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Mstr B98 RDOD03010607-08 Fdr- Info Ppr- Combating Terrorism History of Programs After Khobar 106

Mstr B98 RDOD03010607-08 Fdr- Info Ppr- Combating Terrorism History of Programs After Khobar 106

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19 October 2000 INFORMATION PAPER Subject: Combating Terrorism History of Programs after Khobar Towers Bombings 1. Purpose.

To provide information on how the Department of Defense program for Combating Terrorism has evolved since the Khobar Towers bombings. 2. Key Points. • After the Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia the Department of Defense (DoD) began its formal program for Combating Terrorism (CbT). Since September 1996, the Department has moved to quickly and fully carry out the recommendations of the Downing Report and institutionalize a broad range of new force protection policies and initiatives in Southwest Asia and around the world. Below is a summary of action taken: Policy and Procedures • The Secretary designated the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as the Secretary's principal advisor and DoD's focal point for all matters related to force protection (Sep 1996). The Secretary issued a new statement of the Department-wide force protection policy to codify the various new initiatives (revision of DoD Directive 2000.12, Sep 1996). This directive established new baseline policies and responsibilities for combating terrorism from the Secretary of Defense to the CINCs and the Services. The Secretary required each CINC to explicitly review the assignment of operational responsibility for force protection in every overseas deployment. Each CINC reviewed arrangements for non-combatant protection in their areas of responsibility. The Chairman established the J-34 as the Joint Staff point of contact for AT/FP. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict was designated as the principal staff assistant and advisor to the USD(P) and the Secretary of Defense for AT/FP policy. The Antiterrorism Coordination Committee (ATCC) and ATCC- Senior Steering Group (SSG), co-chaired by the ASD (SO/LIC) and J-3 was


established to reduce vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks in accordance with FDD 39 mandates. • Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Department of State (DOD) and DoD (Arabian Peninsula Security - 15 Sep 1996) was developed. Follow on development of World Wide Universal MOU (signed 16 Dec 97) allowed for the same arrangement for all CINCs and Chiefs of Mission (COMs) throughout the world after completion of a specific country Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). The Joint Security Directorate (formally Joint Rear Area Security) of U.S. Central Command was formed to enhance force protection for forward deployed GENICOM forces.

Standards • The Department published its Combating Terrorism Program Standards in the form of DoD D 2000.16. This directive provided "mission oriented" standards for DoD (July 1997) 2000.16 has been completely revised and is in final coordination. The new directive clearly delineates responsibilities throughout the chain of command down to unit level. 2000.16 contains new DoD AT/FP training standards that covers the spectrum from individual to installation commander.

New DoD Threat Methodology • ASD (SO/LIC) approved a new threat methodology on 1 October 2000, which reduced the number of threat levels from 5 to 4 (low, moderate, significant, high). The new system assesses the threat to DoD posed by a terrorist group using the factors of operational capability, intentions, and activity against the operating environment.

Vulnerability Assessments • • The Department developed a comprehensive vulnerability assessment program executed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and J-34 (1997). There have been over 300 assessments to date and approximately 100 assessments scheduled for 01.


Assessments are allocated by CJCS to CINCs and Services based on total number of facilities and percentage in high threat areas.

Resources • In coordination with the Joint Staff a Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund (Cbt RIF) was created (11 Dec 1996). (00-02, $15M). The department has spent over $3 billion specifically on AT/FP in FY2000. In response to Congressional direction, the Department submitted the first consolidated Congressional Justification Book (CJB) in Feb 1999 for FY 20001 President's Budget submission. The department is working to improve its ability to enhance requirements generation, prioritization, and documentation processes.

• •

Rapid Technology Process • The Department integrated AT/FP requirements into existing OSD enhanced Physical Security Equipment Action Group (PSEAG) process and Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) program. The PSEAG selects, designs, evaluates, and acquires the most efficient and productive physical security/force protection equipment at the most reasonable cost to ensure effective protection of DoD resources. The TSWG identifies needs, seeks common approaches, and coordinates the development of new counter-terrorism technologies. Focus is on commercial Off the Shelf (COTS), rapid prototyping, and emerging technology with AT/FP application. Annual Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED) at Quantico Marine Base with over 500 vendors and 6000 attendees.

Prepared by: Peter M. Champagne, Colonel, USA Director of Antiterrorism Policy, CTP&S, SO/LIC, 695-8000



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