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EDET 709 Major Theoretical Perspectives

Comparison of Major Theoretical Perspectives


Directions: The partially-completed matrix depicts major theories of learning and your task is to move the contents of the far right yellow-filled column to the theoretically-appropriate column. (Basically, you cut and paste all items in the last column into the other columns. Each of the 3 columns of the matrix should be complete and reflect the theory at the top of the column. Click on view/complete to submit in Bb. Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Complete the matrix by cutting and pasting contents from this column to the appropriate theory
Edward Thorndike Albert Bandura Dewey John B. Watson B. F. Skinner Lev Vygotsky Robert Gagn Jean Piaget Benjamin Bloom B. Learning is the creation of meaning from experience. C. Learning is an observable change in behavior. A change in the likelihood and frequency of a response, which is determined by reinforcement. A. 1. Multiple representation 2. Discovery learning 3. Inquiry-based instruction 4. Communal learning 5. Self-regulation 6. Authentic learning 7. Case-based learning B. 1. Three-stage information processing mode; sensory register, short- and long- term memory 2. Serial position effect 3. Scaffolding 4. Gagns theory of instruction 5. Schema theory

Ivan Pavlov

Jerome Bruner Rogoff Lave

1. M ajor Theorists

2.

ow does the theory define learning?


C. 1. Shaping 2. Chaining 3. Discrimination 4. Fading 5. Mind as a black box 6. Reinforcement

A. Learning results from the encoding of information into memory in an organized manner for later retrieval.

3. W hat are some of the key concepts?

4. W hat is the learning pedagogy? 5. W hat technology is associated?

A. 1. Schema techniques 2. Gagns instructional design B. 1. Piaget: Developmental constructivism 2. Vygotsky: Social constructivism C. 1. Reward and punishment 2. Behavioral instructional design 3. Taxonomies of learning A. 1. Learning-by-doing 2. Active and authentic learning B. 1. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) 2. Teaching machines C. 1. Intelligent tutoring systems

EDET 709 Major Theoretical Perspectives


A. 1. Provide corrective feedback. 2. Provide illustrations and examples. 3. Help students to organize information in a meaningful way. 4. Teach student appropriate and effective strategies 2. Artificial intelligence B. 1. Select the discriminative stimuli and reinforcement to elicit the desired response. 2. Provide practice paired with target stimuli. 3. Provide appropriate reinforcement for desired responses. 4. Provide multiple opportunities for practice. 5. Modify student behavior C. 1. Teach students how to construct meaning. 2. Facilitate learning. 3. Engage learner in using tools in authentic situations 4. Scaffold A. The learner acquires new behaviors by responding to the stimuli in the environment. C. The learner constructs knowledge and creates meaning based on interactions and experiences.

6. What is the role of the instructor?

5. What is the role of the learner?

B. The learner is an active participant seeking meaning.

EDET 709 Major Theoretical Perspectives

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Constructivism
C. Constructivists considers memory as the accumulation of experiences, which is fluid, changing with new experiences and situations. A. Acquisition of behaviors are acquired through reinforcing consequences, and repetition enables the learner to quickly respond. B. Memory has a major role. Information is selected for further processing and encoded and stored in a meaningful way in it. B. Learning is transferred through prior learning; that is, knowledge and procedures in long term memory can be generalized or applied to a similar task. C. Learning is transferred when the learner is able to generalize knowledge in new situations A. The biggest appeal to apply this theory into practice is classroom management. B. The biggest appeal to apply this theory into practice is that it allows students to apply information learned in the classroom to real world situations. C. The biggest appeal to apply this theory into practice is that it is focuses on students mental structures and learning. It also views the students as active participants.

6. What is the role of memory?

7. How learning is transferred?

A. Learning is transferred through the involvement and completion of authentic tasks within a situation with some significance to the learner.

8. What is the biggest appeal to apply this theory into practice?

9. What makes it difficult to apply this theory into practice?

B. As cognitivism focuses on schemas and prior learning, it may be difficult for teachers to assess all students prior learning.

A. As students construct their own meaning, divergent meaning may cause some problems. It may be difficult to develop authentic activities that can be facilitated within a classroom setting. C. In a large classroom of 20+ students it is difficult to monitor behavior, thus applying immediate reinforcement contingent on behavior may be difficult. Mental cues might not be available to the learner when needed.