bulbous bow because the underwater protrusion could damage the icebreakers propellers and: The displacement and freeboard of the towed vessel should not be so disproportionate with that of the icebreaker that the manoeuvring characteristics of the icebreaker are seriously compromised: The anticipated ice conditions should not require ramming or passage through areas where high levels of ice pressure may be experienced without independent icebreaker assistance. it is important that the pushed vessel has appropriate ice strengthening. For close-couple towages: a. The bow should not be so bluff that all the force is concentrated in localized areas. b.3.3. Freedom of movement of the towed ships bow can cause manoeuvring difficulties as well as applying heavy side forces on the towed ships bow when turning. c. Preferably the entrance of the towed ship is not so sharp as to apply excessive force on the stem when going straight ahead. e.4.3. 22.5.3. in all circumstances where the push-towing technique may be used. In some cases a push-tow is a more efficient and a more desirable method of ice transit to conventional towing. The beam of the icebreaker must be more than that of the towed ship in order to avoid shoulder damage to the towed vessel and excessive towline stress and: The icebreaker is fitted with a constant tension winch or equipment that will reduce the effects of shock-loading: The bow of the towed ship must be compatible with the notch design of the icebreaker.1 the tow-plan must show that the towage should not be subjected to ice pressure. however.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. In some cases where the design and ice strength of the tug and tow is appropriate a tug may opt to push rather than tow in ice.2 0030/ND REV 3 Page 103 .1 PUSH-TOW OPERATIONS Push-Tow operations can be carried out using rigid connection (composite unit) or flexible connections (a push-knee erected at the stern of the pushed vessel). if necessary. the tug must have sufficient power and hull strength (ice classification) to be capable of safely maintaining continuous towing headway through the worst anticipated ice conditions including.5 22. the breaking of large diameter floes and deformed ice with no requirement for ramming and: b. CLOSE-COUPLE TOWING OPERATIONS Close-couple towing is an operation that allows a specially designed icebreaker to combine towing and icebreaking assistance. particularly in the bow and shoulder areas.

The master in charge of a tow (tow-master) should typically have at least 3 years experience of towing in ice conditions similar to those anticipated for the proposed towage. The beam of the pushed vessel should be at least one third greater than that of the tug to allow suitable manoeuvring for a flexible connection and: the connection between tug and tow is of suitable strength for emergency stops and: the tow-plan shows that the ‘push-tow’ will not enter. d. the vessel being pushed has appropriate ice classification and strength for unescorted transit in the anticipated ice conditions and: the beam of the pushed vessel is greater than that of the tug. or be exposed to. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 104 . or wider than.1 MULTIPLE TOWS AND MULTI-TUG TOWS Multiple Towages in ice are subject to the appropriate provisions set out in this section regarding ice classification. The icebreaker(s) has sufficient capability to allow the towage to maintain continuous headway through all of the anticipated ice conditions and.2 for the tug(s) and towed vessel(s) may be considered for reduction if it is determined that appropriate icebreaker escort assistance is provided for the duration of the tow in ice and that: a. However. Other navigating officers on tugs involved in a towage in ice should also have previous experience of towages in ice. special consideration should be given to the number. An in-depth risk assessment would be required and the risks shown to be acceptable. b.4 22.1 TOWAGE OPERATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT ICEBREAKER ESCORT The ice classification requirements indicated in Section 22.1. lookout.4.3 The ice classification of a tug that is engaged in a ‘push-tow’ operation with no independent icebreaker support can be reduced if: a. qualification and experience of personnel required on the navigating bridge to ensure safe navigation including steering and engine control. 22.5. an area where ice pressure may be encountered of sufficient severity to stop the continuous forward progress of the push-tow without independent icebreaker assistance.1. only in exceptional circumstances of very light ice and/or very low ice concentration (trace) will a Double Tow (Section 18. the beam of the tug and tow combination.13 concerning manning. c.3.2. c.5.5 22.1 MANNING In addition to Section 12.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. d. operation of searchlights and.4) be considered for approval. the tug and tow combination or: The icebreaker(s) is fitted with suitable and operational equipment such as azimuthing main propulsion units or compressed air systems that are capable of opening the track wider than the beam of the escorted towage in the anticipated ice conditions or: More than one icebreaker will be used to provide a broken track equal to.2 22.6. equipment and suitable propulsion power as well as the general provisions (particularly those presented in Section 18). 22.1) or a Parallel Tow (Section 18. emergency operation of the towing winch abort system. or greater than. 22. The icebreaker(s) has a beam equal to.5. b.6 22.

2 In addition to the provisions presented in Section 18 concerning towing operations that use more than one tug or multiple tows: a.4. In some circumstances a tow-plan can include the contingency of releasing one or more tugs that are towing in the conventional manner to push-tow provided that:     d.2. As an acceptable example. All other tug Masters and senior navigating officers involved in the multi-tug towage should have an appropriate level of experience of towing in ice and be familiar with the associated difficulties and hazards.2. the towed vessel is appropriately ice strengthened: the towed vessel is appropriately designed and strengthened in the pushing location(s): the tugs are designed and adequately fendered for pushing: such action would only be considered in a high ice concentration where there is no influence by sea or swell. this type of close connection necessitates good fenders to be in place between each unit in the tow. A multi-tug tow-plan that is presented to Noble Denton for approval that does not include independent icebreaker escort assistance shall demonstrate clearly why it is not considered necessary. an ice towing for the shock- c. A tandem tow of barges as described in Section 18. special attention shall be given to the strength of the connections on the foredeck of the second tug in case it is necessary lead tug to break through ice floes of varying thickness that may cause loading. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 105 .6 in infested area. b.1 and 22.7.2 is sometimes referred to as ice-coupled. and the remaining tug(s) have sufficient BP to continue making towing progress. To avoid collision or over-running each tug shall have a quick release and reset system as described in Sections 22. When two tugs are towing in series as described in Section 18.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. The most experienced tug Master shall be designated as the tow-master and give directions to the other vessels.6. the tow could be configured such that one or more tugs with the capability to perform ice management (escort duties) can be released. e.2. Where the presence of ice increases the potential for rapid changes to the towing speed.7.

7.1 (a): For a tug that is planning a conventional single towline towage in ice the Minimum Towline Breaking Load (MBL) should be computed as follows: Table 22-4 Minimum Towline MBL in Ice Bollard Pull (BP) BP ≤ 40 tonnes 40 < BP ≤ 90 tonnes BP > 90 tonnes MBL (tonnes) 3. Because of the short towing distance and reduction of towline catenary it is necessary for the towing arrangement to be suitable for the additional stress that can be experienced.3.1 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR TOWING IN ICE In addition to Section 12.7.1 22. STRENGTH OF TOWLINE With reference to Section 13.7.7 22. The stress on the towing arrangement can vary considerably with: a.3 22. type and configuration are necessary.16. a tug involved in towing in ice infested waters must be fitted with an operational towline quick release/reset system (towwire abort system): a.4 22.9.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22.1 0030/ND REV 3 Page 106 .1. 22. c. d. As recommended in Sections 12. b.7. With reference to Section 12. 22.2 – BP/50) x BP + 24 2 x BP + 60 22.7.2 22. the difference in beam between the tug and tow resulting in ice interaction on the shoulders of the towed vessel and ice accumulation in front of the tow as well as the use and effectiveness of independent icebreaker escort and large heading deviations due to manoeuvring through and around ice and unintentional tug interaction with heavy ice floes which can result in shockloading to towing components due to whiplash and the tow taking charge.5 (Tow-line Control). The towline quick release system should be capable of immediate winch brake release for pay out of tow-wire as well as winch brake re-set from the navigation bridge and the winch control station (if different). b.7 x BP + 12 (4.2. every tug that is towing in ice shall be equipped with burning and welding gear for ice damage control and repair.7.7.2 when towing in ice that could rapidly reduce towing speed or when a tug is involved in a multiple tow or when a tug is involved with a multi-tug tow.7.1 TOWING EQUIPMENT GENERAL The towing techniques that are used in ice typically require a short distance between the tug and tow to increase manoeuvrability and so that the propeller wash from the towing vessel can assist in clearing ice accumulation around the bow of the towed vessel. the thickness and concentration of ice as well as ice pressure.3 22. It is for these reasons that additional provisions concerning towing equipment strength. a tug involved in a towage in ice should be fitted with at least two searchlights that can be directed from the navigation bridge.7.2.2.11. c.2.2.2 and 13.

The strength of all other towing connections and associated equipment should be appropriately calculated as required by the provisions of Section 13. When possible.4.3. 22. construction etc. there must be enough competent personnel.4 0030/ND REV 3 Page 107 .3 22.5. the navigating bridge and winch operator should be provided with continuous readouts of towline length deployed and towline tension. 22.7.2 22.5 22.4 22. is made fast to each bow of the vessel being towed.7. Towing hooks do not allow for the rapid adjustment of towline length.7. The tow-wire goes from the towing winch to the floating block on the bridle and back via a fairlead to a towing damper on the tug. in exceptional circumstances. and Each tow-line has a monitoring system to enable load sharing. equipment and spares on board to crop and re-socket the main tow-wire at least once. Further.5.7.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22.7.2 TOWING WINCHES Towing winches are required due to the typical manoeuvring restrictions and hazards that are inherent to towing in ice. Towing winches shall have a quick release and re-set system as described in Sections 22. To meet the minimum towline strength criteria a tug that has an appropriate bollard pull may.7.1 and 22.2.3 22. In these circumstances the Minimum Towline Breaking Load (MBL) should be computed as shown for a ‘nonbenign’ tow in Section 13. particularly low temperatures that can result in winch malfunction.1 Each of the two independent towlines is a minimum of 90% of the required strength and Each tow-wire is on a separate towing winch that can be adjusted. SPECIAL CASES OF REDUCED TOW-WIRE STRENGTH The minimum size of tow-wire that is typically used by icebreaking tugs of 160te BP for close-couple towing is for example. typically at least 6.2.2. ALL tugs involved in a towage in ice must carry a spare tow-wire of the same length and strength as the main tow-wire that is immediately available on a reel to replace the main tow-wire.3.7.5. usually of the same size and strength as tug's main tow-wire. This makes the bridle wire the ‘weak link’ in the system and because of this an icebreaking tug shall carry sufficient spare bridle wires. For larger powered tugs.2. the tow-wire may be doubled up again by passing the wire through a standing block on the tug’s deck and around a second sheave on the floating block before it is made fast to the towing damper.5.2.7. c. Winch controls and winch operating machinery should be suitably protected from environmental conditions. d.4. 22. b.3.7. In addition.1 22.4 22. 64mm EIPS rove through a multiple sheave floating ‘Nicoliev Block’ system. be considered for approval of a conventional towage in calm waters containing ice using two towlines provided that: a.7.7. In this system a single bridle wire.2 An exception can be made for short tows in very thin ‘new’ ice or in very low concentrations (<3/10ths) of medium or thick ‘rotten’ ice.7.7. Each towing winch should have sufficient pull to allow the towline to be shortened under tension. quick released and reset independently from the other and Each tow-wire meets the requirements of a single tow-wire in terms of minimum length..

suitable access must be provided.1 With reference to Section 13. Wire pennants and bridles are sometimes used for small barge and vessel tows.7. A floating line and pick-up buoy are susceptible to being cut and lost or snagged by ice and pulled clear of the soft lashings or metal clips.7.7.2.8 22.7.11. To reduce direct ice interaction and disconnection of the bridle recovery wire.7.7. Sections 13.10 ACCESS TO TOWS 22. an intermediate wire may be attached to the end of the emergency tow-wire and lightly secured to a pole extended astern at least 5 metres.2 and all parts of Section 13.11.9. but remain coiled on the deck of the tow for deployment once the towage arrives in open water. It is recommended that a different arrangement is employed in high concentrations of ice.6 22. special arrangements may be required for the emergency towing gear. Typically. whether a tow is manned or not. For example. a pilot ladder secured at the stern of the tow is subject to the least amount of ice interaction.14.6. A tug workboat should carry suitable equipment to de-ice recessed access arrangements and ladders to tows.7. As discussed in Section 13.7. 22. the wire should be lightly secured to one leg of the bridle and the end shackled onto the apex or a chain link close to the apex of the tri-plate.7.1 CHAIN BRIDLES A chain bridle is typically used for a towage in ice with a chain pigtail connected to a ‘fuse wire’ or directly to the towline. SYNTHETIC ROPE Synthetic rope is prone to rapid cutting both internally by ice crystals and externally by ice edges and therefore is not approved for use in a towing system for an in-ice towage. BRIDLE RECOVERY SYSTEM In addition to the requirements of Section 13. particularly side ladders should be recessed to avoid ice damage.7 22.7. Pilot ladders used as a short term alternative should be closely inspected for ice damage before being used.7. especially on an unmanned tow proceeding in ice.9. 22. a permanent steel ladder should be provided at the stern from the main deck to just above the waterline.1 b.7.1 22.1 EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR With reference to Section 13.8. For all towages in ice the emergency towing gear should be fitted and arranged to tow from the bow unless it can be shown that the object being towed is designed for multidirectional towing.2 22.9 22. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 108 .10: a. ladders. For towages in ice.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22.14.10.2 for a motorized recovery winch shall be appropriate for the anticipated temperatures.10. 3 22. The eye of the intermediate wire is suspended above the surface of the ice approximately 1 metre above the aft working deck of the tug where it can be captured for connection to a tugger-winch wire. In some circumstances where high shock loads are anticipated. The float line and pick-up buoy are shackled to the emergency tow-wire in the same way as described in Section 13.2. The fuel mentioned in Section 13. especially when the close-couple or ice-couple towing technique is anticipated.9 do not apply in ice transits or in very low temperatures where icing can occur. an extra long chain pigtail may be considered appropriate.8.

In high ice concentrations where no waves are evident. a Noble Denton surveyor may request to have sockets. sufficient Arctic survival suits shall be carried on board the tug for all personnel that may be operating the workboat and personnel transferred to the tow by the work boat. Based on the results of a visual inspection of the tow-wire.3 CARGO LOADINGS Special attention should be given to cargo overhangs on a case-by-case basis.1 As described in Section 13.1. so that Sections 7. The tow-master must be fully aware of any strength reduction to the connections. Due to the potential for ice impact and resulting damage cargo overhang cannot be allowed to immerse under any circumstance.10 22. cargo overhang for a towage in ice will not be approved unless it can be shown that the cargo is adequately protected such that no ice interaction can occur.1 TUG SUITABILITY The tug shall have a bollard pull appropriate for the anticipated ice and weather conditions. belts and detachable gloves.8.1 SEA-FASTENING DESIGN AND STRENGTH The motions of a vessel transiting through low concentrations of ice should be assumed to be as severe as those experienced in clear open water storm conditions.10 concerning towing connections does not apply. In all ice concentrations this minimum clearing height will be maintained in all conditions of roll. In the case of an oversized tug (in terms of TPR) all connections should be at least equal to the MBL of the tow-wire in use. carry adequate replacement spares and the towing procedures should identify the maximum power setting that may be applied. the surveyor may also require that the tow-wire is cropped and re-socketed prior to the towage. as shown in Section 12.2 22.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. heading deflections. flounder plates and shackles used in the towing process non-destructively tested (NDT). used in extremely low temperatures. impact or over-running of thick ice floes can cause sudden deceleration.10. Special precautions are necessary for equipment that has been. or will be. 22. The calculated BP should never be less than that necessary for an open ocean towage. pitch and heave (see Sections 7 and 8).7. OVERSIZED TUG For all towages in ice. These additional survival suits should be fitted with hard soled boots.2. The cargo mass shall include the effect of ice 0030/ND REV 3 Page 109 .see Sections 7 and 8.1. 8. 10.2.9. all equipment used in the main and emergency towing arrangements for a towage in ice shall have valid certificates. Section 13. calculations must show that the cargo has at least three meters clearing height above the maximum height of ice deformity that can be experienced during the tow.12.4 and 10.8. chains.12 RECOMMENDED SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR THE WORKBOAT 22.5. 22.2 22. listing and rolling of the tow.9.2.7. Swell waves can persist for many miles even into an ice edge of very high ice concentration.6.8 22. To determine the potential for ice interaction.1 22.9.7. For these reasons the strength of cargo and sea-fastenings for transportation in ice conditions should be of appropriate design and not less than that required for unrestricted transportations in non-benign areas . 22.9 22.8. 22.11.1 In addition to Section 12.5 are not applicable.7. In general.11 TOWING EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS 22. Regardless of anticipated temperatures during the proposed towage.1 22.6.12.

the statement in Section 10. consideration of special welding procedures and techniques may be necessary for sea-fastenings installed in very cold temperatures. the emptying of a ballasted forward compartment can assist with exposing damage for emergency repair or to raise the damaged area clear to avoid continued ice interaction and escalation of damage. The damaged stability relaxations for towed objects referenced in Sections 10.11.stress on pipes in a stack. Chapter 5. towed objects shall have positive stability with any two compartments flooded or broached. including tugs and tows.10.4 and 10. including inland and sheltered towages. 22. A vessel being towed or pushed (regardless of being self propelled) shall not be excessively trimmed.11.4 .10. The effect on the vessel stability should also be considered.2.11. All compartment accesses must be checked for watertight integrity and kept closed at all times throughout the towage. This also provides protection against developing excessive trim by the head in the event that a forward compartment is breached by ice and flooded.3 PIPES AND TUBULARS 22.10. The integrity of all underwater compartments of a tug and compartments subject to down-flooding must be safeguarded from flooding by watertight doors and hatches that access such compartments.4. and Section 9.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS accretion calculated in accordance with the IMO Intact Stability Code [Ref.2 INSPECTION OF WELDING AND SEAFASTENINGS 22. Section 10. The draughts mentioned in Section 10.3.11.7.11.5 do not apply in any area where ice interaction can occur.11 22.11.1 With reference to Section 9.10 open ended pipes.10. For transit in ice-infested waters.7 22.4 22.1.5 referring to buoyant cargo overhangs does not apply to transits in ice.2. 22.7. See also Section 10.11.2.8 22.12.6. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 110 .11.2.4 of these guidelines shall be modified to read ‘Cargo overhangs shall be such that no immersion is possible in the anticipated environmental conditions’.9 22. The intact range of stability of a towed vessel (see Section 10. operating in very cold temperatures and in ice conditions shall be submitted to Noble Denton for review against the IMO Intact Stability Code [Ref. 3 22. In an ice environment.6 22.4 are the minimum for open water operations.1 STABILITY Stability calculations for vessels.2 22.1. In addition to the requirements of Section 10.11.1) shall never be less than 36 degrees. 22. additional consideration must be given to the location of any specially strengthened ‘ice belt’ and to the exposure of areas vulnerable to ice damage such as propulsion and steering equipment that may require specific and/or deeper overall ice transit draughts.6.1 BALLASTING Ballasting of the forepeak (to above the waterline) of a tug and towed vessel is done to assist with ice impact load dispersal.1.5 22. 17]. Chapter 5.3 22. In addition.12 22.2. 17]. seafastenings and deck structures.1 With reference to Section 9. This is a critical requirement for an approval to conduct a towage in ice.1. On manned tows the trim should be appropriate to provide watch personnel with as much forward visibility as possible for observation of approaching ice conditions and the movements of other vessels involved in the towage to reduce the potential for ice impact and/or collision damage. special consideration should be given to pipes filling with ice due to freezing spray and/or wave action in low temperatures and the potential to overstress lower levels of pipe.

f. i. l.3 In addition to the list in Section 14. d. This is in addition to the freezing of tank vents from coating with freezing spray in very low temperatures. consumables. the emergency generator. hydraulic & lubricating oils of suitable viscosity for the low ambient temperatures Main and emergency towing arrangements and certification Stability calculations and location of all cargoes. and manuals that provide the tug crew with operating procedures for emergency equipment such as ballast pumps (see Section 15).13.2 Special precautions should be taken to avoid structural damage caused by pressurizing compartments when ballasting and deballasting due to water freezing in tanks or inside tank vent pipes. k. watertight compartments. A general description of the proposed voyage (manned/unmanned towage etc) b. prior to departure the tow-master of an unmanned towage should be supplied with the appropriate drawings that indicate the basic structure. The plan should include: a. 22. man overboard and the nearest icebreaker assistance. h.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22. n. ballast system.13.1 VOYAGE PLANNING In addition to the requirements listed in Section 14.1.5. ballast and pollutants for the tug and tow Sea-fastening (cargo securing) arrangements Arrangements for assist tugs for docking etc and for ice management as required Damage and pollution control equipment as applicable Contingency procedures for ice damage.13 22. m. c. fire. Tug and tow particulars including ice classifications and certification Research documentation indicating the anticipated ice/weather conditions Routing including shelter and holding locations Navigation and communications equipment appropriate for the region Summary of tow-master and senior officer experience Arrangements for receiving weather and ice information and/or routing Voyage speed and fuel calculations including any bunkering requirements and procedures to comply with National regulations Contingency fuel. broken tow.13. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 111 . g. tug breakdown.12. e.2 22. o. the emergency anchor system and the tow bridle retrieval system. j. cargo securing arrangements on the tow. 22. a written voyage plan or towplan should be submitted for review and comment by Noble Denton in advance of a proposed towage in an ice-infested region.

the operational reference period.15.4. 22.4.14 22. c. typical towing speeds of not more than 2 knots in ice covered areas as a conservative estimate where the actual towing distance is unlikely to be direct. Portable compressor Portable salvage pump(s) Bracing shores Portable de-icing equipment Space heaters Extension ladders Chain falls Collision mat materials.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 22.13. assistance and equipment.13. and Section 6. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 112 . d. as well as the re-fuelling procedure and equipment.13.4.1 DAMAGE CONTROL AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT Special consideration should be given to the remoteness of the area and the anticipated ice conditions where a towage will take place to determine the availability of emergency response. in addition to the times listed in Section 6. for a towage in an ice infested area. 22. In addition. h. bulletins. In addition to the damage control equipment listed in Section 13.2 and 12. 22. The re-fuelling approval from the appropriate jurisdiction. the allowable quantity and distribution of fuel oil or any other pollutant or dangerous cargo.15 22. dependable ice forecasts must be available and the tug must have appropriate equipment on board to receive ice information including ice maps.1 The tow-plan should indicate the calculated fuel usage during the tow for the required power in the anticipated ice conditions. the planned duration will include: a. i. additional equipment is recommended for a towage in ice: a. where a tow-plan indicates the requirement to re-fuel the tug from the tow or from another vessel this will normally require special approval from a National authority and also require that the tug carries appropriate pollution containment and clean-up equipment.2 For the portion of the voyage that will be carried out in ice conditions. g.14.3 The tow-plan must indicate compliance with the International. A towing speed of 5 knots may be used where it can be shown that the tow will only encounter very thin new ice or alternatively very low concentrations (<3/10ths) of thick rotting ice and: waiting for appropriate ice conditions for departure.12). National and Local regulations and guidelines concerning the carriage of oil cargoes. advisories and forecasts.13. b.16.1 WEATHER /ICE RESTRICTED OPERATIONS In addition to the requirements of Section 6. e.7 – calculation of voyage speed. c.2. f. 22. shall be provided in the tow-plan for review.3. transit and arrival and: up to 25% additional fuel (and other consumables) may be required (see Sections 6.4 RE-FUELLING THE TUG 22. Portable generator b.2 .

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] Noble Denton document 0009/ND - Self-Elevating Platforms - Guidelines for Elevated Operations Noble Denton document 0013/ND - Guidelines for Loadouts Noble Denton document 0015/ND - Concrete Offshore Gravity Structures - Guidelines for Approval of Construction, Towage and Installation Noble Denton document 0016/ND - Seabed and Sub-Seabed data required for Approvals of Mobile Offshore Units (MOU) Noble Denton document 0021/ND - Guidelines for the Approval of Towing Vessels Noble Denton document 0027/ND - Guidelines for Marine Lifting Operations Noble Denton document 0028/ND - Guidelines for the Transportation and Installation of Steel Jackets IMO International Safety Management Code - ISM Code - and Revised Guidelines on Implementation of the ISM Code by Administrations - 2002 Edition DNV Rules for the Classification of Ships, January 2003, Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 4 IMO Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Securing and Stowing - 2003 Edition API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD (RP 2A-WSD), Twenty First Edition, December 2000, Errata and Supplement 1, December 2002. API Recommended Practice 2A-LRFD (RP 2A-LRFD), First Edition, July 1, 1993 AISC Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design, July 1, 1989, with Supplement 1 API RP 5LW - Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe on Barges and Marine Vessels EEMUA 158 - Construction Specification for Fixed Offshore Structures in the North Sea, AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code - steel IMO Resolution A.749 (18) as amended by Resolution MSC.75(69) - Code on Intact Stability International Convention on Load Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (amended 1996) (COLREGS) IMO MSC/Circ.623 - Piracy and armed robbery against ships - guidance to ship-owners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships IMO Document Ref. T1/3.02, MSC/Circ.884 - Guidelines for Safe Ocean Towing IMO BWM/CONF/36 - International Convention for the Control & Management of Ships' Ballast Water & Sediments, 2004 IACS Requirements concerning Polar Class Oct 2007 UKOOA Guidelines for Safe Movement of Self-Elevating Offshore Installations (Jackups) April 1995 UK HSE circular “The Safe Approach, Set-Up And Departure of Jack-Up Rigs to Fixed Installations” Sept 03 from www.hse.gov.uk/foi/internalops/hid/spc/spctosd21.pdf Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of Joints (BS EN 11993-18:2005)

[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

APPENDIX A - EXAMPLE OF MAIN TOW BRIDLE WITH RECOVERY SYSTEM

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GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS

APPENDIX B - EXAMPLE OF EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR

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EXAMPLE OF SMIT-TYPE CLENCH PLATE 0030/ND REV 3 Page 116 .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS APPENDIX C .

EMERGENCY ANCHOR MOUNTING ON BILLBOARD 0030/ND REV 3 Page 117 .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS APPENDIX D .

for instance in the event of a broken towline. In some restricted areas. as shown in Section 16. most new build FPSO’s are not fitted with these facilities. the shock loads when the anchor beds in and the cable comes taut may be excessive. Unless the anchor can be paid out under control. if all towlines break. 2 tugs were towing. For most of an ocean towage. chain locker. A chain locker must be provided together with an anchor windlass. 3 c. b. On a conversion the permanent gear is usually removed. such as GBS’s. FPSO mooring systems (whether turret-type or spread). In this respect a spare tug rather than an anchor would be more useful. and alternative means of achieving an equivalent level of safety should be sought. and these will be for one use only. and close to steep-to coastlines. cables or subsea equipment.1 An anchor may be required in an emergency situation. for instance. E. If the tow is not manned. b. loss of the anchor or unacceptable risk to the riding crew. e.6 and Appendix D would almost certainly be ineffective for large tows. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 118 . The requirement for an emergency anchor in areas of restricted searoom may be determined as a result of a risk assessment as set out in Section 16.ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROVISION & USE OF AN EMERGENCY ANCHOR E. and deploying the anchor may prove to be impossible. If 2 or more tugs are towing. even in emergency situations. For very large tows.3 E. If. especially with pipelines. anchor windlass. g. d. h. For many designs the deck space where an emergency anchor might be sited is taken up with the permanent mooring equipment. or if the tow is manned. dropping an anchor after a single towline failure would seriously hamper the efforts of the remaining tug to control the situation. chain stoppers etc. an anchor may provide a “last resort” method of controlling the tow.4 Against: a. there are arguments for and against the provision of anchors: For: a. an emergency anchor may be impractical.2 and which should satisfy all parties that the precautions proposed are adequate. A billboard arrangement. therefore. chain stoppers etc. Conventional marine and insurance industry practice is that an anchor is provided. anchoring is prohibited. Whereas ships and ship-FPSO conversions may retain a hawse pipe. TLP’s and FPSO’s. the depth of water will be too great for an anchor to be effective.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS APPENDIX E . and the tow could still be lost. and any alternative arrangement must be justified. being only for in-place conditions. f.1. then boarding it in bad weather could pose an unacceptable hazard to the boarding crew. or tug failure due to breakdown or fire. Under adverse conditions the anchor may drag.2 E. and could result in damage. then it is unlikely that any attempt to deploy an anchor would be made until all tugs or towlines had failed. are not normally configured to act as emergency moorings during transit. Once access is gained to the tow. For any tow. An anchor will probably only be dropped.

It is suggested that any anchor used is fitted with a retrieval pennant and buoy.2.5 If sufficient towing capacity and redundancy is provided. if anchor(s) are not used. or: Provision of at least 2 main towing tugs. e. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 119 . E. either in place of one of the other two tugs. if one of the main towing tugs has a breakdown. In restricted waters.6 d. assuming the tow may drift uncontrollably at 2 knots for 24 hours). and: If 1 or 2 main towing tugs are provided. Provision of at least N main towing tugs. include: a. b. c. The anchor must either be retrieved or cut and abandoned for later retrieval.2. g. and the route sectors where an escort tug is required. Reaction time will be faster and control should be possible in all water depths. at least for a time. After deployment of an anchor the towage must resume at some point. in the towing spread. tugs will provide a more flexible and manoeuvrable means of controlling the tow. it may be preferable to connect the escort tug to the bow of the broken-down tug. or in addition. but contingency plans and equipment must allow for it to be connected rapidly. such that the configuration is still reasonably balanced. an additional tug will be required to escort the tow. It is probable that the tow would then be lacking an anchor. The escort tug should be approximately equal in specification to the larger main towing tug. Planning should ensure that the escort tug has time to arrive and connect up before the searoom is below the agreed limits. Proposed criteria. The escort tug is not always required to hook up for escort duties. if the tow comes within an agreed distance of any coastline or offshore hazard. any (N-1) of which comply with the requirements of Section 12. f. (48 nautical miles is suggested as a minimum. rather than to the tow The towage route must be drawn up showing the proximity to coastlines or other hazards.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS i. E. which together comply with the requirements of Section 12.

σ┴ = normal stress perpendicular to the throat σ║ = normal stress parallel to the axis of the weld τ┴ = shear stress (in the plane of the throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld τ║ = shear stress (in the plane of the throat) parallel to the axis of the weld 0030/ND REV 3 Page 120 . This may be taken as the overall length of the weld reduced by twice the effective throat thickness a. measured perpendicular to the outer side of this triangle. no reduction in effective length need be made for either the start or the termination of the weld.3 A uniform distribution of stress is assumed on the throat section of the weld. of a fillet weld should be taken as the height of the largest triangle (with equal or unequal leg) that can be inscribed within the fusion faces and the weld surface. l. leading to the normal and shear stresses shown in Figure F 2. a.2 a a Figure F 1 Effective Throat Dimension ‘a’ for Concave and Convex Fillet Welds F. including starts and terminations.1 The effective length of a fillet weld. see Figure F .GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS APPENDIX F . Provided that the weld is full size throughout its length. should be taken as the length over which the fillet is full-size. The effective throat thickness.FILLET WELD STRESS CHECKING F. F.

is given by fh  P l Eqn 3 0030/ND REV 3 Page 121 . σ┴ and τ┴ may be considered to be equal in magnitude in the case where the load P acting on the bracket is applied parallel to the axis of the weld.5   m   yield Eqn 1 σyield is the yield stress of the material γm is the appropriate material factor selected Fillet Welded Bracket F. The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following is satisfied: F.6  Where: 2   3      11 2  2  0.9 1 l2 Eqn 2 The uniform shear load per unit weld length.5 The normal stress σ║ parallel to the axis is not considered when verifying the design resistance of the weld. can be described as shown in Eqn 2. fv. fh.8 fv  6  P  h  F. F.7 For a bracket subjected to a load P parallel to the weld line as shown in Figure F and where the base structure to which the bracket is welded is adequately stiff the bending load applied to the weld line can be considered to vary linearly and the shearing load at the weld to be constant. as shown in the figure. In this case the maximum perpendicular load per unit weld length. This can be seen in the assumption in Figure F that the load vectors should be drawn with the symmetry that is illustrated.4 F. The two stress conditions perpendicular to the axis of the weld.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS σ┴ σ║ τ║ τ┴ Figure F 2 Normal and Shear Stresses acting on the plane of Weld Throat F.

The applied load also produces a shear stress on the weld throat of τ║ acting at right angles to the other shear stress τ┴. These stresses can be combined to form the von Misses equivalent stress (see Eqn 1).t .h/(l2)= max bending tension per unit length Figure F 3 Bracket connected by Double Fillet Weld Double Fillet F.10 For a double fillet weld as shown in Figure F 4 the force fv may be considered as being resisted by a combination of normal and shear stresses acting on the throat of the weld as illustrated in the diagram.= shear force per unit length fv = 6. The equations for σ┴.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS P Plane of throat of weld h a l a. F.11     ll  3 2  Ph al2 Eqn 4 P 2 al Eqn 5 0030/ND REV 3 Page 122 .P. τ┴ and τ║ are given in Eqn 4 and Eqn 5.

P.13 For a bracket with a single fillet weld of length l the resulting limiting value for the weld throat thickness.τ┴ a.σ┴ Fillet weld #1 Weld #2 Weld #1 fv = 6.τ┴ a.  a     m yield  l   2   h  72     3    l   Eqn 7 Selection of Yield Stress and Material Factor F.05 for ultimate limit state (ULS) checks. a. Note: The applied loads shall be factored as follows: 1.σ┴ Vector Force Diagram Stresses and Resultant Forces Figure F 4 Stresses and Forces acting on Fillet Weld F.15 The yield stress used should be the lowest of the yield stress values of the weld itself and the two parts of metal welded together. is given in Eqn 7.σ┴ a.40 for serviceability limit state (SLS) checks and 1.   P . is given in Eqn 6.GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS fv = 6.14 F.12 The resulting limiting value for the weld throat thickness. 0030/ND REV 3 Page 123 .τ┴ Fillet weld #2 a. shall be taken as 1.0.σ┴ a.  a    l  yield  m  2    18   h   3    4 l   Eqn 6 Single Fillet F. The material factor. γm.τ┴ a.h/(l2) a. a.P.h/(l2) a.   P .

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