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Video/Audio Wireless Transmitter project for you
Abstract: To design and build a wireless transmitter that works over the FM frequency and allows the transfer of a video/audio signal over a certain distance to an FM tuner. Introduction: In this fast-paced world, there is little time for inconveniences and a greater need for portability and adaptability. The idea for an Audio/Video transmitter stems from this need. There may have been times when you’ve wanted to hook up your VCR from one room to another television set in another room. But that would have entailed that you first unhook all kinds of wires and plugs from the primary TV set; carry the VCR to the next TV set; and then finally re-wire everything together. An Audio/Video transmitter will let you do just about the same thing. But it would offer other conveniences as well. For example, it would allow you to set up security cameras around your home which would send video signals directly to a TV or VCR. And, there are no cumbersome wires and cables to line throughout the intended area. Design & Development (What we did): The most difficult part of this project was coming up with a design that would work. Because both of us had very little experience with RF signal systems we had to learn, basically, from scratch. The approach we took, was to first create a video transmitter, then add the audio portion later. This way we could test each component individually and then integrate them later when we knew both parts were working correctly. We first went to the Grainger Library to research various transmitters designs and how they were built. Although all the books were very old, we were able to gather some useful information from various sources. Most of the books had only information about sending audio transmission and had very little on video signal transmissions. Also, some books that had some kind of designs and data for video tranmission were very outdated. But we found some interesting standards that help explained what television stations used. This was not too far from what our original intentions were on building two different types of transmitters. Let us first look at the basic block diagram of what and how Audio/Video transmission works. From the book: Television Electronics by Kiver and Kaufman (8th ed.) Copyright 1983; there is a block diagram of the television transmitter (page 9, Kiver and Kaufman).

As you can see, television signals operates as two separate transmissions. One for the video and the other for sound. And just like our project, two different devices are going to be built. As noted before, most of the books we used from Grainger Library were older than us, so all parts used listed (tubes and such) were outdated and not readily available to us. So the search goes on to finding another solution. Let us look at some of the industry standards that might help shed some light on this project. From the book: Radio Frequency Transmission Systems by Whitaker (1st ed.) Copyright 1991; we see some of the standards set by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (page 44, Whitaker). Band Low-band VHF UHF UHF Channels 2 through 6 14 through 69 70-83 Frequency (54-72 Mhz and 76-88 Mhz) (174-216 Mhz) (470-806 Mhz) (806-890 Mhz) currently assigned to land mobile radio services

High-band VHF 7 through 13

Below is a table that show the specific frequency band assignment to the channels designations (page 45, Whitaker).

From the table above, we see that all channels assignments are 6 Mhz apart. And from Kiver and Kaufman (page 20-21) there is a listing of all of the corresponding television channels to their frequencies with much greater detail showing the picture carrier and the sound carrier assignments. Although based on cable standards, it is identical to the airwave standards set by the FCC. Within the 6 Mhz range the picture and sound carrier are within 2 Mhz from the ends and also about 2 Mhz apart from each other. This leaves about 4 Mhz in between each channels.

Implementation (How we did it): After searching high and low we have come across a diagram of some audio transmission schematic which was claimed to also be capable of transmitting video signals. The device was later found out to be known as the repeater. In the following pages we have printed up the schematics that we used to build our devices. Two devices were built (as noted above as to why two different transmitters are needed). We had various difficulties with implementing the video transmitter design. We discovered that somehow a 9v battery did not deliver enough power to the circuit produce a strong clean signal. So a bench power supply was used to run the circuit. We have also learned that not using an insulated crossdriver to tune our circuit to the correct frequency gave us a lot of problems. So, for an alternative solution, we used an old

clock/radio/TV with an analog tuner to test our design. This allowed for fine tuning with a plastic knob when searching correct frequency. The audio transmitter eventually worked. But the audio signal was wrought with interference and fluctuations depending on the distance between the transmitter, the receiver and the position of the transmitter’s antenna. Also, since the devices were built in a very crude manner, it was very prone to noise interference creating highly distorted signals.

Audio/Video transmitter schematic There was another design for video transmission found from the book: The Giant Book of Electronics Projects by The Editors of 73 Magazine (1st ed. 16th printing) Copyright 1982 (page 464).

We didn’t build this design since we didn’t know some of the undefined values (or at least they were not properly determined and purposely left undefined). Conclusion (Results): Overall we learned a great deal about RF signals relative to how much we knew before hand. We recommend taking an RF signal class such as ECE353 before undertaking any sort of RF project. This project can be greatly improved on for those interested in RF transmission design which most people take for granted when listening to their favorite band on the radio or watching football games on the TV. sumit k kushwaha TO BUY PROJECTS MAIL US AT freshersblog@gmail.c September 22, 2008 Posted by IndianEngineer | Uncategorized | 6 Comments

serial infrared transmitter circuit by indian engineer
September 22, 2008 Posted by Common wealth games | Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Prepaid Energy Meter (AT89S52) – 8051 Microcontroller
A scheme of Electricity billing system called ?PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH TARIFF INDICATOR? can facilitate in improved cash flow management in energy utilities and can reduces problem associated with billing consumer living in isolated area and reduces deployment of manpower for taking meter readings. Every consumer can buy a memory card (is nothing but an EEPROM IC) with a password stored inside it using a MC program. The memory card is available at various ranges (ie. Rs 50, Rs 100,

When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected in ?prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator?kit. The Microprocessor will also indicate . it takes over the task of indicating and Controlling the water level in the overhead water tanks. It continuously monitors the overhead water level and display it and it also switch Off the Motor when the tank fills and it will automatically switch On the Motor when the water level is low. 2008 Posted by IndianEngineer | Uncategorized | 59 Comments microprocessor projects Water level Controller The water level Controller is a reliable circuit.Rs 200 etc?). So that the smart card cannot be reused by others. The Copper probes are used to sense the water level.Then the card reader will read the stored information and delete the information from the EEPROM IC(smart card) using the MC program. The cards are nothing but the EEPROM chip AT24C04. When the amount is over. According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced. Suppose if a consumer buy a card for Rs. the relay will automatically shutdown the whole system. This waterlevel Controller-***-alarm circuit is configured around the wellknown 8 bit Microprocessor 8085. The level of the water is displayed in the LED Bar graph. Call Us at 9868816785 STUDNETS CALLING FROM OUTSIDE INDIA PLEASE PREFIX 0091 BEFORE THE NUMBERS OR DIAL 00919717408885 ALL THE NUMBERS BELONG TO NEW DELHI (india) CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PROJECT AND KITS September 21. The probes are inserted into the water tank which is to be monitored.50/.he / she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated. In our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced.In our project we have given the name for memory card as smart card.

All the input and output functions are done through the Programmable Peripheral Interface IC 8255. final year projects September 17. 2008 Posted by IndianEngineer | Uncategorized | 26 Comments .the water level over the LED display.

FASTEST-FINGER-FIRST USING 89C51 2.MICROCONTROLLER BASED PROJECTS for final year electronics latest projects 2010 special. MICRO PROCESSOR BASED REVERSIBLE D. 1.C. PC16F84. Automatic Railway Gate Control & Track Switching( LATEST) Put Coin And Draw Power (latest) for Electrical and Electronics. Intelligent Train Engines ( New-Latest) VEHECLE MONITORING AND SECURITY SYSTEM ULTRASONIC rADAR(latest) Call Us Now to Book any of these projects now Click here for Booking Details.. MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY 8085 MICROPROCESSOR(LATEST) 4. MOTOR CONTROL 3.BASED CODED DEVICE SWITCHING SYSTEM 5. STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL USING 89C51 .

STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL USING 89C51 MICRO-CONTROLLER 15. PIC 18 F 84 MICRO-CONTROLLER BASE CODE DEVICE SWITCH SYSTEM 13. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED HOME SECURITY SYSTEM(LATEST) 14.6. CALLER. RS232 ANOLOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER USING AT89C51 MCU 18. MIC-89C51 MONITORING SYSTEM(LATEST) 7. ULTRASONICRANGEFINDER USING PIC MICRO CONTROLLER 19. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED ROBOT.(LATEST) . MANUAL AT 89C51 PROGRAM 8. LCD FREQUENCY METER USING 89C2051 11. MICROCONTROLLER BASED CODE LOCK USING AT 89C2051 10.ID UNIT USING MICRO CONTROLLER 20. AT 89C2051 BASED COUNTDOWN TIMER 9. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED TEMPERATURE METER(LATEST) 16. CALLER ID UNIT USING MICRO-CONTROLLER 12. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED PATHFINDER(LATEST) 21. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED HEARTBEAT MONITOR 17.

COM OR CALL US AT STUDENTS FROM INDIA DIAL -09717408885 FOR STUDENTS CALLING FROM OUTSIDE INDIA -00919717408885 WE BET OUT PRICES ARE THE BEST BECAUSE W E VALUE YOUR MONEY. MICROCONTROLLER BASED RADAR SYSTEM(LATEST) 28. MICRO CONTROLLER TEMPERATUIRE METER 36.DDU. 25. PRI-PAID CAR PARKING SYSTEM 34. MICRO CONTROLLER MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY(LATEST) 23. MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY : 89c51 micro controller Led matrix.IP UNIV. ANOLOG TO DIGITAL CONERTER USING AT89C51 MCU 37. 32. MULTI CHANNEL INFRA RED CONTROL 4 different point 89c2051 micro controller in transmitter and receiver. using infra red technique.ANNA UNIVERSITY. JAMMU UNIV AND ALL OTHER UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. Digital clock with alarm: using 89c51 micro controller 31. MICROCONTROLLER BASED TACHOMETER 40. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED WIRELESS HOME AUTOMATION(LATEST) 27. MCU BASED VISITOR COUNTER 41. projects recomended for UP TECH UNIVERSITY. . INFARED REMOTE CONTROLE SYSTEM 38. ULTRASONIC DISTANCE METER USING MICROCONTROLLER 33. ULTRASONIC MOVEMENT DETECTOR 39. PWM CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING 89C51 42. AN INTELLIGENT AMBULANCE CAR WHICH CONTROL TO TRAFFIC LIGHT 43. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED RELAY SWITCHING 24. MICROC CONTROLLER BASED LINE FOLLOWER OR TRACING ROBOT 45. AUTO BRAKING SYSTEM 47. MICRO CONTROLLER BASED WATER LEVER INDICATOR(LATEST) 26.22. 30. MICRO CONTROLLER AUTO DIALER USING GSM. COLLEGES AND INSTITUTIONS CAN MAIL US FOR TRAINING AND TIE-UP PROGRAMS. MULTILEVEL CAR PARKING BY MCU 35. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY CROSSING GATE CONTROLLER TO BOOK PROJECTS WITH US MAIL US AT FRESHERSBLOG@GMAIL. AUTOMATED WALKING ROBOT CONTROLLED BY MCU 46.PTU. TRAFFIC LIGHT WITH DOWN COUNTER : all the four sides of the road with one side counter display using 89c51 micro controller circuit. 29. PRE-PAID ENERGY METER 44.

UP.PUNJAB AND OTHER PARTS CALLL 09530140501 ( ANY TIME) THANKS FOR YOUR VISIT PLEASE MAIL US TO KNOW MORE ABOUT US OR CALL US ANY TIME. BEST OF LUCK! Subscribe To Free Sms Service Click Here IndianEngineers Institute For Engineering Services And PSU's Comming Soon in Delhi .HARYANA.STUDENTS FROM SOUTH INDIA CALL 09717408885 (ANY TIME) STUDENTS FORM NORTH INDIA CALL 09718246286 (ANY TIME) STUDENTS FROM DELHI.

2008 Posted by IndianEngineer | projects list.September 15. Uncategorized | 214 Comments PROJECT ON WIRELESS DATA AND VOICE COMMUNICATION THROUGH INFRARED-LED PROJECT KIT 1500/In Delhi NCR SYNOPSIS of the month TITLE OF THE SYNOPSIS:“Conceptual designs development & demonstrations of a WIRELESS DATA AND VOICE COMMUNICATION THROUGH INFRARED-LED” / ASSEMBLED PROJECT COST 3500/Free Home Delivery .

DTMF decoder. The conventional telephonic systems use copper wires. Basic elements of a infrared LED system Applications (i) Applications for video transmission include high quality video Trunked from studio Transfeter.OBJECTIVES:To Design a circuit of an electronic infrared communication system. infrared LED has evolved into a system of significantly greater importance and use. To study the circuitry and different types of components & DTMF generator. . Its advantages as compared with conventional coaxial cable or twisted wire pairs are manifold. millions of dollars are being spent to put these light wave communication systems into operation. the noise pick up is negligible. Baasedand Video for closed. it serves our purpose. The ever increasing cost and the lack of space available in the congested metropolitan cities asks for advent of a less costly system.15-5db/km) and is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference. One of the most interesting developments in recent years in the field of telecommunication is the use of laser light to carry information over large distances. Develop new ideas to implement this circuit purposely. But now. which easily get oxidized and as such require high maintenance cost. CLICK HERE TO SEE FREE PRESENTATION OF THIS PROJECT INTRODUCTION For years. it is now being used to transmit voice. Economically also. infrared LED has been merely a system for piping light around corners and into the inaccessible places to allow the hidden to be lighted. the noise pick up by the copper wire or in electrical signals is quite substantial whereas in laser light. Throughout the world. The laser light being made of glass are non-reactive and hence economical. op-amp and infrared-LED in the circuit. television and data signals as light waves. It has been proved in the past decade that light wave transmission through laser light is superior than that achieved through wires and microwave links. Video Trunking within city or between cities. Also. Broadcast CATV video. Typically. infrared LED has a much lower transmission loss per unit length (0. As a result.

The circuit The main part of Circuit is an amplifier. AMPLIFIER (B): Energy of signals is amplified to drive the speaker. with a filter C5 from speaker. SPEAKER: Electrical signals which are amplified are reconverted into sound signals at the speaker. (Operational amplifier) IC. PHOTO TRANSISTOR: The electrical signals are regained from the optical signals.548/558 pair. DECODER DRIVER : To drive the 7 segment display. The microphone should be placed near the circuit with the shield wire to suppress tune. which are amplified by the op-amp. in this circuit are R2 is feed back resistance with R1/8 and C1/3 to connected IC-741. The IC’s pin 2 is connect VR1 (variable resistance) through connect to O/P of T1 (transistor) also use 6volt DC. DTMF DECODER : It is fed to DTMF decoder which gives the binary output corresponding to the signal received from the transmitter. Same process continues in the second amplifier. DTMF CODER: It is generates the DTMF signal corresponding to the number entered from the keyboard. This sound signals (even at a distance of 2 meters from the mic) are picked up by the condenser microphone and converted into electrical variation. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION OF SWITCH SECTION This project was based on photo diodes and photo transistor. INFRARED-LED: It carries signals.741 is use in the inverting mode with a single supply using divider network of resistor the gain of IC can be set be varying the feed back through R5/6 resistance (can place a 1M variable) here the output of IC is further amplified buy the push-pull amplifier using transistor BC.BLOCKDIAGRAM CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING MIKE: Its converts sound signals into electrical signals. AMPLIFIER (A): Signals from mike are amplified so that it can drive to infrared-LED. First part . This project had been divided in two part. The output of the amplifier is taken from emitter of two transistors. Photo diodes had been used as a transmitter and photo transistor as a receiver.

to switch ‘ON’ or switch ‘OFF’ a LED alternately. Slide switch selected to voice communication and data. IC-3 is worked on clock pulse which receives to infrared modules at Pin No.transmitter section and second part receiver section. The receiver uses infrared modules IR-signal from the transmitter is sensed by the sensor through and its output PIN 1 goes low and switched LED. 10. RECEIVER SECTION:. The receiver uses infrared module. The on-chip clock generator requires only a low cost TV crystal or ceramic resonator as an external component. Nominal DTMF frequencies are used. dBm = decibels above or below a reference power of 1mW into a 600. The output of The transmit IR beams modulated at same frequency 1KHz. External voltage source used to bias VREF. clock generator. Digit sequence consists of all 16 DTMF tones. 5. The CM8870/70C decoder uses digital counting techniques for the detection and decoding of all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. 14. IN–. Bandwidth limited (0 to 3KHz) Gaussian Noise. The precise dial tone frequencies are (350Hz and 440Hz) ±2%. 4. Input pins defined as IN+. Its output at Pin No 2 throughes high. This DTMF receiver minimizes external component count by providing an on-chip differential input amplifier. When another signal arrives. Referenced to lowest level frequency component in DTMF signal. Tone duration = 40ms. Transmitter circuits works satisfactorily with 6-9V DC. Notes: 1.signal form the transmitter is sensed by the receiver sensor. 14 of IC-3. Both tones in the composite signal have an equal amplitude. The output of frequency detector stage is used. Tone pause = 40ms. 2 output. 2. 7. 12. via a flip-flop.14 is input and Pin No. The CM8870/70C is manufactured using state-of-the-art CMOS process technology for low power consumption (35mW. IC-3 is decade counter. and TOE. 8.000 9. Minimum signal acceptance level is measured with specified maximum frequency deviation. This makes the LED to switch ‘ON’ the appliance at first pulse and ‘OFF’ the appliance at its Second pulse arrived at its sensor. Battery but receiver circuits needs 6V regulated supply. MAX) and precise data handling. For an error rate of better than 1 in 10. circuit is energised. The CAMD CM8870/70C provides full DTMF receiver capability by integrating both the band-split filter and digital decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP. and a latched three-state interface bus. its Pin No. SOIC. LED is switched ‘ON’ and through clock pulse at Pin No. 11. 3. TRANSMISSIONSECTION :When switch key is pressed. .This section is worked as a Flip-flop (Bistable). When no signal is available output of sensor module goes high and transistor LED is switched ‘OFF’.or 20-pin PLCC package. The output of IC-2 is also used for lighting LED-1 indicating presence of signal. 6. The IR. The filter section uses a switched capacitor technique for both high and low group filters and dial tone rejection. load.

14.C4.13.1 mfd (104 pf) C3 220 mfd MIKE Condensor Microphone SEMICONDUCTOR: IC1UM91215B (DTMF CODER) IC2. R7 10KW R4.7kW R5.R9.R10 15KW R13 220K W R14 1KW R15-R22 150W VR-1.VR-2 1MW Variable Resistance CAPACITOR: C1.T4 PNP BC558 LED Light Emitting Diode Pt. IC-3 741 (OP AMP) IC-4 CM8870 (DTMF DECODER) IC-5 74LS47 (DECODER) T1.R12 100kW R3.R11.C5 0. 150W R2.T3 NPN BC548 T2.) Speaker 8 ohms Optical Fibre General purpose PCB General purpose Slide Switch DPDT Battery 6 volt DC CIRCUIT DAIGRAM RECEIVER AUTOMATION SECTION . Photo Transistor MISCELLANEOUS: IC Base 8 Pin (2pcs.C2. COMPONENTS USED RESISTANCE: R1. This parameter also applies to a third tone injected onto the power supply. Referenced to Figure 1. Input DTMF tone level at –28dBm.R6. R8 4.

Therefore to change the status of any other device is to be done after the output of IC 6 goes low. Then the tone signal is converted in to 4 bit BCD number output obtained at pins from 11 to 14. WORKING OF AUTOMATION CONTROL SECTION: Signal Decoding Unit: This is the main unit of this system. again ‘#’ key is pressed to make the tri state buffer act as input –output state and the respective code of the device is pressed. Power supply unit: For the proper working of this local control section except the local telephone set it needs a permanent back up which gives a 5V back up continuously. It has a Not Gate and four NPN transistors. This unit consists of a DTMF to BCD decoder IC MT 8870. Relay controls the AC devices. When this key is pressed the output of the 4-16 line decoder goes low The output of tri state buffer is latched by using a D flip-flop. DTMF RECEIVER/DECODER : It is fed to DTMF decoder which gives the binary output corresponding to the signal received from the transmitter. This output is fed to the 4-16 line decoder IC74154. This IC inverts the data on its input terminal and gives inverted output. For each positive going edge of the clock pulse will trigger the flip-flop.built on TTL logic. 3. you have to change the mode of the tri state buffer by making the control input high. This is achieved by using a 5V . Here this D flip flop is used in the toggle mode. This inversion is carried out by hex inverter IC 4049. DEMULTIPLEXER/ 4-16 LINE DECODER: It takes the 4 line BCD input and selects respective output one among the 16 output lines. According to that BCD number it selects the active low output line from 1 to 16 which is decimal equivalent of the BCD number present at its input pins. PHOTO TRANSISTOR: The electrical signals are regained from the optical signals. Device switching unit: This unit consists of a tri state buffer and a D flip flop. NPN transistor is drive to relay which works as a switching. The working of all the above IC’s are mentioned here before. This is done by pressing the ‘#’ key.BLOCKDIAGRAM CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING IR-LED: It carries signals and converted into optical signals. After making confirmation of current status of the device to alter the status of that device. This IC takes the BCD number and decodes. After a period of 5 seconds the output of the IC 6 goes low and puts the tri state buffer in the high impedance state. It is active low output and drives to relay. Since the low output of this IC the output is inverted to get logic high output. 4 to 16 line decoder IC 74154 and hex inverter gate IC 4049. RELAY DRIVER : Its section controls the relay. DTMF CODER: It is generates the DTMF signal corresponding to the number entered from the keyboard. The DTMF to BCD decoder IC MT8870 takes a valid tone signal from the IR transmitter section. 4.

and relay driver circuits.16 of the IC and respective tone which represents number ’5′ in key pad is produced at pin no.58MHz is connected across its pins 3 & 4 so that it makes a part of its internal oscillator. It uses DTMF encoder integrated circuit. Figure (E). Since the output of the D flip flop is normally +5V or it is the voltage of logic high state.2v zener diode. which is present in the remote place.7 of the IC. Therefore here we use relays. When the output of D flip-flop goes low the base voltage drops below 0. By pressing the number 5 in the key pad the output tone is produced which is the resultant of addition of two frequencies. and a high current in the rate of 10Amps to energize the electromagnetic coil of the relays +5V is sufficient. 1: Remote Section 2: automation Control Section. Here we use the transistors to energize the relay coil. It uses same oscillator frequency used in . It contains four row frequencies & three column frequencies. When the base voltage of the transistor is above 0. The devices to be controlled must be connected to phototransistor through control unit. This intern switches on the relay.regulated power supply from a voltage regulated IC 7805. which can handle a high voltage of 230V or more. we will take a brief description about integrated circuits used in local control section. “B”. Circuit diagram of the DTMF encoder This encoder IC requires a voltage of 3V. Relay driver circuit: To carry out the switching of any devices we commonly use the relays. By this the devices is switches ON. ROBOTIC ARM CONTROL SECTION: This is a control unit through which you can control your devices. MT 8870 DTMF decoder: IC MT8870/KT3170 serves as DTMF. Before going into detail of the circuit. The pins of IC 91214 B from 12 to 14 produces high frequency column group and pins from 15 to 18 produces the low frequency row group. The figure (E) shows the circuit diagram of the DTMF encoder. D-flipflops. The output of the D flip-flop is applied to the base of the transistor T2 – T5 via a resister. 4-16 line decoder/demultiplexer.7. For that IC is wired around 4.7V the emitter-base (EB) junction of the transistor forward biased as a result transistor goes to saturation region it is nothing but the switching ON the transistor. This signal is sent to the DTMF transmitter section through IRLED. Chip UM 91214B. This contains one DTMF transmitter section and a devices Control Section. This IC produces DTMF signals. Control unit is kept with a sufficient backup. REMOTE SECTION: This unit consists of IR transmitter section. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: This system is divided into two sections. By pressing any key in the keyboard corresponding DTMF signal is available in its output pin at pin no. So we cannot use this output to run the device or appliances.7V as a result the robotic devices also switches OFF. 13 & pin no. This IC takes DTMF signal coming via telephone line and converts that signal into respective BCD number. For producing the appropriate signals it is necessary that a crystal oscillator of 3. at pin no. This 5V source is connected to all ICs and relays. And 3V backup Vcc for this IC is supplied by using 3. This IC gets a backup from a 9V battery. 5. which resembles the DTMF transmitter section. The row and column frequency of this IC is as on the fig. devices control Section consists of a DTMF decoder.5V battery.

Its filter section uses switched capacitor technology for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection. The MT-8870-02 can also inhibit the decoding of fourth column digits. clock generator. the receiver checks for valid signal duration (referred to as characterrecognition-condition). and a timing capacitor. The low and high group tones are separated by applying the dual-tone signal to the inputs of two 6th order switched capacitor band pass filters with bandwidths that correspond to the bands enclosing the low and high group tones.579545 MHz crystal. The input arrangement of the MT-8870 provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VREF) to bias the inputs at mid-rail. signaling that a received tone pair has been registered. this pin is tied to ground (logic low). It inhibits the detection of 1633 Hz.579545 MHz crystal. The output code will remain the same as the previous detected code. and a digital decoder that verifies both the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the resulting 4-bit code to the output bus. providing excellent dial tone rejection. it takes the 4 line BCD input and selects respective output one . and latched tri-state interface bus. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for gain adjustment.579545 MHz crystal. Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code.85M Hz is used in this IC. On the M. The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard 3. the delayed steering output flag (StD) goes high. A short delay to allow the output latch to settle. This check is performed by an external RC time constant driven by ESt.8870 models. Any subsequent loss of signal condition will cause ESt to fall. Signal limiting is performed by high gain comparators provided with by stresses to prevent detection of unwanted low-level signals and noise. The input arrangement of the MT-8870 provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VREF) to bias the inputs at mid-rail. Minimal external components required include a low-cost 3. Each filter output is followed by a single-order switched capacitor section that smoothes the signals prior to limiting.the remote section so same crystal oscillator with frequency of 3. MT-8870 operating functions include a band split filter that separates the high and low tones of the received pair. a timing resistor. External component count is minimized by provision of an on-chip differential input amplifier. it raises the Early Steering flag (ESt). 74154 4-16 line decoder/demultiplexer: IC 74154 is a 4-16 line decoder. Inhibit mode is enabled by a logic high input to pin 5 (INH). Figure (F). When the detector recognizes the simultaneous presence of two valid tones (known as signal condition). The MT-8870 decoder uses a digital counting technique to determine the frequencies of the limited tones and to verify that they correspond to standard DTMF frequencies. The contents of the output latch are made available on the 4-bit output bus by raising the three state control input (OE) to logic high. Before a decoded tone pair is registered.Block diagram of IC MT8870 The filter also incorporates notches at 350 and 440 Hz. Working of IC MT8870: The MT-8870 is a full DTMF Receiver that integrates both band split filter and decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for gain adjustment. The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard 3.

7V as a result the device also switches OFF. which can handle a high voltage of 230V or more. So we cannot use this output to run the device or appliances. clock etc. all outputs are high.among the 16 output lines. output current capability of 500mA. These flip-flops are used to latch the data that present at its input terminal. G1 and G2. (Above figure shows a single D-flip-flop) Relay driver circuit: To carry out the switching of devices we commonly use the relays. When either strobe input is high. rest of the output lines will remain active high. Nowadays. By this the device is switches ON.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells thus can operate the equipment. Circuit protection: Built –in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator IC gets too hot. Figure G. When the base voltage of the transistor is above 0. The demultiplexing function is performed by using the 4 input lines to address the output line. Power supply unit: NEED OF POWER SUPPLY:Perhaps all of you are aware that a power supply is a primary requirement for the test bench of a home experimenter’s mini lab. Circuit complexity: simple and easy to build. A battery eliminator can eliminate or replace the batteries of solid-state electronic equipment and 220V A. and a high current in the rate of 10Amps to energize the electromagnetic coil of the relays +5V is sufficient. When the output of D flip-flop goes low the base voltage drops below 0. passing data from one of the strobe inputs with the other strobe input low. one preset input terminals. Since the output of the D flip flop is normally +5V or it is the voltage of logic high state. This intern switches on the relay. are low. It is active low output IC so when any output line is selected it is indicated by active low signal. Therefore here we use relays. These demultiplexer are ideally suited for implementing high-performance memory decoders. . This 4-line-to-16line decoder utilizes TTL circuitry to decode four binary-coded inputs into one of sixteen mutually exclusive outputs when both the strobe inputs. This IC consists of two D flip-flops. TRUTH TABLE: IC 4013 D-flip-flop: IC 4013 is a conventional D-flip-flop IC. the sued of commercial battery eliminator or power supply unit have become increasingly popular as power source for household appliances like transceiver. record player. one clear. Summary of power supply circuit features:Brief description of operation: gives out well regulated +8V output. IC 74154 4-16 line decoder All inputs are buffered and input clamping diodes are provided to minimize transmission-line effects and thereby simplify system design. The output of the D flip-flop is applied to the base of the transistor T2 – T5 via a resister. one clock.7V the emitter-base (EB) junction of the transistor forward biased as a result transistor goes to saturation region it is nothing but the switching ON the transistor. Each flip-flop has one data. Here we use the transistors to energize the relay coil.

Circuit Diagram of Local Control Section. Availability of components: Easy to get. 0-12 transformer 3. I have used this circuit successfully as part of other electronics projects. but usually their voltage regulation is very poor. Power supply current: needed output current 500 mA. This 5V source is connected to all ICs and relays. USED COMPONENTS SEMICONDUCTORS (1) IC-1 ……… 7808 (2) IC-2…………. 1000uf and 100uf. The following circuit is the answer to the problem. This circuit can give +8V output at about 500mA current. Power supply voltage: unregulated 8-18V-power supply. Small inexpensive battery with variable output voltage are available. Components cost: Few rupees for the electronic components plus the cost of input transformer. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY The above circuit utilizes the voltage regulator IC 7808 and 7805 for the constant power supply. which makes them not very usable for digital circuit experimenter unless a better regulation can be achieved in some way. small laboratory power supply. DESCRITION OF POWER SUPPLY This circuit is a small + 8 volts power supply. The circuit has overload and terminal protection. This is achieved by using a 8V regulated power supply from a voltage regulated IC 7808. Fig J. Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit. Capacitor. 74154 . This IC gets a backup from a 9V battery. Pin Diagram of 7808 Regulator IC Pin 1: Unregulated voltage input Pin 2: Ground Pin3: Regulated voltage output Component list 7808 regulator IC 2. Applications: part of electronics devices. at least 25V voltage rating. Which is useful when experimenting with digital electronics. uses only common basic components. reliable Operation.Circuit performance: Stable +8V output voltage. For the proper working of this local control section except the mobile phone or local telephone set it needs a permanent back up which gives a 8V back up continuously. The capacitors must have enough high voltage rating to safely handle the input voltage feed to circuit. The circuit is very easy to build for example into a piece of Zero board. CM8870P (3) IC-3………….

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