A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. with individual node objects containing an element.10. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. Version 2. In the DOM approach. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. etc. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. Values are invariably provided as strings. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. a CDATA section. with a very high level of distinctiveness. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types.List.util. as compared to version 1. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. the Simple API for XML. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. linked according to the XML document's structure. Versions from 2. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX.1 Introduction 1. an attribute. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler.) 1. DOM data. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. is contained in objects of a single type. The JAXB runtime library.1. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. however.

sun.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.The XML Schema generator schemagen. <?xml version="1. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. Some of these features are: -. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.xsd defines the structure of our document. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code.obviously an area for experts.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection. -.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. 1. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . The XML Schema on hello. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. which is to contain a series of salutations. -. it's just here to give you the overall picture.w3.

<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler.createGreetingType()..marshal( gl.. Here's a sequence of these calls: . g. g.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello.. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. import java.bind. with a call to marshal.createMarshaller(). grList = of.add( g ). the list is wrapped in its XML element. import javax. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. private GreetingListType grList.*.setLanguage( l ).createGreetings( grList ). i. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // .util. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.getGreeting(). xjc -p hello hello. } public void make( String t. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of.setText( t ). } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. defining the package name hello for the generated classes.*. GreetingListType.e. grList.createGreetingListType(). System.out ). The class Hello shows how to use them. import hello. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. Marshaller m = jc. m.*.xml. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). Finally. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.newInstance( "hello" ).

make( "Hey. for better readability.marshal(). you".make( "Bonjour. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. The output is shown below.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. formatted.Hello h = new Hello(). h. madame". "en" ). <?xml version="1. h. "fr" ). h. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> .

e. If used. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. and to define a pattern for a string type. strings.. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. <xsd:union>.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. e.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form.sun.w3. with xsd as the namespace identifier. Although all data in XML is text.. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. structure (or record) and union. the composition of document nodes. to enumerate all legal values.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. Type information deals with the definition of structure. and for references and other XML constructs. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). list. booleans.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. For child elements.g. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. This is done by adding so-called facets. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. i. Other facets. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. such as lists or maps.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . dates and times.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. This (or some other name. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation.0"> 2. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. to limit the precision. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. URIs. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. however. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing.

. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated.validation.group = value.xml. required = true) protected int group.2. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". public int getGroup() { return group. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. } // . the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . Leaving double and float aside. perhaps. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. Doing away with fractional digits. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. you'll see simple get and set methods. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255...BigDecimal.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. There is one Java type providing just that: java. For brevity and clarity.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. created from your XML schema. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation.. According to the XML Schema definition. // .2.math.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. If you peek into one of these class definitions. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits.. 2. you might ask.. } Where is. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data.Schema object. 2. we . } public void setGroup(int value) { this.

Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value .e. and therefore this type maps to java. For xsd:unsignedLong. JAXB reverts to simple types. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. With xsd:unsignedInt. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. there is no fitting simple type. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. simplified for better readability. Short shortNil. i. BigInteger integer.. another one for their obscure cousins. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. which still has an unspecified number of digits. .BigInteger. too. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute.math. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. Below the integer type. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. e.BigInteger. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. nil.but only for descendants of Object. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. int _int. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges.math. This adds another value to the set of possible values.arrive at xsd:integer.BigInteger must be used. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far.g. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. hence java..math. long _long. short for xsd:unsignedByte. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. it has to be represented by java.

<xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. } 2.decimal = value. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. BigInteger unsignedLong.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. long unsignedInt. of course. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType.counter = value.2. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. protected int counter. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. } Well. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . public int getCounter() { return counter.. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. it's quite a zoo indeed. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. So. BigInteger nonNegative. // ... For some element such as counter. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this..3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. } public void setCounter(int value) { this.

and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. Java's own java. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.2. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only.GregorianCalendar.lang.2. Once more.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time.String is used. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. alternatives and grouping.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. (Do not confuse this with java.util. no Java class is required for DirType. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. 2. .datatype. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. 2. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. This class is in the package javax.xml.

DateTimeType meta = of.MONTH ). // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.get( Calendar. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element. meta.newInstance(). XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.get( Calendar. now. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds.get( Calendar.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). meta.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).setDate( gcDate ). } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. not possible to omit seconds entirely. now. It is.createDateTimeType().get( Calendar.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().MINUTE ).newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now.time = value.HOUR_OF_DAY ).get( Calendar.setTime( gcTime ).date = value. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. now.DAY_OF_MONTH ).SECOND ). It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. // no fraction DatatypeConstants. } } However. null. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.YEAR ). // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. however. now. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). DatatypeConstants. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: .get( Calendar.

as shown below. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. still be represented in printable characters. public byte[] getData() { return data. All conversions are handled by JAXB. A sample schema declaration is shown below. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary.2. 2.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. for inclusion in an XML file.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this.data = ((byte[]) value). } } 2.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601.2. use an xsd:list. Using NumberListType as an attribute . <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data.

There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list.... 2.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. 2. // ."/>. } // .. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. separated by white space. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community.2.2.. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. protected List<Integer> numbers. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space..numbers. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created.. } return this. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-..dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. . <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum.

} public String value() { return value. IXLType(String v) { value = v.. private final String value. } . public String value() { return name(). you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. eStwS. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. VGS_80("VGS80"). and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . public enum IXLType { eStwA. SpDrS. SP_DR_S("SpDrS").... for each enum constant name. SpDrL. VGS80. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . as shown below. E_STW_S("eStwS"). SP_DR_L("SpDrL").public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant.

there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. 2. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java.2. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this.2. 2. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements.value. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types. } else { return pos. Try to avoid xsd:union. even if they do not have content.pos = value. protected String dir. . The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos.

An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. //. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { ..2. or one or more subordinate elements. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. "Doc").12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.. simply because there is no such element.dir = value. } public void setDir(String value) { this. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. 2.2. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type.} public String getDir() { return dir. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element.e. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("".. this element itself and its siblings. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. except for list types. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. Obviously. or even a combination of both. the one describing the containing element.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. i.12. So. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type.

The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. public class PointType { protected int x.x = value. } public void setX(int value) { this.12. DocType. } } 2..2. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory. (The default for both is 1. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward. protected int y.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.class. } public void setY(int value) { this. } // . public int getX() { return x.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent . 2.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. value).2.y = value. } public int getY() { return y.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME..12. null.

Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course.starter = value.. however. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. There is.(more getters and setters) } Here. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. } // . entree. soup.12. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. public String getStarter() { return starter. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. . dessert.2..XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. 2. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this.

Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. may contain any number of elements. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { .. for instance. Also. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it.List is used. } // .2.util. or a fixed number.public class CommType { protected String sms. There is. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. 2.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. Various combinations are possible. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.sms = value. Here. and for all similar element lists. public String getSMS() { return sms.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements.12.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive.. protected String mms. a java. protected String email. } public void setSMS(String value) { this.

or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. Sometimes only java. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). . code like this polygon. therefore. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. or you may use addAll for bulk additions.getPoints(). The list can be added to one by one. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1.util.List may be applied to the returned value.points. } return this. Obviously. } return this.lang.textOrNumberOrPoint. 2. adds another point.2.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements.Most importantly. Other possibilities are java. in the same Java code.add( new PointType( 4.12.Serializable. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>().lang.Object will do. 9 ) ). public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. All methods defined in java.

.g. Also. cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o.bind.getClass() ). The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones. mercifully. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. For one thing. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong.: for( Object o: mix. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax..getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . } .. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // .JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.xml. type xsd:string. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. after the third sub-element. e. If we add another element of. say..

for( JAXBElement je: mix.return this. // . a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. // . (process) } else if( "Number".getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.. to be rendered in boldface.2.textOrNumberOrPoint. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. 2. // . we define a schema for our very simple text markup language. (process) } else if( //.getName(). One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. (other alternatives) } } Again.. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element.getLocalPart(). if( "Text".7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.. } } Consequently.... in italics or underlined.getValue(). </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.12. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements.getValue().equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well.. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements.. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.

ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.p. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. As we already know. The generic list type now happens to be java.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. } return this.lang. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).print( (String)s ). Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. indeed. dumpChunk( chunk ). public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). I and U. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getName().out. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. System.out. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p. } return this. private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.print( "(" + tag + ":" ).getLocalPart(). System. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().print( ":" + tag + ")" ).getValue(). and. } .out.content. as ChunkType features just one method getContent. we did use ChunkType with B. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.Serializable.

@XmlElement(name = "C". not a good idea.w3.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. nillable = true) protected String c. which can not be omitted.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0".. . Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. the characterless thing.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ).8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b..} } //. in general. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. for( ChunkType c: text.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.. required = true.12.. However. even though its value could be the empty string. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. } 2.(process a text) TextType text = . where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. required = true) protected String a.2..

.public String getA() { return a. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.2. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> . } public void setA(String value) { this. check boxes. radio buttons and sub-menus.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. (more getters and setters like this) } 2. } // . it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance..a = value.

-. The JAXB compiler.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries.. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. Before we look at the generated Java code. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus.. // . -... one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema.(getCommand.CheckBoxType extends ItemType.(getText. again adding some attributes. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . // . however. including itself.(isState.. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. Group is the button group's identification. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. // . public class EntryType { protected String text.. -.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.

<xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.2. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. . literally. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. } } 2. protected String operator. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. protected String value.util.List<EntryType>.. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. // . reverse engineered the common superclass. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton..protected String group. } return this. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. which contains a java.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. Below is a simple example. and that's why we have to be content with a list. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. protected Boolean state.

getContent(). A PosType element represents a position in an order. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. bt. .createConstant( "3.newInstance( "generated" ). bt. m. however.14" ).createBinopType(). Marshaller m = ctxt.out ). This is what we have in the example. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. System. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.setOperator( "*" ). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.add( op1 ). true ). but they must be derived from the same base type.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). } public void setOperator(String value) { this. } return this.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. either by restriction or by extension. } public String getOperator() { return operator.add( op2 ). This type.getContent().createVariable( "d" ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. BinopType bt = of. The elements of the group may have different types. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".content. m. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes.marshal( jbe. is conceptually an abstract type. bt. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.operator = value.createMarshaller().setProperty( Marshaller. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of.createBinop( bt ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3.

sun.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.w3.

(getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. Also. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. (more getters and setters) } Once again.... parameterized with BookType or DiskType. // . } // .<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. element construction is a tad more complicated.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements.. returning an object whose type is ItemType.. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title.. protected int quantity. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. // . we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. And finally there is createItem. protected int price. and its use as the generic type parameter. // . Here is the skeleton of this class: ...

setPages( 832 ).createDiskType().createPosType().setItem( of.createPosType().. // createDisk p2.setPrice( 120 )... you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element..setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ). DiskType dk = of. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. List<PosType> listPos = st.add( p2 ). p2.createDisk( dk ) )..setItem() PosType. dk..public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .. // Order a disk.setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). } public OrderType createOrderType() { . BookType bk = of. ... listPos.add( p1 ). bk. // Order two copies of a book. PosType p1 = of.. PosType p2 = of. // createItem for BookType p1.createOrderType(). bk.setDuration( 50 ). // Create an order OrderType st = of.setItem() Looking at this table... } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { . } public PosType createPosType() { . Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { .createItem( bk ) ). listPos. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().setPrice( 20 ). } public DiskType createDiskType() { .createBookType()..getPos(). } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .setQuantity( 2 ). p1.. dk.setItem( of. bk.setItem() PosType.setQuantity( 1 ). dk...

but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.out.xml. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.createOrder( st ).w3. The tag is represented as an object of class javax. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.println( tag + " " + item.getLocalPart().getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.getSimpleName() ). . The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.getTitle() + " " + p.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.out. System. along with the lengthy namespace declaration.getName().getValue(). for( PosType p: order.getValue().getClass().getItem().println( item.xml" ) ). System.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>. <?xml version="1.getItem(). The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType".getQuantity() ). String tag = p. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe.namespace.

Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.2. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. They let you represent references to XML elements.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. i. An AirportType element is presented only once. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights.2. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.. aren't they) into all places where it is used. in full.e.

getTo()). Object to. So. int number..getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType .. } // . } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway. String carrier. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. public Object getFrom() { return from. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. as the string implementing the XML link. to retrieve the origin of some flight. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID.from = value. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout.to = value. } public Object getTo() { return to. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime.

references. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. in general. lists or. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. The example given below is for railway buffs. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. graphs. same thing. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. Nevertheless. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself.

what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. public Object getEast() { return east.west = value. protected Object west. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. i. as the "null" element. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. Again. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. there must be some element where that string is an id value. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional.e. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. } } But wait . } public void setEast(Object value) { this. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. perhaps in a category of its own. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . } public Object getWest() { return west. by definition. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours.. because.east = value.

1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value. too.lang.16.if not java. but we might just as well use some null values there.lang. public Object getContent() { return content.perhaps Id="null" .2.. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class.Object (which would be . In the XML file you would have one extra element. To see how this is handled in JAXB. 2. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No.. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived.e. i. } public void setContent(Object value) { this. } } But what will be the class of the Content .2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType.g. Its name is distinction enough. the Null element as shown below. e. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.content = value. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values.Object.

) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication. the actual class doesn't really matter ..xerces. Node<List> = content.w3c.dom.Node. which is a subinterface of org. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler. if you really have to.getTagName()..e. . Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. 2. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. e.internal. // .2.obtuse). then what? Well.g.the important thing is that it implements org. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.dom.lang.getContent().. class apache.getChildNodes().Object. i. This means that. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.: Element content = (Element)bag.more DOM accesses. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.dom.w3c. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory()..ElementNSImpl.Element.w3c.dom.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element. String tag = content..

createHearsayType(). )." ).com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www. ready for marshalling.w3.getValue(). JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u. comm. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).setText( "Mr.getComm(). CommType.w3.// Create the container object. comm ).class. hearsay. if( comm.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.. HearsayType hearsay = of..2.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).unmarshal( f ). } 2.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example..org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www. } else { // ..com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller..setComm( hearsay ). all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( .createCommType().(investigate other possibilities).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3. Harper does naughty things.w3. Harper does naughty things. In fact.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process.w3.. comm. CommType comm = (CommType)je. // Prepare a JAXBElement. CommType comm = of. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example. // Let's have some hearsay.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.

Image img = jbe. 0. 0. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously. -1..read( imgFile )..SCALE_DEFAULT ). Moreover. // Get the image from the content tree.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . More importantly.getScaledInstance( 512. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. Image.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics.. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.. anonymous types result in some inner class. Unmarshalling is just as simple.3. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.createItemType()..getJPEGPicture(). JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. Well. itemEl.createPicture( itemEl ).setJPEGPicture( img ). g. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. // Draw it Graphics g = . For one thing. null ). Image img = bimg.. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.drawImage( img.getValue().drawImage() with this object as the first argument.

. protected AddressType billTo.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate..<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. and re-used from there wherever they are required..(getters and setters) } 2.Item>(). protected BigDecimal price. Note that PurchaseOrderType. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. in a separate schema file. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.3. they should be written once. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo.item. protected String partNum.. protected BigInteger quantity. . protected List<PurchaseOrderType. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. } return this. If the documents share common XML types. // .Item> item. // .Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. } public static class Item { protected String productName.

org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.. e.common and org.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy. ..solarsystem.> .org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. resulting in org. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy..org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.astronomy.org/common" schemaLocation="common.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.<?xml version="1. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema ..w3.g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.: <?xml version="1.

.3.out ). m." specifying the group's given name.createPlanet( planet ). This may be regretted. // Create a single planet instance document.marshal( jbe.. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place. System. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc.solarsystem..5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of. //.. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). System. //.3. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. 2..g. Given the complex type ItemType. If an XML schema is extended. 2. PlanetType planet = of. m.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. // Create a solar system.createSolarSystem().3. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. use the attribute ref=".out ).. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. SolarSystem sol = of. Add planets.createMarshaller(). it is possible to define . 2. e. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.. respectively.astronomy.createPlanetType().marshal( sol. Marshaller m = context.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

getHandler( obj ).isResident() ){ process( p.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy. new ChildHandler() ). ChildType. h.Handler>().put( ourClass2Conv.class.getChild ). } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple. new PersonHandler() ).Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. if( h != null ){ h. .class.. AddrType.getName() ). abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. process( p.. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.put( ourClass2Conv.getAddr() ). protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. public abstract void handle( Object o ). static { ourClass2Conv.getClass() ). if( p. new AddrHandler() ). new NameHandler() ). Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.class.handle( obj ). There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.process( obj ).put( //.get( obj.class. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. NameType. } PersonType.put( ourClass2Conv. } processList( p.

<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children.getValue(). enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. 3. h. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl(). JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax.xml.validation.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. First. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. try { . protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. } } Finally. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list.getHandler( obj ).newInstance( XMLConstants. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). Don't make such a map global.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ).process( obj ). SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. } Handler h = this. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. if the tag is required for processing as well.

hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . as explained in the next section.newSchema( file ). If you want to continue as long as possible. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes.. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler.newInstance( packagePath ). u. an UnmarshalException (from javax.println( origin + ": " + line + ".setSchema( mySchema ).getLineNumber(). } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. we might write: . If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface." + column + ": " + msg ). 3. If you'd like to create your own error messages. u. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed.xml.setEventHandler( vec ). int column = vel. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.err. Unmarshaller u = jc.4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.createUnmarshaller().getMessage(). or at least as many as possible but.bind) is thrown.bind. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.getLocator(). System. you pass it the schema.mySchema = sf. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. int line = vel. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called.getColumnNumber(). If the XML data validation fails. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.xml. Basically that's all there is to it.. alas.(error handling) mySchema = null.

Foo.Boo Foo.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.class ).newInstance( "some foo:more.index. Subclasses. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb.foo # class some. are not included. e.foo.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.createUnmarshaller(). u. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. earlier in this chapter.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB.: # package some. 3. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.bar" ).g.foo. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. such as the types of instance variables.newInstance( Foo. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.Foo Foo # inner class some. all static references. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. Usually. For JAXB annotated Java code.class. recursively. you may use the package path form as well. . however.setEventHandler( this ).) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Bar.Unmarshaller u = jc. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.

.(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.createRulebase( rulebase ).4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. . fbList.. // Add it to its parent's list..add( fooElem ). A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.createRulebaseType().. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. // Add it to its parent's list. fbList. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).createFooBarListType().. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.createModuleType().(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). // .createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).createFooBarType(). one such doument object can be created by code as shown below. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. // .</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact... Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".add( barElem ).. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. ModuleType module = objFact.createFooBarType().getFooOrBar().

for instance. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. the data is in post-order. without any actual XML content. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. If. 4. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. as you can create. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call.

with a setter call current. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.qtty ). // Create and add item elements. with a call to the getter current.createOrderType(). custElem. itemElem.. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.. itemElem. Add this object to the current element. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>.setId( custId ). Item[] items = . It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out.getOrders(). } .setName( custName )... simply to be repeated for other child elements.setX( xElem ).id ).setQuantity( item. folder. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. of course. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.add( orderElem ).createCustomerType().getX(). This is.getItems().add( itemElem ).. String custName = . the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX..setCustomer( custElem ). orderElem. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. // Complete customer.setId( item. custElem.. Append (add) it to the List<X>.createItemType(). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.. // Create order and insert in top-level document. itemList. // Create and insert the customer element.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. // Data for an order int custId = . CustomerType custElem = objFact.

Our example is a variation of the order data.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. inline customer element. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. 4. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. i. even though .e. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. Here. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. on the other hand..1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. we have the classes representing XML elements. On the one hand. or for a customer reference. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. You may. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. and. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. an order may either contain a full customer XML element.3. IDREF) 4. the full. of course.

String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.setId( custId ). protected Object custref. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text.customer = value. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. public void addCust( OrderType order.CustomerType>().custref = value.createCustomerType(). . public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. Map<String. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. } return this. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). Continuing our example. where we'll use the second method. order. too.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). cust = oFact. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. protected List items.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. String custId. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document.get( custId ).items. This means that the full elements must be added separately. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this.setCustomer( cust ). // complete customer cust.

we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. This key is also used as a key in the map.put( custId. But . If the customer lookup returns an object. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.setName( custName ).e.the convenient material for references . 4.cust. i. // save in map id2cust.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string.aren't useful in an XML text file. cust ). JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. } else { order.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element.setCustref( cust ). then we meet a customer for the first time. Memory addresses .3. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. however. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. We create a CustomerType object.. JAXB. <?xml version="1. the "id" string. where we keep that element for future reference.

we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. Also. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address.of type AddressType. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this.util) to register marshalled elements. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. To see how this works. even if hashCode has been overridden. . This map uses the object's default hash code.AddressType>(). Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. Map<Address.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element.

it is surprisingly simple. } return arElem.int refcount = 0. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. arElem. which is just what . // . For an encore. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element. addrElem.. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact..setId( makeNextId() ).Serializable interface. provided that the class of the object implements the java. addrElem ). Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. pojo2elem.. addrElem = objFact.).id pair in the identity hash map.get( addrPojo ).setAddrRef( addrElem ). for instance. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object.and insert it into its parent..createAddressType(). But the need does arise occasionally.createAddrOrRefType(). // . Special dumps of application data. All in all.. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. may have to use this rather extreme technique. we map these to assembled AddressType objects. // Register the object .util.. arElem. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. // Set the xsd:ID attribute.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary..setAddr( addrElem ).put( addrPojo.. } Using Address objects as keys. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. 4.

import javax.createJavaObjectType(). since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data.writeObject( pojo ).bind.. as defined by your schema.setData( baos. String pathname ) . First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. } 4. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. return pojo. oiStream. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem.xml.*. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object. Object pojo = oiStream. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.. Here it is. joElem.we need for calling the java.close(). Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). such as the one that's used below.io.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. ooStream.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. or the encoding in the XML prolog. Then. ooStream. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). import java. which requests nice formatting of the XML text.readObject(). ooStream.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. or a JAXBElement<?>.* void writeDocument( Object document. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ).close(). The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact.flush().getData() ).7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. you might set a number of properties. return joElem.toByteArray() ).w3.io.

throws JAXBException. String tag.getPackage(). ... Boolean. of course. but this is cumbersome. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. clazz.getValue().TRUE ).. "someTag". m.getClass(). T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. m. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.com". Marshaller m = context.marshal( jbx. A generic solution is presented below. Class<?> clazz = o.getClass().) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.setProperty( Marshaller. System. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). return jbe.getName() ).marshal( document. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. IOException { Class<T> clazz = document.createMarshaller().acme.newInstance( clazz. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = . } To use it. tag ). JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. o ). st ). You could. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www.out ). add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. m.

By default. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated.0"> ..sun.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes. </jaxb:bindings> . You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. however. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.: xjc -p jess. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema.xsd This.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. ususally of file type . in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.xjb. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. One of these things is the package name.. 5.5 Customizing 5. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.

Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema. 5.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.sun.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> . but you may not always be at liberty to do so.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages. the outermost element of an XML schema.sun.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.w3.

If you don't fancy this. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.e. believe me. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. you can request your own substitute. using an jxb:property element. For this one. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items..List.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java.util. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. it is replaced by Clazz.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> .util. But. i. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. it does happen. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.

org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. by renaming either element: . 5.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: . as part of the type definition in your schema..4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. <?xml version="1.. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. Documentation is probably best written inline.. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.

we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation." and "&amp. see below.e. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element.. Java class for GlobalType complex type..". <xsd:schema> . "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. i.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt.code>GlobalType&lt./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. you add a child as shown in the example below. . Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section.. For either of these schema components. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters.

import javax.xml.jessrules. First.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0. } .. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. 5. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring.intern().DatatypeConverter. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string.bind. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String. So.. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.StringInterner.parseString( value ). but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. including their subordinate elements.

} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument.put( 'V'.Integer> entry: rom2int. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.put( 'I'. 1 ). 10. 50.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. import java. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int.4}V?I{. } .HashMap. entry. rom2int. 5. 100. rom2int.entrySet() ){ int2rom. 1000 ). rom2int. as in the next example.6.Entry<Character.Map.put( entry.getValue().Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character. for( Map.put( 'X'.Integer>().Character>().put( 'C'. rom2int.put( 'M'. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. 100 ). 10 ).util. static { rom2int. 1 }.4}L?X{.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. we have to write a simple class like the one given below.put( 'L'. 50 ).roman.util. rom2int.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. For this. 500. 5. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own. rom2int. 5 ). import java.put( 'D'. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. package util. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. 500 ). private static Map<Integer.getKey() ).

0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder().printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.sun.get( d ) ).org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1. sb. You may choose any names you like. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.roman.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.roman.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.append( int2rom.RomanNumberConverter. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.RomanNumberConverter. <?xml version="1.bind. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.xml. } return result. but the methods must be static.length(). so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.get( value.6. i < value.w3.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section. } } return sb. .0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.charAt( i ) ). for( int i = 0.toString(). i++ ){ result += rom2int.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

} } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. public String artists.*.program = program. this. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes.util. String program ){ this. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this.annotation. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event..<?xml version="1.datetime = datetime.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType. } } public class EntryType { public String program.util.xml.datatype.*. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.bind. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. import java.artists = artists. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> . import javax. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.EntryType>().event = event. import java. public DocType(){ } } import javax. public class KeyType { public String event.V>. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType.Map.xml. this.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .HashMap..

"items".2. and key data from value data. @javax. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.at/hospital". according to the Schema Datatypes specification. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. .<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. Below is an example. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right.2.xml.annotation. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.java situated in the package. } 6. requesting that the elements title. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.E.) Here is an example for XmlType.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package.. It must be written on a file package-info. 6. "cluster" } ) public class Document { ..laune. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements.bind.

This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .bind.. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.laune. } .annotation. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations. Therefore.XmlNs( prefix = "med". elementFormDefault = javax.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.annotation.bind.at/med" ) }.xml. 6.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.w3.laune..2.laune. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME.elementFormDefault = javax. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax. value).XmlNsForm.laune.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.annotation.annotation. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.class. null.QUALIFIED) package hospital. TreeType. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation. namespaceURI = "http://www.at/hospital". annotated with XmlRegistry.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.xml.bind.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.laune. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.bind. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl. xmlns = { @javax. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.XmlNsForm.xml.xml.QUALIFIED) package hospital.

NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. i. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. } public void setA( String value ){ . PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs... It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method.2.. private String b. by default. non transient field will be automatically bound. then. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process.. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD.e.. Any protected.. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType.. } public String getA(){ . @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. or public fields. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting.NONE ) . You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. } public void setB( String value ){ . and methods getFoo and setFoo... with one member explicitly annotated as an element. all public members will be bound. public SomeClass(){ .. Member getB is blocked from being bound.6.. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. say foo. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. public getter and setter pairs. If FIELD is set every non static. PROPERTY. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a.

} public void setA( String value ){ . public SpecialClass(){ . XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair... private String b. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true...public class OtherClass { private String a. } public void setB( String value ){ ........ (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. return b. public OtherClass(){ .. } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ ... <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> . } } The generated complex type features both elements. with changes being made on the list object.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. } public String getA(){ . Second.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. First. } public String getA(){ .. which doesn't have its setB spouse. private List<String> b.. } public void setA( String value ){ .

as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes.2. permitting nothing by default.7. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. Once more. 6. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.2. In the . whether it is optional or nillable. e. This strategy may be generally permissive. because they are used as types for a field. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. It permits you to define the XML element name. the ones that are bound to schema elements. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation.class.e. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. this means that you can.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. Cat..class} ) class Animal { //. i.2. or restrictive. Within a class. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. 6. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class... the namespace. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. Here are two annotated fields.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together.. either at package level or at some superclass. } 6. oriented on fields or properties.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. respectively.g. a default value and the Java class.

@XmlElement(name = "Menu".7.class). the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say.class) }) protected List entryList. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". 6.2.class definition below. type = ItemType. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . type = CheckBoxType.class). @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. type = MenuType.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word.

-. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. the default being the class field's name.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.) JAXB. is a good example. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.Sentence isn't a simple type. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". with one element or attribute for each field. 6. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. making judicious use of both. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. public Price(){} @XmlElement .name defines the namestring for the attribute. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. Also. List<Sentence> word.7." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.2.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. of course. -. (If you look for guidance. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.2.7.) 6.

} public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this.g.amount = value. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // . or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123.: <price> <amount>123. too.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema. . the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer.7.2. } } If this type is used for some field.. e. 6.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.. } // .45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute...

println( "Title: " + mix. } return any.getTitle() ). MixtureType mix = doc.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u.Entry<QName. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.println( e.out.Object> e: amap.unmarshal( new File( "mixture. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. Map<QName.Object>.getAny(). private String title. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" .getValue().Object> any. System. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. for( Map.out.getKey() + "="" + e.Object>().getMixture().entrySet() ){ System.Object> amap = mix. Then.xml" ) ). DocumentType doc = jbe. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.getValue() + """ ).

w3c.2.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.bar="attribute of bar" 6.createUnmarshaller(). DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.xml. or an array or list of such elements. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.g. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>(). } . for( Element el: doc.getNodeName() + "->" + el. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.util.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.Element. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.println( el. e. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( DocumentType.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.dom.Element. return animals.class ). subsection DOM Elements. import javax.*.unmarshal( f ).annotation.dom.getZoo().*. Unmarshaller u = jc. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.7. cf.out.bind. import org.getAnimals() ){ System.getTextContent() ).w3c.

as indicated in the XML snippet below. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . For this.e. for the repeated element. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList().2. child elements embedded in the element's own data.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.7. public ParentType(){ . Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. and another one for the content text. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. you need some additional element bracketing.7. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.2. with one field for each element and attribute.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. or "wrapping". return item.. } } 6. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. i...

propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". which doesn't have mixed content any more. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. @XmlElementRef(name = "id".class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. type = JAXBElement. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling.class). Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". } return this. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". @XmlElementRef(name = "id".class). A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence.class).class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. @XmlElementRef(name = "code".content.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". slightly more specific than Object. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.

and by default. } public String value() { return value. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. } return this. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. are equally possible.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. } } This does.String but other types.lang.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").lang. this is java..2. For a straightforward enum type. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor..8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. Usually. 6.. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. in fact. // . even numeric ones. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.content. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . It has an optional element value of type java.. Its required element defines the XML representation string.

.equals(v)) { return c.value.class) . public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do.adapters.ApplType> from the package javax. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.e. <?xml version="1.toString()).bind.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.annotation.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.values()) { if (c. Also. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.xml. Such mappings require an adapter class. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. } } 6.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. i. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.2. To achieve our goal. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.

The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. the interesting class. return courses.courses.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). of course.Course> courses.toArray(new Course[c. and this is. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. courses. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. Course>(). @XmlElement String name.courses. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. In this method. for( Course c : value. @XmlAttribute Price price.size()]). public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses().id.carray ) b.carray = c. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array.public class Brochure { Map<String. Collection<Course> c = b.values(). return b.put( c. c ). .

If you need multiple mappings at package level. text. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.. 6.6.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf.. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. one defining TextType as a container for a string. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).String that is suited to be used as a key.. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.strbuf.lang. a StringBuffer is better than String. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. // . Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class.g. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. text. For this. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.2. . TextType elements are now StringBuffers. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String.e.append( " that Jack built.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf. i.toString().: TextType text = new TextType(). XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. Below are the essential Java classes.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" )." ).11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. which is the default mapping for xs:string. e.

.annotation. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. import javax. import javax. import javax. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ . } @XmlElement public String getName(){ . } public void setName( String value ){ .util...xml. In this case. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.HashSet.bind. the collection item type must contain an id field. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .....util. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ . public class Item { private String id. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list.bind.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.. } public void setId( String value ){ .*.. public Cluster(){ .*.annotation. } } import java.util.ArrayList. import java.bind..xml.*. } } package elset.util.Set. import java.annotation.xml. private String name. import java..List.. private String title.

private List<Item> items. } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ ...END --- .. } public void setTitle( String value ){ . public Document(){ .. private String title... } } --.... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ . } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ ...private Cluster cluster.. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ .

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