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The Art of Animal Drawing

The Art of Animal Drawing

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10/20/2014

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Ken Hultgren

ANIMAL DRAWING

THE ART OF

Consrr uct ion, Action A. na lysis" Caricat u re

With 759111ustration$

TIPS ON DRAWING
It io w~II'10 .livid Q Ih. b e dy i"to rlvee pori"$: - fO: r oqu~rrelr11 bo'n)!" ,on~ n;a~ quane-fl. Sin'co fnh i~"c n'CNrClt d;...ilion. il oid, in oc'hioving proportto:ri. D'row in dOrlol'lripe (JiM of vertebro.). h.lp. 10 ,center Iho "ni';'ol. .

ANIMALS

proper

Thi.

BetH1

hove 0 tendell'cy .10 be pigeon~ la.d. Tho pow. of tho col'lamilY:.prood O~I .Iighlly,

,Alway, in'dic;Ti;";~el.t:n -

bon:"" lhe se

Mo,' hoof" d ,on imo l,crG ,I,ghlly knock· kn~~d- ~CI r.fi so whe n. IJUf)''' fl!t yo!'! n g.

wiil'h'al~lhe ,ketc}, 'Oll.lkifr. Once you o;.domilicr wilhl~' relol;'vo',rzeof Ih.
"V(Jriov~bene,t. dr~jn'g'

,;

b~("orries

e.oli~r

Divide the skull into three parts also: the muzzle, the long pori of the nose, and the bcse of the skull.

Falten ears onto Ihe bock of the head. For 'impli.cit~, indicate the base with an oval.

Line up the eye with the ears .ond nostrils, this is 0 good guide and is correct for rno st animals. Divide Ihe head in the middle for construction; il'.• a natural divisio.n.

'oh the ,'ide"of .the head.

Bear in .mind Ihol.,lh.~:.eye$~:ore usually Draw your gt.iida' lines' construe.trijg.

';;1e n

With bears, cots, arid dogs, ore more forward;

the

eyes

When drawing animals, try- to get variety in-leg positions, Note_ the added inte(8SI -in- a sketch when the -leg5"-ore ploce.dot different angles; in contrest wlth:the .-tiff, dilled pose with the legs poraile!.

II is ~ell lo-keep -Ihese box forms in mind when ,workingy"ilh angle ~hOls.. lI,indoubt ,about (I pose, rough imyourbox lightly, and check your pe-r~p~ttiv~.,

3

SIMPLIFIED SKElETONS .trelching oul. nO~ . . m_ore eosily. It -IS he Pk I Ion In general..' capable to up on d . position. "P'~ drawIng will come a skeleton. . below nolb how On Ihe leap PI S" I l in '0 stretched O the rib cage e ongo e . ts or 'Iolnt. I lui 10' note l. ' Ihe see I concernIng . your. In "01 pain edge 01. ble . . Once you '1..ome ccrs cnimels. . of . I "acquire. teg. 'enlrollng on iridixiduol fj Before ~o_nc. d orne know. 0 doubling re very p I.

'\ IN FORMS --- "\- \ . so] the skeleton in mind. or pivot points.ke tcb in g.. .pl . draw the main form' of your animal. it " help Ful to indic" te th e pOlitions.u have the basic prin'ci. on the sketch. After locating Ihe.e.SKETCHING Once YO. In . you moy proceed with more ossurcnce in your drawing.

•• - .. - .. " \..'" ..." - .. +1 ••• . -1 t>C .

: .'.'Ii' .

MOOD to the AND FEEliNG Every ortist is On ector. prepared for a quick departure if the situation warrants. the eFfecl requires o~ much droop as possible.' '. group. If' the mood' is a tense one. .. 0 bserver the mood or attitude 01 his 'onirnol ehorociers and rnusf fed the . . Animals shift their weight Iro~ leg 10 leg when tired.. the stretched necks also help to convey lension. At such . . such 0' that of Ihedee.. then you strive For a lout.s drop lower On their hindquo rrers.very tired pose. Th~ir h'}ads hong low: Keeping the withers high occi1inlslho{ e ffecl.lion :beFore he can pu't 'it down on poper.-. The ears and toil are perked up. lik-ethal of the horse. animal.._. "". . The whiles .. tense mood 'in your cherccters..o time.itvo.of the eyes are seldam visible in animals except when I~ey are extremely tense and fdghlEjned. In a . in that he conveys. In the deer sketch.

flaring 'the mane. ears bock.· ' ' ' . and the whiles of the eyes visible./ H .tnls ere 'wide. Th"no. of the horse.if .1 . was helpful.To convey excitement. The' neck'musdes are tout.

.The b .- ._ The lions below express a mood of lozy contentment. in relexed moods .? 10 .oli. ..~. ".loctory... cs these...: The following ore good 'jintquestions '10 ask yourself: Will this p<:i. you find er-e which' you feel is. ~ .' I make this pose stronger. The reor quorrers are dropped.'~ .iee-ifmenfol1y beFore you '$Iorl to work It maybe necessory to . Whoieve'.. be to keep the heads low. with their attention drown up.:econvey the mea'ning in silhouelt~? Is my staging clear? How co.'thenlo{liJ. 1 woy 10 . ~.~ch.gi~es the scene a 'quiet' "ecce. .ketch severol rough poses before.Ioge the cowering pose lor the dogs seemed to.wish their ttlil s. '.' Like the'irdomestic 'cousins. lions lazily .end the toils ore between the legs. The head of the loriher onimol resting on the other eof's bac~' .

. .. Fig. lines . ~ind< 01 line. Note heavy lines in I~e. Primarily we use [Ine.· o stroight line. 3 is a 'good one 01. () )( ( Fig. and ICI creole movemenl. and 0 c~rved line of varylng~egree.. 1 Here fo rrns ) Fig. to b~ild form and solid. ere two.THE USE OF LINE Basically tko. II . crecte weight in horizonta! view.0 to.0 lid s.e exomples. 3 are some basic and . 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 4 fiQ..sed to b~lld An example 'of Fig~1 is the cat. 3 Fig.

nolo how 'Ihe -.11 curves.Tho. ~. heve ·th_em.. 0ppi»it.el the leg: line.. ._ .. . which rolievo. To buil-d further..1 line. reverse ~. $lnco . Repetition 0.i s . n.0 very good. ( •. hori~ontol$.on i.n" forco· •. verticols.. I~' .OPPO'i'iO." ~'" . Work Forces Dga. s.~.he monoio~_y 01 '.igh.o port.o.r~Qlft more Ihi1 ore two dlrfldiQns men' liove -been -. ~ "" Remetnbc" ond you . /~ ~ .. cfmeve.ep. Noto beor'. .hi •. good because it is..of fino is 10 creole motion.•Iomo ch.tOrled-.g~od compoiil. -fTmovement. 01 .. 'olway.Iomoen line o·ppo. it furnishes: a necessery contrast '·. the or~.neid use .. use the. Every picture $hould diogonalt. Wilh To c. stroight line..on. rear rao and the line of the .0[.

In this. . for they relie."..icdllylh".. '..ce..scrneness of 1\0'" 'of ocficn .ed in different ways. Bd. ore port of the'line of \_ .e Iwo poses..·.. Some.pled lines 0'" the.of .elhe Note loil is used as cncccent leg Icodin9 .er~on be ~. 'In Ihe. . on.: t~e· 0(0' gracefUl line: now Th~neck and tcil care excellent fa'r e't~bli. .'. ]ineof· cclion i.e.hing iliis Row.ohhe acce. eslablisho line of aCIion. the .eilh. cll-nreen beckground:' .For rhythm and ·sweep· jn yqur draw. 13 . . both octioh.."ction.i'lo line.lik..e o·touch of red on. Accents are good. ings always.

we. "". op.~g of se rve In. Hor"e is .~ .n~ .a~ middic'cra".gnlcil. Ih• . !' 'ihe ground. 'eg 'c<lIo. ' " oy b'e.rcHon .I.d neck are NOle how roghl i' ' 'he next '.. "h..ood. tcke-e .' hot. bo '~eg an..&cagg. and bodY".wciR Get the Iu . -rec y. ._I.I~ •..olch.'e9...i:inothor exe Weight " ' n6!.. 'f hone is tak.s.g.' h w of'l.. .ple of . In ali ..llIi "reich_d. " Ihe b~cly.n't r~celve Ihe . I" " throw ever Il'm "ketch its e9'> if 'in 0 leap.~.ng. e aei.a:'J . II use of your po.rilir'l~e nax ' pcse.ng or ." NOI~dd6e. th•• keRh be P~:d the . I~ ih~ wei ghl ~ the right Ing r"I"'allho left . ihr6wn !or:word ~~ t . Ih~ eheing. the. lng.nlo..str@tching .

The use' of reverse action is" good'. "s. tant f6._ perfs pcrhs of.Ctorinoiiimotioo/where of the"body·takediHi.".. . stress and (md reaction. in animation. .rent action. Note 'ihe bunching' up and .in a rabbit taking-tiff: .~ indictllii the flow of action. Mr".elotlgtlting 01 lorm$.W.' os below. Note :le9s.w~j9ht.ACTiON F~ol .:. cs.troinJ ANALYSIS-ANIMATION at::lion ArC$ are important. but even that pivot poinl is movable..: ': Overiappinl'roi::tion is aridtherirripor. pr~ctic. There is always 0 pivot poih!. ..

w~ 'down in the. in his foU.und'elongotes . o.n thlS'ca.{. he'ad back. The legs. and hi. . he 'lads .lI'r".()rT_1enl\l~..AcnON in'g .::' for the impoct. •. $trelche~ foreleg.$!s~me of it. .ANALYSIS .e horseh". Md ':"~~i':~" v os' ":...lo. SO" living' body w. ond hi~ body elongates. pull.laking his weight' cil the~rsi .. f"IL Hi.c~nt. o. .'h"'. ~..:.reoct.e regains more of 7\ his norrnql shcpe.hhoiigh: not inuch' as 'in th~:o'. hi.:inc'! jt. are rea:c~i~g t.i9i~i:. ere fintlo . .''.k"IY"the horse .?'pr. downwa.'1 ~' "" ' '.J . .. head. hqs: 10.acl' in 'comparable ·~'rC\lm<lO'nce. lh.d.s. $lm.•hoekol hi.whole. 'agai. . . . roll. his In de. body reverse..IMPACT Like c rubber bcill'which.• f~U. _.~~are •. loogote~ in 1. thrawn hi.11: ~q~o~hes~n impact.his rofL)he boll 00 the: rahi:.

Since fhe.BRUSH Brush and ink is an excellent medium for animals. The desire here is have the: lip of ihe brush flat.0. and the pressure of the . fur textures of onimols 'lory.ho'. To .'" the high sheen ·of a roce horse. I keep my brush' stroke TECHNIQUE you hove dipped edges of the hairs of the brush just wet enough to give a s6ft tone. to it jn ink. drawing For example. with the thin The wetne ss of the bni$h brush On the paper thin. your brush technique will 'lory 01.

=-" ~ ..~ .' .. ......

.Ar'9"'1 poin. rib de 'a iI..o." n t~ a poi. Note variety in. bulthe.1 . high poi"" are "up'pord6." rO. .pinel column. or corlcerure.·'· 0 0:'.Here i~ i.(here.. Next odd ihe vertebrae.' hQm. Ih.. 10 r.imp lifie d of enimol. 0 . simplified again. j Struc. 5 i'I.lreOI . ' . Notu.' .e "fa op p~oach . plicity. thes kel lilo i.. it would bed ifficu If 10 $hpw CO"nl.e· am itled)" Sfarling with the . 0 bcslc similority ollcnimels. iop erin gd of the to il end. principle. Build on 'the rib clige '.Ihe fCoP~l6. for the sake of sf".eskcleto. tw. Nowliitoch ••kuU. \9 .:xJottoef.njdion ·CI~im.t u i'e of bone 'tru c ture.hope.c'icm. The 6..eliy Ihe' skeleton verie. like' r~b be r hese.ol a .with the conformolion of eechlype in If. I"g bones..~ocket f~. humerus.THE HORSE' FAMilY -BOrle Without knowledge of the. bone.it..

Jes5. Fin ished leg.· . view of back\.. CO" think The scapula fits around the conlour oJ the rib cage. PerspeCtive sock"l. ' Next . Nole sockel$:.for.:_~_lote and 20 c. . For sketching purposes.Add humerus. and foreleg. elbow.lepl odd the bock plate for rear less. :you of it os·sim ply ci s Ihi s.

"uctu.d of the reor le~.ketches of bone. Finished'.With the building downwor.skeleton is completed.e 21 .. the .

. ..$10dy eo ch skelelon wiih I he reJ0 to d drawing. :.:::-t~ . . Observe how flank.o . ..- ~I... lurn oul and knees IWn in on hindquorters.z:'~ :~ .~~."":"..'o'ck. " ~".~.Iight kn. . " I .kneein stond'jng pose..:-'.

.

.

.

t~ -. . :~' ~~ .~<~~~·'!~rjo.·'. 26 .:.' ~ Fillhe slomach under. . and to see the relolive. -~: . a solid.VARIOUS pARTS will h~lp you to visualize the animal a... size Thinking of the horseln seporcteunits -c .R~r~~..: Note the pcsltlon.~.:..~.~~~.:. .._~" \.of' the scopulo...

1.7 .HEADS Thoro i. . ped...way tQ blo"c.y.. since there are so many plones 1.o. familiar ihe..o Ii)'" inee much 'wi'" Thinking of Ine heod'.kiJlI. Once you ore of th~'bane .n' two sections mey help you:' In the .in. very pronounced.lower righl. ih.ele end Ihe bene.k in ~ horse's head. I"IIQ G.. noie how bC.0 consider. behind the' eye Follow eround the' eo r. e.Iructure of the head. job will be re 101""0 Iy '.hand sketch. I mpl e.the neck mu.

-Wh(lnroughil'lg in the head.o for forward. check the divisions to be sure it i'l in 28 . of the horse to.A common mistoke of beginners. is to place the eye.

.only do :ti. os.-p. the whole·fore'qisaHei. sketch. not ..MUSCLE ACTION like a lovt rubber bond.Fbl.. wilh' o 101 of lensionon conneciinQ .lclriQer.osilio'.. out.s. The neck"bet6mes.er~gf:$tretch . but. Ihe musdes·. When the horse P~Shoj.10' ihs u"d~tll'iu!des h'shood.s'edion .'t.rw:il~' his f~refe.bvnc'h up.inlhe. 29 .'6f. In crovched positions. M well.t~e muscles "Iongole in stretChed.

i..sQ.'~'\~·~i.~.· 01''11.. '..301'...:.:' ". eloSlidly of b m . -1 ./ .are worth repeating.nd Weight They IHe.• : ~ .~~....0:'5': .~ . . 1.:.)""~.h Orid:.. '..._ ..'~ Elongating'o.. ..~ .. thlirii:a~epOinis fo re'member in drawing_i::iction pos'ei.'~ ...Even the rib cage is pliable lor sa".l.: .. ... ~~~~: . SITon"ond·slrain ": __ .elongalio~.imp...but .lwilYSihink."_':>..... '"' "\ . .!..~~d'befo re ..:::. r·."e of which have bti::e~'jilenrio. cs in tho impact from ci high faiL ' 30 . bunching' of fClrm Action and readion Weicht racclion.A. - Tendons: also' pf~y'ari . "h:.artonl pert...:t">i'~.. ... ..f-::-~-.

...· . perspecti~e.ho~. e...d'.... Wilnoul it. . as shawn below.t. yevr t:O':ire's in .~ o'!'tPoe>-Jgu.pcrspecf·r . it's very eosy to miss..~a(. mined the perspective o.. Your eye is a prettYgo6~ judge. are warth p~lIinil·in'once you've deler.f your figure..e.. .n h~". 89x:inc in k99pirlg Arcs in.

:k Anima1ed:slep· in perspe~jiVe. Ki<.ANlMATION-JUMr Nete how head ond body leon into push.off. 32 .

.e> gjyl'" yoo'roel f o problem such 0.J ."d. 33 . Get cs much drive in Ih" pose 0.. ~' k. bod-w.. Then reve rse you r-Iioss pullogoin\i by hovi n!J the horse thi.d. (I heirs'e pulling Q heovy lood lorwor. '0 proclice A exerci. lood. possible.

.

E BEAR FAMILY forms ore so simple and ·compad. Jf"e of . '~ . from the recr leg . to front leg. as possible when drow. forms follow through. nOle bear below. . note how . Build an your eurer forms when you startL and ·follow through 0" the.TH.nglhem . On these quick sketches. -.the tendsncv Is Bllms ore fun to draw.. 110 . Work with os manystroighl !rne..oction as below.since their to ·03e too mony ~IJr"YGiil Remember the tliree body breaks. ".

•• •• ~ I ". The highpoint 01 The withers break..... .. ~ ... ond ~ ~_...' "." .. ~'.~ . ' . 120 ._ _..between the neck and the bock.. -.~. think of the three units which ! have indicated below... "_ . -.-' For standing positions.. .' ' ~ L Observe the use of diagonal curved lines in this skatch.s Ihe flow of form ... " ....

.

.The brown beer is broad and massive.

.Japanese bear.

•• ~::.~ .d~' bdd. '. ore small iii muzzle and high in crown. and porents.. low iii their. Cub.. Their bodies ·are sliort.inglhe eyes.CUBS mey ore sligl1lly pigeon-Ioed like their • .' .·· . to tho ·eff"ct· ofcul~n".: ." .'.'...· .r •• -. Keep.. which gives them a high forebecd. h~'.

.. They corry quite obi' of 1.- L~u. running from the jaw back along the chest.. and stomach. JoL_......POLAR BEARS '-'01'0..~ ...00'''.II.:. Jlfl. neA ... their necksore longer and their noses more pointed.. ·::o r'"9Frl .!. hair on the underside...·.

BEARS-CARICATURE On the adult. eyes low. For cuteness in small bears keep the body ._ Foc a . The use of heavy jowls wack. and the mouth short Qnd small.hort and dumpy.illy cffec1." By keeping leg.you occenl"" Ie size "f body. shod. cheek and stomach full.on beer.rhcrccter. . leave out the chin on your . exaggerate the large torso and massive "arms. . nicely . the foreheod high.

pointednose.corrie d In the chest areo. the thin neck . lexogger· aled the long neck. skelch.For the comic types... Here. cnd hacvy. il is . long forelegs. The polar becr seems to lend itself to a .tyliz:ed --drawing. 127 . In the. the main mass is corried in the lower oreo.ilhlhe bulk of the body. t hcve used two extremes..conlrostsobsurdiy . In one. while in the other. upper sketch.

Selieving wo s thot . The girl's hair is used 0< en accent." effeclively. and diogO'nol ·Ii"o The. where a I.ble too. II is advis"...ROUPING Composition may be an old ~tory to many readers.:'_'" ~. viewer 'con . port ohhe. . The problem in this elephant picture how fa stage it mo. . '. '. in which· ·10 the '0 bserver would be looking up.onunderneolh shot would give the desired dram a tic e ffe ct.~-'-. the· use of.~ •. . An occent it tends 10 break of 0 line . natural throughout the picture. ". Except in abstract compositions...imporfO(li. I first con ce rne d my) eIf with o so:tidocto ry pe . but for lhe benefit of these to whom it is nIlw.e should be .• _.. Then' I worked cut the rest of the. such O~ a vertical opposing a horizol)lol line. _.ne moving in " .~ince the monotony . A good pi~lure should be on effectiyo cornbloorion of vertical.~~-":'. horizOnto!. follow tho· movement. I should like 10 sumrnerize lome Fundamental points. .5 a Iways .. pi.' intensify ·thot effect.opp·os" s.. and repetition.pictufe'. 10 hove e definite line oloclion in your pidure so 'hat the. ..orlaindireelion io repealed . curyed lines is.""."anath!).ci'uro s'o 0..COMPOSITION IN ANIMAL C. lion.r c.foclion._ . Note the lines of cornposilicn.

..'. . ~ - .:." 129 . ....Ii.. I .. ... ~ . . .0" > ~ _". : .:. .. I r . ~ -. Ilk' "1 . II· ! '..I I'... ~ ". "~" t» ..: 1// Ii! ... ~.'.

..~<. ! u~ed a three-quarter front pe rspective.....centuating the size of .'- cnd the height of the withers of the horse in -."...._ . . ·~.-.. thus oC..To show the pewe rful bulk of . . " ". . '-~ - .. The grooves.~'-' ".. foregrO<ind..• I:_~". -:.... - The grooves in the eerth give movement to thep-icture. '. running downhill in the foreground' creere contrast with the up-angle of th . . _' I.the f'oreqUQrl e".' 130 . : ~. 'th. For drarnali. ~.. eHect..:. foreground horse . .these draft horses.. . the cornera angl~ is low. ..

The arrows indicate the paths of' ac t'Ion Th h' 'd e panl ers head in the bock groun d' " IS. use as the accent ' .

and horizontal lines is emphasized.<-•• 'I' in . diogp~!lL}o. NOle how il leads inlo Ihi> vertical. the use of diagonal. c welt os extendmg In the directien of the rear horse's head.:. A strong vertical. together. the left foreleg ot the horse !n the foreground. (See arrows .' . os e. Observe the right foreleg of the horse in the lead:J! furnishes...) . such as three heads. tends t. a gC!od..Jbe"~iclu:e.O hold the picture: ' .In thi~ IgyQut. sketch. The rear horse's head is the accent.

.• . and verticals.Jlrorn attention to Ihe fown.. __ ._ •• J__ :.•. .. the morners buck's left foreleg. 1. Observe the use of diagonal..:__ through the :. To direct Ina <'Illlf! rillht rear !.. ~"'rr. and Ihe lawn isplccad in another [ine of molion." __ .eo head i~ turned fa iI..and lh" repetition of both.. ._ L_ (: .

left foreleg gives .of the Front horse. Astrong line of action from the right h in d Ie 9 of the rear horse' Follows through to the left foreleg . heod w orks cs on accent. the r ecr h'orse's. Th e of the reor horse o verticc I line to the. picture. The angle of the front horse's head is in opposition to fhe Ii ne of his left fo releg. Here. 134 .Again in this dmwing. the vcrieus peths of oct ion are indicated byorrows.

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