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01/06/2012

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Let us now consider how the phase-shifts δl can be evaluated. Consider a spher-
ically symmetric potential V(r) which vanishes for r > a, where a is termed
the range of the potential. In the region r > a, the wave-function ψ(r) satisﬁes
the free-space Schr¨odinger equation (7.54). The most general solution which is
consistent with no incoming spherical-waves is

ψ(r) = 1

(2π)3/2

l=0

il

(2l+1)Al(r)Pl(cosθ),

(7.81)

182

7.6 Determination of phase-shifts

7 SCATTERING THEORY

where

Al(r) = exp(iδl) [cosδljl(kr) − sinδlηl(kr) ].

(7.82)

Note that Neumann functions are allowed to appear in the above expression,
because its region of validity does not include the origin (where V = 0). The
logarithmic derivative of the lth radial wave-function Al(r) just outside the range
of the potential is given by

βl+ = ka

cosδlj l(ka) − sinδlη l(ka)
cosδljl(ka) − sinδlηl(ka)

,

(7.83)

where j l(x) denotes djl(x)/dx, etc. The above equation can be inverted to give

tanδl = kaj l(ka) −βl+jl(ka)
kaη l(ka) −βl+ηl(ka).

(7.84)

Thus, the problem of determining the phase-shift δl is equivalent to that of ob-
taining βl+.

The most general solution to Schr¨odinger’s equation inside the range of the
potential (r < a) which does not depend on the azimuthal angle ϕ is

ψ(r) = 1

(2π)3/2

l=0

il

(2l+1)Rl(r)Pl(cosθ),

(7.85)

where

Rl(r) = ul(r)

r ,

(7.86)

and

d2

ul

dr2 +

k2

− 2m

¯h2 V − l(l+1)

r2

ul = 0.

(7.87)

The boundary condition

ul(0) = 0

(7.88)

ensures that the radial wave-function is well-behaved at the origin. We can
launch a well-behaved solution of the above equation from r = 0, integrate out
to r = a, and form the logarithmic derivative

βl− = 1

(ul/r)

d(ul/r)

dr

r=a

.

(7.89)

183

7.7 Hard sphere scattering

7 SCATTERING THEORY

Since ψ(r) and its ﬁrst derivatives are necessarily continuous for physically ac-
ceptible wave-functions, it follows that

βl+ = βl−.

(7.90)

The phase-shift δl is obtainable from Eq. (7.84).

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