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Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until

8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 6, 2012

USDL-12-0012

Technical information:
Household data:
(202) 691-6378 cpsinfo@bls.gov www.bls.gov/cps
Establishment data: (202) 691-6555 cesinfo@bls.gov www.bls.gov/ces
Media contact:

(202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov

THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION DECEMBER 2011


Nonfarm payroll employment rose by 200,000 in December, and the unemployment rate, at 8.5
percent, continued to trend down, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred
in transportation and warehousing, retail trade, manufacturing, health care, and mining.
Chart 1. Unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted,
December 2009 December 2011

Chart 2. Nonfarm payroll employment over-the-month


change, seasonally adjusted, December 2009
December 2011

Percent
11.0

Thousands
600
400

10.0
200
9.0

0
-200

8.0
-400
7.0
Dec-09 M ar-10

-600
Jun-10

Sep-10 Dec-10 M ar-11

Jun-11

Sep-11 Dec-11

Dec-09 M ar-10 Jun-10 Sep-10 Dec-10 M ar-11 Jun-11

Sep-11 Dec-11

Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data


Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal
adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally adjusted
estimates back to January 2007 were subject to revision. The unemployment rates for January
2011 through November 2011 (as originally published and as revised) appear in table A on
page 5, along with additional information about the revisions.

Household Survey Data


Both the number of unemployed persons (13.1 million) and the unemployment rate (8.5 percent)
continued to trend down in December. The unemployment rate has declined by 0.6 percentage point
since August. (See table A-1.)
Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult men decreased to 8.0 percent in
December. The jobless rates for adult women (7.9 percent), teenagers (23.1 percent), whites (7.5
percent), blacks (15.8 percent), and Hispanics (11.0 percent) showed little change. The jobless rate for
Asians was 6.8 percent, not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)
The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at 5.6
million and accounted for 42.5 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)
The civilian labor force participation rate (64.0 percent) and the employment-population ratio (58.5
percent) were both unchanged over the month. (See table A-1.)
The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) declined by 371,000 to 8.1 million in December. These individuals were
working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time
job. (See table A-8.)
About 2.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force in December, little different
from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They
were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey. (See table A-16.)
Among the marginally attached, there were 945,000 discouraged workers in December, a decrease of
373,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not
currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.6
million persons marginally attached to the labor force in December had not searched for work in the 4
weeks preceding the survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table
A-16.)
Establishment Survey Data
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 200,000 in December. Over the past 12 months,
nonfarm payroll employment has risen by 1.6 million. Employment in the private sector rose by 212,000
in December and by 1.9 million over the year. Government employment changed little over the month
but fell by 280,000 over the year. (See table B-1.)
Employment in transportation and warehousing rose sharply in December (+50,000). Almost all of
the gain occurred in the couriers and messengers industry (+42,000); seasonal hiring was particularly
strong in December.
Retail trade continued to add jobs in December, with a gain of 28,000. Employment in the industry has
increased by 240,000 over the past 12 months. Over the month, job gains continued in general

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merchandise stores (+13,000) and in clothing and clothing accessories stores (+11,000). Employment in
sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores fell by 10,000.
In December, manufacturing employment expanded by 23,000, following 4 months of little change.
Employment increased in December in transportation equipment (+9,000), fabricated metals (+6,000),
and machinery (+5,000).
Mining employment rose by 7,000 over the month. Over the year, mining added 89,000 jobs.
Health care continued to add jobs in December (+23,000); employment in hospitals increased by
10,000. Over the year, health care employment has risen by 315,000.
Within leisure and hospitality, employment in food services and drinking places continued to trend up
in December (+24,000). Over the year, food services and drinking places has added 230,000 jobs.
Construction employment changed little in December. Within the industry, nonresidential specialty
trade contractors added 20,000 jobs over the month, mostly offsetting losses over the prior 2 months.
Employment in professional and business services changed little in December for the second month in
a row. The industry added 42,000 jobs per month, on average, during the first 10 months of 2011.
Government employment changed little in December but was down by 280,000 over the year. Job
losses in 2011 occurred in local government; state government, excluding education; and the U.S. Postal
Service.
The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 34.4
hours in December. The manufacturing workweek increased by 0.1 hour to 40.5 hours. Factory overtime
decreased by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory
employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)
In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 4 cents,
or 0.2 percent, to $23.24. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 2.1
percent. In December, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees were unchanged at $19.54. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised from +100,000 to +112,000,
and the change for November was revised from +120,000 to +100,000.
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, February 3, 2012, at
8:30 a.m. (EST).

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Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data


With the release of January 2012 data on February 3, 2012, the Current Employment Statistics
(CES) survey will introduce revisions to nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and earnings data
to reflect the annual benchmark adjustment for March 2011 and updated seasonal adjustment
factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2010 and seasonally adjusted data
beginning with January 2007 are subject to revision.
The CES survey also will revise the basis for industry classification from the 2007 North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to the 2012 NAICS. The 2012 NAICS
includes minor changes within the Construction, Manufacturing, Retail trade, Utilities, and
Leisure and hospitality sectors. Several industry titles and descriptions also changed.
Approximately one percent of employment will be reclassified into different industries as a
result of the NAICS revision. For more information on the 2012 NAICS, visit
www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html.
In addition to changes resulting from the conversion to the 2012 NAICS update, there will be
some changes to the list of CES series published as a result of the annual benchmarking
process. For more information on the industry changes effective with the release of the January
2012 data, visit www.bls.gov/ces/cesnaics12.htm.
Finally, some historical data prior to April 2010 are subject to minor revisions due to the
application of a consistent rounding method over the entire time series. For additional details
see www.bls.gov/ces/ceshistchanges.htm.

Upcoming Changes to the Household Survey


Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2012 scheduled for
February 3, 2012, population controls that reflect the results of Census 2010 will be used in the
monthly household survey estimation process. Historical data will not be revised to incorporate
the new controls; consequently, household survey data for January 2012 will not be directly
comparable with that for December 2011 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the
new controls on the major labor force series will be included in the January 2012 release.
Also effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2012, the questions on
race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity in the household survey will be modified. The minor
wording changes in the questions are not expected to affect the estimates.
In January 2012, the Census Bureau, which conducts the household survey, began a year-long
process of reorganizing its regional office structure. For more information on these Census
Bureau changes, see www.census.gov/newsroom/pdf/General_QAs_FINAL2.pdf. Both the
Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will monitor survey operations during
the transition period. No impact on the employment and unemployment estimates from the
survey is anticipated from this organizational change.

-4-

Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data


At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors for the labor
force series derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), or household survey. As a result of this
process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2007 through November 2011 were subject to revision.
Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2011 through November 2011, as first published and
as revised. The rates changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 8 of the 11 months and were
unchanged in the remaining 3 months. Revised seasonally adjusted data for other major labor force
series beginning in December 2010 appear in table B.
An article describing the seasonal adjustment methodology for the household survey data and revised
data for January 2011 through November 2011 is available at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs2012.pdf.
Historical data for the household series contained in the A-tables (A-1 A-16) of this release can be
accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally adjusted monthly and quarterly
data for additional series are available on the Internet at ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/lf/.
Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2011 and changes due to revision
January - November 2011
Month
January .........................................
February .........................................
March .............................................
April .............................................
May ................................................
June ................................................
July ..............................................
August ..........................................
September ......................................
October ........................................
November ......................................

As first
computed

As revised

9.0
8.9
8.8
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.6

9.1
9.0
8.9
9.0
9.0
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.9
8.7

-5-

Change
0.1
.1
.1
.0
-.1
-.1
.0
.0
-.1
-.1
.1

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age

2010
Dec.

2011
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional population1 . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

238,889 238,704 238,851 239,000 239,146 239,313 239,489 239,671 239,871 240,071 240,269 240,441 240,584
153,613 153,250 153,302 153,392 153,420 153,700 153,409 153,358 153,674 154,004 154,057 153,937 153,887
64.3
64.2
64.2
64.2
64.2
64.2
64.1
64.0
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.0
64.0
139,220 139,330 139,551 139,764 139,628 139,808 139,385 139,450 139,754 140,107 140,297 140,614 140,790
58.3
58.4
58.4
58.5
58.4
58.4
58.2
58.2
58.3
58.4
58.4
58.5
58.5
14,393 13,919 13,751 13,628 13,792 13,892 14,024 13,908 13,920 13,897 13,759 13,323 13,097
9.4
9.1
9.0
8.9
9.0
9.0
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.9
8.7
8.5

Men, 20 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population1 . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107,216 107,203 107,292 107,381 107,469 107,566 107,668 107,773 107,884 107,994 108,104 108,203 108,290
78,884 78,594 78,832 78,805 78,895 79,204 79,116 78,977 79,089 79,241 79,291 79,440 79,436
73.6
73.3
73.5
73.4
73.4
73.6
73.5
73.3
73.3
73.4
73.3
73.4
73.4
71,494 71,593 71,901 71,918 71,942 72,161 71,981 71,930 72,098 72,340 72,379 72,846 73,080
66.7
66.8
67.0
67.0
66.9
67.1
66.9
66.7
66.8
67.0
67.0
67.3
67.5
7,390
7,001
6,931
6,887
6,953
7,043
7,135
7,047
6,991
6,901
6,912
6,594
6,356
9.4
8.9
8.8
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
8.9
8.8
8.7
8.7
8.3
8.0

Women, 20 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population1 . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114,894 114,637 114,714 114,792 114,868 114,954 115,045 115,138 115,238 115,338 115,437 115,526 115,602
68,982 68,843 68,818 68,852 68,860 68,878 68,570 68,706 68,784 68,989 68,981 68,711 68,748
60.0
60.1
60.0
60.0
59.9
59.9
59.6
59.7
59.7
59.8
59.8
59.5
59.5
63,429 63,403 63,351 63,515 63,431 63,385 63,088 63,257 63,322 63,406 63,520 63,352 63,323
55.2
55.3
55.2
55.3
55.2
55.1
54.8
54.9
54.9
55.0
55.0
54.8
54.8
5,553
5,440
5,467
5,336
5,430
5,493
5,482
5,449
5,462
5,584
5,461
5,359
5,425
8.1
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.0
7.9
7.9
8.1
7.9
7.8
7.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years


Civilian noninstitutional population1 . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,780
5,748
34.3
4,297
25.6
1,451
25.2

16,863
5,813
34.5
4,334
25.7
1,479
25.4

16,845
5,651
33.5
4,299
25.5
1,352
23.9

16,827
5,735
34.1
4,332
25.7
1,404
24.5

16,809
5,665
33.7
4,255
25.3
1,410
24.9

16,792
5,618
33.5
4,262
25.4
1,356
24.1

1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.


NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.

-6-

16,776
5,724
34.1
4,316
25.7
1,408
24.6

16,760
5,675
33.9
4,262
25.4
1,412
24.9

16,749
5,801
34.6
4,333
25.9
1,467
25.3

16,739
5,774
34.5
4,362
26.1
1,412
24.5

16,728
5,785
34.6
4,398
26.3
1,386
24.0

16,711
5,786
34.6
4,416
26.4
1,370
23.7

16,693
5,704
34.2
4,387
26.3
1,316
23.1

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Change from:
Nov. 2011Dec. 2011

Dec.
2011

Employment status
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed................................................................... .
Employment-population ratio.......................................... .
Unemployed................................................................ .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

238,889
153,613
64.3
139,220
58.3
14,393
9.4
85,276

240,269
154,057
64.1
140,297
58.4
13,759
8.9
86,213

240,441
153,937
64.0
140,614
58.5
13,323
8.7
86,503

240,584
153,887
64.0
140,790
58.5
13,097
8.5
86,697

143
-50
0.0
176
0.0
-226
-0.2
194

Unemployment rates
Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adult men (20 years and over)............................................. .
Adult women (20 years and over). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Teenagers (16 to 19 years). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Asian (not seasonally adjusted)............................................ .
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ .

9.4
9.4
8.1
25.2
8.5
15.8
7.2
12.9

8.9
8.7
7.9
24.0
8.0
15.0
7.3
11.4

8.7
8.3
7.8
23.7
7.6
15.5
6.5
11.4

8.5
8.0
7.9
23.1
7.5
15.8
6.8
11.0

-0.2
-0.3
0.1
-0.6
-0.1
0.3

-0.4

Total, 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Less than a high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High school graduates, no college. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some college or associate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bachelors degree and higher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.0
15.1
9.8
8.2
4.8

7.7
13.8
9.5
8.2
4.4

7.3
13.3
8.8
7.6
4.4

7.2
13.8
8.7
7.7
4.1

-0.1
0.5
-0.1
0.1
-0.3

Reason for unemployment


Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .
Reentrants....................................................................... .
New entrants.................................................................... .

8,877
920
3,406
1,306

7,924
1,068
3,387
1,291

7,599
1,005
3,355
1,276

7,602
953
3,399
1,280

3
-52
44
4

Duration of unemployment
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks................................................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,701
3,167
2,191
6,421

2,676
3,285
2,029
5,839

2,510
2,896
2,087
5,680

2,669
2,858
2,039
5,588

159
-38
-48
-92

Employed persons at work part time


Part time for economic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions......................................... .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,869
5,954
2,501
18,189

8,790
5,839
2,538
18,401

8,469
5,578
2,496
18,363

8,098
5,305
2,419
18,372

-371
-273
-77
9

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)


Marginally attached to the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,609
1,318

2,555
967

2,591
1,096

2,540
945

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not
necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY


(Over-the-month change, in thousands)
Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

152
167
4
-1
-6
11
13
-2.1
-2
163
3.8
6.2
50.1
-5
1
58
43.1
28
25.3
17
2
-15

112
134
6
6
-10
10
15
9.6
-5
128
12.3
15.5
4.6
0
7
30
5.0
37
29.6
27
-5
-22

100
120
-6
5
-12
1
13
3.5
-12
126
-1.3
38.8
3.1
-7
5
19
11.2
33
20.2
30
4
-20

200
212
48
8
17
23
23
6.5
0
164
11.6
27.9
50.2
6
2
12
-7.5
29
28.7
21
4
-12

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES


AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES2
Total nonfarm women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private women employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private production and nonsupervisory employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49.6
48.2
82.4

49.4
47.9
82.5

49.4
47.9
82.5

49.4
47.9
82.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS


ALL EMPLOYEES
Total private
Average weekly hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average hourly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average weekly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.2
$ 22.77
$778.73
92.6
0.2
100.5
0.2

34.4
$ 23.20
$798.08
94.5
0.4
104.5
0.7

34.3
$ 23.20
$795.76
94.3
-0.2
104.3
-0.2

34.4
$ 23.24
$799.46
94.8
0.5
105.0
0.7

HOURS AND EARNINGS


PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
Total private
Average weekly hours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average hourly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average weekly earnings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over-the-month percent change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33.5
$ 19.23
$644.21
99.6
0.1
128.0
0.1

33.7
$ 19.53
$658.16
101.8
0.5
132.8
0.6

33.6
$ 19.54
$656.54
101.6
-0.2
132.7
-0.1

33.7
$ 19.54
$658.50
102.1
0.5
133.4
0.5

58.6
59.3

56.6
48.1

50.7
40.7

61.2
56.8

Category

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)5
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.


2 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing
industries.
3 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
4 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average
aggregate weekly payrolls.
5 Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance
between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
p Preliminary

Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates


Why are there two monthly measures of employment?
The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates of employment
and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey employment series has a smaller
margin of error on the measurement of month-to-month change than the household survey because of
its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically
significant in the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change in the
household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more expansive scope than
the establishment survey because it includes the self-employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural
workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household
survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?
It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However, neither the
establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal status of workers. Therefore, it
is not possible to determine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does not
collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does include questions which identify
the foreign and native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign born.
Why does the establishment survey have revisions?
The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by incorporating
additional information that was not available at the time of the initial publication of the estimates.
The establishment survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding
2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.
On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that re-anchors
estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment insurance tax records.
The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more information
on the annual benchmark revision, please visit www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.
Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?
Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business establishments with
fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is designed to maximize the reliability of the
total nonfarm employment estimate; firms from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled
to achieve that goal.
Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?
Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for the net employment
change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment comes from an econometric model that
forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the
net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The

establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the survey is not
immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between the birth
of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new
businesses to the survey twice a year.
Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment insurance
benefits?
No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households. All persons who
are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are included among the unemployed. (People
on temporary layoff are included even if they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or
question relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.
Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped looking for work?
Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who want a job, including
those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs are available (discouraged workers). In
addition, alternative measures of labor underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and
other groups not officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.
How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.
Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid time during the pay period, including pay for
holidays, sick leave, or other time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but
not always, results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off
work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers, such as
those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment, employees have to
be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of all employees in the payroll survey have
a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay
period, even 1 hour, are counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the
effect of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.
In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that includes the 12th of the
month. Persons who miss the entire weeks work for weather-related events are counted as employed
whether or not they are paid for the time off. The household survey collects data on the number of
persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work the entire
week, due to bad weather. Current and historical data are available on the household surveys most
requested statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.

Technical Note
This news release presents statistics from two major
surveys, the Current Population Survey (household survey)
and the Current Employment Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment
that appears in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD
DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS).
The establishment survey provides information on
employment, hours, and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables, marked
ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. The sample includes about
140,000 businesses and government agencies representing
approximately 440,000 worksites and is drawn from a sampling frame of roughly 9 million unemployment insurance
tax accounts. The active sample includes approximately
one-third of all nonfarm payroll employees.
For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a
particular week or pay period. In the household survey, the
reference period is generally the calendar week that
contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the
12th, which may or may not correspond directly to the
calendar week.

unemployed persons. Those not classified as employed or


unemployed are not in the labor force. The unemployment
rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the labor
force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the employed as a percent of the population.
Additional information about the household survey can be
found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.
Establishment survey. The sample establishments are
drawn from private nonfarm businesses such as factories,
offices, and stores, as well as from federal, state, and local
government entities. Employees on nonfarm payrolls are
those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are
counted in each job they hold. Hours and earnings data are
produced for the private sector for all employees and for
production and nonsupervisory employees. Production and
nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and
related employees in manufacturing and mining and
logging, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.
Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal activity in accordance with the 2007
version of the North American Industry Classification
System. Additional information about the establishment
survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys


Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect
the entire civilian noninstitutional population. Based on
responses to a series of questions on work and job search
activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in
the labor force.
People are classified as employed if they did any work
at all as paid employees during the reference week; worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or
worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or
farm. People are also counted as employed if they were
temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.
People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of
the following criteria: they had no employment during the
reference week; they were available for work at that time;
and they made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting
recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The unemployment data derived from the
household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility for
or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.
The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and

Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological differences between
the household and establishment surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates derived from
the surveys. Among these are:

The household survey includes agricultural


workers, the self-employed, unpaid family
workers, and private household workers among the
employed. These groups are excluded from the
establishment survey.

The household survey includes people on unpaid


leave among the employed. The establishment
survey does not.

The household survey is limited to workers 16


years of age and older. The establishment survey is
not limited by age.

The household survey has no duplication of


individuals, because individuals are counted only
once, even if they hold more than one job. In the
establishment survey, employees working at more
than one job and thus appearing on more than one
payroll are counted separately for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment
Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor
force and the levels of employment and unemployment
undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These events may
result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such
seasonal variation can be very large.
Because these seasonal events follow a more or less
regular pattern each year, their influence on the level of a
series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation.
These
adjustments
make
nonseasonal
developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to
spot. For example, in the household survey, the large
number of youth entering the labor force each June is likely
to obscure any other changes that have taken place relative
to May, making it difficult to determine if the level of
economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the
establishment survey, payroll employment in education
declines by about 20 percent at the end of the spring term
and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because
seasonal employment changes at the end and beginning of
the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more
discernable. The seasonally adjusted figures provide a more
useful tool with which to analyze changes in month-tomonth economic activity.
Many seasonally adjusted series are independently
adjusted in both the household and establishment surveys.
However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most
major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are
computed by aggregating independently adjusted
component series. For example, total unemployment is
derived by summing the adjusted series for four major agesex components; this differs from the unemployment
estimate that would be obtained by directly adjusting the
total or by combining the duration, reasons, or more
detailed age categories.
For both the household and establishment surveys, a
concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in
which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using
all relevant data, up to and including the data for the current
month. In the household survey, new seasonal factors are
used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are
used each month to adjust the three most recent monthly
estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated
seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year
revisions to historical data are made once a year.
Reliability of the estimates
Statistics based on the household and establishment
surveys are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample rather than the entire population is

surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may


differ from the "true" population values they represent. The
exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate
based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90percent level of confidence.
For example, the confidence interval for the monthly
change in total nonfarm employment from the
establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus
100,000. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90percent confidence interval on the monthly change would
range from -50,000 to +150,000 (50,000 +/- 100,000).
These figures do not mean that the sample results are off by
these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within
this interval. Since this range includes values of less than
zero, we could not say with confidence that nonfarm
employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however,
the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then
all of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval
would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least
a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact,
risen that month. At an unemployment rate of around 5.5
percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household
survey is about +/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in
the unemployment rate it is about +/- 0.19 percentage point.
In general, estimates involving many individuals or
establishments have lower standard errors (relative to the
size of the estimate) than estimates which are based on a
small number of observations. The precision of estimates
also is improved when the data are cumulated over time,
such as for quarterly and annual averages.
The household and establishment surveys are also
affected by nonsampling error, which can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information on a timely
basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in
the collection or processing of the data.
For example, in the establishment survey, estimates
for the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete
returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive
revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered
final.
Another major source of nonsampling error in the
establishment survey is the inability to capture, on a timely
basis, employment generated by new firms. To correct for
this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an
estimation procedure with two components is used to
account for business births. The first component excludes

employment losses from business deaths from samplebased estimation in order to offset the missing employment
gains from business births. This is incorporated into the
sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting
sample units going out of business, but imputing to them
the same employment trend as the other firms in the
sample. This procedure accounts for most of the net
birth/death employment.
The second component is an ARIMA time series
model designed to estimate the residual net birth/death
employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance
universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.
The sample-based estimates from the establishment
survey are adjusted once a year (on a lagged basis) to

universe counts of payroll employment obtained from


administrative records of the unemployment insurance
program. The difference between the March sample-based
employment estimates and the March universe counts is
known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough
proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also
incorporate changes in the classification of industries. Over
the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total
nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a
range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.
Other information
Information in this release will be made available to
sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone:
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted


Employment status, sex, and age

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

TOTAL
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

238,889
153,156
64.1
139,159
58.3
13,997
9.1
85,733
6,212

240,441
153,683
63.9
141,070
58.7
12,613
8.2
86,757
6,183

240,584
153,373
63.8
140,681
58.5
12,692
8.3
87,212
6,135

238,889
153,613
64.3
139,220
58.3
14,393
9.4
85,276
6,482

239,871
153,674
64.1
139,754
58.3
13,920
9.1
86,198
6,469

240,071
154,004
64.1
140,107
58.4
13,897
9.0
86,067
6,240

240,269
154,057
64.1
140,297
58.4
13,759
8.9
86,213
6,407

240,441
153,937
64.0
140,614
58.5
13,323
8.7
86,503
6,595

240,584
153,887
64.0
140,790
58.5
13,097
8.5
86,697
6,385

Men, 16 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115,731
81,504
70.4
73,226
63.3
8,278
10.2
34,228

116,755
82,080
70.3
75,157
64.4
6,923
8.4
34,674

116,832
82,019
70.2
74,837
64.1
7,181
8.8
34,813

115,731
81,810
70.7
73,607
63.6
8,202
10.0
33,922

116,453
82,025
70.4
74,209
63.7
7,817
9.5
34,428

116,559
82,142
70.5
74,435
63.9
7,707
9.4
34,417

116,664
82,199
70.5
74,492
63.9
7,707
9.4
34,465

116,755
82,341
70.5
74,975
64.2
7,366
8.9
34,414

116,832
82,373
70.5
75,235
64.4
7,138
8.7
34,459

Men, 20 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107,216
78,780
73.5
71,235
66.4
7,545
9.6
28,436

108,203
79,378
73.4
73,183
67.6
6,195
7.8
28,825

108,290
79,288
73.2
72,812
67.2
6,477
8.2
29,001

107,216
78,884
73.6
71,494
66.7
7,390
9.4
28,332

107,884
79,089
73.3
72,098
66.8
6,991
8.8
28,795

107,994
79,241
73.4
72,340
67.0
6,901
8.7
28,753

108,104
79,291
73.3
72,379
67.0
6,912
8.7
28,813

108,203
79,440
73.4
72,846
67.3
6,594
8.3
28,763

108,290
79,436
73.4
73,080
67.5
6,356
8.0
28,854

Women, 16 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123,158
71,653
58.2
65,933
53.5
5,719
8.0
51,505

123,686
71,603
57.9
65,913
53.3
5,690
7.9
52,083

123,753
71,354
57.7
65,843
53.2
5,511
7.7
52,398

123,158
71,804
58.3
65,613
53.3
6,191
8.6
51,354

123,418
71,648
58.1
65,545
53.1
6,103
8.5
51,770

123,512
71,862
58.2
65,672
53.2
6,190
8.6
51,650

123,605
71,858
58.1
65,805
53.2
6,052
8.4
51,748

123,686
71,596
57.9
65,639
53.1
5,957
8.3
52,090

123,753
71,514
57.8
65,555
53.0
5,959
8.3
52,238

Women, 20 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114,894
68,999
60.1
63,809
55.5
5,190
7.5
45,895

115,526
68,850
59.6
63,710
55.1
5,140
7.5
46,675

115,602
68,746
59.5
63,676
55.1
5,070
7.4
46,856

114,894
68,982
60.0
63,429
55.2
5,553
8.1
45,912

115,238
68,784
59.7
63,322
54.9
5,462
7.9
46,454

115,338
68,989
59.8
63,406
55.0
5,584
8.1
46,349

115,437
68,981
59.8
63,520
55.0
5,461
7.9
46,457

115,526
68,711
59.5
63,352
54.8
5,359
7.8
46,815

115,602
68,748
59.5
63,323
54.8
5,425
7.9
46,854

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16,780
5,378
32.0
4,116
24.5
1,262
23.5
11,402

16,711
5,454
32.6
4,177
25.0
1,277
23.4
11,257

16,693
5,339
32.0
4,193
25.1
1,146
21.5
11,354

16,780
5,748
34.3
4,297
25.6
1,451
25.2
11,032

16,749
5,801
34.6
4,333
25.9
1,467
25.3
10,949

16,739
5,774
34.5
4,362
26.1
1,412
24.5
10,965

16,728
5,785
34.6
4,398
26.3
1,386
24.0
10,943

16,711
5,786
34.6
4,416
26.4
1,370
23.7
10,925

16,693
5,704
34.2
4,387
26.3
1,316
23.1
10,989

1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted


Employment status, race, sex, and age

WHITE
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIAN
Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

192,749
124,309
64.5
114,035
59.2
10,274
8.3
68,439

193,598
124,565
64.3
115,584
59.7
8,981
7.2
69,033

193,682
124,114
64.1
115,117
59.4
8,998
7.2
69,567

192,749
124,719
64.7
114,150
59.2
10,569
8.5
68,030

193,236
124,604
64.5
114,704
59.4
9,901
7.9
68,631

193,365
124,701
64.5
114,818
59.4
9,883
7.9
68,664

193,493
124,804
64.5
114,837
59.3
9,967
8.0
68,689

193,598
124,652
64.4
115,130
59.5
9,522
7.6
68,945

193,682
124,543
64.3
115,254
59.5
9,288
7.5
69,139

64,978
73.9
59,280
67.4
5,698
8.8

65,407
73.9
60,938
68.9
4,469
6.8

65,248
73.7
60,484
68.3
4,764
7.3

65,063
74.0
59,537
67.7
5,525
8.5

65,139
73.8
60,155
68.1
4,984
7.7

65,280
73.9
60,283
68.2
4,998
7.7

65,318
73.9
60,195
68.1
5,123
7.8

65,366
73.9
60,605
68.5
4,761
7.3

65,373
73.8
60,751
68.6
4,623
7.1

54,927
59.7
51,261
55.7
3,667
6.7

54,659
59.2
51,091
55.3
3,568
6.5

54,516
59.0
51,080
55.3
3,435
6.3

54,905
59.7
50,941
55.3
3,964
7.2

54,649
59.3
50,829
55.2
3,820
7.0

54,691
59.3
50,807
55.1
3,884
7.1

54,685
59.3
50,880
55.1
3,805
7.0

54,520
59.1
50,774
55.0
3,746
6.9

54,481
59.0
50,768
55.0
3,713
6.8

4,404
34.4
3,494
27.3
910
20.7

4,499
35.2
3,555
27.8
944
21.0

4,350
34.1
3,552
27.8
798
18.3

4,751
37.1
3,671
28.7
1,079
22.7

4,816
37.6
3,720
29.1
1,097
22.8

4,730
37.0
3,728
29.1
1,002
21.2

4,801
37.6
3,761
29.4
1,040
21.7

4,766
37.3
3,751
29.4
1,015
21.3

4,688
36.8
3,736
29.3
952
20.3

28,896
17,835
61.7
15,120
52.3
2,715
15.2
11,061

29,259
17,900
61.2
15,236
52.1
2,664
14.9
11,359

29,286
18,024
61.5
15,285
52.2
2,739
15.2
11,262

28,896
17,933
62.1
15,098
52.2
2,836
15.8
10,963

29,158
17,957
61.6
14,965
51.3
2,992
16.7
11,202

29,193
18,096
62.0
15,224
52.1
2,872
15.9
11,097

29,228
18,067
61.8
15,351
52.5
2,716
15.0
11,161

29,259
17,934
61.3
15,151
51.8
2,783
15.5
11,325

29,286
18,110
61.8
15,248
52.1
2,862
15.8
11,176

8,079
68.8
6,758
57.6
1,321
16.4

8,185
68.4
6,917
57.8
1,268
15.5

8,264
69.0
7,006
58.5
1,258
15.2

8,089
68.9
6,732
57.4
1,358
16.8

8,178
68.7
6,703
56.3
1,475
18.0

8,151
68.3
6,796
57.0
1,355
16.6

8,180
68.5
6,867
57.5
1,313
16.0

8,195
68.5
6,851
57.3
1,344
16.4

8,272
69.0
6,969
58.2
1,302
15.7

9,141
62.9
7,998
55.0
1,143
12.5

9,106
61.9
7,948
54.0
1,158
12.7

9,113
61.8
7,886
53.5
1,227
13.5

9,195
63.3
8,002
55.1
1,192
13.0

9,154
62.4
7,926
54.1
1,228
13.4

9,277
63.2
8,051
54.8
1,226
13.2

9,262
63.0
8,093
55.0
1,169
12.6

9,095
61.8
7,911
53.7
1,184
13.0

9,160
62.2
7,885
53.5
1,275
13.9

615
23.4
365
13.9
250
40.7

608
23.7
370
14.4
238
39.1

647
25.3
394
15.4
254
39.2

649
24.7
363
13.8
286
44.0

625
24.2
335
13.0
289
46.3

667
25.8
377
14.6
291
43.6

625
24.3
390
15.2
234
37.5

643
25.0
388
15.1
255
39.6

679
26.5
393
15.3
286
42.1

11,387

11,589

11,580

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age Continued
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted


Employment status, race, sex, and age
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dec.
2010
7,355
64.6
6,829
60.0
526
7.2
4,032

Nov.
2011
7,419
64.0
6,939
59.9
480
6.5
4,170

Dec.
2011
7,505
64.8
6,991
60.4
514
6.8
4,075

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced
annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Seasonally adjusted1

Not seasonally adjusted


Employment status, sex, and age

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women, 20 years and over
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

34,188
22,929
67.1
19,957
58.4
2,972
13.0
11,259

34,808
23,255
66.8
20,684
59.4
2,571
11.1
11,553

34,885
23,309
66.8
20,731
59.4
2,579
11.1
11,575

34,188
22,873
66.9
19,916
58.3
2,957
12.9
11,315

34,555
22,938
66.4
20,353
58.9
2,585
11.3
11,617

34,640
23,014
66.4
20,411
58.9
2,603
11.3
11,626

34,724
23,253
67.0
20,601
59.3
2,652
11.4
11,471

34,808
23,222
66.7
20,574
59.1
2,648
11.4
11,586

34,885
23,270
66.7
20,699
59.3
2,571
11.0
11,615

13,115
82.3
11,431
71.7
1,684
12.8

13,169
81.7
11,884
73.7
1,285
9.8

13,256
82.0
11,868
73.4
1,387
10.5

8,880
59.2
7,892
52.7
988
11.1

9,085
59.6
8,118
53.2
967
10.6

9,082
59.4
8,146
53.3
936
10.3

934
28.6
633
19.4
300
32.2

1,000
29.2
682
19.9
319
31.8

972
28.3
716
20.9
256
26.3

1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release
of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Educational attainment

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Less than a high school diploma


Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

11,773
46.1
9,924
38.9
1,850
15.7

11,673
46.8
10,190
40.9
1,483
12.7

11,723
46.8
10,043
40.1
1,680
14.3

11,724
45.9
9,954
39.0
1,770
15.1

11,682
46.8
10,030
40.2
1,652
14.1

High school graduates, no college1


Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

38,231
60.9
34,470
54.9
3,761
9.8

37,089
60.3
33,970
55.2
3,119
8.4

37,114
60.1
33,876
54.9
3,237
8.7

37,974
60.5
34,235
54.6
3,739
9.8

Some college or associate degree


Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

36,763
70.1
33,869
64.6
2,894
7.9

37,086
69.0
34,347
63.9
2,739
7.4

37,040
69.1
34,299
64.0
2,740
7.4

Bachelors degree and higher2


Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate................................... .
Employed................ . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed........................................ .
Unemployment rate............................. .

46,310
76.9
44,170
73.4
2,140
4.6

47,147
76.0
45,161
72.8
1,985
4.2

47,102
76.0
45,228
73.0
1,873
4.0

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

11,746
46.5
10,108
40.0
1,638
13.9

11,760
47.4
10,141
40.8
1,619
13.8

11,713
47.0
10,161
40.8
1,552
13.3

11,688
46.7
10,080
40.3
1,608
13.8

37,030
60.1
33,512
54.4
3,518
9.5

37,290
60.5
33,711
54.7
3,579
9.6

37,368
60.5
33,828
54.8
3,540
9.5

37,089
60.3
33,807
54.9
3,282
8.8

36,902
59.8
33,684
54.5
3,218
8.7

36,794
70.1
33,783
64.4
3,011
8.2

37,011
69.2
33,976
63.5
3,035
8.2

37,070
69.3
33,963
63.5
3,106
8.4

36,984
69.2
33,941
63.5
3,043
8.2

36,816
68.5
34,009
63.3
2,807
7.6

37,024
69.1
34,167
63.7
2,857
7.7

46,339
77.0
44,133
73.3
2,205
4.8

46,802
76.0
44,798
72.7
2,004
4.3

46,923
76.3
44,936
73.0
1,986
4.2

47,006
75.8
44,960
72.5
2,046
4.4

47,117
75.9
45,058
72.6
2,059
4.4

47,131
76.0
45,201
72.9
1,930
4.1

1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.


2 Includes persons with bachelors, masters, professional, and doctoral degrees.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

Sept.
2011

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service,
and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service

Dec.
2010

Men
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Women
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

VETERANS, 18 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21,833
11,534
52.8
10,576
48.4
957
8.3
10,299

21,429
11,072
51.7
10,215
47.7
857
7.7
10,357

20,039
10,390
51.8
9,509
47.5
881
8.5
9,649

19,622
10,010
51.0
9,244
47.1
766
7.7
9,612

1,794
1,144
63.8
1,067
59.5
77
6.7
650

1,807
1,062
58.8
972
53.8
90
8.5
745

Gulf War-era II veterans


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,242
1,794
80.0
1,584
70.7
210
11.7
448

2,341
1,899
81.1
1,650
70.5
248
13.1
442

1,897
1,558
82.1
1,374
72.4
184
11.8
339

1,984
1,668
84.1
1,469
74.1
199
11.9
316

345
236
68.3
210
60.8
26
10.9
109

356
230
64.6
181
50.7
50
21.6
126

Gulf War-era I veterans


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,924
2,530
86.5
2,395
81.9
136
5.4
394

2,986
2,512
84.1
2,371
79.4
141
5.6
474

2,470
2,163
87.6
2,039
82.5
125
5.8
307

2,489
2,158
86.7
2,029
81.5
128
6.0
332

454
367
80.9
356
78.5
11
3.0
87

497
354
71.3
342
68.8
13
3.6
142

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10,796
3,847
35.6
3,516
32.6
331
8.6
6,949

10,207
3,309
32.4
3,097
30.3
212
6.4
6,898

10,448
3,718
35.6
3,395
32.5
323
8.7
6,730

9,886
3,215
32.5
3,003
30.4
212
6.6
6,671

348
129
37.2
122
34.9
8
6.1
219

321
94
29.3
94
29.3
0
0.0
227

Veterans of other service periods


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,871
3,362
57.3
3,081
52.5
281
8.4
2,508

5,895
3,352
56.9
3,097
52.5
255
7.6
2,543

5,224
2,951
56.5
2,701
51.7
249
8.5
2,273

5,262
2,969
56.4
2,742
52.1
227
7.6
2,293

647
412
63.6
380
58.7
32
7.8
235

633
383
60.5
355
56.1
28
7.3
250

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

208,058
139,806
67.2
127,220
61.1
12,586
9.0
68,252

210,477
140,627
66.8
129,218
61.4
11,409
8.1
69,850

91,143
70,228
77.1
63,082
69.2
7,146
10.2
20,915

92,807
71,182
76.7
65,018
70.1
6,163
8.7
21,625

116,915
69,578
59.5
64,138
54.9
5,440
7.8
47,338

117,670
69,446
59.0
64,200
54.6
5,246
7.6
48,225

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August
2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time
periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and
another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally
adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Persons with a disability
Employment status, sex, and age

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

Persons with no disability


Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

TOTAL, 16 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population...................................................... .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

26,984
5,679
21.0
4,869
18.0
810
14.3
21,305

27,339
5,652
20.7
4,889
17.9
763
13.5
21,687

211,905
147,477
69.6
134,290
63.4
13,187
8.9
64,428

213,246
147,721
69.3
135,791
63.7
11,929
8.1
65,525

Men, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

2,591
34.6
2,190
29.3
401
15.5
4,895

2,587
34.4
2,165
28.8
422
16.3
4,938

75,101
82.2
67,517
73.9
7,584
10.1
16,208

75,294
82.3
68,793
75.2
6,501
8.6
16,228

Women, 16 to 64 years
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

2,310
31.2
1,966
26.5
344
14.9
5,097

2,216
29.8
1,938
26.1
278
12.5
5,220

66,303
70.8
61,110
65.3
5,193
7.8
27,339

65,916
70.3
60,891
65.0
5,025
7.6
27,821

Both sexes, 65 years and over


Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..................................................................... .
Employed............................................................................. .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed.......................................................................... .
Unemployment rate............................................................... .
Not in labor force....................................................................... .

778
6.4
713
5.9
65
8.4
11,312

849
6.9
786
6.4
63
7.4
11,529

6,073
22.5
5,662
21.0
410
6.8
20,881

6,511
23.3
6,107
21.8
403
6.2
21,475

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing
even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition;
has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or
shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Employment status and nativity

Dec.
2010

Men
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Women
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

Foreign born, 16 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36,545
24,783
67.8
22,153
60.6
2,630
10.6
11,762

36,851
24,836
67.4
22,647
61.5
2,189
8.8
12,015

18,042
14,441
80.0
12,856
71.3
1,584
11.0
3,602

18,201
14,479
79.5
13,271
72.9
1,208
8.3
3,723

18,503
10,342
55.9
9,297
50.2
1,045
10.1
8,160

18,650
10,357
55.5
9,376
50.3
981
9.5
8,292

Native born, 16 years and over


Civilian noninstitutional population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Participation rate..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment-population ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unemployment rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not in labor force.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202,344
128,373
63.4
117,006
57.8
11,367
8.9
73,971

203,733
128,536
63.1
118,033
57.9
10,503
8.2
75,197

97,689
67,063
68.6
60,370
61.8
6,693
10.0
30,626

98,630
67,540
68.5
61,566
62.4
5,973
8.8
31,091

104,655
61,310
58.6
56,636
54.1
4,674
7.6
43,345

105,103
60,997
58.0
56,467
53.7
4,530
7.4
44,106

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or
one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the
United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Category

CLASS OF WORKER
Agriculture and related industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wage and salary workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private households........................... .
Other industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . .
Unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME2
All industries
Part time for economic reasons3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonagricultural industries
Part time for economic reasons3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slack work or business conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could only find part-time work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part time for noneconomic reasons4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

2,037
1,295
720
22
137,123
128,436
20,745
107,691
635
107,056
8,589
97

2,176
1,319
824
33
138,894
130,261
20,525
109,736
674
109,062
8,576
57

2,196
1,358
823
15
138,485
129,966
20,652
109,314
640
108,674
8,428
91

2,173
1,366
765

137,036
128,121
20,724
107,419

106,767
8,759

2,373
1,484
848

137,290
128,700
20,309
108,416

107,678
8,530

2,268
1,379
843

137,932
129,595
20,568
108,774

108,026
8,336

2,257
1,317
864

138,167
129,531
20,516
108,977

108,177
8,553

2,262
1,359
849

138,304
129,604
20,434
109,159

108,485
8,628

2,349
1,429
874

138,411
129,662
20,616
109,064

108,407
8,587

9,205
6,347
2,499
18,872

8,271
5,499
2,492
19,355

8,428
5,650
2,408
19,048

8,869
5,954
2,501
18,189

8,787
5,815
2,707
18,276

9,270
5,900
2,844
18,329

8,790
5,839
2,538
18,401

8,469
5,578
2,496
18,363

8,098
5,305
2,419
18,372

9,029
6,230
2,470
18,525

8,161
5,422
2,473
18,950

8,259
5,534
2,381
18,641

8,720
5,847
2,516
17,863

8,640
5,714
2,702
17,867

9,115
5,803
2,869
17,915

8,664
5,762
2,566
18,003

8,358
5,502
2,518
17,941

7,952
5,199
2,423
17,969

1 Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


2 Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the
entire week.
3 Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions,
inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
4 Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training,
retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during
the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of
the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

AGE AND SEX


Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139,159
4,116
1,363
2,753
135,044
12,611
122,433
94,156
30,384
30,528
33,244
28,276

141,070
4,177
1,368
2,809
136,893
13,225
123,668
94,322
30,992
30,423
32,907
29,346

140,681
4,193
1,247
2,946
136,488
13,041
123,447
94,069
30,800
30,350
32,919
29,378

139,220
4,297
1,423
2,856
134,923
12,745
122,210
93,959
30,350
30,446
33,163
28,251

139,754
4,333
1,358
2,993
135,420
12,945
122,509
93,606
30,659
30,056
32,891
28,903

140,107
4,362
1,417
2,952
135,745
13,090
122,659
93,506
30,607
30,092
32,807
29,152

140,297
4,398
1,436
2,970
135,899
13,346
122,521
93,356
30,562
30,094
32,700
29,165

140,614
4,416
1,413
2,995
136,198
13,200
122,973
93,708
30,743
30,222
32,743
29,264

140,790
4,387
1,304
3,060
136,403
13,195
123,234
93,882
30,771
30,271
32,841
29,352

Men, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73,226
1,991
635
1,356
71,235
6,438
64,798
50,049
16,443
16,511
17,095
14,749

75,157
1,974
594
1,380
73,183
6,967
66,216
50,701
17,080
16,497
17,124
15,515

74,837
2,026
576
1,450
72,812
6,836
65,976
50,461
16,877
16,432
17,152
15,515

73,607
2,113
697
1,403
71,494
6,586
64,906
50,112
16,446
16,505
17,161
14,794

74,209
2,110
637
1,492
72,098
6,789
65,347
50,059
16,695
16,253
17,111
15,288

74,435
2,095
672
1,425
72,340
6,875
65,489
50,080
16,712
16,298
17,069
15,409

74,492
2,113
662
1,449
72,379
7,081
65,331
49,901
16,668
16,240
16,992
15,430

74,975
2,129
654
1,465
72,846
6,980
65,853
50,368
16,895
16,370
17,102
15,485

75,235
2,155
635
1,501
73,080
6,998
66,084
50,528
16,885
16,422
17,221
15,556

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65,933
2,125
728
1,397
63,809
6,174
57,635
44,108
13,941
14,017
16,150
13,527

65,913
2,203
774
1,429
63,710
6,258
57,452
43,622
13,912
13,926
15,783
13,830

65,843
2,167
672
1,495
63,676
6,205
57,471
43,608
13,923
13,918
15,767
13,863

65,613
2,184
726
1,453
63,429
6,159
57,304
43,847
13,904
13,941
16,002
13,457

65,545
2,223
721
1,501
63,322
6,157
57,162
43,547
13,964
13,804
15,779
13,615

65,672
2,266
745
1,527
63,406
6,215
57,170
43,427
13,895
13,794
15,737
13,743

65,805
2,286
773
1,521
63,520
6,265
57,190
43,455
13,894
13,854
15,708
13,735

65,639
2,287
759
1,530
63,352
6,220
57,119
43,340
13,848
13,852
15,641
13,779

65,555
2,232
669
1,559
63,323
6,198
57,150
43,354
13,886
13,849
15,620
13,796

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43,119
34,850
8,878

44,159
34,705
8,723

43,786
34,516
8,807

43,044
34,520

43,259
33,947

43,640
34,091

43,661
34,225

43,933
34,442

43,709
34,177

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS


Full-time workers1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111,207
27,953

113,138
27,932

113,050
27,630

111,873
27,331

112,406
27,416

112,479
27,640

112,841
27,463

113,212
27,378

113,765
27,040

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent of total employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,884
4.9

7,083
5.0

7,030
5.0

6,884
4.9

6,943
5.0

6,970
5.0

6,903
4.9

7,004
5.0

7,013
5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Self-employed workers, incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,263
9,309

5,060
9,400

5,199
9,252

9,524

9,378

9,179

9,417

9,478

9,461

1 Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
2 Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.
- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic

Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment rates

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

AGE AND SEX


Total, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over............................ .

14,393
1,451
534
932
12,943
2,287
10,656
8,600
3,375
2,562
2,663
2,089

13,323
1,370
428
917
11,953
2,190
9,740
7,719
3,108
2,268
2,343
1,991

13,097
1,316
501
826
11,781
2,221
9,593
7,681
3,191
2,220
2,271
1,929

9.4
25.2
27.3
24.6
8.8
15.2
8.0
8.4
10.0
7.8
7.4
6.9

9.1
25.3
28.7
24.4
8.4
14.7
7.7
8.1
9.5
7.6
7.1
6.6

9.0
24.5
26.3
23.2
8.4
14.6
7.7
8.1
9.7
7.4
7.2
6.7

8.9
24.0
25.2
23.2
8.3
13.9
7.7
8.0
9.7
7.2
7.1
7.0

8.7
23.7
23.3
23.4
8.1
14.2
7.3
7.6
9.2
7.0
6.7
6.4

8.5
23.1
27.8
21.3
8.0
14.4
7.2
7.6
9.4
6.8
6.5
6.2

Men, 16 years and over.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over............................ .

8,202
813
278
537
7,390
1,329
6,046
4,882
1,932
1,418
1,533
1,164

7,366
772
239
533
6,594
1,292
5,300
4,187
1,705
1,237
1,245
1,113

7,138
782
278
504
6,356
1,262
5,112
4,099
1,764
1,179
1,155
1,013

10.0
27.8
28.5
27.7
9.4
16.8
8.5
8.9
10.5
7.9
8.2
7.3

9.5
28.1
28.2
28.9
8.8
16.3
8.1
8.4
9.8
8.0
7.4
6.9

9.4
27.8
27.6
27.1
8.7
15.7
8.0
8.3
9.8
7.6
7.5
6.9

9.4
27.3
27.4
27.4
8.7
14.6
8.1
8.4
10.1
7.4
7.5
7.2

8.9
26.6
26.7
26.7
8.3
15.6
7.4
7.7
9.2
7.0
6.8
6.7

8.7
26.6
30.5
25.1
8.0
15.3
7.2
7.5
9.5
6.7
6.3
6.1

Women, 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


16 to 19 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 to 17 years................................... .
18 to 19 years................................... .
20 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 to 24 years................................... .
25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 to 34 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 to 44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 to 54 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55 years and over1 .......................... .

6,191
638
256
395
5,553
958
4,610
3,717
1,444
1,144
1,130
830

5,957
598
190
384
5,359
898
4,440
3,532
1,403
1,031
1,098
847

5,959
535
223
322
5,425
959
4,481
3,583
1,427
1,040
1,115
832

8.6
22.6
26.1
21.4
8.1
13.5
7.4
7.8
9.4
7.6
6.6
5.8

8.5
22.4
29.2
19.3
7.9
12.8
7.3
7.7
9.1
7.2
6.7
7.1

8.6
21.1
25.1
19.0
8.1
13.4
7.5
7.8
9.5
7.3
6.8
6.6

8.4
20.6
23.2
18.6
7.9
13.1
7.3
7.5
9.2
6.8
6.6
6.5

8.3
20.7
20.0
20.1
7.8
12.6
7.2
7.5
9.2
6.9
6.6
5.8

8.3
19.3
25.0
17.1
7.9
13.4
7.3
7.6
9.3
7.0
6.7
5.7

MARITAL STATUS
Married men, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Married women, spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Women who maintain families1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,973
2,063
1,207

2,461
1,937
1,230

2,328
1,950
1,308

6.5
5.6
12.0

5.8
5.7
11.9

5.8
5.8
12.4

5.8
5.7
12.3

5.3
5.3
12.4

5.1
5.4
12.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS


Full-time workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part-time workers3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12,639
1,774

11,520
1,754

11,286
1,825

10.2
6.1

9.7
6.5

9.8
6.0

9.5
6.4

9.2
6.0

9.0
6.3

1 Not seasonally adjusted.


2 Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
3 Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time
jobs.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of
the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Reason

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff........................... .
Permanent job losers........................... .
Persons who completed temporary jobs. . . . . .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8,995
1,547
7,448
5,917
1,530
861
3,031
1,110

7,201
955
6,246
4,878
1,367
1,000
3,248
1,164

7,691
1,385
6,306
5,000
1,306
894
3,018
1,090

8,877
1,366
7,511
5,990
1,521
920
3,406
1,306

8,120
1,237
6,883
5,476
1,407
973
3,519
1,249

8,028
1,195
6,833
5,416
1,417
972
3,484
1,323

7,924
1,226
6,699
5,308
1,391
1,068
3,387
1,291

7,599
1,181
6,418
5,033
1,385
1,005
3,355
1,276

7,602
1,216
6,386
5,089
1,296
953
3,399
1,280

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
On temporary layoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not on temporary layoff........................... .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64.3
11.1
53.2
6.2
21.7
7.9

57.1
7.6
49.5
7.9
25.8
9.2

60.6
10.9
49.7
7.0
23.8
8.6

61.2
9.4
51.8
6.3
23.5
9.0

58.6
8.9
49.7
7.0
25.4
9.0

58.1
8.7
49.5
7.0
25.2
9.6

58.0
9.0
49.0
7.8
24.8
9.4

57.4
8.9
48.5
7.6
25.3
9.6

57.4
9.2
48.3
7.2
25.7
9.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE


CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE
Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job leavers............................................ .
Reentrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New entrants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.9
0.6
2.0
0.7

4.7
0.7
2.1
0.8

5.0
0.6
2.0
0.7

5.8
0.6
2.2
0.9

5.3
0.6
2.3
0.8

5.2
0.6
2.3
0.9

5.1
0.7
2.2
0.8

4.9
0.7
2.2
0.8

4.9
0.6
2.2
0.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Duration

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED
Less than 5 weeks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 weeks and over................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,681
3,043
8,273
2,073
6,200

2,297
2,766
7,551
1,933
5,618

2,640
2,735
7,317
1,906
5,411

2,701
3,167
8,613
2,191
6,421

2,734
3,019
8,218
2,203
6,015

2,743
2,902
8,227
2,029
6,197

2,676
3,285
7,869
2,029
5,839

2,510
2,896
7,766
2,087
5,680

2,669
2,858
7,628
2,039
5,588

Average (mean) duration, in weeks1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Median duration, in weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.0
22.3

41.1
21.8

39.7
21.0

34.9
22.3

40.3
21.7

40.4
21.8

39.2
20.8

40.9
21.5

40.8
21.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Less than 5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 to 14 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 weeks and over................................... .
15 to 26 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 weeks and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19.2
21.7
59.1
14.8
44.3

18.2
21.9
59.9
15.3
44.5

20.8
21.5
57.7
15.0
42.6

18.7
21.9
59.5
15.1
44.3

19.6
21.6
58.8
15.8
43.1

19.8
20.9
59.3
14.6
44.7

19.4
23.8
56.9
14.7
42.2

19.1
22.0
59.0
15.8
43.1

20.3
21.7
58.0
15.5
42.5

1 Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see
www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employed
Occupation

Total, 16 years and over1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Management, professional, and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . .
Management, business, and financial operations
occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service occupations................................................. .
Sales and office occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sales and related occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Office and administrative support occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance
occupations........................................................ .
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction and extraction occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations............ .
Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations........................................................ .
Production occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and material moving occupations............. .

Unemployed

Unemployment
rates

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

139,159
51,704

140,681
52,808

13,997
2,468

12,692
2,303

9.1
4.6

8.3
4.2

20,393
31,310
24,717
33,407
15,521
17,885

22,039
30,769
24,678
33,310
15,826
17,484

1,243
1,225
2,696
3,023
1,407
1,616

1,019
1,284
2,542
2,844
1,325
1,518

5.7
3.8
9.8
8.3
8.3
8.3

4.4
4.0
9.3
7.9
7.7
8.0

12,666
925
6,849
4,892

13,104
915
7,220
4,970

2,407
268
1,785
354

1,924
203
1,417
304

16.0
22.5
20.7
6.7

12.8
18.2
16.4
5.8

16,666
8,339
8,327

16,781
8,441
8,340

2,245
1,109
1,137

1,942
1,008
933

11.9
11.7
12.0

10.4
10.7
10.1

1 Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the
introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is
derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with
earlier years.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted

Industry and class of worker

Total, 16 years and over1 ............................................................... .


Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.................................... .
Construction.......................................................................... .
Manufacturing........................................................................ .
Durable goods..................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale and retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ .
Professional and business services............................................... .
Education and health services..................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers......................... .
Government workers................................................................... .
Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment
rates

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

13,997
11,008
83
1,749
1,551
999
551
1,698
428
244
568
1,477
1,139
1,580
491
278
950
650

12,692
9,956
59
1,327
1,217
783
434
1,701
399
235
514
1,403
1,201
1,395
505
215
892
539

9.1
9.3
10.8
20.7
10.0
10.4
9.4
8.2
7.4
8.1
6.4
10.2
5.2
12.0
7.9
18.1
4.4
6.5

8.3
8.3
6.9
16.0
7.9
8.0
7.6
8.2
7.0
7.7
5.6
9.3
5.5
10.8
8.0
14.3
4.1
5.5

1 Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Not seasonally adjusted
Measure

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as


a percent of the civilian labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-2 Job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian
labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the
civilian labor force (official unemployment
rate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers,
as a percent of the civilian labor force plus
discouraged workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers,
plus all other persons marginally attached to
the labor force, as a percent of the civilian
labor force plus all persons marginally attached
to the labor force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons
marginally attached to the labor force, plus
total employed part time for economic reasons,
as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all
persons marginally attached to the labor
force................................................. .

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Aug.
2011

Sept.
2011

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011

Dec.
2011

5.4

4.9

4.8

5.6

5.3

5.3

5.1

5.0

5.0

5.9

4.7

5.0

5.8

5.3

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.9

9.1

8.2

8.3

9.4

9.1

9.0

8.9

8.7

8.5

9.9

8.9

8.8

10.1

9.6

9.6

9.5

9.3

9.1

10.7

9.7

9.8

10.9

10.6

10.5

10.4

10.2

10.0

16.6

15.0

15.2

16.6

16.2

16.4

16.0

15.6

15.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are
available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a
job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for
full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Total
Category

Dec.
2010

Men
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Women
Dec.
2011

Dec.
2010

Dec.
2011

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE


Total not in the labor force............................................ .
Persons who currently want a job. . . . ............................. .
Marginally attached to the labor force1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discouraged workers2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other persons marginally attached to the labor force3 . . . .

85,733
6,212
2,609
1,318
1,291

87,212
6,135
2,540
945
1,595

34,228
2,936
1,326
829
497

34,813
2,911
1,304
565
738

51,505
3,276
1,283
489
794

52,398
3,224
1,237
380
857

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS
Total multiple jobholders4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent of total employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary job full time, secondary job part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both part time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and secondary jobs both full time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hours vary on primary or secondary job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6,884
4.9
3,514
1,916
251
1,164

7,030
5.0
3,504
1,990
239
1,248

3,259
4.5
1,889
596
156
597

3,523
4.7
1,981
689
125
711

3,625
5.5
1,624
1,320
95
567

3,506
5.3
1,523
1,301
114
537

1 Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week,
but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
2 Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling
or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
3 Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation
problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
4 Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.
NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted
Industry

Total nonfarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

131,050
108,464
17,714

132,628
110,262
18,430

132,940
110,476
18,287

132,721
110,396
18,072

130,260
108,008
17,797

131,600
109,596
18,117

131,700
109,716
18,111

131,900
109,928
18,159

Change
from:
Nov.2011 Dec.2011p
200
212
48

Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil and gas extraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining, except oil and gas1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coal mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support activities for mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

733
46.9
686.1
161.4
201.7
83.8
323.0

825
48.2
776.9
182.7
219.8
86.6
374.4

825
49.1
775.4
184.1
216.0
85.9
375.3

824
48.8
774.8
186.4
211.0
86.0
377.4

734
47.2
686.7
161.6
205.6
83.2
319.5

812
46.1
766.0
183.1
214.7
86.5
368.2

817
47.9
769.0
184.2
213.6
85.7
371.2

825
48.5
776.0
186.8
215.0
85.7
374.2

8
0.6
7.0
2.6
1.4
0.0
3.0

Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction of buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonresidential building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heavy and civil engineering construction. . . . . . .
Specialty trade contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential specialty trade contractors. . . . . . .
Nonresidential specialty trade contractors. . . .

5,387
1,215.1
558.6
656.5
792.6
3,379.1
1,410.1
1,969.0

5,779
1,272.7
581.4
691.3
916.5
3,589.9
1,519.8
2,070.1

5,659
1,251.4
573.2
678.2
881.0
3,526.6
1,490.2
2,036.4

5,436
1,224.0
563.3
660.7
803.8
3,408.1
1,427.0
1,981.1

5,498
1,222.1
563.0
659.1
834.2
3,441.2
1,441.9
1,999.3

5,539
1,233.3
563.8
669.5
850.7
3,455.4
1,457.5
1,997.9

5,527
1,229.0
564.1
664.9
845.8
3,452.3
1,461.2
1,991.1

5,544
1,228.8
566.6
662.2
845.5
3,469.6
1,458.3
2,011.3

17
-0.2
2.5
-2.7
-0.3
17.3
-2.9
20.2

Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,594

11,826

11,803

11,812

11,565

11,766

11,767

11,790

23

Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonmetallic mineral products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fabricated metal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machinery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and electronic products1 . . . . . . . . . .
Computer and peripheral equipment. . . . . . .
Communication equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Semiconductors and electronic
components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical equipment and appliances. . . . . . . . .
Transportation equipment1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicles and parts2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and related products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,146
335.7
362.7
368.8
1,316.1
1,013.6
1,114.2
166.4
119.5

7,353
333.4
376.4
392.8
1,370.0
1,062.0
1,128.0
173.7
115.2

7,362
332.4
372.8
395.2
1,373.0
1,066.0
1,124.9
174.6
113.7

7,382
331.0
363.4
394.5
1,376.5
1,073.2
1,127.5
175.3
114.2

7,126
337.4
367.5
368.2
1,312.5
1,010.2
1,111.1
166.1
119.0

7,329
331.9
368.3
391.5
1,362.4
1,060.6
1,128.5
174.0
114.9

7,342
331.5
367.5
394.0
1,370.5
1,064.5
1,124.0
173.8
114.2

7,365
332.4
367.8
393.9
1,376.5
1,069.8
1,124.2
174.6
114.1

23
0.9
0.3
-0.1
6.0
5.3
0.2
0.8
-0.1

376.6
406.8
368.5
1,340.5
683.5
349.4
576.5

389.1
401.8
371.4
1,393.2
716.3
349.5
576.4

388.2
400.7
371.7
1,404.6
721.6
346.5
574.7

388.5
401.6
373.7
1,419.5
733.3
345.7
576.6

375.5
406.2
367.7
1,329.8
674.2
350.3
571.2

389.0
402.4
371.4
1,391.6
714.1
348.6
574.4

387.9
400.7
371.5
1,400.0
717.6
347.8
570.8

387.4
400.7
372.9
1,408.6
724.1
346.4
572.5

-0.5
0.0
1.4
8.6
6.5
-1.4
1.7

Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beverages and tobacco products. . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textile product mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apparel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leather and allied products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and paper products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing and related support activities. . . . . . . .
Petroleum and coal products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastics and rubber products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,448
1,453.7
180.0
119.5
116.8
156.6
28.5
397.6
479.2
110.8
780.5
624.3

4,473
1,466.1
192.1
120.3
113.7
156.5
30.4
399.0
463.6
116.7
783.1
631.7

4,441
1,447.9
189.4
119.4
113.4
153.7
30.7
399.0
460.7
114.3
782.8
629.8

4,430
1,445.9
185.4
120.5
111.7
153.2
30.8
401.4
462.1
107.2
785.3
626.3

4,439
1,444.9
182.4
119.8
116.3
157.6
28.5
396.8
476.2
113.0
777.5
626.1

4,437
1,442.7
187.4
120.3
113.0
155.9
30.1
398.9
461.8
112.6
784.2
630.1

4,425
1,438.8
188.2
119.3
112.8
154.4
30.5
398.5
458.6
112.4
781.9
629.5

4,425
1,439.1
187.4
120.8
111.9
153.9
30.6
400.2
460.0
110.1
782.9
628.1

0
0.3
-0.8
1.5
-0.9
-0.5
0.1
1.7
1.4
-2.3
1.0
-1.4

Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90,750

91,832

92,189

92,324

90,211

91,479

91,605

91,769

164

Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25,322

25,060

25,487

25,745

24,746

25,010

25,052

25,142

90

Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic markets and agents and brokers.. .

5,495.5
2,742.1
1,941.3
812.1

5,573.6
2,785.4
1,965.5
822.7

5,573.0
2,782.5
1,965.4
825.1

5,576.8
2,793.2
1,958.1
825.5

5,479.5
2,736.0
1,935.5
808.0

5,553.6
2,779.0
1,954.8
819.8

5,552.3
2,777.2
1,953.2
821.9

5,563.9
2,789.1
1,952.6
822.2

11.6
11.9
-0.6
0.3

Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle and parts dealers1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automobile dealers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furniture and home furnishings stores. . . . . . .

14,939.3
1,638.2
1,019.3
456.9

14,607.9
1,692.5
1,053.1
447.2

15,017.7
1,692.8
1,054.5
456.1

15,199.3
1,689.2
1,054.4
460.3

14,447.2
1,648.1
1,021.4
435.8

14,620.2
1,686.7
1,050.1
439.6

14,659.0
1,693.3
1,053.7
439.7

14,686.9
1,697.7
1,056.2
439.3

27.9
4.4
2.5
-0.4

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Change
from:
Nov.2011 Dec.2011p

Electronics and appliance stores. . . . . . . . . . . . .


Building material and garden supply stores.. .
Food and beverage stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and personal care stores. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gasoline stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing and clothing accessories stores. . . . .
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music
stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General merchandise stores1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Department stores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous store retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonstore retailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

529.0
1,082.5
2,840.7
988.4
811.3
1,533.8

484.9
1,102.7
2,850.9
978.0
821.1
1,447.3

506.7
1,099.4
2,868.3
987.4
824.0
1,565.7

506.5
1,093.0
2,883.6
991.1
821.2
1,624.7

503.2
1,112.0
2,814.1
970.9
816.1
1,405.4

483.6
1,121.2
2,847.5
978.8
820.6
1,458.1

485.7
1,124.3
2,848.0
977.5
824.7
1,473.1

482.9
1,125.1
2,856.2
975.2
825.4
1,484.2

-2.8
0.8
8.2
-2.3
0.7
11.1

657.9
3,181.8
1,651.2
774.3
444.5

589.4
2,989.8
1,491.6
772.6
431.5

622.2
3,169.6
1,624.5
779.3
446.2

627.8
3,260.1
1,690.3
788.2
453.6

601.5
2,972.8
1,484.2
753.9
413.4

588.8
3,010.3
1,508.9
765.7
419.3

586.5
3,021.6
1,514.3
765.1
419.5

576.3
3,034.6
1,518.0
768.7
421.3

-10.2
13.0
3.7
3.6
1.8

Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Air transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rail transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transit and ground passenger
transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pipeline transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenic and sightseeing transportation. . . . . . . .
Support activities for transportation. . . . . . . . . . .
Couriers and messengers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warehousing and storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,338.1
467.0
218.8
64.4
1,254.7

4,325.0
474.8
227.2
65.5
1,305.5

4,341.6
469.6
227.5
64.1
1,304.6

4,414.3
471.1
226.9
65.7
1,294.5

4,268.4
467.7
218.5
64.7
1,255.9

4,282.1
474.9
226.6
65.0
1,286.6

4,285.2
471.9
226.5
64.8
1,290.9

4,335.4
472.7
227.0
65.5
1,296.0

50.2
0.8
0.5
0.7
5.1

461.3
42.3
22.1
544.3
623.7
639.5

460.5
43.4
30.7
564.4
515.6
637.4

457.2
43.6
22.8
565.3
542.8
644.1

454.3
44.6
20.8
564.9
628.7
642.8

445.2
42.3
26.7
542.0
573.6
631.8

442.0
43.5
29.0
560.6
522.9
631.0

439.9
43.6
26.7
563.3
525.6
632.0

439.5
44.4
26.3
562.6
567.8
633.6

-0.4
0.8
-0.4
-0.7
42.2
1.6

Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

549.5

553.6

554.2

554.7

551.2

554.1

555.0

556.2

1.2

Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing industries, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . .
Motion picture and sound recording
industries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadcasting, except Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telecommunications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data processing, hosting and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other information services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,706
759.9

2,653
755.6

2,663
754.5

2,672
756.4

2,694
756.9

2,659
754.7

2,652
751.7

2,658
753.0

6
1.3

372.8
297.0
888.4

358.3
295.1
842.1

368.0
293.6
842.6

374.1
294.2
842.6

372.6
295.7
881.8

363.9
293.7
843.6

365.6
291.3
840.2

370.8
292.7
837.2

5.2
1.4
-3.0

242.4
145.8

238.3
163.9

239.6
164.2

240.0
164.5

241.0
145.7

238.9
163.9

239.1
164.3

238.9
165.3

-0.2
1.0

Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finance and insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monetary authorities - central bank. . . . . . . . . . .
Credit intermediation and related
activities1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depository credit intermediation1 . . . . . . . . . .
Commercial banking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Securities, commodity contracts,
investments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insurance carriers and related activities. . . . . .
Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles. . .
Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real estate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental and leasing services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets. . . . .

7,625
5,692.2
21.2

7,618
5,664.6
21.9

7,618
5,676.2
21.9

7,633
5,686.8
21.8

7,617
5,681.5
21.2

7,617
5,668.9
21.9

7,622
5,672.5
21.9

7,624
5,675.0
21.9

2
2.5
0.0

2,553.7
1,744.8
1,317.4

2,540.1
1,753.1
1,322.6

2,549.9
1,756.2
1,324.6

2,558.8
1,762.7
1,329.5

2,549.0
1,741.9
1,316.4

2,544.8
1,757.1
1,325.0

2,549.3
1,758.1
1,326.9

2,552.1
1,760.0
1,328.6

2.8
1.9
1.7

804.3
2,226.7
86.3
1,932.9
1,396.5
511.0
25.4

807.3
2,209.4
85.9
1,953.1
1,408.3
518.8
26.0

807.1
2,212.3
85.0
1,941.6
1,399.8
515.8
26.0

802.9
2,218.0
85.3
1,946.0
1,403.1
516.8
26.1

803.1
2,221.7
86.5
1,935.3
1,395.0
515.0
25.3

806.7
2,209.9
85.6
1,947.9
1,402.9
519.0
26.0

806.3
2,209.8
85.2
1,949.9
1,403.3
520.6
26.0

802.4
2,213.1
85.5
1,948.6
1,402.3
520.3
26.0

-3.9
3.3
0.3
-1.3
-1.0
-0.3
0.0

17,034
7,523.1
1,118.3
894.7
1,281.4

17,500
7,666.9
1,113.2
865.4
1,313.1

17,513
7,705.1
1,114.6
892.5
1,310.9

17,480
7,761.2
1,115.2
951.0
1,306.6

16,902
7,469.4
1,113.7
881.8
1,278.5

17,323
7,697.8
1,112.4
936.8
1,303.9

17,342
7,707.1
1,112.8
940.1
1,304.6

17,354
7,715.6
1,111.0
943.2
1,305.1

12
8.5
-1.8
3.1
0.5

1,471.7

1,528.0

1,534.5

1,530.4

1,464.9

1,520.4

1,523.9

1,525.1

1.2

1,020.6
1,877.3
7,633.4

1,070.8
1,895.4
7,937.8

1,077.0
1,899.2
7,908.8

1,082.9
1,905.4
7,813.5

1,008.1
1,873.3
7,559.6

1,062.0
1,894.7
7,730.7

1,064.7
1,897.1
7,737.4

1,069.0
1,899.2
7,739.1

4.3
2.1
1.7

Industry

Retail trade - Continued

Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Professional and technical services1 . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting and bookkeeping services. . . . . . .
Architectural and engineering services. . . . . . .
Computer systems design and related
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management and technical consulting
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management of companies and enterprises. . . .
Administrative and waste services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
Continued
[In thousands]
Not seasonally adjusted

Seasonally adjusted

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Change
from:
Nov.2011 Dec.2011p

Administrative and support services1 . . . . . . . .


Employment services1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary help services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business support services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services to buildings and dwellings. . . . . . . .
Waste management and remediation
services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,275.2
2,974.6
2,314.3
824.1
1,689.0

7,566.9
3,096.7
2,421.9
810.5
1,823.7

7,542.2
3,105.9
2,434.0
822.9
1,788.6

7,448.6
3,088.2
2,412.2
831.5
1,711.1

7,199.8
2,843.6
2,207.2
805.2
1,765.0

7,363.0
2,960.9
2,300.0
804.0
1,776.9

7,371.7
2,968.3
2,311.2
807.3
1,778.8

7,372.1
2,956.7
2,303.7
811.2
1,783.7

0.4
-11.6
-7.5
3.9
4.9

358.2

370.9

366.6

364.9

359.8

367.7

365.7

367.0

1.3

Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care and social assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health care3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ambulatory health care services1 . . . . . . . . .
Offices of physicians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outpatient care centers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Home health care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hospitals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nursing and residential care facilities1 . . . .
Nursing care facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social assistance1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Child day care services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19,921
3,291.9
16,629.5
13,951.4
6,065.8
2,343.1
613.1
1,103.4
4,715.1
3,170.5
1,680.2
2,678.1
870.2

20,299
3,391.5
16,907.6
14,212.8
6,231.4
2,396.6
631.7
1,143.7
4,781.2
3,200.2
1,682.6
2,694.8
861.6

20,398
3,443.0
16,954.9
14,244.5
6,244.8
2,403.2
635.6
1,143.9
4,793.5
3,206.2
1,684.7
2,710.4
865.5

20,346
3,367.3
16,978.6
14,264.7
6,252.7
2,411.0
637.9
1,141.2
4,803.8
3,208.2
1,682.4
2,713.9
861.4

19,760
3,179.5
16,580.6
13,922.4
6,051.3
2,330.0
611.4
1,102.3
4,708.0
3,163.1
1,674.8
2,658.2
856.6

20,125
3,243.4
16,882.0
14,198.5
6,219.2
2,391.9
630.7
1,140.3
4,780.1
3,199.2
1,682.5
2,683.5
851.5

20,158
3,255.7
16,902.2
14,214.5
6,227.0
2,395.7
633.9
1,139.1
4,787.3
3,200.2
1,679.4
2,687.7
849.6

20,187
3,255.8
16,930.9
14,237.1
6,238.3
2,397.6
635.5
1,141.1
4,797.1
3,201.7
1,678.9
2,693.8
849.4

29
0.1
28.7
22.6
11.3
1.9
1.6
2.0
9.8
1.5
-0.5
6.1
-0.2

Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Arts, entertainment, and recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing arts and spectator sports. . . . . . . . .
Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks. . .
Amusements, gambling, and recreation. . . . . .
Accommodation and food services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food services and drinking places. . . . . . . . . . .

12,749
1,735.7
393.5
119.8
1,222.4
11,012.9
1,701.9
9,311.0

13,252
1,860.9
413.0
132.3
1,315.6
11,391.5
1,801.0
9,590.5

13,065
1,746.4
393.4
128.0
1,225.0
11,318.9
1,748.9
9,570.0

13,008
1,727.9
387.9
125.9
1,214.1
11,280.2
1,738.5
9,541.7

13,074
1,896.4
410.5
127.2
1,358.7
11,177.4
1,763.3
9,414.1

13,291
1,895.2
405.9
132.4
1,356.9
11,395.8
1,811.7
9,584.1

13,321
1,894.1
408.0
133.0
1,353.1
11,426.4
1,805.9
9,620.5

13,342
1,891.0
406.0
133.7
1,351.3
11,451.1
1,806.6
9,644.5

21
-3.1
-2.0
0.7
-1.8
24.7
0.7
24.0

Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repair and maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and laundry services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Membership associations and organizations. . . .

5,393
1,134.4
1,268.4
2,990.6

5,450
1,157.5
1,282.4
3,010.3

5,445
1,155.7
1,279.3
3,010.1

5,440
1,154.1
1,276.4
3,009.3

5,418
1,142.3
1,271.6
3,004.1

5,454
1,157.2
1,285.4
3,011.4

5,458
1,159.6
1,282.3
3,016.2

5,462
1,160.3
1,281.1
3,020.4

4
0.7
-1.2
4.2

Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal, except U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Postal Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . . .
Local government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local government, excluding education. . . . . . . . . . .

22,586
2,846.0
2,200.0
646.2
5,250.0
2,513.6
2,736.1
14,490.0
8,266.1
6,223.5

22,366
2,820.0
2,197.6
622.0
5,230.0
2,563.2
2,666.5
14,316.0
8,103.9
6,211.8

22,464
2,805.0
2,193.3
611.9
5,256.0
2,591.9
2,663.9
14,403.0
8,204.7
6,198.6

22,325
2,812.0
2,197.0
615.4
5,193.0
2,529.1
2,664.3
14,320.0
8,159.1
6,160.8

22,252
2,853.0
2,210.0
643.4
5,140.0
2,392.6
2,747.3
14,259.0
7,951.8
6,307.3

22,004
2,819.0
2,201.0
617.6
5,079.0
2,402.9
2,676.1
14,106.0
7,857.5
6,248.3

21,984
2,815.0
2,202.1
612.9
5,077.0
2,404.0
2,672.6
14,092.0
7,848.1
6,243.7

21,972
2,817.0
2,204.7
612.1
5,077.0
2,407.2
2,669.7
14,078.0
7,838.7
6,239.6

-12
2.0
2.6
-0.8
0.0
3.2
-2.9
-14.0
-9.4
-4.1

Industry

Administrative and waste services - Continued

1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.


2 Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
3 Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS


Total private............................................................................. .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................. .
Nondurable goods.............................................................. .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade...................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities........................................................................... .
Information......................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services..................................................................... .

34.2
39.7
43.5
38.0
40.3
40.6
39.9
33.1
34.5
38.3
31.5
38.7
41.3
36.4
37.0
35.6
32.7
25.8
31.6

34.4
40.1
45.1
38.3
40.6
40.9
40.0
33.3
34.6
38.8
31.5
38.5
42.2
36.8
37.3
35.8
32.7
26.0
31.6

34.3
40.0
44.5
38.4
40.4
40.7
39.8
33.2
34.4
38.7
31.4
38.4
41.7
36.7
37.4
35.7
32.7
26.1
31.5

34.4
40.1
44.6
38.7
40.5
40.9
39.8
33.3
34.6
38.7
31.7
38.4
41.1
36.5
37.3
35.8
32.8
26.1
31.6

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS


Manufacturing........................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods................................................................... .

3.2
3.1
3.3

3.2
3.2
3.2

3.3
3.3
3.2

3.2
3.2
3.2

Industry

p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Total private................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade......................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Information............................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services........................................ .

$22.77
24.20
27.59
25.33
23.46
24.98
20.99
22.44
19.76
26.17
15.63
21.21
32.78
31.06
27.45
27.34
23.29
13.12
20.46

$23.20
24.58
28.31
25.47
23.90
25.45
21.28
22.88
20.15
26.42
15.88
21.90
33.97
31.49
28.07
28.00
23.73
13.32
20.56

$23.20
24.52
28.38
25.48
23.80
25.31
21.23
22.89
20.19
26.40
15.95
21.96
34.18
31.67
28.15
28.01
23.71
13.29
20.63

$23.24
24.64
28.62
25.53
23.93
25.38
21.44
22.91
20.18
26.42
15.97
22.01
33.71
31.77
28.16
28.02
23.76
13.31
20.72

p Preliminary

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

$ 778.73 $ 798.08 $ 795.76 $ 799.46


960.74
985.66
980.80
988.06
1,200.17 1,276.78 1,262.91 1,276.45
962.54
975.50
978.43
988.01
945.44
970.34
961.52
969.17
1,014.19 1,040.91 1,030.12 1,038.04
837.50
851.20
844.95
853.31
742.76
761.90
759.95
762.90
681.72
697.19
694.54
698.23
1,002.31 1,025.10 1,021.68 1,022.45
492.35
500.22
500.83
506.25
820.83
843.15
843.26
845.18
1,353.81 1,433.53 1,425.31 1,385.48
1,130.58 1,158.83 1,162.29 1,159.61
1,015.65 1,047.01 1,052.81 1,050.37
973.30 1,002.40
999.96 1,003.12
761.58
775.97
775.32
779.33
338.50
346.32
346.87
347.39
646.54
649.70
649.85
654.75

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by
industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls2

Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Nov.
2011 Dec.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction................................. .
Manufacturing............................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade.......................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services...... .
Education and health services. . . . ........ .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92.6
80.5
100.3
72.0
83.8
81.5
88.4
95.9
92.8
91.6
92.4
94.5
98.5
89.6
92.9
94.6
105.2
96.2
94.9

94.5
82.8
115.1
73.1
85.9
84.4
88.6
97.8
94.0
94.0
93.5
94.4
101.1
89.4
93.6
97.5
107.1
98.6
95.5

94.3
82.5
114.2
73.1
85.5
84.1
87.9
97.7
93.7
93.8
93.5
94.2
100.1
88.9
93.9
97.4
107.3
99.2
95.3

94.8
83.0
115.6
73.9
85.9
84.8
87.9
98.1
94.5
93.9
94.5
95.3
98.9
88.6
93.7
97.7
107.8
99.4
95.6

0.5
0.6
1.2
1.1
0.5
0.8
0.0
0.4
0.9
0.1
1.1
1.2
-1.2
-0.3
-0.2
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.3

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Nov.
2011 Dec.
2011p

100.5
88.0
111.1
79.2
91.5
90.4
94.2
104.3
98.7
100.0
95.5
101.8
106.7
99.0
99.5
104.8
114.7
101.9
110.1

104.5
91.9
130.8
80.9
95.5
95.4
95.6
108.5
102.0
103.7
98.2
104.9
113.5
100.2
102.6
110.6
119.1
106.0
111.4

104.3
91.5
130.2
81.0
94.7
94.6
94.7
108.3
101.8
103.3
98.6
104.9
113.1
100.2
103.2
110.5
119.2
106.4
111.5

105.0
92.4
132.9
82.0
95.6
95.6
95.6
108.9
102.7
103.6
99.8
106.4
110.1
100.2
103.0
110.9
120.0
106.7
112.5

0.7
1.0
2.1
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.6
0.9
0.3
1.2
1.4
-2.7
0.0
-0.2
0.4
0.7
0.3
0.9

1 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual
average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
2 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding
2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly
hours, and employment.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Women employees (in thousands)

Percent of all employees

Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Total nonfarm.............. . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... .


Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing..................................... .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing...................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities................................. .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality............................ .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64,657
52,016
4,063
99
714
3,250
1,719
1,531
47,953
9,979
1,644.2
7,183.9
1,015.2
135.4
1,094
4,458
7,518
15,215
6,821
2,868
12,641

65,040
52,515
4,051
108
710
3,233
1,715
1,518
48,464
9,993
1,672.2
7,182.8
1,003.8
134.4
1,079
4,425
7,705
15,439
6,945
2,878
12,525

65,089
52,569
4,040
110
707
3,223
1,714
1,509
48,529
10,009
1,672.1
7,197.2
1,005.1
134.9
1,079
4,432
7,711
15,461
6,957
2,880
12,520

65,178
52,659
4,044
111
710
3,223
1,717
1,506
48,615
10,032
1,672.8
7,214.1
1,009.6
135.1
1,080
4,440
7,723
15,483
6,976
2,881
12,519

49.6
48.2
22.8
13.5
13.0
28.1
24.1
34.5
53.2
40.3
30.0
49.7
23.8
24.6
40.6
58.5
44.5
77.0
52.2
52.9
56.8

49.4
47.9
22.4
13.3
12.8
27.5
23.4
34.2
53.0
40.0
30.1
49.1
23.4
24.3
40.6
58.1
44.5
76.7
52.3
52.8
56.9

49.4
47.9
22.3
13.5
12.8
27.4
23.3
34.1
53.0
40.0
30.1
49.1
23.5
24.3
40.7
58.1
44.5
76.7
52.2
52.8
57.0

49.4
47.9
22.3
13.5
12.8
27.3
23.3
34.0
53.0
39.9
30.1
49.1
23.3
24.3
40.6
58.2
44.5
76.7
52.3
52.7
57.0

p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry
sector, seasonally adjusted1
[In thousands]
Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing....... . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................................... .
Mining and logging.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.......................................................................... .
Manufacturing........................................................................ .
Durable goods..................................................................... .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities................................................. .
Wholesale trade................................................................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing................................................ .
Utilities.............................................................................. .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ .
Professional and business services............................................... .
Education and health services..................................................... .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88,974
12,808
553
4,162
8,093
4,865
3,228
76,166
20,915
4,383.6
12,434.9
3,657.4
439.2
2,166
5,845
13,861
17,328
11,514
4,537

90,385
13,064
612
4,191
8,261
5,027
3,234
77,321
21,188
4,451.0
12,605.2
3,690.9
440.8
2,136
5,830
14,252
17,623
11,723
4,569

90,520
13,049
613
4,179
8,257
5,039
3,218
77,471
21,235
4,452.0
12,647.8
3,693.5
441.8
2,133
5,834
14,276
17,658
11,762
4,573

90,710
13,099
618
4,199
8,282
5,059
3,223
77,611
21,289
4,463.0
12,674.2
3,709.6
442.2
2,141
5,840
14,305
17,688
11,769
4,579

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS


Total private............................................................................. .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................. .
Nondurable goods.............................................................. .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade...................................................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities........................................................................... .
Information......................................................................... .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services..................................................................... .

33.5
40.5
44.9
38.6
41.3
41.6
40.7
32.3
33.6
38.2
30.5
37.7
42.2
36.1
36.3
35.3
32.1
24.7
30.7

33.7
40.9
47.6
38.9
41.5
41.8
40.9
32.4
33.8
38.6
30.6
37.7
41.8
36.2
36.5
35.2
32.3
24.8
30.8

33.6
40.9
47.2
39.1
41.4
41.7
40.8
32.4
33.7
38.5
30.6
37.8
41.7
36.1
36.3
35.2
32.3
24.8
30.8

33.7
41.0
47.3
39.2
41.5
41.9
40.8
32.5
33.9
38.6
30.9
37.8
41.1
36.1
36.3
35.2
32.3
24.9
30.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS


Manufacturing........................................................................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods................................................................... .

4.0
4.1
3.9

4.1
4.2
4.0

4.1
4.1
4.0

4.1
4.2
3.9

Industry

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
Average hourly earnings

Average weekly earnings

Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Total private................................................ .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retail trade......................................... .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. .
Information............................................ .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education and health services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services........................................ .

$19.23
20.49
24.02
23.44
18.80
20.03
16.91
18.97
16.97
21.79
13.36
19.28
30.13
26.09
21.63
22.84
20.42
11.31
17.24

$19.53
20.76
24.79
23.74
19.00
20.19
17.11
19.26
17.20
22.02
13.53
19.59
30.93
26.73
21.94
23.15
20.87
11.49
17.30

$19.54
20.77
24.89
23.76
18.98
20.15
17.12
19.28
17.21
21.99
13.58
19.53
31.33
26.72
22.05
23.18
20.87
11.49
17.33

$19.54
20.84
24.58
23.90
19.05
20.13
17.32
19.27
17.13
21.96
13.51
19.48
31.11
26.78
22.14
23.19
20.90
11.49
17.37

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

$ 644.21 $ 658.16 $ 656.54 $ 658.50


829.85
849.08
849.49
854.44
1,078.50 1,180.00 1,174.81 1,162.63
904.78
923.49
929.02
936.88
776.44
788.50
785.77
790.58
833.25
843.94
840.26
843.45
688.24
699.80
698.50
706.66
612.73
624.02
624.67
626.28
570.19
581.36
579.98
580.71
832.38
849.97
846.62
847.66
407.48
414.02
415.55
417.46
726.86
738.54
738.23
736.34
1,271.49 1,292.87 1,306.46 1,278.62
941.85
967.63
964.59
966.76
785.17
800.81
800.42
803.68
806.25
814.88
815.94
816.29
655.48
674.10
674.10
675.07
279.36
284.95
284.95
286.10
529.27
532.84
533.76
536.73

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
p Preliminary

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on
private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted1
[2002=100]
Index of aggregate weekly hours2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls3

Industry

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Nov.
2011 Dec.
2011p

Total private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Goods-producing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mining and logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction................................. .
Manufacturing............................... .
Durable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nondurable goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private service-providing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade, transportation, and utilities. . . . . . . . .
Wholesale trade.......................... .
Retail trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation and warehousing. . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Financial activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Professional and business services...... .
Education and health services. . . . ........ .
Leisure and hospitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99.6
79.3
131.9
80.4
76.7
76.0
77.4
105.2
98.0
98.6
96.0
103.8
94.8
89.3
101.5
109.7
120.0
104.2
97.7

101.8
81.7
154.8
81.6
78.7
78.9
77.9
107.1
99.8
101.2
97.6
104.7
94.2
88.3
101.8
112.4
122.8
106.6
98.7

101.6
81.6
153.8
81.8
78.5
78.9
77.4
107.3
99.8
100.9
98.0
105.1
94.2
87.9
101.3
112.6
123.0
106.9
98.8

102.1
82.1
155.3
82.4
78.9
79.6
77.5
107.9
100.6
101.5
99.1
105.6
93.0
88.2
101.4
112.9
123.2
107.4
99.3

0.5
0.6
1.0
0.7
0.5
0.9
0.1
0.6
0.8
0.6
1.1
0.5
-1.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.5

Dec.
2010

Oct.
2011

Nov.
2011p

Dec.
2011p

Percent
change
from:
Nov.
2011 Dec.
2011p

128.0
99.5
184.3
101.8
94.3
95.1
92.5
136.8
118.6
126.6
109.9
126.9
119.2
115.3
135.8
149.0
161.1
133.9
122.7

132.8
103.8
223.2
104.6
97.8
99.5
94.2
141.5
122.5
131.2
113.2
130.2
121.7
116.8
138.1
154.9
168.5
139.0
124.4

132.7
103.7
222.6
105.0
97.4
99.3
93.6
141.9
122.5
130.8
114.0
130.2
123.2
116.3
138.2
155.3
168.8
139.5
124.8

133.4
104.7
222.1
106.4
98.3
100.1
94.8
142.5
122.9
131.2
114.8
130.4
120.7
117.0
138.9
155.7
169.3
140.2
125.6

0.5
1.0
-0.2
1.3
0.9
0.8
1.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.7
0.2
-2.0
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.6

1 Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees
in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
2 The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual
average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
3 The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current months estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding
2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly
hours, and employment.
p Preliminary