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Q.1 Discuss the aims of performance management? Ans:One of the important objectives of performance management is identifying the strengths and weaknesses of employees and finding ways to overcome their shortcomings. This is done by evaluating employee output and the company’s overall ability to meet the goals by having quarterly or annual audits. Often, after an evaluation, there will be widespread company meetings where managers and employees discuss concerns and solutions to problems. Another objective is to discover where employees and the company are falling short. This is done by going through details such as profits earned, new clients acquired and the contribution of employees to make these things happen. Employees whose contribution are minimal or not up to the mark are counselled on how to improve performance. The evaluation of an employee’s performance is based on their work output and the amount of time spent by them on the project. Although time spent in an office is not an accurate way of measuring performance, most companies still have the notion that better employees put in longer hours of work. A better way of measuring employee productivity would be to measure the output of work and the accuracy of work completed. Overall evaluation of a company and its ability to set and reach goals is another important objective of performance management. Increasing revenue is the overall goal of any company. Other goals may be to acquire more or specific clients, develop new products or hire new talent. It is very easy to determine which of these goals have been met, because these are things that can be seen or calculated. The inability of a company to meet the goals is mainly due to poor leadership, poor planning, poor implementation or poor employee performance. Economic factors also play a major role, but it is better for companies to concentrate on factors that are within their control. The best way of improving a company’s overall output is motivating the employees and improving their performance. To identify and remedy situations that hinder company performance is another important objective of performance management. This includes replacing underperforming employees, gaining new clients, developing new strategies for reaching the goals and discussing strategies that have worked in the past. In order to meet the objectives of performance management and improve the overall performance of a company, every employee must work with the team members to develop new techniques and implement changes. The aims of performance management can be summarised into the following points. The aims of performance management are: · To assist in the achievement of enhanced standards of work performance of an employee or class of employees. · To assist employees to identify the knowledge and skills to perform their jobs efficiently. · To ensure that the employees work towards the defined goals. · To ensure that the employees receive regular feedback on performance. · To assist the employees to achieve personal growth through acquiring relevant knowledge and skills and attitudes.
· To evaluate the company and its ability to set and reach goals. · To identify and remedy situations that are hindering company performance.
Q.2 Describe the process of defining expectation? Ans:Performance management is basically about managing expectations. Expectations are defined and agreed in the form of role profiles. The role profiles define what is required in each major aspect of the role. Expectations are also defined as short or medium term targets, the extension of knowledge and skills, upholding the core values of the organisation and meeting behavioural requirements. All these can be loosely referred to as objectives, which are more than simply output targets, as is often assumed. The Process of defining expectations Expectations should be defined based on a role profile which sets out the overall purpose of the role and the key result areas it contains. Role profiles include an organisation’s competency framework that defines the knowledge and skills required to achieve the role objectives and any particular behavioural requirements. Role profiles define the overall purpose of the role, its reporting relationships and key result areas. They may also include a list of the competencies required. The competencies may be technical competencies and any specific behavioural competencies attached to the role. The behavioural competencies are selected from the organisation’s competency framework and modified as required to fit the demands made on role holders. The process starts at the performance planning stage. An existing role profile is reviewed and changes are made if necessary, or a new role profile is created. In each of the key result areas, the ongoing role expectations and any specific targets or tasks, behavioural changes or improvement or training requirements related to those areas are discussed and agreed upon. For example, if the objective of an organisation is to improve customer satisfaction by responding to customer queries and complaints promptly, efficiently and politely, and the quantifiable targets are to respond to 90 per cent of queries in one working day, then these expectations would call for a discussion on how the individual could contribute to upholding a core value for customer service. The results of this discussion could be: · Agreement on any changes in behaviour required and how they can be achieved. · Identification of further training. · Agreement on how performance improvement in this area could be measured and assessed. Measuring and assessing performance improvement is a difficult part of the process and it is necessary to agree either quantifiable performance measures or any other type of evidence that can be made available to appreciate a job well done. Table 2.1 shows the role profile.
Table 2.1: Role Profile POSITION TITLE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER To lead and direct the financial services of ABC. This includes the provision of MAIN PURPOSEsupport services to all departments consisting of financial and management OF ROLE accounting, accounts payable, budgeting, data processing and risk management. KEY PERFORMANCE · Lead, direct and manage the financial accounting function for ABC.
· Budgeting and cost control. · Lead, direct and manage the management accounting function for ABC. · Annual financial reporting. AREAS · Relevant parties · In-depth knowledge of finance as a discipline. · In-depth knowledge of accounting within a government entity. · In-depth knowledge of financial procedures and processes. · In-depth knowledge of procurement as a discipline. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE/ COMPETENCIES · Business plan interpretation. · Corporate governance policies and procedures. · Leadership. · Attention to detail. · Maximising performance / drive for results. · Highly analytical. · Highly numerate. · Trustworthy. BEHAVIOURAL COMPETENCIES · Planning and organising.
Q.3 List the characteristics of performance appraisal? Ans:- Some companies recognise the need to render employee feedback
regarding performance. One of the methods of providing performance feedback is through a performance appraisal. Organisations that conduct performance appraisals may have written policies in place that refer to time lines, types of performance ratings and clearly defined processes. Some organisations may also require self-appraisals by employees or, even, engage outside consultants to conduct the appraisals. The major characteristics of performance appraisal are: Appraisals match the job descriptions: Performance appraisals must match the job descriptions and standards set for performance objectives. For example, an employee who does data processing should be assessed based on the number of errors and timeliness of work as these are standards set for that particular job. It may be unfair to measure a data processing employee on phone skills if that is not part of the job description.
Appraisals are legally compliant: Appraisals must be able to stand legal tests of reliability (questions must yield the same results for all employees if repeated more than once) and validity (does the appraisal measure what it is designed to measure). For this reason, some companies have their appraisals developed by third-party consultants who are specialists in this area. Appraisers must be trained: The supervisor or manager conducting the appraisal must be trained in the use of the evaluation tool and conducting the appraisal. For example, dispute may arise if the employee disagrees with the outcome, and knowing how to deal with conflict is an important tool. Explaining the ratings of the appraisal and discussing future plans for improvement with the employee require good communication skills. Appraisal systems require follow-up: It is important to the organisation and the employee to provide consistent monitoring and follow-up after the formal appraisal is given. For example, if the employee scored high with little need for improvement, do not take that performance for granted. Instead, continue to train the employee and provide mentoring for continuous improvement. The employees who require improvements will need clearly defined plans with regular follow-up and feedback. Performance appraisal is a data generation system for strategy conceptualisation and implementation. It provides: o Detailed list of types and number of technical and managerial employees. o Age distribution of the workforce. o Skills profile of the workforce by aggregating individual performance appraisals. o Behavioural criteria advise managers on what they have to do to successfully execute strategic plans. · Performance appraisal acts as an integrating device for the human resource system. It helps in: o Appraisal as the centrepiece of the HR cycle. o Identification of appropriate characteristics and behaviours. o Recognition of developmental opportunities and weaknesses. o Rationale for distributing rewards.
Q.4 Explain the methodology in 360 degree apprised?
Ans:- The 360 degree appraisal works on four essential components: · Self appraisal. · Superior appraisal. · Subordinate appraisal. · Peer appraisal.
Now let us explain the four components: · Self appraisal: Self appraisal gives a chance to the employee to compare his/her abilities, limitations, success with others and judge one’s own performance. Self evaluation is an essential part of 360 degree appraisals and therefore contribution of employees to 360 degree performance systems is large and also has a powerful effect on attitude and performance. It provides a "360-degree evaluation" of the employee’s performance and is measured to be one of the most realistic performance appraisal methods. · Superior appraisal: Superior’s appraisal outlines the traditional thought of performance appraisal, where the employee’s tasks and actual presentation is rated by the superior. This form of assessment involves the evaluation of individuals by supervisors on pre-determined parameters in an employee’s performance record, as well as the evaluation of team and work scenario by senior managers. The superiors (supervisors and senior managers) have the authority to change and modify an employee’s or a team’s work on the basis of the assessment of the individual and the team. · Subordinate appraisal: Subordinates’ feedback involves the evaluation of an individual on parameters like communication and convincing abilities, superior’s ability to assign the work, team leading qualities and so on. Subordinate appraisal is most advantageous when developmental needs are considered. It can also be used in the evaluation of record sheets, but measures should be taken to make sure that subordinates are appraising parameters of which they have knowledge. The subordinate’s feedback is effective, mainly in evaluating the supervisor’s interpersonal skills. However, it may not be as proper or convincing for measuring task-oriented skills. · Peer appraisal: Peers usually have an exclusive point of view on a colleague’s job performance and individuals are generally very friendly to the idea of rating each other. Peer ratings are considered when the individual’s capability is known or the result of the performance can be computed. There are both considerable assistance and serious consequences that must be cautiously considered before including this type of feedback in an allround appraisal program. Taken as an effective developmental tool and conducted periodically, a 360 degree application can prove to be highly useful in keeping the track of alterations in others’ perceptions about the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally more appropriate at the managerial level, as it helps in evaluating their leadership and supervision styles. This method is being successfully used around the globe for improving performance. Some of the companies that have been successfully following 360 degree appraisals are TCS, Microsoft and Wipro Technologies.
Q.5 Explain the performance appraisal feedback model? Ans:- Performance Appraisal Feedback Models help us to achieve what is known as a meaningful performance
feedback. Meaningful performance feedback, as we know, is best achieved through proper communication between the feedback giver and the feedback receiver. Irrespective of who provides the feedback to the receiver, there are certain perceptual barriers that these communications have to travel through. These barriers act as filters and thus affect the actual message that is heard. In Figure 5.1, different variables of performance feedback have been incorporated into a feedback model. We see that the variable for both the giver and the receiver of feedback is determined by the perceptions of the participants. Figure 5.1 illustrates the feedback model.
Figure 5.1: Feedback Model Figure 5.1 lists only a few of the endless list of possible variables that these perceptions can create. Reading further will help us to get a clear understanding of how perceptions of different participants affect the feedback. The Said/Heard – Meant/Felt Feedback Matrix The Said/Heard – Meant/Felt Matrix in Figure 5.2 should help give more clarity to the concepts introduced in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.2: Said/Heard — Meant/Felt Feedback Matrix
The Said/Heard – Meant/Felt Matrix can be used in any way or direction. This implies that the matrix can be applied vertically, horizontally, counter clockwise, and clockwise. It can be used either by the giver or the receiver of performance feedback or both. The aim of the matrix can be achieved only when all the participants in the performance feedback process use it. To illustrate how the matrix can be put to work, let us begin by using the matrix in a clockwise direction starting at the 9:00 o’clock position. From this point we begin with what is “Said.” Let us label the four quadrants A, B, C, and D as shown in Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3: Said/Heard — Meant/Felt Quadrants
Now, let us look at how the matrix can used during a typical performance review. Let us begin with Figure 5.4 looking into what is “Said.”
Figure 5.4: Quadrant A
In Quadrant A, the feedback giver has said, “You could have contributed much more to the project.” This is where the challenge arises, wherein the statement must now pass through the perception barrier that has been represented as the vertical axis of the matrix. Let us now look into what has been heard by the receiver. It is illustrated in Quadrant B in Figure 5.5.
Figure 5.5: Quadrant B
After passing through the receiver’s perceptual barrier, you can see in Quadrant B that what was heard was “I have not done my part well.” Now, we must understand that this may or may not have been what the feedback giver would have actually meant. In Figure 5.6, Quadrant C, the giver now clarifies to the receiver the intended meaning of his message shown in the Quadrant A statement.
Figure 5.6: Quadrant C
In Quadrant C, it is observed that the feedback giver’s meaning was very different when compared to what was perceived by the receiver. Now the receiver’s feeling towards this feedback has been illustrated in Quadrant D in Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7: Quadrant D Utilising the matrix
We observe that there is a dramatic contrast between what the receiver perceived the performance feedback message to be in Quadrant B versus what the message actually meant in Quadrant D. The issue with many performance review sessions is that the communications end at Quadrant B. These misinterpretations can be very counterproductive and will not support the goals and objectives of providing feedback. Hence, by using the matrix, the giver of the feedback can understand how the feedback has been perceived by the receiver and then try to clear the misunderstandings. The matrix can also be used by the receiver to get clarification on points that were not made clear during the performance review.
Q.6 How is data used for human resource decision? Ans:- You must be wondering how to use the data to make the human resource decision. Well, the main aim of
any human resource system must be to encourage the better use of the available data about the employees, the labour market conditions and the business scenario to drive effective decision-making. This helps in resolving the daily challenges faced by the HR department and positively impacts the human resource practices and policies followed by the organisation. The traditional ways in which data is used for successful and effective decisionmaking depends on the lively involvement of a huge range of stakeholders working together. It is also essential to understand the context in which the data is used to take decisions. In spite of providing an enclosed training program for using data to make a decision, it is better to connect all stakeholders in understanding how they use data both individually and collectively as an organisation. In addition, it is also important to note the factors that are important in the context of using data effectively. Working alongside stakeholders improves the process and allows the learning to develop as much as possible.
Some of the examples to improve the use of data for decision making include: · Planning how data is used to support a decision. · Providing chances for decision makers to experience significant decision making moments, so they can enhance their skills using the actual data in real-life situations. · Advancing communication among users of data. · Leveraging and identifying opportunities for enhanced data sharing across different levels of the organisation and with other stakeholders. It is equally important to know about the two-way process of making informed human resource policy and management choices based on a suitable study of relevant data and information. This process is called as Datadriven decision-making (DDDM). There are ten fundamental and practical pillars, which assist human resource managers, practitioners and policy analysts in structuring a bridge between human resource data and reports to effective human resource policy and management decisions. The ten fundamental and practical pillars are: 1. Making use of the data One of the foremost misapprehensions about the effective use of human resource data in decision-making might be summed up as “Build or gather data and they will use it”. This experience shows that it is not enough to make data available. For example, health sector leaders need a process in place for analysing reports and information, getting the data to the right decision-maker at the right time, and ensuring the power and resources to act on the data. However, if this process is faulty or insufficiently shared, data-driven decision-making can produce unacquainted decisions or swing the focus away from priority issues. 2. Developing a culture of enquiry Effective data utilisation requires a mindset as well as an organisational philosophy that actively invests in a culture of inquiry that helps people question the status. In the field of human resource, this practice of inquiry should be characterised by work groups, teams, and individuals at different levels of the organisation. All of them must regularly probe and scan the atmosphere in a way that will help them determine and provide answers to a set of human resource policy and management questions. For example, the subsequent questions can be asked to converse and plan the use of information to support various decisions: · What human resource data is required to gather? · How do we actually use data; what decisions do they inform? · What is the mechanism for facilitating the use of these data (the answer could be – senior management meetings, annual sector review meetings, department meetings, and so on)? · How frequently does this process take place? · What issues, if any, manipulate the quality and security of data use? 3. Context matters The context is the entire setting or environment in which human resource data are being gathered, analysed and used to make policy and management decisions. It is vital for human resource managers and planners to
comprehend the various determinants and dimensions of the context, within which, the data are used to take decisions, since, it is essential for effective policy-making and practice. Some vital elements of the context include: · Social, political and other forces at work in the human resource policy environment throughout the country. · Historical and cultural factors. · Health system factors. · Resource contexts. 4. Aligning different forces, interests and beliefs The theory of Policy analysis suggests that data “affects existing beliefs of vital people about major features of the problem under study and how it might be solved or mitigated” (Eugene Bardach, 2000). Nevertheless, human resource planners and policy-makers are faced with a distinctive challenge. They may have access to diverse types of human resource information from numerous sources, in a variety of forms and perhaps at different times and frequencies. But, the decisions that need to be made using these data may involve different people across multiple agencies who do not work together all the time. These relationships and connections will need to be recognised and aligned by human resource managers and planners for the decision-making process to be productive. Otherwise, there is a possibility of conflict, or failure to use the data. Additionally, it is not enough if only a few people in an organisation examine data and information as part of their daily functions, as this may not lead to ground decisions. For example, one approach that is being considered in Uganda is following of a simple framework for analysing and presenting human resource data and making the data available for discussion during annual joint review meetings. Such a streamlined and collaborative approach of sharing data is important when compared to the sensitive nature of the human resource. In addition, the ways in which such data are used in effective decision-making are mainly determined by a broad range of contributors. Similarly, whether or not data will generate any decisions will also depend on the values, beliefs, skills, and past experiences of these contributors. Other important factors include economic costs and timing of those decisions.
5. Preparing for data sceptics Many data users decide the helpfulness of a data by asking some questions like: o What is latest here? How is this distinct from what we already have or know?: As data collectors, we may be providing information which people may have known for years but never worked upon. Part of the solution could be combining these messages with ways of clearing out the mindset that produces such skepticism or complacency in the first place. o What do these evidences or reports mean? The complexity of the evidence and reports may draw out the reaction that more work is required just to understand the evidence. This can lead to a lack of interest or disinclination to engage. o What are the professed benefits of change? Many individuals time and again tend to avoid change. However, they are also influenced by the obvious benefits of change. As a result, if human resource managers and planners are able to categorise a decisive bunch of active seekers of new ideas, then there are higher chances of success. These active seekers must be favourable to change and even willing to take risks. 6. The power of the Individual Many individuals are key members in taking decisions about how data should or should not be used, since it is the individuals who choose whether to reject or accept new data findings. Even when presented with convincing data, people tend to reject or accept new ideas based upon individual inclination. For example, data from the
literature suggests that individual decisions are influenced by a push of personal capacities and qualities that any decision-making process must take into consideration. At the individual level, these factors include: o Convolution of what is being presented. o Beliefs and values as well as current position on certain issues. o Risk awareness, or the level to which an individual avoids change. o Status or position of the individual within the organisation. o Knowledge and skill sets. o Organisational support for change. o Partnership links. 7. The power of organisation There are several organisational factors that influence the decision-making process. These are: o Organisational culture, values, function, composition, structure, and socioeconomic context. o The nature of staff (gender, age, racial composition), level of training, and degree of skills. o The level to which new thoughts or ideas are welcomed or accepted by management figures, and the kind of support obtainable for improvement of action. o The influence of interest group activity or public opinion on the organisations with human resource related decision-making functions. o The level to which data can generate awareness of authenticity, an atmosphere of trust and mutual partnerships among different members within the same organisation and among the various organisations that need to work together. 8. Navigating difficult conversations Constantly, data will create situations that involve complicated discussions within a team or organisation that can cause chaos or volatility. This generally happens when a new data challenges a particular policy issue or status quo that has been in place for a long time. If the resulting communications are not handled with sensitivity and diplomacy, the situation can easily slip into a sinister team disagreement. Generally speaking, many people are uncomfortable with conflict, and they fear the rise of negative emotions in difficult conversations. Doubts of difficult discussions can frequently lead to avoiding or rescheduling important discussions because people are worried about argument and damage to workplace relationships. Part of the strategy for strengthening data-driven decision-making includes an interactive session that uses an experienced facilitator and a communication-based model and understanding and responding to difficult conversations. One method is to use a humorous, allinclusive, no threatening communication style and provide plenty of relatable examples to guide groups of decision-makers through potentially difficult conversations that data may generate. This ultimately helps in reaching a mutually beneficial common ground. In most cases, the facilitator does not intend to correct or entail order on the group conversation, instead might point out the presence of polarising standpoint and also support some ways to suspend assumptions and steer the conversation toward common ground. A second key factor is to present possible conflict producing data using clear and lenient language, always leaving open the possibility that users might see and hear the data and still make a decision to de-emphasise or even ignore the information. 9. Process and relationships
It is observed that people build strategies, plans and data successfully by converting them into policies, practices and results. As such, the nature of bonding between the possible data users within an organisation is one of the most critical dynamics determining success or failure. However, this dynamic is often underrated or even overlooked in the process of data-driven decision-making. This is regrettable because when implemented correctly, the process can: o Fetch core issues to the forefront. o Allow participants to conquer individual, professional and organisational barriers. o Construct a greater sense of joint ownership. o Enhance communication and understanding. o Construct a unified leadership team focused on moving the business of human resource planning and management in the right direction. 10. A Journey, not a destination Many theorists supporting data-driven decision-making argue that evidence-based decision-making is not a onetime answer or a standard tool to be applied at random. Rather, it is an in-progress knowledge-driven process that needs continuous compilation, analysis and sharing of data since it is the only way in which both positive and negative trends can be discovered and acted upon. Data-driven decision-making is also a collaborative, dynamic process. It is a core function that must be implanted into the culture of organisation. It provides decision-makers with the collective ability to: o Tackle the most important human resource questions of the day. o Weigh the available evidence. o Consider several options. o Think both tactically and practically about the decisions that they make. Human resource managers and planners need to lead this journey and act as agents of change. Without their interference, it will be difficult for human resource data to become an essential part of an organisation’s operations. They can sculpt data use and support it by sharing the successes and benefits. They can also schedule time for senior management and multi sector teams to review, query, meet, and discuss on reports required to notify decisions.
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
1. Write a detailed note on the performance management system and appraisal .
Ans : Performance management is a systematic approach to managing the process according to which the performance and development of individuals and entities within the institution are actively managed to ensure that the strategy and vision of the US are achieved. Performance management therefore entails: i. The definition of the performance that is being managed (design); ii. The process of performance management (implementation); and iii. The management of the consequences of the performance (integration). OBJECTIVES OF A PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM i. The most important objective of the performance management system is to achieve the performance objectives of the University. ii. To raise the work performance of individuals to a higher level and to develop the capacity and ability of the University to sustain performance. Individual development is a central, important component of the management of performance. iii. Individual accountability and responsibility for individual performance, as well as development. iv. The establishment of a framework for effective and regular performance feedback. v. The establishment of a framework for individuals to take ownership of their own career planning and management by focusing on development initiatives. vi. The creation of management information that enables the organisation to take decisions with reference to other Human Resource processes, such as remuneration and training, for example. vii. To identify underperformance and to implement and justify the resultant corrective follow-up actions Faculties and Support Service Environments The strategic direction and objectives of the University should be interpreted actively by each faculty and support service environment. The contribution of the faculty or environment to the strategic objectives must be defined so that divisional heads and departmental chairpersons have a framework within which the divisions/departments can function in order to make their respective contributions. Department/Division In the pursuance of the above-mentioned objectives, the greatest demands on a performance management system are made by departments within faculties and service divisions in terms of their unique aspects that have to be accommodated. The contributions that are made at the departmental/divisional level will consequently be diverse. However, the contributions of the divisions/departments serve as the building blocks of the environment/faculty and the process and structure of the department and divisions business plan (if one is preferred) should therefore be of such a nature that it can accommodate these unique aspects, yet still define the generic contribution of the faculty or environment.
2. List and explain the different types of teams in an organization.
Ans : The development of teams and teamwork has grown dramatically in all types of organizations for one simple reason: No one person has the ability to deliver the kinds of products and services required in today's highly competitive marketplace. Organizations must depend on the cooperative nature of many teams to create successful ventures and outcomes. Teams can be vertical (functional), horizontal (cross-functional), or self-directed (self-managed) and can be used to create new products, complete specific projects, ensure quality, or replace operating departments. • Functional teams perform specific organizational functions and include members from several vertical levels of the hierarchy. In other words, a functional team is composed of a manager and his or her subordinates for a particular functional area. Accounting, personnel, and purchasing departments are examples of functional teams. • Cross-functional teams are made up of experts in various specialties (or functions) working together on various organizational tasks. Team members come from such departments as research and development, design, engineering, marketing, and distribution. These teams are often empowered to make decisions without the approval of management. For example, when Nabisco's executives concluded that the company needed to improve its relationship with customers and better satisfy customers' needs, they created cross-functional teams whose assignments were to find ways to do just that. Although functional teams are usually permanent, cross-functional teams are often temporary, lasting for as little as a few months or as long as several years, depending on the group tasks being performed. • Self-directed work teams, or self-managed teams, operate without managers and are responsible for complete work processes or segments that deliver products or services to external or internal customers. Self-directed work teams (SDWTs) are designed to give employees a feeling of “ownership” of a whole job. For example, at Tennessee Eastman, a division of Eastman Kodak Company, teams are responsible for whole product lines—including processing, lab work, and packaging. With shared team responsibilities for work outcomes, team members often have broader job assignments and cross-train to master other jobs. This cross-training permits greater team flexibility. No matter what type of team is formed, the benefits of teamwork are many, including synergy and increased skills, knowledge, productivity, flexibility, and commitment. Among the other benefits are increased job satisfaction, employee empowerment, and improved quality and organizational effectiveness. Manager-Led Teams The most traditional type of team is the manager-led team. In the manager-led team, the manager acts as the team leader and is responsible for defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team.The team itself is responsible only for the actual execution of their assigned work. Management is responsible for monitoring and managing performance processes, overseeing design, selecting members, and interfacing with the organization. Examples of manager-led work teams include automobile assembly teams, surgery teams, sports teams, and military teams. A manager-led team typically has a dedicated, full-time, higher-
ranking supervisor, as in a coal-mining crew. Manager-led teams provide the greatest amount of control over team members and the work they perform; they allow the leader to have control over the process and products of the team. In addition, they can be efficient, in the sense that the manager does the work of setting the goals and outlining the work to be done. In manager-led teams, managers don’t have to passively observe the team make the same mistakes they did. Manager-led teams also have relatively low start-up costs. However, there can be some key disadvantages, such as diffusion of responsibility and conformity to the leader. In short, members have less autonomy and empowerment. Manager-led teams may be ideally suited for simple tasks in which there is a clear overriding goal, such as task forces or fact-finding teams. Other examples include military squads, flight crews, and stage crews. Self-Managing Teams In self-managing or self-regulating teams, a manager or leader determines the overall purpose or goal of the team, but the team is at liberty to manage the methods by which to achieve that goal. Self-managed teams are increasingly common in organizations. Examples include executive search committees and managerial task forces. Self managing teams improve productivity, quality, savings, and employee morale, as well as contribute to reductions in absenteeism and turnover. These benefits have been observed in both manufacturing and service settings. Wageman studied 43 selfmanaging teams in the Xerox service organization. According to Wageman, seven defining features emerged in the superbly performing teams but not in the ineffective teams, including: clear direction, a team task, rewards, material resources, authority to manage their work, goals, and strategic norms (see Exhibit 1– 3). Another example of a self-managing team is Microsoft Project. Team leader Chris Capossela reflects on his transition from manager-led to self-managing teams, “You know the guy who comes into your office with a crappy project schedule and says, ‘This is the way the project is going to run’? That guy used to be me.” After encountering resistance from the team members, Capossela decided to give team members more of a say in the process by mapping out a rough calendar for his project team, but he resisted putting in a
3. List the manager’s responsibility in performance planning.
Ans : The manager has eight primary responsibilities in the performance assessment phase: 1. Review the original list of competencies, goals, objectives, and key position responsibilities. 2. Prepare a preliminary assessment of the employee’s performance over the entire year. 3. Review the individual’s list of accomplishments and the self-appraisal. 4. Prepare your final assessment of the employee’s performance. 5. Write the official performance appraisal using the appraisal form. 6. Review the appraisal with your manager and obtain concurrence. 7. Determine any revisions needed to the employee’s key position responsibilities, goals, objectives, competencies, and development plans for the next appraisal period.
8. Prepare for the performance review meeting. At the beginning of the year, the manager and the individual discussed the competencies the individual would be expected to display in going about her job responsibilities and the goals and objectives to be achieved. Ideally, the subordinate would have recorded the notes from this discussion on a blank copy of the appraisal form and then made a copy for the manager afterward. This document serves, then, as the charter under which the subordinate operates during the course of the year, secure in the knowledge that she’s doing the job as the organization expects it done and concentrating on the highest priorities. At the end of the year, the manager’s first step is to get out that performance appraisal form with the notes on it. Ideally, it has been updated and revised over the course of the year with notes on projects completed and with new objectives added. But even if it hasn’t been revised, reviewing the form is still the best way to start the assessment process—by looking at what the two parties agreed on at the beginning of the year. Prepare a preliminary assessment of the employee’s performance over the entire year. Before you write the official appraisal, it’s a good idea to take a blank copy of the form and make some preliminary notes. Whether you’re working with a paper and pencil process or drafting the appraisal on your computer, begin by jotting down some rough notes on areas where you recall the person’s performance as particularly strong or weak. Identify those assessments required by the form that you don’t have information immediately available for. Draft some very preliminary conclusions to start your thinking process about the entire evaluation. Review the individual’s list of accomplishments and the self-appraisal. It’s a good idea to ask each individual whose performance you’ll be evaluating to send you a list of their most important accomplishments and achievements over the course of the year. In addition to the list of accomplishments, you may also ask the individual to complete a full self-appraisal using a blank copy of the form. Prepare your final assessment of the employee’s performance, and write the official performance appraisal using the appraisal form. This is the most important activity in the performance assessment phase of performance appraisal. Following the recommendations and suggestions in this chapter will allow you to complete this responsibility at a level that anyone assessing your performance would describe as ‘‘far exceeds expectations.’’ Review the appraisal with your manager and obtain concurrence. Whether or not your company requires you to get your boss’s sign-off on an appraisal before you discuss it with an individual, it’s a good idea to review any appraisal with your immediate supervisor before you conduct the performance appraisal discussion. Determine any revisions needed to employee’s key position responsibilities, goals, objectives, competencies, and development plans for the next appraisal period. Part of the performance appraisal meeting will be historical—looking back on the individual’s performance over the past twelve months. Another part will focus on the future—what needs to be done differently during the next twelve months. Although it’s a good idea to conduct a separate performance-planning discussion a week or two after the performance appraisal conversation, during the meeting it’s wise to be prepared to talk about changes that you will expect in the person’s performance next year.
Prepare for the performance review meeting. Performance appraisal discussions are some of the most sensitive and demanding of all meetings that managers are involved in. The better job that you do to prepare, the more comfortable and effective the discussion will be.
4. Write a note on traditional methods of performance appraisal.
Ans : Performance management is a systematic approach to managing the process according to which the performance and development of individuals and entities within the institution are actively managed to ensure that the strategy and vision of the US are achieved. Performance management therefore entails: i. The definition of the performance that is being managed (design); ii. The process of performance management (implementation); and iii. The management of the consequences of the performance (integration).
1. ESSAY APPRAISAL METHOD This traditional form of appraisal, also known as "Free Form method" involves a description of the performance of an employee by his superior. The description is an evaluation of the performance of any individual based on the facts and often includes examples and evidences to support the information. A major drawback of the method is the inseparability of the bias of the evaluator.
2. STRAIGHT RANKING METHOD This is one of the oldest and simplest techniques of performance appraisal. In this method, the appraiser ranks the employees from the best to the poorest on the basis of their overall performance. It is quite useful for a comparative evaluation.
3. PAIRED COMPARISON A better technique of comparison than the straight ranking method, this method compares each employee with all others in the group, one at a time. After all the comparisons on the basis of the overall comparisons, the employees are given the final rankings. 4. CRITICAL INCIDENTS METHODS In this method of Performance appraisal, the evaluator rates the employee on the basis of critical events and how the employee behaved during those incidents. It includes both negative and positive points. The drawback of this method is that the supervisor has to note down the critical incidents and the employee behaviour as and when they occur. 5. FIELD REVIEW In this method, a senior member of the HR department or a training officer discusses and interviews the supervisors to evaluate and rate their respective subordinates. A major drawback of this method is that it is a very time consuming method. But this method helps to reduce the superiors’ personal bias. 6. CHECKLIST METHOD The rater is given a checklist of the descriptions of the behaviour of the employees on job. The checklist contains a list of statements on the basis of which the rater describes the on the job performance of the employees.
7. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE In this method, an employee’s quality and quantity of work is assessed in a graphic scale indicating different degrees of a particular trait. The factors taken into consideration include both the personal characteristics and characteristics related to the on the job performance of the employees. For example a trait like Job Knowledge may be judged on the range of average, above average, outstanding or unsatisfactory. 8. FORCED DISTRIBUTION To eliminate the element of bias from the rater’s ratings, the evaluator is asked to distribute the employees in some fixed categories of ratings like on a normal distribution curve. The rater chooses the appropriate fit for the categories on his own discretion.
5. What is BARS explain in detail .
Ans : Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are a combination of the critical incident and rating scale methods. Employee performance is rated on a scale but the scale points are anchored with critical incidents. The development of BARS is time consuming, but the benefits make it worthwhile. The BARS approach not only meets EEOC guidelines for fair employment practices but it may improve reliability of personnel assessment and enhance communication when evaluating employees (Maiorca, 1988; Shultz and Shultz, 1995). Objectives * Assess performance in terms of specific behaviors that are critical to the job, rather than in terms of general traits or abstract constructs. * Eliminate the use of potentially misleading numerical and volume measures that are not readily interpretable. * Reduce rater bias and error by anchoring the rating with specific behavioral examples based on job analysis information. * Minimize evaluators' impreciseness, subjectivity and failure to identify the essential functions of the job. Time In general, approximately two to three months should be allowed for BARS construction for any given position. The BARS approach seems to be most effective when psychometric principles for constructing it are followed. Number Of Participants A sufficient number of supervisors and incumbents are needed in order to develop a collection of critical incidents. The actual number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) needed would depend on the numbers of incumbents and available resources. At least eight to 10 (preferably more) SMEs are needed to independently sort the critical incidents into categories. At least eight to 10 (preferably more) different SMEs will be presented with entire sets of critical incidents, with each critical incident on a separate card and all cards mixed together to sort them back into original categories. The same SMEs will then rate each critical incident on some convenient numerical scale, generally containing from four to nine points. Four points has been found to be sufficient. One SME will provide a final check on the wording of items, descriptions, labels, etc. Finally, a few SMEs who will use the new instrument will be asked to examine and critique the form. Procedure Step 1. Gathering Critical Incidents Fortunately, research has shown that critical incidents based on recall are just as useful for instrument construction as critical incidents based on direct observation of job behavior (Campion, Greener and Wernli, 1973). Thus, critical incidents can be gathered either by interview or by written questionnaire; there is no need to actually observe the work being performed. Because of their extensive opportunities to observe job behavior, employees performing the job and their supervisors, should, in most cases, be queried (Saskin, 1981). The following is a list of critical incidents (behaviors that result in good or poor job performance) that might have been developed for a secretarial position.
Critical Incidents 1. Knows the difference between correcting the grammar in the principal's letter and correcting the writing style. 2. Keeps running count on the use of office supplies. 3. Opens all mail whether or not it is marked "confidential". 4. Confuses priorities on typing that needs immediate attention and projects that have no established deadlines. 5. Files away correspondence so that it can rarely be found for later reference. 6. Leaves many mistakes in typing from failing to proofread the typed copy. Step 2. Sorting Critical Incidents Into Categories At least eight (preferably more) SMEs - people who have some basic familiarity with the type of work being appraised - will independently sort a set of critical incidents (typed on individual cards) into as many categories as they choose. If a job analysis has resulted in categories of job behavior, these categories should be used, but additional categories may also be created. The result is a given number of performance dimensions, each containing several illustrative critical incidents. Step 3. Analyzing Categories The sets of categories are examined for consistency. This step is tedious but important. In some cases, categories will be combined, and some idiosyncratic categories will be eliminated. Judgment plays an important part in this process. At least four specific concerns must be addressed and resolved (Saskin, 1981). 1. Is the category important enough to be used in appraisals? 2. Does the category represent a particular aspect of work behavior? 3. Are the categories reasonably independent? There should be little or no overlap. 4. Have any important categories of job behavior been omitted? Step 4. Developing Critical Incidents This step involves three specific activities: 1. The critical incidents in each category are examined and redundancies are eliminated. 2. The remaining critical incidents are edited for clarity, grammar and style. 3. Additional incidents are written to illustrate borderline passing and borderline failing performance levels. Critical incidents, by definition, represent extreme behavior - extremely good or extremely bad (Flanagan, 1954). A complete scale, however, requires items that illustrate all levels of performance. When Step 4 is accomplished, the set of categories will contain critical incidents that describe a full range of behaviors from very good to very poor. The incidents will be clearly written and will not overlap. Step 5. Scale Retranslating New SMEs are given entire sets of critical incidents, with each critical incident on a separate card and all cards mixed together. Each SME must then sort them back into the categories that were defined in Steps 2 and 3. If any of the resorted categories are inconsistent with the original categories, they are eliminated. Furthermore, items not consistently sorted are also removed. A critical incident generally is said to be successfully retranslated if some percentage (usually at least 80 percent) of the raters reassign it back to the dimension from which it came (Smith, 1963). As an example, let us assume that as a result of this process we end up with the following four categories for a secretary assessment program: 1. Assessing problems in office management and organization 2. Making recommendations for office management and organization
3. Interpersonal relations 4. Use of the language. Step 6. Developing Numeral - Scale Values For Critical Incidents Once again, SMEs receive the categories and incidents. Each SME rates each incident with some convenient numerical scale, generally containing four or more points. For each critical incident, the range and standard deviation of SME ratings are computed (Maiorca, 1991). Critical incidents that receive widely varying ratings (high range and standard deviation) are eliminated. The scale values are usually derived by averaging the ratings. The average score is obtained for each incident not eliminated. The critical incidents are now ready to place on the scale forms at the appropriate point. Critical incidents that have a standard deviation in excess of 1.50 typically are discarded because the raters could not agree on their respective values. The final form of the instrument consists of critical incidents that survived both the retranslation and standard deviation criteria. The critical incidents serve as behavioral anchors for the performance dimension scales. The final BARS instrument consists of a series of scales listed vertically (one for each dimension) and anchored by the retained critical incidents (See Table 1). Each critical incident is located along the scale according to its established rating. The BARS is job specific. That is, you need to develop a different behaviorally anchored rating scale for every job (Dickerson, 1980). Step 7. Preparing Final Instrument Draft Besides concern for the physical arrangement of the instrument, a final check on the wording of item, descriptions, labels, etc., is appropriate at this point. Step 8. Reliability, Pretesting And Debugging SMEs who will use the new instrument are asked to examine and critique the form. If their comments point to serious deficiencies, some of the previous steps must be repeated. Once established, any evaluator can use the BARS approach to assess any employee for a given position with the least amount of subjective input. The old maxim that you get what you pay for certainly applies in this instance of appropriate BARS construction. If the steps given here are followed correctly, the result is likely to be a welldesigned instrument that can be validated.
6. Discuss the feedback and amendments . Ans : Feedback is made up of comments and ratings left by other eBay members you've bought from and sold
to. These comments and ratings are valuable indicators of your reputation as a buyer or seller on eBay. They are included, along with an overall Feedback Score, in your Feedback Profile. How Feedback works For each transaction, buyers and sellers can choose rate each other by leaving Feedback. Feedback from buyers can consiste of a positive, negative or neutral rating, and a short comment. Feedback from sellers can consist of a positive rating and a short comment. These ratings are used to determine Feedback Scores. With some exceptions, outlined below, Feedback works like this: A positive rating increases the Feedback Score by one point. A neutral rating does not change the Feedback Score. A negative rating decreases the Feedback Score by one point. Each member may affect your score by one point (positive, negative or neutral) per transaction. However, to make sure that repeat Feedback is calculated in the Feedback Score, the new transaction the member is leaving Feedback for must end in a separate week. For Feedback, eBay defines a week as Monday through Sunday,
Pacific Standard Time. Pacific Standard Time is Indian Standard time less 12.5 hours from March to September and IST less 13.5 hours from October to February. For example, a buyer wins an item on Tuesday, then receives it and gives the seller positive Feedback on Thursday. If the buyer wins another item that week with the same seller, the Feedback the buyer leaves will not count toward the seller's Feedback Score. But if the buyer wins another item the following Tuesday, the Feedback will count toward the seller's Feedback Score. Important things to know about Feedback Always leave Feedback after a transaction so that other members may benefit from your experience. You cannot remove Feedback you have left, so be sure to leave only fair and factual comments and ratings that relate to a specific transaction you have with your trading partner. Usually, a high Feedback Score and high percentage is a good sign, but you should always check your trading partner's Feedback Profile to read comments and look for negative remarks. If you are a buyer, contact your seller to try to resolve any issues before leaving neutral or negative Feedback. You must be a registered member to leave Feedback. You may leave Feedback on the items you purchased as a guest after you register. If the seller files an Unpaid Item dispute against a buyer, any negative or neutral Feedback left by that buyer will be removed if the buyer does not respond to the dispute before the deadline, and the unpaid item is recorded on the buyers account. When a member is suspended, eBay will remove any neutral or negative Feedback left by that member. Buyers must wait at least seven days before leaving a negative or neutral Feedback for a Power Seller who has been registered on eBay for at least 12 months.
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