A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.2.12.1 Content: A Value 2.2.12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.4 Content: Alternative Elements 2.2.12.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements 2.2.12.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements 2.2.12.7 Mixed Content 2.2.12.8 No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2.16.1 DOM Elements 2.2.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields 6.2.7.1 The Annotation XmlElement 6.2.7.2 The Annotation XmlList 6.2.7.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute 6.2.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue 6.2.7.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute 6.2.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement 6.2.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper 6.2.7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

is contained in objects of a single type. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. In the DOM approach. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. however. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. a CDATA section. with a very high level of distinctiveness. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. linked according to the XML document's structure.10.List. etc. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. Values are invariably provided as strings.1 Introduction 1. The JAXB runtime library. Versions from 2.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. as compared to version 1. an attribute. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. Version 2. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements.) 1. with individual node objects containing an element. DOM data. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. the Simple API for XML.1. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs.util. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.

w3. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. -.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection. it's just here to give you the overall picture. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes.sun. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. -.obviously an area for experts. <?xml version="1.xsd defines the structure of our document. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. The XML Schema on hello.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. which is to contain a series of salutations.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . Some of these features are: -.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. 1.The XML Schema generator schemagen.

xml. grList.newInstance( "hello" ).*.*.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. xjc -p hello hello. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.setText( t ). import javax. } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. private GreetingListType grList.createGreetings( grList ).setLanguage( l ). } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. with a call to marshal.*. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute. System.createMarshaller()... GreetingListType.getGreeting().util. import hello. Finally. Marshaller m = jc..createGreetingListType(). and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.createGreetingType(). Here's a sequence of these calls: .bind. defining the package name hello for the generated classes. g.out ). the list is wrapped in its XML element. i. grList = of. import java.e. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. } public void make( String t. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory().marshal( gl. m.add( g ). } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . The class Hello shows how to use them. g.

madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . madame". for better readability. formatted.Hello h = new Hello(). h.make( "Bonjour.marshal(). <?xml version="1.make( "Hey. h. "fr" ). "en" ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. you". The output is shown below. h.

For child elements. and for references and other XML constructs. strings. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. This (or some other name.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. dates and times. booleans. with xsd as the namespace identifier. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by .com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. URIs. structure (or record) and union. Type information deals with the definition of structure.e. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). i. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. and to define a pattern for a string type.w3. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. such as lists or maps. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB.sun.g.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. to limit the precision. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array.. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. If used.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. e. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. Although all data in XML is text. This is done by adding so-called facets. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns.. the composition of document nodes. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. list. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. Other facets. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents.0"> 2. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. to enumerate all legal values. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. however. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. <xsd:union>.

Leaving double and float aside. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation.validation.the JAXB schema compiler xjc..2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. For brevity and clarity. required = true) protected int group. 2. you might ask. } // . 2.BigDecimal. you'll see simple get and set methods. Doing away with fractional digits.group = value.xml. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used..2. If you peek into one of these class definitions. There is one Java type providing just that: java. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. perhaps... public int getGroup() { return group. } Where is.. According to the XML Schema definition.2. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. // ..math. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. created from your XML schema.Schema object. we .

With xsd:unsignedInt.math.but only for descendants of Object. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. . long _long. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value .e. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. another one for their obscure cousins.BigInteger must be used. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. For xsd:unsignedLong. simplified for better readability. which still has an unspecified number of digits. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. nil.. there is no fitting simple type. BigInteger integer. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. and therefore this type maps to java. hence java. int _int. i. JAXB reverts to simple types. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. it has to be represented by java. Short shortNil. short for xsd:unsignedByte. Below the integer type.math. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent.BigInteger. too. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this.g. e. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. using the smallest type capable of holding all values.. This adds another value to the set of possible values.math. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers.arrive at xsd:integer.BigInteger.

public int getCounter() { return counter. it's quite a zoo indeed. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code.decimal = value. long unsignedInt. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. protected int counter. For some element such as counter.counter = value. // .. So. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. BigInteger nonNegative. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes..3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. BigInteger unsignedLong.. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. } Well. of course. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this.2. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. } 2. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType..

lang.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again.xml. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. Once more. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date.GregorianCalendar. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.datatype. 2. alternatives and grouping.util.2. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.2.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. . The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. 2. Java's own java. no Java class is required for DirType. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. This class is in the package javax. (Do not confuse this with java.String is used. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.

newInstance().MINUTE ).setTime( gcTime ). DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.setDate( gcDate ). } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time.get( Calendar. now.DAY_OF_MONTH ). some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). // no fraction DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar. DateTimeType meta = of.get( Calendar. now.get( Calendar. not possible to omit seconds entirely. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.time = value.date = value.YEAR ). GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar(). now.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . however. } } However. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. meta.createDateTimeType(). // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).get( Calendar.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. meta.HOUR_OF_DAY ). null.MONTH ).SECOND ). now. It is. DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects.

} } 2.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. A sample schema declaration is shown below.2. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. public byte[] getData() { return data. Using NumberListType as an attribute . so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. use an xsd:list. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. 2.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. for inclusion in an XML file.data = ((byte[]) value).2. still be represented in printable characters. as shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. All conversions are handled by JAXB.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations.

2.2. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). } // . } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". 2.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string.. } return this. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.numbers. // . protected List<Integer> numbers.. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community... 2. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. separated by white space. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum.."/>.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . .. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code...

VGS80. public String value() { return name(). private final String value... <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . VGS_80("VGS80"). you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. IXLType(String v) { value = v. } public String value() { return value. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . as shown below.. eStwS. SpDrS. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. E_STW_S("eStwS"). </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings.. } . SpDrL.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. for each enum constant name. public enum IXLType { eStwA. SP_DR_L("SpDrL").

11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType.2. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.pos = value. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. } else { return pos. 2.2. even if they do not have content. . The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.value. Try to avoid xsd:union. 2. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. protected String dir. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types.

1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. So.2.2. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type.e. i. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. 2. //. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. or one or more subordinate elements. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. "Doc").. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null..12. the one describing the containing element. } public void setDir(String value) { this. except for list types. simply because there is no such element.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . this element itself and its siblings. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. Obviously. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). The xsd:element defines the XML tag.. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and.dir = value.} public String getDir() { return dir. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. or even a combination of both. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null.

2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.12. (The default for both is 1.. } public void setY(int value) { this. null. } // . <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.class. 2. value). public int getX() { return x.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent . } } 2.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.x = value.. DocType.y = value.2. protected int y.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. } public void setX(int value) { this. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.2. public class PointType { protected int x.12.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. } public int getY() { return y.

2..12. } // . but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. soup. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. There is. entree. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. however. 2. . the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter.(more getters and setters) } Here. dessert..starter = value. public String getStarter() { return starter. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives.

5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. } // . Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. and for all similar element lists. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. public String getSMS() { return sms. a java.util. 2.public class CommType { protected String sms. Various combinations are possible. may contain any number of elements. protected String email.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon.2. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down.List is used. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. or a fixed number. Also. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { ..sms = value. Here. There is.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. protected String mms.. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. for instance. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements.12.

in the same Java code. } return this.textOrNumberOrPoint.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. 2.util. } return this. adds another point.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). therefore.List may be applied to the returned value.getPoints().12. All methods defined in java. or you may use addAll for bulk additions.points. .lang. Obviously. 9 ) ).Serializable. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. The list can be added to one by one. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.lang.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. Other possibilities are java.2. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.Object will do.add( new PointType( 4.Most importantly. Sometimes only java. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. code like this polygon. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct.

.: for( Object o: mix.. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . Also. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). type xsd:string. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>.bind. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . For one thing.. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. after the third sub-element.xml. say. mercifully. If we add another element of. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning.g..You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy.. } . cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o.. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax.getClass() ).) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. e.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType.

getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.return this.. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. in italics or underlined.. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.12. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . (other alternatives) } } Again. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.getValue(). // .getName().textOrNumberOrPoint. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. (process) } else if( "Number"... for( JAXBElement je: mix. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. // . } } Consequently. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements..7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.getValue(). if( "Text". a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. // ... One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.2. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. 2.getLocalPart(). (process) } else if( //.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je.. to be rendered in boldface. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees.

lang.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). I and U.Serializable. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.content. As we already know. System. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.out.out. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. } return this. and.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getValue().getName(). ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). } return this. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).getLocalPart(). dumpChunk( chunk ).getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.p. System. The generic list type now happens to be java. indeed. we did use ChunkType with B. as ChunkType features just one method getContent. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". } .print( (String)s ). this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.out. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>().

.. even though its value could be the empty string. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element.. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. } 2. which can not be omitted.w3. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. nillable = true) protected String c. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. required = true) protected String a. the characterless thing. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. in general. not a good idea. for( ChunkType c: text. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>.12. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. @XmlElement(name = "C".. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A".) <demo> <A></A> <!-. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance.(process a text) TextType text = . Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present.2.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. However..} } //. required = true..

a = value.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. radio buttons and sub-menus.2.. } public void setA(String value) { this. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. } // .. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type. check boxes. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .public String getA() { return a. (more getters and setters like this) } 2.

however.. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. Before we look at the generated Java code. // . // . we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. including itself. // . setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.CheckBoxType extends ItemType.(isState..<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -. Group is the button group's identification.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. again adding some attributes. public class EntryType { protected String text. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box.. -. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. -. -.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType.(getCommand.. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.(getText.. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { .. The JAXB compiler.

and that's why we have to be content with a list. . The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. literally. // . JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. protected String value. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. } } 2. } return this.protected String group. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType..util.List<EntryType>. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. which contains a java.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. Below is a simple example.2. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. reverse engineered the common superclass.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. protected String operator. protected Boolean state.

bt. m. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes.content. } public String getOperator() { return operator.add( op2 ). The elements of the group may have different types. This is what we have in the example.createMarshaller(). bt.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). A PosType element represents a position in an order. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.marshal( jbe.getContent(). } public void setOperator(String value) { this. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. } return this.createConstant( "3. Marshaller m = ctxt. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). This type.createVariable( "d" ). JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of.createBinopType().add( op1 ). BinopType bt = of. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.createBinop( bt ).out ).14" ). which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true". true ). m. but they must be derived from the same base type. bt.setOperator( "*" ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.getContent(). And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1.setProperty( Marshaller.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. . however. System. is conceptually an abstract type. JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. either by restriction or by extension.newInstance( "generated" ).operator = value. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.

<?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.w3.sun.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .

} public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. protected int quantity. protected int price.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). // . We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type.. returning an object whose type is ItemType. Here is the skeleton of this class: .. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. element construction is a tad more complicated.. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. And finally there is createItem. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title.. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. Also.. // .<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. (more getters and setters) } Once again.. // ... where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. parameterized with BookType or DiskType. } // . (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. and its use as the generic type parameter.

} public PosType createPosType() { . } public DiskType createDiskType() { . Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.createOrderType().public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .. List<PosType> listPos = st..createDiskType().. // createItem for BookType p1.createDisk( dk ) ). PosType p1 = of.setDuration( 50 ).createPosType()..setQuantity( 2 ).setPrice( 120 ). PosType p2 = of.createItem( bk ) ).setItem( of.setItem() Looking at this table.add( p2 ). . bk. } public OrderType createOrderType() { .getPos(). Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().setItem( of. listPos...setItem() PosType. p1..createBookType(). bk.. listPos. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. // Create an order OrderType st = of.createPosType(). dk. // Order a disk. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { .add( p1 ).setPages( 832 )..setQuantity( 1 ).. DiskType dk = of. BookType bk = of.setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { .... bk. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { . } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { .setPrice( 20 ).setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ).setItem() PosType. dk. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.. // Order two copies of a book. // createDisk p2. p2.. dk..

getClass().getTitle() + " " + p.xml. System.createOrder( st ). along with the lengthy namespace declaration.getName(). OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. String tag = p.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.getItem(). System. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.getValue().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.println( tag + " " + item. The tag is represented as an object of class javax. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous. for( PosType p: order.getValue().xml" ) ). . JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.out. <?xml version="1.w3.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.getLocalPart(). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.namespace.println( item.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.out.getSimpleName() ). In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.getItem().getQuantity() ).

aren't they) into all places where it is used. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. i. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. This can be put to good use in several circumstances.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF.2..e. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. An AirportType element is presented only once. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. They let you represent references to XML elements. in full.

as the string implementing the XML link. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. } // .. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.getTo()). to retrieve the origin of some flight. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout.. So. String carrier.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime.to = value. Object to.from = value. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime. } public Object getTo() { return to. public Object getFrom() { return from.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. int number.

(Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. Nevertheless.references. in general. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. The example given below is for railway buffs. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. graphs. lists or. same thing. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or.

perhaps in a category of its own.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. because. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. } } But wait . but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. by definition. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. as the "null" element. i. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. } public Object getWest() { return west. public Object getEast() { return east. there must be some element where that string is an id value.e. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> .east = value. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated.west = value. Again. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. protected Object west.. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours.

2. To see how this is handled in JAXB.lang. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value .Object (which would be .lang. i.2. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived.e.g. In the XML file you would have one extra element.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2. e. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values.. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value. } } But what will be the class of the Content . too. the Null element as shown below. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content. Its name is distinction enough.16.perhaps Id="null" . public Object getContent() { return content. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.if not java.content = value.Object. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. but we might just as well use some null values there..

We'll assume that we have several document definitions.getContent(). then what? Well.: Element content = (Element)bag.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.dom. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. if you really have to. class apache.. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.Element.. .16.Object.e.. // . Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. String tag = content. Node<List> = content..dom.Node. i.obtuse).ElementNSImpl.lang.w3c.getChildNodes()..2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.w3c. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.w3c. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). 2.xerces.dom.getTagName().more DOM accesses.internal.dom. the actual class doesn't really matter . This means that.2. e. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.the important thing is that it implements org. which is a subinterface of org.g.

// Prepare a JAXBElement.setComm( hearsay ). // Let's have some hearsay.unmarshal( f ). QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process.2. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u. ).(investigate other possibilities).w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.getComm().. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.w3. CommType.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).getValue().org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example. HearsayType hearsay = of. hearsay.createHearsayType(). Harper does naughty things.w3..0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.." ).createCommType().. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> . In fact. comm.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1. comm ).w3. } else { // . CommType comm = (CommType)je.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www. } 2.class.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm. CommType comm = of.setText( "Mr.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.. comm.. Harper does naughty things. if( comm.w3.// Create the container object. ready for marshalling.

// Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. // Get the image from the content tree. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly. 0. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics.createItemType(). JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. -1..3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. Well..getJPEGPicture(). and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. 0. Unmarshalling is just as simple.createPicture( itemEl ).getValue(). Image img = bimg. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO.drawImage() with this object as the first argument.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . Moreover. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.3. itemEl. Image img = jbe. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data.. More importantly.SCALE_DEFAULT ). null )..<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required.read( imgFile ).setJPEGPicture( img ). JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.. // Draw it Graphics g = . g.getScaledInstance( 512. anonymous types result in some inner class.drawImage( img. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. Image. For one thing. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .

in a separate schema file.(getters and setters) } 2. Note that PurchaseOrderType... and re-used from there wherever they are required. protected AddressType billTo.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type.item. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. } public static class Item { protected String productName.. protected List<PurchaseOrderType.Item> item.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. protected String partNum. } return this. they should be written once.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. . protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. If the documents share common XML types. protected BigDecimal price. // . to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. protected BigInteger quantity. // .3.Item>()..

common and org.: <?xml version="1.<?xml version="1..0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy. . The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema . and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/common" schemaLocation="common.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy. e.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. resulting in org.astronomy.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type..0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.g.w3. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.astronomy..> .xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.w3..solarsystem.

" specifying the group's given name.astronomy. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().marshal( sol. m..createSolarSystem().createPlanetType(). 2.3. // Create a solar system. System. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org.out ). e. Add planets. use the attribute ref=".marshal( jbe.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.createPlanet( planet ). by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default.solarsystem. 2.g.3. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. Given the complex type ItemType.. //. If an XML schema is extended... //.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. // Create a single planet instance document. System. This may be regretted.out ). respectively. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.. SolarSystem sol = of.createMarshaller(). PlanetType planet = of. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. Marshaller m = context.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. m. 2..3. it is possible to define . you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

if( p. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this.class.class. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.isResident() ){ process( p.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.class. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv.get( obj. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.handle( obj ).getChild ). ChildType.put( ourClass2Conv. process( p. AddrType.put( //. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.class. new ChildHandler() ).getHandler( obj ). NameType.getAddr() ).process( obj ). new PersonHandler() ).</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.getClass() ).put( ourClass2Conv. static { ourClass2Conv. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. if( h != null ){ h. new NameHandler() ). h. .Handler>(). } processList( p. public abstract void handle( Object o ).put( ourClass2Conv.getName() ).. } PersonType. new AddrHandler() ).

process( obj ). SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory.getHandler( obj ). enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. 3. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>.getValue(). Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). } Handler h = this. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. h. } } Finally. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. First.newInstance( XMLConstants. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.validation. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl(). try { . the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). if the tag is required for processing as well. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. Don't make such a map global.xml.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list.

int column = vel.newSchema( file ). int line = vel." + column + ": " + msg ). Basically that's all there is to it. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.getLineNumber(). The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.. 3.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.(error handling) mySchema = null. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.newInstance( packagePath ). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. Unmarshaller u = jc. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed.xml. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register.getMessage().setEventHandler( vec ).xml.4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). you pass it the schema.println( origin + ": " + line + ". an UnmarshalException (from javax. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document.. If you want to continue as long as possible.mySchema = sf. as explained in the next section.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve. If you'd like to create your own error messages. or at least as many as possible but. we might write: . alas.bind) is thrown. System.bind. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . u.getLocator().setSchema( mySchema ). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. If the XML data validation fails. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. u.getColumnNumber(). it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.createUnmarshaller().err.

g. earlier in this chapter.newInstance( Foo.Boo Foo.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. u.newInstance( "some foo:more. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. Bar. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. recursively.Unmarshaller u = jc. such as the types of instance variables. Usually.: # package some. For JAXB annotated Java code.Foo Foo # inner class some.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.foo # class some. .foo. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso.index.Foo. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. are not included.createUnmarshaller().class.bar" ). and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. you may use the package path form as well.setEventHandler( this ). an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.foo.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. all static references. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. e. however. 3.class ). Subclasses.

ModuleType module = objFact..createRulebaseType(). // . List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.createFooBarType()..createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact. . // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>...</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact. fbList.1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory.4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.createRulebase( rulebase ). A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags. // Add it to its parent's list.createModuleType(). It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object.createFooBarListType(). // Add it to its parent's list.add( fooElem ).add( barElem ).. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact.createFooBarType(). Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase". fbList. // .. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call.. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory().getFooOrBar(). FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings..

for instance. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. without any actual XML content. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. the data is in post-order.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. as you can create.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. If. 4. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.

. // Complete customer. Item[] items = . Append (add) it to the List<X>.setX( xElem ).setId( item. itemList. itemElem.setCustomer( custElem ). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. with a call to the getter current.createItemType(). // Data for an order int custId = . itemElem. of course..setQuantity( item. It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact.. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly. Add this object to the current element..createOrderType(). with a setter call current. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.add( orderElem ).id ). You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. This is..getItems().qtty ).getX(). } ... Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. simply to be repeated for other child elements. folder.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. // Create and insert the customer element.setId( custId ).. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.getOrders().createCustomerType(). // Create and add item elements. custElem. // Create order and insert in top-level document. custElem. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.add( itemElem ). CustomerType custElem = objFact.. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. orderElem. String custName = .setName( custName ).

even though . on the other hand. i. Here. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. You may.. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. the full.3. an order may either contain a full customer XML element.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. of course. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. Our example is a variation of the order data. inline customer element. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. IDREF) 4. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. On the one hand. we have the classes representing XML elements.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. 4. and. (In the example there is ItemType and Item.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group.e. or for a customer reference. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection.

custref = value. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. String custId. Map<String. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.setId( custId ). } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. public void addCust( OrderType order. protected Object custref. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. where we'll use the second method.customer = value. protected List items.items.get( custId ). } return this.CustomerType>(). cust = oFact.setCustomer( cust ). public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. Continuing our example. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. too. // complete customer cust. .createCustomerType(). order. This means that the full elements must be added separately. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references.

cust. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. however.3. // save in map id2cust. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null..put( custId. Memory addresses . hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. } else { order. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. the "id" string.e. We create a CustomerType object.setName( custName ).setCustref( cust ). 4. cust ).the convenient material for references . But . Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. <?xml version="1. This key is also used as a key in the map.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. JAXB.aren't useful in an XML text file. where we keep that element for future reference. If the customer lookup returns an object. then we meet a customer for the first time. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. i.

<xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. Map<Address. To see how this works. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value.of type AddressType. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this.util) to register marshalled elements. This map uses the object's default hash code.AddressType>(). The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. .what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. even if hashCode has been overridden. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. Also.

setId( makeNextId() ).id pair in the identity hash map. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. may have to use this rather extreme technique. All in all.util.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. arElem. Special dumps of application data. arElem.Serializable interface.and insert it into its parent. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem.setAddrRef( addrElem ). provided that the class of the object implements the java. // . addrElem = objFact.get( addrPojo ). 4.setAddr( addrElem ). // . we map these to assembled AddressType objects..).(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. } return arElem. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. But the need does arise occasionally. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element.. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. } Using Address objects as keys. pojo2elem.. addrElem ). it is surprisingly simple.. // Set the xsd:ID attribute.createAddressType()..createAddrOrRefType(). the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object.. For an encore.int refcount = 0. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. // Register the object .put( addrPojo.. addrElem.. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. for instance. which is just what .

0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www.*.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. return pojo. Here it is. you might set a number of properties. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). ooStream..io.flush(). String pathname ) . import java. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. joElem.bind.w3. Object pojo = oiStream.xml.* void writeDocument( Object document. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem.close(). } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. such as the one that's used below.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. ooStream. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. oiStream.io. or a JAXBElement<?>. import javax. ooStream.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject.getData() ).writeObject( pojo ). which requests nice formatting of the XML text. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact.setData( baos.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.close(). return joElem. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. as defined by your schema. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. } 4.createJavaObjectType().we need for calling the java.readObject().toByteArray() ). The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). or the encoding in the XML prolog. Then.

You could.getPackage(). . } To use it.getName() ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. m. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context.marshal( document. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. IOException { Class<T> clazz = document.createMarshaller(). o ). The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. A generic solution is presented below. Class<?> clazz = o. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. String tag. of course. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. Marshaller m = context. st ).throws JAXBException. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. "someTag". System. m. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.getClass(). but this is cumbersome. tag ).com". m..marshal( jbx. Boolean..acme.out ). clazz.TRUE ).newInstance( clazz.. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ).getClass().getValue().setProperty( Marshaller. return jbe.

ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. By default. </jaxb:bindings> . A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. 5. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated.0"> .ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings.5 Customizing 5.xsd This. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.. ususally of file type . however.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files.sun..xjb. One of these things is the package name. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.: xjc -p jess. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler.

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.w3. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1.xjb -d gen-src RuleML. the outermost element of an XML schema. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.sun. 5. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.sun.

) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . using an jxb:property element. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.List.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. i. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.e. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. believe me. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java. it is replaced by Clazz.. (Arguably this isn't good XML design.util. you can request your own substitute. it does happen.util. If you don't fancy this. But. For this one. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem.

as part of the type definition in your schema.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java. <?xml version="1.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.. 5. Documentation is probably best written inline.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: ...w3.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.sun. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . by renaming either element: . this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file.

".) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.code>GlobalType&lt. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation.e... Java class for GlobalType complex type. see below. i. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. . </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*').. you add a child as shown in the example below. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. For either of these schema components. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. <xsd:schema> ." and "&amp.

including their subordinate elements..parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring. import javax. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.bind.intern(). is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do.jessrules. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings.DatatypeConverter. First. 5.parseString( value ). but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.StringInterner. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.xml. } . So. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string.

Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.HashMap.util.put( 'D'. as in the next example. 5.Entry<Character. 500. 1 }.put( 'I'. For this.4}L?X{. 5.util.put( 'L'.put( 'V'. rom2int. } .1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. 10 ). 500 ).Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. entry. rom2int.6. rom2int.Integer>().Character>().put( 'C'. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. 50 ).getValue().4}V?I{. 100.put( 'M'. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{.put( entry.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. import java. rom2int. package util. 1 ). it is possible to customize the datatype binding. 100 ).entrySet() ){ int2rom.put( 'X'.Integer> entry: rom2int.Map. rom2int. 10.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument.getKey() ).roman. static { rom2int. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value. private static Map<Integer. for( Map. import java. 50. we have to write a simple class like the one given below. rom2int. 5 ). 1000 ).

for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d. . i++ ){ result += rom2int. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.bind. <?xml version="1. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.xml.roman.charAt( i ) ).6.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. for( int i = 0.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun. } return result.append( int2rom.toString().DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. i < value. but the methods must be static. } } return sb. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.w3.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.RomanNumberConverter.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.get( d ) ).get( value.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.RomanNumberConverter.length().org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder().roman. You may choose any names you like.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. sb. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

program = program. public class KeyType { public String event. } } public class EntryType { public String program.event = event. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.xml.. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists. public String artists.. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. this. import java.util. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> . XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes.*.datatype.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.xml. import java. import javax. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event.Map.<?xml version="1.EntryType>().datetime = datetime. this.HashMap. public DocType(){ } } import javax.annotation. String program ){ this.artists = artists.*. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.util. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .bind.V>.

@javax. 6. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. requesting that the elements title.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime.2.xml.annotation. Below is an example. "cluster" } ) public class Document { .bind. "items".2..laune.java situated in the package. It must be written on a file package-info. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.E. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. according to the Schema Datatypes specification.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.) Here is an example for XmlType. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. and key data from value data.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements..at/hospital". You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. } 6. . It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right.

elementFormDefault = javax. Therefore.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.QUALIFIED) package hospital.xml. 6. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME.xml. } .bind. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.at/hospital".laune. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element. namespaceURI = "http://www... This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation. null. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.class. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.bind. annotated with XmlRegistry.w3.annotation.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.laune. TreeType.laune. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .xml.annotation.laune.at/med" ) }. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.xml.XmlNsForm. xmlns = { @javax.annotation. value). The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.2.XmlNs( prefix = "med".XmlNsForm. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.bind.bind.QUALIFIED) package hospital. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.annotation. elementFormDefault = javax.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.laune.

It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. private String b. } public String getA(){ . setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. non transient field will be automatically bound. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. all public members will be bound.e.. public SomeClass(){ .. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ ..2. or public fields.6.. by default. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. PROPERTY. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. If FIELD is set every non static. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType..NONE ) . package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. i.. and methods getFoo and setFoo. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. } public void setB( String value ){ ... Member getB is blocked from being bound. } public void setA( String value ){ . You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. then.. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. public getter and setter pairs... PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. say foo. Any protected. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.

with changes being made on the list object.. } } The generated complex type features both elements. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>().. } public String getA(){ .. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. public SpecialClass(){ .. private String b. } public void setA( String value ){ . } public void setB( String value ){ . } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ .... the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances.. return b. Second.... } public void setA( String value ){ . private List<String> b... which doesn't have its setB spouse. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>.. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. First.public class OtherClass { private String a. public OtherClass(){ . <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. } public String getA(){ ..

required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. In the . <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type.2.2. oriented on fields or properties. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. Here are two annotated fields. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. 6. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble".. a default value and the Java class. Once more.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. It permits you to define the XML element name.class. permitting nothing by default. This strategy may be generally permissive.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. the namespace. i.7. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. e..2. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". respectively. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. 6.. Within a class. the ones that are bound to schema elements. } 6.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. either at package level or at some superclass. this means that you can.e. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. Cat. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace.. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. because they are used as types for a field.g. whether it is optional or nillable.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together.class} ) class Animal { //. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. or restrictive.

class) }) protected List entryList. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . 6. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. type = CheckBoxType. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. type = ItemType.7.class definition below. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".class). } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.2. type = MenuType.class). the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".

(The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.name defines the namestring for the attribute.2. the default being the class field's name. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -.7. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself.Sentence isn't a simple type. -.7. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. List<Sentence> word. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value.2.) JAXB. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. -. making judicious use of both. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. is a good example. (If you look for guidance. public Price(){} @XmlElement . 6.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. with one element or attribute for each field. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. Also.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. of course.) 6.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid .

the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. too. e. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.2. } } If this type is used for some field. } // .g.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. 6.. . } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123.amount = value.: <price> <amount>123.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema...45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute.7.

Entry<QName.getValue().Object> any.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.println( "Title: " + mix.unmarshal( new File( "mixture. private String title. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.getMixture(). public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. Map<QName.out. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title. Then. } return any. System.println( e. MixtureType mix = doc. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.getTitle() ).getKey() + "="" + e.Object> e: amap.out. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" .getValue() + """ ).entrySet() ){ System. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object. for( Map.Object> amap = mix.getAny().xml" ) ).Object>.Object>().It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. DocumentType doc = jbe. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u.

DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>(). return animals. } .getZoo().out.bar="attribute of bar" 6.w3c.g.newInstance( DocumentType.createUnmarshaller().bind. Unmarshaller u = jc.getAnimals() ){ System. subsection DOM Elements.2.getTextContent() ). for( Element el: doc. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.class ).: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType. or an array or list of such elements. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.getNodeName() + "->" + el. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. import javax.println( el.annotation.*.unmarshal( f ).util. e. cf.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.Element.*.dom.7. import org. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.xml.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.Element.dom.w3c.

2. with one field for each element and attribute. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). and another one for the content text. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.. you need some additional element bracketing. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef.7. child elements embedded in the element's own data.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. } } 6.. or "wrapping".The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. public ParentType(){ .2. i. for the repeated element. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . as indicated in the XML snippet below. For this. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. return item.e.

} return this.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously.class). you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. type = JAXBElement. slightly more specific than Object. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". @XmlElementRef(name = "id".To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. which doesn't have mixed content any more. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { .class).class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). @XmlElementRef(name = "code".FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content.content.class). propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.

content. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").lang. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1")..(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. and by default. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.. are equally possible. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //.. } public String value() { return value. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { .lang. 6.2. even numeric ones. For a straightforward enum type.. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below. Usually.String but other types.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. this is java. Its required element defines the XML representation string.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). It has an optional element value of type java. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. in fact. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. } } This does. } return this. // .8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum.

The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.adapters. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b.equals(v)) { return c.annotation.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.value.values()) { if (c. Also. } } 6. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects. To achieve our goal.e. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.ApplType> from the package javax.bind. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123. <?xml version="1.2. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.. Such mappings require an adapter class. i. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.class) .xml.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.toString()). @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure.

courses. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array.public class Brochure { Map<String.put( c. the interesting class. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. Collection<Course> c = b.carray ) b. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. c ). public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. . It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. return courses. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.courses.carray = c.Course> courses. Course>(). } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. for( Course c : value. @XmlElement String name.size()]).toArray(new Course[c. @XmlAttribute Price price.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). and this is. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. return b. of course.values(). } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map.id. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. courses. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. In this method.

toString()." ). If you need multiple mappings at package level.g. Below are the essential Java classes. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. . Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java. text. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class..StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.lang.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. text. TextType elements are now StringBuffers. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer.e.2. which is the default mapping for xs:string.strbuf. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.2. 6.6. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package.. a StringBuffer is better than String. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation.: TextType text = new TextType(). Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String.String that is suited to be used as a key. // . either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. one defining TextType as a container for a string. e. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.append( " that Jack built.. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. For this. i. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).

The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list.xml.. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .Set.bind. import java. import java.. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .xml.List. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items. the collection item type must contain an id field.bind. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. } public void setName( String value ){ .HashSet. private String title.util. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .*.util. public Cluster(){ .. public class Item { private String id. } } package elset.ArrayList. import javax. In this case.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.annotation. private String name.bind. } } import java...util.. import javax. } public void setId( String value ){ . @XmlRootElement public class Document { .annotation. import java..*..util.annotation.. import javax....xml.*.

. private String title..... } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ . } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ . private List<Item> items. } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ .... } } --.END --- . } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ ....private Cluster cluster.. public Document(){ .

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