-Electrical Safety -ES Global Developments

P.G. Sreejith
Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd.

www.cholarisk.com

In this presentation««
Section I Electrical hazards Electrical accidents ± Statistics Humans & Electricity Electrical Safety Programme elements Section II Global Developments in Electrical Safety

1990) NIOSH ‡About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB.the fifth leading cause of death (1982 .Electrical Accidents-Statistics ‡ ‡ 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) ‡ 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) ‡ Electrocution . (India) ‡42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) ‡ 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity .

Chemical Industry .10 year Period.ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS.

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Major Causes Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions Leaving unsafe conditions .Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents.

Electricity and People A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground Electricity always tries to travel to ground .

) ± STATIC DISCHARGES ± LIGHTNING ± USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS .ELECTRICAL FIRES «. ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.

maintain a Earth Pit lay out .differentiation? Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70 Take action on high ER values Identify all earth pits.Earthing Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?) Double & Single earthing.

100. not people Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30.Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power Can be used with extension cords and portable tools Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment. 300 mA) .

pipelines .Static Electricity Created when materials rub together Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns Can damage sensitive electronic equipment Reduced or prevented by: ± Proper grounding ± Anti-Static rubber matting ± Bonding & earthing of equipment.

Electrical Fire Protection Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors Consider all major electrical fires in EMP Install master control switches outside all stores Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels .

Post Accident Correction: ± Working on live circuits not permitted ± LOTO to be strictly enforced .Case Study An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition. He was not wearing rubber gloves. He touched a live conductor. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.

Equipment Operators Never tamper with electrical interlocks Do not repair electrical components of your machine Properly shut off machinery before operation Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures Follow PTW procedures strictly .

Battery Banks Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B .Electrical Preventive Maintenance Identification of critical Electrical Equipment Emergency lighting Fire Alarm System Protection Supply DC System UPS System.

Planning for EPM Personal Safety Equipment Failure Production Economics .

etc.) Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance Adopt Risk Based maintenance Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector. transformer protective devices. FA system for electrical rooms.simulation. LP system. DGA. IR. transformer oil. Ultrasonic detectors. Thermography) .Electrical Preventive Maintenance Implement EPM without slippage Carry out all tests (ER.

µAll electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound¶ .

ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view .

Global Developments in Electrical Safety .

Delhi . finer details are yet to be understood by many ‡More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India ‡Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka.ES-India ‡ES Awareness is slowly growing ‡Use of RCCBs in the rise.) . etc.Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) ‡Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA. IEEE.Present Status .

from IEEE ‡NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 ‡ OSHA (1970) ‡NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA ‡Electrical Trauma Centre. by UL. NFPA. NEMA. Chicago (1990) ‡NESF(1994).NEC (1897) ‡NESC (1913).Evolvement of ES Standards / organizationsUnited States ‡NFPA . CPSC .

ES Products.. ..

ES Auditing Techniques ‡ Electrical Risk Assessment using SemiQuantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique ‡Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment ‡ Benchmarking against applicable standards: ‡NFPA 780 Lightning Protection ‡NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance ‡NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety .

Shock hazards. long term implementation . Low Risk . probability High Risk. Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk .Operational issuescorrection at the next available opportunity. F&E hazards.Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity.Mainly improvement measures.Maintenance flaws.Statutory Non-compliance.

RCCB Tripping How do we solve this problem in India ? Bypass it !!! .

1956 (2000 rev.org/ Electrical Accidents: http://www.com National Electrical Safety Foundation: www.): (MoP.nesf.net: IEEE IAS ES WS ±Delhi Dec.safteng.nic.http://powermin.org Free safety Power Point presentations: http://siri. CEA web site.in) Lightning Protection Risk Assessment:www.furse. 2004 .ES related Information Indian Electricity Rule.

Static Electricity OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety .part 1910.Static Electricity API RP 500.NEC IEEE 1584.Arc Flash NFPA 70.HAC OSHA 29 CFR.E-Safety & Maintenance NFPA 780.Standards & Codes NFPA 70 E & B.Lightning Protection API RP 2003.Arc Flash Protection NFPA 77.

Summary Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person Earthing has an important role in ES Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified Understand effects of Lightning. explosions occurred due to ESD . lightning in flammable atmospheres .it could save your life! Major fires.

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