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Case Questions: 1. The goal of Mountain View Community Hospital is to provide highquality, cost effective health care services for the surrounding community in a compassionate, caring and personalized manner. Give some examples of how the use of databases in the hospital might improve health-care quality or contain costs. How else could a well-managed database help the hospital achieve its mission? • The use of database in the hospital may improve health care quality for example by fast tracking of patient’s medical records. Just type in a data related to a patient and you can instantly access and keep track of previous and present medical records of patients. Also, data redundancy can be minimized. Data sharing between physicians and clients or physicians and medical suppliers can be improved. 2. how can database technology be used to help Mountain View Community Hospital comply with the security standards of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)? HIPAA requires health care providers to maintain reasonable and appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to ensure that the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of electronic health information the collect, maintain, use, or transmit is protected. • They can protect the integrity, confidentiality & availability of health info by giving access only to certified/authorized personnel (physician, nurses, etc.). They can only access info by logging in with a username and password. With this, data cannot be easily deleted or manipulated. 3. What are some of the costs and risks of using databases that the hospital must manage carefully? • One of the risks is that when a database/ computer crashes, data might be corrupted or deleted. Another risk is that it can be attacked by viruses and black hat hackers. Also, the cost of maintenance is large therefore they should prepare a big budget. Another risk is that just one error in input of data can affect the whole database. 4. How critical are data quality requirements in the hospital environment? For which applications might quality requirements be more restrictive? • Data quality requirements is vital to the hospital environment because of the hospital’s 4 critical success factors that includes: quality of medical care, control of operating costs, control of capital costs, and
laptop or PCs that can be used to easily access the medical record of a particular patient. Although this technology is appropriate for structured data.in a hospital. both departments have to coordinate with each other. and to be able to do that. How are data in the PATIENT and PATIENT CHARGES tables related? That is. departmental/divisional. how can a user find the relevant charges for a particular patient? • They both contain patient number. different departments are involved. Mountain View Community Hospital is using relational database technology.for example the patient needs to access her medical record. • ENTERPRISE. How could the hospital use Web-based applications? What are some of the benefits and risks associated with Web-based applications for the hospital? • The web based applications can be used for patients’ online inquiries and to search for services that the hospitals are catering. workgroup. such as patient or accounting data. • WEB-ENABLED. this type of database is larger than a workgroup that is used between the doctors. For example the cardiology department scheduled a patient that will undergo an open-heart surgery. she has to have the permission from the private administrator for her to access that private network of the hospital. enterprise. nurses and suppliers of the medical needs. And so. • WORKGROUP. Quality requirements must be more restricted on the clinical services application of the hospital. it is less wellsuited to unstructured data. and Web-enabled. 7. • One of the benefit is that they can place ads online. 8.for example a doctor can use PDAs. thus attracting more customers/patients .in this type of database. • PERSONAL. 5. At present. Can you think of some types of data maintained by a hospital that fit this latter category? What types of database technology rather than relational might be better suited to these data types? 6.• recruitment and retention of skilled personnel that needs to be protected to achieve those requirements.there will be selected hospital personnel that is connected through the Database server that is used to connect to the workgroup database • DEPARTMENTAL/DIVISIONAL. So in order to find relevant charges for a particular patient you can enter the patient number. such as graphical data and images. Give an example of how the hospital could use each of the types of databases described in this chapter: personal.
Mark Patient Number: 4238 Patient Address: 818 River Run Item code: 200 275 700 Item description: Room Semi-Priv Radiology EEG test Amount: 1600 150 200 . Using the notation introduced in this chapter. Data attributes Description Type Length Name Name of the patient varchar 60 Age Age of the patient integer 3 Gender Sexual characteristic char 10 Address Residing address of the varchar 100 patient Item code Number of items integer 10 Patient number Reference number of the integer 10 patient Item description Purchased item varchar 20 3. You may include other metadata characteristics that you think are appropriate for the management of data at Mountain View Community Hospital. Fill in the missing data in this view. using the data from MVCH Figure 1-1. draw a diagram showing the relationship between the entities PATIENT and PATIENT CHARGES. Following is highly simplified version of this view. One of the important databases views for the hospital is the Patient Bill (MVCH Figure 1-2). Develop a metadata chart for the data attributes in the PATIENT and PATIENT CHARGES tables using (at minimum) the columns shown in Table 11.Case exercises 1. Patient Name: Dolan. PATIENTS PAY S PATIENT CHARGES 2.
A PHYSICIAN is on the staff of only one HOSPITAL. A particular CHARGE may be incurred by any number of PATIENTs.4. draw a single diagram that represents the following relationships in the hospital environment. Each PATIENT may incur any member of CHARGEs. Each WARD is located in exactly one HOSPITAL A WARD has any number of EMPLOYEEs. An EMPLOYEE may work in one or more WARDs. • • • Hospital Physician Wards Patients Employee Charges . using the notation introduced in this chapter. A PATIENT is admitted by only one PHYSICIAN. • • A HOSPITAL has on its staff one or more PHYSICIANs. A PHYSICIAN may admit one or more PATIENTs. A HOSPITAL has one or more WARDs.
explain why a print-out of the PATIENT_t table will not satisfy these information needs. MCVH hospital administrators regularly need information about their patient population. 1:M Patient . The date of admission . and d. Rizal Makati City Type Varchar Varchar Integer Varchar length 30 30 10 15 Employee number 00879 04678 02475 06543 Employee contact # 09234567654 09151345633 09994562856 09063652845 B. Data Employee name Employee address Employee number Employee Contact number Employee Name Patricia De Jesus Janine Go Nicole Tulagan Julia San Diego Description Employee’s fullname Employee’s current address Number of employee Telephone/cellph one number of employee Employee address Tondo. • Tables can’t fully determine the total number of patients in the hospital.Manila Sta mesa. Use the MVCH database files for the following exercises: a.5. b. Based on the distinction between data and information discussed in Chapter 1. A. develop a metadata chart for the EMPLOYEE_t table similar to Table 1-1 in Chapter 1.Patients C. manila Cainta.Patient Charges 1:M Physician – Patients 1:M Hospital – Physicians 1:M Hospital – Words M:N Wards – Employess M:N Charges . You must first consider the patients number column to be more organize and for chronological purposes. What types of relationships (1:1. 1:M or M:N) exist between the PATIENT_t table and others tables in the database:? How did you determine that? c. Create a report that organizes the data from the PATIENT-t table to provide hospital administrators with useful information about the patient population at MVCH.
The print out can show the external information about patients but. . create a SQL query for the PATIENT_t table that displays information about the out patients. Chapter 1 shows an SQL query that displays information about computer desks at Pine Valley Furniture Company: SELECT * FROM PRODUCT WHERE Product_Name=”Computer Desk”. • you can also view important medical information about patients by checking records in the database system. D. With this. • The information will be also important when it comes to financial settlement. you can monitor whether the patients have checked-in or out. Following this example.and release of patient must also be considered. Date of Admission: Name Contact number Cause Time in Date of release: Name Contact number Cause Time out 6.