A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. Version 2. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. the Simple API for XML. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding.) 1. The JAXB runtime library. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. Values are invariably provided as strings. with individual node objects containing an element. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. Versions from 2. with a very high level of distinctiveness. linked according to the XML document's structure. an attribute. a CDATA section.List.1 Introduction 1. etc.10. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. is contained in objects of a single type. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM).util.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . DOM data. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs.1. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. In the DOM approach. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. as compared to version 1. however.

Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. Some of these features are: -. 1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> .The XML Schema generator schemagen. -.xsd defines the structure of our document. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. which is to contain a series of salutations.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. -. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. it's just here to give you the overall picture.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code.w3. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection. The XML Schema on hello. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa.obviously an area for experts. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . <?xml version="1.

private GreetingListType grList. g. import hello. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.*.util.createMarshaller().. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). Here's a sequence of these calls: . } public void make( String t.add( g ).createGreetingListType(). String l ){ GreetingType g = of.bind. grList = of. System. the list is wrapped in its XML element. import javax.. GreetingListType.createGreetings( grList ).getGreeting().setText( t ).*.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. The class Hello shows how to use them.e.newInstance( "hello" ).marshal( gl.createGreetingType(). public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. Finally.out ). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. Marshaller m = jc.setLanguage( l ).xml. xjc -p hello hello. m. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . defining the package name hello for the generated classes. i. with a call to marshal. } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.. grList. g.*.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. import java.

for better readability. "fr" ). you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . h.make( "Hey. you". <?xml version="1. h. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. "en" ). formatted.make( "Bonjour. madame".Hello h = new Hello().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour.marshal(). h. The output is shown below.

w3. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. such as lists or maps.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. and for references and other XML constructs. the composition of document nodes. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. to limit the precision. <xsd:union>. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions.g.. Although all data in XML is text. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. Other facets.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. e. however. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. strings. booleans.e. list. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1.sun.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. For child elements. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. If used. and to define a pattern for a string type. with xsd as the namespace identifier. URIs. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. Type information deals with the definition of structure.. This is done by adding so-called facets. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. structure (or record) and union. to enumerate all legal values. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. dates and times. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section.0"> 2.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. This (or some other name.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. i. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>.

Doing away with fractional digits. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. you might ask.xml. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . perhaps.. required = true) protected int group. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. public int getGroup() { return group. } public void setGroup(int value) { this..the JAXB schema compiler xjc.Schema object. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used.validation. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits.math.. you'll see simple get and set methods. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. Leaving double and float aside. 2. created from your XML schema. There is one Java type providing just that: java. 2. If you peek into one of these class definitions. } Where is. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax..2. // .BigDecimal. For brevity and clarity. } // . to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection..2.group = value. According to the XML Schema definition.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type.. we .2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes.

BigInteger. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges.math.BigInteger. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. With xsd:unsignedInt. simplified for better readability. Short shortNil. For xsd:unsignedLong. which still has an unspecified number of digits.g. Below the integer type.arrive at xsd:integer. hence java. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code.math. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. it has to be represented by java. BigInteger integer. short for xsd:unsignedByte. This adds another value to the set of possible values. and therefore this type maps to java. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. using the smallest type capable of holding all values.e. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. nil. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer.but only for descendants of Object. there is no fitting simple type. JAXB reverts to simple types. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal.BigInteger must be used. int _int.math. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. e. long _long. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte.. i. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. .. too. another one for their obscure cousins.

} public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. } 2.. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte.decimal = value.. of course. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. BigInteger nonNegative. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. For some element such as counter. public int getCounter() { return counter.. it's quite a zoo indeed. long unsignedInt. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern..2. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. protected int counter. BigInteger unsignedLong. } Well. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. // . <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> .counter = value. So.

2.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.2. Java's own java. This class is in the package javax.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. 2. no Java class is required for DirType. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.datatype. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it.xml. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. (Do not confuse this with java.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.util.GregorianCalendar. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date.lang. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. Once more. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. alternatives and grouping. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.String is used. .2.

// Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.setDate( gcDate ).newInstance().MONTH ). DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.MINUTE ). You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. null. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.get( Calendar.SECOND ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().time = value. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects.get( Calendar. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.DAY_OF_MONTH ). It is.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). DatatypeConstants. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: .get( Calendar. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.get( Calendar. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. meta. however.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. now. } } However. not possible to omit seconds entirely. meta.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. now. // no fraction DatatypeConstants. DateTimeType meta = of. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().YEAR ). now. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).date = value.setTime( gcTime ).createDateTimeType().get( Calendar.get( Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY ). now.

<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[].data = ((byte[]) value). public byte[] getData() { return data. } } 2. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. A sample schema declaration is shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. use an xsd:list. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations.2.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. Using NumberListType as an attribute . still be represented in printable characters. as shown below.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. All conversions are handled by JAXB. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. for inclusion in an XML file. 2.2.

The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. 2. 2. ."/>.. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string.numbers.. } // .. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created...2. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list..dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. separated by white space. } return this..8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=".2. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.. // . protected List<Integer> numbers.

} } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. E_STW_S("eStwS"). VGS_80("VGS80"). for each enum constant name. as shown below. eStwS. public String value() { return name(). <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> .public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA").. IXLType(String v) { value = v. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. VGS80. SP_DR_S("SpDrS").. SpDrS.. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . public enum IXLType { eStwA. } . private final String value. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant.. } public String value() { return value. SpDrL.

Try to avoid xsd:union. .2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. protected String dir. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. even if they do not have content.value. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.pos = value. 2. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java.2. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. 2. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. } else { return pos.

public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { .e. simply because there is no such element. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element.. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. or one or more subordinate elements.2. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. 2. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. i. or even a combination of both..2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.dir = value. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". this element itself and its siblings.12. //. } public void setDir(String value) { this. the one describing the containing element. So. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. except for list types. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element.. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. "Doc").1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value.} public String getDir() { return dir. Obviously. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null.

} public int getY() { return y. DocType. public int getX() { return x.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent . } } 2.y = value. } public void setY(int value) { this.class.2.. null. (The default for both is 1. } // .12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.12.x = value.. } public void setX(int value) { this.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.2. public class PointType { protected int x. value). The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. protected int y. 2.

4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. } // . . soup.(more getters and setters) } Here. dessert..12.. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. however. public String getStarter() { return starter.starter = value. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. There is. entree.2. 2. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter.

and for all similar element lists.sms = value.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. or a fixed number. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive.. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.2. There is.12. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. protected String mms. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. } // . public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. may contain any number of elements. Also. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. Various combinations are possible. protected String email.public class CommType { protected String sms. for instance.List is used. Here. 2. a java. public String getSMS() { return sms. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly..util.

adds another point. in the same Java code. 2. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). or you may use addAll for bulk additions.Serializable.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. 9 ) ).) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. } return this.2.getPoints(). public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. code like this polygon.Most importantly. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. Sometimes only java.points. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.lang.Object will do. The list can be added to one by one. . With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.textOrNumberOrPoint. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. Other possibilities are java. therefore. Obviously. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. All methods defined in java.List may be applied to the returned value.util. } return this.lang. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and.12.add( new PointType( 4.

g. type xsd:string.. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.bind. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. after the third sub-element.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>.getClass() ). Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>().: for( Object o: mix. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // .. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones..getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax.. } . cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. say. Also.xml. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. For one thing. e. If we add another element of. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. mercifully..

(other alternatives) } } Again. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content...... to be rendered in boldface.getName(). } } Consequently. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below..12.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je. // .. // . The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. if( "Text". (process) } else if( //.textOrNumberOrPoint.. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.getValue(). in italics or underlined. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. (process) } else if( "Number". 2. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.getLocalPart(). for( JAXBElement je: mix. // .2.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>.return this.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element.getValue(). the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.

we did use ChunkType with B. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". I and U. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>(). public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c. } return this.getName(). } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getLocalPart(). and. The generic list type now happens to be java. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. As we already know.Serializable. System. System. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.lang. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). as ChunkType features just one method getContent.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.content.out. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs.p.getValue(). indeed. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. } . } return this.out.print( ":" + tag + ")" ).print( "(" + tag + ":" ).out. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.print( (String)s ). dumpChunk( chunk ). } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).

in general. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. required = true) protected String a.} } //. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www.w3.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. @XmlElement(name = "C". not a good idea.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. the characterless thing. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now..org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. for( ChunkType c: text.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil.(process a text) TextType text = ... which can not be omitted.. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. even though its value could be the empty string. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.. .12. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical.2.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). required = true. However. nillable = true) protected String c. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. } 2. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element.

.a = value. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. radio buttons and sub-menus. (more getters and setters like this) } 2. check boxes.2.. } public void setA(String value) { this.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. } // .public String getA() { return a. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> . This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.

. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema.(getText. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. -. again adding some attributes. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. The JAXB compiler. // . // .(getCommand. including itself.. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.CheckBoxType extends ItemType. Group is the button group's identification.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect.. however. Before we look at the generated Java code.(isState.. public class EntryType { protected String text. -. -. // .. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy.. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command.

// .2. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. literally. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs.List<EntryType>. and that's why we have to be content with a list. protected String operator. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. } return this. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags...(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. } } 2. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. protected String value.protected String group. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. protected Boolean state.util. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. reverse engineered the common superclass. . Below is a simple example. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. which contains a java.

And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. however.setProperty( Marshaller.createConstant( "3.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.add( op1 ). } return this.createBinopType().newInstance( "generated" ). A PosType element represents a position in an order. . true ). bt.content. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes.getContent().add( op2 ).operator = value.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".out ). Marshaller m = ctxt. bt. This is what we have in the example.setOperator( "*" ). JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.createVariable( "d" ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.14" ). BinopType bt = of. } public void setOperator(String value) { this.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. System. m. This type. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. is conceptually an abstract type.marshal( jbe. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. but they must be derived from the same base type. bt. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.getContent().createMarshaller(). either by restriction or by extension. } public String getOperator() { return operator.createBinop( bt ). m. The elements of the group may have different types. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of.

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.<?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .w3.

protected int quantity. // . we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement.. parameterized with BookType or DiskType. and its use as the generic type parameter. element construction is a tad more complicated. // . The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. // . (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. Here is the skeleton of this class: ... Also. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration.. (more getters and setters) } Once again. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. returning an object whose type is ItemType. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. And finally there is createItem.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item...<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type.. } // .. protected int price.

add( p2 )..setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ).getPos(). Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().createBookType().. // Order a disk. p1... } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. listPos. // Create an order OrderType st = of.setItem( of. dk... bk.createPosType(). DiskType dk = of. PosType p1 = of.. // createDisk p2.createDisk( dk ) ). } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { .setPrice( 20 ).. // Order two copies of a book.setPages( 832 ). BookType bk = of. } public PosType createPosType() { .setDuration( 50 ).createOrderType().setQuantity( 2 ). ..setPrice( 120 ).createPosType().setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.setItem() PosType. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { ... } public DiskType createDiskType() { .add( p1 )..setItem( of. bk. p2.. dk. dk.. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { ..createItem( bk ) ).createDiskType(). List<PosType> listPos = st.setQuantity( 1 ).. // createItem for BookType p1. } public OrderType createOrderType() { .setItem() PosType.public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .setItem() Looking at this table. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . bk. listPos. PosType p2 = of.

getSimpleName() ). <?xml version="1. along with the lengthy namespace declaration.xml" ) ). System.getTitle() + " " + p.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.w3. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u. String tag = p.getName().getItem().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.createOrder( st ).println( tag + " " + item.println( item.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order. The tag is represented as an object of class javax. System.out. for( PosType p: order.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType".getQuantity() ).getValue().namespace. but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods. .getClass().getLocalPart().out. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.getItem().xml.getValue().QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.

<xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . They let you represent references to XML elements. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. i.2. An AirportType element is presented only once.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.2.e. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. in full.. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. aren't they) into all places where it is used. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.

) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } // .. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this.from = value.. to retrieve the origin of some flight.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. So. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. } public Object getTo() { return to. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID.to = value. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime.getTo()).getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. as the string implementing the XML link. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. Object to. int number. String carrier. public Object getFrom() { return from.

(Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. Nevertheless. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. in general. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. same thing. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. The example given below is for railway buffs. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data.references. graphs. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. lists or. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes.

. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . Again.west = value. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. public Object getEast() { return east. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. protected Object west. as the "null" element.e. perhaps in a category of its own. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. because. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. i.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard.east = value. by definition. } public Object getWest() { return west. there must be some element where that string is an id value. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. } } But wait .

Object.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.if not java. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.lang.perhaps Id="null" .2. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. i. Its name is distinction enough. the Null element as shown below. In the XML file you would have one extra element.16 Elements With Any Type 2. too. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType.lang. To see how this is handled in JAXB..2.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value .Object (which would be . public Object getContent() { return content. but we might just as well use some null values there. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived.content = value. } } But what will be the class of the Content . we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content.g.16. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. 2.e. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. e..

obtuse). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().dom.: Element content = (Element)bag..xerces. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.dom. if you really have to.Node. 2..16.e.the important thing is that it implements org. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.2. class apache. String tag = content.Element. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. then what? Well.getChildNodes(). // .getTagName().internal. This means that.dom.Object. the actual class doesn't really matter . (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java. Node<List> = content. e. . which is a subinterface of org..getContent().ElementNSImpl.w3c.lang.w3c.. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. i.w3c.g.dom..2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.more DOM accesses.

(investigate other possibilities).17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www. HearsayType hearsay = of.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example. comm.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.createCommType(). Harper does naughty things.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www. if( comm.. Harper does naughty things.w3. comm...createHearsayType().org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u. } else { // ...0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.setComm( hearsay ). CommType comm = (CommType)je.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. CommType comm = of. } 2. // Let's have some hearsay.getValue(). The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process.class. comm ). QName qn = new QName( "comm" ). hearsay.// Create the container object. // Prepare a JAXBElement..w3.unmarshal( f ).2. ). CommType.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .setText( "Mr." ). all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . ready for marshalling.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.w3.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).getComm(). In fact. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller.

.. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. // Get the image from the content tree..setJPEGPicture( img ). JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.3. anonymous types result in some inner class. itemEl.. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = . Unmarshalling is just as simple. // Draw it Graphics g = .<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.getJPEGPicture(). The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data.read( imgFile ). You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. Image img = bimg. null ). But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.. Moreover. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. 0.getValue(). Well.drawImage() with this object as the first argument.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.getScaledInstance( 512. Image img = jbe.createItemType(). -1. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. For one thing. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> .SCALE_DEFAULT ).drawImage( img. More importantly.createPicture( itemEl ). 0. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. g. Image.

If the documents share common XML types. . // . protected AddressType billTo. protected String partNum. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. protected BigDecimal price..Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo..item. Note that PurchaseOrderType. in a separate schema file.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. protected List<PurchaseOrderType.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. } return this..Item>(). and re-used from there wherever they are required. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. they should be written once. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach.3.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. } public static class Item { protected String productName.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.Item> item. // .(getters and setters) } 2. protected BigInteger quantity..

0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.: <?xml version="1.astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element... resulting in org.astronomy.w3.org/common" schemaLocation="common.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file.> .org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy. .w3. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema . e.common and org.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.g.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.solarsystem.<?xml version="1.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.

out ).. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().. PlanetType planet = of.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. // Create a single planet instance document.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable.. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of. System. //. m.marshal( sol.. e. it is possible to define . They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.createSolarSystem(). by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. 2. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. Given the complex type ItemType. 2. SolarSystem sol = of. use the attribute ref=".createPlanet( planet ). If an XML schema is extended. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc.createMarshaller().3.marshal( jbe.3..g. Add planets. m. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version.3.. // Create a solar system. //. 2.. This may be regretted. respectively. Marshaller m = context.solarsystem." specifying the group's given name. System.createPlanetType().out ). This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.astronomy.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

.. new ChildHandler() ). public abstract void handle( Object o ). new AddrHandler() ). abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. AddrType. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. if( h != null ){ h.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. static { ourClass2Conv. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple. } PersonType.class.put( ourClass2Conv. new NameHandler() ).class. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.get( obj.put( //.put( ourClass2Conv.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.handle( obj ).class.isResident() ){ process( p. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv.put( ourClass2Conv.getClass() ). } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. NameType.process( obj ). } processList( p.class. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType.getChild ). process( p.getAddr() ). . ChildType.getHandler( obj ).Handler>().getName() ). if( p. h. new PersonHandler() ).

We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. if the tag is required for processing as well.xml.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. try { .W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter.validation. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. } } Finally. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax.getHandler( obj ).process( obj ). } Handler h = this. h. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. First. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list.getValue(). 3. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. Don't make such a map global. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types.newInstance( XMLConstants.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children.

setEventHandler( vec ).bind) is thrown. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. u. If you want to continue as long as possible. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes.newSchema( file ).xml.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.setSchema( mySchema ).println( origin + ": " + line + "..(error handling) mySchema = null.err. u. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). an UnmarshalException (from javax." + column + ": " + msg ). ValidationEventLocator vel = ve. If you'd like to create your own error messages. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple. If the XML data validation fails. Basically that's all there is to it.bind. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. 3. as explained in the next section. int line = vel. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.getLocator(). we might write: .xml.createUnmarshaller(). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. int column = vel.getColumnNumber(). } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. System. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // .4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax. Unmarshaller u = jc. alas.getMessage(). you pass it the schema. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec.mySchema = sf. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register.getLineNumber()..newInstance( packagePath ). or at least as many as possible but.

This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. recursively.foo # class some.: # package some.Foo Foo # inner class some. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. are not included. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.newInstance( Foo.Boo Foo. however.newInstance( "some foo:more. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. e. earlier in this chapter.Unmarshaller u = jc. For JAXB annotated Java code. Bar.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.class.createUnmarshaller(). Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes. all static references. Subclasses.setEventHandler( this ). the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. you may use the package path form as well.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize. .foo. u.class ).foo. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. such as the types of instance variables. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler.g. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.Foo.index.bar" ). 3. Usually.

createModuleType(). fbList. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.createFooBarType()..createRulebase( rulebase ). It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. // Add it to its parent's list.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. // Add it to its parent's list.. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.createRulebaseType().add( fooElem )... // . FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem.4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact.createFooBarListType()... Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase". .(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.. ModuleType module = objFact.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.createFooBarTypeFoo( foo )..add( barElem ). A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below. fbList.getFooOrBar().createFooBarType(). // . Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory.

We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. 4. If. without any actual XML content. as you can create. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. the data is in post-order. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . for instance. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType.

// Create and insert the customer element.qtty ). // Create and add item elements. } . the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. custElem..setName( custName ). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.setX( xElem ).. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.. This is.getX(). You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet.add( itemElem ). with a setter call current.id ).add( orderElem ). For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact. // Complete customer. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. custElem.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.. orderElem. with a call to the getter current.. Item[] items = . Add this object to the current element.setCustomer( custElem ).setQuantity( item. // Create order and insert in top-level document. Append (add) it to the List<X>. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation..setId( custId ). It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. simply to be repeated for other child elements. itemElem..setId( item. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly..createItemType().getItems(). itemList. folder. itemElem. CustomerType custElem = objFact. // Data for an order int custId = ..createOrderType().getOrders(). String custName = .createCustomerType(). of course.

and. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. of course. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. IDREF) 4. You may.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion.e. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. on the other hand. i. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. or for a customer reference. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. we have the classes representing XML elements. the full. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full..1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. Here. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. Our example is a variation of the order data. On the one hand. even though . 4.3. inline customer element. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way.

too. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.setCustomer( cust ). } public Object getCustref() { return custref.custref = value. String custId. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust.items. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. This means that the full elements must be added separately. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. // complete customer cust.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. protected List items. protected Object custref.CustomerType>().setId( custId ). Map<String. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. } return this. public void addCust( OrderType order.createCustomerType(). cust = oFact. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this. where we'll use the second method. .we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. Continuing our example. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order.customer = value. order. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer.get( custId ).

e. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. the "id" string. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null.setCustref( cust ).put( custId. however. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.3. If the customer lookup returns an object.the convenient material for references . <?xml version="1. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. then we meet a customer for the first time. cust ).2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. JAXB.. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. Memory addresses .cust. 4. i. // save in map id2cust.aren't useful in an XML text file. This key is also used as a key in the map. } else { order.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. We create a CustomerType object.setName( custName ). But . JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. where we keep that element for future reference.

. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this.util) to register marshalled elements. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object.of type AddressType. Also.AddressType>(). Map<Address.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. This map uses the object's default hash code. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. even if hashCode has been overridden. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. To see how this works. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value.

provided that the class of the object implements the java.setAddr( addrElem ).id pair in the identity hash map. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. // . addrElem.and insert it into its parent. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address.setAddrRef( addrElem ). addrElem ). } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact.. } Using Address objects as keys. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element..Serializable interface. // Register the object . private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. pojo2elem.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem.util.. // .put( addrPojo.setId( makeNextId() ). Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. // Set the xsd:ID attribute..createAddressType(). addrElem = objFact. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. which is just what . 4. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem.).. may have to use this rather extreme technique. it is surprisingly simple. } return arElem. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary.. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. arElem. But the need does arise occasionally. arElem. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.int refcount = 0. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element..get( addrPojo ). For an encore. for instance. Special dumps of application data.. All in all.createAddrOrRefType().

import javax.readObject(). Then.close(). Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1.toByteArray() ).bind.io. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. such as the one that's used below.*.we need for calling the java. import java. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.writeObject( pojo ). which requests nice formatting of the XML text. you might set a number of properties. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). or the encoding in the XML prolog. String pathname ) .setData( baos. oiStream.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372.getData() ). Here it is. ooStream. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. return pojo.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data.createJavaObjectType().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file. } 4. Object pojo = oiStream.. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. ooStream. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.w3. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element.flush(). joElem.. ooStream.close(). ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.io.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler.xml. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. or a JAXBElement<?>. return joElem.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. as defined by your schema.* void writeDocument( Object document.

Marshaller m = context. You could. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. of course.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. return jbe. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.marshal( document. "someTag"..com". m. String tag. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.setProperty( Marshaller. but this is cumbersome.throws JAXBException. Class<?> clazz = o. clazz. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. Boolean..TRUE ).getClass(). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element.out ).createMarshaller(). JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. A generic solution is presented below. st ).getValue().getClass().getPackage(). you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T.getName() ). o ). System. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag.newInstance( clazz. } To use it. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .marshal( jbx.acme. tag ). m. m. ..

: xjc -p jess. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. </jaxb:bindings> .. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. By default. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler.. however.xsd This. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1.0"> .0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. 5. One of these things is the package name. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings.xjb. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.5 Customizing 5.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. ususally of file type .sun.

but you may not always be at liberty to do so. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.sun. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.sun.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. the outermost element of an XML schema. 5. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.w3.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.

But. it is replaced by Clazz.e. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword.List.util. using an jxb:property element. it does happen. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.. For this one.util. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. believe me. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes. If you don't fancy this. i.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . (Arguably this isn't good XML design. you can request your own substitute. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java.

sun. Documentation is probably best written inline... This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: . 5. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file.. <?xml version="1. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. by renaming either element: .org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.. as part of the type definition in your schema.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.

.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt.. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. Java class for GlobalType complex type." and "&amp.. you add a child as shown in the example below. <xsd:schema> . The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section.code>GlobalType&lt. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. see below./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally.e.".) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. For either of these schema components. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element.. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. i.

DatatypeConverter. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably..parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring. import javax.StringInterner. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.xml. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls.intern().jessrules..parseString( value ). First. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. } . It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String. So. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.bind. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. including their subordinate elements. 5.

4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway.4}L?X{.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. we have to write a simple class like the one given below. 1 }.getKey() ).) Although the XML type is xsd:string. 50. import java. entry.HashMap. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. import java. 1 ).6. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.put( 'V'. as in the next example.put( 'D'.util.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. rom2int. rom2int. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. 1000 ). for( Map.Integer>(). This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.put( 'I'. 10 ). rom2int. rom2int.put( entry.put( 'L'.put( 'M'. static { rom2int. private static Map<Integer.4}V?I{.Map. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. rom2int. 100.getValue(). it is possible to customize the datatype binding. For this. } . private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. 5. rom2int.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer.Entry<Character. package util. 50 ). 5.put( 'C'. 10. 100 ).util.roman.entrySet() ){ int2rom.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. In those rare cases where this is not adequate.Character>().put( 'X'. 500 ).Integer> entry: rom2int. 500. 5 ).

append( int2rom. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.w3. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder().RomanNumberConverter. i < value.roman. for( int i = 0.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1. } return result.xml. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.toString().com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.6.get( d ) ). You may choose any names you like. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d. .RomanNumberConverter.bind. i++ ){ result += rom2int. <?xml version="1. but the methods must be static. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util.charAt( i ) ).sun.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax. } } return sb.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.get( value.roman.length(). sb.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

public DocType(){ } } import javax.util.*.program = program. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. import java.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .HashMap.. public class KeyType { public String event. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. this.datatype. public String artists.artists = artists.xml. import javax. this. import java. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.EntryType>().*.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.util. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this.xml.bind.V>. } } public class EntryType { public String program.<?xml version="1. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K.event = event. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType.Map. String program ){ this.annotation. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .datetime = datetime.

The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. "items". "cluster" } ) public class Document { . It must be written on a file package-info. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.2. 6. } 6.annotation.. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. Below is an example.E.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime.bind. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods.at/hospital"..XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.2. . but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements.laune.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.xml.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. requesting that the elements title. @javax.) Here is an example for XmlType. according to the Schema Datatypes specification.java situated in the package. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. and key data from value data.

name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.at/med" ) }.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. } .laune. value). This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.xml. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.2. namespaceURI = "http://www. annotated with XmlRegistry. TreeType. xmlns = { @javax.. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = ""..XmlNs( prefix = "med".at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.laune.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.annotation.XmlNsForm.laune. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .laune.bind.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.w3. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.laune.elementFormDefault = javax. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.annotation.XmlNsForm.class.annotation. elementFormDefault = javax.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.xml. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.bind. Therefore. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.QUALIFIED) package hospital. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements. null.QUALIFIED) package hospital. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.bind.xml. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.at/hospital".4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.bind.xml. 6.annotation.

and methods getFoo and setFoo. i.. If FIELD is set every non static... You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. Any protected. PROPERTY. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. Member getB is blocked from being bound. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute.... then. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.2. private String b. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. or public fields..6.e. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties.. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . all public members will be bound. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. say foo. } public void setA( String value ){ . by default. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE.. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType.NONE ) . public getter and setter pairs...PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. } public String getA(){ . } public void setB( String value ){ . public SomeClass(){ . non transient field will be automatically bound.

. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. } public String getA(){ .... Second... private List<String> b... } public String getA(){ .. return b... private String b. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true.public class OtherClass { private String a. public SpecialClass(){ . (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. } public void setA( String value ){ ..PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. First.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.. with changes being made on the list object. } public void setB( String value ){ . public OtherClass(){ . } } The generated complex type features both elements.. } public void setA( String value ){ . XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ . which doesn't have its setB spouse. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> ...

This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. This strategy may be generally permissive. this means that you can. because they are used as types for a field. 6. whether it is optional or nillable. and below is the corresponding schema snippet.class} ) class Animal { //. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. permitting nothing by default. It permits you to define the XML element name.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. or restrictive. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog..7. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. Once more.2. oriented on fields or properties. In the . @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". the namespace. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. respectively.e..class.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. a default value and the Java class. } 6. i.. 6.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. Within a class.g.2.. Cat. e.2. either at package level or at some superclass. the ones that are bound to schema elements. Here are two annotated fields.

class) }) protected List entryList. type = MenuType. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes.2. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".class). using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you .7.class). the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. type = ItemType. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. 6. type = CheckBoxType.class definition below. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.

has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value".7. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. public Price(){} @XmlElement .2.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. making judicious use of both. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. List<Sentence> word. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. (If you look for guidance. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.2. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.7." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.) 6.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. of course. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid .Sentence isn't a simple type. the default being the class field's name.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. is a good example. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here.name defines the namestring for the attribute.) JAXB. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". 6. Also. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. -. -. with one element or attribute for each field.

} // .. } } If this type is used for some field.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.amount = value.7.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // . too.2. 6.. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type..: <price> <amount>123. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. e.g. .public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount..

System. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.Object> amap = mix. MixtureType mix = doc.Object>.unmarshal( new File( "mixture.getValue() + """ ). } return any. Then. private String title. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" .entrySet() ){ System.Entry<QName.Object> e: amap.Object>().Object> any.println( e.println( "Title: " + mix.out.getValue().getMixture().It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. DocumentType doc = jbe. Map<QName. for( Map. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.getTitle() ).xml" ) ).out.getAny().getKey() + "="" + e.

Element.dom.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.println( el.createUnmarshaller(). subsection DOM Elements.getZoo(). } .unmarshal( f ).bar="attribute of bar" 6. or an array or list of such elements.w3c.newInstance( DocumentType. import javax.w3c.util. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().annotation. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.class ). Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.Element. Unmarshaller u = jc. e.dom.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.*.getNodeName() + "->" + el.7. for( Element el: doc. import org. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. cf.2.out.getTextContent() ).*.bind. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.xml. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.getAnimals() ){ System.g. return animals.

<parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. as indicated in the XML snippet below. public ParentType(){ . For this.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. or "wrapping". return item.7.2. you need some additional element bracketing.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.2.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. and another one for the content text. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> .. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. for the repeated element. i. } } 6.. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). with one field for each element and attribute. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.7. child elements embedded in the element's own data.. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.e.

class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. type = JAXBElement.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message".To achieve the same effect with an annotated class.class). you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". } return this. type = JAXBElement.content. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. which doesn't have mixed content any more. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. slightly more specific than Object. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id".class).class). except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. type = JAXBElement. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. @XmlElementRef(name = "code".

(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. Its required element defines the XML representation string. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. even numeric ones. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants.lang.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value.2. Usually.lang.content.. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. } return this. 6. // . } } This does.. } public String value() { return value.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation.. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. and by default.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. this is java. are equally possible. in fact.. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor.String but other types. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. It has an optional element value of type java. For a straightforward enum type. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").

e. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.xml.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.values()) { if (c.bind. Such mappings require an adapter class. <?xml version="1. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do.equals(v)) { return c.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123..45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.2. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. } } 6. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.value. To achieve our goal.toString()).ApplType> from the package javax.class) . @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. Also.annotation.adapters. i.

It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. @XmlElement String name.Course> courses.toArray(new Course[c. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. and this is. @XmlAttribute Price price. of course. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.put( c. c ).values().carray = c. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. . } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. return courses. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String.courses. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. the interesting class.size()]).Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). In this method.courses. return b.id.carray ) b. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. Collection<Course> c = b. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses.public class Brochure { Map<String. for( Course c : value. courses. Course>().

XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. e.2. For this. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String.strbuf.toString(). TextType elements are now StringBuffers.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package.2. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement. 6. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation..String that is suited to be used as a key. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID.append( " that Jack built. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).. i.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. . public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. a StringBuffer is better than String. // . which is the default mapping for xs:string. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. XmlJavaTypeAdapter." ). text..6.lang. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient.: TextType text = new TextType().e.g. one defining TextType as a container for a string. If you need multiple mappings at package level. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java. Below are the essential Java classes.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf. text.

Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. private String title. import java.. } public void setId( String value ){ ... } } import java. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. import javax.List.*.util.bind.annotation..bind. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .. public Cluster(){ .annotation. import java. } } package elset.bind.Set.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.HashSet.util. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .*. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items. import java..*.. } public void setName( String value ){ .util..ArrayList. private String name..xml. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .xml. import javax. import javax.util..annotation.xml.. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ . public class Item { private String id.. In this case. the collection item type must contain an id field.

} @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ . } } --..... public Document(){ .private Cluster cluster... private List<Item> items. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ ... private String title..END --- . } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ .. } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ ...

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