A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

with individual node objects containing an element.List. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. is contained in objects of a single type. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. The JAXB runtime library.) 1. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2.util.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . Values are invariably provided as strings. an attribute. Versions from 2. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. with a very high level of distinctiveness.1. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. however. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. In the DOM approach. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. etc. linked according to the XML document's structure.10. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. as compared to version 1. DOM data. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. Version 2. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. a CDATA section. the Simple API for XML.1 Introduction 1.

which is to contain a series of salutations. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. 1. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.The XML Schema generator schemagen. -.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.xsd defines the structure of our document. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. -.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. it's just here to give you the overall picture.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins .org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. <?xml version="1.sun. The XML Schema on hello. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.w3. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. Some of these features are: -. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.obviously an area for experts.

with a call to marshal. } public void make( String t. GreetingListType. i. defining the package name hello for the generated classes. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. grList = of.*. m. import java. import javax. Finally.createGreetings( grList ).marshal( gl.setLanguage( l )..*. g. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.newInstance( "hello" ). Marshaller m = jc. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.setText( t ). } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory().e. Here's a sequence of these calls: .xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello.createGreetingType().add( g ). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.getGreeting(). The class Hello shows how to use them.createMarshaller().xml. System.. grList. xjc -p hello hello. import hello.bind. g. private GreetingListType grList.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler.util.*.out ). String l ){ GreetingType g = of. the list is wrapped in its XML element.createGreetingListType().

madame". you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . h.make( "Hey. h.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour.marshal(). <?xml version="1. h.make( "Bonjour. "en" ). for better readability. formatted. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. you". The output is shown below.Hello h = new Hello(). "fr" ).

Type information deals with the definition of structure.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. If used. such as lists or maps. and to define a pattern for a string type. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. i. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. dates and times. This (or some other name. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both.w3. the composition of document nodes. to enumerate all legal values. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type.. e.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. to limit the precision. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by .0"> 2.. Other facets. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. For child elements.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. with xsd as the namespace identifier. URIs. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns.e. booleans. however. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. list.g. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). strings. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. Although all data in XML is text. <xsd:union>. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. This is done by adding so-called facets. structure (or record) and union. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.sun. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. and for references and other XML constructs. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths.

JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax.. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. 2. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. There is one Java type providing just that: java. If you peek into one of these class definitions.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type.. Leaving double and float aside. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations.2. public int getGroup() { return group. } // .. we . 2. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation.. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. According to the XML Schema definition. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".2. created from your XML schema.Schema object. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. required = true) protected int group.group = value.xml. perhaps. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection..the JAXB schema compiler xjc. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and.validation. Doing away with fractional digits.math. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes. you might ask. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. For brevity and clarity..BigDecimal. } Where is. you'll see simple get and set methods. // .

Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. long _long. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges.arrive at xsd:integer. there is no fitting simple type. it has to be represented by java. BigInteger integer. With xsd:unsignedInt.math. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. i. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. Short shortNil. short for xsd:unsignedByte. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. simplified for better readability...math. e. which still has an unspecified number of digits. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this.math.BigInteger. another one for their obscure cousins. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. too. and therefore this type maps to java.e.g.BigInteger. . indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. Below the integer type. For xsd:unsignedLong. hence java. nil. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value .BigInteger must be used. This adds another value to the set of possible values. JAXB reverts to simple types. int _int.but only for descendants of Object.

For some element such as counter.counter = value.2. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. BigInteger nonNegative. So. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int.. } Well.. long unsignedInt. of course. it's quite a zoo indeed. BigInteger unsignedLong. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType.. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. public int getCounter() { return counter. // . protected int counter. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. } 2.. } public void setCounter(int value) { this.decimal = value.

GregorianCalendar. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. This class is in the package javax. Java's own java. no Java class is required for DirType. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.util. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. alternatives and grouping. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date.String is used. (Do not confuse this with java. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. 2. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.2.datatype.2. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. 2.lang. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.xml. Once more. .

get( Calendar.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. now.date = value. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().get( Calendar. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time.time = value. now. DatatypeConstants. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.setDate( gcDate ). now.get( Calendar. not possible to omit seconds entirely. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: .HOUR_OF_DAY ).MINUTE ).newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. meta. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). DateTimeType meta = of. } } However.get( Calendar.SECOND ). } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.get( Calendar. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.newInstance(). // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date.MONTH ). null. It is. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.setTime( gcTime ). meta.get( Calendar. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).createDateTimeType(). // no fraction DatatypeConstants. now.DAY_OF_MONTH ).YEAR ). This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). however.

<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. use an xsd:list. A sample schema declaration is shown below. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary.2. Using NumberListType as an attribute . as shown below. 2. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. for inclusion in an XML file.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. still be represented in printable characters.2.data = ((byte[]) value). public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. All conversions are handled by JAXB. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. public byte[] getData() { return data. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. } } 2. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type.

// . Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. protected List<Integer> numbers. } return this... unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space.. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. separated by white space. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-. } // . . } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created.2.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // .dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. 2. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list... The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. 2..numbers.2.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType="."/>..

eStwS.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant.. E_STW_S("eStwS"). VGS80.. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified ... IXLType(String v) { value = v. VGS_80("VGS80"). } . public enum IXLType { eStwA. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . public String value() { return name(). for each enum constant name. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. SpDrL. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). } public String value() { return value. as shown below. SpDrS. private final String value.

10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.2.value. Try to avoid xsd:union. 2. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. } else { return pos. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types.pos = value. protected String dir. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. even if they do not have content. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. 2. .2. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1.

//. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). } public void setDir(String value) { this. simply because there is no such element. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". The xsd:element defines the XML tag.. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element.2. or one or more subordinate elements.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value.} public String getDir() { return dir. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null. or even a combination of both. the one describing the containing element. this element itself and its siblings. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type.2.dir = value.. 2. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. Obviously. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null.. except for list types.e. "Doc").12. i. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. So.

.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.class.2.12.x = value.12. protected int y. public class PointType { protected int x. } } 2.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.y = value.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. public int getX() { return x. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward. } public void setY(int value) { this. } // . null. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. value). } public void setX(int value) { this. 2.2. } public int getY() { return y.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. DocType. (The default for both is 1.

12. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. however. soup. There is.(more getters and setters) } Here.2. 2. entree. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1.starter = value. public String getStarter() { return starter. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. . the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. dessert.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all..4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. } // ..

nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. protected String email. There is.util. Here.12. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. and for all similar element lists. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. or a fixed number.2. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements..List is used.sms = value. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. a java. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. Also.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. } // . 2. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . public String getSMS() { return sms.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down.public class CommType { protected String sms.. protected String mms. Various combinations are possible. may contain any number of elements. for instance.

) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. 9 ) ).Serializable. code like this polygon.List may be applied to the returned value. Other possibilities are java. All methods defined in java. } return this.12. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.points. } return this.lang. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements.getPoints().lang.util.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>().add( new PointType( 4. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. adds another point. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created.Object will do. Sometimes only java.textOrNumberOrPoint. therefore. 2. in the same Java code.2. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. The list can be added to one by one. . Obviously. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.Most importantly.

getClass() ). the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax. type xsd:string. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // .getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // .g. say.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. If we add another element of. mercifully. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones..: for( Object o: mix..You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator. e. Also. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style... even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. } . cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . after the third sub-element. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>.xml.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. For one thing. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>().bind...

in italics or underlined. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element.getValue(). where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. to be rendered in boldface. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements... (process) } else if( //.getLocalPart(). the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees..equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. // .textOrNumberOrPoint. 2. } } Consequently... // .. if( "Text". </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. (process) } else if( "Number". for( JAXBElement je: mix. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph. (other alternatives) } } Again.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.12.getValue()...2. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.getName().return this. // . See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements.

getLocalPart().print( ":" + tag + ")" ). ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.content. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getName().out. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s). System. The generic list type now happens to be java.getValue().lang. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). System. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags. indeed.out.print( (String)s ). dumpChunk( chunk ). As we already know. we did use ChunkType with B. } return this. I and U. } return this. as ChunkType features just one method getContent. } . public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System. and.Serializable. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content.out. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes".<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.p.

) <demo> <A></A> <!-. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. in general.w3.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. the characterless thing. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b.. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0".. . for( ChunkType c: text. } 2. even though its value could be the empty string. @XmlElement(name = "C".org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present..(process a text) TextType text = . required = true. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. nillable = true) protected String c.. required = true) protected String a. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www.12. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations.. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A".2. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical.} } //. which can not be omitted. However. not a good idea.

it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance..2. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. (more getters and setters like this) } 2. check boxes.a = value.public String getA() { return a. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. } // .. radio buttons and sub-menus. } public void setA(String value) { this.

Before we look at the generated Java code. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. The JAXB compiler.(getCommand.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. public class EntryType { protected String text.(getText.. again adding some attributes. including itself. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. -. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list. -...CheckBoxType extends ItemType.. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. however. Group is the button group's identification. // . // . // . A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type.(isState. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. -. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command..MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.

protected String operator. and that's why we have to be content with a list. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document.. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. which contains a java.2. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). literally. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. } return this. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.. protected Boolean state.protected String group. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. reverse engineered the common superclass. } } 2. // . Below is a simple example. .List<EntryType>.util. protected String value.

} return this. BinopType bt = of. is conceptually an abstract type.createVariable( "d" ). bt.add( op1 ). however. true ).14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.createBinopType().createMarshaller().getContent(). m. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.createConstant( "3.content.setProperty( Marshaller. System. JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. m. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true". The elements of the group may have different types. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.14" ). where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3.operator = value.add( op2 ). A PosType element represents a position in an order.marshal( jbe. This type. } public String getOperator() { return operator. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. bt. .out ). JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. } public void setOperator(String value) { this.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>().newInstance( "generated" ). It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. either by restriction or by extension. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). bt.createBinop( bt ). And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1.setOperator( "*" ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula. Marshaller m = ctxt.getContent(). This is what we have in the example. but they must be derived from the same base type.

w3.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.<?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.

. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value).. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. And finally there is createItem.. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type.. Also. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements.. Here is the skeleton of this class: . parameterized with BookType or DiskType.. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. protected int quantity. // .. // . // . (more getters and setters) } Once again. returning an object whose type is ItemType. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. element construction is a tad more complicated. and its use as the generic type parameter. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks.<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. } // . public abstract class ItemType { protected String title.. protected int price. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType.

// Order two copies of a book.. dk.. p2. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). PosType p2 = of.setItem( of.setItem() Looking at this table. } public PosType createPosType() { .createDiskType(). // createDisk p2....getPos(). } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { ..setPrice( 120 ).setPrice( 20 ). List<PosType> listPos = st. // Create an order OrderType st = of.. } public OrderType createOrderType() { . p1..createPosType()... listPos..setQuantity( 1 ).setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" )..setDuration( 50 ).. bk. dk. BookType bk = of.setItem() PosType. bk. // Order a disk.setItem( of. listPos.createOrderType().createDisk( dk ) ).createItem( bk ) ).setItem() PosType. dk.public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .setQuantity( 2 ).. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { . } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { .setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ).add( p1 ). DiskType dk = of. } public DiskType createDiskType() { . PosType p1 = of.. // createItem for BookType p1.setPages( 832 ).createBookType().createPosType(). bk. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { .. Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.add( p2 ). .

The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.xml.out.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.println( tag + " " + item.getSimpleName() ).getItem().getQuantity() ).getName().getPos() ){ ItemType item = p. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". <?xml version="1.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.createOrder( st ). System.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of. The tag is represented as an object of class javax.getTitle() + " " + p. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.getLocalPart(). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods. for( PosType p: order.println( item.w3.namespace. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.getValue(). JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.getValue().getItem(). String tag = p. .out. System.xml" ) ). OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. along with the lengthy namespace declaration.getClass().

15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. i. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. They let you represent references to XML elements. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. An AirportType element is presented only once. aren't they) into all places where it is used. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.. in full.2. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . This can be put to good use in several circumstances. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements.e.2.

<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID.to = value. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. as the string implementing the XML link. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references.. } // .getTo()). int number.from = value. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . to retrieve the origin of some flight. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. Object to.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime. } public Object getTo() { return to. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. } public void setTo(Object value) { this.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. So. String carrier. public Object getFrom() { return from. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To.

(Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself.references. lists or. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . same thing. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. graphs. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. in general. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. The example given below is for railway buffs. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. Nevertheless. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports.

} public void setEast(Object value) { this. perhaps in a category of its own. public Object getEast() { return east. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. i. Again.. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. } } But wait . We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . } public Object getWest() { return west.e. } public void setWest(Object value) { this.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. as the "null" element.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. protected Object west. there must be some element where that string is an id value. by definition.east = value. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. because. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one.west = value.

g.lang.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType.2. } } But what will be the class of the Content .. e..if not java. 2. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. To see how this is handled in JAXB. but we might just as well use some null values there. the Null element as shown below.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. public Object getContent() { return content. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. Its name is distinction enough. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived.e.2. too.Object (which would be . In the XML file you would have one extra element.16. i.content = value.Object.perhaps Id="null" .lang. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.16 Elements With Any Type 2.

e. the actual class doesn't really matter .) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.getTagName().more DOM accesses.obtuse).getChildNodes().w3c.internal. then what? Well..g.w3c.2.w3c.dom. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.. String tag = content. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). e. This means that. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods.the important thing is that it implements org. which is a subinterface of org..dom. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. class apache. i. .Object.16.lang. // .getContent().xerces..Node.Element.dom. if you really have to.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.: Element content = (Element)bag. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.dom.ElementNSImpl. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java. Node<List> = content. 2.

getComm(). Harper does naughty things. CommType comm = (CommType)je. In fact. } 2. } else { // .// Create the container object...</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.getValue().unmarshal( f ).. // Prepare a JAXBElement.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.. if( comm.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.setComm( hearsay ).w3. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u. // Let's have some hearsay. comm.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. comm.(investigate other possibilities).class. CommType comm = of. ready for marshalling.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1. HearsayType hearsay = of.setText( "Mr.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller.w3.createHearsayType().2.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> . QName qn = new QName( "comm" ). Harper does naughty things.w3.w3." ). CommType.createCommType().. hearsay.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm. ).com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr. comm ).setSource( "Ms Jones" ).

this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.. // Get the image from the content tree. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. Unmarshalling is just as simple.. 0.createPicture( itemEl ).. Image img = jbe. Image. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of. g. anonymous types result in some inner class. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .getScaledInstance( 512. -1.getJPEGPicture().drawImage( img. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data.createItemType().. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. More importantly.setJPEGPicture( img ).read( imgFile ).<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. itemEl.. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO.. // Draw it Graphics g = . Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . null ).SCALE_DEFAULT ). 0.getValue().drawImage() with this object as the first argument. Image img = bimg. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. Moreover. For one thing. Well.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.3.

} return this..2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. protected String partNum.Item>(). The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. If the documents share common XML types. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own.(getters and setters) } 2.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. protected BigInteger quantity.3.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. // .(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.. they should be written once. // . } public static class Item { protected String productName. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. . and re-used from there wherever they are required..item.. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. protected AddressType billTo. protected BigDecimal price. Note that PurchaseOrderType. in a separate schema file.Item> item. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. protected List<PurchaseOrderType.

. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy. e.astronomy.w3..g.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. .org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.: <?xml version="1.<?xml version="1. resulting in org..w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.common and org.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema .org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy..solarsystem.astronomy.org/common" schemaLocation="common.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.> .

3. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default.createPlanetType(). m.createSolarSystem().out ). m.3. // Create a solar system...4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. //. e." specifying the group's given name. it is possible to define . 2.. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes.. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.createPlanet( planet ). SolarSystem sol = of. // Create a single planet instance document. System.astronomy. Marshaller m = context.. use the attribute ref=". To insert the elements or attributes in some other place. This may be regretted. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. respectively. 2.3. Given the complex type ItemType. 2. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes.solarsystem. If an XML schema is extended. Add planets.marshal( sol.createMarshaller(). you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version..marshal( jbe. System.out )..g. //.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. PlanetType planet = of.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

class. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. ..get( obj. AddrType.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.getHandler( obj ).</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.class.class.Handler>(). Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.getClass() ). public abstract void handle( Object o ). new NameHandler() ). protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv.. new PersonHandler() ). if( h != null ){ h. new ChildHandler() ). } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this.put( //.process( obj ). process( p. NameType.put( ourClass2Conv. new AddrHandler() ).put( ourClass2Conv. if( p. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.put( ourClass2Conv. h.handle( obj ).getAddr() ). } PersonType. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. ChildType. static { ourClass2Conv.getChild ).isResident() ){ process( p. } processList( p. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>.getName() ).class.

protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter.getValue(). A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation.newInstance( XMLConstants. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. if the tag is required for processing as well. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. First. h. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory.validation. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list.xml. } Handler h = this. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). } } Finally. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. Don't make such a map global.getHandler( obj ).<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. 3. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList.process( obj ). try { . we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().

println( origin + ": " + line + ".getEvents() ){ String msg = ve. int line = vel. If you want to continue as long as possible. alas.setSchema( mySchema ). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. If you'd like to create your own error messages. we might write: . boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. System. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.getLocator().createUnmarshaller()... it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.getMessage().bind) is thrown. as explained in the next section.err.xml.newSchema( file ). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler.xml. 3. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax. If the XML data validation fails. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. u. int column = vel.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.setEventHandler( vec ).bind." + column + ": " + msg ).(error handling) mySchema = null. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. Unmarshaller u = jc. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . you pass it the schema. an UnmarshalException (from javax. or at least as many as possible but.getColumnNumber(). u.mySchema = sf.newInstance( packagePath ).getLineNumber().hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. Basically that's all there is to it.

This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. e.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler.Boo Foo.Foo Foo # inner class some. u. earlier in this chapter.class ). Subclasses.g. 3. all static references.newInstance( "some foo:more.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.foo.index. however.Unmarshaller u = jc.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.setEventHandler( this ). an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.foo.: # package some.bar" ).Foo. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. . the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. you may use the package path form as well.foo # class some. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.createUnmarshaller(). Bar. such as the types of instance variables.newInstance( Foo. recursively. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.class. are not included. For JAXB annotated Java code. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. Usually.

.(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object.createRulebase( rulebase ). // Add it to its parent's list.. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact... List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. // Add it to its parent's list.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ). fbList.createModuleType()..(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.createFooBarListType(). // . // .createFooBarType(). Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase"... . A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.getFooOrBar().4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. ModuleType module = objFact.add( barElem ). FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.createFooBarType().. fbList. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.createRulebaseType(). ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory().1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).add( fooElem ).

Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. without any actual XML content. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. 4. the data is in post-order. as you can create.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. If. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. for instance.

.getX(). If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly. // Data for an order int custId = .. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. custElem. folder.createOrderType(). Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.. // Create and add item elements. itemElem.getOrders(). // Complete customer. with a call to the getter current.setId( custId ). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. Item[] items = .add( orderElem ).qtty ).. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. with a setter call current..setName( custName ). orderElem. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. String custName = . itemElem.. This is. Add this object to the current element.setId( item. // Create order and insert in top-level document.. custElem.add( itemElem )..getItems(). itemList. simply to be repeated for other child elements.createItemType(). It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. CustomerType custElem = objFact.createCustomerType(). we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.id ). for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.. of course.setQuantity( item.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. Append (add) it to the List<X>. } . // Create and insert the customer element.setX( xElem ).setCustomer( custElem ).

on the other hand. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. You may. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. an order may either contain a full customer XML element.3. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. even though .) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. of course. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. On the one hand. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. Our example is a variation of the order data. and. Here. or for a customer reference.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF.. we have the classes representing XML elements. 4. inline customer element. i. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. the full.e.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. IDREF) 4.

The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.customer = value. // complete customer cust. cust = oFact. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. Continuing our example.setId( custId ).CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String.setCustomer( cust ).we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here.get( custId ). String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this. too. Map<String.custref = value. .CustomerType>().createCustomerType(). } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). This means that the full elements must be added separately. protected List items. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document.items. protected Object custref. where we'll use the second method. order. String custId. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. } return this. public void addCust( OrderType order.

changing them magically to the corresponding string values.setCustref( cust ). and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element.cust. // save in map id2cust. however..the convenient material for references .e. JAXB. If the customer lookup returns an object.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. But . <?xml version="1.setName( custName ). We create a CustomerType object.aren't useful in an XML text file. then we meet a customer for the first time. the "id" string. 4.3. i. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. This key is also used as a key in the map. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. cust ). Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. } else { order. where we keep that element for future reference. Memory addresses .put( custId.

we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory.AddressType>(). Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. To see how this works. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. . Map<Address.util) to register marshalled elements.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. This map uses the object's default hash code. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. Also. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects.of type AddressType.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. even if hashCode has been overridden.

addrElem = objFact.and insert it into its parent.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. } Using Address objects as keys.. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.put( addrPojo.int refcount = 0.setAddrRef( addrElem ).createAddressType().Serializable interface.. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address.setId( makeNextId() ). // Set the xsd:ID attribute. provided that the class of the object implements the java. For an encore. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. may have to use this rather extreme technique.createAddrOrRefType(). All in all. // . The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object.setAddr( addrElem ). // . Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact...get( addrPojo ).4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary.id pair in the identity hash map.). But the need does arise occasionally. we map these to assembled AddressType objects. it is surprisingly simple. Special dumps of application data. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++.util. arElem. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. addrElem. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem.. arElem.. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. 4. } return arElem. addrElem ).. // Register the object . which is just what . pojo2elem. for instance..

First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext. Then. ooStream. which requests nice formatting of the XML text. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ).* void writeDocument( Object document. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact.we need for calling the java..close(). Object pojo = oiStream. as defined by your schema. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem.. such as the one that's used below. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object. return pojo.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.w3. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. import java. or a JAXBElement<?>.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. ooStream.toByteArray() ).getData() ). joElem.writeObject( pojo ). } 4.bind.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject.flush(). Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream().close().io. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372.setData( baos. return joElem. oiStream.createJavaObjectType().*. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. import javax. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. ooStream.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. or the encoding in the XML prolog. Here it is. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. String pathname ) .xml.io. you might set a number of properties.readObject().

m.. return jbe. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. IOException { Class<T> clazz = document.out ). You could. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. clazz.getValue(). System. tag ). m.getClass(). Class<?> clazz = o.throws JAXBException.createMarshaller(). but this is cumbersome.acme.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = . "someTag".marshal( document. of course. Boolean.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.setProperty( Marshaller. .getPackage(). String tag. o ). A generic solution is presented below. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context.com".getClass().TRUE ). The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag.marshal( jbx. st ).. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). m. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T.getName() ). Marshaller m = context.newInstance( clazz. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. } To use it.. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.

5..1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema..xjb. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. By default.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings.5 Customizing 5. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files.0"> . You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.: xjc -p jess. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file.xsd This. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. ususally of file type . One of these things is the package name. </jaxb:bindings> . A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. however.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema.

ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.w3. 5. the outermost element of an XML schema.sun. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun.

To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. For this one.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. you can request your own substitute. it does happen. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> .e. using an jxb:property element. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. believe me. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. i. If you don't fancy this. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword.util. it is replaced by Clazz.List. But.util.

it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.w3. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . 5. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically.. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. Documentation is probably best written inline.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.... <?xml version="1.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. by renaming either element: . as part of the type definition in your schema.sun. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.

.. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. Java class for GlobalType complex type.".code>GlobalType&lt. i.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt.. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*')." and "&amp. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. see below./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.e. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section. <xsd:schema> . you add a child as shown in the example below. For either of these schema components. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. .

This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. So. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.intern(). Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section.DatatypeConverter.xml. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. First.jessrules. import javax. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. } . Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string..bind. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String. 5.StringInterner. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings...parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter. including their subordinate elements.parseString( value ). It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.

6.util. rom2int. 50.Map. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.entrySet() ){ int2rom.put( 'X'. 10. we have to write a simple class like the one given below.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.put( 'I'.util. import java. 500.HashMap. rom2int. for( Map.4}V?I{. 1 ).getKey() ).put( 'L'. 1000 ). static { rom2int. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.getValue(). 1 }. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000.Integer>().put( 'D'.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. 5.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. } .put( entry.put( 'M'. 5 ). We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. 10 ). 100 ).Integer> entry: rom2int.Character>().4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character. 100. rom2int. rom2int. rom2int. as in the next example. rom2int. import java. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. 50 ). entry. 5. For this.put( 'C'. 500 ). private static Map<Integer.4}L?X{. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.put( 'V'.roman. package util.Entry<Character.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations.

sb.append( int2rom. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder().} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. but the methods must be static.length(). } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.6. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5. . i++ ){ result += rom2int.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.w3.xml.bind. } } return sb. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.roman.get( value.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.RomanNumberConverter.charAt( i ) ). You may choose any names you like. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.toString().org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1. for( int i = 0. <?xml version="1.get( d ) ). with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.roman.sun. i < value.RomanNumberConverter. } return result.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .xml.HashMap. String program ){ this. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. import java.artists = artists. this.xml. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. public class KeyType { public String event. import java.. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K.V>.util. this.bind.*. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.datetime = datetime.annotation. import javax. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content..<?xml version="1.util.program = program.event = event.EntryType>(). } } public class EntryType { public String program.*.Map. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> . @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.datatype. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. public String artists. public DocType(){ } } import javax.

items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title".M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. .2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type.java situated in the package. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. Below is an example.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods.bind..annotation.2. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element.at/hospital".) Here is an example for XmlType.. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. "items". The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. 6. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. according to the Schema Datatypes specification. requesting that the elements title. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements.xml.E. and key data from value data. } 6.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. "cluster" } ) public class Document { .laune. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. It must be written on a file package-info. @javax.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.2.

annotated with XmlRegistry.xml.bind.elementFormDefault = javax. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.annotation.QUALIFIED) package hospital.annotation. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.w3.bind. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". namespaceURI = "http://www. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations. } .at/hospital".XmlNsForm.xml.laune. xmlns = { @javax. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .laune. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects. Therefore..annotation.class. TreeType. elementFormDefault = javax. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.xml.. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.laune.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.annotation.XmlNs( prefix = "med".2. 6.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.laune.laune. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.bind. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. null.XmlNsForm. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.bind. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.at/med" ) }. value).XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.QUALIFIED) package hospital.xml.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.

.2. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. public getter and setter pairs.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. by default.. } public void setA( String value ){ . with one member explicitly annotated as an element.. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ .. public SomeClass(){ . all public members will be bound. i.. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a.NONE ) . package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. and methods getFoo and setFoo. PROPERTY. non transient field will be automatically bound. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting.. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. say foo. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties.. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. private String b. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. If FIELD is set every non static. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. } public String getA(){ .e... Any protected. or public fields. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. } public void setB( String value ){ .6.. then.. Member getB is blocked from being bound. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.

. return b... } public String getA(){ ... } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ . public SpecialClass(){ ... XmlElement is used to request binding for getB.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. private String b. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>.. private List<String> b. } } The generated complex type features both elements... Second.. } public void setB( String value ){ .. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. with changes being made on the list object... } public String getA(){ .. which doesn't have its setB spouse.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. public OtherClass(){ .public class OtherClass { private String a. } public void setA( String value ){ . First. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. } public void setA( String value ){ . XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair.

@XmlElement(name = "Preamble". and below is the corresponding schema snippet. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. This strategy may be generally permissive. whether it is optional or nillable. e.class.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. the ones that are bound to schema elements. 6.7. Cat. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. this means that you can. the namespace.g. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. Here are two annotated fields.. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. oriented on fields or properties. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. respectively.2. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. because they are used as types for a field...2..2. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. Within a class. 6. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. permitting nothing by default. In the . i.e. a default value and the Java class. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. or restrictive. } 6.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". either at package level or at some superclass. It permits you to define the XML element name.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. Once more.class} ) class Animal { //. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble.

} produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.class) }) protected List entryList. type = CheckBoxType. the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". type = MenuType.class). 6. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . @XmlElement(name = "Menu".class definition below. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".7.2.class). } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. type = ItemType.

Sentence isn't a simple type. public Price(){} @XmlElement .2.) 6. of course. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". (If you look for guidance. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself.name defines the namestring for the attribute. the default being the class field's name. -. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". List<Sentence> word. Also. with one element or attribute for each field. making judicious use of both. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.2. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount.can be sure that no string value contains a blank.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. is a good example. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.) JAXB. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.7. -. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid .7. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. 6.

too. 6.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. e. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. } } If this type is used for some field. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .: <price> <amount>123.g.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. . } // . @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123.amount = value....2.7.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount..

private String title. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.getTitle() ).unmarshal( new File( "mixture.out. System.Object>(). Then. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.println( e. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.getMixture().xml" ) ).Object> any. DocumentType doc = jbe. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName. MixtureType mix = doc.entrySet() ){ System.Object> amap = mix.getKey() + "="" + e.out.getValue() + """ ).getAny().println( "Title: " + mix. Map<QName.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName.Entry<QName.Object>. } return any. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.getValue(). the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . for( Map.Object> e: amap.

: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.7. Unmarshaller u = jc. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value. e. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.createUnmarshaller(). } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.annotation. import org. import javax.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.getZoo(). DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u. subsection DOM Elements.println( el.*.xml.unmarshal( f ). (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.util.out. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.w3c.getNodeName() + "->" + el.getTextContent() ).bar="attribute of bar" 6.newInstance( DocumentType.dom. or an array or list of such elements.dom.g.bind.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.class ). cf. return animals. } .getAnimals() ){ System. for( Element el: doc.2. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().Element.w3c.*.Element.

XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. for the repeated element. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> .7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. child elements embedded in the element's own data.7. return item. i..The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.. or "wrapping". } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList().7. For this..8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item. and another one for the content text. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. } } 6.e. as indicated in the XML snippet below. you need some additional element bracketing. public ParentType(){ .2. with one field for each element and attribute. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.2. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style.

public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>().class). type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. } return this. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id".To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. which doesn't have mixed content any more. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". @XmlElementRef(name = "id". slightly more specific than Object. type = JAXBElement.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence.class). When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class). type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "code". but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. type = JAXBElement.content. @XmlElementRef(name = "id".

are equally possible. in fact. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. and by default.lang. Its required element defines the XML representation string.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. // .String but other types.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. } public String value() { return value.. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant..2. For a straightforward enum type. 6.content. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. } return this. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below..if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>().(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. } } This does. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig"). This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. It has an optional element value of type java. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. Usually. even numeric ones. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. this is java.lang.. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1").

class) . public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. Such mappings require an adapter class.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123.equals(v)) { return c. Also. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.annotation. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.e.adapters. To achieve our goal.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.values()) { if (c.value. <?xml version="1. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. } } 6. i. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter..xml.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.2.bind.ApplType> from the package javax. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do.toString()). The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.

In this method. for( Course c : value. the interesting class. and this is.values().size()]).carray = c. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. Course>().Course> courses. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String.carray ) b.toArray(new Course[c.courses. return courses.put( c. @XmlAttribute Price price. Collection<Course> c = b. c ). which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. courses. @XmlElement String name.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure().courses. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map.id. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. . of course. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal.public class Brochure { Map<String. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. return b. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses().

Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.append( " that Jack built.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID.e. e. For this. i. .StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf. one defining TextType as a container for a string. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. // .lang. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.2.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document. If you need multiple mappings at package level. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient.: TextType text = new TextType().String that is suited to be used as a key. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. text. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf." ).toString(). text..2. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory.. 6. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).6. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. which is the default mapping for xs:string. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String.. a StringBuffer is better than String. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. Below are the essential Java classes. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.g.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type.strbuf.

bind. import java.bind... } public void setName( String value ){ .Set.util.util.annotation.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type. In this case. import javax. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. } } import java.. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .List.HashSet. private String name.xml.annotation... private String title. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. } } package elset.util.annotation.. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ . } public void setId( String value ){ . @XmlRootElement public class Document { .xml.*. import javax.xml. the collection item type must contain an id field... import javax. import java.. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .*. public class Item { private String id.*.. import java.bind. public Cluster(){ .ArrayList. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items..util..

} @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ ...... } } --. } public void setTitle( String value ){ . private String title. public Document(){ .... } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .END --- . } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ .. } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ .... private List<Item> items.private Cluster cluster.

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