y To

be able to cite and explain the different properties of lipids y To able to explain the process of saponification. y To able to explain each test to characterize lipids

II. Solubility Test SAMPLE SOLVENT USED RESULT EXPLANATION Cottonseed oil Dist. Ethyl Alcohol Soluble . Water Insoluble It is insoluble because water is Polar thus it wont react with Cottonseed oil which is Nonpolar Even though Ethyl Alcohol is Polar yet it is soluble in Cottonseed is because it is weak polar solvent. DATA & RESULTS a.

Cottonseed oil is insoluble in Hydrcholric acid beacause it can easily be separated when mixed with other solutions that have dipoles.Cottonseed Oil Ether Soluble Even though Ethyl is Polar yet it is soluble in Cottonseed is because it is a weak polar solvent Chloroform is also non polar and makes Cottonseed oil soluble in it. Chloroform Soluble 5% HCl Soluble .

Cottonseed Oil h Ether . Mixture Cottonseed Oil h Ethyl Alcohol Result Explanation Ethyl Alcohol did not evaporate and it is insoluble in Cottonseed Oil Ether evaporated and it is soluble in Cottonseed Oil because is a non polar.5% NaOH Insoluble NaOH is a strong polar thus making Cottonseed oil insoluble in it.

ether. ethyl alcohol. Myristic acid. Palmitic acid.The solubility test is used to determine if the substance (cottonseed oil) is soluble in the given solvents such as benzene. The cottonseed oil is a polyunsaturated fatty acid and it is made up of different kinds of acid. 54% of the cottonseed oil is made up of linoleic acid which makes the oil a lipid. such as: Linoleic acid. Stearic acid. . 5% NaOH and distilled water. 5% HCl. Oleic acid.

Test for Unsaturation Sample Oleic Acid Palmitic Acid Reagents Added Bromine in CCl4 Chloroform Hanus Iodine Result Formed a colorless solution.b. The color changed into pink after 15 seconds Oleic Acid Chloroform Hanus Iodine The color changed into pink after 15 seconds Cottonseed oil Chloroform Hanus Iodine The color changed into light pink after 14 seconds .

The glycerol was heated using the dehydrating agent. Acrolein Test Test Solution Glycerol Cotton Seed Oil Reagents Added KHSO4 (s) KHSO4 (s) Result Pungent Pungent Smell The acrolein test is used to detect glycerol as indicated by the formation of propenal or acrolein that has the pungent odor.c. the KHSO4 to form the acrolein as an unsaturated aldehyde .

Rancidity Test Test Solution Fresh Coconut Oil Reagents Added Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange Litmus Paper Blue ² Red ² Result No Reaction No Reaction -Neutral Rancid coconut Oil Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange Litmus Paper Blue ² Red ² No Reaction No Reaction .Neutral .d.

Saponification & Properties of Soap Name of Test E. Properties of Soap Salting-out Soap solution NaCl A solid soap was formed and there was formation of suds when it was mixed with water Formation of insoluble white precipitate.e. Saponification F. Both had a formation of widely spread insoluble precipitate an insoluble liquid layer was formed (cloudy) Test Solution Coconut oil Reagents Added 10% KOH Results Soap produced Formation of Fatty Soap solution Acids Insoluble Soaps Soap solution 10 % hydrochloric acid 5% CaCl2 5% MgCl2 Detergent 5% CaCl2 5% MgCl2 .

The base that was used for the saponification process in the experiment is potassium hydroxide.1This involves the reaction of a strong base with the triglyceride. The sodium salt of the fatty acid is obtained instead of the fatty acid as one of its products. There were still other by-products that were formed during the process of saponification and these by-products are soluble in saltwater. The formation of a white mass in the solution is the soap. NaCl was dissolved in the solution. The soap molecule is composed of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end. .The alkaline hydrolysis of fats is called saponification. It is used to purify the soap. Even if there is a formation of a fatty acid during the hydrolysis. a process that yields to glycerol and the salt of the fatty acid. the KOH will neutralize it to form the soap. the soap comes out of the solution. In order to put the soap out of the solution. Its long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain is the hydrophobic end (water-hating) while the other end is the highly polar carboxylate salt which is hydrophilic (water-loving). There is a need to make sure that there is no more NaCl that is being dissolved in the soap solution to make sure that the by-products are already separated from the soap itself. When these by-products are already dissolved in the saltwater.

A water molecule is removed from the cholesterol molecule when it is reacted to conc. Liebermann-Buchard Test LiebermannTest Solutions Cholesterol Reagents Added chloroform acetic anhydride conc. The change is gradual because when the reagents were added. sulfuric acid. the color became pink then changed to blue-purple and finally to deep green. The Liebermann. The product is then converted to a polymer containing a chromospheres which results in the green color. it is now oxidized to form 3. . sulfuric acid Results Initially blue then turned blue-green There is a presence of sterol/unsaturated steroids In cholesterol.g.Burchard is used to detect cholesterol and it produces a deep green color.5-cholestadiene. After the removal of the water molecule.

Stable emulsions can be destroyed by inactivating or destroying the emulsifying agent³e. . of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size. such as agitation.h.. by adding appropriate third substances or also by freezing or heating. Emulsifying Action Test Solutions 2% albumin Reagents Added Cholesterol Cholesterol h Lecithin Result Turbidity and emulsion Turbidity and Emulsion Emulsion is the mixture of two or more liquids in which one is present as droplets.g. provided that the liquids that are mixed have no (or a very limited) mutual solubility. distributed throughout the other. more often. by mechanical means. Emulsions are formed from the component liquids either spontaneously or.

Questions 1. The longer the chain of the fatty acid is. the more it gets insoluble in water. The only one that is soluble in water is the carboxyl group attached to it. Why are fatty acids insoluble in water? Fatty acids are insoluble in water because they are composed mostly of hydrocarbon chains which are insoluble in water. .

and the said configuration causes the unsaturated acid to be in liquid state. Explain why the cis-form is the predominant configuration of unsaturated fatty acids? Unsaturated fats tend to have a predominant configuration of cisform instead of trans since most unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.2. .

in the normal cis configuration. . As a result the unsaturated fatty acids are unable to pack so closely together. or crystallize as readily as straight-chain saturated fatty acids.The double bond is. asymmetric and so forces a kink bend into the carbon chain.

That's why Acrolein test is a test for the presence of glycerin or fats. . acrolein (CH2=CH-CHO). Why is the acrolein test a general test for fats? It is because when a fat is heated strongly in the presence of a dehydrating agent such as KHSO4. A sample is heated with potassium bisulfate. which has the peculiar odor of burnt grease. the glycerol portion of the molecule is dehydrated to form the unsaturated aldehyde.3. and acrolein is released if the test is positive.

4. What type of rancidity occurs in vegetable shortenings? How can it be prevented? The type of rancidity which occurs in vegetable shortenings is autoxidation which is oxidation requiring only oxygen. It is a radical-chain process that converts an R-H group to R-O-O-H group. the hydroperoxide. The hydroperoxides are unstable and. . degrade to short-chain aldehydes and carboxylic acids with unpleasant rancid smells. under biological conditions.

by storing oils in a place with little exposure to oxygen or free radicals. Additionally. Light and heat warp the structure of fat. Natural antioxidants include flavonoids. polyphenols. and greatly accelerate its reaction with oxygen. butylated hydroxytoluene and ethoxyquin. low temperature. and away from light.Antioxidants are often added to fatcontaining foods in order to retard the development of rancidity due to oxidation. but not completely eliminated. rancidification can be decreased. . Synthetic antioxidants include butylated hydroxyanisole. ascorbic acid and tocopherols.

Explain the cleansing action of detergents. .5.

6. . Write the structure of the parent compound of cholesterol.

One of its active components. y Lecithin is an emulsifier that has a variety of ingredients.7. Explain the cooperative solvent effect of lecithin and albumin. . the lipids consists of long chain polar lipids. Its emulsifying properties results from the combination of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic group which helps in the dispersion of oil into aqueous solution or vice versa. creating the emulsion. Albumins are water-soluble proteins with massive polar molecules. The two having the same effect because both of them have polar molecules makes emulsion easier to happen.

The saturation and unsaturation can also be distinguished through the bonds in their hydrocarbon chains. which may be classified as saturated.Conclusion y Lipids are fat-like substances thus. monosaturated. The carboxyl group (-COOH). thus making them insoluble in polar solvents like water. a polar end of the fatty acid contributes to the polarity of the lipids. they constitute a large heterogenous group of unrelated physiological and chemical substances classified together which also observes the rule of thumb ´like disolves likeµ. Lipids are nonpolar because of the hydrocarbon chains. disaturated and polysaturated. .

one is Hydrolytic rancidity which occurs when water breaks larger compounds into smaller ones. Rancidity is the state of being rancid. And the other is Oxidatile rancidity which the double bond of an unsaturated fatty avid reacts chemically with oxygen to result to two or more short molecules. This involves the reaction of a base which is potassium hydroxide. Saponification is a process that yields glycerol and the salt of the fatty acid. having a rancid scent . Rancidification is the chemical decomposition of fats. It has two types. . in short the alkaline hydrolysis of fats. oils and other lipids.Rancidification is also associated to lipids.

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