Basic english grammar structures and vocaBulary

A short course in english for Adult students

Prof. Juan gmo. moya montaña
DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY
A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

Profesor Juan Guillermo Moya Montaña Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y Traductor de la División Doctrina del Ejército de Chile.

jmoyam@profing.tie.cl Cel. : 08-3619605 Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Nº151.465 I.S.B.N. Nº 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar Julio 2008 2da. Edición

ÍNDICE
Pág
• Presentación _____________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apéndices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

3

Presentación
Presentación En la actualidad, nadie pone en duda que las exigencias que la sociedad le atribuye a las instituciones armadas son variadas y complejas. En este sentido y ya en pleno siglo XXI, las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional, impulsan a nuestros soldados a tener un dominio cada vez mayor del idioma anglosajón. El material que se presenta a continuación, ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las esctructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal. Por este motivo, el Ejército decidió reimprimir este completo manual de autoaprendizaje, cuyo autor es el profesor Juan Moya Montaña, con el propósito de seguir contribuyendo a la formación y perfeccionamiento de todos sus integrantes.

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO.

A short course in english for adult students

5

Leer. 3. 9. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. etc. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. 2. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. preposiciones. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. A short course in english for adult students 7 .). con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. 4. 7. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. Estudiar las ilustraciones. verbos. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. 6. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. estudiar y estudiar. adjetivos. 5. 8. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1.

Bl 8 .

on the fifth of May. never. At. What kind of?. 59 . temporarily. Who?. two days ago UNIT 2 P. Always. 47 . last week / last year / last Monday. him. at the moment.Numerals.57 • VOCABULARY: . How long?. quarter past / to. On. midnight PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS TIME AND DATES ORDINAL NUMBERS QUESTION WORDS 1 UNIT 4 For describing people and things. Who?. our. How tall?. Which?. How far?. few. yours. Why?. Where?. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and P.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . What size?. • My. The . etc. How? Whom?. How wide?. their. water. Past and Future) THE ENGLISH ALPHABET THE PHONETIC ALPHABET KEY TO ANSWERS 15 22 23 25 • What?. very little. Those.25 • • • • TO BE (Present. How fast?. Until. How old? How long? What time? • This. milk. Once a day. your. etc. P. • Me. her. How often?. What sort of?. In . Whose?. sugar. last night.. Countable nouns: people. us. you. • Mine. very few • • • UNIT 3 • • P.75 Which • VOCABULARY: . How thick?. your.NO . his.. 37 . etc. UNIT 5 • ARTICLES II . 1996. What?. etc. work.People • KEY TO ANSWERS 27 27 33 34 36 • There is a car in the garage. for the time being. men. tomorrow. students. last Monday. at present. generally. Two weeks ago. like? • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. etc. What time?. books.Clothes • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • He works here every day Every day. That.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 P.NOT ANY . next week. How many?. 15 . theirs. it. How much?. at this time. his her. yours. etc. many.Adjectives KEY TO ANSWERS 37 39 39 41 43 45 • • • • • • He has got a big house Uncountable nouns: money. 27 . little. A short course in english for adult students 9 . ours...ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . What shape?. at night Noon / midday. you. twice a week. Past and Future) • SOME . last month. yesterday.36 • THERE TO BE (Present. today. UNIT 6 P. the day before yesterday. How high?. sometimes. When?. yesterday evening. These.etc. Yesterday morning. How deep?. etc. half past. O´clock. often. A(N).45 • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I .Professions And Occupations • KEY TO ANSWERS 77 78 83 84 86 87 89 • • • • He worked here yesterday Last week. How?.90 • SIMPLE PAST TENSE • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS • USED TO + INFINITIVE • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS • VOCABULARY: .. the day after tomorrow. them. How long?. What is / are . lots of. its. Why?. thirty minutes ago. For • Now. • How old?. every month. How big?. usually. every week. hers. What color?. 77 . a lot. Time and Dates • KEY TO ANSWERS • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • TIME EXPRESSIONS (I): ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • • • • • 47 48 52 52 54 55 57 59 61 66 67 68 71 73 • He is working at the moment • Now.. There are 3 cars in the garage • How much? How many? • Much.. etc. three times a year..

P. please... SOMEWHERE UNIT 8 AND DERIVED WORDS P... • A doctor... Scott. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: . cities. an engineer. etc. etc.. 141 . • Open the door.. at 10:30 last night. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. etc.? • Short . • It takes me 20 minutes to..Our Health KEY TO ANSWERS 127 129 131 135 136 139 141 143 144 145 146 147 • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow.. nobody / no one. He speaks Italian. a Chilean. • He said that he was tired. OUGHT TO UNIT 10 • HAVE TO = TENER QUE P. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. 10 A short course in english for adult students .. • Mr. SHOULD. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. something. • Somebody / someone. In Canada.. don´t do that. • What a tall woman!. The man whose car is parked outside. • On Fifth Avenue. When Peter arrived this morning. 103 . SO.. nowhere • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who.154 • 150 152 153 • • • • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow...best. • The boy speaks Italian.. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight.better . NOT. White. MAY. etc. SOMETHING. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. not anybody / not anyone. Please. 91 . Bob sent her some flowers. etc. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow.102 • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: .. Jones.. somewhere. You may use the phone now..Nationalities. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian.126 • VOCABULARY: . He told me that he was tired.. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. when they got married... • Good .. / IT WILL TAKE. TOO. countries and UNIT 7 geographical names. titles and ranks.the shortest • Intelligent. more intelligent than.Food • KEY TO ANSWERS 115 116 119 123 125 • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week.. 115 ... Cpt.The house • KEY TO ANSWERS 91 94 95 96 99 101 • He was working here at 9:30 last night • At that time. but the girl doesn´t. MUST. • IT TAKES. etc.... What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year. professions. etc. etc. In Salt Lake City. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. = DEMORAR UNIT 9 • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES P... • An American.. • How long does it take to.. not anything. / IT TOOK. an Englishman.114 • VOCABULARY: . in North Carolina. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now.. etc.shorter than. not anywhere. in the USA. the most intelligent • As fast as.140 • VOCABULARY: ... in the West Indies. • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. 127 .. too / as well. a secretary.Parts of the Body Time Expressions (II) • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO.. nothing.The City • KEY TO ANSWERS 103 106 109 111 113 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. Whom. streets... This one is too old UNIT 11 P. AS WELL. Dr. • Bob can swim very well..• PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .EITHER. etc.

175 . brush / brushes. late. for. He will let them play He wants us to go.MAY. etc.Sports and Recreation • KEY TO ANSWERS • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS UNIT 14 • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” P. soon More quickly. keep talking.Nature • KEY TO ANSWERS 175 177 177 178 179 179 181 184 187 189 • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. not yet. harder. earlier. Verb + to-infinitive B. etc. etc. lately. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. 191 .The Weather • KEY TO ANSWERS 203 205 205 207 207 207 209 • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. 203 . Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C.202 • VOCABULARY: . too I saw her crossing / cross the road. etc. carefully. certainly. He cut himself.174 • KEY TO ANSWERS 157 161 164 • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. / P. Verb + gerund / bare UNIT 13 infinitive P. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop 210 212 213 A short course in english for adult students 11 . yet / already?. more carefully.214 CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING .Prepositions and Connectors P.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND UNIT 12 • VOCABULARY: . He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . did he? 191 194 196 198 199 201 • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. hard. 157 . MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . three times. go shopping. already. Go skiing. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. etc. once. He himself did it.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING UNIT 15 . doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. ever Book / books. etc. twice. MIGHT. Fast. never. day / days.190 D. early. Sooner. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: .MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. knife / knives. 170 173 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A.before. baby / babies. since. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well.

. UNIT 16 • USE OF ELSE. QUESTIONS C.252 • KEY TO ANSWERS • REPORTED SPEECH A.296 • TEACHER’S TEXT SCRIPT • KEY TO ANSWERS 277 279 283 291 293 295 APENDICES • CHART 1 BASIC VERB TENSES • CHART 2 BASIC VERB TENSES A) CONTINUOUS TENSES B) SIMPLE TENSES C) PERFECT TENSES 4) PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES 297 299 299 300 302 303 12 A short course in english for adult students . COMMANDS. 225 . 277 . UNTIL.236 • KEY TO ANSWERS • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE UNIT 18 • VOCABULARY: .The Armed Forces II P. 219 221 223 210 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO UNIT 17 • VOCABULARY: . When I see her tomorrow. ETC. 215 .261 ...275 • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping • ASSESSMENT TEST • QUESTION BOOKLET (Listening Part) • QUESTION BOOKLET (Reading Part) UNIT 21 • ANSWER SHEET P. AS SOON AS. 263 . ORDERS UNIT 19 • VOCABULARY: P.223 • VOCABULARY: . Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. or else I´ll miss my flight...The Armed Forces I P.. 237 . 253 . STATEMENTS B. He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 P.The Workshop • KEY TO ANSWERS 215 217 218 • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. OR ELSE / OTHERWISE P.Regular and Irregular Verbs • KEY TO ANSWERS • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS 225 231 233 235 • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 237 244 245 248 251 253 253 254 254 257 261 263 • • • • • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.• FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

Bl 14 .

Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. Who are those men? /hú: a:r !óuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz !e ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz !e búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r !e ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r !e stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r !e tchíldrn/ It is a pen. We´re. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. Jones. the secretary. /shi:z !e sékretri/ They´re Bob. It´s a house. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . /hi:z !e niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. !ei á:r. /iés. /!eir véri wél "æ#k iu/ 2.IS . /!eir !e stiú:dents/ He´s at home. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a.They´re cars. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz !is/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots !æt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r !í:z/. In /in/ en. Those /!óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. /hí:z mátch béter. its a pén/ Yes.it iz. Fine /fáin/ bien. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r !óuz/. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . thanks. Jim and Tom.. it is. thank you. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. /!éir in !e ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. She´s. It´s a pen /iés. Thank you /"æ#k iu:/ gracias. He´s. they are. los. Escuche. IS /iz/.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /!éi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /!ei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /!ei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /!eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. You´re. On /on/ encima de. las. /its on !e désk/ They´re in the car park. At /æt/ en. This /!is/ este/a. /!eir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. ARE /a:r/ 1. /áim fáin. /!éir in !e læb/ I´m fine. /its in !e gæridll/ It´s on the desk. The / !e (antes de cons. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz !is a pén/ Is that a house? /is !æt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r !í:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r !óuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz !æt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z !æt wúman/ .UNIT 1 PART I. Now /náu/ ahora. They´re. la. !eir búks/ Yes. That /!æt/ ese/a. the students. They´re books. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. Thanks /"æ#ks/ gracias. !ei á:r.) .) un/a. the new instructor. "æ#ks/ They´re very well. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT.!eir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. thanks. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. It´s. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. /iés. /!ei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. These /!í:z/ estos/as. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. they are. It is. !i/ (antes de vocal) el. "æ#ks/ He´s much better.

Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. Answer these questions. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæ#k/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. it isn´t. /pénsl/ No. /trák/ No. they aren´t. He´s not very well. there /!éar/ allí.) It´s a truck. (They´re not books. Are you in the office? 2. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. 5. The train _____ ten minutes late. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. 8. Am I a good instructor? 5. 3._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . They aren´t there.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. It´s not a train.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. (armas-poderosas) 6. They aren´t in the lab. Escuche. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r !ei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. They´re tables /téiblz/. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot.Escuche. Is that man Mr.) They´re magazines. 10. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. John and Mary _____ good friends. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. 9. They are not there /!éar/ It is not a train.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r !ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? EXERCISES Ex. He isn´t here. 2. /mægazinz/ No. (It´s not a tank. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. I ______ an undergraduate student. 1. Clark? 3. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. He´s a pilot. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. isn´t /íznt/ . It isn´t a train. Are the students in class? 6. are not /a:r nót/. Are we ready to go? 4. is not /iz nót/. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. 7. He is not here /híar/. 3. He isn´t very well. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent !ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt !is kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. (sala de profs. here /híar/ aquí. They´re not there. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. The men ______ tired.rent !ei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. it isn´t. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. Yes. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. 2. They´re not in the lab. aren´t /á:rent/.) It´s a pencil. they aren´t. over there /óuver !éar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. 4. (They´re not chairs). (It´s not a pen._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. He´s not here. he is. I´m not a pilot They´re not students.

8. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7.at home 1. as in the example below: The Browns . (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . They´re books 3. 3.(patio) 9. The computer / connected to the Internet 6. The pictures / clear (nítidas. Is the bank open? 10. The children are tired 10. That boy´s my brother 8. The books are on the table 9. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Peter and John / in class 3. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. as in the example: It´s a plane. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) 3. The manager / in his office 2. 1. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. It´s a chair 7. 5. claras) 8. I´m fine. The course / interesting 4. It´s a knife 2. Who?. Your friends / from Canada 5. Where?. thanks 5. 4 Ask questions.Is Cpt. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. Are your friends American? (British) 7.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. The children / in the playground. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. they are not. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. How?. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. The cat´s under the sofa 6.

Ex. ______ she single? No. That´s bad news. 6. Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. My name ______ Frank. / méri woz !e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. She ______ from London. ______ you a student here? No. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . Jim? I ______ here. Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer. (pausa) This ______ Janet. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. in the library. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días. I ______ an instructor. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /!ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. That ______ very interesting. ______ you alone? No. Where ______ you from. Oh. Come and meet her. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. I´m glad to meet you. 1.WERE /we:r/ 1. she ______ ______. Hello. Hello. I ______ with my friend Janet. Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?. thanks. Mr. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. B. 18 A short course in english for adult students . The day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer. She ______ my classmate . What ______ your name? My name ______ John. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . Where ______ you. Hello. I ______ ______. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. Pleased to meet you. I ______ not. Oh. I ______ glad to meet you. She ______ a new student. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson.WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. /!ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. Peter. Jackson was here three weeks ago. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. I ______ from Appleton. Sir. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Oh. Brown? I ______ American. Mike Hello. Wisconsin. She ______ married. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Jack. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). Jane. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. too. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4.

4. The weather was fine that day. 3. The men were tired after the long walk. 7. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. Yesterday ______ Sunday. 3. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Who? 1. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. but they ______ at work yesterday. Escuche. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 2. 3. Where?.2. 2. 6. Liz was in bed because she was sick. 5. John was in the car at that moment. 4. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. /dllón wóznt at hóum !is mórni#/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. 1. When?. 4. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás !is mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at !is táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. 6. 5.M. present or past: 1. 6. /!ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki#/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. Today ______ Monday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 .Y. How old. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. The secretary was busy at midday. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. but it ______ working well now. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 5. Mary was late for the train this morning. 3. 2. Tom was at home at midnight last night. They were good friends at school. but he ______ much better today. How?. 2. George was a little better this morning. Ask questions using wh-words like What?. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. They ______ free today.Why?. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

as in the example: John is not at home today. Escuche. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 3. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. but it _____________________________________________ next month. 1. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. For /for/ por. /!ei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vni#/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil !e tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil !ei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿Estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrow. /ai wil nót bí: véri bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. We are not busy right now. bi: at !e mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil !ei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu lo# wil !ei bí: in wóshi#ton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. serán / estarán) They will be /!ei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ella será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. Escuche. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. 4. The weather was not very nice last month. Mr. John isn´t absent today. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. para What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu ló#/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. It is not very cold now.C. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. I am not in my office at the moment. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. The day after tomorrow /!e déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /!eil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. Complete the sentences.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. 5. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. but he 1. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. 7. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. but they _______________________________ next semester. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 6. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. 2. A short course in english for adult students . /ái wil bí: véri bízi !is a:fternú:n/ . They won´t be here all day.

Ask questions using Where?. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. Mr. 2. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. ¿Quién era ese hombre? 12. 2. Ella será una excelente secretaria. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 2. They will be in the next town before midday. 2. Mary will be in New York next weekend.Why?. 5. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. What time?. 3. 9. 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. When will you be on vacation again? 3. in English. 6. 13. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday.Ex. 9. 1. The program will be interesting. 14. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 3. 8. 4. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. 7. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 4. 4. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. ¿Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? 11. When is the next general meeting? 9. 7. I´ll be in the first team. etc. How long?. John will be in class today.When?. Where were you last weekend? 7. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. 6. The weather will be very nice this month. 3. How are you today? 4. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. It´ll be hot tomorrow. 7. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. 5. Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? 4. ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? 5. 5. My friends will be here before 12. 6. 10. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio 8. 1. Answer the following questions. Los informes no estaban listos todavía. Este no es un libro muy interesante. How?. They will be here at ten-thirty. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. 3.

How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.E .Q . 2.O .B . please? A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /"æ#kiu:/ /kán iu: spél !æt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái brá!erz néim iz ignásio/ 2.W .J .I .r/ B: Last month. lea y aprenda: 1.PART II.Y .W .A 5.A .C .A . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.J .X .X .X .G .E .Y .D .T .W .X .K .V -B 3.Z .Z .P . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mán" ái bó:t it at !e pí: éks/ B: No. ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .F .X .V .S .V .O . P .W .I . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á. THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se llama /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.E . B: Can you spell that.F .L .O .L .N .C .X . E .R .U .I .I .Q .L . E .I .T .F 4.I .T .L .O . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex. Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.K .M .B . Escuche.B .Y .C .H .Q .A .N . /mái la:st néim is váskes.O .S .U .D .I . J .Y .R .G . !æts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3. 1.N .G .B .A Ex.M .C .E . My last name is Vasquez. U . Tom works for IBM in LA.U .A -E 2.O .K .G .Q . /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.A . 4. 3.H .

BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p. 5.m. A as in Alfa. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B.Ex. FBI OK ITT a. I spell: J for Juliett. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2.m. I spell: C as in Charlie.C.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ MBA MBT ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /tá#gou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iá#ki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. L as in Lima. The commander´s last name is CLARK. My name is JUAN. A.D. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . U for uniform.

Bl 24 .

Who was in the car.. Ex. They´re sad.. He isn´t a doctor. he is. 6. 9. / Will my friends be. I´m hungry. Who was that man? 12. 1. They won´t be. will be in the same class 2.were 3. He isn´t on duty. When will she be back in Chile? 8.. 5. Where´s the cat? 6. What are these / those? 3. will be absent 3. It´s dirty.. How will the weather be this month? 6. 1.... Yes.are Ja: am B. 10..? 3.. 1. will be very busy 5. they are. I´m not.? 2. 6. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. 1. Who´s that woman? Ex.? Ex. 3. 2. No.? 7.? 5.. How old was Mr Clark when. My friends won´t be. It´s a modern plane. 8. Are the children in the playground? 9.am J: is 2.is 6. 7.was 4... 2. 5. will be in my office 6... Where are your friends now? 4. she is... I´m not thirsty. Is the computer connected to internet? 6..? 6. This isn´t a very interesting book.am (pause) is . 5. / Will I be . 3. When are they free all day? 11..? 4. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. 4... Mary wasn´t .R: is J: is .. 3. Is the course interesting? 4. Mary won´t be.. Are your friends from Canada? 5.... 10..... I won´t be.. Yes. Who was here this morning? 5. Was . (open answers) Ex. The weather wasn´t . they´re not.. Why will they be at home all day? 9. No. 4. They were good friends at school. 3.. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . No..is 4. I´m hungry.. are 6..... It isn´t clean.was 7. am 9... 10.. Was . When will Mary be in New York? 7. is 2.. At what time will they be here? 5. / Was the weather. The reports weren´t ready yet. He´s off duty. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . Those children are not very good students. 1.. The secretary wasn´t.? 4. 1.. 1. they´re not. Yes.. Who´s that boy? 8. / Was the secretary .. It won´t be . Henry wasn´t . How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. He´s Mr. What´s this / that? 2... he´s not. 4... They´re young. 1. Yes.. Is the manager in his office? 2. 14. 2.. He´s at work. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. I´m not an navy officer. They aren´t old.. Ex. 5.. The men weren´t .. Were . How was George. Are the pictures clear? 8. Ex. No. She´s a secretary. Yes.. 1. he´s not.. How are the children? 10. / Will the program be. they´re not.am 3....? 5. Why was Liz in bed? 4. / Will John be . Where are the books? 9. 3. The program won´t be . / Were the men .Are J: am .. Ex. M: is P: is .. What´s this / that? 7. Yes.. 1.is Ex. 3... They´re hungry.. 9.. / Will it be.. is 8. Was .? 3. are 4. is 7. I´m not. Now. When will you be free? 3..? 3. 1. 4. 1.? C. Yes. it is. he´s not. 2. They aren´t angry. it´s not. 6.. Where are the cigarettes?.. 1.are Ex.are R: am . are 5.. Ex.. 9.. 7. He´s an engineer.is Ja: am .? 2.you are. They´re in class. No..are F: am . It´s open.. Ex. Are .is . will be very cold 4. 8. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not ...KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. 13.are 5. Yes. Yes.No.. I´m in the office. John won´t be. I´m a army officer. They aren´t American. When were the Smiths ..? 4. No.? 2. Yes.. No. will be at the meeting 7.? 5. Is the package light or heavy? 7. You´re a good instructor.. Is . Clark.. / Will Mary be. We weren´t here last week. Are Peter and John in class? 3. 8.. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4.? 6. Was .. they´re not..? Ex.. I am. 1.is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t ... No. 2. 1./ Will they be. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning.is J: is . I am. 1. How are you? 5. they are. / Was Mary.. They´re British. Are the maps in the library? Ex. / Were they. They weren´t..are 3.? 6.. They´re updated. is 10. Mr Jackson was in the office all day. will be very nice. / Was Henry. He isn´t at home.. we are-We´re ready to go. They aren´t happy. F: is . it is...is 2.. 2. 6.. Where was Tom at.

Bl 26 .

ha advertido. /!ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /!ear á:r sam tchéarz in !e rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /!ear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /!ear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. There´s no water. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /!éar á:r sam trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. There´s a lot (of ice).PART I. There are no chairs. se usa la contracción THERE´S /!éarz/. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. /a:r !ear éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . There isn´t any (water). /!ear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. There are three (windows). / !éar íznt e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /!ear íznt éni wóter in !e glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /!ear á:rent éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. /!éar íznt éni wóter in !e glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . /!éarz e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /!ear á:r nóu trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz !ear éni wóter in !e glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . There is a book on the desk /!ear íz e búk on !e désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /!ear iz nót e búk on !e désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. en el singular. THERE IS /!ear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. en castellano. There´s only one (door). /!ear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. /háu match/ Como ud. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. /!ear á:rent éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. THERE TO BE (HABER. /!ear a:r nóu tchéarz in !e rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. THERE ARE /!ear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. Is there a book on the desk? /íz !ear e búk on !e désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz !ear e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz !éar éni wóter in !e glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r !ear tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r !ear éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). Normalmente. EXISTIR) A. There aren´t any (chairs).

28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. EXERCISES Ex. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. 1. /!éar íznt match shúgar in !e bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. /!éar á:rent méni buks on !e shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz !éar match shúgar in !e bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r !éar méni buks on !e shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. /!éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /!éarz véri lítl wó:ter in !e glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. /!éar á:r e lót ov buks on !e shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. There´s no water in that bottle. There are many trees in the garden. . Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. La expresión A LOT OF normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. very little money left in the box. Normalmente el artículo A/ AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. 2. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /!éarz e lót ov shúgar in !e bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. very few people at the conference. only one student in the lab now. 3. /!ear a:r véri fiú: desks in !e rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. 4.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. There is a tree in the garden. /!ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. There are flowers in the garden. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras MUCH o MANY. por lo tanto se omite.

IS THERE? or HOW MANY. some letters for you on the desk. A LOT in the blank spaces. There´s ____________________________________ milk left in the bottle.. There are very ______________________________ books in the school library. ___________________ work _________________ today? 6. There are some extra chairs in the room.. A short course in english for adult students 29 . _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change the following statements into the negative form. no time left. no milk in it. There are some more clean glasses. There are 24 hours in a day. 5. ___________________ video tapes ___________? 5. There are 8. 2... ___________________ doors ________________ in the lab? 3. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form.. 6. a lot of work. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. 3. ___________________ people _______________ in the room?. There are 30 days in February. 9. 9. ___________________ women_______________ in that group? 10. 10. There is another chair in that room 8. 4. 1. 2. four men. There´s some more coffee in the cup. ARE THERE? in the questions. 6. 10.. 6. 4. There are some more books. There´s a telephone in the room. 7. ___________________ milk _________________ in the jug? 4. Ex. ___________________ money _______________? 2. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. ___________________ butter ________________in the dish? 8. There´s central heating in the room.5. 8. Use LITTLE. 2. ___________________ men _________________ in the crew? Ex. 2. Use HOW MUCH.. 5. a lot of mistakes in your composition. just a little. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings..: How many dictionaries are there? 1. 10. There are more than 10 students. no more CDs in the box. 7. 3. 5. Ej. There´s some more meat in the fridge. 4. ___________________ secretaries____________here? 9. 7.. sir. 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. There are more women than men. just one. Complete the following questions and answers.. very few. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the answers .. two. There are some students absent today. a lot. There´s some more money in my pocket.. 1. five or six. There are a lot of people in the room.. 7. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. FEW. several helicopters in the airfield. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. There are a lot of students absent. 3.. 8.

1. because it was a leap year) ( Yes. How much coffee was there? / háu match kófi woz !ear / ¿Cuánto café había? EXERCISES: Ex. 8. of errors in my check. students absent from class today. There´s just a_______________________________ B. Change into the Past Tense: 1. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /!ear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /!ear wé:rent/. of trees in that park. more than enough) ( not any) (29.... There´s ____________________________________ 9. There are only a ____________________________ 7. There are __________________________________ 6. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /!ear wóz/ / THERE WERE /!ear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. How much milk is there in the fridge? 4. 5. There are very few people in the pub.3. There were many people absent. There isn´t much time to talk. Are there many errors in the bill? 10. There´s very ________________________________ 4. How many days were there in February that year? 7. There are __________________________________ 8. /!ear wóznt éni bíar in !e kæn/There was no beer. How many students were there in the laboratory? 6. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. There´s a lot of work in the office today./ !ear wóz nou bíar. lots of cars) . Were there many cars in the street at that time? 30 A short course in english for adult students (yes. of noise in this room. There´s very little whisky left. Was there enough bread for all the people? 5. 2. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. whisky left in the bottle. not more than 30) (very little. There´s ____________________________________ 5. It´s very sweet. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? 4./No había nada de cerveza en la lata. 3. Escuche.. 9. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (about 20) (No. of sugar in my coffee. How many students were there in this class last year? 2. Answer these questions. There weren´t many books on the desk. There are __________________________________ 10. There are two books missing from the shelf. There wasn´t any beer in the can. /!ear wé:rnt méni buks on !e désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. How many people are there on board? 7. Was there a TV in the room? / woz !ear e tÍ: ví: in !e rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r !ear at !e pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). /!ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. There aren´t many hotels in this town. tickets available. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS .THERE WERE ice in my glass. Is there enough money for the trip? 6. of course) 3. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /!ear woz e lot ov nóis in !e rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. 2.

Just one or two bottles. next time? very little food in the fridge now. very few flowers in our garden. How much free time __________________________ 5. There are some women at the meeting.C. /!ear wil not bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ There won´t be two more tests next week. /!ear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . in your class last year? much milk left. /!earl bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ . 1. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. ______________________________________________________________ 3. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. Past or Future). eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil !ear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. Escuche. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 2. /!ear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil !ear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: !is í:vni#/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil !ear bí. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________ 6. There´ll be another meeting this evening. There will be two more tests next week. How many students ___________________________ 10. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. ____________________________________________ 4. 3. 5. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /!ear wil bí: e véri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. 1. ____________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________ 7. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. ____________________________________________ 9. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. ____________________________________________ 8. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. 7. 31 . ____________________________________________ Ex. Escuche. There is a lot of free time in the evening. 3. Change into the future tense. a lot of noise at the disco last night. /!ear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /!earl bí:/. How many women ____________________________ 2. 4. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. 1. not any more exercises in the book now. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /!ear wil bí:/. 6. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. There will not be another meeting this evening. several trees in the park now. En las preguntas. /!earl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/.1.

¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? 4. Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? 8. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. 5. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. 7. Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? 9. 9. __________________________________________ No. 8. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. 6. 10. ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? 5. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 1. How many people were there in the room at 8:30? 6. How many computers are there in your office? 5. No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. How many days will there be in February next year? 3. Answer these questions in English.. 3. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. __________________________________________ Yes. Translate the following sentences into English 1. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. 7. How many days are there in a week? 2. Will there be another meeting this week? 7. 6. No hay tiempo para conversar. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. 12. 8. 4. __________________________________________ No. ¿Cuántos autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? 10. 9.4. 5. 11. 2. How many students were there in your class last year? 4. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes.

000 one thousand /uán "áuzand/ 200. two hundred and sixty-five. million y billion no van seguidas de and.000 two million /tú: mílion/ 5. 68 sixty-eight. 45 fortyfive. 400 four hundred. 4.387 five thousand.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred "áuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú: hándred/ 2. three hundred and eighty-seven. US$ 4. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones.” Ej. 5. Ej. 32 thirty-two. NUMBERS Escuche.875 g) 148 n) 5.000. thirty.80 Ex.973 f) 28 m) 256. Las palabras hundred.PART II. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of. 2.. Las palabras twenty. Ej.000 two thousand /tú: "áuzand/ 2.45 km.285 d) 94 k) 6. el punto es coma y la coma es punto. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.365.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . twenty-one. Las palabras hundred.394 e) 33 l) 24. 70.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand.000 three million. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1.971 forty-five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv "áuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1.. 3. forty. Al escribir cifras en inglés. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv "áuzand "ri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45.5% . There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. Ej. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and.687. 12.000 five thousand.000. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ 30 thirty /"é:rti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /"ri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /"e:rtí:n/ 18 eighteen /eití:n/ 40 forty /fó:rti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtí:n/ 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. 463. 3. 365 three hundred and sixty-five. thousand. 94 ninety-four. 21. las palabras thousand. 5. Ej.

papi mamá. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman/gentlemen /dlléntlman/-men/ lady/ladies /léidi/léidiz/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero/os dama/as chicos. mummy /mam. marido esposa. dædi/ mom. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny. niños FAMILY AND RELATIVES (La familia y los parientes) grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfá:!er/ grandmother /grandmá!er/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:!er/ mother /má!er/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /brá!er/ sister /síster/ uncle /á#kl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. daddy /dæd. grandma/græni. mum. mujer padre madre hijos. grænmá/ father-in-law /fá:!er in ló:/ mother-in-law /má!er in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /brá!er in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:!er/ step-mother /step má!er/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step brá!er/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:!er/ foster-mother /fóster má!er/ god-father /god fá:!er/ god-mother /god má!er/ papá.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE (Personas) GENERAL (General) person /pe:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /ge:rl/ persona gente. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina 34 A short course in english for adult students . personas niño/s.

There are 9. Will there be 5.. 2..... There are 9. 2. 5. How many. 1...? 9.? There are. There´s a lot of noise in this room now. 5. There´s only 25 dollars. No.? 7. Will there be any... 5. 8. How many. Yes.. little 3. 1. a lot 6. 6. 7.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A. There was very little. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6...? There´s... 9.. 3.? Ex... Is there a train. How much. There was 8. 1. Are there more than. / No. There aren´t 30... How much money is there in the wallet? 5... 10.. is there. There was. Are there any students.. There are 7... Ex.. There won´t be any. How much. 7.. 5.? There´s. 3..? 5. There aren´t any more.There are 10. of course.people. There are twelve eggs... There weren´t. 9.? There are. 3.. It was a leap year..? 8.. There isn´t Ex. There will be another general meeting next Friday. No. There is 3. How many. Ex. 1. 4. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. is there. There were. There are 7. 9. There were. There will be some.. Was there enough... 2. How much money will there be. is there.. There aren´t many. Will there be more than. 10. There are 5. 6. little 4. There were.. How much milk was there. are there. Sólo una o dos botellas.. 1. 1. 2.. 8.. 1.. few 7. There isn´t much.. There weren´t any 6.. There are 4... ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. there weren´t more than 30 3. 2. 4. / There´s no more.. 1. There isn´t any more.? 3.. There´s just one / There are. Is there another. 6.. 1. there were lots of cars. There are Ex. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10.. There´s 6.? 6. Were there 2. 2.. There aren´t many. How many people were there.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora.. / There´s no more.? 2. There´ll be 28 days.... a lot 5.. few 8.? 6. 7.? There are. 9. Is there a hotel. there was a lot of work..? There´s..... / There are no extra. There is 6.? 5... 4. How many people will there be. Yes.. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2.. There were 29. Were there. There are seven days. There were very few children in the street that day...? 7.... there are no spelling mistakes. 2.. There was. are there. / There are no more... 5. There is no time to talk. There was very little free time during the morning. There is 8. 3. Ex. Ex........ There isn´t any more.... there won´t be another meeting 7. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. How many. a lot 9. 9. How much. a lot 10. Is there much free.. 10... Is there any more... there aren´t any. 8. 4.? 4. 7.. 6. there was more than enough. Yes. Ex....... are there. Ex. Ex. 3. few 2. 3. 1... students.. There were only two hotels in that town. are there? There are. There isn´t a.? 7... There were. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4. There isn´t much money in it.. 1.. C.. There are 2.. are there.. 5... 4..? There´s... Are there more. 2...... 8.... Ex.Is there a restaurant near here.. There is 4. How many. 4. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. 2. 3... 4. There were about 20 . No hay mucha leche sobrante.. 1. are there. There won´t be another concert until next week. 1.. 3.... There´s 3. There´s no central. How much.There aren´t any extra... ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5. 2...? 4. 3...? 10. Are there 24. 12.. little B..? There are. 8... There wasn´t. There weren´t many people in the building at that time. 4.? Ex. 11.were there 10.. 1. Are there any more. A short course in english for adult students 35 . Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. 5.. There will be a lot. is there? There´s.. computers..? 6..? 10.. 1. How many... No.

three hundred and twenty-eight.Part II. Ex. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students . 1.

tienen) (ellos tienen) Peter has got many friends./ My dog hasn´t got long ears./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. / No. /pí:ter haz not gót./ Has the dog got long ears? /haz !e dóg gót... 2. The soldiers ______________________ a very good instructor.. he´s got a lot. It´s got very long ones./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót. /!e rú:mz hav not gót . /!ei hav gót e bíg háus/ They´ve got a big house. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. /mai dóg haz gót lo# íarz/ My dog´s got long ears../ They haven´t got a big house./ Peter hasn´t got many friends. es decir. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) (Peter tiene muchos amigos) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /!éiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´ T GOT /hævent got/ y HASN´ T GOT /hæzent got/ Escuche. John _____________________________ a new uniform.../ Peter has not got many friends...../ They have not got a big house.. I have. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /!éi hav gót/ Escuche.. significa TENER... He´s got one sister and two brothers./ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav !e ru:mz got... I´ve got very little (money). /!ei hav not gót./ I haven´t got a car. I haven´t. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad... lea y aprenda: I have got a car. tenemos) (uds.UNIT 3 PART I. 37 ./ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) My dog has got long ears. it has... they haven´t got one.. /!eiv gót.. /!e rú:mz hævent gót. Hans ____________________________ long black hair ../ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche. They´ve got a small one. they haven´t... But they´ve got a radio....... /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ Peter´s got many friends./ They have got a big house./ The rooms have not got central heating./ My dog has not got long ears. Yes. /mai dóg haz not gót. A short course in english for adult students Yes./ Have they got a big house? /hav !ei gót. /!ei hævent got. (ones = ears) No.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. /pí:terz gót. Yes. /mai dóg hæzent gót.. /pí:ter hæzent gót./ The rooms have got central heating... I´ve only got 5 dollars. 3. (of friends) No./ The rooms haven´t got central heating... /ai hav not gót. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót. /ai hævent gót. /!e rú:mz hav gót séntral hí:ti#/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NOT GOT y HAS NOT GOT. /mai dógz gót.

8. three children. How many rooms has your house got? 8. 8. Bob´s got some money. How many children have you got? 3. My friends ________________________ 9. a new blue dress. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 6. A car has got four wheels . The flat has got two bathrooms. 6. 200 pages. Ex. We ______________________________ 5. 7. Ex. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. 4. 5. Bob´s got a big family. 2. Nancy´s got a computer. Have you got a computer at home? 38 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ .. I ________________________________ 7. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2.? / HOW MANY. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 10. They´ve got our telephone number. Have you got a big library at home? 9. a lot of money. 3. two bedrooms. The students have got a new instructor..4. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. They´ve got a big family. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. Mary _____________________________ 8.. Bob´s sister has got a car. 5. 6. 4.? 1. Bob´s got our address. 2 Change into the negative form 1. You´ve got many things to do today. They´ve got two cars. 9. The book _________________________ 6. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. 9. We´ve got a small classroom. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. You´ve got a lighter. My father´s got a modern car. 2. They ´ve got very little free time. The house has got a garden. 7. I´ve got some cigarettes. 2. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. a son and two daughters. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. You´ve got your passport here.. 7. 5. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. I´ve got three children. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The car __________________________ Ex. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. a small house in the country. Bob´s got five dollars. 3. My flat ___________________________ 10. 4. My friends have got a telephone. The boy has got black shoes. four wheels. The students have got some experience. 3. 10.

This is an apple. He is an honest man. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . That´s an animal /!æts an æ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). plural. /!is iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). These are houses. Además. /!is iz an æ´pl/ (Esta es una manzana). el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. The woman is very tall. ARTICLES (I) 1. This is a one-way ticket. Ej. That´s a girl. alta. la. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. This is a house /!is iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). Ej. /!éarz a ká:r in !e strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. /!i:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). /!æts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como SOME sam/ (algunos/as). /!is iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). A. This is an old car /!is iz an óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). altas. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. The men are very tall. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. no específico. Ej. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). Those are trees /!óuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /!is iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /!is iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. todos los sustantivos (noun) actúan (noun) como adjetivos (adj) cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. Compare: This is an orange. son invariables. The books are old. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. altos. That is a tree /!æt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). An apple (noun) A dollar (noun) An exercise (noun) A hotel (noun) B. There is a book on the desk. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. Ejemplo. The book is old. ADJECTIVES En inglés. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. /!is iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). Ej. Por lo tanto. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. This is a book. Those are animals /!óuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). SEVERAL /séveral/ (varios/as) o MANY /méni/ (muchos/as). /!æts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). There are several books on the desk. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden / An apple (adj) tree A one-dollar (adj) bill One exercise (adj) book A hotel (adj) manager Three apple (adj) trees A five-dollar (adj) bill Ten exercise (adj) books Two hotel (adj) managers 2. determinados.PART II. That´s an orange. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. The women are very tall. The man is very tall. los. There´s a car in the street. masculino o femenino. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular.

They´ve got a horse on the farm. 13. There is a new student in this class. There is a student in the laboratory now. MANY or SEVERAL 1. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. 6. 3. 15. ________ 30. ________ 27. 9. 3. 10. 7. 2.Ex. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 8. 10. There was a car accident last Sunday. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. 16. ________ 32. 14. 15. This boy isn´t a new student. There´s a tree in the garden. 2. The student has got a new notebook. ________ 25. 11. 2. 13. ________ 31. There is a letter for you. There´s a textbook on the teacher´s desk. Is that woman a nurse? 11. ________ 26. 11. 5. ________ 20. Mr. 1. 3. ________ 24. 9. This is a car. They´ve got an interesting book in the library 8. ________ 19. 10. ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. use SOME. ________ 18. 7. 9. There will be an interesting program tonight 6. ________ 28. That is a picture 2. Use the indefinite articles A or AN 1. Peter´s got a new pen. 13. ________ 29. 8. Change these sentences into the plural. 1. There´s a woman in the office. I´ve got a question for you. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. ________ 21. 4. Is that man an engineer? 12. 5. 14. 7. 3. 12. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . Change the following sentences into the plural. This is an interesting novel. Is this an envelope? 4. The boy´s got a book in English. Please show me a photograph. 5. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? 14. ________ 22. Smith. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. That man isn´t a teacher. 12. ________ 23. There´s a yellow flower in the garden. I haven´t got a cigarette.

please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. C. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. 10:00 p. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. It´s a quarter to ten 11. G. It´s twenty-five past six 12. please? /wóts !e táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. E. It´s five past seven 8. 04:00 p. It´s ten past three 4. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a.m. It´s ten to five 6.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. K. It´s twenty to one 2. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. J. It´s half past eight 9.PART III. 1. D. It´s a quarter past two 3.m.m. L.m.m. /pi: em/ It´s seven o´clock p. B. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ (en la mañana. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. F.17:00) in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ (en la tarde / noche.m. /pi: em/ It´s ten o´clock p. de 13:00 . I. /pi: em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . EXERCISES Ex. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. /éi ém/ p.m. 07:00 p.m. /ei em/ It´s four o´clock p.m. It´s five to nine 5. H. de18:00 . It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. It´s twenty past twelve 10. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1.m.

01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 2. 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 04:00 p. 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 21. 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 23. 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 19.m. 11:00 p. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 15.m. 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Ex. 08:00 a. 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 22. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write down the times and read: What time is it? / What´s the time? It´s 8 o´clock 1.m. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11.

white and red.liviano largo angosto. firme gordo tonto. sensato maravilloso equivocado. dificil esforzado saludable. sik/ interesting /íntresti#/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. par (números) caro rápido. amplio sabio. agitado triste agudo. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. leso. insatisfactorio bonito rico.derecho tosco. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. adinerado correcto. sano pesado. gratis lleno. enojado malo grande romo. leso libre. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. sick /il. agradable raro.contento pobre. orange /órindll/ gray.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /lo#/ narrow /nærrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /"ik/ thin /"in/ thirsty /"é:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /ro#/ young /ja#/ SPANISH tarde. puntiagudo corto.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . brusco. fome temprano. grey /gr i/ purple /pé:rpl/ pink /pi#k/ dark blue /dá. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. incorrecto joven COLOURS (Colores) What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. completo bueno feliz duro. bajo de estatura tonto. precursor fácil vacío parejo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES (Adjetivos) ENGLISH angry /ængri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /ké:rvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /é:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd wé:rki#/ healthy /hél"i/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /há#gri/ ill. no plano temperado ancho. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. It´s blue. fijo. atrasado flojo claro. estrecho nuevo bonito.

Bl 44 .

10. an 22. have got 4. 13. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9. an 12. It´s five past ten 17. How many wheels has a car got? 4. I´ve got some coins.. There were several car accidents.. There will be many new students.. 15.? 9. a 25... I´ve got several magazines. Have you got your.? 5. It´s three minutes to three 10.. 10.8 C . 1...10 D .. have got 5. has got 10. Has Bob´s sister got a. Peter´s got new pens 8. There are many women.? 10. There are many students. a 29. an 28.. Has Bob got our.. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex.3 H . A . 5..4 G . 7. 11.. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. an 26.. Have you got a.? 6.. Has Bob got any money? 3. It´s quarter to two 18.. It´s ten to nine 3. 12. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. It´s half past three 4.. an 6.They haven´t got many friends..12 J .. I´ve got friends in S. a 10.. How many children have you got? 3. 1.. Part III. 1.. an 5.. My friends haven´t got.. has got 6. 1. / The students have got no experience. Have you got many. have got 7. has got Ex..1 K .. I haven´t got any cigarettes... a 20.... a 18.. It´s twenty-five past five 20. 13. Has the boy got black.F. 2. a 24... The boy has got some books. They´ve got some interesting books.. a 21.4. Ex.. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24. has got 3. Are those men engineers? 12. Please. Bob hasn´t got a. These are cars 3.. Have they got our. It´s twenty past three 16. a 2. Ex.? Ex. 3.6 Ex.. I´ve got several questions. 8. Have they got a. These are interesting novels 10.. She hasn´t got blue. a 31. It´s quarter past one 6.. 8.... 6. It´s five past nine 7.. a Ex.. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13... 1. show me some photographs. a 11. 5. How much money has Bob got? 5. has got 2. 4. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. 2.? 4. an 13. an 30. 5. These boys aren´t new students 9. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11.a 23.9 B . It´s twenty-five to five 22. It´s nine o´clock 2.. It´s half past eleven 19.a 17.. 7. (open answers) Part II. There are some trees. 1. B. a 14..5 I . It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23. The student has got some new notebooks 14. an 3.. a 19. There are several letters. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. 9.. Nancy hasn´t go a.. Are those women nurses? 11. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14... 1.. There are some new students. an 32. has got 8. 1. My father hasn´t got a. How many cars have they got? 2. 1. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . an 7. have got 9. It´s twenty-five past three 14. an 16. 2. a 27. Those men aren´t teachers 5. How much milk have we got? / How many bottles of milk have we got? 7.? 8. Those are pictures 2.. 3. Have the students got a. Ex. The students haven´t got any experience. 2. an 8..an 4. How much free time have they got? Ex.7 F . It´s quarter to twelve 5. 1.2 E .. 3. 4.11 L . Are these envelopes? 4.. a 15. 3. 1.. 6.? 7. The house hasn´t got. 6... There are many textbooks. 2. They´ve got horses. a 9. 9. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15.? 2..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. Ex. It´s quarter past eight 21. We haven´t got a. There are yellow flowers.

Bl 46 .

+cons. For the time being. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ To cut /kat/ To stop /stop/ To swim /suim/ (sentarse) (cortar) (detener. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:ki#/ (hablando) eating /í:ti#/ (comiendo) working /wé:rki#/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. I´m living with my brother John. Escuche. lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. Escuche. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now.parar) (nadar) sitting /síti#/ (sentándose) cutting /káti#/ (cortando) stopping /stópi#/ (deteniendo. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado.Y.UNIT 4 PART I. I´m not living with my brother John A short course in english for adult students 47 . AT THE MOMENT /at !e móument/ (en este momento). FOR THE TIME BEING /for !e táim bí: i!/ (mientras tanto. en la actualidad). Mary is not working in Room 10 now. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. actualmente). /hé:rberts hævi# lántch at !e móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. /!éi a:r livi# in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. Hay tres grupos de verbos. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. /for !e táim bí:i# áim lívi# wi! mai brá!er dllón/ (Transitoriamente. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: to live /liv/ to write /ráit/ (vivir) (escribir) living /lívi#/ writing /ráiti#/ (viviendo) (escribiendo) Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos.. I am not living with my brother John. They´re not living in New York at present. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. + vocal + cons. Este sufijo se pronuncia /i#/ . They aren´t living in New York at present.transitoriamente).10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at !is táim/ (a esta hora). parando) swimming /suími#/ (nadando) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. /mériz wé:rki# in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of.

tocar/tocando (un instr. The children are playing soccer. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´ T / AREN´ T delante del sujeto. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseri#/ arriving /erráivi#/ asking /á:ski#/ asking for /á:ski# fo:r// buying /báii#/ closing /klóuzi#/ coming /kámi#/ cutting /káti#/ doing /dú:i#/ drinking /drí#ki#/ driving /dráivi#/ drying /dráii#/ eating /í:ti#/ finishing /fínishi#/ fixing /fíksi#/ giving /gívi#/ going /góui#/ helping /hélpi#/ inviting /inváiti#/ learning /lé:rni#/ leaving /lí:vi#/ listening to /lísni# tu/ living /livi#/ looking at /lúki# at/ making /méiki#/ opening /óupni#/ paying /péii#/ playing /pléii#/ putting /púti#/ reading /rí:di#/ receiving /risí:vi#/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando pedir/pidiendo.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo . lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. arreglar/arreglando. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. When. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo.. etc. IS. Escuche. ARE) con el sujeto. How. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. 1. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. Escuche.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. How often. Escuche. Where. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: i#/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex.

intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando (ropas) trabajar/trabajando. 2.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réini#/ running /ráni#/ saying /séii#/ selling /séli#/ sending /séndi#/ singing /sí#i#/ sitting /síti#/ sleeping /slí:pi#/ speaking /spí:ki#/ spending /spéndi#/ starting /stá:rti#/ staying /stéii#/ studying /stádii#/ taking /téiki#/ talking /tó:ki#/ telling /téli#/ thinking /"í#ki#/ travelling /træveli#/ trying to /tráii# tu/ waiting for /wéiti# fo:r/ walking /wó:ki#/ washing /wóshi#/ watching /wótchi#/ wearing /wéari#/ working /wé:rki#/ writing /ráiti#/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /géti# ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hævi# e ba:"/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /géti# drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hævi# brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góui# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráivi# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 .comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:di# létez/!e niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rki# in !i ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:ki# wi! fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:vi# !i ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:i# !e shópi#/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báii# !e péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchi# tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísni# tu !e niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráiti# tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóli# áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléii# kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:ki# tu !e pa:rk/ Running across the park /ráni# akrós !e pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:i# éksersaiz/ Working out /wérki# áut/ Visiting a museum /víziti# a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádii# for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshi# !e ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíini# !e háus/ Making the bed /méiki# !e béd/ Tidying up the room /táidii# áp !e rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúki# a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéari# sam drí#ks/ Going to bed /góui# tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of.pasar/pasando (tiempo) empezar/empezando. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando. Escuche.

You ___________________________ the exercises well now. There´s a man in the garden. John and his friends are watching TV. The students are writing a composition. There are several students in the gym. 11.I´m trying to open the window. Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) 10. (cut) 12. 5. 10. They´re living in Bristol at present. The dog´s drinking milk. 2. 1. (go) 3. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. 6. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. 3. 4. Why. They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. (work) 5. I´m singing because I´m happy. 4. 8. We´re making a lot of progress. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. 8. I´m helping John with the work 5. For the time being. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 12. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 11. Where. etc. The boy´s singing an English song. The students _________________________ to school now. 10. Mary´s eating an apple now. The girl´s washing the dishes. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. Mr. 1. He__________________________ the grass. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. Smith ____________________________ for the bus.They´re looking at the horses. Bill´s answering the phone. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . 3. (spend) 9. 5. (arrive) 7. 9. John´s having breakfast now. The cadet´s sleeping in class.Ex. (do) 8. (visit) 6. I´m answering a letter. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. 7. (wait) 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. It´s raining very hard now. The students are reading a story. 12. The children are watching TV 2. Complete the following sentences. Ask questions using questions word like What. 3. George is travelling by plane. Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) 11. 7. 6. The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. 4. 9. (listen) 2. You´re doing the exercise correctly.The men are running now.

I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. let´s go for a walk. of course! Robert : Well. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. He ____________ (sleep). he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. A short course in english for adult students 51 . And Jim´s in his room. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. he isn´t.Ex.then. too. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. you know. 3. He ____________ (study) for a test. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. And Betty´s in the kitchen.. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. No. 6. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep). Mary : Great! Let´s do that. I ___________ (go) there. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well.

The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mán"s/ in a year. o también. The date today is Wednesday. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on !e tuénti fíf" ov dllú:n/. "áuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. Los números ordinales son: 1st.PART II. I was born on August the fifteenth. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /man"/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi !e fé:rst ov méi tú. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi méi !e fé:rst tú. A. se usan para expresar fechas. o también. Jane´s birthday is on June the twenty-fifth /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on dllú:n !e tuénti fíf"/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /iléven"/ Twelfth /tuélf"/ Thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ Fourteenth /fortí:n"/ Fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ Sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ Seventeenth /seventí:n"/ Eighteenth /eití:n"/ Nineteenth /naintí:n"/ Twentieth /tuéntie"/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti "é:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:r"/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fíf"/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síks"/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti séven"/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éit"/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náin"/ Thirtieth /"értie"/ Thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . The months of the year are: January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on !e fiftí:n" ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /"é:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:r"/ 5th Fifth /fif"/ 6th Sixth /six"/ 7th Seventh /séven"/ 8th Eighth /éit"/ 9th Ninth /náin"/ 10th Tenth /tén"/ Escuche. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /"é:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. Spring /spri#/ Primavera. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. "áuzand tú:/. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. o también. Summer /sámer/ Verano. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on ó:gast !e fiftí:n" náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). May the first. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May.

2003 The twelfth of September.2000 6.1906 4. When is your birthday? 2.01. Answer the following questions: 1.1810 8. 08. 04. 2. 10.12. 05.1956 15. 18.1963 2. 05. 01. What´s the first month of the year? 11. How many hours are there in a day? 15.03. What are the seasons of the year? 7. How many days are there in a week? 6.1893 10.30. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth. 07. When was your father born? 3.EXERCISES Ex.07.03.1956 13. Write the following dates. 02.02.1938 3. When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .12.08. What day is today? 4. 10. What´s the third day of the week? 12. 12. What are the days of the week? 9. What´s the last month of the year? 13.09. 06.1999 11. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. When is New Year´s Day? 16. What´s your favo(u)rite season? 8. 12.1900 5.09.11.27.05. as in the examples: 1. 02. How many months are there in a year? 14.28.1978 9. What are the months of the year? 10. What´s the date today? 5. 1.1987 12.1492 14. 18.2001 7.

lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu ló#/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu fæst/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu "ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big.. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /le#"/ longitud width /wi"/ anchura thickness /"iknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /dep"/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura. viejo.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are.? /háu big?/ How well.. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.. altura size /saiz/ tamaño..) para describir objetos.? /háu wel/ How heavy. habrá advertido.. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /"ik/ grueso.... short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. 1.. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex. Iz /a:r. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were. light /láit/ claro 54 A short course in english for adult students .like?* /wot. How high is that hill? It´s about 1. long. shallow /shælou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto.70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km. round /ráund/ redondo. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz.200 mt. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm..láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. dark /da:rk/ oscuro. Nota importante: Como Ud.. new /niú:/ nuevo long /lo#/ largo.B. young /ya#/ joven old /ould/ viejo. oval /óuval/ ovalado light /láit/ liviano heavy /hévi/ pesado. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo.. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. thin /"in/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. square /skwear/ cuadrado. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. big /big/ grande huge /hiu:dll/ enorme tiny /táini/ diminuto. etc.

temporada año siglo 2. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS (Números ordinales) first /fé:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /"é:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:r"/ cuarto fifth /fif"/ quinto sixth /siks"/ sexto seventh /sévn"/ séptimo eighth /éit"/ octavo ninth /náin"/ noveno tenth /tén"/ décimo eleventh /ilévn"/ décimo primero twelfth /twelf"/ décimo segundo thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:n"/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:n"/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:n"/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:n"/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntie"/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fé:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /"é:rtie"/ trigésimo thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtie"/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftie"/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstie"/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntie"/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitie"/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintie"/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándre"/ centésimo one thousandth /wan "áuznd"/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílion"/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES (Tiempo y Fechas) 1.000. A short course in english for adult students 55 . UNITS OF TIME (Unidades de tiempo) second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ segundo minuto hora día semana month /mán"/ season /sí:zon/ year /íar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación.000.000 one thousand /wan "áuznd/ mil 1.000th 1.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS (Numerales) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Números cardinales) 1 one /wan/ uno dos 2 two /tu:/ 3 three /"ri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho nueve 9 nine /nain/ 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /"é:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /"é:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /"é:rti wán/ treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1. DAYS OF THE WEEK (Días de la semana) Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /"e:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ´te:rdi/ Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo Nota: En Inglés.

two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. DATES (Fechas) Today is Monday. SEASONS OF THE YEAR (Estaciones del año) summer /sámer/ verano autumn / fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ otoño 4.3. 2001 (the second of May. MONTHS OF THE YEAR (Meses del año) January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre winter /wínter/ spring /spri#/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . 2nd May.

.. The last month of the year is December 13.. 6. The fifth of May. 3.. August.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is .. 5.. / Are we making much. 1. are doing 8. Thursday. The eighteenth of July..The first month of the year is January 11. Spring. 4. September. eighteen ninety-three 11. Hans: are . June the third two thousand three Ex. The months of the year are January. November and December 10. Tuesday. / Is it raining.. He was born on.. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. are spending 9. / Are you doing the exercises. We aren´t making much. There are twelve months in a year 14. The cadet isn´t sleeping.. How´s George travelling? 7. The second of November. The seasons of the year are Winter. / Is the cadet sleeping. is waiting 4.? Ex. What are the students reading? 6.. 4.? 9.. New Year´s day is on the first of January. is coming 10. The students aren´t writing. April. Where are they living at present? 4. It isn´t raining. Why are you singing? 10.. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. August the twenty-seventh. March.studying / is doing Peter: is planning ...? 12. The twelfth of March.. is cutting 12.. What´s Mary eating now? 2. 2. October the twelfth. Friday.. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. What are John and his friends doing? 3.. 1. is arriving 7. / Is the boy singing. / Am I helping John. nineteen thirty-eight 3. 9.. 2. am listening 2.. The boy isn´t singing. / Are the students writing. nineteen oh six 4. 8.. nineteen hundred 5. The eighteenth of September. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15.. You aren´t doing the exercises. nineteen eighty-seven 12.. The tenth of August..3. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. Why isn´t he working? 8. 5. is working 5. What are the men doing now? 11. are speaking 11. 16.driving Bob: are fixing 2. The first of January.? 10. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth A short course in english for adult students 57 . fourteen ninety-two 14. 3... are visiting 6... 2.. What are you trying to do? 12. The fifth of December. 1. eighteen ten 8. The days of the week are Monday.. Today´s. July the second. two thousand one 7.? 7. Jane: is ... nineteen fifty-six 13. two thousand 6.. May. The date today is. July. Wednesday. It´s on. What are you doing? 5. Saturday and Sunday. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. 1. 1.. June.. What are they looking at? Ex.? 8.. February the twenty-eighth.going Hans : am going / are . There are seven days 6.. February. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4.? 5. nineteen seventy-eight 9. I´m not helping John.. is my favority season.. October. are working out Ex. 1. Summer and Autumn / Fall 7. nineteen fifty-six 15. are going 3.

Bl 58 .

Escuche. every morning /évri mó:ni#/ (todas las mañanas). como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). it). se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). You and I. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in !i í:vni#/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. /!éi ólwiz kám híar on sæ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. she. seldom / séldom/ (raramente). three times /"ri: táimz/ (tres veces). etc. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. -x. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. Los verbos have.changes /tchéindlliz/. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). el SUJETO (I. /wi: góu tu !e bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). -ch-. etc. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. /hi: spí:ks spæ´nish and í#glish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bien) The secretary answers the telephone. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). change /tchéindll/ . lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. -ce. /!e sán ráiziz in !i í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. The students. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . the boy. A short course in english for adult students 59 . sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). she.UNIT 5 PART I. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando.etc. watches /wótshiz/. lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. en forma habitual. persona del singular (he. /!e sékretri ánserz !e télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. -sh.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. /dllón tchéidlliz !e bátriz wáns e mán"/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. never /néver/ (nunca). many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces).studies. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). plays /pléiz/. You. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . En la forma afirmativa. goes /góuz/. /!e stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana) Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. /ai spí:k spænish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) ´ We go to the beach every summer. /!e bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * Bob washes the car on saturday. the telephone.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. a month /e mán"/ (al mes).rises /ráiziz/. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente). it.). /ai ófn sí: méri at !e kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. Cuando decimos. does /daz/. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). /bób wóshiz !e ka:r on sæ My wife watches TV in the evening. do. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega tenis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:ni#/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. etc.

Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday?. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning?. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). WHERE. beber. My wife watches TV in the morning. WHEN. Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month?. Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day.. HOW. Does the bus stop /dáz !e bás stóp/ here?. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót læ#guidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du !ei góu tu !e bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz !e bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll !e bæteriz évri mán"/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. divertirse). Escuche. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. The students play soccer every day. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´ T / DOESN´ T. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada?. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es). debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. My friends haven´t got a new car. Mary has got many friends in Canada. Do the students play /du !e stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day?. Escuche. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. comer. The bus stops here. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. o experimentar. The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. He speaks English well. se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones). etc.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada. Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car?. My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car. We have lunch at school every day. Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home?. Mary has many friends in Canada. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. Escuche. We go to the beach every summer. HOW MUCH. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well?.

TIME EXPRESSIONS (I) EXERCISES Ex.21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex. I watch TV after dinner You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri "é:rzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:ni#/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæte:rdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vni#/ Every morning /évri mó:ni#/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vni#/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mán"/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /"ri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mán"/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in !e sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in !i ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in !e wínter/ In the spring /in !e spri#/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 . Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 . I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. 2. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. 1.

They live near here. Myriam________________________the floor once or twice a week. 4. My wife and I often ___________________________ in that restaurant. The manager generally _______________ the office after 8:00 p. I study English every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. 2. We seldom ________________________ to the North in the summer. John _____________________ the newspaper on the train every day. (speak) 10. (have) 4. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d.m. and c) Wh-questions: 1. Peter _________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. (watch) Ex. Change the following sentences into a) negative. The students sometimes ______________________ rugby at school. Then translate them into Spanish. (play) 7. (arrive) 8. (wash) 9. (play) 6. (eat) 12. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. I never __________________________________Spanish at school. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. The children _____________________ at this time every morning. 3. I do the exercises well You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. (get up) 2. (leave) 11. I have dinner at work. b) interrogative. (go) 3. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk.c. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . The train ___________________ in London at 7:50 every morning. Mr Smith ______________________ TV after dinner every evening. I ____________________________breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (read) 5. (optional) 1. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses.

How much free time is there in an intensive course? _________________________________________________ 8. They play golf twice a week. We go to the club on Friday. 11. 12. They have two cars now. Ex. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? _________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. They have two cars. They go to the park on Sunday. 10. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. 9. Bob always drinks beer. 8. 6. etc. How many weeks are there in a year? _________________________________________________ 2. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. 7. Are there any trees in your garden? _________________________________________________ 5. She lives near Wimbledon.3. Peter does everything well. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. That man speaks German. What´s he doing? _________________________________________________ 3. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. Answer these questions in English: 1. 13. She usually sleeps six hours every night. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in class? _________________________________________________ 9. 1. 6. 10. They get up at 7:15 every morning. They need twenty dollars. Peter watches TV every night. 2. What are they doing? _________________________________________________ 6. WHEN. 3. 4. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. 5. They work out every morning. Ex. The children are in the park. 9. Bob is in the office. They come here twice a week. Mary comes to work by bus. The students need more practice. HOW. WHERE. 14. How many legs has a dog got? _________________________________________________ 4. What do you do after dinner every evening? _________________________________________________ 7. 7. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 8. 5. 6. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 63 .

A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. (work) 8. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. Look at that man. 7. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. 5. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). (come) 6. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. 2. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun.m. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. 6. (leave) 3. 5. 2. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. Ex.Ex. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. He must be a police officer. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. Ex. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. Who can it be? (play) 17. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. 3. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. 4. You must always speak to him in English. (watch) 4. 6. I don’t understand this sentence. 4. A: What __________________________________? (you / do) B: I’m an electrical engineer. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. 7. We_______ just ____________ TV. For the time being. every day. Rice ___________________________________ in Britain. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. He ___________________________ a green uniform. (begin) 12. (come) 7. 3. Hello. 4. (work) 2. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. 8. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. 8. Mr. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. Put the verb into the correct form. (do / watch) 14. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. 7. I never ___________________________ coffee. (go) 5. 9. (not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (banks / close) A: Where __________________________________from? (Martin / come) B: He’s Scottish. 3. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. 10. Bees __________________________________ honey. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. 2. (understand) 16. (open / close) 13. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. 6. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. 9. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. 1. 5. Look! John __________________________ over there.

Mrs. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. (Rain. not) ___________________________________ it. (Rain. Mrs. 1. It´s 7 o´clock now.Ex. Arabic is his native language. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. or (walk. (Take. 4. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. but the children (watch. it). They (play) ____________________________ with their toys instead. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. I usually (sit) _______________________ at the same desk in class every day. They (like. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. It´s 7:30 a. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. but this morning they (pay. not) __________________________ TV either. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. Our teacher (stand. Black´s at home. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen.m. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. 10. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. It (rain. Alice (take. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. 6. She always (eat) ______________________ dinner with her family around six o´clock. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. 11. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. 3. There´s a cartoon on TV now. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . Look out of the window. not) __________________right now. 7. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. 2. 5. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . not) _____________________up right now. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV.

PART II.
A. QUESTION WORDS. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words
ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where...from?* /wéar ..from/ Where...to?* /wéar .. tu/ Who...with?* /hu:...wi$/ Who...about?* /hu: .. abáut/ Who...for?* /hu:.. for/ What...for?* /wot...for/ What...with?* /wot...wi$/ What... about?* /wot...abáut/ What...at?* /wot...at/ What do /does...look like?
/wót du /daz...lúk láik/

SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son...? (Descripción de personas - físico)

EXAMPLE What is that? ; What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?; What´s your opinion? Who is that man?; Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin.

Nota:

Muy a menudo, las preguntas que comienzan con PREPOSICIÓN + WHOM / WHAT / WHERE, normalmente trasladan la preposición al final. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?; About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?; With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición, whom vuelve a ser who)

Ex. 1. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. 2. They need twenty-five dollars. 3. Ann likes apples, oranges and pears 4. We go to the South in the summer. 5. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning. 6. My friends come from San Diego, California 7. Jack visits his parents twice a month. 8. The boys usually talk about football. 9. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes 10. It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. 11. I go there three times a week. 12. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. 13. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14. They look at the stars with the telescope. 15. We take photographs with a camera. 16. I like Mary because she´s very friendly.
66
A short course in english for adult students

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

17. 18. 19. 20.

Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. Ann writes detective stories. The students go to the gym after lunch. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired.

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ?

B. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales, es decir, se traduce como el, la, los y las . El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. The books which I want are on the table. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún artículo con los suntantivos incontables (water, milk, money, experience, happiness, etc) o sustantivos plurales (books, cats, students, people, men, etc.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. Gold is an important metal. Books are expensive in Chile. Girls work harder than boys. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. The gold in this ring is of good quality. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard.

Ex. 1. Supply the definite article (the), where necessary, in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. (Fresh air is good for the health). 1. ______________ air in this room is not good. 2. ______________ history is an interesting subject. 3. We are studying ______________history of France. 4. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. 5. ______________ light in this room is not good. 6. I always drink ________________water with my meals. 7. ______________ water in this glass is dirty. 8. ______________ leather in these shoes is very good. 9. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. 10.We all need _______________fresh air. 11. ______________ air in large cities is not very fresh. 12. We like _________ animals. 13. ______________ animals in that photograph are wild animals. 14. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. 15. ______________ fish in the refrigerator is fresh. 16. ______________ children like to watch cartoons. 17.Do you sell ____________ stamps here?
A short course in english for adult students

67

18.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. 20.Mr.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. C. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona, animal o cosa estamos hablando, debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. En inglés, el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas, mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH.. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. This is the book which we use in class. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 2. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. This is the book we use in class.

3. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man who is in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. Ex. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. 2. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. 3. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. 4. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? 5. Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? 6. The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 7. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. 8. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. 9. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? 10. The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. 11. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. 12. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? 13. Are these the envelopes __________________you need? 14. The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. 15. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. 16. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? 17. The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. 18. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? 19. Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? 20. That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. (I would like = me gustaría) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman crossing the road is my wife. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars imported from Japan are really good. The men trained at our school are good pilots.

68

A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 2. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 3, Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 1, omitting the relative pronoun WHICH, or the word groups WHO IS/ ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible, as in the example: 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 1. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. Smith. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

69

5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________

70

A short course in english for adult students

BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words
CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllæket/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarri#/ sunglasses /sanglá.siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro, arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stóki#z/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fí#ger ri#/ parka /pá:rka /, anorak /ænorak/ leather jacket /lé!er dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar

A short course in english for adult students

71

72 A short course in english for adult students .

? Do they work here.. Ann doesn´t watch TV..... /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 . You have dinner at work. Bill doesn´t watch TV.. /Do they live .. Bill doesn´t go to the movies........ /Does that man speak...... Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every.? Do we study English.have 4. They don´t work here. Bill doesn´t work here.?/ When do they work out? 7. They study English... You don´t go to the movies..? Do we watch TV.?/ What time does the bus leave? 5. Bill goes to the movies...? Does Ann study English. They go to the movies. We don´t watch TV.... They don´t study English.? Does Bill work here.. They don´t watch TV. Mary doesn´t like..? Does Ann go to the movies. We don´t do the exercises. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis.........? Do we go to the movies. /Does Peter watch..... Bill doesn´t study English.. Bob doesn´t always drink.. 2. Ann doesn´t play tennis... We don´t study English.get up 2.. You don´t watch TV..? Does Ann play tennis...?/ What does Bob always drink? 8.... We don´t play tennis. They play tennis..... They don´t play tennis...? Do they go to the movies./ What does Mary like to drink? 2.. Ann goes to the movies...arrives 8....? Do they play tennis.....KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex.. You don´t study English.. 1.? Do you study English.. They don´t live..watches Ex...? Do we play tennis.. You study English every day Bill studies English. They have dinner at work.. Ann plays tennis......? Do you play tennis.. 3. Bill doesn´t play tennis.. Ann studies English.....?/ What does Peter do every night? 4... Bill doesn´t do the exercises.. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here....? Does Bill watch TV. Interrogative Do you work here...? Do they study English..? Do you watch TV...? Does Bill go to the movies..? What language does that man speak? 6...go 3..?/ Where do they live? 3. We don´t work here....reads 5. Bill doesn´t have dinner. Ann doesn´t work here.. They don´t work out...... We study English...? Does Bill play tennis.eat 12.. They don´t go to the movies.. /Does Mary like. You don´t do the exercises.play 6...washes 9. Ann doesn´t go to the movies. We go to the movies. They don´t have dinner.... You don´t have dinner.? Does Bill study English. We have dinner at work. /Does the bus leave. That man doesn´t speak........ /Does Bob always drink...... The bus doesn´t leave..... Ann doesn´t have dinner... We don´t go to the movies....? Do you go to the movies... They don´t have... Bill has dinner at work..? Do they watch TV. Ann has dinner at work.? Does Ann watch TV.. You don´t play tennis. We don´t have dinner.. /Do they work out. 4.. 1.. We play tennis.? Do we work here............plays 7.speak 10..........? Does Ann work here...? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex..leaves 11. They don´t do the exercises... Ann doesn´t study English...... Ann doesn´t do the exercises. Peter doesn´t watch.....

That is exactly the car which I would like to have. He hardly ever/never uses it. The stamps . fresh air 11.they have. does-understand 16. causes 5. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. is playing 17. How does Mary come to work? 7. Where do the students go after lunch? 20.closes 4.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. animals 13. meat 15. When does Bob go to bed early? B. 74 A short course in english for adult students .. Is it raining 9. is beginning 12. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. There are fifty-two weeks in a year.coins 19. is eating/eats 6. What does Susan look like? 2. 9. 1. 11. isdoing 11. is wearing Ex. /Do they come. doesn´t grow 3. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. go 5. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. comes 7. 1. 10. Where do your friends come from? 7. How often do you go there? 12. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. take place Ex. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. drink 3. there are some trees/No. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. play . leather 10. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. are-studying 19. 1.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. doesn´t believe 7. 1. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. flows Ex. A. 8. 1. make 5. What do they do on Sunday? 9. Where does she live? 2. doesn´t drink 2. is working 8. 1. I usually spend my summer vacation in. 1.. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. are-doing 15.. does this word mean? Ex. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/ she is sick Ex. do you do 5. The light 6. 16. Why do you like Mary? 17. 6. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. 15. Ex. 1. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. is not raining / is shining / is 7. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. am sitting/sit 3. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. do-get 20.. does Martin come 4. leaves 3. History 3. 2. The animals 14. John is the student who speaks English well. Ex. speaks 2. How much money do they need? 11. there aren´t any trees 5. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. How many cars do they have now? 12. is sleeping/sleeps 2. are-doing/are-watching 14. 9. do-like 18. English books / The magazines C. 1. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. translates 8. How often do they play golf? 3.. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. are-living 9. When do you go to the club? 8. stamps 18. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. 1. stamps .don´t play 7. 7. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. live 6. The book which I want is on the table 3. opens-closes 13. 1. is working 2. 10. do the banks close 3.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. takes/does it take 6. rises 4..The men who are working in that room are engineers. The water 8. speaks/is speaking 4. 7. There is very little free time 8. 8.. How long does it take you to get there? 11. is not standing/is sitting 5. good light 5.. do-go 10. What do the students need? 5. How much money do they need? 3. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. Does it rain 8. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. They don´t come. Where does John go in the summer? 6. 5. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. The leather 9.. The fish 16. don´t eat 6. Peter doesn´t do.. 12. goes 2. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. Yes. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11..water 7. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. Where do you go in the summer? 5. Ex. is watching 4. the history 4.the coins 20. What do you take photographs with? 16. The air 2. doesn´t tell 9. 1. The air 12. Children 17. opens . It´s got four legs 4. /Does Peter do. They´re playing /running/ etc. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. 6. 1. He´s working 3.. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. is coming 6.

El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. usa todos los días? 19. necesita? 14. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. 12. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. 2. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. 4. 16. That is exactly the car I would like to have. The people described in the story are very interesting.Ex. The book I want is on the table 3. The books which are on that chair are mine. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. 15. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. The girl with him is his sister 2. 15. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. Ex. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener. 2. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. John is the student who speaks English well. 10. 8. 1. 3. The man driving the car is my father 4. 12. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. 16. 3.The men working in that room are engineers. 1. ¿Es este el diario que ud. Ex. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. 8. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. lee todos los días? 13. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. 5. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 1. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. ¿Es este el computador que ud. ¿Es el Sr.The people who are working in that office are engineers. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros.18.

Bl 76 .

Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning.. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). /méri didnt klí:n.bought . aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year”. To clean . a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year.worked . To need. Los verbos terminados en -t.stopped . We worked hard that day. They saw a good film yesterday.saw . 2./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche). pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”. En los Ejemplos 1.... decided /disáidid/. Escuche.... como last week (la semana pasada). To come . /!éi dídnt sí:.. Escuche. -d. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado. como two days ago (hace dos días). al igual que en la forma negativa. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado).-de. Peter came here three days ago.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. To work . /!éi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4.. tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). To decide también agregan -ed/-d./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd !at déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. To stop .. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. A menudo. To see . the day before yesterday (anteayer)./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n. 1810).2. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado. completed /komplí:tid/.. on September 18th. /pí:ter didnt kám.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). last year (el año pasado).. /ai dídnt bái. en la conversación diaria. /pí:ter kéim híar "rí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. o una hora o fecha pasada. To complete. va en INFINITIVO.. last night (anoche)../ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám.. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). lea y aprenda: (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 1. También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. como To want. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/../ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago.cleaned .came . 3.bought.come. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t !e ká:r lá:st íar/ 2./ We didn´t work hard that day.UNIT 6 PART I.To buy .etc.worked 6. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (no el pasado) de un verbo principal. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /!ei stópt tó:ki# wen !e tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó) Como ud. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: To stop .. Escuche.seen./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd !éi sí:. -te. como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). /méri klí:nd !e háus iésterdi mó:rni#/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana) 5.. 5. that day (ese día). Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). needed /ní:did/.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. / A short course in english for adult students 77 . 4. /wí: dídnt wé:rk.cleaned.

./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n.. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.?) EXERCISES: Ex. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar.. arreglar repetir solicitar. responder llegar preguntar... lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái.. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. desear invitar escuchar ubicar./ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd !éi sí:./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT. no gustar ayudar esperar./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám.. 1. atender . esforzarse usar. WHERE./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk.. HOW.. WHEN. utilizar visitar esperar.. localizar mirar amar.../ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái. pedir fumar comenzar. gustar terminar odiar.. partir quedarse. pedir transportar. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche../ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dú:/ (¿Qué hizo ud. etc../ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám...

mantener saber. funcionar Ex. narrar. comer. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. creer brillar entender. dejar prestar perder. fabricar reunirse. colocar leer correr. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. saber. llevar enseñar contar. 2. mirar desear trabajar. conocer pagar poner. administrar (un negocio) decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. salir. Study the Past Tense form of the following irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. conocer aprender. decir pensar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . encontrar olvidar conseguir. servirse oir guardar.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. obtener. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. enterarse partir. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. extraviar hacer.

10. I write to Mary every week-end. They bought the car in Paris. I give the boy a present every year. 3. 7. I sleep well every night. They go to Europe every year. 4. 6. 9. 14. 15. 8. We had dinner at the Club. 11. 16. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. Peter came here yesterday. 4. 18. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. I wanted to drink tea. We went to work by bus. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. We have a test every week. We watch TV every night. They studied English in London. Father tells the boy a story every night.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. 3. 6. They saw the car accident. 3. 5. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. Bob washes the car every Saturday. They eat fish every Friday. The postman brings a letter every Monday. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 4.000 dollars. Mary visits her parents every month. 5. 10. 7. 8. __________________________________________ last week. 19. The boy did the exercise well. 9. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. 2. 2. 17. desgastar escribir Ex. They receive a letter every week. 13. It rains a lot here every winter. The boy reads a book every month. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 12. They sell lots of books every year. We enjoy our vacation every summer. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John sold his house for 120. 20. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . Peter comes here every week. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday.

Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. 5. 9. Bill spent one hundred dollars. How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ 4. Bob did the same exercise three times. what did you watch? _________________________________________________ 7. 8. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. 1. 10. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No.Ex. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. Did Mr. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. HOW OFTEN. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. He didn´t go because he was tired. When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ 3. 4. HOW MUCH. 2. etc. HOW. They came here by taxi. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. 5. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. He went to the doctor because he was ill. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. Peter saw the film last week. WHERE. WHEN. I didn´t (go by bus). I went by taxi. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 6 Did you watch TV last night? If so. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. What did you eat for dinner last night?. What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ 5. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. 7. 7. The children got up at 6:30 3. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. The boy wanted to play. What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. In each case. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. 6. 6. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. He went to the zoo yesterday. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6.

Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18.16. Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students .

(He doesn´t work there now) Mr. (not.. I rode the subway to work. (not. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /!ei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. (Jim no trabajaba mucho en el colegio. Bill helped me with my homework.. Scott smoked cigars... (not. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much.. Scott used to smoke cigars. He no longer loves her now. anymore. Peter was a good student. Explain the change in meaning. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas). (not. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) 1. (not. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos.... not. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. Ann came to class on time every day. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal). (not. We exported shoes to the USA.. Uncle Paul lived in that house. (not. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not.. Mr. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. EXERCISES Ex 1. Bob used to love ama). now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. (not.. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young... any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. John Kerry went to that school. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5.. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano). now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Mother played the piano well... (Bob la amaba mucho. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9.PART II. Escuche.. ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 83 . as in the examples Bob used to work in the car factory. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school.. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ Bob worked in the car factory. I don´t play well now. Equivale a la terminación -aba o -ía del español. Mary spoke Italian at home. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? (¿Dónde pasabas tus vacaciones de verano cuando eras joven?). anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway.

Escuche. Smith´s house is very big. Jones take ___________ children to the park on Sunday. 6. de ud. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /!éar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. Escuche. EXERCISES Ex. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. 4. That is the car of my brother. This is our house (nuestra casa). salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. 3. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. They went back to ___________ seats and began to write. Escuche. I walk to ___________ chair 2. The teacher writes with ___________ pen. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. 8. We moved to ___________ new house last month. (mi libro) The book is mine. .(su auto).. Mrs. Clark goes to ___________ office every day 5. A. es decir. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. The books of the students are new. You walk to ___________ school every morning. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /!éi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. The house of Mr Smith is very big. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. 1. (mío) Mary bought this car last year. This is John´s book. (de ella) We´ve got a house. This is my parents´ house. Mr and Mrs. agregando un APÓSTROFE + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. Mr. This is the house of my parents. 7. 1. His /hiz/= suyo. The car is hers.PART III. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. John walks to___________ desk. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). This is my book. The house is ours. That´s my brother´s car. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y a un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. The students´ books are new. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /!éarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. It is her car.

the cat is _______________. the pen is _______________.9. This is the book of John. Ex. 9. 4. 8. These are their newspapers. The desk of the teacher is new. 5. Is this your pencil? 10. John has a dog. My brother drives ______ car every day. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. Smith is very large. The house of my friends is beautiful. 4. This is her room. the pen is _______________. This is my notebook. Helen and Mary have two English books. These are Peter´s cigarettes. the dog and the cat are _______________. This book is mine. 8. 6. 7. That’s the home of my teacher. Mary has a new pen. He’s also the teacher of my friend. These are our seats. 3. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. the dog is mine . He’s the teacher of Helen. We have two English books. 5. 11. ____________________________________________________ This room ___________________________________________ This office ___________________________________________ He took his book and left _____________________________ These newspapers ___________________________________ These ______________________________________________ That ________________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Is this_____________________________________________ ? or Is this coat ________________________________________ ? These ______________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Ex. He took his book and left my book. This is the notebook of William. 4.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. A short course in english for adult students 85 . Mr. 10. 10. 7. I have a dog. the English books are _______________. 3. This is the pen of Helen. 9. Change the underlined words into the Possessive form. Helen has a cat. 2. 5. This is the teacher’s desk. 10. This is the wife of Mr Smith. I have a dog and a cat. This is John’s office. You have a pen. 12. The dog wags ______ tail. the car is _______________. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 8. 4. The office of Mr. That is the room of the teachers. 3.2 . That is Helen’s notebook. the English books are _______________. What´s the name of that man? 14.. 7. 9. 13. 12. 2. This is my book. 6. the dog and the cat are _______________. 2. 6. the dog is _______________. The friend of my sister is very sick. 3. Is this your coat or her coat? 11. as in the example: 1. You have a dog and a cat. Jones has a new car.

When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). The teacher likes Mary and William.B. 5. I know William and his wife very well. Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un DIRECT OBJECT (complemento directo) o a un INDIRECT OBJECT (complemento indirecto) y. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. When did she send the letters? (last Monday) 5. 9. When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) 10. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. Is this letter for Mr. William studies the book 3. her. When did she spend the money. John likes Mary. you. 1. James goes with John and Alice to the club. When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) 6. them) instead of the underlined word or words: 1. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. 6. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . it. They are talking about the accident. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) 2. Bob studies his book every day. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. EXERCISES Ex. 13. Substitute the correct pronoun for the underlined word or words: 1. 7. us. por lo tanto. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) 7. 12. When did he invite you? (last month) 11. (last summer) 9. She speaks with John. I like this song very much. 10. 8. I understand the teacher very well. him. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /!ei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /!em/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración. 4. 11. When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) 8. Use object pronouns (me. When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) 3. 2. 14. When did they eat the apples? (this morning) 12. 2.

BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (Profesiones y oficios) actor actor /æktor/ actress /æktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barbero. peluquero barber /bá:rber/ butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. boticario clergyman /kle ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. cura corredor de propiedades corredor de propiedades recepcionista vendedor (de tienda) secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dréser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllænitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dlló:rnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ abogado manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póusman/ priest /pri:st/ real state agent /rial steil éidllent/ realtor /riáltor/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretari/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /sí#ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /tekníshan/ teacher /tí:tcher/ telephonist /teléfonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wótchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. sacerdote clerk /kle´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero inspector (trenes) conductor /kondáktor/ doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer.

88 A short course in english for adult students .

How much money did Bill spend? 10. I ate.. / Did John sell his.. 13. / Did we go to. 5. 1.. 5. 3.. They didn´t study.. No. We didn´t go to. 10..your. No. 16.. 5.. she didn´t (wear a short skirt). I saw her yesterday.. No. 17. No. 3. I didn´t (eat fish). He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. Peter came here. We didn´t have dinner. No. It rained a lot. they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 2. 1. 1.. A. I did.? / Where did we have dinner? 9. No.. he didn´t (feel weel) . No. / Did they see the. 11. 1. 5.... The teacher´s desk is new. No. This is Mr Smith´s wife. The boy didn´t do the..their 6. I wrote to.. We used to export shoes to the USA... Ann used to come to class on time every day. What did the boy want to do? 7... John Kerry used to go to that school.. 18.? / What did I want to drink? 4. he didn´t (break his arm).. That´s my teacher´s home 5. 4.. I didn´t. (didn´t = did not) 1.? / When did Peter come here? 3.? / How did we go to work? 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home... She left late.? / What did they see? 5. he didn´t (write a poem). they didn´t (drink beer) . Peter drove to. 8. 2. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. I ate chicken. No. Peter used to be a good student.... Why didn´t he go? 8. / Where did they study English? Ex.) 3. / Did the boy do the. She doesn´t play it well now 8... 6. he didn´t (say “yes”)... I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 20.. No.. she didn´t (buy a dress)..? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. He doesn´t go to that school now 10.. They drank wine. Father told the. Mary visited her. 7. 18.his / her 7. 7. I didn´t want to drink...his 3. That´s the teachers´ room.. she didn’t (leave early)... 9. When did Peter see the film? 5.. They went to . I slept well.. 6. Ex. 13. Part II Ex..? / How much did John sell his house for? 6. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. We had a. He no longer is a good student 5. / Did we have dinner. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. I didn´t (see her last week). Bill used to help me with my homework.. 1.They didn´t buy the. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday anymore 7. 19. / in. He broke his leg.. 20. (open answers) 1.. John didn´t sell his.. / Did they study. He / she told me to. he didn´t (come in the morning). 10. 14. & 2.. He stayed at home. 4.. He came at midday.3. She wore a long one. / No. She sent me a letter. they didn´t (watch TV).. No.. Mother made an.. 7.. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6... 11.his Ex.? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. I watched.our 8. / Did Peter come. He felt weak and tired..her 5. No. / Did they buy the.... 12. What are those men´s names? A short course in english for adult students 89 . he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. We no longer export shoes to the USA.. 19.. I gave him some money. / Did we write the.its 10.. They ate fish. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9.. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. I bought the.. 1. He wrote a short story.. Mother used to play the piano well.. 3. 8. He spoke to me in French. Study List of Regular and Irregular Verbs Ex.my 2. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . They didn´t see the. Where did he go yesterday? 2. What´s that man´s name? 14. Peter didn´t come. 6. I read it in French. 14. I began to study English (. 2. They received a. I went to.. 1. I got up at. Part III. No.. At what time did the children get up? 3.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 6 Part I Ex... 2. I didn´t (give him an apple) . Yes. They sold lots of. He doesn´t live there now 2. It took me about.. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. We didn´t write the. Why did he go to the doctor? 4.4. / Did I want to drink. ago / last. We watched TV. I used to ride the subway to work.. Ex. He´s Helen´s teacher 9... I didn´t (read it in English). Ex. The boy read / red / a.. The postman brought a. 2. We enjoyed our..? / Where did they buy the car? 7. 12.17... This is William´s notebook 8... No. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4.. No. 4. They listened to the radio... No.. he didn´t (go out). How did they come here? 6.. 6.. He said “No” 7..13.. he didn´t ( speak to me in english) .. No. I gave the. She bought a jacket. 15. Bob washed the.. 9. This is Helen´s pen. 11. 16.. No. 15. 1.... 4. 4..their 9. No..

1. 3. 5. This room is hers. us 13. 2. That notebook is Helen´s.his 6. 2. it 7. She sent them last Monday 5. it 9. They ate them this morning. 6. He invited me last month. him 4. it 3. 9. He took his book and left mine. She met him last Friday morning.mine 2. her 2. 7. I visited them last weekend. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. 8.hers 7. them 12. 1. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 12. us 8. 2. 90 A short course in english for adult students . This office is John´s 4. them 6.ours 8. 10.Ex. She spent it last summer. This desk is the teacher´s. 12. 4. 3. I bought it 5 years ago. 9. Ex. He got it a long time ago. 8. him / her 5. These seats are ours. Ex. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. I spoke to him yesterday morning. Is this pencil yours? 10. 4. 7. her 11. 11.hers 4.yours 5. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 1. This notebook is mine. Ex. it 14.mine 10. These newspapers are theirs.yours B. him or her?. them 10.his 3.theirs 9.

./ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: víziti#./ A short course in english for adult students 91 . como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók !is mó:ni#/.. /ai wóznt dráivi#. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/.. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado..... /ái woz slí:pi# wen ! télifoun ræ# la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /ai woz dráivi# tu !i éarpo:rt at ten oklók !is mó:ni#/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday./ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:pi#.. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado.. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´ T /wóznt/ o WEREN´ T /wé:rent/: Lea./ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hævi# lántch. /dei wé:rent pléii#..... /wí: we:r hævi# lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/. etc./ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r !éi pléii#. escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/.... /wi: wé:rent hævi# lántch./ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday.. / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´ T/WEREN´ T) Lea. /ai wóznt sli:pi#. /!éi we:r pléi# fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráivi#..UNIT 7 PART 1. escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning./ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night.. Lea.. /hi: wóznt víziti#. o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal./ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz víziti# hiz péarents in ditróit on !e fif" ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night./ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday.

. The men were going to work. 7.. Ask questions using question words like WHO. 3. When we got to the station. (have dinner) 11.. The children were watching TV. (camp) 8.. (read) 3. ___________________________________________________ 4.?) EXERCISES Ex. etc. At that time. the underlined part must be the answer to your question. Jenkins entered the room. 1. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. WHY. (walk) Ex. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation... I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ___________________________________________________ 3. (leave) 10. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. b) interrogative form : 1. The boys were studying for a test. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and.. Mrs.. escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:di#.? /wót we:r iú: dú:i#. 2.. We were running down the road. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning.. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea. The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. (play) 4. 3. (live) 9../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rki#. Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. 2./ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt !ei hævi# lántch. WHAT. WHERE. everyone _________________________to go to work. HOW./ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing.. (shine) 2. I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. Alice was making the beds. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Bill _________________________the report when Mr. (get ready) 6. In each case. The generals were working in the conference room./ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r !ei pléii# fútbol. Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. We ________________________near the river that evening.. ______________________________________________ 92 A short course in english for adult students . 1. They were walking in the park at midday. (drive) 7. WHERE. We ________________________when the lights went out last night. etc. 6. (do) 12../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. the train ________________________ . The soldiers were doing exercise 4. ___________________________________________________ 5. We ________________________the road when the accident happened.. She was having a bath. 5.En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como WHAT. (cross) 5.

He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work.drive) 9. 3. (sleep. When the war broke out. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. they were living in the north of France. todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. Give complete answers. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. I ___________________________ very well last night.. ___________________________________________________ 9.ride) A short course in english for adult students 93 .. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only.begin) 6. (work.. Mr. Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. 9. 7.. (go. ___________________________________________________ 8. __________________________________________ 10.. (have. When John ______________________ us last night.. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home.see) 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 8. (work.. Answer the following questions in English. We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. we ____________________________ ( call on.. 5. (read._________________________________________________ 7. 1. (sleep) 2. _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué. 2... 5. (play. 6.become) 12. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started.. They _______________________ to the office when I ___________________________them this morning.... _______________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . Mrs. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense.. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 11. 4. More than ten people were standing outside the building.6. Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. 1.. 6. 4. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired.have dinner) 8. I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) 10.arrive) 3. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. live) 5.walk) 7.

6. please. You have another cup of coffee. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 7. 1. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 8. 1. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. 2. please 6. please EXERCISES Ex. You spell your first name. Drive fast please. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. 4. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. Say that again. Come again this afternoon. 5. Take a taxi. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. Work slowly please. 8. 10. 5. 3. Eat my bread and butter. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. A. /pli:z óupn !e wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. You write your answer on the whiteboard. You eat more slowly. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. 9. 2. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. 7. 10. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. please. You listen to the story carefully. please Don´t speak so slowly please. 4. don´t open the window Don´t speak so fast. 2. You fill up the tank. You study hard every day. 9. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche Por favor. You drink milk every morning. (you) open the window. Give Mary my new address. por favor (so /sou/= tan) Ex.PART II. Look at the map. please 3. You call me up after 9 o´clock. please. Drink black coffee. esta implícito en la orden). Listen to him please. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. Work hard. You come here tomorrow morning. (so /sou/= tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students .

cuando éstos son usados como nombres propios.) 2. Prof. Cpt. Gen.. Supply the definite article THE. 4. Johnson ordered Sgt.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adjetivo+Sustantivo (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal).They´ve climbed Mount Everest. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. Sgt. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. No se usa THE delante de los nombres de continentes. The New York City subways go very fast... cordilleras. países. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. Lady. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. __________ United States..) EXERCISES Ex. mares. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday.. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor.. 9. Senator. 5. Sir. Smith to send the message right away. (adj.) o grados (Gen. ciudades. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. 1. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas.. (adj. Mrs. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. __________ China. 3.Ms. continentes. canales. volcanes. 8. President. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido THE delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. Escuche. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. He lives on Fifth Avenue. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. They are coming back from China. Miss. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. A short course in english for adult students 95 . Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido THE. 6.B..) Santiago is the capital of Chile. etc. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. 10. montes. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. etc. estados. where necessary: 1. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Council. lea y compare New York is a large city. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. Dr.. calles.etc. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. 7. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean.

Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 11. 7. 2. 7. __________ London School of Economics is very famous. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 1. 11. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. C. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 2. 4. where needed: 1. 8. _________ English language is easy.11. 14 15. Ex. 9. __________. in __________ Utah. __________ Broadway buses are slow. 8. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 6. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. 9. 3. 13. 10. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. __________ Mexican climate is warm. 10. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. (He lives in Mexico. 4. / adv.) 2. 96 A short course in english for adult students . (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. We walked along __________ Broadway. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (La forma exclamativa) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. 6. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. 12. __________ Europe is a large continent. 12. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. He lives in __________ Mexico. 5. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles. 3. __________ England is a small country. 5.

_____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. 2.. Make exclamations using What a(n). This whisky is very good 10. ______________________ hot it is today! 6.. 4.. I was a very stupid person.!.!. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1.. John is a very intelligent person. They are very beautiful women. ______________________ well she swims! 5. The movie was very exciting.. 5. as in the examples Peter is a very tall man 1. 9. b) WHAT. as indicated: 1. These photographs are very beautiful 11. a) What a tall man Peter is! b) How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. It is a beautiful day.. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. 12. This music is very romantic. What. 14. New York is a fascinating city... 3.! or c) WHAT A(N). 3.!. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. 3.. This trip is very interesting. This is a very incredible story. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13. WHAT. She is an excellent pianist. 4. 2. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. Mary is a very friendly person 13..!. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8.Ex. 8.. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. These shoes are very expensive. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using a) HOW. 7. or How. She plays the piano well.!. Supply HOW. 6. These exercises are very difficult. He runs very fast. 2.. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! A short course in english for adult students 97 . 4. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. ______________________ pretty girl! 2.

13. She plays the violin beautifully. It´s a cold day today. Bob acted very foolishly. He is a handsome fellow. 8. Grandfather told us a sad story. 10. It was very cold last night. We were very tired after the walk. 9. It was a very fast train. 6. 18. She is very pretty. 16.5. He is a very tall man. Ann was a generous woman. She is wearing a beautiful dress. 12. 15. It is very cold today. You have a beautiful new car. 7. 17. 14. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! 98 A short course in english for adult students . 11.

reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /!e bédrum/ (El dormitorio) alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæ#kit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.quinta detached house /ditætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov !e háus/ (Partes de la casa) ceiling /síli#/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændi#/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana farm house /fá./ terrace house /térris háus/ villa /víla/ casa de campo departamento (UK) casa choza.c.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.. cabaña casa pareada casa en hilera casa de veraneo c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov !e háus/ (Piezas de la casa) attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:"rum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáini#rum / kitchen /kítchen/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega (vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /síti#rum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (UK) despensa living estudio baño.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE (La casa) a) Housing /háusi#/ (Vivienda) departamento (USA) apartment /apa:rment/ apartment building /apá:rment bíldi#/ edificio de dptos. excusado. d) The Sitting-room /!e síti#rum/ (El living) arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:rpit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /ké:rtenz/ fireplace /fáiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (UK) reproductor de CD silla loza fina. (UK) bungalow /bá#galou/ bungalow condominio condominium /kondomínium/ cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo.w.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi..cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero A short course in english for adult students 99 .

f) The Kitchen /!e kítchin/ (La cocina) broom /brú:m/ escoba can opener /kæn óupner/ abrelatas (USA) cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /kó:rkskru:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza aparador cupboard /kábord/ cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora refrigerador fridge /frídll/ frying pan /fráii# pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro-ondas g) The Bathroom /!e bá:"rum/ (La sala de baño) bath tub /bá:" tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /mírror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar shaving brush /shéivi#brash/ shaving cream /shéivi# krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /tú"brash/ tooth paste /tú:"péist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (UK) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos mixer /míkser/ máquina licuadora napkin /næpkin/ servilleta oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refrídllereitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (UK) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /si#k/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spu:n/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (UK) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshi# mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa h) The Studio /!e stúdiou/ (La sala de estudio) book shelf /búk shélf/ bookcase /búk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiú:ter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /désk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáili# kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ (El exterior) fence /fens/ garage /gæri:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:"/ sendero swimming pool /suími# pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .

.doing 11. (in December last year)... 2. 2.? Ex.the Persian Gulf. The men weren´t going. were having dinner 11. was sleeping / arrived. / Were we running. / Was Alice making.Berlin 9. When I arrived. Salt Lake City...? 2.. the Suez Canal 12.Madison Avenue. 4. please. met / was living 5.? 3. / Were the boys studying.The United States... Drink milk every morning. Study hard every day... please. did . Ex... Don´t work so hard... She wasn´t having.... The London School of Economics.. 9.. was getting ready 6. Don´t drink black coffee.. They were living in. 4. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6...They were playing bridge at that time. Eat more slowly. 1... was driving 7.What a.... / Were the children watching.The Atlantic Ocean..What. 4. please 2. 1. I was working. everyone was talking. please. Where were your parents living when they met? 8..The Panama Canal. please.working / walked 7. was shining 2. European cities.Don´t drive so fast..... / Was she having. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex.....What a.Clark Street. were crossing 5.. Don´t come again this afternoon.... 6.) 2. Come here tomorrow morning. 2. Don´t take a taxi. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9..... 2. Don´t eat my bread and butter. was doing 12..? 7..What a... please. Don´t give Mary my new address.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2.. please. York. Ex.English cities 7.. 1. The Mexican climate. 2. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9. Write your answer on the whiteboard.. 1. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. England..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex. was working / became 12. 3.What a.. 5.What a. was . Call me up after 9 o´clock. / were the men going. Central Park Station 11. The boys weren´t studying. called on / were having dinner 8. had / was driving 9.. 2.. Alice wasn´t making.. Spell your first name. please... Spain 10. Ex.. 1. 8. 10..What a.. please.? 5.. 9. 11. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4.. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8...the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8.. 1. (at this time yesterday.do 10.... 3. please.. 13... 7... Don´t listen to him. We weren´t running. 4..What.. Don´t say that again.The West Indies 7.Utah Ex. The English language.. 4..the Dominican Republic 3... The New York City traffic. 8..Broadway.. please. were .? 6. 4. C.The Hudson River / New York City 4. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10.. Fill up the tank.. 10. 2.. (when he phoned me last night) Ex. was reading 3..What a. 3. 4.. please.. 5.. 7.the Mediterranean Sea. 9. A short course in english for adult students 101 . The children weren´t watching.. please 5. I was.. were going / saw 4. Don´t work so slowly.. Listen to the story carefully.France. 3. London.... Ex. (Open answers) 1.What. the United States 6. Why weren´t they working that day? 7. The Broadway buses. Why was Mrs. 1. please 7. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment..? 4.were playing 4. I was... 3.What. 10. I was listening to the news at that moment. Have another cup of coffee.. 1. 3... 6. China.What an.. 8. please.. 3.. 12. 8. was living 9. 10. 1.. 1. please. please. 6. 6. Where were the generals working? 5. 1. 1. were camping 8. 15. White lying on the sofa? 7. slept 2..... 5. please.. 2... 11.Italy. 3. were walking Ex.Germany. read / was riding PART II A. Europe. The soldiers weren´t doing. Ex... What a. please 5. What were you doing at that time? 6. 14. / Were the soldiers doing.. 9. (when they got married / then). 6. please. What was Mary eating in her room? 3..What. was leaving 10.. 5.What a. were playing / began 6. B.

How pretty she is! 11. 4.. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. 5. 12. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. What a.. 2. What a. What a fast train it was! 17. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What a beautiful day it is today! 4. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. What. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students . 9. Johnson is!. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14.. 7. How well she plays the piano! 2. 1.. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3... How tire we were after the walk! 16.. 1.. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. 10. 1. What an. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2.. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. 13.What a.. 6.... What a. How cold it is today! 7. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. What a pleasant man Mr. What a tall man he is! 9. How cold it was last night! 10. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8. What. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. What a generous woman Ann was! 18.7. What a cold day it is today! 8... What.. 14. Ex. How. How... What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9..... What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. 3. How. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12.. 2.. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr..What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. How fast she runs! 5. 11. How. How. 8...Ex.. How. 4. 3.

etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras. /!éi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow.. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. acordadas o previstas con antelación. Where.. intenciones./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt !ei vízit. Peter will come to Chile next month. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea./ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. /pí:ter iz góui! tu kám tu tchíle nékst man!/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes..UNIT 8 PART 1. /!ei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám.. Dgo. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana.. They won´t visit us next weekend. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán.... in three months /in "rí: mán"s/ dentro de tres meses. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mán!/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. 3. When. Peter is coming to Chile next month. the day after tomorrow /!e déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil !ei vízit. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. y sugiere la idea de decisión. next month /nékst man"/ el próximo mes... EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. by the end of this year /bai !i énd ov !is yíar/ hacia fines de este año.. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow. tu wé:rk tumó:rou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil !ei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámi! tu tchíle nekst mán!/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . etc. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. promesa o determinación. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. /méri wóunt kám. En la interrogación. Lea. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. I won´t be at home. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. promesas o determinaciones.

___________________________________________________ 3. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. They´ll need five volunteers. How. Where. The instructor ________________________ the data show.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: WHAT WILL YOU DO? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. (dig) 7. 3. I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ 8. My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. ___________________________________________________ 5. 1. Bob will sell the car because it´s old. (attend) 9. (move) Ex. (hire) 12. The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. 1. ___________________________________________________ 10. (use) 6. What. You will send them a fax. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué hará ud. The soldiers will wait there until dawn. They´ll go to the north in the summer. Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. In each case. 5. ___________________________________________________ 2. How long. John will give the answer next week. etc. They´ll get married in May 6. (launch) 8.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. ___________________________________________________ 4.? Ex. Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. We ________________________ a new house soon. We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ 9. The train will arrive soon. Ask questions using question words like When. (buy) 11. 4. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. John will accept the offer. ___________________________________________________ 7. (sell) 5. (be) 10. Mary will go out this evening. 3. NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. using WILL 1. and b) interrogative. 1. Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ 6. 2. (march) 2. They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . (send) 3. (have) 4. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked.

PART II.
A. USE OF SAY AND TELL (Uso de los verbos SAY / TELL) Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR), pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen), “I love you, Helen” Mary said, “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. Jackson said (to his students), “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”, he said. “I am very tired after the long walk”, said Mary. 2. Antes de la conjunción that (la que puede ser omitida) John said (that) he loved Helen Mary said (that) she was very tired after the long walk. 3. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. Sorry, what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor, es decir, la persona a quien se le habló. John told Helen that he loved her. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Mr. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her, please. EXERCISES Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. 2. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. 3. John ________________________ yesterday, “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” 4. Yesterday, Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. 5. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. 6. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. 7. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. 8. “I will be back at about 10:30”, ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. 9. “This book is very interesting “, she ________________________ 10. Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 11. Can you ________________________ me where the office is, please? 12. Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. 13. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. 14. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. She said (to me) that she was sick. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. __________________________________________________________________ 3. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. __________________________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

105

4. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change TELL to SAY.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play, too. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. _____________________________________________________________________ B. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO, WHOM, WHOSE (Los pronombres relativos WHO, WHOM, WHOSE)

Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which, en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? (¿Quién es ese hombre? The man who is in the car is a policeman. (El hombre que está en el auto es un policia) The car which is outside is a police car. (El auto que está afuera es un auto policial) WHOM es un pronombre interrogativo que significa a ¿a quién?. Whom did you see at the party? (¿A quién viste en la fiesta?) La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo, y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. With whom will you go to the party?/ Who will you go to the party with? (¿Con quién irás a la fiesta?) I met a man in the street. The man whom I met was John´s father. (Me encontre con un hombre en la calle. El hombre con quien me encontre era el padre de John) Jim was talking about a woman. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. (Jim estaba conversando acerca de una mujer. La mujer acerca de quien Jim estaba hablando era su esposa)

106

A short course in english for adult students

La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones, pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? / Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo puede ir al final o junto a whose) (¿De quién es este sombrero) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (¿De quién son estos cigarrillos?) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) (¿De quién es ese suéter amarillo?) Whose is that book (which is) on the desk? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) (¿De quién es ese libro que está sobre el escritorio?) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you, Mr Clark. (El hombre cuya hija lo llamó por teléfono esta mañana desea verlo a usted, Sr. Clark) The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. (El hombre cuyo auto está estacionado a fuera del edificio es un médico) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Choose the correct form. 1. To (who,whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. With (who, whom) does he want to speak? 3. (Who, whom) is the best student in your class? 4. (Who, whom) did you meet at the party? 5. The man (who, whom) telephoned you is my brother. 6. The woman (who, whom) you saw is my new teacher. 7. About (who, whom ) are they talking? 8. The girl with (who, whom) I danced was very beautiful. 9. From (who, whom) did you get the money? 10. The boy (who, whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Ex. 2. Fill in the blank spaces with Who, Which, Whom, Whose 1. __________________ jacket do you like best, the blue one or the brown one? 2. __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s, but I´m not quite sure. 3. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? 4. He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 5. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. 6. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player 7. __________________ will you ask for help? 8. __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? 9. The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. 10. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. 11. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. 12. __________________ are they talking about? 13. The man __________________ Prof. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. 14. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 15. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? 16. __________________ are you talking to? 17. The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. They are American. 18. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? 19. With __________________ will you work on the thesis?
A short course in english for adult students

107

20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

I don´t know __________________ watch this is. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. Smith read in class yesterday.. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love.

Ex. 3. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence,using WHO, WHOM or WHOSE 1. I met a man yesterday. He wrote detective stories. I_________________________________________________________________________________________________ met a man yesterday who wrote detective stories 2. I met a woman yesterday. Her husband died in a car accident. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Peter came to the party with a young woman. This is the young woman. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The policemen interrogated the old man. His car was parked outside the school. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. There´s a man in the lobby. He wants to speak with you. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. They contacted a man. They found his wallet in the street. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. You were talking to a man in the lobby. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Exercise 4. Ask questions with whose, as in the example. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? Whose car is this? Whose is this car? To whom does this car belong? ___________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ex. 5. Make synonymous sentences using the verb BELONG instead of the possessives. 1. This pen is mine 2. That house is ours. 3. That´s not your leather jacket. 4. Those keys are mine. 5. Is that car yours? 6. That is not John´s bicycle.. 7. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. 8. Are these cigarettes yours? 9. Whose is this watch? 10.Whose glasses are these? 11.I think that this wallet is yours. 12.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 13.This house is ours. It isn´t theirs. 14.That car isn´t his. It´s hers. 15.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. It´s my brother´s _________________________________________________ This pen belongs to me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

108

A short course in english for adult students

C. SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS (Alguien, algo, algún lugar y sus derivados) Study the following chart
Afirmative Negative Some Not...any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not... Anybody Not...anyone Nobody / No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not...anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not...anywhere Nowhere Anywhere

En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2 (p.27), habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas, y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT... ANY o NO. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas, es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo, alguna cosa). Somewhere (algun lugar, alguna parte), etc. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta (Yo tengo algunos amigos en Atlanta) I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. I saw somebody in the car (Yo ví a alguien en el auto) I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. They need something now. (Yo necesito algo ahora) They don´t need anything now. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. They will go somewhere after the lesson (Ellos irán a algún lugar después de la clase) They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to negative form Use a) NOT... ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. I saw somebody in the corridor. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Please put it somewhere in this room. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. There is someone at the door. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. He lives somewhere in New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. He told somebody about it. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. He gave the book to somebody. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. He said something to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

1. There is someone in the room

109

11. He has something to do. 12. He´s going to do something now. 13. They found the money somewhere. 14. They will send the goods to someone. Ex. 2. Change to question form 1. I saw somebody at the desk. 2. He went somewhere last night. 3. She has something to do. 4. He told somebody about it. 5. She put it somewhere. 6. There is someone in the next room. 7. Somebody wants to speak to him. 8. I saw somebody I knew. 9. He brought something with him. 10. He gave it to someone. 11. He took them somewhere on Long Island. 12. I liked something about her.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 3. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT ... ANY” negative form: 1. They found nobody at home. 2. There is no more coffee. 3. They want nothing to drink. 4. There is nowhere for him to sit. 5. She spoke to no one about it. 6. I want no more, thank you. 7. He can see nothing without his glasses. 8. We saw nobody at all in the park. 9. They gave us nothing to eat. 10. We went nowhere after the dance. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

110

A short course in english for adult students

tintorería dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (UK) cuartel de bomberos fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería almacén (UK) grocer’s /gróuserz/ grocery store /gróuseri stó:r/ almacén (USA) ferretería hardware store /hárdwear stó:r/ hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel hotel /houtél/ jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósi#/ cruce FFCC (UK) lorry /lórri/ camión (UK) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (UK) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino. calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.) college /kólidll/ corner /kó:rner/ esquina cruce crossroads /krósroudz/ department store /dipá:rment stó:r/ tienda de depart.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (UK) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /"íater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camión (USA) tunnel /tánel/ túnel underground /ándergráund/ tren subterráneo (UK) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (UK) zebra crossing /zibra krósi#/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 . disco /dískou/ discoteca lavaseco.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos farmacia chemist’s /kémists/ church /tché:rtch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine bus interurbano coach /kóutch/ coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería escuela (univ.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY (La ciudad) airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstorant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte panadería baker’s /béikerz/ book shop /búk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldi#/ edificio bus /bás/ bus paradero de buses bus stop /bás stop/ bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café café /kæfei/ cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (UK) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.escrit.

Bl 112 .

That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4...whom 10.. Whom 5.who wants to speak with you. Who(m) 8..? 4. That house belongs to us 3. The train won´t arrive. 7. will dig 7. 4.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. told 5. 12. / Will you send... 4. Who 4. whom 7. 7. 8.. said 10. It belongs to my brother. 13. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. Helen told the travel agent that. will send 3.. Bob said that he.. 3. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. 9. Ex. which 23. Ex. 1.. 6. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. 4. says 8. Which 2. the boy told us that. 5. John will not accept..whose husband died in a car accident 3. He says that she. Does that car belong to you? 6. A. 5. which 12.. 3. / Will Mary go out.. whom 9. 1. Whose 3. A short course in english for adult students 113 . Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7. whom 10.. Mr Smith told Peter that. 1. It belongs to her. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II.. The man tells me that. Who 17.5. will hire 12.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. / Will John accept. How many volunteers will they need? 10. Who 13. will sell 5.? 3. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them ... 2. 1. William told the doctor that.. told 14. whom 2.. I said that. whom 14.. whom 4... will be 10. 2.. 8. tell 12... Whose 9.. B... whose 5. 2.. will buy 11. 3. 1.. John said that. John told his friends that. whose 15. says 11. 1.? 5. Ex.. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.. 2. Whose is this brand new car? 4.. 5.? 2. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. You won`t send. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. whom 18.. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9. said 4. whom 7. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. 6... Ex... Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. 1. 2. said 9. will launch 8 will attend 9.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex.woman with whom Peter came to the party. 2. will use 6. which 6. Ann told the office that...... 7.. Mary will not go out. The teacher said that.. 14. 1... She told me that. 3.... Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. 1. / Will the train arrive.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A.. whom Ex.. When will John give the answer? 3... They won`t get married. I said that... Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. will have 4. 4. tell 13.. 3. whose wallet they found in the street. whose 21.. 6. who 6... 15... said Ex. whom 8.. 7.. whom 11. will move Ex. Whose . 2.. says 6. This house belongs to us. whom 3. whom Ex. Mr Smith said that. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. Whose is this gold ring? 6. 2.. 1. Who 19.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex.. 1. told 3..? Ex. Where will they go in the summer? 2. It doesn`t belong to them. will march 2.. The boy says that. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. / Will they get married? 6.. That car doesn´t belong to him. whom 20. Mr Smith won`t see.which 16.. which 24. who 22.. Those keys belong to me 5. / Will Mr Smith see... says 2.. told 7.

. 3. / There´s no one in. 7. 5..C. don´t put it anywhere in. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. Ex. There isn´t any more coffee. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . put it nowhere in. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. 2. He didn´t tell anybody.. I didn´t see anybody in.. 1. They didn´t find anybody at home 2. Did I see anybody at the desk. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. / Tell nobody about.? 2. Is there anyone in the next room? 7.. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13..... 1. 1. / Please. thank you. Did he bring anything with him? 10.. Did he give it to anyone? 11. Ex.. 8. / He lives nowhere in. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14... Please.. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12... 9.. 2... 10. There isn`t anyone in. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. Don`t tell anybody about.. They don´t want anything to drink 4... I didn`t put the money anywhere. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5.. They didn´t give us anything to eat . 4.... Did I see anybody I knew? 9. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. 1.. Did I like anything about her? Ex. / There`s no one at.. Did she put it anywhere? 6.. 11. He doesn´t live anywhere in. / I saw nobody in. There isn`t anyone at.. 10. Did he go anywhere last night? 3.. He didn´t say anything.3. / He told nobody. 3. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6. I don´t want any more.. 7. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8..... / I put the money nowhere. Does she have anything to do? 4. 6. / He said nothing. He can´t see anything without his glasses.

”. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r !éi góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.A. 5. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 2.. etc. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. 2.”. /!éi á:rent góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. 6. I will send Mary a post-card from L. Lea. 1. 3. Equivale a la expresión “YO VOY A . Lea. Tom will come to Chile next year. Mr. “ÉL VA A . Paul will go to Germany and France. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góui# tu dú:/ ¿Qué va a hacer usted? EXERCISES Ex..UNIT 9 PART 1. The instructor will use a video. 7.”. 4. 7. “TÚ VAS A . They´ll travel to Mexico in March. 8.. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 2. /!éi a:r góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. 8. 5.. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevarán a cabo en el futuro cercano.. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. /méri íznt góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r !éi góui# tu vízit as/. 6.

It will take you at least an hour to type the report. Ask questions using question words like When. Bill is going to answer the question. /it tuk !e stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser !e kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas.” Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. 2. o “It won´t take..Ex. How long...... Where.. 4. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway.” / “IT WILL TAKE..?”. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. Translate the following sentences into English 1.”. 4. They´re going to fix the engine.. 6. 3. 3.. 3. 7. o “Will it take.. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ the students the men me ________________ you the men ____________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. “It didn´t take. etc. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took FUTURE It will take Escuche.. Bob and Jim are going to swim..”. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip !e ripó:rt/ Ud.. 5. 4.. “Did it take. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take... She´s not going to go because she´s tired. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. 1.?”. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds.”. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr.” / “IT TOOK.. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA “IT TAKES. Bill is going to travel by plane. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. 6. 2. A. 5. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked.

5. I did my exercise in one hour. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. I wrote the letter in a few minutes. ___________________________________________________ 3.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. I do my homework every night in a short time. I finished the work in an hour... (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. He does his homework every day in one hour. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. I found my mistake in a few minutes. en. They will complete the work in six years. or IT WILL TAKE. Change to negative and to interrogative form. ___________________________________________________ 7. 2. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . en.? Escuche.. ___________________________________________________ 9.. It took Herbert a long time to walk to work. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes.) 2. ___________________________________________________ 12. 3. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. We drove to Philadelphia in one hour.. 1..? How long did it take you to. It took him several hours to finish the report.. en. ___________________________________________________ 5...Escuche. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway.. ___________________________________________________ 10.. It takes me seven minutes to walk there.? 117 . Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1......: 1. 4. ___________________________________________________ 6. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk to work? How long did it take Herbert to walk to work? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? A short course in english for adult students ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. She learned to speak English in only one year. ___________________________________________________ 11.. ___________________________________________________ Ex. It took them many years to build the road. They will build the bridge in two years.? How long will it take you to. 2.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex.. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk to work. IT TOOK. ___________________________________________________ 8.. ___________________________________________________ 4.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ud.6. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. It takes much time to learn English. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. 10. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. It took them two days to find him. 3. It took a month to complete the work. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago a Puerto Montt en avión. It will take you a week to read this book. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. It takes an hour to do this exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Translate the following sentences into English 1. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . Uds. 12. It took an hour to discover the mistake. It will take a long time to get to the airport. 11.

bigger. thin . intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones.thinner c.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo.taller. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. short . EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alice) Bob is more intelligent than George. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. old. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3.shorter b. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4.smaller.B. 1. Mary is a beautiful girl.more intelligent important . Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. tall . Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. Grado Comparativo.hotter. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. big.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. hot . (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. es decir son iguales. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente.

(large) 2. (tall) 4. dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother.farthest little .+vocal+cons. + as.most intelligent important .least many .worst far . The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small .tallest short .best bad .shortest b. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .as o not so. (old) 5. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .+vocal+cons. pretty .smallest tall .as.most modern e.Washington. (interesting) 120 A short course in english for adult students .most common clever . Compare: pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e..... Henry is ____________________________ I.most important d. This book is ____________________________ that book .hottest thin .biggest hot .most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. (hot) 7..most much . o doble cons.cleverest modern . John is ____________________________ William. (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. This article is ____________________________ that one. (short) 3. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est. debemos duplicar la última consonante big . Philadelphia is.prettiest common .thinnest c. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a...d. (bad) 6. 1.. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. This summer is ____________________________ last summer. (El es tan alto como su hermano) He is not as tall as his brother.(larger than). Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses + THAN 1. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good .

Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) 13. This exercise is _______________________________________ 6.. New York is not smaller than Chicago. That city has ____________________________ parks in the region.. This street is. (bad) 10. This street is not wider than that street. This room is ____________________________ that one...... John is a....(pretty) 3..(tall) 2. These apples are ____________________________ those. Henry is. The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday.. He is also ____________________________ student in the class. This is ____________________________ park in the city... (good) 10...8.(long) 8.. (healthy) 11. The Mississippi River is. Today is ____________________________ day of the year.... This book is ______________________________________________ 7. John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. introduce the superlative form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. 2. Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. (light) 12.. This book was not more expensive than my French book..The weather today is _________________________________ Ex.. Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) 11. 3. In the following.. The weather today is not better than it was yesterday.(interesting) 5.. (few) 15.. New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States.. Some people are ____________________________ others.. (large) 5. Henry is ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Bill is.. (young) 6. (beautiful) 7.(wide) 9. Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) 14. Frank is.. John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group...... (intelligent) 8.. Helen is __________________________________________________________ 4..... (good) 9.... New York is _____________________________________________________ 3. This exercise is not more difficult than the last one... Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: shorter than I 1... John is ____________________________ boy in the class. first in comparative form. State the adjectives in parentheses..(intelligent) 4. Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) 9... (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 ... New York is ____________________________ city in the United States. Grace is. (interesting) 4. This is ____________________________ room in the whole building...... (tall) 2. The weather today is ________________________________ 9.(tall) 7. This is ____________________________ apple of all... This book is. This book was __________________________________ 8.. This street is ____________________________________________________ 5. Helen is not younger than her sister. 4... is. (sweet) 6. (light) 12. and second in superlative form. (little) Ex.. (hot) 3.. The Empire State Bldg... This book is not thicker than my French book. Henry is not taller than I. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1...... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex.

The sky is darker than it was yesterday.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday.. 11. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . John has less experience in computers than I. This corridor is larger than the room. 9. Peter has more money than Henry 14. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. 5..C.10. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother.. 4. John is as tall as his brother. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This exercise is. 6. 5. 7. Our apartment is larger than yours. 8. This street is wider than that one. 10.John makes more mistakes than Henry. New York is more important than Washington D. 12. 2. John is taller than his brother. 3... Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison..There are more people today than yesterday 13. This exercise is longer than the last one... This book is better than the other.

berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ (Los alimentos) 1. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /sé:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wi#/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (UK) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (UK) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drési#/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa o jurel cholga.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skælop/ shellfish /shélfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora. Meats /mi:ts/ (Carnes) beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchíkin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. Meals /mi:lz/ (Las comidas) breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /æpetáizer/ 3. mejillón ostra gambas. Provisions /províllnz/ (Abarrotes) bread /bred/ biscuit /bískit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ (Pescados y mariscos) abalone /abalóuni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérri#/ loco almeja caracol.

Fruits /fru:ts/ (Frutas) apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /baná:na/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /túna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nat/ pineapple /páinæpl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.king crab /ki# kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Vegetables /védlletablz/ (Verduras) celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /dri#k/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago infusión de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft dri#k/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7.

.? / How long did it take to. It didn´t take an hour to.. / Does it take me ten minutes to get.? 4. better than 10.. / Did it take them two days to.? Ex. It took her only one year to learn to speak English.? 4.? 9.. 2.? 5.... It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane... The instructor isn´t going to use. 1. Why isn´t she going to go? 7. Tom is going to come to.... It doesn`t take much time to. 9....... 2. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3..? / How long does it take me to get. 5. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex. How is Bill going to travel? 2..? 5... / How long did it take him to.? 6. 2..? 12.. / Am I going to send Mary... 6. more interesting than 8.. 4. healthier than 11....? 2. Tom isn´t going to come to.... 2. They are going to travel to.? / How long does it take to.... 1. 4. shorter than 3. / Are the Johnsons going to spend..... 1... taller than 4. 1. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. I´m not going to send Mary. Ex. Paul isn´t going to go to. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6.. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer. 9. Jane´s going to buy. Jane isn´t going to buy. 1... The instructor´s going to use. It didn´t take him several hours to... What are they going to do? 6. B. / Is Tom going to come to. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day.. It won´t take you very long to read that article.? Ex. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5... / Will it take a long time to.. / Did it take him several hours to. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 . It took me a few minutes to write the letter.3.....? 6..? 8. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office.. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station .? 10.... / Is Paul going to go to. / Will it take you a week to.. 2...? 7. It won´t take you a week to.... Mr Jackson´s going to play. Who is going to answer the question? Ex. It didn´t take a month to... It will take them two years to build the bridge.. 8. / Did it take a month to.. more difficult than 9. It didn´t take them two days to. It won´t take a long time to. / Did it take them many years to build. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play.? / How long did it take to.... hotter than 7. / Is Jane going to buy. It took me an hour to finish the work 10.. / Does it take much time to. What are you / we going to buy? 4. 8. It doesn´t take an hour to... 5..? 8. / Did it take an hour to. Ex..? 11... 2.. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake. Ex.. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to.. 3.. / Does it take an hour to... The Johnsons are going to spend.. 2. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get. 11.. 8. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3.. worse than 6... 7. lighter than 12..? / How long did it take them to build.. 2. Ex.. It will take them six years to complete the work. 4.. / Is the instructor going to use.? 7..... I´m going to send Mary.. 1. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4..? / How long did it take them to. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend... Paul`s going to go to. / Are they going to travel to..They aren´t going to come to the party tonight... older than 5.? / How long will it take you to. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A. 1. It didn´t take them many years to build.? / How long will it take to.? / How long does it take me to. 6. 4. 1.. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report.? 3.. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes.? 3. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5. They aren´t going to travel to.. 3.... How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. 3. 12. 3. / Does it take me seven minutes to.? / How long does it take to...

The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. This book is as good as the other. (Open answers) 1. the fewest 15. This exercise is easier than the previous one. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last one. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. bigger than Chicago 3. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. the largest 11. older than her sister. easier than 6. 5. Our apartment is as large as yours. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. the lightest 12. the best 9. Bill is more intelligent than James. the most interesting 4. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. This exercise is as long as the last. 2. 3. 3. 13. the sweetest 6. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. 2. 8.New York is as important as Washington. Peter has as much money as Henry. the most 13. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. 4. 12. This street is wider than my street. 126 A short course in english for adult students . John makes as many mistakes as Henry. 9. Ex. 10. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. Grace is prettier than her sister. thinner than my French book 7. the least Ex. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. the most 14. the worst 10. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. the hottest 3.This corridor is as large as the room.. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. the tallest 2. the largest 5. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. the most intelligent 8.Ex. This book is more interesting than that one. 4. 7. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. 2. This street is as wide as that one. 9. 4. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. cheaper than my French book 8. 11. There are as many people today as yesterday. 6. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room.5. 1. John has as little experience in computers as I. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. the most beautiful 7. 3. worse than it was yesterday. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. 9. 10. Ex. 2. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. / This is the widest street in this town. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. 7. narrower than 5. 14. 4.

Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. /!éi á:rent víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. /!éi a:r víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. to visit. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. /mériz kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. por ejemplo: to go. to drive. We´re leaving on January 21st. to leave. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. to come back. I accepted their invitation. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. to come. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. 2. to arrive. to travel. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. to stay. 1. (¿Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. to have lunch/dinner. agendadas. to attend. We´re going to Cancun again. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. Ex. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . /méri íznt kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r !éi víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r !éi víziti# ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:i# tumórou mó:rni#/on sándi/ etc.?) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. ha advertido. We´re staying there for 10 days. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He´s attending a meeting. to fly.UNIT 10 PART 1. etc. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. Lea.

I´ll be away on a business trip”. How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. 12. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. Mary: “Yes. Right after lunch._________________________________________________________________________ 7. It´s 8:15 now. he _______________________________________________________________________ 10. On Monday evening.. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. Mr. On Friday morning.3. “I´m afraid. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. he ______________________________________________________________________ 9. 14. _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. Texas. Dr. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. Surgeons Club Wed. Ex. In the evening. at the Kennedy Center Thurs. At 7:40 AM on Thursday.Texas 14:00 Conference at the Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. After dinner. Fri. He is arriving in Washington DC. Dr. On Wednesday morning. Write sentences indicating Dr. On Thursday afternoon. 2. What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ 4. Answer these questions in English. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. Make complete sentences: 1. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. Use the information given below: Dr. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. the Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at the Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. 3. At 10:15 on Saturday. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ 3. When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ 5. We must hurry up. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ 6. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. Mary?”. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. 10:00 Visit the Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he _____________________________________________________at the Nasa Space Center 11. “ Yes. We just got a telegram from our daughter. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. On Monday morning. The departure of our train is at 8:25. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. Brown said to us. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at the US. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. Let´s hurry up. 4. I want to play tennis tomorrow. It says. Dr. At midday. at 16:00. 4. As you can see. he ____________________________________________________________________ 13. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Sat. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ 7. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. After that. 07:40 Fly to Houston. Ex. What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. late in the evening. Novoa is going to the USA next week.

Según el itinerario. ¿a qué hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. ¿A qué hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ 10. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ 8. You must obey orders. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente.. DEBERÍA = consejo. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. Be allowed to Example 1. / I assume. Be able to 2. = You have to obey orders. Bob can swim well. 1. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. You had better study every day MUST 1. PODER = ser capaz de. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. A short course in english for adult students 129 . You can see the lake from here. CAN. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. It may rain tomorrow. = I think / assume he is over. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. You can use my computer. Ej. recomendación 1. be allowed to 2. ___________________________________________________ 7. be likely to. MAY.. 2. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. ___________________________________________________ 6. Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. PODER = ser posible 3. Be possible to 3.. ¿Cuándo tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ 9. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidad) 2. 1. He can swim well. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. Translate the following sentences into English 1.. ___________________________________________________ 3. 1. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. (No se debe decir. You should study every day. Jones ___________________________________________________ 4.. OUGHT TO) Ej. MODAL VERBS (I) A. Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. have to 2. ___________________________________________________ 5. 5. He must be over 70 years old. ___________________________________________________ 2. 2. Ej. 2. este fin de semana. (No se debe decir. He can swim well.Ex. Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. = Bob is able to swim well 2. MUST. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación.. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. I think.

It´s out of order. I just put on my glasses. John. if you like. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. (formal). mother? 9. 5. 2. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. puede retirarse. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. I think that you should see a doctor /. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. 1. Joe. if you wish. (Puedes retirarte ahora. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . Sir? 8. You ____________ not do that again. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. (Ud. Peter. 2.?) It´s getting cloudy. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. 2. (Ud. habilidad o destreza. ____________ I use your pen please.. Para indicar capacidad.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. Sr. Para indicar obligación. Tommy. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. (Se está nublando. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. 6. 130 A short course in english for adult students . No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. He is a retired civil servant. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. It´s dangerous. Gentlemen. MAY o SHOULD. (No te subas a esa silla. He must be a policeman. Tommy. (El está usando un uniforme verde. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. 3. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. It´s not good for your health. Must (Deber) 1. (Ud. 4. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. You may fall down and break an arm.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. (No debería fumar tanto. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. MUST. It may rain tomorrow. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. 1. She must know where Mr Jackson is now.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. Now I ____________ read better. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. 3. 7. Para dar consejos. 2. John can swim very well. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. (Uds.. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. ____________ I have another piece of cake. según corresponda. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. 4. Complete the blanks with CAN. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. (Negative). papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations.

The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. debe venir mañana nuevamente. Uds. 23. ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? Ex. pueden fumar aquí. 14. 4. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. Ex. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. Billy . 21. 2. You ____________ come and visit us any day. Bob can speak three languages. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 13. 10. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 4. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . 24. 17. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. 3. John.10. 2. El puede correr muy rápido. 11. señor? 9. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. Debe estar cansado. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. A pesar de ser sinónimos. Why don´t you phone at his home. 18. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. They´re very poor. I don´t know why they´re talking. They may use Room 203. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. 16.We don´t accept cash. Translate the following sentences into English 1. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 3. 12. The man is very strong. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. 5. They should take a taxi. We must go because it´s late. B. 15. I think you ____________ go on a diet. Ud. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. Lea. They ____________ be working instead. 19. He sometimes goes home for lunch. El trabajó muy duro. 22. He ____________n´t be an engineer. It´s almost midnight now. You are too fat. It´s too young. The boss gets very angry when people are late. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. El no puede hablar español bien. 6. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t even know how to start a car. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. He ____________ be there. You´ll be welcome to our home. 20. 3.

WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. 4. DIDN´T. 5. They must stay there at least an hour. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . John must go out of town this afternoon. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. 7. Lea. We must write a composition each night. Substitute the correct form of HAVE TO for MUST in the following: 1. 11. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. I must work tonight. 12. 1. = Peter has to work until late every evening. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. 3. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. 6. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. DID. John must also take another language. You must read this article. WON´T. 8. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. We must learn many new words every day. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. I must write many letters. 2. Lea. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. Mary must study French next year. We must prepare our lessons every night.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. los verbos modales DO / DOES. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. I must get up early every day. 9. 10. al igual que con los verbos principales.

9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 3. 6. He __________ stay at home and rest. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. John has to be here at two o’clock. 2. He had to be there at two o’clock. We have to study tonight. I have to get up early. They have to come back later. 6. 4. We all have to write a short story. Change to negative form: 1. They have to write many letters. 8. He __________ go to the hospital right away. Ex. 10. 5.Ex. We __________ make reservations at once. We have to get up early. Read the following with MUST. I must leave at once. 10. 3. Then. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. 5. 2. Smith has to go out of town. 2. John has to stop his English lessons. We __________ telephone her right away. You have to wait a few minutes. Mary has to come with him. 9. I had to leave at once. They have to study very hard. 7. Ex. 3. I ____________ answer this letter at once. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . I have to work today. 5. 12. 6. 4. She__________ attend class every day. change to past and future time: 1. 3. He __________ spend more time on his English. We have to write a composition tonight. 4. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. 7. 11. Change to past and future time: 1. We had to meet him at noon. 8. He has to see a doctor. Mr. He __________ learn all the new words.

11. 10. 7. 4. 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We have to work on Sunday. Did he have to leave at noon? ___________________________________________________ What time/ When did he have to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . He had to leave at noon. I have to buy a new pen. 12. We have to get up at 6. 2. 8. They will have to come back later. ask questions with WHEN. 3. WHY. 6. He had to return yesterday. Then. 5. Change to interrogative form. John had to go to the hospital. 9. He has to take more exercise. They have to study every day. They have to rent an apartment soon. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. 5. 8. 9. 12. He had to buy several new books. etc.7. We have to prepare our homework every day. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. We will have to learn many new words. 1. They had to leave early. WHAT TIME.00 every morning. WHERE. He will have to wait a few minutes. She has to rest a while because she´s tired. 10.

The Limbs /!e limz/ (Las extremidades) ankle /æ#kl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fí#ger/ foot / feet /fu:t. The Head /(e hed/ (La cabeza) beard /bíard/ brains /bréinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /íar/ eye /ái/ eyebrow /áibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fó:red/ hair /héar/ head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fí#ger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ní:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo (mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fí#ger/ middle finger /mídl fí#ger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /rí# fí#ger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /"ai/ thumb /"am / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo (del pie) muñeca 4. The Trunk /!e tru#k/ (El tronco) back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /blæder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. ti:"/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /la#/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mau"/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piú:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /"rout/ tongue /tá#/ tooth /teeth /tu:". Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ (Palabras relacionadas) corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /ió:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 .BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov !e bódi/ (Las partes del cuerpo) 1. entrañas pecho (mamas) nalgas pecho.

“al tiro” lo antes posible. por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . ASAP /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ (Expresiones de tiempo) ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at the moment /at !e móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for !e táim bi:i#/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /iésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /!is mó:rni#/ this afternoon /!is a:fternú:n/ this evening /!is í:vni#/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:ni#/ yesterday afternoon /iésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rni#/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /!e déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in !e sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mán"/ every year /évri iíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:ni#/ every other day /évri á!er déi/ every other three days /évri á!er "rí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mán"/ many times a year /méni táimz e iiar/ a long time ago /e ló# táim agóu/ many years ago /méni iiarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri lo# agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /imídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante.

de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 . de vez en cuando.sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an !én/ off and on /óf an on/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

John also has to take. What will they do with the money they received? 8. He´s flying to Texas.. / He´ll have to see. Ex. They´re going to stay several days with us.8..? / Why must we go? 4. You can / may smoke here. 6.. 14. 3.. 1. I had to answer.. 8. 1... 2. Attending a reception at the White House 3. Should / ought to 4.. 1. / I´ll have to get up. Must 11. 9.. He´s flying back to Washington DC.. Should / ought to 24..11.. 5. 10.. 8. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight. Can´t Ex.. 9. I promise you I will never do that again. We had to make. We didn´t have to meet.....10... You have to read. 12... 3. 5.can / may 10. 1. Ex. 1. 11. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. They don´t have to study. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. 9. 10. May I sit here. They have to stay. Can 9.. 2.. 7.. 9. / You´ll have to wait... Mr Smith doesn´t have to go. They had to come back.. 7.. 4. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. 1.. We must not go. Must 6. 1. 9. A short course in english for adult students 139 ... Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. 6.... I have to write. 4... / They´ll have to come back.... We don´t have to write.. John has to go out.. 3. / Mary will have to come. He had to go.. at what time are we getting there? PART II.. 6. What should I do now? 7. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. / He´ll have to go.. 1. Sir? 9. 2.. / He´ll have to stay. 2. Should / ought to 21.. 5. A. 2.. Must 23.. -I had to get up.. 5.. 6...? / What should they do? 3.... 2. Must 20. Must 22. 12. When are they traveling to the USA? 9... Can . 5. John had to be. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday.. They may not use.. Should 19. 4. Should / ought to 7.8. Can´t 13... Bob can´t speak.5.. 3. He can run very fast.He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center.. Must 3. 4.12. 6.We have to learn Ex. 2. 2.. / Should they take. May 2. / May they use.. I have to work. We had to hurry. They had to write. 10.Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I.. 7.... / John will have to be... / We´ll have to hurry.. 5..... Can 12. 4.. Can / must 16. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center.. 2. 1. Mary and John have to fly. We have to write.. He had to stay. 5.can´t 14. 4. 10.. 3. Can´t 15. Ex.. 4.. We had to telephone. B. We had to go.. They didn´t have to leave... / I´ll have to work. 2. 11. 3.. May 17. Should / ought to 18. / He´ll have to spend 7.... They may visit us tomorrow 5. Ex. That may / can happen again. / We´ll have to go. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. I had to work. Can 5. Mary had to come. He can´t speak Spanish well.. He had to learn. / John´ll have to stop. He didn´t have to be. / She´ll have to attend. Can you help me this afternoon? 8. 6. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend.. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow.... 8.? / Which room may they use? Ex. 3.. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10.. They shouldn´t take. 1. 3.. He had to spend.. We have to prepare.. He worked very hard. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 4. 6.. 3. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning.. 3.. Mary has to study. / We´ll have to make.. / We´ll have to write.... Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial. / Must we go. / He´ll have to learn... / They´ll have to write. Ex. You had to wait. Mary will come to see us next week. 4. According to the schedule. John had to stop. Ex.? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2..... 2. She had to attend.... Our train is leaving in ten minutes.... May 8.. He must be tired. I don´t have to buy. We don´t have to get up. 7. Open answers Ex. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. / I´ll have to answer......You must come again tomorrow. / Can Bob speak. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6.. Must / should ... 7.. Ex.. I have to get up. We had to study. We all had to write. He had to see. / We´ll have to study. / We´ll have to telephone....

How long will he have to wait? 9. We don´t have to prepare. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3.. 12. Ex. We won´t have to learn..11.We don´t have to work.. 2. When will they have to come back? 10. What do they have to do every day? 4. When did he have to return? 8.. John didn´t have to go.. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. 5... What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. 10. What did he have to buy? 6..

/línda wil bí: tráveli# in iúrop at !is táim nékst mán"/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes.?) EXERCISES: Ex. Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. At this time next month. 2. The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) 5. (do) 7. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. (work) 2. 4. /!e tchíldren wil bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche. lea y aprenda: 1. at this time tomorrow /at !is táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. Escuche. 4. La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. 3. 2. (watch) 10. etc. 5. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum !is í:vni#/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). (drive) 4. cuando otra acción ocurra. (travel) 3. es decir.UNIT 11 PART I. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæterdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). (visit) 6. (work out) 9. We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. (play) 8. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. 1. What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . o when the program starts tonight /wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. /!éi wóunt bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /!e prézident wil bí: fláii# tu tókiou at !is táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. we ________________________ in the USA. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). I ________________________ here. /!éi wil bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. 3. lea y aprenda: 1. /!e tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl !éi bí: tráveli# in iú:rop at !is táim nékst mán"/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil !e prézident bí: dú:i# at !is táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:i#/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. /wi: wil bí: hævi# lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. I ________________________ television when you come home tonight.

They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. we ______________________________ television. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day.2. (come) 5. At 10:30 last night. ___________________________________________________ 2. (watch) 4. the Past or the Future tenses. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. (cook) 8. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future (WILL + INF) or the Future Contínuous Tense (WILL BE + ING): 1. WHERE. ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) 14. The students will be taking a test at 10. They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. (read) 9. John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) 10. ___________________________________________________ 3. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. (spend) 3. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. They _________ not ________________________ English very often. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4.Ex. ___________________________________________________ 5. (work) 4. 4. What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) 10. They ________________________ Brazil next month. At this time tomorrow. _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) 15. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) 12. ___________________________________________________ 7. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) 17. 3. (play) 2. (come) 5. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 5. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 4. What___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) 11. Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. (see) 6. we ________________________. Mr. What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 8. ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. ___________________________________________________ 6. 2. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. 1. Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) 16. HOW LONG. (visit) 3. (have dinner) 7. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) 142 A short course in english for adult students . Ask questions using question words like WHAT. Review Practice. (come) 13. They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. (have) 2. What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) 18. (practise) 7. of course. Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) 9. Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. 3. Use the Present. etc. Mr. Mr. (live) 6. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow.

3.+ infinitive.. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. Pay attention. 20. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 . today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time.. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. Speak more slowly. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you.. 7.19. PLEASE? 1. PART II A. please? (Informal) Imperative.. instead of the simple imperative form.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. 2. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. 2. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. Come back this afternoon. 24.. please? B: Sure Ex. please? Would you sign your name here. Help me open the suitcase. Sit on this chair. Wait for me in the lobby... 6. or WILL YOU. using COULD YOU.. will you? Could you speak more slowly.. PLEASE?. Open the window. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying.PLEASE?... Use the other elevator. using CAN YOU. 6. 5. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wi! pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche..PLEASE? or WOULD YOU.. Speak more slowly.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive.. lea y aprenda: 1. 5.. A: Could you help me. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 4.. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. 3. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. Ask somebody to do the following things. Turn the radio down.. MAKING REQUESTS . Repeat your question.. (instead of = en vez de) 1.ing. Be quiet. 22. please? Would you mind waiting outside. 23.. 1. 21.. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive. 4.. 7.. 2.. Take off your hat. Ask somebody to do the following things. Sign your name here. as a rule. A: Will you lend me your pen. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold..

Ask her to do that informally. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. please? Stranger: Sure. Ask him. Ask him. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. 4. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. Use the other elevator. 7. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (solicitando permiso) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. Ask him/her politely. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. 2.. 3. go ahead. of course. 1. You : __________________________________________________________ . 144 A short course in english for adult students . certainly. It´s too cold. John? B: Sure. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2.. John? John : Certainly. • Please do. PLEASE? 1 Speak more slowly. 3. S-M-I-T-H. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form WOULD YOU MIND. • Please don´t. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). 5. You: ____________________________________________________________ . Turn the radio down. Follow the instructions carefully. Make requests. You : _________________________________________________________ . You want Sr. Escuche. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes.ING. Smith 4. Ask him. 6. Repeat your question. 3. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. 6. go ahead. I didn´t know you were studying. Tom? Tom:: Of course. Take off your hat. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish.Ex. B. Sign your name here. You : María. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. Wait for me in the lobby. Ask him.

You want to use your friend´s lighter. mum? Your mother: Yes. Ask his permission. Ask the speaker´s permission. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. please.. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . Sir? Can/May I help you? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. C. to turn the light on.? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. 1. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. 2.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. You want to open the window. You´re at a conference. 3. to shut the window. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. please. but keep the volume down. 4. I´m working. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • • • • Shall I + Infinitive? Do you want me to + Infinitive? Would you like me to + Infinitive? Can/May I + Infinitive. please • No. Mr Jackson. 5. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. Jackson: Sure. Jack? Jack. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . I read it this morning. You want to turn on the TV. Bob? Bob: Sure. 1. go ahead. 7. I don´t need it now. come in please. please. thank you.EXERCISES Ex.. to spell your last name. 3. please. Ask your mother´s permission. It´s all yours. 1. You want to go in . You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . 2. You: _________________________________________________________________________________ . Follow the instructions carefully. I´ve got a bad cold. A short course in english for adult students 145 . You are at a friend´s house. You want to ask a question. Ask your host´s permission. You: _________________________________________________________________________________________. Ask his permission. Ask his permission. 6. You want to take a look at his newspaper. here you are. please do. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. Ask permission to do things. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. Mr. Ask his permission. Mr Jackson is working in his office. It´s too cold outside.

certainly / Yes.. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. please. thanks. etc. Sure. thanks. that´s a good idea. 10. 5. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. please. Why not? Yes. 3. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 6. I´m a bit busy right now. to repeat your question. I can manage myself. of course. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. To go to the seaside next weekend. 9. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. It´s getting late. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. I don´t understand French. to help me complete the application form. EXERCISES Ex. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. to call back later today. I´m a little hungry. please. 7. I don´t understand English very well yet. 4. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. Sorry I can´t. 2. to speak more slowly. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. 8. please. Let´s do that. To go to the movies after dinner tonight.4. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. 146 A short course in english for adult students . to tell Mary that I want to see her. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. To spend the summer holidays with us. D. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. 1. To sit on the grass and rest for a while.. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes.

Jane: So do I . 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). Why not. Peter: And so will Janet! 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. John went to the party. Peter went to the party as well. To play tennis tomorrow morning. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure.. Las palabras ALSO. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. It´s a pleasant evening. John went to the party. let´s do that. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. Escuche. John went to the party. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well.. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. Peter: And Janet will come too! A short course in english for adult students 147 . Peter went to the party. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow.5. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. let´s do that. It´s a very interesting exhibition.. 2. but Peter liked the party. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. It´s much cheaper. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. 9.. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. / BUT +S+ MV 1. NOT. 2) John. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. They´re very nice people. A. 7. Jane: I also like it very much. Peter didn´t go to the party either. 6. To stay at home and watch TV . John didn´t like the party. but Peter did.too. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes.TOO. I´d love to. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. lea y aprenda. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. Peter also went to the party. To go to the arts exhibition. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. Tom: And so was his brother . John didn´t like the party. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. Mary will come to the party tonight. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. John didn´t go to the party. 10. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. ALSO. but Peter didn´t go to the party. John went to the party and so did Peter. but Peter didn´t. John went to the party. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8.

Peter doesn´t understand Italian. or do you speak another language? 10. ___________________ my husband can. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ 8. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. Mary: I don´t like it either. Las palabras NOT. ___________________ John is not going to go there. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL.. 9. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. then? Ex. 2a. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. or BUT 1. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. John walks to school. lea y aprenda. He´s going to go to France. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. Escuche.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). I don´t understand it ___________________ 6. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. Mary is going to go to Spain. (he) 5. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. I watch TV after dinner. Escuche. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did.. Ann: I didn´t see you either. (the secretary) 3. We´ve got a big house. She comes here every day. (Carmen) 2. (Jane) 1. EITHER. What language do you speak. (I) 4. Mary: Neither do I. (We) 7. 148 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. EXERCISES Ex. Mary likes pie for dessert. 7. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. Mary can speak Italian well. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ 4. 5. Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. (my wife) 8. lea y aprenda. Ann: Nor did I! 4.3. He liked the picture. 3. I can´t drive a car. 1. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ 2.

(we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They weren´t very busy. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. (The children) 9.EITHER. first use NOT. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . (My friends) 10. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (Carmen) 2. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER (o NOR) DOES JANE. (I) 13. John doesn´t go to school . (I) 13. 2b. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. Mary can speak Italian well. My car is very old. I didn´t eat there yesterday. (the secretary) 3. 3. Then use NEITHER (or NOR).9. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (They) 11. They were very busy. Now. (the secretary) 3. They must pay more. Complete these sentences with BUT. They mustn´t pay more. (I) 4. but Jane doesn´t. (they) 11.(My wife´s car) 12. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. We won´t go by train. (Peter) 6. (you) 14. (Carmen) 2. (my wife’s car) 12. (Jane) 1. John walks to school.. Mary should work harder. Bob doesn´t like coffee.. (you) 14. Mary can´t speak Italian well. (I) Bob likes coffee. My car isn´t very old. (he) 5. 1. but Jane does. We will go by train. I ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. She doesn´t come here every day. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. John didn´t go to the movies.

(We) 7. Mary shouldn´t work harder. Mary likes pie for dessert. She brought the book to me. I watch TV after dinner. He sent some candy to his sister. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones TO o FOR. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. 150 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. He sent a letter to me. (he) 5. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. My car is very old. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). He liked the picture. (my friends) 10. 2. 1. Del mismo modo. She comes here every day. “What did Peter send yesterday”. 5. (I) 13. (they) 11.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. Como ud.4. They must pay more. A su vez. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones TO o FOR. lea y aprenda. 6. John went to the movies with us. 3. Ex. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. (my wife’s car) 12.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. They were very busy. (Peter) 6. He told the story to us. The teacher gave some dictation to us. I ate there yesterday. (my wife) 8. 4. (you) 14. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. (the children) 9. “What did Mary buy?. He gave the money to me. We will go by train.

10. 12. Henry told us the story of his trip. 9. John lent some money to his friends. 5. They sent us the material right away. 6. They sent us an invitation to the party. 9. They gave us some magazines. They brought us many presents from abroad. Please give us some dictation today. He sent his mother several letters. He gave a ring to (=phoned) his girlfriend. 3. 11. 2. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. John gladly lent me the money. 10. Will you lend your pen to me? 12. 4. 7. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. He bought some flowers for his wife 8. 2. 11.7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . He gave me some books. Ex. 8. They sent an invitation to us. Please hand me that book. I gave him the note which you sent. He gave some excellent advice to all of us.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél"/ (La salud) arthritis /a:r"ráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hél"/ heart attack /ha:rt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rú:matizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r "róut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tú" eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:pi# kof/ tos convulsiva.

please? Ex... At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7. A short course in english for adult students 153 .. Ex. 6. please? 2..come 5.. Could you / Would you take. please? 6. Can I use your.? 7. me to repeat my. Would you mind using... will be working 2.. 6. 4.. Ex. The students won´t be taking..going 20..be doing 11..stay / are .. 4.be doing Ex.. 10. me to get you. don´t we take... will be watching 10.... will be working out 9... 1. will . 5. please? 3. like to spend.. me to translate.? 2.. Can you / Will you come. please? 6.? 5.buy 12. shut.come 13. / Will the students be taking. 5. 1. 4.staying 22.. please? / Would you mind showing me. did .... like to go. please? 6.. / Will Mike be washing.. please? 4. 9. 10.? 4.? 4.... me to help you...do 10... please? 3.... Hans won´t be working. Could you / Would you repeat. 1 They won´t be running...Would you mind speaking. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex... Will .? 3. will be entertaining 5. Can you / Will you speak. don´t we invite. May I / Do you mind if I use... 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. Could you / Would you use. 1... 1.stay 9. 1. will be working 4. please? 7.? 5. will . did ..living 16...expecting 15...3... sitting. and resting. Did ..go / are ... will be living 6. Could you / Would you sign.... Can you / Will you sit. 1.please? 5.. will . 1..please? 4.arrive / are ..please? 3 Can you / Will you open . please? Ex.. will .. please? 5. 1. Would you mind signing. Can you / Will you pay. please? 4.. Ex. comes 5...KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex. are .. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. tell Mary that you.5.....please? 7.. Ex.? 3..be doing 10.doing 8. will have dinner 7.. 1...? Ex. Can you / Will you give me.put on 24...? 3. 1.. were watching 4. 6. Could you / Would you show me.. 7..travel PART II A. 2. will . will visit 3.? C. will. Mike won´t be washing. will . 2.. don´t we go..going to be 19. to spell my. will be doing 7. Would you mind taking. 1....and watching. Mr Perez? 2.. were .practice 7. will be visiting. is playing 2. did . Could you / Would you spell.. do . will be driving 4. Could you / Would you turn.get up 18.. May I / Do you mind if I ask.. 1.. play.. Would you mind waiting... Can you / Will you turn down. / Will Hans be working. does .. Would you mind repeating. 2.. 1. Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me. will be travelling 3.. go... were . will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3. please? Ex... does .. Could you / Would you help me... D.. will be playing 8.going to go / are . will ..phone 14.. Were .... 1.. Can you / Will you help.? 2.Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5.going to stay / are .. call back. 7..please? 2.. Can I take..be / are . 8.. saw 6. 8. don´t we travel...reading 9. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6.. turn.? 6. May I / Do you mind if I go in.? 2. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait..spend . 4.... Can I turn.... 3. / Will they be running.. 9.going to arrive / are . smokes 23... Do ....? 6. did . 3.. will be having 2. please? 4.. please? 7. 1.... will be cooking 8. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3. staying. please? B... please? / Would you mind spelling. me to speak. Can you / Will you call me up...arriving 21. Can you / Will you be. Would you mind turning. please? 5.. Could you / Would you speak.. 3.. will ....write 17. May I / Do you mind if I open.. Ex.

6. but he does.. and Carmen can. 4.. / They must pay... and neither / nor will they. and neither / nor does the secretary.. and we liked... 1..... but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work.. 14. / I don´t watch. We will go..11. too / as well 2..9... 6. 12... John didn´t go.either / Mary should work.. and my friends also ate... either / I don´t eat...either / Mary doesn´t like. The teacher gave us some dictation 6.either / She doesn´t come. either 6.. and Peter also went. and he comes. I ate... John doesn´t walk.. / John doesn´t walk. He bought his wife some flowers.. / I watch.... 8.either / I didn´t eat. 1.. and so can Carmen 2... Mary can.. Henry told the story of his trip to us.. They must pay. and so did we 7.12. but the children don´t.. We´ll go.... 10.. Mary doesn´t like. I diidn´t eat... / John went.. either Ex.. Ex... but they won´t... but Peter did. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12.They brought many presents to us from abroad. John went... but my friends did. but 3. and so did my friends... and neither / nor did my friends. Mary shouldn´t work. 2b. and he doesn´t come. and Peter didin´t go.. 10...... and I wasn´t. I eat. either / Mary can´t... Mary can speak.. but 9. Mary should work. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes.. but my wife doesn´t. Mary can´t.. She doesn´t come..5... and so was I 13. Will you lend me your pen? 12.. 7.. He liked.... 3.. 8... and my wife´s car isn´t... He gave me the money 2.. and my wife also watches.. 5.either.. as well / John walks.... / We´ll go. but Carmen can 2. and Carmen can´t.... and neither / nor should you. 4... 11....8. 1.. 6. 9. but my wife does... John went. They were... but the children do.... My car isn´t. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students . / We won´t go. and neither / nor must we Ex. He sent his sister some candy.. 10.. too / Mary can... and so does my wife 8. 9. but 7.... Mary likes. 10. 1. either / They must pay. as well.... and you shouldn´t work. My car is.. John walks. 3. She comes. too. also 5.. They sent us an invitation... and I don´t walk. but we must B. They sent the material to us right away. 2a. and neither / nor was I. Ex..... 1. / I eat. 2.... and my wife´s car is.. and the secretary doesn´t eat..and so did Peter.. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat. either / John doesn´t walk.. either / He didn´t like.. 11..... but they will. and so should you.. and neither / nor does my wife 8... but we did....... and they will also go... also 10... I eat... and my friends didn´t eat.. and neither / nor do I 4..and so does he 5.. and so do I 4.7.. I ate. They were..either / We won´t go. / They weren´t... Mary likes.and neither / nor did Peter.. and neither / nor did we 7. I don´t watch. / I ate. as well / They were... My wife´s car is..... but the secretary does 3.. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t. 10. 3... 6. and my wife doesn´t watch...... / John didn´t go. He sent several letters to his mother.. / Mary likes... either / They weren´t.... 11... but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. but my wife´s car is. and the children also like. 13.. and the secreatry also eats... and so does the secretary.. 2.. 1..too / Mary should work. 1 gave the note which you sent to him.. and so do the children 9....... 13. either 4. He gave his friend a ring. 14. and they won´t go. and we didn´t like.. He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. He didn´t like. as well / He liked. Please give some dictation to us today... John lent his friends some money 11.. John gladly lent the money to me. and so must we Ex.... I watch. He liked. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. 1..and neither / nor does he 5.. and you should work.but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak. He gave some books to me.. but you should . and so will they. / Mary doesn´t like.... but I was. and I walk. too / as well 8. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come.... 14.. They mustn´t pay. 3 He sent me a letter 4.. She comes..PART III A. He told us the story 5. They sent an invitation to the party to us. I watch... but we didn´t / He didn´t like.. We won´t go.. too / She comes. They gave some magazines to us. 3.. / I don´t watch... They weren´t. but I don´t. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay. Mary should work. and the children don´t like. and I was... but I wasn´t... 7.either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. John walks.. She brought me the book... I don´t eat. and we mustn´t pay. and neither / nor do the children 9. but I do. They must pay and we must pay. 1.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

/wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra.decided ... Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. habremos Uds. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente.worked. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. /!éiv á:nserd !e léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. Curiosamente. Ej. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (HAVE /hæv/ o HAS /hæz/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. puede ver.. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente. /iu:v/. etc. To work .decided. /hí:z/. y por lo tanto Ud. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. Escuche. He´s. /aiv/. Ellos han contestado la carta.. como por ejemplo: I´ve..studied . A short course in english for adult students 157 . She´s /shí:z.worked . habíamos Uds. Como Ud.studied. /ái hav sí:n !æt mú:vi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo.. You´ve. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. To study . /áiv bí:n !éar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. To decide . hemos Uds. forma) de un verbo principal. /méri haz ríten aná!er nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra.

for ten years /for tén yíarz/.. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. /áiv sí:n !at dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. en las negaciones se debe usar yet. etc. Yes. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræ#k tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /!e tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. never /nóu/néver/ No. /yés wáns !éi vízitid mi in !e wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. many times /méni támiz/..EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SE USA EN LOS SIGUIENTES CASOS: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. Lea.. /áim shó:r !at áiv sí:n !t fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún). Lea. since 10:30 /sins tén "é:rti/. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. tambien. twice /twáis/.. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. /!éiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. hasta este momento.. /hav iú éver.? vez. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER... once.. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. Lea. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. several times /sévral támiz/. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. una vez.? Lea. Lea. three or four times /"rí: or fó:r támiz/. durante). la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá:st mándi/. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. They visited me in the winter of 1995. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv !éi éver vízitid iú: in !e wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students .

haber oir guardar. salir. /áiv olrédi sí:n "æt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. Generalmente ´ ´ se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævent/ HASN´T /hæznt/). escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigæn/ ´ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. mantener saber. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. /!éi hævent sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ ´ Have they seen that documentary? /hav !éi sí:n "t dokiuméntari/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav !éi sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Mary has sold her car. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar.Lea. dejar prestar perder. enterarse partir. servirse. 1. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea.? EXERCISES Ex. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz !e tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ ´ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. We haven´t had breakfast yet. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /fo:rgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. conocer aprender. Mary hasn´t sold her car. encontrar olvidar conseguir. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. /!éi hav sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary.

He knows it well. (go) 8. fabricar. (see) 5.conocer pagar poner. The tennis game________________ just ________________. John ________________ for that company since 1987. I don´t remember when. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. I ________________ that man before. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. confeccionar reunirse. colocar leer correr. llevar enseñar decir pensar. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. creer entender. (meet) Ex. vestir escribir Ex.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. Your train ________________ already ________________. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. 2. (leave) 4. (speak) 12. 2. 5. (go) 10. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . The plane has already left. but I´m sure I know him. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. 3. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. (receive) 7. comprender usar (ropa). Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. (live) 6. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. He________________ to America. They have studied the report. 1. 6. Hurry up! (start) 2. (work) 9. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. John has sent them a fax. Sir. 4. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. He isn´t in Chile. 3. The soccer game has already finished. He´s reading it now. (be) 3. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. Peter has had dinner already.

John? ___________________________________________________ 5. /d/. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. /p/. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. como /m/. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. 5. 4. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como WHAT. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill.____________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989.Ex. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . 5. 4. ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ 7. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. como /k/. ___________________________________________________ 3. 10. etc. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés.. ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. 7. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. _______________________________________________ Yes. /g/. /b/. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. 2. HOW. El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. 6. 3. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 7. ___________________________________________________ 8. 1. etc. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. 4. ______________________________________________ No. 11. ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. 6. /t/. /l/. 8. 2. Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. ___________________________________________________ 2. ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. 9. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. HOW LONG. WHEN. WHERE. 12. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. 5. etc. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. ___________________________________________________ 6. 6. todavía? ___________________________________________________ 9. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. 1. _________________________________________________ Ex. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ 10.

Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. -ch. -x. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. banjo. Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . no siguen la regla anterior. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. solo. piano.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. -ge. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. etc). Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . -oof. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. -ce. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. -ff. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s. soprano. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. -sh.

volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. tornado / to:rnéidou /.: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:"/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:"/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . volcanos/volcanoes / volkéinouz/ . zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /"í:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /!í:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipó"esis/ parenthesis /parén"esis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipó"esi:z/ parentheses /parén"esi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memor!da/ A short course in english for adult students 163 .

164 A short course in english for adult students . gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. correr el riesgo de To stop /stop/ dejar de. etc. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. salir. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. continuar. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. detenerse To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. I heard some surprising news. to write. Además. to speak. seguramente recordará. etc. como ud. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To practise /práktis/ practicar To quit /kuit/ dejar. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. They went sightseeing in the morning.B. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóuti#/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuli#/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpi#/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsi#/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhi#/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hæ# gláidi#/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háiki#/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógi#/ ir a trotar To go running /góu ráni#/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séili#/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópi#/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:i#/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéiti#/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:i#/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáivi#/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swími#/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu tréki#/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:i#/ ir a esquiar (acuat. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. 1. parar. I enjoy playing tennis. After playing tennis. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. aceptar como cierto To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. abandonar To risk /risk/ arriesgar. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To).) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópi#/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. they went to the library. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. no aceptar como cierto To dislike /disláik/ disgustar o desagradar To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). speaking. writing.

I look forward to seeing you soon. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:r"wail/ ¿Vale la pena. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. 3. We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. planificar Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get "ru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ To think about /"i#k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar.. (leave) 7. worth /iz !is. (go) Ex.. mantenerse esperar con ansia. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /!eaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? 2.esta/e. 1.we:r"/ ¿Vale la pena. seguir insistir en continuar.. Bob will soon get used to living in this country. Por lo tanto. 1. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. ______________________________ to bed. (pay) 4. rendirse continuar. I can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. (say) 2.. The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it.. (take) 6. Ann is fond of gardening. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. (work) 5. Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check.. 2. mantenerse soñar con. the old woman locked all the doors. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? 4.. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. seguir. discutir pensar en. It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v.?) There´s no use waiting any longer. (eat) 3.. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ Es inutil There´s not much point in /!eaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex. A short course in english for adult students 165 . seguir. He put on his coat ______________________________ the house..Todas las preposiciones van seguidas de un GERUNDIO. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de.. They kept on talking for hours.

If you walk ínto the road without looking. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? 6. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Shall we go away tomorrow. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 4. It´s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. 8. no problem. Sorry! Bob admitted __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. 7. I didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 4. I really must do it today. He tried to avoid _____answering ____my question. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? 3. 1. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. 3. it’s true. You can´t stop me doing what I want. 10. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. 9. 9. 1. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer apply be be listen make see try use wash work write 1. Bob: We could go the cinema. 11. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. Ann: Do you want to play tennis? Bob: No. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! 10. 6. I don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. I enjoy _______________________ to music. 2. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? 12. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 8. Bob: No. Ex. 5. 7. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. I dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2.5. not really. Use -ING. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. Ann: You broke into the shop. I aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. Ex. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. He wants to carry on _______________________. 2. instead of today? Shall we postpone _________________________________ until _______________________________________? 166 A short course in english for adult students .

2. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . He will not stay at the home of his cousin. The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. We will not visit the Smiths. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He will not remain a bachelor. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. 5. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. Use gerunds. l’m not feeling very well. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. 4. They will not drive in their new car. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 1. There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. (wait) 11. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) 2. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. (study) 9. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. John got tired _______________________ for us. (see) 7. John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. (finish) Ex. She’s a very interesting person. There is little chance _______________________ her again. (drive) 10. 8. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. She will study music. We look forward _______________________ you soon. Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. (hit) 6. Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) 4. Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. 2. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. 7. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. He will live in a dormitory.4. We’re going to the movie tonight. (take) 12. I aIways enjoy talking to her. (see) 5. John will study to be an engineer. They won’t go abroad. I will play tennis. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. He will not work in his father’s store. She won’t go to the university. Could you turn the radio down. (do) 8. lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. 6. 6. (go) 3. They will stay home this summer. He will marry Helen. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. 3. We are thinking _______________________ French. They will fly to Mexico.

and I still don’t understand it. 9. Well. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. It was cold and rainy yesterday. B: Well. I´m not tired yet. then. They’re considering _______________________ 3.Ex. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. try. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. Sometimes students put off_______________________ their homework. 11. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. B: Oh. don’t give up. 9. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes.m. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. A: Good. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. 13. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. I don’t cough any more. if necessary. 6. It´s driving me crazy. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. Add a preposition after the gerund. 5. 12. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. 14. 7. Keep _______________________. lt’s slowly falling apart.. We had a blizzard. 10. 1. 8. 10. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. yesterday. try again. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. I´d be glad to. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ . I enjoy _______________________ sports. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. 2. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. it has. 2. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. 8. could you help me in the kitchen? B: Sure. Ex. she dusted the furniture. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. 4. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. I’m listening to you. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. Beth doesn’t like her job. B: Let´s go. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ . The Porters´ house is too small. 6. 168 A short course in english for adult students . news! I feel great. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes.

Last summer John went to Paine National Park. It´s winter now. 14. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. “Three free trees. George and Jane know all the latest dances. so the lake is completely frozen. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Mr. Barbarta prefers indoor sports.9. She spends hours in the water. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . The ice is smooth. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. Use the expressions GO +. She runs a couple of miles every day. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. When there’s a strong wind.. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.ING 1. Mr. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. Jim Clark is a nature lover. I said. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. 11. A: I didn’t understand what you said. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. “ Ex. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. He usually takes long walks in the woods. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . On weekends in the winter. Jim and his wife live near the sea. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. What do they like to do? They like ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Answer the questions. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health.

r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:"/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúri#/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in ! kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /"ru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wi!/ within /wi!in/ without /wi!áut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (Preposiciones y frases preposicionales) English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / ló#/ among / má#/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t ! bæk v/ ´ at the bottom of / t ! bótom v/ at the top of / t ! tóp #v/ before /bifó. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para. for 3 days from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . hacia hacia. at 4. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. por desde.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students.

B.. so he failed the exam.. He studied hard as well. CONNECTORS (Conectores) Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque. furthermore..o:r/ neither. we have to wash the car.no:r/ not only. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad. next /nékst/ a pesar de. por consiguiente así. por otra parte sin embargo. I´m getting along quite well. He gave her a beautiful diamond.. he went to the bank. 9... Mary was sick.. 7.. the house is not very comfortable. no sólo.and. moreover. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdi#li/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ól!ou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /fé:r!ermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando.sino que también.. nevertheless.. 5.. así mismo mientras tanto además. en realidad además a pesar de ello en primer lugar mientras tanto del mismo modo por un lado por otro lado para comenzar para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . we´ve known each other all our lives.. de lo contrario similarmente. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. acto seguido sin embargo. she came to class.. but he didn´t do well in the test.. yet she didn´t pass her exam.and/ either. 13.. He´s my best friend. enseguida.. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ in addition /in adíshon/ in spite of that /in spáit v !æt/ in the first place /in ! fé:rst pléis/ in the meantime /in ! mí:ntaim/ in the same way /in ! seim wéi/ on the one hand / n ! wan hænd/ ´ on the other hand / n !i á! r hænd/ ´ to begin with /tu bigín wi!/ to start with /tu stá:rt wi!/ de hecho. The yard is too big.. por cierto thus /!as/ inicialmente.como. 8.. 10. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néver!elés/ en consecuencia.bat ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto.. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. 6.. he took her to Europe... my roommate is not doing so well. 4. then. First. no obstante nonetheless /nan!eles/ igualmente otherwise /á!erwaiz/ finalmente. ni.. no obstante después. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. 3.or /í:!er.ni. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan "i#/ for that reason /for !æt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1.. he went to the post office. 2. however. it has an excellent location 14. de este modo en cambio. he seems to know a lot about our customs.but also /nót óunli. 12. On the one hand.. The student speaks English well.. o. in addition.. sin embargo.. besides... en consecuencia posteriormente. no obstante ello de otro modo. ya sea. pues por lo tanto. 11. aunque. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital. no obstante therefore /!éarfo:r/ en efecto. It´s cold outside. He didn´t study hard enough. entonces.. we can´t afford the house. con posterioridad por lo tanto. del mismo modo por lo tanto. debido a que no both.. Alice studied very hard. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar. por lo tanto then /!en/ sin embargo.. nonetheless. on the other hand. /bóu"..nor /ní:!er.

Bl 172 .

Ex.been 10. 1. they´ve never seen one 4. (Possible answers) 2. applying 5. please? 6. looking for 10. / Have they given her. without / after saying 2. I´ve never been there 2.. going to 4. visiting Ex.Yes. of taking 12. 1.left 4.instead of driving in their new car Ex. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. Why has he gone to bed? 4. The general has already gone to the meeting. 2. How long have you worked in the army? 10. about studying 9. breaking down Ex. They haven´t given her. waiting 2. 6.read 11.. making 3. to seeing 5.. 5.. Ex. playing tennis 3. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4..instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. he´s lived abroad several times 6. Ex. tomorrow 4... 8. 1. practising 11. instead of going abroad 4. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. before eating 3. seeing 10.. 7. of swimming 2. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. 3. snowing 7. What have you eaten? 8. about taking 6. has gone 8. of doing 8. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. standing up 4. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. 1. I haven´t read that book yet 2. by working 5. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. has spoken 12.instead of working in his father´s store 6. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. What have they bought? 3. using 9. hitting 9. I´ve driven one once or twice 5.. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. she´s been there twice 3. having 10. moving into a larger house 3. has .. 5. before going Ex.. of driving 10. answering 11. have lived 6.. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2.. going for a swim 5. washing 6. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. eating 6. 4. speaking 13. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. buying 8. What has Mary told you about that? 7. 3. of finishing Ex. has worked 9. turning the radio down. on going 3.. Yes. taking 9. being 12. working 8. They´ve been here several times before. 6. (Possible answers) 2. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . I´ve never seen him in person 7.. vacuuming 5. has . going out for a walk 5. No. has . Yes. 6.instead of going to the university 3. No. laughing 6. Where has John been? 9.started 2. travelling during the rush hour 3. going out this evening 3. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. being 8. trying Ex.. 1. How many books have they sold today? 6. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. listening 4. visiting 12. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. reading 4..received 7. 1. not having a license 5. working 14... How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2.. 2. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. taking 5. without / after paying 4. 4. doing 6. of seeing 7. before leaving 7. has been 3. being 7. No. 2...1 1. has . 1. 2. of waiting 11. have . What have the boys done today? 11. John? 5. speaking 3. riding 7. have met Ex. 8. 2.? Ex. Ex. Yes.. instead of visiting the Smiths 5.. she´s come here a couple of times. from hitting 6. 9. in speaking 4. 4. have seen 5. Breaking / having broken 6... waiting a few minutes. 3. going away. They´ve studied English for more than two years.

go dancing 10. are going to go ice-skating 11. helping him 8. like to go skiing 7.Ex. go sight-seeing 13. goes bowling 9. to go shopping 5. to go water-skiing 3. doing things / doing his homework 7. like to go sky-diving 14. etc. went camping 4. 2. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. trying 6. repeating that Ex. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. 2. smoking 5. likes trekking 8. goes jogging 6. 11. 10. 174 A short course in english for adult students . like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. reading a good book 4. like to go sailing 12.

(stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . /tóm haz bí:n wé:rki# !éar sins éit "é:rti/. /!éiv lívd in !e sáu" éver sins !éi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el ´ sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. (sit) 4. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. /!éi hav bí:n lívi# in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. (work) 3. /!éiv bi:n lívi# in !e sáu" for at lí:st tú mán"s/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rki# !éar for mó:ar !an tú: áuarz/ ´ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav !ei bí:n lívi# !éar véri ló#/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu lo# hav iú: bi:n præktisi# í#glish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado ´ practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:i#/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y ´ ´ en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. /wí:v bí:n stádii# i#glish for óuver tú: mán"s/ It´s been raining for about an hour. Miami desde 1985. 2. Lea.30. /its bí:n réini# for abáut an áuar/. /hi:z bí:n wérki# !éar for abáut tú: áuarz/. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. hasta esta fecha. Lea. /hi:z wé:rkt !éar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours.? EXERCISES Ex. 1.UNIT 13 PART 1. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 1.

Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 176 A short course in english for adult students . 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. 1. a) ______________________________________ 4. Where. The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. Bob´s been swimming all morning. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. (discuss) Ex. (run) 7. a) ______________________________________ 5. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. and b) interrogative. When. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) 6. The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. 3.5. a) ______________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ Ex. Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. 1. Change the following sentences into a) negative. (work out) 10. The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. Ask questions using question words like What. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. a) ______________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. etc. (write) 9. a) ______________________________________ 3. (read) 8. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. Jane´s been feeling well since March. How long.

verse. They seem to be doing well now. simular Prometer Rehusar. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. simular. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . II (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) A. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. TO DECIDE planear. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. Peter wants to study engineering. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. The woman pretends to know everything. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. /si:m/ parecer. He pretended to be reading the paper. verse. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. negarse a Amenazar. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To allow /aláu/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disé:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Permitir. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. She promised not to be late. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. The students tend to be negligent. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. que son las siguientes: 1. simular. so I agreed to lend him some money. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice.PART II. I promise to help you. pensar. TO WISH /wish/ desear. no lograr Olvidar Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. autorizar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. etc. 2. TO PLAN /plæn/ To hope /houp/ To learn /lé:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /"réten/ To want /wont/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer.

(El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado) Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. I´d love to go to the club. I begged them to see the photos. I would like to go. implorar. Bob taught us how to use the computer. I begged to see the photos. TO TELL /tel/ decir. pedir. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. (Tú me haces sentir feliz) The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. Do you understand what to do? 5. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. I don´t mean you to do it now. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. etc. B. the student. me. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. madam. Verb + Wh. 4. I´d hate the boys to do it here. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy.. solicitar To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir. “You make me TO feel happy”. suplicar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. TO ASK /a:sk/ preguntar o consultar. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. 6. señora) Please let me go out. mostrar. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. (Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola) Let me carry your bag for you. (Por favor. I want to go there.3. (No se debe decir. him. I´d prefer to do it now.Mary. TO KNOW /nóu/. (El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta) Hot weather makes me feel tired. They don´t mean to do it now. I would prefer /wud prife´:r/ preferiría I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. We expect you to be there soon. preguntar. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer.. I´d hate to do that here. He asked to take part. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. . them. He asked them where to go. We expect to be there soon. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. when. where. (Permítame llevarle su bolso. déjeme salir) 178 A short course in english for adult students B I want you to go there He asked us to take part.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. saber.

They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. (watch) 2. I can manage myself. Put the verb into the correct form TO-INFINITIVE or -ING 1. (acción completa) D. We were all too afraid to speak. van seguidos de un GERUND cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. Complete the sentences for each situation. thanks. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. They don’t have much money. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. It’s a nice day. 3. Ex. I wonder where Sue is. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. When I’m tired. Mary: OK. Jack : Please help me. fine. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) 4. 1. (go) 6. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________ to the airport in time. 4. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. 2. She promised not_____________________________ late. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. It’s driving me mad. 3. It was a nice day. 5. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. We’ve got a new computer in our office. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) 5. 179 . I’m not in a hurry. 6. 1. (parte de la acción) We´ ve heard them sing ten songs. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. It’s relaxing. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. (bark) 7. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. (go) 3. 2. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. (call) A short course in english for adult students La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle Los hemos oído cantando una canción Los hemos oído cantar 10 canciones. Hans: OK. I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise.C. 1. please? EXERCISES Ex. (acción completa) We´ ve heard them singing a song. I enjoy _____________________________ television.

3. I was surprised that it rained.(seem) Tom is worried about something. 2. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. TO WAIT 1. (appear) You know a lot of people. (seem) My English is getting better.. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. (seem) That car has broken down. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. Sue: Lock the door. 8. Yes. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students .. 5. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. 4. 6. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can I go now or do _______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 6. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. We were hungry. of course. (appear) David forgets things. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. 7. Sylvia: Be careful. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. Sylvia warned Hans: OK. 7. 2. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. My father said I could use his car.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. I didn’t know _____________________________. TO REPEAT.(tend) They have solved the problem. Sue told Hans to lock the door. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? _____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No _____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry..? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Jane. 5. TO SHUT. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. He has lost weight. 5. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. Complete the questions. TO SHOW. 1. 4. Ex. 1. 2. I will. (find) Ex. 4.8. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. 6. TO LEND. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 5. 6. 4. 1. 3. 3. I was really astonished. (have) 9.. Tom asked _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. (miss) 10.

They have been working all morning and feel very tired. Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. I was told that I shouldn’t believe everything he says. sin cambiar de significado. (study) E. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. TO LOVE /lav/ encantarle a uno.continuar. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. (smoke) 2. (I said that. It made me _____________________________ (cry) 9. arrepentirse. I regret saying what I said. recordarse. My lawyer said I shouldn’t say anything to the police. stop/ parar. I remembered to do that.. estos cambian el significado de la oración. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. We continued to work until 10:30. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I think you should know the truth. My lawyer advised. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. you are able to travel round more easily. The minister went on talking for two hours. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) 7. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. 9. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. The food is awful (eat) 8. a diferencia de los anteriores. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios.. I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. VERBS +. Don´t stop him doing what he wants.3. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. (read) 5.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. I’m in a difficult position. Put the verb in the right form : -ING or INFINITIVE (with or without TO). A short course in english for adult students 181 . The film was very sad. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. 1. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. He looks older when he wears glasses. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. I love to go to baseball games. He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) 6. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) 4. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you’ve got a car. TO STOP / detenerse. After discussing the economy. (go) 3. (I remembered I had to do that. I remember doing that.

The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. They denied _____________________________the money. Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) 6. Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (write) 20. The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. I won’t be late. “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) 12. Sometimes either form is possible. I clean (= completely) forgot. (watch) 11. Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. (help) 10. (break) 11. (steal) 2. One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) 16. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. (go) 4._____________________________you any money. (answer) 10. (meet) I hope _________________________ you again soon. Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 13. Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) 7. Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) 8. I want _____________________________this afternoon. We finished _____________________________ around seven. (move) 15. Ex. (talk) 4. I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. (go) 17. (be) 14. (see) 15. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. (get) 5. I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. I’ll phone her tomorrow. (go) (shop) 24. 2. (meet) 8. 182 A short course in english for adult students . (come) 22. 3. 1. I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) 3. I haven’t got enough money. (live) 19. Some children hate _____________________________ to school. 2. 3. Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. (pay) 12. Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. 1.’ (shut) 14. Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) 7. The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. I promise _____________________________ on time. (drive) 3. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. (eat) 6. She didn’t answer the phone. (get). I need to study tonight (study) 2. (camp) 9. (jog) 21. (lock) 18. Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) 9. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) 13. (go) 5. I’m too tired. B: Did l? Are you sure? I don’t remember . A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. (say) 23. (cry) 16. I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. I like _____________________________ new people.EXERCISES Ex. 1. That’s not what I meant! I meant _____________________________ just the opposite. The company will continue _____________________________ (hire) new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. 1.

14. 3. It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning.George? (do) 11. (move) 18. mum. Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . Smith. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. It is too expensive. When you see Mandy tomorrow. I want a different job. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. (watch) 12. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. TO-INFINITIVE. (wash). so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. Where did they agree_____________________________. It needs _____________________________. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. (wash) 2. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. (go) 6. This is very urgent. remember _____________________________ her my regards. I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. 7. I believe that what I said was fair. This jacket is dirty. Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. (do) 10. I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. She looked up and said hello to me. 4. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) 5. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) 13. I saw him _____________________________ his car.(buy) 16. When I came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. (move) 19. 6. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. or did you forget? (phone) 4. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. I´ve already done my homework. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. (lock) 20. won’t you? 5. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. (rain) 8.4. (go) 7. Ex. I don’t regret _____________________________ it. GERUND. 9. They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. (talk) 15. The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. (live) 9. (watch) 17. As a matter of fact I do it every day. 12. 10. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. 1. 11. Someone must have taken my bag. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. BARE INFINITIVE. We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. 8. I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday.

__________________? 5. ________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . ____________________________________ ? 2. ________________________________________? 4. ________________________________? 13. _________________________________? 4. She studies with you. You live uptown. He comes here every day. _____________________________________? 11. _________________________________________? 10. He will be back later. Mr. _________________________________________? 14. Henry left at two o’clock. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t he? 1. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. 1. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. ________________________________________? 9. George is a very tall boy. has he? Como Ud. The boy can´t speak French. They were both absent from the lesson. It is beginning to rain. did he? The boys can´t speak French. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. Helen and her sister are both studying English. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. ____________________________________? 6. Mary is at home now. _________________________? 3. You are busy today. You know him well. is she? You don´t know him well. ___________________________________? 7. The wind is blowing very hard. I´m your best friend. ________________________________? Ex. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. ______________________________________? 2. Smith has seen that movie. ____________________________________? 7. The boy can speak French. 2. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. isn´t she? You know him well. ___________________________________ ? 3. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: isn’t he? 1. They will be here early. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. ha advertido. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE.PART III TAG ENDINGS. He has to work tomorrow. _____________________________________? 8. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. ____________________________________________? 8. _________________________? 9. John is a good student. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. ________________________________________? 5. He has many friends here. She can speak French well. You don´t know him well. There´s some more milk in the fridge. You were absent from class yesterday. _________________________________________? 6. I´m doing the exercise well. Both men look very much alike. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. Add the proper tag ending. He left at two o’clock. ___________________________? 12.

___________________________? 5. He hasn’t got any money. _______________________________ 3. ___________________________________? 2. He gave him the stamps. _____________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 185 .10. ______________________________? Ex. William was born in Cardiff. __________________________________? 9. _____________________________ 10. William has been working very hard today. 4. ____________________________________? 4. They are leaving early in the morning. Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. _______________________________________? 9. The sun is setting now. There are only a few people ahead of him. _________________________________________? 4. _________________________________________? 12. The sun sets at about six o’clock. ___________________________________________? 6. But he dropped the letter into the box. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. _______________________________? 12. John often walks to the post office. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. ________________________________________? 6. _____________________________ 9. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t she? 1. José used to work in this office. _______________________? Ex. ______________________________? 11. ________________________________________? 12. They went into the church. Sue was at home when you called last night. He never goes there in the morning. ________________________________________? 7. _________________________________ doesn’t he? 2. ______________________________ 6. They didn’t come with her. He didn’t mail any packages. William will be here soon. __________________________ 7. __________________? 8. ___________________________________ 12. He doesn’t come here every day. Smith is out of town. There are many people ahead of him. The shopping district extends for many blocks.. He doesn’t always buy stamps. John didn’t receive any change. _____________________________________ 14. They didn’t arrive on time. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Add the proper tag ending: does he? 1. ____________________________________________? 10. There are many students absent today. Mary goes shopping every day. He put a stamp on the envelope. ______________________ 4. The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. _________________________________? 11. 3. ___________________________________ 5. _______________________________________________? 3. They didn’t have to work yesterday. _______________________________? 8. __________________________________________? 5. They don’t live uptown. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. She can’t speak French. _____________________________________? 2. She isn’t busy now. ______________________________ 8. He didn’t visit us last night.. __________________________________ 13. __________________________________________? 11. Mr. _________________________________________ 11. 5. __________________________________________? 7. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. They don’t know each other. _________________________? 3.”. _________________________________________? Ex. _________________________? 10.

but you`re not sure. You think. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boy has had dinner already. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think John`s been to England twice. can they? 1. You say: The children can`t swim well. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle. You think John put on his new sweater. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. but you`re not sure. but you are not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think the boys worked harder than the girls. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think there was too much noise in the room. Ask questions. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. but you`re not sure. You think I was at the meeting too. 6. but you`re not sure. using tag endings. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 186 A short course in english for adult students . You say: Mary speaks Spanish. but you`re not sure. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again. You think you´re a good student. You think they have to work a little faster. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday. doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again. but you`re not sure.Ex. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think my friends come from Wisconsin. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. but you`re not sure.

excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /tréki#/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /trá#ks/ pantalones de atlet.box) movie theater /múvi "íater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo. pesca de río atletismo baños. partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo jabalina trote viaje salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol.valla paddling /pædli#/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /pénta"lon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo. termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíi#/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit lífti#/ pesas A short course in english for adult students 187 .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION (Deportes y recreación) amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ængli#/ ´ athletics /a"létiks/ baths /ba:"s/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuli#/ boxing /bóksi#/ car-racing /ka:r réisi#/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimi#/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikli#/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáivi#/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsi#/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhi#/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidi#/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidi#/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisi#/ hunting /hánti#/ hurdling /hé:rdli#/ ice-skating /áis skéiti#/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógi#/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpi#/ parque de diversiones. etc rink /ri#k/ cancha de patines rowing /róui#/ remo running /ráni#/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:i# túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéiti#/ patinaje skiing /skí:i#/ esquí skiing resort /skí:i# rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfi#/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suími#/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /!íater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje.

Bl 188 .

. whether to go Ex. He seems to have lost weight 2. you like to show you how to use it 5. eating 6. driving 3. 1. 2. / Have they been discussing. have been running 7. 4. 9.. How long have they been waiting for a taxi? PART II.? 4. They claim to have solved the problem. / Has he been living. have been waiting 6. have been standing 5. to buy 4.to say 23. to answer 10. Ex. 2. 1. to get married 2.. 1. to feed 13. camping 9. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to give 5. to go 5. asking 9. 1. to hire / hiring . 1. to be 6.That car appears to have broken down 6. 2. David tends to forget things. 1. 5. Ex. waiting 5. has been reading 8. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7.coming 22. to take 7. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. 8. you want me to repeat what I said 6. moving 15. to get 3.. lend you some 3. to study. me to use his car. 3. Bob hasn`t been swimming. have been working out 10. you want me to wait Ex. to go 4. going 4.? `t Ex. 8. to post. read 5. 3.? 2. to eat 8.. working 10. eating 13. to become 9. it to rain / it would rain. / Have they been playing. 1. 2. to go 7.. cracking 12. to arrive 16. reading 11. having 9.. 4.. stealing / having stolen 2. living 19. to tell 8. 6. You seem to know a lot of people. / Has Bob been swimming. watching / to watch 11. shut it 4. jogging 21. me to apply for the job. 3. 2. to talk / to meet A short course in english for adult students 189 .. to get Ex. to lock 18. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. has been sitting 4. 3. to go 6. barking 7..to see 15. missing 10. him do what he wants. meeting.. cry 9. asking 8. to say Ex. Ex.. 4. 4.? 3. 5.. meeting / to meet 8. saying / having said 7. 2. have been discussing Ex. Hans to be careful 5. to phone.. Ex. 5.. 1 has been living 2. to help Jack 3. what to do 4. to shut 14.. 9. They haven`t been discussing. to go 3. (how) to use 5. to smoke 2.? 5. lending / having lent you 3. Where have they been staying? 4. to believe everything he says. 10. to be 14. 1.. to get 5. to buy 7. He hasn`t been living. to pay 12. to call 8. Why have they been saving money? 5. me to phone my sister. to go 6.. 1. you to travel round more easily.. how to ride 5. 2. what to say 6.. him look older. 7. Jane hasn`t been feeling. 7. going / to go 17. to do 4. raining 6. 1. to go shopping 24.. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. 3. cleaning 12. to cry / crying 16.Key to answers UNIT 13 PART I. to tell the man her name Ex. Ex. 4. Tom appears to be worried about something. breaking / having broken 11. 1. Bob use her phone 4. how to use 3. They haven`t been playing. Ex. 7. has been writing 9. 1. to help 10.. you to know the truth. A. . having left / leaving 6. go with you? 2. how to get 2. to want to go sailing Ex. 1. (Possible answers) 1. 6. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. watching 2. not to say anything to the police. to go 3.. Jane to give him a hand. My English seems to be getting better. to find Ex. / Has Jane been feeling. have been working 3. writing 20. B.

. He gave.. He has to work..... (in order) to rest 14.. She can speak. will she? 8.... He hasn`t got.. I`m your. didn`t he? Ex... Ex... Ex. He won`t have to wait.. There are many people. They didn`t have to work.... isn`t he? 8.. wash 2. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle..... don`t you? 8.. don`t they? 13.... to phone 4. He`ll be back. to working C.. do we? 10. doesn`t he? 6.. They were both absent... The boy has had dinner already..... There was too much noise in the room... They`ll be... won`t they? 4. didn`t they? 11. I´m a good student.... aren`t they? 5. 3. We don`t have to come. aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls.... George`s a very. weren`t you? 9. Mr Smith`s out of.. does he? 8. The sun sets. Sue was at home. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday. 2.. 2. Both men look... Your friends come from Wisconsin. 1. He didn`t have to wait.Ex..... did he? 14. doesn`t she? 9. hasn`t he? Ex. 5... do / to do 11. It`s beginning. do they? 9.. The traffic on this street was very. William`s been working. William was born in. didn`t he? 11.. There`s some.. won`t he? 10... John didn`t receive.......... But he dropped. They don`t live. They didn`t come.. doesn`t it. John`s been to England twice.. 1. to move 19.... You`re busy. phoning 5... You wouldn´t like to go there again. 6. She can`t speak... 4.... They didn`t arrive. washing 3. She won`t be. She isn`t busy.. hasn`t he? 5. 2... 2... She studies. had it? 190 A short course in english for adult students . isn`t it? 10. didn´t he? 4.. can`t she? 3.. isn`t he? 11......... You were absent. did he? 9. aren`t there? 6. Bob`s going to buy. can she? 5.. didn`t they? 12... would you? 12. You were at the meeting too.. The sun`s setting.. 1. The shopping district extends.. doesn`t it? 9. William will be... He first goes to.. wasn`t he? 6. moving 18.. They don`t know..... aren`t you? 6. should she? 7... Helen and her sister are both. He put. didn`t he? 13. I`m doing.....to go 7... Henry left. There are only a few. is there? 5.. to living 9. aren`t there? Ex. does he? 5. hasn`t he? 8.. aren`t I? 14. did he? 12.. didn`t he? 5.. didn`t he? 13. He doesn`t always buy.. aren`t there? 7. There are many. wasn`t there? 9. aren`t they? 12... He didn`t visit. They went. isn`t it? 4. He left... to buy 16. does he? 3. don´t they? 3. locking 20.... isn´t there? 12. do they? 6.. did they? 4.. wasn`t she? 3..... won`t he? 7. 4.... hasn`t he? 2.... did they? 11.. did they? Ex. did he? 7. wasn`t it? 8. is she? 3.. to meet 13. Jane shouldn`t do that again.. You live. He didn`t mail. The wind`s blowing. He doesn`t always have to wait. They`re leaving. He never goes. don`t they? 6... did he? 4.. José used to work. to watch 17.... to going 6.. weren`t they? 3. didn`t he? 11.... isn`t he? 11. doesn`t he? 7. aren`t I? 7.. weren`t you? 14........ 2.. He has many. John put on his new sweater.. to rain / raining 8. watch 12. isn`t it? 10... doing 10..... doesn`t he? 4. will he? 10. 2.... The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station. They have to work a little faster.. has he? 12.. Mr Smith``s seen. talking 15.

En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. how. pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). where.UNIT 14 PART 1. De dos acciones pasadas. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. When Paul arrived at the theatre. /!éi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. /háns had olrédi léft wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Escuche. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente. /bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd !e óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó.?) A short course in english for adult students 191 . (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración. The old man died at 11:25. /!e shóu hædént stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto. la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. /!e shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. /!i óuld mæn hædént dáid iét bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had !e shóu stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had !éi lívd bifó:r !éi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud. el viejo ya había fallecido.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. the old man had already died.. Lea. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning. mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). By the time the ambulance arrived. La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. /háns had nót léft iét wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. By the time the ambulance arrived. lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. /!éi we:r hævi# lántch wen iú: kó. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. You phoned at 8:25.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. etc.

She said she ______________________ there several times before. 7. (disappear) 5. 3. Jane had seen that movie twice. and b) the interrogative. Millions of years ago. (go) Ex. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. (steal) 7. Gloria almost missed her plane. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. Paul had already sent her a fax. As soon as he opened the door. The teacher (give. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. Tom had already left the office. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ______________________ the art gallery. 6. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. the rain __________________________ already (stop) 6.EXERCISES Ex. not)_______________________________ him in years. 1. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater.(start) 3. but they (become. The show (begin. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. 2. (be) 6. 4. 1.Yesterday at a restaurant. 3. 9.(finish) 4. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. At first. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. The students (see. 3. They´d already spent all the money. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. I (recognize. 10. (take) 8. 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . All of the other passengers (board. When the police arrived. 1. (leave) 9. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. 2. I (see. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. Ex. By the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. 2. 5. (go) 2. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. 4. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________.already) ______________________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. The children had already had supper. an old friend of mine. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. (put out) 10. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. By the time the firemen arrived. not) ______________________ ______________________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos.

7. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. Paul had sold his house the previous year. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. How. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? 4. 5. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a EE.UU. The girl had studied French at school. Ella no había leído ese libro aún. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Bill had made the same mistake three times. 2. 4. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. Where. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 9. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? 8. 6. Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. etc. Ex. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.Ex.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. They´d spent over US $ 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. Ask questions using question words like What. 10. 7. 3. John had visited them that evening. When. Black had studied at Harvard University. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Dr. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? 5. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. 10. How long.

Examples: This is a hard (adj.) train. A. early /é:rli / temprano. fast /fæst/ hard /ha:rd/ duro. (casi no. We arrived there early (adv.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . vimos que.). Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. Mr Blake will call later tonight. tempranamente. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. They took the early (adj. Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. es decir. difícil. I have to study hard (adv. adelantado. EARLY. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. This train is very slow.) lesson. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. intenso/intensamente. FAST.). atrasados) 2. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: ´ rápido/rápidamente. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /se:rten/ cierto ´ safe /sé:if/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /se:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. He drives carefully (adverbio). apenas) I haven´t seen John lately . late /leit/ tarde/atrasado.PART II. Con los adverbios SOON. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. Bob works harder than any of the other students. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. A dog runs faster than a horse. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. Peter hardly works on Saturday. I got up a little earlier than usual today. LATE y HARD. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. A bus runs more slowly than a train.

(beautiful) 8. He learns his lesson ____________________________. (foolish) 9. as usual. He always does his work ____________________________. (good) 9. He certainly acted ____________________________. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________. (easy) 6.(regular) 4. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening. I go there _______________________________________________________ he does. (careless) 12. We went farther. (easy) 7. He can run much _____________________________________________________________ I. She speaks English_____________________________. 3. Bill behaves badly in class. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . (bad) Ex. 2. (quick) 4. that. John was very ____________________________. 8. He gets up as early as I do. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. He always does his work ____________________________. John works _______________________________________________________ I (hard) 9. We walked very ____________________________. (wise) 12. (early) 5. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. They acted ____________________________ in doing. (careful) 4. (careful) 2. She works very ____________________________ every day. John works better than William.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. He did the work____________________________. (fast) Ex. (wise) 11. This is an ____________________________ exercise.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. He speaks very ____________________________. (often) 3. He comes here ___________________________________________________ he did before. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. (fast) 11. John left the office __________________________ that afternoon. (early) 6. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. (careful) 3. He comes here _____________________________________________ she. They get up every morning _________________________________________________ we. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________. (quick) 8. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. She plays the guitar ___________________________________________________ anyone else. He always drives ____________________________. (fast). 1 feel very ____________________________ today. (good) 7. (easy) 5. He is a very ____________________________ student. (good) 10. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________. EXERCISES Ex. (careful) 2. They went very far. She prepares her lessons ____________________________. He studies __________________________________________________________ Mary. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. (quick) 2. (beautiful) 7. John works _________________________________________ I. (foolish) 10. (beautiful) 3. (hard) 5. (frequent) 6.

He doesn’t walk (as fast as / so fast as) I do. 12. (early) 11. (good) 4. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she does. AS o NOT SO. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. They came to work ________________________________________________________usual. (good) 4. Express in full form. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. Express in full form. (soon) 12. (soft) 10. She sings ____________________________ she plays. using equality of comparison (as.10. (fast) 3. He goes to bed ____________________________ I. AS: 1. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /!emsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. Remember that you can use NOT AS. He came here ____________________________ he could.. (bad) 9. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. (careful) 7.. She doesn’t speak Spanish ____________________________ her sister. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. Bob cut himself with the knife.. (beautiful) 6. He came ____________________________ he could. (early) 3. (early) 6. Se usan para expresar énfasis. 4. (good) 8. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students .. I go to bed ___________________________________________________________ you. You can do it ____________________________ I . (easy) (bright) (fast) 5. 9. (hard) B. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do.. (easy) 5. (early) Ex. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. He didn’t arrive here ____________________________ we expected him. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. He will arrive________________________________________________________ they. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated area. John speaks English ____________________________I do. He can run ____________________________ his brother. He works ____________________________ he can. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. as): 1. Please. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (quick) 8. (late) 2. using equality of comparison. (regular) 10.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. (hard) 7. She can’t play the piano ____________________________ she can sing. (fast) 2. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. He can’t come ____________________________ we.. (early) 5. speak __________________________possible. (late) 11.

1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. I do not think he can do it alone. I myself will do it. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. 8. The poor man lives all by himself in an old house. 8. 4. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. She likes to study alone. 9. 5. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo. The little boy cannot dress ______________________________. You ______________________________ must speak to him. 12. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We ______________________________ will wait for you. 9. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. I shave ______________________________ every morning. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. John lives alone in an apartment 2. (Hans estudia en un grupo. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. 12. 2. Ex. boys. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. 4. I do not like to eat alone. 7. He is only 2 3. 7. Do you like to talk about______________________________? 9. 11. He wrote the entire book alone. 7. The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife. I went to the movie alone. The President ______________________________ attended the meeting. 12. 11. He prefers to work alone. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 10. 10. 6. He works alone in a small office. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 2. 3.3. 2. 5. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. He likes to walk alone in the park. (El pobre hombre vive completamente solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. 10. 3. 6. sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. The poor man killed ______________________________. Ex. 6. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell on the pavement. 11. You ______________________________ have to do it. Peter. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ 8. 4. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 197 .

I didn´t. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (SUBJECT + WAS / WERE + GOING TO + INFINITIVE) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No. Substitute the past form of GOING TO for the italicized. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No. 2. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. 1. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. I didn´t. 2. I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________ 198 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. (to call on = to visit). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No. verbs: 1.C. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Answer the questions as in the example 1. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us. We intended to wait for you but we had to leave. I didn´t . (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. no se llevaron a cabo por algún motivo.

villa volcán agua cataratas b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ (Vegetación) branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ (Animales) ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ´ ant /ænt/ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ buffalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/. summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shó:ar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spri#/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna. satélite nat. foresta galaxia suelo. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito. tierra rada. colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/. pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /má#ki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono A short course in english for adult students rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /tra#k/ planta raíces semilla arbusto. mata árbol tronco 199 . rooster /rúster/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ (La naturaleza) a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ (Geografía) air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:r"/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /í"mas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque. bahía cerro.

cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dó#ki/ ´ dragonfly /drægonflai/ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flamí#gou/ vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/ ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena 200 A short course in english for adult students .

carelessly 12.. herself 10. Mrs... was . as late as 2. had stolen 7. / Had they spent all. as fast as 12. earlier than Ex. 2. 7. early 6. 1.. roamed . 1. wisely 12.. yourself 12.. 1. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex.became 2. Bentley hadn´t gone. well 10. had . Tom hadn`t left. more frequently than 6. had never seen . She hadn`t read that book before.appeared 8. himself 12. herself 8.had lost Ex.. careful 2 carefully 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4.gone Ex. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. as hard as 7. wise 11. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Where had they been that morning? 8. more regularly than 4. 1.. had taken 8. myself 11.. Jane hadn`t seen.put out 10. 3 1. herself 11.. as / so carefully as 7. foolishly 10.yet / Had Tom left.yet / Had Paul sent. as fast as 3. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day. 1 1. as / so fast as 2. as / so badly as 9. fast Ex. faster than 8. had . as / so early as 6.didn`t recognize .. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. quickly 4. more often than 3. 5 .visited 9. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. easy 5.. 1. 3. beautifully 8.foolish 9. as quickly as 8. had .. had been 6.? 5. yet. / Had the children had. herself 7. Ex 1 1. as / so regularly as 10. had already boarded . himself 7. carefully 4.got 4. as / so hard as . 1.yet / already? 2. 1. as / so well as 4. 5. as early as 11. beautifully 3. himself 10.Key to answers UNIT 14 PART I Ex.took 7.They hadn`t spent all. himself 2. had . had already given . 10. 2. as / so easily as 5. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. as easily as Ex.yet.disappeared 5. easily 6. harder than 9. 9. as / so early as 3. well 9. as early as 5. himself Ex. PART II.already / yet? 4. She´d worked hard very long. had .started 3. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. quickly 2. had already begun .finished 4.gone 2. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. hard 5. Bentley gone.. earlier than 5. himself 5.She`d never been abroad before.got . / Had Jane seen. had . Black studied? 3. more carefully than 2. easily 7.had taken 3..already / yet? . already / yet? Ex.. Where had Dr. yourself / yourselves 9. as well as 4. yourselves A short course in english for adult students 201 . fast 11. 4..had already become .yet / Had Mrs. Ex. as beautifully as 6. They had not studied there very long. A. more seriously than 10. felt . himself 3.. 2 1. himself 4. as brightly as 9. as / so well as 8. himself / herself 9. 2 ... later than 11. had been .beautiful 7. The children hadn`t had. left . saw . 2 . badly Ex. B. already / yet? 6. as softly as 10.sooner than 12.got 10. 3. had left 9.. ourselves 6. Paul hadn`t sent.. themselves 8. herself 4. better than 7. herself 3. quickly 8.had collected 5.3.had stopped 6. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. 4 1.had not seen . Who had visited them that evening? 10. ourselves 6.. themselves 5..

We were going to study for our examination but. 5. We were going to walk in the park but. 12.. I was going to write you a letter last week but. 9.. They were going to leave New York yesterday but.. 2... (Possible answers) 2.. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6.. 3.. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. I was going to go to the beach but...3.Ex. 2. We were going to eat early but. He works by himself in a small office 8. 4. 11. He prefers to work by himself. I was going to come back earlier but. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 1. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10.. 6. We were going to go to a movie first but..7. but. 3... I went to the movie by myself 4. I do not think he can do it by himself. 8. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead. We were going to telephone you but. Ex. 202 A short course in english for adult students . C... I was going to go home early. He wrote the entire book by himself... I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 7.. Ex. She likes to study by herself 3. 2. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. We were going to wait for you but. 10. 4.... 11.

They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. escuche y aprenda: ´ The man had worked all day /! mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. (walk) 3. (drink) 7. /!éi had nót bi:n wé:rki# o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. (study) 4. /! mæn had bin wé:rki# o:l déi/ ´ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. (fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. báut tú: áuarz/ La forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædent/. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD ´ al sujeto: Lea.UNIT 15 PART 1. The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. The man had been working all day. They´d played soccer for about two hours. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. 1. /!éid bi:n pléii# sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. (watch) 2. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had !éi bi:n pléi# sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu ló# had !ei bi:n pléi# sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:i#/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud.?) EXERCISES Ex. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. Lea. What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) 6. /!éid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de dos horas. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. (rain) 5.

________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. They´d been studying the report that evening. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. 3. The students had been practising Spanish. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. 3. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. Where. 5. etc. and b) the interrogative 1. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. 1.Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? Ex. 2. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y ella se sentía muy cansada. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. Mr. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5.30. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. La Sra. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 4. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. 6. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. She´d been reading a magazine. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. Ask questions using question words like What. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. Bob had been sleeping since 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . How long. The patient had been feeling better. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud.

You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come.PART II. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago.OUGHT TO (El tiempo pasado de SHOULD . He sent the package by regular mail. 8. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. en Unit 10 .129. Ex. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. 4. as usual. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . 12. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. expresa un reproche o crítica. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . 9. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE .p. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. 1. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. but they should ____________________________________________ B. but he should________________________________________________________ 9.Smith yesterday 11. . You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. We sent her a fax. He left the books in Room 10. but I did not. 2. A. 7. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1.OUGHT TO) Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera). You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. Compare: I should start to study French now. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. 5. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”.) 2. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. 10. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. It was very interesting. It was excellent. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. but you came late. She gave the money to John. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. He studied engineering in college. He invested his money in real estate. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) 3. We went to Mexico on our vacation. tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4.) 2. 6. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. He started to study English last month. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. Complete the following in your own words. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. You telephoned him at his office.

tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. 4. When I choose a book. It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. 3.. = He´d better see a doctor immediately. 2.. It will be better if he takes private lessons. (You’d better come back later. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. 1. EXERCISES Ex.. They prefer to speak to him at his home. What would you rather drink. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. ___________________________________________________ 10. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. ___________________________________________________ 4. 9. o LIKE. It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb.. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. She prefers to come back later. 7.. ___________________________________________________ 3.) 2. It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. They prefer not to wait outside. 10. It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. 8. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. BETTER THAN or TO. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. I prefer not to go to the party alone. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction.. TO. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER.. 5. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. I like hip-hop ______________________________ classical music. (I’d rather wait here. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. I like chicken ______________________________ beef.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción.3 Complete the sentences with THAN.. When I’m hot and thirsty. 5.. I prefer to wait here . ___________________________________________________ 7. It will be better if you come back later. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. 6. When I’m hot and thirsty. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. It will be better if you rest a while.. 8. What had I better do. 4. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. Ex.. _______________________________________________ 6. It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. _______________________________________________ 9.. 2. 7. ___________________________________________________ 8. = I prefer to see a movie than to go to the opera He should see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. 6. 2.. ________________________________________ Ex. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. 206 A short course in english for adult students . stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. ___________________________________________________ 5.. 1. I prefer to stay at home and watch television. When I’m hot and thirsty. 3.

no se realizaron o no sucedieron. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). Mr. 11. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. • The phone´s ringing. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. • Jim: If you need money. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? 14. 10. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. I could hear something (Podia oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. • When you go to New York next month. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. • It´s a nice day. • I listened. 12. C. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. You could have stayed with us. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. 15. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right.9. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. 16. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. ser capaz de) • Listen. 18. 17. They enjoy their jobs. podríamos. etc. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. I can hear something. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. It could be Tim. I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. He could have hurt himself badly. En este caso COULD significa podría. podrías. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. 13. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago.

Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. Complete the sentences. we ______________________________ have dinner now. Peter is a keen musician. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. Ex. 1. I ______________________________ eat a horse! 3. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday.’ 6. I’m really hungry. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. but it ______________________________ be in the car. What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) 4. 1. When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) 6. 7. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. ‘I can’t find my bag. 8. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. 3. Ken had to work on Friday evening. 5. Ex. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 4. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. 3. You ______________________________ for it. • The trip was cancelled last week. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. 5. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. 2. Sometimes either word is possible. Ken was short of money last week. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. 1. Use COULD. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) 3. 1. EXERCISES Ex. 4. It’s so nice here. 2. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. When shall I phone Angela? (right now) 5. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. If you’re very hungry. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. We ______________________________ watch that’. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. 4. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. 208 A short course in english for adult students . Answer the questions with a suggestion. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. We could go to the cinema. Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. A: The phone is ringing. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. So he didn’t do any of these things. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. 1.

so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. You ___________________ be very tired. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. She can´t have seen me. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. CAN´T. Ex. 2. es decir. Put in MUST or CAN’T. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. Tom was in his bedroom. 3. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. 3. You ___________________ be very pleased. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. It’s always empty. so they ___________________ be short of money. I must have been asleep. 7. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. /!ei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. You. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. They haven’t lived here very long. You can´t be hungry already. She does the same thing every day. 8. que no puede ser cierto. 6. They can´t know many people. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. Congratulations on passing your exam. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchi# tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:pi#/ EXERCISES Ex. It rained every day during their holiday. You got here very quickly. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. I must _____________________________ it somewhere.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. He must _____________________________ ill. o conclusión. You’ve been travelling all day.. 5. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day.___________________ have walked very fast. 2. 4. He must have been watching the news on TV. I’ve lost one of my gloves. Ted isn’t at work today. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. MUST. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. A short course in english for adult students 209 . 1. 1. MUST HAVE. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine.______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. It’s always full of people. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. You must be very tired. They can’t _____________________________many people. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. 1. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. debemos usar CAN´T. You’re going on holiday next week.

Ann was in a very difficult situation. I may not have enough. 6. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ex. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (Quizás ella sabe lo que sucedió) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. She knew everything about our plans. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 8. 7.4. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. B: She might not have known about it. Carol knows a lot about films.Somebody must _____________________________ it. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. He must ___________________________ ill. When I woke up this morning. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ted wasn’t at work last week. 3.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. 1. Don passed the exam without studying for it. There is a man walking behind us. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t 210 A short course in english for adult students . The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. He must _____________________________ us. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa lo que sucedió) She might know what happened (Ella podría tal vez saber lo que sucedió) = perhaps she knows what happened. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Jane walked past me without speaking. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. I can’t find my umbrella. 5. He must _____________________________ out.. It can’t ____________________ Mary. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. B: She may have been asleep. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (I/asleep) I must have been asleep. She’s still at work at this time.. Look. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. B: He may not have been feeling well. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. 2. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. 9. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. the light was on. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. 10.

1. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. Use MAY or MIGHT. She might not have seen you. He might ___________________________________ it already. Perhaps Margaret is busy. Perhaps she went home early. They might_________________________ for a bus. 9. Perhaps she was working yesterday.’ 4. B: Yes. 1. Perhaps she didn´t see me.’ 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ She might be in her office. Perhaps she wants to be alone. 4.’ 3. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. she was too far away. ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. A: Tom loves parties. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. 10. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. 4. MIGHT NOT or COULD. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . it´s possible. It might ______________________ her brother. Perhaps she had to go home early. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. B: I agree. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). She couldn´t have seen me 2. 3.’ Ex. I can’t find George anywhere. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. A: I wonder how the fire started. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. 7. Perhaps she is working.’ 5. B: That´s possible. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. I wonder where he is. 1. 8. COULDN’T. 3. 11. I can’t find my umbrella. B: Well. 1. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. It might ________________________________________ her brother.feeling well) EXERCISES Ex. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. the police aren´t sure. 5. 6. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. Perhaps she isn’t working today. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. I’m looking for Helen. He might ___be having lunch. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. Do you think it was an accident? B. ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. 1. ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me.

remolino tifón remolino viento ventoso 212 A short course in english for adult students . eléctica) tornado tromba. aluvión de agua neblina.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /!e wé!er/ (El tiempo atmosférico) blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpo:r/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ ´ flashflood /flæshflad/ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárrikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitni# flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ ´ scattered showers /skæterd sháuerz/ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /"ánder/ thunderbolt /"ánderboult/ thunderstorm /"ándersto:rm/ thundery /"ánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubascos ocasionales chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm.

7.The patient hadn´t been feeling. I hadn´t been working. 3. 3. / Had it been raining. She´d been working on that report since the previous week. What had you been doing that morning? 2. PART II A.. I´d rather not go to the party alone. 1. Helen had better begin more time on her English. 3.. 4. 2. to 8. 9. We could have fish 3. better than C. 6. 1. She hadn`t been reading. You should not have given. 1. Bob hadn´t been sleeping.? 3. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school before he retired? Ex. What had the boy been watching? 3. 9. They´d rather speak to him at his home. 11. You could phone her now . Ex. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. 12. He´d better take private lessons. Ex. . 5. 3. Ex.? 6. 1.... 10. 4. have studied medicine. could A short course in english for adult students 213 . 8. You ought to have given. (Possible answers) 2.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. She´d better spend more time on her homework. The students had not been practicing. to 12. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived.. had been flying Ex. than 13. 2. could 8.. I ought not to have gone. can / could 6.. You should have told. 7. We´d better send him an e-mail right away.. They´d rather not wait outside 5. 1. could 5. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. 9. better than 9. 6..been doing 6. than 18. 1... Ex. You should have attended. 7. 9. have given it to Jane 4... 2. We could hang it in the kitchen.. had . We could go and see him on Friday. 5... had been watching 2. to 17..? 2. / Had she been reading. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. It hadn`t been raing. Ex. 5.? 5. We´d better not mention it to him. We´d rather not say anything to him about it.. to have invested it in stocks / shares.. 7. 7.. You should have gone.1. can / could 2.been drinking 7. than 15. The sky was clear and the sun was shining. Why had Mr. 1.. 1. You´d better rest a while 4.What had they been doing that evening? 2. 8.. could 3. 10. / Had Bob been sleeping. 2. 2.. / Had I been working. Ex. You ought to have telephoned. can / could 4... have sent her an e-mail. had been raining 5. Brown had been working hard that day and she felt very tired. 8. 3.. better than 6. / Had the students been practicing.. 4. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. 6. 3.. He´d better go to a doctor at once.. You´d better not work so hard after your illness. It´d been raining all morning . She´d rather come back later.. 6. had been walking 3. have sent it by air mail 3. 5. 2.. Ex.. He ought to have come. 8.. 10. have left them in Room 11. / Had the patient been feeling. Smith been saving money? 4. 4.. He ought to have started. can 7. Mrs. 1. to 5. 2. 5. John would rather go to the party with Helen. 6. You could give her a book.... had . to have telephoned him at his home 6... than 7. better than 11. than 10.. 4.. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. to 16.? 4. have gone to Tahiti 10.? Ex. had been studying 4. better than 14. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV.. You should not have told l her...

must 7. 5. 2b. 2. can´t 6. 4. 3. go 7. be waiting 5. 10. 10. be 4. 3. might not have been invited. C. have left 2.They must have gone away. be going 8. 3. It must have been very expensive 4. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. He may / might have been in the bathroom. 3. 6. must 3. It may / might be in the car. 1.Ex. 1. Ex. (Possible answers) 1. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. She may / might have gone home early 7. must 2. 4. Ex. The driver can´t have seen the red light. She may / might want to be alone 5. She may / might be working 4. 3b. 8. 3. 6. 1. 2. be following Ex. could apply 4. She may / might not be working today 11. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. might have come if he´d been invited. 9. 9.2.could have gone 3. 3. 2. 4. He may / might not have heard the bell. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. She may / might be busy. 3. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. 2. Ex. must 5. have been 5. can´t Ex. 3. 2. have bought Ex. might have been an accident.She can´t have seen me.. 11. C. She must have listened to our conversation. be 6. 4. could come Ex. 6. 5. 6. have been 4. know 3. have been 10. 5. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. have taken / stolen 9. She may / might not want to see me. She may / might have had to go home early 8. b e 3. 2a. 2. 4b. She may / might have been ill yesterday . She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. I must have forgotten to turn it off. (Possible answers)2.The neighbors must have been having a party . might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . She may / might be watching TV in her room.She may / might have been working yesterday. must 8. can´t 4.could have gone 5. She can´t have understood what I said. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. She may / might have gone out 3a. Ex. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free.

by the end of this month.. etc.UNIT 16 PART I.) I have the information now. /if auar tí:m winz !e nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar "e:rd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. I will have had dinner already.. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. ´ If our team wins the next game. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto.) She is free now. Escuche. /bai !i énd ov !is mán" !e spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllú:piter/ Hacia fines de este mes. Escuche. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). we will have lived in this country five years. etc. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. (Ella está libre ahora) When she is free next time. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th.. (Tú vienes acá todos los días) When you come here tomorrow.. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. by this time next week. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30.. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. /bai disémber !e fift:n" wi wil hav lívd in !is kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre.. we will have gotten our third trophy.. /wen wi gét tu !æt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld mó:ar !an tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. (Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez.. (Cuando tú vengas acá mañana. (Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. (Yo tengo la información ahora) When I have the information this afternoon.. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana)... When Peter gets home tonight.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas.. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo.) A short course in english for adult students 215 . lea y aprenda : By December 15th.

1. I________________________________________ in this country two years next October. they___________________________________ the most important places of interest. If he doesn´t hurry. 1. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. Before they leave New York next Sunday. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 3. they _____________________________________________ home. 2. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. 216 A short course in english for adult students . 2. I will have finished reading this book. By this time next month. Antes de las seis de la tarde. By two o´clock. they ____________________________________________ dinner when he gets there. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. the weather ______________________________________________ considerably. I will have completed this course in English. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. (change) 3. When he becomes a man. (complete) 7. 1. you _____________________________________________ from your illness. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years 2. (learn) 10. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. (forget) 9. the Johnsons ____________________________________ already.go) Ex. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. 2. (recover) 11. a) By the end of this month. By December. By tomorrow. (be) 8. we ________________________________________________ the work. (visit) 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (come . If he gets here at 6 o´clock. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. they ________________________________ and _______________________________ . (finish) 4.EXERCISES Ex. he _____________________________________________________ many things. (leave) 2. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. (go) 5. By the end of March. I _____________________________________________________ all these grammar rules. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If you come at noon tomorrow. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. Si no tomamos un taxi. 1. (have) 6. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. the students ___________________________________________ their first course. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro.

Escuche. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. have / has. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. do / does. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. A. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. will. had to. se habrá recuperado de su operación. Hacia fines de este curso. __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. SUBORDINATE VERB PRESENT FUTURE PAST POTENCIAL a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. did.______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. must. might.) He says that his first name is Robert.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. can. Antes de la medianoche. __________________________________________________________________________________ 8. muy pronto Ud. los verbos modales am / is / are. would. De acuerdo con esta regla. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. had. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. could. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. __________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to past tense, following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. He says he will be here at noon. 2. I think I can meet you. 3. He hopes he can be there early 4. I think it may rain this evening. 5. He wants to know where she is. 6. He says he is very sorry. 7. The young man tells us he is married. 8. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. 9. I think he will be there by ten o´clock 10. He believes he can do it. 11. The weather man predicts it will rain. 12. He says he has to work hard every day 13. I know where she lives. 14. Bob wants to know how many people there are. 15. The boy says he has seen the movie. 16. The girl says she is studying for a test. 17. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 18. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 19. I don´t know where Mary is. 20. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. Ex. 2. Choose the correct form: 1. He said he (will, would) be here. 2. He thinks he (can, could) do it easily. 3. He asked me where I (live, lived). 4. I didn’t know what the word (means, meant). 5. The newspaper says it (will, would) rain. 6. She said she (was going, is going) away. 7. I told him that I (cannot, could not) go. 8. He said he (has been, had been) a soldier. 9. She said she (does not, did not) feel well. 10. I don’t know what his name (is, was). 11. I didn’t know what he (is, was) trying to do. 12. She said she (may, might) be late. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

B. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF, aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. Escuche, lea y aprenda : If John comes (no, “if John will come” ) tomorrow, he will see Mary. If it rains (no, “if will rain”) next Sunday, they will not go to the beach. Del mismo modo, debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (después que), UNLESS (a menos que), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.

218

A short course in english for adult students

Escuche, lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening, he will see Mary. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde, él verá a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow, I will give him your message. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives, within ten or fifteen minutes. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue, dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning, he can go with us on the city tour. 2. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow, we may go to the beach. 3. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening, they will not wait for him. 4. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon, please let me know. 5. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. 6. Do not leave before I ________________________________________ (tell) you to go. 7.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week, he will keep it. 8. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow, we will go to the beach. 9. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today, please give him the message. 10. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. 11. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 12. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon, we will have to leave without him. Ex. 2. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, WHILE, BEFORE, etc.: 1. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go, too. 2. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. 3. Don´t start moving. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. 4 They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. 5. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. 6. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. 7. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. 8. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. 9. The doctor will arrive within a few minutes. Please, wait here____________________ he arrives. 10. I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it

PART III. USE OF “ELSE” /éls/ Y “OR ELSE”/o:r éls/. A. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME, ANY y NO (somebody, someone, something, somewhere; anybody, anyone, anything, anywhere; nobody, no one, nothing, nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person, any other person, no other person, some other thing, any other thing, etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?)

A short course in english for adult students

219

B. OR ELSE /o:r éls/ / OTHERWISE /á!erwáiz/(De lo contrario o de otro modo) OR ELSE se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). También se puede usar en este caso la palabra OTHERWISE (= de lo contrario o de otro modo) Escuche, lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. = We must hurry, otherwise we will be late for the train. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. = He´d better wait here, otherwise he will miss her. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. = You´d better tell him about it, otherwise he´ll be angry with you. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. Did they go any other place? 2. No other person helped him with the work. 3. You must ask some other person about it. 4. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. 6. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. Let’s do some other thing tonight. 8. I didn’t tell any other person about it. 9. Can I show you any other thing, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was no other person in the room at that time. 11. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Join the following pairs of sentences, substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry. If we don’t, we´ll be late. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. You must do as your mother says. If you don’t, she´ll punish you. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We had better hurry. If we don´t, we´ll miss the train. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Turn off the radio. If you don’t, you’ll wake the baby. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Save your money. If you don’t, you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You must study hard. If you don’t, you won’t pass the course. ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. You must practise your English every day. If you don’t, you will soon forget it. ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I must go home right away. If I don’t, my mother will be angry with me. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Helen must rest more. If she doesn’t, she may have a nervous breakdown. ________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Put the dog outside. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. ________________________________________________________________________________

220

A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 3. Repeat the previous exercise, but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(! axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ blowtorch / blóuto:rtch/ chisel /tchízel/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /lei!/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /méllori# téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde soplete cincel taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates
wé:rkshop/

(El taller) serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo alambre llave inglesa

saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderi# áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldi# tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wire /wáiar/ wrench /réntch/

A short course in english for adult students

221

Bl 222

Key to answers

UNIT 16
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1. will have left 2. will have changed 3. will have finished 4. will have gone 5. will have had 6. will have completed 7. will have been 8. will have forgotten 9. will have learnt (or learned) 10. will have recovered 11. will have visited 12. will have come - (will have ) gone Ex. 2. (Open answers) Ex. 3. 1. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. 2. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. 3. Before 6 this evening, we´ll have processed all the information. 4. If we don´t take a taxi / cab, the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. 5. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 6. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. 7. I you follow your doctor´s advice, very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. Before midnight, the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. He said he would be here at noon 2. I thought I could meet you. 3. He hoped he could be there. 4. I thought it might rain this evening. 5. He wanted to know where she was. 6. He said he was very sorry. 7. The young man told us he was married. 8. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon.9. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. 10. He believed he could do it. 11. The weather man predicted it would rain. 12. He said he had to work.hard every day. 13. I knew where she lived. 14. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 15. The boy said he had seen the movie.16. The girl said she was studying for a test. 17. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. 18. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. 19. I didn´t know where Mary was. 20. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. Ex. 2. 1. would 2. can 3. lived 4. meant 5. will 6. was going 7. could not 8. had been 9. did not 10. is 11. was 12. might B. Ex. 1 1. arrives 2. does - rain 3. is 4. comes 5. gets 6. tell 7. likes 8. is 9. telephones 10. comes 11. go 12. does - come Ex. 2. 1. unless 2. as soon as 3. until 4. as long as 5. until 6. while 7. when / as soon as 8. before 9. until 10. when / as soon as

PART III.
Ex. 1. 1. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Nobody else helped him with the work. 3. You must ask somebody else about it. 4. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. Let’s do something else tonight. 8. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 9. Can I show you anything else, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 11. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 2. 1. We must hurry; or else we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; or else she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; or else we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; or else you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; or else you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; or else you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; or else my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; or else he will bark and wake everyone up. Ex. 3. 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; otherwise she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; otherwise we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; otherwise you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; otherwise you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; otherwise you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up.
A short course in english for adult students

223

Bl 224 .

10. She has just taken the newspaper. 225 . He fixed the car. 13. He took the money last Monday evening. 15. (P. He will do the work this afternoon. The car will be fixed. (S) (Tr. (P. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. He has fixed the car. es decir. 7. The wind blew the smoke away soon. They will bring the boy tomorrow.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. People speak English all over the world. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres.) (be + p. 16. 18. He will deliver the merchandise today.UNIT 17 PART 1.S.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river. 2.O). perfect) EXERCISES Ex. En la voz pasiva.S.V) (D. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. They fought a big battle here many years ago.p. Peter wrote the letter last year.O). 8. (S) (Tr.Jackson saw the accident. 11. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer). They have found the child at last. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. People will forget it in a few days. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. The car will have been fixed. Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ ACTIVA y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ PASIVA. Mrs. He will have fixed the car. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal BE más el participio pasado del verbo principal. 17. 5. 3. The car was fixed. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). 12.V) (D. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). Smith wrote the book last summer. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. THE PASSIVE VOICE (La voz pasiva) A. Somebody has taken my book.p. She broke the plate on purpose.) (doer) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. They had finished the work by noon.) (be + p. Smith teaches that class on Friday. They will leave the tickets for you.O). He will fix the car. (P. He had fixed the car. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut.) (be + p. The car had been fixed. She ate the cake this morning.V) (D. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car.p. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). 6. The car has been fixed.S. Change to passive voice: 1. Mr. 1. 4. 14. 9. Mr.

The books will be brought by John. 7. The book will be published in June. They made this gun by hand. America was discovered in 1492. The lecture was attended by many people. ___________________________________________________ 3. Longman __________________________________________ 6. 6. The book has been returned by John. The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. This book was written by Mr. The e-mail was sent this morning. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. ___________________________________________________ 7. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. He broke his leg in an accident. The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). They ______________________________________________ 11. The work will be completed tomorrow. The book will be published next spring. The money has been found. ___________________________________________________ 15. 2. Columbus _________________________________________ 14. 8. Change to active voice: 1. America was discovered in 1492. Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. 12. 5. They left the wounded soldiers behind. ___________________________________________________ Ex. The city was destroyed by bombs. Smith. My grandfather _____________________________________ 12. 11. __________________________________________________ 8. Smith. Smith. Scott. 9. 13. The work will be done by Mr. 2. Our class is taught by Mr. He was struck by an automobile. ___________________________________________________ 9. 14. The money was stolen by a thief. 22. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . The house was struck by lightning. The town will have been captured by Wednesday. The work had been finished by June. The book was written by Mr. Mary found the book. The work won’t be done by Mr. Thompson. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 24. 4. 2. The lesson is taught by Mr. __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Smith. They will send the book next week. 20. The dish was broken by the maid. He _______________________________________________ 10. 3. 10. The house was built in 1950. Will the work be done by Mr. 3. The book was found by Mary. They ______________________________________________ 4. 23. ___________________________________________________ 5. 21. 15. Change to negative and to question form: 1. The cries of the child were heard clearly. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. ___________________________________________________ 13.19.

5. Why was the train delayed? 10. LA VOZ PASIVA CON VERBOS MODALES CAN. a la voz pasiva. Where was the money hidden? 11. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. ________________________________________about 10:30. was. ___________________________________________ in 1492. (Who. The book will be published in June. He was injured in an automobile accident. MAY. _________________________________________ in the park. se debe usar el VERBO MODAL + BE + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. is. The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. (Active) They must finish this job today. Change to question form. The work will be completed next month. Who will the dinner be prepared by? 8. (When) ________________________________________________? 7. (When) ________________________________________________? 2. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. The house was destroyed by fire. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. Who was the money stolen by? 6. were) + BEING + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. ____________________________________________in 1999. When was this book published? 4. (At what time) ____________________________________________? 8. The tree was planted by my father. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. The house was built in 1945. _________________________________________in Scotland.. _________________________________________by the chef. (Where) ________________________________________________? 5. ____________________________________ by our instructor. _________________________________________ in Chicago. MUST. _____________________________ by the end of the month.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. B.. Where was this book published? 5. (How) ________________________________________________? 3. In what year was America discovered? 3.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? 6. should. _________________________________________ in the safe. Where were they married? 14.. must. In what country was Helen born? 15. have to. (In what year) ________________________________________________? 10. Where was the child finally found? 7. (When) ________________________________________________? 4.Ex. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. By whom was the plate broken? 16. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: When was America discovered 1. La voz pasiva de los tiempos PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal BE (am. ________________________________________ by the maid. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. Answer these questions: 1. The money was stolen by one of the servants.. When will the work be completed? 13. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there C. SHOULD. By whom was America discovered? 2. (Active) They have to send this report today. may. (Who. _____________________________ because of bad weather. When was the news released? 12. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. etc. America was discovered in 1492. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? 9. Where was the money put? 17. By whom are your exercises corrected? 9. __________________________________one of the servants. are. HAVE TO Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. 4. The child was finally found in the park. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. LA VOZ PASIVA EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. A short course in english for adult students 227 .

State each question twice.: 1. 10. They may send the fax tomorrow. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. 3. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 228 A short course in english for adult students . They are sending the material today. He was killed in an accident. 6. 4.Ex. 7. We are using this room. 5. 3. John is bringing the mail now. They are sending troops there today. John brought the mail yesterday. They are sending the merchandise today. 5. 12. 9. 8. He should send this message right away. 12. They cannot put those things here. 10. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. 7. They are defending the city well. 2. They have to deliver the books today. 11. 2. He sent the e-mail last week. Change to passive voice : 1. She is typing that letter now. Ex. John has brought the mail every day. The police may hold him for several days. We must lose no time. By whom. 5. They were discussing the question when I went in. 10. 8. Where. 4. This must be checked twice. 8. 6. We have to write these exercises at home. 2. 7. They are considering that question now. 2. He has to do it immediately. 6. John will bring the mail tomorrow. 4. John has to bring the mail every day. We must find him immediately. 8. They have put the chairs in the room. etc. The mail is brought by John every day. He cannot finish this today. 12. He is finishing the work now. . Change to passive voice: 1. You can use this room for the lesson. They are examining him now. He wasn’t killed in an accident. 3. 9. Change to passive voice: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ This can be finished (by us) right away. Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They were cleaning the office this morning. How. 3. The story is being published today. 9. We can finish this right away. 6. We must help him. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ The material is being sent (by them) today. 11. 9. 11. They are holding the meeting today. They are transferring him to another class. John may bring the mail tomorrow. John brings the mail every day. Change to negative and to question form.

sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. This room can be used for our meetings. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. It should be sent immediately. The class is taught by Mr. “A big battle was fought here”. 6. The material is being prepared by Mr. 8. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. lt can be done three or four times a month. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . lt has to be sent right away. It has to be done at once. 10. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 11. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “Spanish is spoken in this country”. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. This book was published in 1945. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.4. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? D. EL SIGNO “SE” EN ESPAÑOL En español. The money has been sent to New York. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. Smith. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. 12.Reese.

230 A short course in english for adult students . Several different techniques may be applied. By the end of the 90’s. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Ex. 10. most goals had been successfully attained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Next time. The data was being processed at that moment. using the word “SE” in each case. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. All kinds of computers are repaired here. It is considered that English has become a universal language. A new type of missile has been tested recently. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. 11. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 1. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness.8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes.

WHAT TIME. He was supposed to bring the money last night. WHERE. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. We expect John to come at six o’clock. etc. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. He ______________________________ (be) here now.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 9. We expect the parade to begin soon. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 3. 1. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. We expect the bus to stop here. 12. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week.PART II. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. 9. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. 12. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. Se supone que Bob está aquí ahora. (Passive Voice) 13. We expected him to arrive last night. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” (La expresión idiomatica “se supone que”) Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 6. 3. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. We expect our lesson to last one hour. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 2. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. 7. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. 2. State each question twice. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. 8. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. 11. 4. 10. They expected the war to be over sooner. 10. 2. 6. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. (Passive Voice) 14. 4. 7. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. 5. 3. Change to negative and to question form. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. They expect the train to arrive at four o‘clock. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow.: 1. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. Ex. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. (Passive Voice) Ex. 2. We expect her to bring the book with her. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 231 . (Passive Voice) 15. He ______________________________ (know) her well. 5. 8. 11.

They´re supposed to finish the job tomorrow. 10. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 232 A short course in english for adult students . 8.. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. 9. 6. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L.A. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. They´re supposed to start the work soon.3. 4. The book is supposed to be published in June. 7. 5. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday.

proyectil Propellant /propélant/ Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ vainilla Shrapnel /shræpnel/ ´ Primer /práimer/ estopin TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ (Armas tácticas) bomba Bomb /bom/ Bullet /búlit/ bala Dagger /dæger/ ´ daga Flame-thrower /fléim "róuer/ lanzallamas Gun /gan/ cañón.) batería (art. grado Oficial superior ´ ARMS /á:rmz/armas.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ (Las Fuerzas Armadas (I)) Army /á:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ ´ Ranks /ræ#ks/ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræ#k/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 .) Battalion /batælion/ ´ Regiment ´/rédlliment/ Brigade /brigéid/ Division /dividllon/ Corps /ko:r/ Army /a:rmi Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Alférez (en la marina) Cadete Soldado Primero (US) Soldado Primero (UK) Soldado Soldado conscripto batallón regimiento brigada división cuerpo Ejército propelente o pólvora metralla o esquirla ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ (Tiro de munición) Bullet /búlit/ bala. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/(Ramas o servicios) Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Medical /médikal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Artillery /a:rtílori/ Artillería Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ Engineers /endlliníarz/ Ingenieros Signal /sígnal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Transportation /transportéishon/ Infantería Infantry /ínfantri/ Sanidad Mecanizado material de guerra Telecomunicaciones Transportes COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ (Oficiales comisionados) Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Major /méidllor/ Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/Teniente General Captain /kæptin/ ´ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General First Lieutenant /fé:rst luténant/ Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Brigadier General Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Ensign /énsin/ Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Teniente Coronel Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ (Suboficiales) Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sargento Mayor (UK) Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent fé:rst kla:s/Sargento Primero Private /práivit/ Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Sargento Segundo Recruit /rékrut/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ ´ Squad /skwod/ Platoon /platú:n/ Troop /tru:p/ Company /kámpni/ Squadron /skuódron/ Battery /bæteri/ (Unidades tácticas) escuadra pelotón escuadrón (cab.) compañía grupo (cab.blin. pistola ´ granada de mano Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Knife /naif/ cuchillo Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/arma de destrucción masiva Missile /mízil/ misil Mortar /mó:rtar/ mortero Mine /main/ mina Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ fusil Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ lanzacohetes Sword /só:rd/ espada Shell /shel/ proyectil.

criterio rasgo. característica obediencia espontánea Magazine /mægazi:n/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Rear sight /ríar sáit/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sighting mechanism /sáiti# mekanízm/ Sling /sli#/ Stock /stok/ Trigger /trígger/ Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ cargador trompetilla alza caja de mecanismos mecanismo de puntería correa porta fusil cantonera disparador. comandante moral orgullo ámbito de control subalterno tacto. gatillo guardamonte Tank driver /tæ#k dráiver/ ´ Tank commander /tæ#k komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Turret /tárit/ Wheel /wi:l/ conductor del tanque comandante del tanque orugas torreta rueda posición de pie posición en cuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiari# posillonz/ (Posiciones de disparo) Kneeling /ní:li#/ position posición arrodillada Standing /stændi#/ position ´ Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Sitting /síti#/ position posición sentada 234 A short course in english for adult students .TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ (Vehículos tácticos) ´ Airplane /éarplein/ avión ´ Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Bomber /bómer/ bombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero cazabombardero Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ Helicopter /hélikopter/ helicóptero LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ (Liderazgo) conducta Behavior /bihéivior/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ cadena de mando Command /komænd/ ´ mando Commander /kománder/ comandante Confidence /kónfidens/ confianza Control /kontróul/ control Cooperation /kuoperéishon/ cooperación Courage /káridll/ valor. coraje decisión Decisiveness /disáisivnes/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ confiabilidad Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Dignity /dígniti/ dignidad Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Endurance /endiúarans/ resistencia PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rts v ráifl/ (Partes del fusil) Aiming mechanism /éimi# mékanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Barrel /bærel/ ´ cañón Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Butt /bat/ culata Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing mechanism /fáiari# mékanízm/ mecanismo de disparo Firing pin /fáiari# pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Hammer /hæmer/ ´ martillo Locking lug /lóki# lag/ asegurador THE TANK /!e tæ#k/ (El tanque) ´ Armor /á:mor/ Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun /gan/ Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Gunner /gáner/ blindaje plancha de blindaje cañón tubo del cañón artilllero Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæ#k/ tanque de combate Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino Tank /tæ#k/ tanque Truck /trak/ camión Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra ´ Enthusiasm /en"usiázn/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Initiative /iníshiativ/ Integrity /intégriti/ Justice /dllástis/ Leader /lí:der/ Morale /morá:l/ Pride /práid/ Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ´ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Tact /tækt/ ´ Trait /tréit/ Willing obedience /wíli# obí:diens/ entusiasmo espíritu de cuerpo iniciativa integridad justicia líder.

? 9..In what year was the house built? 10.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6.. 7. 8.. 12. That class is taught by Mr. 10. 2. This cannot be finished by him today.. It was published in Chicago. / Was the telegram delivered. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 11. 24.. Smith teaches our class. 4. / Was America discovered in. 2. The office was being cleaned by them this morning.. 5.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. 5. 11. The enemy has destroyed the city. Thompson. 2. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9.? 14. Mr. 14. It was hidden in a wooden box. 12.The book hasn´t been returned by John. / Will the book be published in. 15. An automobile struck him 9.. 2. The meeting is being held by them today. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. It was discovered in 1492. 8. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 12. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 14. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. Ex. 3.? 4. He was held for about two hours.? 12. John will bring the books. My book has been taken by somebody. Smith. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. 11. He´s being transferred by them to another class.Scott wrote this book. My grandfather built the house in 1910.. 16. 12. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. 1. The work will be done by him this afternoon. Jackson. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. 6. 8. The mail has been A short course in english for adult students 235 . They were married in Valparaiso. 8.The money hasn´t been found. 4. 13. 2. 22... 21. Longman will publish the book next spring. 18./ Will the work be completed. 9. She was born in Scotland.. 2.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. Smith on Friday. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow.? 5. The book wasn´t written by Mr. Ex. Ex.The book won´t be published in June./ Is the lesson taught by. 3.. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. He´s being examined by them now. / Was the dish broken by. 5. It has to be done by him immediately. 8. The work is being finished by him now. This gun was made (by them) by hand . 7. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. He was finally found in the park. 7. This message should be sent by him right away..The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. It was put in the safe. / Has the book been returned by. The accident was seen by Mrs. 3. Ex. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. The city is being defended by them well 11. The work had been finished by them by noon. / Was the book written by. He must be helped by us . The child has been found by them at last 15. The book will be sent by them next week. The tickets will be left for you by them. 5. It was broken by the maid. It will be prepared by the chef. 6. Those things cannot be put by them here. Ex. It was released at about 10:30 12. 6. It will be completed by the end of the month. 2. 7. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. These exercises have to be written by us at home.? Ex. The mail was brought by John yesterday.. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. Where was the child finally found? 5. It was published in 1999.. 13. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. 9.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. 4. 16..? 6. / Was the city destroyed by. 8. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow.. They´re corrected by our instructor. 5. The book was written by Mr. 3.? 8. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). 6 Many people attended the lecture. 2. 1. / Was the house struck by. When will the book be published? 7.? 11. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. How was the house destroyed? 3. 19. / Had the money been stolen by. 6. 23..Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I.? 10. 17. 10. 17. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. He may be held by the police for several days. He had finished the work by June.. When will the work be completed? 4. It was stolen by one of the servants..? 15.. A thief stole the money. 4. Ex. 9. This room can be used by you for the lesson. 20. That letter is being typed by her now.. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. 15. This room is being used by us.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. Mr. 10. 9. That question is being considered by them now.? 3. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. No time must be lost by us. 3. / Was it discovered by. / Has the money been found? 13. 10. Columbus discovered America in 1492.. 4. 4. 7. Smith last summer 5. 3. 13.. 11. 14. 10.

It doesn´t have to be sent right away. 7. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years.. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. 6. is supposed to come 3.. 9. Reese. New methods are being developed to control inflation. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. 4.11.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5. The weather is supposed to be hot.. 10. 6. The war was supposed to be over.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. The King isn´t supposed to visit. 5. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. It can´t be done three or four times a month.. 8. / Is the King supposed to visit... Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. 1. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. he was supposed to arrive. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. were supposed to deliver 4. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. He is supposed to leave for. 5.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students . / Are we supposed to meet them. The class isn´t taught by Mr. is supposed to be 6.. Ex.. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. 3.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. We aren´t supposed to meet them. It shouldn´t be sent immediately.. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10.. 10. 3. are supposed to be put Ex. 10. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr.. is supposed to meet 10.Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. 10.. is supposed to have been sent 14. 6. is supposed to know 12. / Was he supposed to telephone... He isn´t supposed to be living.? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. 2. 2. 12. 7. She is supposed to bring the. Ex. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow.. / Must this be checked twice? / How many times must this be checked? 4.. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. The train is supposed to arrive at. The bus is supposed to stop. 9. The money hasn´t been sent to NY.. is supposed to be 8. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6.. During that year. 8. / Is he supposed to be living. This room can´t be used for our meetings. The merchandise is being sent by them today. Ex. Ex. 8. was supposed to send 5.. / Was he supposed to bring it. several important projects have been carried out.brought by John every day. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7.. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. He wasn´t supposed to telephone. 11.. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. is supposed to call 9... Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. is supposed to be 7... 6. 5. He must be found by us immediately. 2. is supposed to be sent 13.. This mustn´t be checked twice. 2. 2. The mail is being brought by John now. 2.. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. 5. This book has been translated into several languages. 9. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. The e-mail was sent by him last week. 1. 10. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. The books have to be delivered by them today.. The parade is supposed to begin. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. 11. Public transport services should be improved in this city. 4. This book wasn´t published in 1945.. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9.. 12. The mail has to be brought by John every day. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a month / How often can it be done? 5. It doesn´t have to be done at once.. was supposed to be 11... 7. Hacia fines del la década de los 90.... La próxima vez. 7. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información.. 8. The bank is supposed to open at. Our lesson is supposed to last.. 1. He wasn´t supposed to bring it... Our lesson is supposed to finish at. 3. 9. 3. 4. 9... They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. All the invitations were sent by air mail.. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow. 2.

2.. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. you will see him. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here. I´ll give him your message.. you´ll have an accident. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. If the weather is good tomorrow. (Si él viene mañana. 6. you will not get a good mark. 4. too. introducida por la palabra IF.. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana...) 2. you will see him. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. (Si. listen and repeat these examples: 1. (Si no estudias duro. If he comes tomorrow. you will see him.. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. you would have seen him. (Si te sientas aquí.. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. b. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. If he comes tomorrow. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo..UNIT 18 PART I. 4.. 3. 5. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a.. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. you would see him more often.) . tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 . (Si él viene mañana. tú lo habrías visto) I. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. (Si él viene mañana.). you will be able to see everything. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. tú lo verás. she´ll miss her train. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. tú lo verías más seguido también) c.

If John were here now he would help us.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. (lf Mary had more time. “If Mary will come”). If I ________________________(be) in your position. I would buy that suit. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. WHILE (mientras). she would speak English better. (Si Mary supiera nadar. como tomorrow. BEFORE (antes que).) 2. he could go with her to the party. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. If he ________________________ (know) her better. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. UNTIL (hasta que). 12. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando).1. 4. I will give her your message. he would help us. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). etc. he would be a better student. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. 9. I would study French. this evening. she would study more. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. she would go to the beach more often. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. UNLESS (a menos que). John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. 6. If Mary comes tomorrow (No.. 3. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. Del mismo modo. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). we could study better. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. 8. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. (Si yo fuera millonario. 238 A short course in english for adult students . 11. 5. 7. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. Read. AFTER (después que). 10. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. she will see the Prince. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. (Si John estuviera aquí. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. etc. he will tell us what happened. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. next Monday morning. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. we would go for a walk. she would study more. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student.

. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 . he can help us. he. 11. he. She has very little money. 7. He doesn’t like to study English. I.) 2. would be very happy. I can’t speak French. he would go) 2.. 12.. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. ___________________________________________________ 11. ___________________________________________________ 9. If he is here. 5. ___________________________________________________ 6. If he came to class more often.. we. but if. If he comes. If we have more practice. 10. If I were free tomorrow. If today were a holiday. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. but if. 6... he will make good progress.. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. If he came to class on time. 11. lf I knew her... 9. He has very few friends. but if. ___________________________________________________ 10... he will pass... lf he had more money. ___________________________________________________ 4. If he were stronger . but if.. he ___________________________ (work) harder. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. If I were you.) 2. lf John prepared his lessons every night. I. ___________________________________________________ 6. he ________________________ (be) a better student.. ___________________________________________________ 5. 8. lf I don’t have to work. If the weather is cold. 5. he________________________ (learn) more.. 9... He would speak better if. but if.. but if... ___________________________________________________ 9. If he went to bed earlier. I.. He has very little practice in speaking. they will succeed. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.. If today were a holiday.. If he studied more. ___________________________________________________ 3. 2 . Mary isn’t here now. ___________________________________________________ 8. but if. ___________________________________________________ 3.. but if.. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1.. he will go. I will go to the beach. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice.. I will read more books.. 4. ___________________________________________________ 5. 7. 4. He has very little free time. Mary does not prepare her lessons. (If he were here... ___________________________________________________ 4. If I could speak French. Complete the following: 1.. (If he had time. ___________________________________________________ 12.. lf he were here. he. I don’t speak English well. he ________________________ (help) us. If he goes to the party. lf John were here. but if. I ________________________ (speak) to her. 3. If he prepares his lessons. but if. William never comes to class on time.. he. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1... we will speak better. If I knew her well. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. 3. he ________________________ (feel) better. 2.Ex. ___________________________________________________ 11.. If l were in Florida now.... If he came to class regularly.. but if. (John does not study hard. he will meet her. I am not in Florida now. lf they try hard. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. __________________________________________________ 10. he. ___________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ 7. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan. ___________________________________________________ 12. If I have more time . 3. lf I am free tomorrow.. John does not study hard but if.. he would help us. If he had more time.. he will see her. 4.. 6. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. If he has time. 10. 8. ___________________________________________________ 7. If he studies hard. we will not go. I. I will go to the movie.

4. (lf I were in your position. John said he (will. habría aprobado su examen). (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. If he (can. If I (was. If I were you. Mary would go with us if. knew) how to swim. were) in your position.. I (will. 10. Mary told me that she (can. Ex. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 6. had) the time. I will go to the movie. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.. will come) here tomorrow. would) walk to school. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Mary will talk with him. If John had studied hard. If you had much money.) 2.12. When John (comes. 12. 8. 7. 9. If he (knows. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado... 7. I would study French.. could) not come. If I (had. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 11. If you had an automobile. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. we. I would. have) time tomorrow.. 13. knew) my number. could) help us. 14. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. might) be late. 6. Choose the correct form: 1. He would speak better if. 5.. If today were Sunday. If today were Sunday. 3. they would have called you up. If you could visit any country in the world.. I am sure he would. If you studied harder. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If the weather (is. Answer these questions: 1. I would go swimming every day.. will be) nice tomorrow. we may drive to the country. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We would go for a walk in the park if. He said he (may. If you knew English perfectly. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. he could telephone me. 15. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. If I (know. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. If today were a holiday. would) be here soon. he would have passed his examination..

If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. but if. 3. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. they would have gone to the park. 7. 2. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 6. 2. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. If I________________________ (be) in your place. 10. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. he ________________________(catch ) cold. EXERCISES Ex. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. She didn’t come on time. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. I didn’t know his name. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. If you ________________________ (call) me. 6. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. we would have gone to the beach. 2. 5. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. 2. 8. 10. 9. 1. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. 5. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. he would not have caught cold. I would have been glad to go. He couldn’t speak English at the time. If he had studied more. She didn’t wear her raincoat. If I________________________(have) your address. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. 4. 3. I would have told him. 9. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.En situaciones formales o literarias. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . Ex. John didn’t prepare his lessons. (succeed) . If he had not worn his overcoat. I didn’t have your telephone number. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. He didn’t tell me about it. 7. I didn’t have a car last winter. I wasn’t in his position. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. he he would have succeeded. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 4. Ex. Had he known that you were ill. I would not have been so angry. he would have come to see you . I would have called on you. 8.

If he had come. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. he will go with us a. If he comes. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. If he came. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. a. If it rains. 4. If he had telephoned me. she would have spoken to him. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. If I had known about it. b. If the weather is nice. 2. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If I am free next week. _____________________________________________________________________________ b.Ex. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If he goes there. she would speak to him. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. he would take part in the game 2. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. If John is present. If he is here. If he works harder. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . she will speak to him. If he has the money. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. If I can do it. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. If I see her. 5. If he has time. they will go to the beach a. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If he were here. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If you had asked me. If I were you.

I would have acted differently. He acts as if he (was. Answer these questions: 1.9. If you had had last week off. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. If the weather were nice. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 6. I (will. will rain) tomorrow.. were) you. He acted as if he (had. had been) a holiday. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 .I think he (would come. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 10. If I had more time. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 16. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. has been.Call me if he (comes.If yesterday (was. 4. 8. John looks as though he (was. were) the manager of the place. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 14. had eaten) a large dinner.If today (was. could have gone) if they had asked me. were) in his position. If England had been better prepared for war. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. If I (was. would have come) if we had asked him. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. we could have gone to the beach. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. 9.) (as though = as if = como si. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 7. he would have taken part in the discussion. If he (was. Choose the correct form: 1. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.I feel as if I (ate. If it (rains. will come) before noon.. If the weather had been nice. I (could go. If you had known it was going to rain.) 2. If I had been invited. had been) here last week. If you had studied harder.He will not go unless she (goes. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 6. we may not go away. If yesterday had been a holiday. 3. we could go to the beach. had had) a great shock. I would not accept the work. I would certainly do it. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Ex. were) sick.If I (would be. 5. will go) too. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. had known) this yesterday. If I (knew. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. I would certainly do it. (lf I were you. If you hadn´t had to study last night. 13. 7. 15. 11. were) a holiday. 12. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.

The weather isn’t nice today but I wish.. John wishes she were here now..I can’t speak English well but I wish. Complete the following sentences: 1. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now.PART II.”. I don´t have a car but I wish. I wish it would stop raining soon. 10... I wish I knew how to swim. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. Ex. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish.. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo TO WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad.. 8. I cannot swim but I wish. I wish I weren´t so busy. “Me gustaría. 11..... John won’t do it for us but I wish... 1.” I don´t know how to swim. It´s been raining hard for about five hours. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon.. 2. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday.. es decir. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. Mary isn’t here but I wish. 3.. 4. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off. 6... o “Me habría gustado. 2. 10. Mary is not here now.. I am not a millionaire but I wish. 12. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish. (I wish John were here now. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. 9. I´d certainly invite her to the party. 4.. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish. 7. 244 A short course in english for adult students S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional I don´t have a car but I wish I had one.I have to work this afternoon but I wish.. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . 5. 6. 5. 7. A. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now... I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. 11.) 2. I wish I had seen her. este siempre debe ir seguido por el MODO SUBJUNTIVO. 9.. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex.. 8. 3....”. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off..

.. _______________________________________________ 3. (wait) 3. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. TO REQUIRE. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier 4. TO DEMAND. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. They insisted that we _________________________ them again. Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. “It´s advisable that. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. _______________________________________________ 7. Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. “It is necessary that.”. “It´s essential that. (go) 10.. _______________________________________________ 4. _______________________________________________ 9.) 3.”.. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater.) I suggested that you see the manager today. He proposed that John __________________________ chairman of the committee. The doctor suggested that Mr. Smith _________________________ a long vacation. _______________________________________________ B.. TO ASK. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. (be) 5. She asked that we should be there before midday.. _______________________________________________ 10. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. (go) (He recommended that she go with him. He recommended that she _________________ with him. (be) 8.”.) 2. He suggested that John_______________________ a few minutes. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday.. _______________________________________________ 6.”. (take) A short course in english for adult students 245 . (visit) 7.. I recommended that you _________________________ back later. _______________________________________________ 2. etc. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: I wish he spoke English well. He asked that it__________________________ done right away.. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) 2.. “It´s imperative that.. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. Is it necessary that this _________________________ finished today? (be) 9. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. (come) 6. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. 1. (be) 4. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. It is imperative that they _________________________ there on time. _______________________________________________ 8. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. 1a. TO SUGGEST. EXERCISES Ex.12. I suggested that you should see the manager today. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach that day. I´m sorry John is not here with us. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach today. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo. _______________________________________________ 5. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. He insisted that she _________________________ on with the work. También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. 3. En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas.. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO 1..

(insist) ___________________________________________ 9. 9. He insisted that she ______________________________ on with the work. 5. He recommended that she __________________ with him. 8. 11. He asked that it______________________________ done right away. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. Were I you. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. is sitting) at this desk. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. me). The merchandise is supposed (to send. 8. comes) back later. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ finished today? (be) 9. I would go swimming. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? 4. 4. 7. I (may sleep. John asked me to take a walk with him. he would have spent it at the beach. 2. would be) in Florida now. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. John said he (will. may be sleeping). The owner of the store asked me to call back later. 6. (go) (He recommended that she should go with him. had seen) that movie already. If he had felt better. He asked me to be there on time. John always (sits. If I (were. would) be here tomorrow. He suggested that John__________________________ a few minutes. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. (be) 5. 14. 3. had gone) with you to the party last night. (go) 10. (insist) ___________________________________________ 6. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). 11. 12. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. (be) 8. Repeat the previous exercise using SHOULD : 1. would be) in Florida now. 3.Ex. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. Ex. I wish I (were. 13. Choose the correct form: 1. Smith ______________________________ a long vacation. to be sent) tomorrow. The doctor suggested that Mr. 3. 5. 9. 10. 7. He suggested that John (come. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: I suggested that John wait / should wait for me. (wait) 3. He said he (saw. He recommended that I (am. 2. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 4. He proposed that John ______________________________ chairman of the committee. If he (will come. If he felt better. he would spend it at the beach. 4. Had I known your number. John sat between Mary and (I.) 2. (insist) ___________________________________________ 3. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 10. (visit) 7. They insisted that we ______________________________ them again. We asked them to go with us in our car. 6. I wish I (went. 1b. please let me know. have seen) John yesterday. If he had been well. Had I had more time. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 7. has been living) here many years. If you come too early. 10. I recommended that you ______________________________ back later. 12. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. I (saw. (take) Ex. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 2. If John were here. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. be) there early. He asked me to lend him the money. comes) soon. (be) 4. I asked John to wait for me. It is imperative that they __________________________ there on time. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 5. I ______________________________ (do) it. I asked her to come back later. (suggest) ___________________________________________ Ex. 1. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. (come) 6. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). (suggest) ___________________________________________ 8. 2. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. He (is living. 246 A short course in english for adult students .

to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Which would you prefer to be. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.Ex. Which would you prefer. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . 5 Answer these questions: 1. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Which would you prefer. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which would you prefer. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Which would you prefer to study in the future. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

retreta Review /riviú:/ revista Revolt /rivólt/ revuelta Riot /ráiot/ revuelta Salute /saliút/ saludo Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ tirador escogido Skirmish /ské:rmish/ escaramuza Slaughter /sló:ter/ matanza Spy /spái/ espía Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ estrategia Struggle /strægl/ ´ lucha Surrender /sarénder/ rendición Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ vigilancia Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ táctica Truce /tru:s/ tregua 248 A short course in english for adult students . combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:pi# fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva /priémptiv æktchon/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchon/ acción preventiva ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ prisionero Raid /reid/ incursión Ranger /réindller/ comando Rear /ríar/ retaguardia Rear position /ríar posíshon/ posición de retaguardia Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ reconocimiento Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ refuerzo Relief /rilí:f/ ayuda.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /!i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atæki# iunit/ ´ ´ Barrack /bærak/ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /difénsiv æktchon/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæ#k/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. auxilio Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ equipo de rescate Reservist /rése:rvist/ reservista Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ toque de diana Retreat /ritrí:t/ recogida. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza.

conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar.Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuó:rterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíli#/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kó#ker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To inspect /inspékt/ To invade /invéid/ guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse A short course in english for adult students 249 . pelear disparar rendirse inspeccionar invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverrán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wi"dró:/ matar guiar. bajas maniobras Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wi"dróal/ no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero retirada llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar.

Bl 250 .

6. 1 would do it gladly. / . 2. If he were here. 6. he would see her. 7. would work 11.. he might have helped us. he would meet her. 7. 12. 3.. 3. had 11. C) Ex. 2. I´d go to the beach. 2 . 4.. would have driven Ex. / If I´d been able to do it. Ex.. 9.. 12. he would have gone with us.would do more things every day. / If I´d seen her.. were 3.he´d learn more. we would not go. 4. would go 10..I had been there.. I´d getter better marks. would feel 8. If it rained.... they would stay at A short course in english for adult students 251 . 9. 11.. they would have gone to the beach... 12. I´d beging to study.. have 9. first....I had had it. If he went. would speak 6. were 8. I´d go to... 11. I would call you up. 2. I ´d have done it gladly. had been 8. 7. would have helped 4.. If he prepared his lessons.. could 6..she had the day off / free. I´d go to the movie.. If he had time. 3. / If the weather had been nice.. 3. she would have taken part in the competition. might 12.would visit Epcot Center 7. had gone 9.. had known 7. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. could 7.. I´d give her the message.. he might he1p us. he´d enjoy living here. would learn faster 4. would make 5. If I had more time. I´d have given her the message.. would visit Ex. 2. (Possible answers).. would 5. would have written 8... knew 8.... she had come. 3. 4. he would go with us. he´d make good progress. 6.. I´d buy. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more.. 4. were 7. Yes. 10...Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. If he were here.. If he went there. had been Ex. I´d have acted differently.. would take 9.would plan a trip to France..would buy a modern car. I´d would visit.. 7.. 6. 7. would go 12. Ex. he had told me. Ex. would have told 9. I´d read more books. 9. 6..... 12.. had called 5. 9.. / I´d go to. 15.. 1. he would play tennis more often. he would pass 5. Yes. If the weather were cold.he had more friends. would speak 3.. 4. prepared 10.he had spoken it. 2. I would have called you up. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). 5.. I´d speak a lot better .would invite her out to dinner..he had been there. they would go to the beach.he had more practice in conversation. I would have included it in the list of guests 7.. If I could do it. 5.. had worn 6.. / If he´d been here. If he came. she´d be able to travel abroad more often. would have been 7. 8. 4. we would speak better.. would have come 6. he will let us know. he ´d have gotten a better job. 5. If I were free tomorrow. 6. 8. I´d have called you up. she wouldn´t have caught cold. 4. 8. 9. 10.it were not so cold.... would learn 4..could go on a picnic.I had been in his position. I´d drive to.. 5.. 3. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . If we had much practice. 2. had 11. 8..she had wore it..she were here I would be talking with her now. 13. I´d go to. If I saw her.I had had one.he´d be a better student. were 6. Oh yes. 9. were 12. 5.... (Possible answers) 2..I spoke it well.... He´d certainly speak better. he studied harder 3. 2. 8.. If they tried hard. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera. of course.. 5. would have been 5. if he studied hard. had told 10. knew 4. 6. Ex.. 2. If 1 were free now.. (Possible answers) 2. you would have seen him. were 9.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. had Ex. he´d speak it better. had had 3..he liked to do it. he came to class on time he´d be a better student.. If I didn´t have to work.. 10. 11.. had been 4. knew Ex. she had come on time. he could help us. is 3.. I had known it. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss. 10... would have gone 10. 1. 8. / If he had had time... I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. / If I had been free yesterday. If he´d gone there. would go to the beach.she had more money.... would have caught 3. would be 7. had 5. (Suggested answers) 1.. I´d be planning a trip to France. they would succeed. 2. comes 10. he would have let us know..he had more free time.. 11. 3. 14.. And I´d.If the weather were nice... 2. would 4...I could speak it..

1. I would have gone to. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. You´d be very wrong if you said that.. / . of course. 13.. come 5. 2. I had studied 4. were 10... Ex. If he worked harder.. (Suggested answers) 2. Ex. had had 4. 5. I wish today were a holiday. 2. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 252 A short course in english for adult students . could 3. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. Ex. 8. to be sent 10.. he wouldn´t have gone. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 2. / No.. 2.. 9. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. it were nice 7. You´d be right or wrong. I didn´t have to work. I wish I knew her better 7. be / should be 8. had the day off .. . had gone 6.. go / should go 10. I´d be very sorry to hear that.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. he had worked harder during the term. 2. could Ex. I´d prefer to be rich. would have done 7.. take / should take Ex.. If John were present. 10. would buy a Japanese car. 3. could have gone 7. 11. of course. I wouln´t have gone. 6. she were here.. of course. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful... would have telephoned 3. I´d prefer to be in good health. 4. I would have gone. had known 5. 4. be / should be 9. Yes. be / should be 4. / . 1. 2. visit / should visit 7. be / should be 5.. 2.. would go out for a walk 14. had 11. 6. 12. I could speak it . had hurried 6. sits Ex. would have phoned you 3. knew Ex. 9. I would have certainly helped him. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. 3. Ex.. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. 10. she were. wait / should wait 3. I´d have gone to. Yes.were 4. If he´d worked harder. 1. 6.had been invited 4. were 11. would have come Ex. Yes. it were a holiday. the meeting would be good. would have come 8. it had been a holiday 6... would 8. No. comes 13. / If John had been present. 7. I wouldn´t have helped him. My English is not very good. would have gone 10. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. 12. 7... would 10. were 2. would have I´d have told him you were here. I think. goes 15. Of course he would have gone. I´d be pleased to hear that. You´d be wrong if you said that. It depends. 8. I like riding horses. come / should come 6. had been 8. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. they would have stayed at home. 2. be 4. may be sleeping 11. 2 . I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. I wish John were here with us.home. 12. 10. (Suggested answers) 1. were 6. If it had rained. would have gone out for a walk 15. I was too busy at that moment. 6. of course / No. he would have been promoted. 3. of course. I wish he had gone with us last night.. had studied 4. 8. would have helped you 6. I´d have gone to a concert instead. 2. were 5.we had asked him to help us. it would have been the same 8. had eaten 16. I could swim 3. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. PART II A) Ex. Yes. 1.. 5. 5.. 11. 6.. 10... 5. I were 8.... would watch TV every day 11. 4. comes 8. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies.. 5. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. were 7. 10. 9. would begin 5. 4. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money.. He hates sports.. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3.. a) y 1. 12. 3.. the meeting would have been good. 8. He loves sports / No. were 3. 10. has been living 12. saw 13. had been 12. (Possible answers) 1. were 14. had been 12. of course.. If he had the money. 4. of course. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. 16. I love the rain. 7..would have attended the conference. I´d prefer to own a horse. I would have gone all the same. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. I´d be sorry to hear that. 7. were 9.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening.. I would have gotten a better mark.. had known it started today. 5. 7..b) 2.. of course. 5. 9. had already seen 14. had had 12. he might have gone with us. had gone 3. rains 6. I hate the rain / Yes. of course. 11. he would be promoted. had known 9. 5.. would 7. he would do it 9. me 9. would go 9. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. were 11. 3.

” He said that he had to do that again. He said. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us).” He said that he always worked hard. He said. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS (STATEMENTS) Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones.” He said that he had worked very hard. He said. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. He said. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 .” He said that he had worked very hard.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. “I´m very busy. “I´m busy today.” He said that he had to do the job well. He said. “I must do the job well. John said. He said. “I´m busy at this moment. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont. pidió o advirtió hacer. He said.” He said that he was busy then. “I always work hard. “I have worked very hard.” He said that he had been busy the day before. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. (Indirect Speech) I. “I was busy yesterday.” He said that he could use a computer. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). “I can use a computer. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16.” He said that he would work hard all day.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).” He said that he was working very hard. “I worked very hard. “It may rain again. “I will work hard all day. He said. “I´m working very hard. He said.” He said that it might rain again. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. “I have to do that again. “I´m busy now. “I like New York. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativos. He said. He said.

Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night

The following day

There Last night The night before / The previous night

He said, “I´ll be busy tomorrow.” He said that he would be busy the following day. He said, “I´m very happy here.” He said that he was very happy there. He said, “I´m very busy tonight.” He said that she was very busy that night. He said, “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night.

Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación, según vimos en la Unidad 8, se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. Bob said, “I like New York.” Bob told us that he liked New York. II. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS (QUESTIONS) Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto, no se debe mantener la estructura interrogativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura AFIRMATIVA (S+VM+VP) John asked me, “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. The teacher asked the students, “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. Bob asked me, “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Bob asked his friends, “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. III. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES, REQUERIMIENTOS, ADVERTENCIAS, ETC, (ORDERS, COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE, etc.) Cuando se desea expresar una orden, un requerimiento, advertencia, etc, en el discurso indirecto, se debe usar la siguiente estructura:
Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb begged asked told warned requested ordered advised Object Pro (Noun). me you him / her us them the boy the boys TO/NOT TO + Infinitive. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following statements from direct to indirect form: John said that he had to work tonight. 1. John said, “I have to work tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary said to me, ‘’I will be back later.” ___________________________________________________ 3. Mr. Smith said, “We may have an exam.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He said, “I have no money.” ___________________________________________________ 5. The doctor said, “John is a very sick man.” ___________________________________________________ 6. Mary said to me, “I cannot go with you tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said, “I hope she comes soon.” ___________________________________________________ 8. He said, “l have known him a long time.” ___________________________________________________ 9. Mr. Smith said, “We will finish this tomorrow.” ___________________________________________________
254
A short course in english for adult students

10. He said, “I don’t know her well.” 11. She said, “I am going away tomorrow.” 12. He said to me, “He is supposed to be here now.”

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Change the following questions from direct to indirect form: Mary asked where John lived. 1. Mary asked, “Where does John live?” ___________________________________________________ 2. Helen said to me, “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3..Mr Smith asked us, “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. I asked John, “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. John said, “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said to me, “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. The teacher asked, “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. He asked me, “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. He asked me, “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. I asked him, “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. He said to me, “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. I asked her, “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. She said to him, “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. I asked her, “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change the following orders, requests, commands, etc. to the indirect form: John told me to wait five minutes for him. 1. John said to me, “Wait five minutes for me.” ___________________________________________________ 2. The teacher said to us, “Don’t write in pencil.” ___________________________________________________ 3. I asked him, “Be more careful.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He asked me, ‘’Please don’t be late.” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Try to come on time.” ___________________________________________________ 6. He said to me, “Don’t make the same mistake again.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He warned the child, “Don’t cross the road.” ___________________________________________________ S. He said to me, “Don’t forget what I told you.” ___________________________________________________ 9. He begged me, ‘’Please send me the money at once.” __________________________________________________ 10.He asked me, “Sit down for a few minutes.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: The teacher told me to sit in the first row. 1. Sit in the first row. ___________________________________________________ 2. Wait outside in the hall. ___________________________________________________ 3. Come back later. ___________________________________________________ 4. Do your exercíses in ink. ___________________________________________________ 5. Give this message to Mrs. Smith. ___________________________________________________ 6. Don’t waste so much time. ___________________________________________________ 7. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. ___________________________________________________ 8. Sit up straight. ___________________________________________________ 9. Go to the whiteboard. ___________________________________________________ 10. Take your feet off the desk. ___________________________________________________ 11. Prepare your lessons more carefully. ___________________________________________________ 12. Sit down and read the story. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in the indirect form. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: I don’t know where John is. 1. Where´s John? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 2. Is he in the building? (She wants to know...) ___________________________________________________ 3. Where does she live? (Can you tell me...?) ___________________________________________________ 4. Is he a good student? (I´m not sure...) ___________________________________________________ 5. How much does it cost? (He wants to know...) ___________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

255

6. Where is she going? (She didn’t say... ) ___________________________________________________ 7. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . .) 8. How is he getting along? (Mrs. Jones wanted to know,.) _________________________________________________ 9. Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me...) ___________________________________________________ 10. Where is he now? (Can you tell me... ) ___________________________________________________ 11. Is Mr. Smith here? (I’d like to know...) ___________________________________________________ 12. When will he get back? (I´d like to find out...) ___________________________________________________ 13. How tall is he? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 14. Is he very tall? (I really don’t know...) ___________________________________________________ 15. Where does he live? (Ask him...) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. . Change from indirect to direct form: 1. He said he was busy. 2. He asked me where I lived. 3. He asked her whether she liked New York. 4. She said she was going out of town. 5. She said her last name was Smith. 6. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 7. He told me not to wait for him. 8. He said that he could not meet us. 9. He asked how much it cost. 10. He told her to leave the room. 11. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 12. He said he would be back soon. Ex. 7. Choose the correct form: 1. He asked me where I (live, lived). 2. I don’t know whether (I can, can I) do it. 3. Can you tell me what time (it is, is it)? 4. He said he (will, would) come here soon. 5. He (told me, said to me) that he was busy. 6. He asked me what time it (is, was). 7. I asked him what the word (means, meant). 8. I asked her whether she (is, was) married. 9. I’d like to know where (is it, it is). 10. He said he (can, could) meet us easily. 11. I´m not sure whether (he is, is he) here now. 12. He didn’t say where he (is, was) going. Ex. 8. Answer these questions: 1. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________
256
A short course in english for adult students

(He said, “I am busy.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

(He asked me where I lived.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

BASIC VOCABULARY VERBOS PRINCIPALES: VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: INFINITIVO, PASADO, PASADO PARTICIPIO y GERUNDIO. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Escuche, lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. /wí: hav wé:rkt há:rd !is íar/ We are working hard now. /wí: a:r wé:rki# ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /!éi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. /!éi spóuk í#glish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. /!éi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. /!éi a:r spí:ki# í#glish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora)

A. VERBOS REGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchi#/ working /wé:rki#/ loving /lávi#/ playing /pléii#/ studying /stádii#/ fitting /fiti#/ stopping /stópi#/ guiding /gáidi#/ repeating /ripí:ti#/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir

NOTAS: 1. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed; mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. 2. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante, o cons+cons+vocal+cons, deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. 3. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t, -te, -d, -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/, y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/; decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/; request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/.

Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/

Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/

Spanish contestar, responder llegar preguntar, pedir transportar, llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar, gustar terminar odiar, no gustar ayudar esperar, desear invitar escuchar ubicar, localizar

A short course in english for adult students

257

To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/

looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/

mirar amar, gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar, arreglar repetir solicitar, pedir fumar comenzar, partir quedarse, permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar, esforzarse usar, utilizar visitar esperar, atender caminar querer lavar observar, mirar desear trabajar, funcionar

B. VERBOS IRREGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/
258

Past Tense began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Spanish empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener, servirse, haber oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender, enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar hacer, fabricar

A short course in english for adult students

To meet /mi:t/ met /met/ To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ put /put/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ stood up /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /"i#k/ thought /"o:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ ´ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/

met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn

reunirse, conocer pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar, pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar, llevar enseñar decir, narrar pensar, creer entender, comprender vestir, desgastar escribir

A short course in english for adult students

259

Bl 260 .

7. I asked her whether / if John was here. 8. He told me not to forget what he had told me. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 5. 8. 12. She wants to know how he is getting along. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. 4. Mr. 5. 3.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. 6. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. He asked me. 3. She said. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 6. 1. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. 9. “My last name´s Smith 6. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. I asked John what time it was. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. 4. Mr. “How much does it cost?” 10. 3. He said (that) he had known him a long time. “I can´t meet you . He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. He said. could 11. Ex. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. 8. was Ex. 2. The teacher told me to come back later. Smith is here. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . Ask him where he lives. 5. 4. 2. 2. 4. 5. was 9. 3. 6. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. 11. I can 3. 10. He said to her. Ex. He asked her. 2. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary.She said. . 2. I asked her where it was. 13. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. it is 10. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. “Where do you live?” 3. He warned the child not to cross the road. 3. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 11. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 4. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. He asked me to try to come on time. He begged me to send him the money at once. 12. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. “My maiden name was Jones. was 7. 7. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 2. 6. 9. 8. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. “Do you like New York?” 4. John asked whether / if it was raining. 5. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. 8. 2. Ex. 9. I don´t know how tall he is. “I´ll be back soon. 6. He politely asked me not to be late. Ex. 7. 2. 12. 2. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. He asked me how I was today. He asked me. 5. 9.” 9. 15. He wants to know how much it costs. He asked. He asked me to meet him outside the station. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. 7. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 12. (Possible Answers) . 1. 14. told me 6. would 5. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. “Leave the room. 15. I told him to be more careful. 5. Mrs. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. 8. Mr. “I´m going out of town. He told me not to make the same mistake again. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. meant 8. 6. He told me to write a short story in English. He said he´d seen it. Because there was too much traffic at that time. 7. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. He said. 14. I asked him when he had read that book. 7. Ex. 6. Can you tell me where she lives? 4.” Ex. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. 7. 10. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. A short course in english for adult students 261 . Can you tell me where he is now? 11. 8. it is 4. He said (that) he had no money.” 5. 4. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. He said to me. 7. She didn´t say where she was going . 10. 3. “Don´t wait for me. 3. She said. 10. 13.” 8. he is 12. He asked me what the word meant. “ 11. Smith. 9.

Bl 262 .

.? ¿De dónde es Ud..? Vengo de Stgo. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well. mi nombre es. bat ai spí:k spænish and í#glish/ ´ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ ´ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a. Please let me introduce myself...USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A.. No entiendo francés Es Ud.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento. My name is.. thank you I´m fine.. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian? No.... hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud.... Mi nombre es....? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado.Chile ¿Vive ud. un/a.? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students UNIT 20 263 ... Este es el o la Sr./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército.. Permítame presentarme.? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórni#/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vni#/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: !is i:vni#/ /"æ#kiu:/ /"ænkiu: véri mátch/ ´ ´ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel "æ#kiu/ /aim fáin "æ#ks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz. ./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræ#k /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt. I don´t.. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud./ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud. My name is....? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a... hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud.../ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéii# æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está Ud.. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do.? ¿Tiene Ud./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr../ /!is iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.. Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente. francés/alemán/italiano? No....

¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. está equivocado. please Don´t open the window. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. I think so Yes. creo que sí Sí. Sí. por favor. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. por supuesto No. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. No lo creo así. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. of course/certainly/sure No.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. razón. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . por favor No abra la ventana. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. Así lo espero. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wi! pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:ti# iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn !e wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts !e déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu há#gri/ /a:r iu "é:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r ró#/ /ai agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt "i#k sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai "i#k sóu/ /ies !æts ráit/ /!æts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai !æt/ /wót daz !is wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts !e mí:ni# ov !is wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí..? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. I don´t mind. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down..? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. come in and sit down Wait a moment. No concuerdo con Ud. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. Concuerdo con Ud. Ud. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si.

... ¿Qué está estará (hizo..) A short course in english for adult students 265 .(sentarme aquí.... What do you. help you.. etc... Don´t... What´s your.(fumo..)? ¿Querría Ud.. 8. etc. etc .Remember: 1.)? Would 5...)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6..(come here.. Sit here. ¿Podría Ud. address.)? UD? 4.)? were you 2.)? will 4. ) 7. etc......).. ¿Le molesta a UD si yo... por favor.. No vaya allá (hable. Siéntese aquí (venga.(nombre dirección. etc. go there ( speak.(do.)? Can Will 6. spell it? (.). etc...etc.)? Recuerde: 1.)? estaba 2.(ayudarme. etc.. Do you mind if I... ¿Puedo yo.(doing... Sentémonos aquí (vamos.etc.etc) (hará... etc) 3.. (sit here. etc.). 8...) please.( haciendo.(help me. etc.(name. go..)UD? did 3. What are you will you be .. por favor...etc)? 9. ¿Cuál es su.. 5.... ¿Qué (hace... etc)? 9. Let´s sit here. Could you..etc... etc. etc) ..)? 7.... Can May I. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo. please. etc. Shall I.(smoke... (.etc.

. please I need to make an international call to Chile.. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. 266 A short course in english for adult students .B. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las. por favor. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik !is sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz !ér e kólor tí: ví: in !e rú:m/ /!e séntral hí:ti#/éar kondíshoner íznt wé:rki# wél/ /mai béd hæznt bí:n méid iet/ ´ ´ /ai ní:d aná!er blæ#kit/ /kud iu tchéindll !e táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts !e vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz !ear a kóin operéitid wóshi# mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv !i:z klóu!z wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and !e kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha. please? There´s an error in my bill/check. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call. por favor. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed.. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from !e houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spænish plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e suími# pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in !e houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e máni ekstchéindll in !e houtél/ /kud iu brí# e. por favor. por favor? ¿Dónde está el restaurant? ¿Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. me parece.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz !e réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz !e bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz !er e télifoun in !e lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /!érz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai "i#k/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/dri#k/órder !is/ /iz !er a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust !í:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r !e lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik !e líft/elevéitor tu !e tén" fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at. I want to check out at. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis.. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi.. a mi habitación. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a... Is there a barber´s shop here? Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. Yo no cené aquí anoche. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik !e sé:rvis/!e fu:d/!e rú..... please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish.. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación? ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español.

.......( have another coffee.(despertarme a las 7.)? Where are the.. Where is the. ¿Podría Ud.(lift..etc. Quiero. etc. (telephones.(servirme otro café..) en el hotel? 4.etc..) I would like to. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .. / teléfonos....(ascensor.. ¿Dónde está el..) in the hotel? 4.etc..Remember: 1. Could you. etc)? 3.) please? Recuerde: 1..? 3. baños.)? ¿Dónde están los .. etc) Desearía. ) 2. bar.. Is there a.(make a phone call. etc..(wake me up at 7:30.. I want to.. toilets.... ¿Hay un. bar. etc..(hacer una llamada. etc..etc.etc..(bar...) 2.(bar.etc.

mí:dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. etc. etc. Fue muy buena en verdad. por favor..) Desearía servirme. ¿Qué quiere Ud. What do you want to (eat. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. almendras saladas o maní.etc.. Could you pass me the salt. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. Remember: 1.. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check.. (a beer.)? 2. por favor? Realmente disfruté la comida.. Muchísimas gracias.)? 3..)? How would you like your.)? 2. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? ¿Whisky. etc.. cherry. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. ¿Podría pasarme la sal.)? 3. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife.. Quiero servirme. cognac o amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. (steak. How do you want your.. (otro whisky. (más té.)? What would you like to (drink. (tea.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu brí# mi !e bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid !e mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /"æ#kiu véri match/iu kan kí:p !e tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor.) /ai ní:d e téibl for "rí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz !er e téibl in !e non smóuki# éaria níar !e wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rvi# lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll !is íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at !e méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:z ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wi!/ ´ /ai "i#k ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi aná!er náif !is wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá.) 268 A short course in english for adult students ...) Can I have.etc. (beber. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida.. cerveza o una gaseosa? ¿Podría servirme una cerveza de barril. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo. etc. etc. etc. You can keep the change. (la cuenta. etc. medium or well-done? I want it well done please.. Puede conservar el vuelto. etc.. Good bye. beer or a soft drink? Can I have a draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare.)? ¿Me podría traer. (pollo con arroz. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud..)? I´d like to order. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne? ¿La quiere a punto.. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. It was very good indeed...... (another whisky.) ¿Puedo servirme. un sandwich.)? Could you get me. etc.. bíar or e sóft drí#k/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio. etc.. (some more tea. etc. . (una cerveza. (chicken and rice.. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. etc. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine. ¿Desearía algo para beber? ¿Vino. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo. Recuerde: 1. etc. etc.. a sandwich. etc)? Desearía pedir. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. Thank you very much. (the bill.s mi !e só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sám"i# tu drí#k wáin.. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak.) I´d like to have. Hasta luego. please? I really enjoyed the meal. (comer. I want to have. etc. salted almonds or peanuts.C.

TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . plaice /sóul. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kæbidll/ Carrot /kærrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drési#/ Fruit /frú:t/ Hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ Main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Pan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /héri#/ King-crab /ki# kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ Sole. bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ Tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES.

rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo Uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /æprikot / éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blækberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tchóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /ræzberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblklo"/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. frente al cine. Kan iu shóu mi !e wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz !e póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél mi wéar !e bæ#k iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar !e stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi !e wéi tu !e pá:rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu !e miu:zíam/ /luk at !e mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid !e stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu !e brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at !e réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k aló# !is strí:t as fá:r as !e træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at !e nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun !e strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik !e "é:rd té:rni# on !e ráit and !én wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv alo# !is róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/!en té:rn ráit and iul sí: !e táuer at !i énd ov !e róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréindller híar maisélf/á:sk e polísman/ /ikskiu:z mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu !e næshional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz !i éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik !e tréin/ /ikskiú:z mi dáz !is bás go tu !e stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu !i óksford houtél in pá:rk strí:t/ /ikskiu:z mi wéarz !e níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz !er e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/!éarz wan in bridll strí:t. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ ´ ´ /ai wónt tu góu tu !e ka"ídrl. outside the station. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. óposit !e sínema/ /wót táim du !e bæ#ks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt ráni#/ /wót taim du !e shóps klóuz/ /dáz !e supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. please? Excuse me. Perdón. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. por favor? Perdón. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. please? Excuse me. Necesita tomar el tren. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. Sorry I don´t know. I´m a stranger here myself. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road.por favor? Perdón. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles.D. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. there´s one in Bridge Street. No sé. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. Excuse me. take me to the Oxford Hotel. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. ¿Sabe Ud. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . please? Could you tell me where the bank is. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. Excuse me. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. in Park Street. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. please? Excuse me. It´s not very far. en la Calle Park Perdón. por favor? Perdón. Do you know where the station is. por favor? Perdón. dónde está la estación. We are here. Ask a policeman. hasta el semáforo. Yo también soy forastero aquí. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. Camine por esta calle. You need to take the train. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. Where´s the post office. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. can you tell me the way to the park. opposite the cinema.

.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 .......más cercana.open / close? 6..? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a. near here? Building /bíldi#/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (UK) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre /shópi# sénter/ Centro comercial Shopping mall /shópi# mo:l/ Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamentos Book store /buk stó:r/ librería Book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /"íater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la. How do I get to.... Could you tell me the way to..... please? 3. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement. please?... ¿Cómo llego a.de aquí? 7... How far is the. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las.... please? 4..? 6.? Is there a. from here? 7.por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la....? 2.. Where is the nearest...is.? 5. Which bus do I need to take to go to the... Necesito comprar un / algunos.. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a. Do you know where the. por favor? 4. What time do the..s... /péivment/ vereda(UK) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (UK) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1....... Hay un / una.? 5.. Where is the..? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la. is.. ¿A qué distancia está el / la...por favor? ¿Dónde esta la.. please? Can you tell me where the.? 2.. I need to buy a / some.. ¿Dónde está la.. Could you show me the way to.Useful vocabulary (vocabulario útil) City.por favor? 3. open / close? What time does the.

please? What´s your last name. Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos /wi a:r lændi# /arráivi# in e fiu: minits/ pocos minutos.E. bæk ov io:r sí:t in !i apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo Can I have your passport. At the station / airport (en la estación / aeropuerto) ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? /háu mátch is !e bás tíkit tu !e zú:/ Is it a direct journey / flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey / flight take? ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? /háu ló# daz !e dllé:rni /fláit téik/ What time does the train /plane leave? ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin lí:v/ What time does the train /plane / get there? ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin get !éar/ Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu lo# daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? /du !ei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ Can I have a seat by the window? ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai !e wíndou/ ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in !e non smóuki# éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases Estas son mis malaetas /!í:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Please carry my suitcases with care Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wi! kéar/ I will carry this handbag myself. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. Can you spell it please? /kan ai hæv io:r pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a rité:rn tíkit tu lión/ 274 A short course in english for adult students . Fasten your seat belt. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld !e téibl and put !e Ajuste su cinturón. Please put your cigarette out now. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil !e pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. ´ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano /ai wil kæri !is hændbæg maisélf/ Where is the luggage /baggage claim? ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? /wéar iz !e lágidll /bægidll kléim/ I have nothing to declare No tengo nada para declarar /ai hæv ná"i# tu dikléar/ How many bottles can I take with me? ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wi! mí:/ Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? /iz !er e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ Where is the bar? /restaurant? ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? /wéarz !e bá:r /restorant/ Are we landing /arriving soon? ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? /á:r wi lændi# /arráivi# sú:n/ We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes.

F. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sám"i#/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of lé!er /plástik /wu:l /kóton / góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano / dólares? No me gusta el color. /plí:z kí:p !is risí:t /wí wil sénd !i áitmz tu !e pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz !is wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r !ouz glávz/ I like this /that watch /jacket. We´ll send the items to the plane. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 . Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik !e kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. guarde este recibo. ¿Tiene Ud.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Shopping (de compras) /ai láik !is /!æt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik !í:z /!óuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: !em/ /kan ai trái !em ón // /háu mátch á:r !ei /háu mátch du !ei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ /kan ai péi wi! amérikan máni /iú: és Can I pay with American money /US dollars dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r.

Bl 276 .

.. 5. 3. 4. antes de comenzar la prueba.. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 . Preguntas 1 .50...Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas.UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2..Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas.LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma).Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita).Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos.

Bl 278 .

might see a doctor today. A. A. A short course in english for adult students 279 . D. he seldom works hard. had stolen. may see a doctor today. D. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. A. give your message to him 2. B. nowhere that day. B. En cada caso Ud. anywhere that day. were having dinner that evening. B. C. have been having dinner that evening. were there earlier. would rather go by taxi. wants open the door now. C. deberá elegir la alternativa A. 5. very ill now. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta.15.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. so much difficult for him. 15. opens the door now. had dinner that evening. C. B. C. Ud. B. he always works hard. D. B. C. 4. A. B. A. will give to him your message C. D. “What expensive it is!” C. C. B. should to go by taxi. had better go by taxi. B. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. “How expensive it is!” B. C. C. A. o D. a little bored. “How expensive watch is it!” D. have just opened the door. are better to go by taxi. are having dinner that evening. D. 7. A. D. A. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. a few difficult for him. C. had to be there very quickly. D. B. C. 10. ought to see a doctor today. somewhere that day. C. he works hard as a rule. A. know her new address. had been stolen. C. won’t can see it well. 9. A. D. C. oirá oraciones incompletas. too difficult for him. A. knew her new address. was stealing. D. C. 13. can see a doctor today. won’t be allowed to see it well. won’t be able to see it well. 12. whose Peter sent Mary last week. D. B. quite busy at the moment. is trying to open the door now. will be there on time. was been stolen. should know her new address. A. D. B. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . 14. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. can be there now. too late right now. D. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. too much difficult for him. who Peter sent Mary last week. give him your message. which Peter sent Mary last week. B. 3. A. won’t be possible to see it well A. deberá consignarla. 11. am going to give him your message D. he often works hard. 6. D. everywhere that day. B. A. Ud. would know her new address.

D. Away from the office. D. He wanted to save money. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. C. He doesn’t feel like going out today. He’d better stay at home all day today. B. D. Ud. A. A kind person. He must order someone to do the job. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. C. She’ll go and see them. They are a little younger. He must finish the job sometime. D. A. A. They decided to go home early. They go there when they want to have fun. D. D. B. A. A. C. 17.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . A polite person. He has to work in the evenings too D. Ud. He was away almost all day. C. A. D. C. 25. 19. A dull person. She’ll show them a map. He lived in this house until recently. en cada caso. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. C. C. He was working at home all day. She’ll call the roll. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 280 . B. 16. A. B. C. C. que la conteste en mejor forma. He was away all day long. 21. B. He doesn’t see her so often. 29. A. It was a very crowded place. C. They are 12 years old. They go there from time to time. On his way to the office. Later in the day. Didn’t remember. C. 22.30. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. He hasn’t told us much about her. C. D. They are 10 years altogether. He wanted to take a walk. They went somewhere else together. There were too many people there. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. D. B. 27. C. 24. B. deberá elegir la alternativa A. He preferred to go home by taxi. A. He hates to be at home during the day. They had dinner at the restaurant. D. Didn’t make a decision. A. He remembered he had a friend. 28. B. oirá oraciones completas y. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. No escriba en este cuadernillo. The weather was awful. He has to decide what to do soon. They are a different age. A.He had no time to travel. They go there when they have time. They attended a meeting at the club. Didn’t forget. B. He was resting all day. B. 26. He’ s only seen her once or twice. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Didn’t care much. 0 D. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. He hasn’t studied her well. C. D. C. She’ll ring them up. B. B. D. Because it’s a busy little town. A. A. 31 A. A. D. At once. Because they like shopping. C. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. B. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. D. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. B. B. D. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. A. 20. He stayed in the garden all morning. B. He didn’t like hotels very much. A. Después de cada oración U¡. C. B. A sociable person. He came to live in this house very recently. o D. C. A short course in english for adult students 32. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. 18. Because they like the rain. D. They go there only when the weather’s fine. The buses were crowded at that time C. He would miss his family. 23. B. 30. He wanted to get home more safely. They met people and went on sightseeing tours.

She wanted to buy an air ticket. B. 39. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. She did everything immediately. D. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. C. She did everything following the instructions. A. o D. Escuche atentamente. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. C. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. En cada caso. A. 36. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. A. B. B. B. 41. They have used that car for a long time. D. He could not help at the reception. A. 40. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. A. D. B. 43. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. A short course in english for adult students 42. At an expensive hotel near Paris. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. so they ate quickly and left the place. At a summer house they had in the south of France. He should have gone to the reception. D. B. A. B. 35. B. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area.33. Because they´d been friends for many years. She did everything correctly. deberá elegir la alternativa A. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. Robert telephoned them in a given order. 37. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. Robert called to give them a new order. That area never appears on the maps. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. C. C.. Because she told him about her husband´s death. C. D. B. C. C. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. Mary telephoned him after she got there. Because he was glad to see her again B. D. They worked in a garage in those days. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. They used to have two cars in those days. She did everything as carefully as possible. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. A. A. D. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. A. 34. D. D.. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. C. It wasn’t warm enough inside. 38. C. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. A. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. C. D. C. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. B. El examinador leerá una historia. 281 .

Mrs Green´s husband passed away. C. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. C. as usual. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. D. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. D. B. A. 47. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. D. To visit some friends in Portugal. D. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. C. B. 49. B. A. C. A. A. 48. 45.44. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. B. C. D. To a particular holiday place in India. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. C. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. 46. D. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. 50. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. To spend her summer holidays abroad. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. B. Because India was an amazing country. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. B. C. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. A. B. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. A. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . D. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. A.

Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. they were having D. before leaving B. A. What a few B How interesting C. would rather D. since . How much time . How long . Have . A. before to leave 58.your friends A short course in english for adult students 283 . C. You are getting too fat. valuable B. hardest D. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. C. before you’re leaving D. for . How often .the most highest D. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. John. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. during . A.drunk A. I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. o D.your family B. But I know it’s a very strong liquor. How much 56. Jim. B. there had been B.the highest C. should to C. better C. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. José? No. A. Have .the higher 57. 51. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. too good B. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80.them D. What a lot of D. in order to leaving C. there were C. must to B. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. Will . que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y.drink D. satisfactory 53.. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. hard enough D. it was 55. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A.the high B. How many times – theirs C. along . She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. enseguida. elija la alternativa A. Do – drank B. never. most good 54. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. too many C.been drunk 52. Mary seems to be a very responsible person.B. ought to 59.

was allowed 61. not heavy enough 68. had taken – must B. Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A.will produce C. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. whom D. both nor and 67. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon.. An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write.produce . give to her the letter . had been sleeping – yet 62.will see her B. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. A. too heavy D. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. was sleeping – still C. very heavy B. whose . but he remembered that he _________ go and see a friend who was in hospital. are decreased .60. so to C. for to B. as B. has slept – already D. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. in a year B. A. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. A.doesn’t have to be C. talk 69.are talking B. has decreased D. The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. have been decreasing .see her C. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. give the letter to her .will be producing 63. would take . Consequently.are producing . A.can see her . a year D. slept – also B. give her the letter . either as or C. so that D. had been taking – should D. which . John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them.am going to see her 65. in order to 284 A short course in english for adult students . give the letter her D. was going to take . by the year C. A. who never was able to be will never be 64. too much heavy C. are decreasing B. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. for the year 66. neither D. don´t talk D. A.mustn´t be B. A.have talked C. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning.had to C.

any D. You _________ do it right now. He needed the answer urgently. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. Miss Jones? A. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . don’t you contradict D. do contradict 75. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. could have been prevented C. had played C. have used B. ___________ him. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. at once C. all the same D. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . had better D. must have prevented B. yet . 80. A. I would have visited some other places too. did D. are going to fly B.70. suddenly 76. used to play D. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. where did the people go B. A. A. A. Had I had some extra money. right now D. what the young man was doing C. would have had C. they _________ the old computer. seldom use 77. A. you don’t contradict B. can B. some nowhere anywhere 78. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. was playing B. could be prevented D. don’t contradict C. were allowed to use D. at all B. enough B. why was sleeping the old man D. have been prevented 71. too much everywhere somewhere C. would better B. the accident _____________. will be flying D. are using C. had to C. It __________ here in a few minutes A. are flying C. For the time being. Sir. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______.Tom. At this time tomorrow. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. When I was your age. so I could go ___________ else.should be . what time was it exactly 72. A. so I sent him an email __________ A. have been flying 73. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. He may get angry and reprimand you. I think. A. went 74. I didn’t have___________ extra money. still B. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A.will be C.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. would rather 79.

too. would like to stay 84. John didn’t come to class today. wasn’t very old D. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. punctually 90. 81. was too very young 87. A. A. A. became sick of C. almost D. but Bill didn’t also. quietly and secretly. need to remain 85. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. got afraid of D. B. didn’t want to C. C. so he walked home. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. prefers to read B. wasn’t allowed to B. A. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. ought to stay D. A. in the right way B. begins D. B. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. without anything to eat. doesn’t enjoy reading D. simply . o D. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. How frequent 86. have to be B. somewhere else C. D. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. and Bill didn’t. becomes B. A. It’s too cold. obtains C. D. fills C. A. from a distant place. I think the children would rather stay at home today. A. A.95. and Bill didn’t either. How long B. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. and neither did Bill. simply couldn’t D. How often D. at once C. very often B. A. hates reading C. 89. got tired of B. and so did Bill. completely alone D. C. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. refused to 88. What time C. became accustomed to 82. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. Elija la alternativa A. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. was too young C. dislikes to read 83. was much too old B. 91.

of course. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. 93.” Mrs Soames said. B. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. She’s fast asleep!” 96. leave out D. es la más adecuada en cada caso.” Mrs Soames said. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. You can. so you should not have any trouble. He is too old and is losing his memory. Before she left. “He’s wide awake. o D. B. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. leave the city C. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. at present. Because the boy was not in good health.What time do you think they will get there? A. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. “Make yourself comfortable. listen to the radio or watch television. and the television could just be heard. A. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. actually C. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. The girl had never done baby sitting before. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. que estime Ud. because it’s a nice city. He´ll go back to sleep at once. “She’s still in the living-room. C. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. consider C.92. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. get a place D. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. D. underline B. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. D. C. 98.” “He was looking at the television. A short course in english for adult students 287 . because the weather’s good there. C. with some exaggeration D. Carol. only a few times 95. D. obtain a room C. A. They went to visit some friends. What did the Soames do that evening? A. Please cross out my name. If the boy wakes up. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. 97. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. A light was still on in the living-room. from time to time B. I won’t be able to attend the reception. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. D. be in that town B. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. They had some trouble with their baby. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. A. he’s four years old. B. Because the boy was a newly born baby. He’s told me the same thing over and over. a young girl of seventeen. Because the boy was going with them as well. B. They saw a program on television. C. It’s on the table. Anyway. report 94. many times.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected.

neck B. cousin A.would B. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. ought D. D. nephew D. 288 A. He will go to his bed. age C. B. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A.butter B. clever C. cotton E. happier E. He will go to his bedroom again. by no means B. planned.our B. throw C. 100. It wasn´t very late. mine A. cheaper B. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. glove E. B. fast D. aunt C. careful C. worse A.? A. looking at B. behind A. sun E.deep B. 105. his C. C. It was just before eleven. C. along E. hour A short course in english for adult students . sock C. o E. of course. wide D. century E. narrow A. looking for D. 106.99. C.niece B. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. B. D. left (line 8) C. It was only a few minutes past eleven. juice D. He will fall asleep again. 107 108. high E. decided B. It was almost midnight. quickly A. tie D. B. perhaps C. slowly B. meat C. (término excluido). 112. Be careful with the neighbours. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? A. 115. could A. D. 101. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. shirt A. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. Don´t worry about anything. D. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. rice A. What is the meaning of “holding” A. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. promised D. however (line 5) (line 3) 103. weak B. their E. 104. across D. They were both in the living-room. sight C. 113. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. her D. He will feel sleepy. well E. 114. 102. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. B. 109. among B. No escriba en este Cuadernillo. waking up (line 7) C. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. faster D. month C. C. day D. D. 110. obviously D. 111. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 3) A. should E.

often B. A. grocer A. butcher E. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . real C.116. 118. 120. belt E. forgot D. sometimes D. nose B. made A.customer B. bought B. 117. tailor C. shut E. barber D. seen B. brought C. always E. arm D. shoulder A. broke C. put E. seldom A. tired D. elbow C. 119.

Bl 290 .

15. 65. 33. 46. 10. 56. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 23. 63 64. 28. 70. 21. 19. 7. 5. 67. 37. 66. 54. 22. 4. 49. 31. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 34. 13. 36. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 60. 11. 35. 40. 29. 39. 62. 2. 12. 53. 68. 44. 55. 52. 27. 3. 59. 69. 41. 16. 57. 9. 48. 30. 18. 50. 45. 20. 43. LISTENING PART 1. 42. 17. 8. 6. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 58. 47. 38. 32. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 14. 24. 25.

100. 75. 114. 79. 111. 103. 112. 106. 80. 84. 116. 105. 90. 77. 72. 94. 91. 102. 74. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 118. 113. 93. 104. 82. 73. 101. 86. 119. 109. 99. 92. 110. 87. 76. 115.71. 108. 107. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 98. 97. 85. 117. 95. 83. 88. 89. 78. 120. 81.

o D. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. Ud. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. 5. Ud.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. C. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. 0 D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.30. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. If you take a taxi. B. 10. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. Ud. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. 15. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. 6. 14. 11. They went to the club instead. Jack. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. que la conteste en mejor forma. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. deberá consignarla. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. 3. B. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. He is only ten at present. 7.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. deberá elegir la alternativa A. John.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home.15. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. so he left the job for the following weekend. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. Question: What did A short course in english for adult students 293 . No escriba en este cuadernillo. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. but Bill is two years younger.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. you really don’t look well this morning.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. 8.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. 13. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 .John was going to work in the garden that morning. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. Después de cada oración Ud. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. 16. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. 12. 2. 9. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. 4. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26.Jack and Tom are the same age. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. En cada caso Ud. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. C. oirá oraciones incompletas. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla.

Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Mr Green died. when their children grew up. There are plenty of cheap hotels . she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. B. friendly place.They had a good time there because. No escriba en este cuadernillo. but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. “How about a two-week tour. “Well. “ Mrs Green shook her head. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant.. for example? Complete with air ticket. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.” She waved it at him. They used to repair cars in those days.” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what I don’t want. I’m sure we can arrange something for you. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41.. She did everything right away. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. o D. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. at her age.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 38.and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you. You’ll see the really important places . they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He got used to living in this house after a few months. back in his office asking about holidays abroad. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48.” she said. However. deberá elegir la alternativa A.they do after all of them had arrived? 28. What happened a few months ago? 46. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was. oirá oraciones completas y. the travel agent was surprised. He’d rather stay at home all day today. Ud.and food is cheap too. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do next summer? 47.and he got them their boat tickets.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. In those days. he booked a family hotel for them. 31. 33. But then. B. It hardly ever snows in that region. meals and guides. no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green. with good weather. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 294 A short course in english for adult students . “As a matter of fact. “Well. Then they started to take their holidays in France . En cada caso. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45.” The travel agent looked puzzled.. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43.” “India …” he said. o D.” Mrs Green went on. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. 34. “Look. although the weather was not fine. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. I’m sure we can fix up something for you. Later. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. years before. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. 39. C. en cada caso. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. 35. 36. “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment. for instance? A nice. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. “A holiday abroad? Yes. 40. “How about Portugal. the previous autumn. 37. only a few months after her husband’s death. C.. He knew her well. Why didn’t Mrs. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. No escriba en este cuadernillo. 32. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. Mrs Green. of course. hotels.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. At one time. deberá elegir la alternativa A. yes. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.” he thought. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente.

10. 29. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 12. 13. 40. 55. 67. 30. 38. 24. 58. 65. 43. 69. 64. 63. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 5. 36. 60. 33. 17. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 295 A short course in english for adult students . 50. 42. 15. 47.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. 32. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 25. 27. 34. 68. 18. 20. 8. 23. 31. 48. 3. 4. 54. 53. 16. 28. 9. LISTENING PART 1. 46. 19. 49. 37. 45. 14. 52. 7. 44. 70. 62. 21. 2. 59. 66. 6. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 11. 56. 35. 39. 22. 57. 41.

107. 81.71. 106. 111. 90. 117. 83. 79. 76. 80. 86. 115. 113. 101. 104. 94. 77. 92. 84. 73. 102. 72. 116. 119. 91. 99. 118. 95. 82. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 296 A short course in english for adult students . 93. 78. 110. 97. 87. 103. 114. 98. 89. 75. 100. 85. 112. 108. 88. 105. 74. 109. 120. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96.

BASIC VERB TENSES PRESENT SIMPLE (S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE) I write (= I do write) a letter every day (Yo escribo una carta todos los días. (Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT (S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE) I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening. (Mary escribe una carta todos los días) CONTINUOUS (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) I am writing a letter now.) Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day. (Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora) PERFECT (S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE) I have written several letters today. (Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana ) c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes (Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos) CONTINUOUS (S + WILL BE + ING ) I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening. (Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.) A short course in english for adult students 297 . (Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAD BEEN + ING) I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening (Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) FUTURE SIMPLE A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow (Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana) b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow. (Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING ) I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday. (Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING) I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning (Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana) PAST SIMPLE (S + DID + INFINITIVE ) I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday. (Yo escribí una carta ayer) CONTINUOUS (S + WAS / WERE + ING) I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .APENDICE 1 CHART 1. (Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT (S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART) I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.

Bl 298 .

She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. she wasn´t.. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. at the moment.o´clock yesterday / last Monday. Mr Smith? Yes. I´m sorry I interrupted you. at this time.o´clock tomorrow / next Monday. Bob: Don´t worry. at present EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday. I´m studying history. Is she at home? Bob: Yes. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. I think. Was your wife with you? No. Sam: Thanks. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday? EJEMPLOS: John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE A. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30.etc . And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. momento determinado en el pasado momento determinado en el futuro ESTRUCTURA: S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WAS / WERE +ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Now. It´s all right Detective: SAMPLE DIALOG: Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house.. ahora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi# at !æt táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. I´m not. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday.. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes. I did.. Bob. I was washing the car. EJEMPLOS: John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now? EJEMPLOS: John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. At. She´s reading the paper in the garden. etc. For the time being. etc. a las 8:30 esta tarde? SAMPLE DIALOG: Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No. Sir. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. she is. I have my term test tomorrow.At. haciendo a esa hora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i# at eit "é:rti !is ívni# / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. etc. Peter: Detective: Peter: Detective: Peter: A short course in english for adult students 299 . CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un realizando o estará ocurriendo en un aún no han concluido. But I was in the garage. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week. SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London.APENDICE 2 CHART 2.

in 1986. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói# tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer .... etc. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. That day. como todos o sucedió en una fecha u hora los días. several times a year. often. sometimes. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud. on May 4.... Two days ago. I do not speak with the manager.? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer.? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow.prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day.... usually....... last night. etc Always.. I will not speak with the manager. seldom. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud. determinada en el pasado.? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.... Does Jane speak with the manager. como mañana.. (con He... Once a day.. Will I speak with the manager. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó sucede en forma habitual.? 300 A short course in english for adult students . etc. Do I speak with the manager .... twice a week.. el próximo sábado.B. Am I speaking with .etc. Am I going to speak with. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad . last Sunday. I ´m not speaking with . ten months ago. next Sunday.... every week.. el sábado pasado. como ayer... SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro...... EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. etc. next week.etc...? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. Jane does not speak with the ... Did I speak with the manager. it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). 1997.. etc..? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow.. last week. etc... En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención. she.? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow. I´m not going to speak with .. next month... every month. I did not speak with the manager.....? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day.. siempre.

Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . Did you go alone? No. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. I didn´t. When are you going to leave? Well. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. He usually walks. We will go to Cancun again. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. I went with some friends.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. We really had a great time there. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus.

... Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station.. many times before.Several times. Mrs. Just.. I´ve come here three or four times. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. By the end of this month / year. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. But I had never visited it in the spring. Jackson has never travelled abroad.yet.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday.. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No.etc. He had not saved enough money for the tickets.. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For..C. never. never. since. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably.. She had never been in Paris before.. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a Describe una acción que se realizó u realizarse en una fecha u hora en el pasado ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. we will have had lunch already.. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. etc. Your train has just left.. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. already . twice. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai ! i énd ov ! is mán" / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud.. He says it´s spectacular. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. three times.. Sir. Once. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before.. But one of my brothers has visited it several times. y que ha continuado hasta este momento. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud... Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. before. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before.. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd ! is mó:rni# / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. lately. not. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . I have never been there. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.

when S + Past Since.. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. It will all be over before the end of this month.. we simply have to be patient and wait.. / for. It´s a shame! Well. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March... by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. Anyway. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month. desde que llegó esta mañana? Ud. I´ve been working on my thesis. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning.. In the meantime. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For... ha continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento.... Peter: You really look tired. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándo en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A... A short course in english for adult students 303 .. and I have been studying for the final exams.. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:i# bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:i# bai !i énd ov !is mán" / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud.. A. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. antes que Peter llegara ayer? hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things.. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire... I hope they take a stand and vote for it..... EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since.. antes de una fecha futura.. Peter: Yes.D. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. They´d been dancing and singing. Yes. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends... and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday. / for. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que que otra ocurriera.. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. ..... since. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:i# sins iu: arráivd híar !is mó:rni# / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. Mary: Yes..

Bl 304 .

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.