A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

however. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). The JAXB runtime library. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. Values are invariably provided as strings. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. as compared to version 1. attributes and other content in a typesafe way.1. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. with a very high level of distinctiveness. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. etc. the Simple API for XML.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. with individual node objects containing an element. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. Version 2. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. is contained in objects of a single type. DOM data.util.10. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. a CDATA section. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. Versions from 2. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. an attribute. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. In the DOM approach. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations.List. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler.) 1. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. linked according to the XML document's structure.

Some of these features are: -. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins .xsd defines the structure of our document. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. <?xml version="1. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code. -.sun.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. The XML Schema on hello.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. -.various XML Schema language constructs in Java.The XML Schema generator schemagen. it's just here to give you the overall picture.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. which is to contain a series of salutations.obviously an area for experts. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. 1.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.

} } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.setLanguage( l ). } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // .createGreetingType(). } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. import javax. grList. import hello.. Finally. System.bind. m..util. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. defining the package name hello for the generated classes. g.*. i. import java. Here's a sequence of these calls: ..add( g ). xjc -p hello hello.e.out ).*. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello.newInstance( "hello" ).createGreetings( grList ). The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute. grList = of. Marshaller m = jc.marshal( gl. the list is wrapped in its XML element.createGreetingListType(). with a call to marshal. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.setText( t ).getGreeting(). g. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). String l ){ GreetingType g = of. private GreetingListType grList. GreetingListType. } public void make( String t.createMarshaller(). The class Hello shows how to use them.xml.*.

The output is shown below. madame". "en" ).marshal().make( "Hey. h. formatted. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> .0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour.Hello h = new Hello().make( "Bonjour. h. <?xml version="1. h. you". for better readability. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. "fr" ).

Other facets. This is done by adding so-called facets. URIs. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. strings. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). the composition of document nodes.sun. and for references and other XML constructs.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Type information deals with the definition of structure.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. e. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. Although all data in XML is text.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. such as lists or maps. If used. to limit the precision. however. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. structure (or record) and union. <xsd:union>. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. dates and times. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. are ignored by the Schema Compiler.g. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. with xsd as the namespace identifier. to enumerate all legal values. list. and to define a pattern for a string type. For child elements.0"> 2. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound.. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. This (or some other name.. booleans.e.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. i.w3. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer.

the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".2. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations.math. For brevity and clarity. perhaps.. you might ask.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. Doing away with fractional digits. If you peek into one of these class definitions.group = value. you'll see simple get and set methods. we . JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. 2. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. // . According to the XML Schema definition.BigDecimal. created from your XML schema. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. public int getGroup() { return group. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal.. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated.2.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes... There is one Java type providing just that: java. required = true) protected int group. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code.. 2.Schema object. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation.validation. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. } Where is. Leaving double and float aside.xml. } public void setGroup(int value) { this.. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. } // .

.math. Below the integer type. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. short for xsd:unsignedByte. JAXB reverts to simple types.but only for descendants of Object. e. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. Short shortNil. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range.arrive at xsd:integer. hence java. and therefore this type maps to java. simplified for better readability. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. too. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte.. nil. i. it has to be represented by java. int _int. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. This adds another value to the set of possible values. another one for their obscure cousins. which still has an unspecified number of digits.math. there is no fitting simple type. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types.e. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . BigInteger integer. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers.g. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. For xsd:unsignedLong. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent.BigInteger must be used. using the smallest type capable of holding all values.. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far.BigInteger. long _long.BigInteger.math. With xsd:unsignedInt.

For some element such as counter. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code.counter = value. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. } 2. of course. BigInteger nonNegative. } Well. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> .decimal = value. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3.. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. BigInteger unsignedLong. // .3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type.2. it's quite a zoo indeed. public int getCounter() { return counter.. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. protected int counter.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. long unsignedInt.. So..

Once more. no Java class is required for DirType.2. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.2. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.datatype. This class is in the package javax. 2.GregorianCalendar. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. 2.String is used. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. .util.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. alternatives and grouping. (Do not confuse this with java. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.lang.xml. Java's own java. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time.

} } However.MINUTE ). This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.MONTH ).FIELD_UNDEFINED ). // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.date = value. null. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. not possible to omit seconds entirely. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. meta. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.get( Calendar. meta.setTime( gcTime ).get( Calendar.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).get( Calendar. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().setDate( gcDate ).newInstance().time = value. now.YEAR ). however. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.get( Calendar. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.DAY_OF_MONTH ).get( Calendar. now. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. now.createDateTimeType().get( Calendar. DateTimeType meta = of.HOUR_OF_DAY ). // no fraction DatatypeConstants. It is. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. DatatypeConstants.SECOND ). now.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now.

} public void setData(byte[] value) { this.2. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. Using NumberListType as an attribute .2. } } 2. All conversions are handled by JAXB. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. 2.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. A sample schema declaration is shown below. public byte[] getData() { return data. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. as shown below. still be represented in printable characters. use an xsd:list. for inclusion in an XML file.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must.data = ((byte[]) value).<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601.

8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>()...dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. . <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. separated by white space.. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created.. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-..or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . } // .2. 2.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. } return this... protected List<Integer> numbers..numbers. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list. // .2. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. 2. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements."/>.

. } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. private final String value. eStwS. } . SP_DR_S("SpDrS").. IXLType(String v) { value = v. E_STW_S("eStwS"). public enum IXLType { eStwA. as shown below. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . SpDrL.. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . } public String value() { return value. for each enum constant name.. VGS_80("VGS80"). SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). VGS80.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. SpDrS. public String value() { return name().

2.2. protected String dir. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. Try to avoid xsd:union. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest.value. } else { return pos. 2. even if they do not have content. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java.pos = value. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. . <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType.2.

. or even a combination of both. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. except for list types. the one describing the containing element..} public String getDir() { return dir.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. 2.e.. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null. "Doc"). The xsd:element defines the XML tag. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. simply because there is no such element. Obviously. //. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element.2. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. this element itself and its siblings. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. So. i.dir = value.12.2. or one or more subordinate elements. } public void setDir(String value) { this.

value). protected int y.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.y = value. } public void setY(int value) { this. public int getX() { return x.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts. public class PointType { protected int x. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. 2.. null. } public void setX(int value) { this.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME.x = value. } } 2.12. } public int getY() { return y. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.2. (The default for both is 1..2.class. } // .3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .12. DocType.

starter = value. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. 2. There is. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this.12. entree. } // . . soup.2. dessert. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. public String getStarter() { return starter.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives..XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. however.(more getters and setters) } Here. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present.. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter.

for instance.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. 2. or a fixed number. Also.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. protected String email. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. public String getSMS() { return sms.util.12. may contain any number of elements. There is. and for all similar element lists. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { .. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. } // . protected String mms. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. a java.sms = value. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter.. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.2.List is used. Various combinations are possible.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes.public class CommType { protected String sms. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. Here.

With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. 9 ) ).6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. Other possibilities are java. Sometimes only java.2. .Object will do. Obviously. } return this.lang. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. code like this polygon. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint.Serializable. All methods defined in java.add( new PointType( 4. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. therefore.List may be applied to the returned value. 2. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). or you may use addAll for bulk additions. adds another point.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. The list can be added to one by one. } return this.Most importantly. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.lang. in the same Java code.12.points. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.textOrNumberOrPoint.util.getPoints().

public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>().. e.. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. say. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.: for( Object o: mix.g. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // ..bind.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // .xml. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator. mercifully. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. For one thing. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. after the third sub-element.. Also. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong.getClass() ).. cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. If we add another element of. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax.. } . type xsd:string.

. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. in italics or underlined. (process) } else if( "Number".. // .getName().getValue().getLocalPart(). </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. if( "Text". where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic...getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text..2. } } Consequently. 2. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . for( JAXBElement je: mix.. (other alternatives) } } Again. // .12. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. (process) } else if( //..getValue(). These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.return this.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.textOrNumberOrPoint. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language. // . to be rendered in boldface.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je.

The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. The generic list type now happens to be java. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>(). we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). } return this. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.lang. I and U. we did use ChunkType with B. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. System. indeed. dumpChunk( chunk ).print( "(" + tag + ":" ).getName().out.out. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes".getValue().Serializable. } . } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.print( (String)s ). } return this. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). Having penetrated this slight obfuscation.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.p. As we already know. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).out. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. and. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.content.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.getLocalPart(). as ChunkType features just one method getContent. System.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.

} 2. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. required = true. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. for( ChunkType c: text..(process a text) TextType text = .. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. which can not be omitted. the characterless thing. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. not a good idea.12. . in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0".w3. even though its value could be the empty string. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b.} } //. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. required = true) protected String a. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present.. However. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on..org/2001/XMLSchema-instance.. nillable = true) protected String c.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. @XmlElement(name = "C". we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now.2. in general.

13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. } // .public String getA() { return a.2. check boxes. radio buttons and sub-menus. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.. (more getters and setters like this) } 2.. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> . } public void setA(String value) { this.a = value.

again adding some attributes. // .(getText.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries.(isState. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. Before we look at the generated Java code.CheckBoxType extends ItemType. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list. however. including itself.. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect.. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . -. // .. -. // . A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. -.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus... setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. The JAXB compiler.(getCommand. Group is the button group's identification. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. public class EntryType { protected String text.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType.

literally. protected String operator. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. } return this..List<EntryType>. // .14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. Below is a simple example. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. protected Boolean state.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. and that's why we have to be content with a list. which contains a java.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType.util. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has.protected String group. } } 2. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you.2. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. protected String value. .. reverse engineered the common superclass. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>().

bt. is conceptually an abstract type. Marshaller m = ctxt.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). however. } public String getOperator() { return operator. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. true ).add( op1 ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. bt. The elements of the group may have different types.createBinop( bt ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. This is what we have in the example. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. either by restriction or by extension. but they must be derived from the same base type. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.setOperator( "*" ). which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.14" ).createBinopType(). This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.getContent(). m. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). } return this.createVariable( "d" ).setProperty( Marshaller. BinopType bt = of. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1.marshal( jbe. This type.getContent().out ).operator = value.content. } public void setOperator(String value) { this.newInstance( "generated" ). m. .createMarshaller(). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. A PosType element represents a position in an order. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. System.createConstant( "3.add( op2 ). bt.

<?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.w3.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.

. Also. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. protected int price. element construction is a tad more complicated. } // . and its use as the generic type parameter... } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. // . There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value)... // . (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. returning an object whose type is ItemType. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. And finally there is createItem. protected int quantity. // .. (more getters and setters) } Once again.. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. parameterized with BookType or DiskType..<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. Here is the skeleton of this class: . each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks.

} public OrderType createOrderType() { . DiskType dk = of. bk. p1. // Create an order OrderType st = of. listPos.createPosType()..setItem() PosType.setItem() PosType.. bk. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used..setItem() Looking at this table. .setItem( of..setItem( of.createPosType().setDuration( 50 ). List<PosType> listPos = st. // createItem for BookType p1..setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ).. // Order two copies of a book.createBookType(). bk. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory()...setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ). Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.createDisk( dk ) )... } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { ..setPrice( 20 ). PosType p2 = of.. // Order a disk.createDiskType(). BookType bk = of. dk. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { . PosType p1 = of.public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .setPrice( 120 ). dk.setPages( 832 )..setQuantity( 1 ).setQuantity( 2 ).. } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { . } public DiskType createDiskType() { . listPos.add( p1 ).createOrderType().add( p2 ). p2. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .. dk. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.. // createDisk p2. } public PosType createPosType() { .createItem( bk ) ).getPos().

The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.getName(). .org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. <?xml version="1. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction. The tag is represented as an object of class javax.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.xml.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.getSimpleName() ).getTitle() + " " + p.getItem().getClass(). for( PosType p: order.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www. System.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.xml" ) ). String tag = p.out.getLocalPart(). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.namespace. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.println( item.println( tag + " " + item.getValue().unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.getValue(). The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.w3.createOrder( st ). along with the lengthy namespace declaration.getItem().getQuantity() ).out. System.

2. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. in full. They let you represent references to XML elements. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. i. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> .. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. aren't they) into all places where it is used. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF.e. An AirportType element is presented only once. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.

Object to. to retrieve the origin of some flight. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To.to = value.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . } public void setTo(Object value) { this. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. as the string implementing the XML link. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. So.getTo()).) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. public Object getFrom() { return from..from = value. } // . int number. String carrier.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes.. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. } public Object getTo() { return to.

Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. graphs. in general. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. The example given below is for railway buffs. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake.references. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. same thing. lists or. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. Nevertheless. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> .

</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. protected Object west. } } But wait . One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. } public Object getWest() { return west. because. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> .e. Again. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. i.west = value. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element.east = value. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. as the "null" element. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. perhaps in a category of its own. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. there must be some element where that string is an id value. by definition.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. public Object getEast() { return east. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated..

provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value. too. } } But what will be the class of the Content . e. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.. public Object getContent() { return content.if not java.2. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . To see how this is handled in JAXB. but we might just as well use some null values there.lang.e.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. i. the Null element as shown below. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values.g.Object. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content.lang.. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. In the XML file you would have one extra element.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java. Its name is distinction enough. 2.perhaps Id="null" .16.2.content = value.Object (which would be .16 Elements With Any Type 2.

more DOM accesses.getChildNodes().: Element content = (Element)bag. .w3c.Element. i.obtuse).e.dom.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element. Node<List> = content. // . 2.lang..dom.Object.2.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.dom.xerces.ElementNSImpl.the important thing is that it implements org. This means that.Node.. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.internal. class apache. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.dom. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.16. which is a subinterface of org..getContent(). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). then what? Well.w3c.. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.getTagName(). String tag = content.. if you really have to. e.g.w3c. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. the actual class doesn't really matter .

(investigate other possibilities). comm ). ready for marshalling.getValue().setSource( "Ms Jones" ).org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> . ).class.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ). CommType comm = of. comm. hearsay. } else { // . comm. // Let's have some hearsay.setComm( hearsay ).org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.// Create the container object..com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.. HearsayType hearsay = of. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. if( comm.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.2.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.w3. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process..w3.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3." ).w3.. CommType.getComm(). all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( .createHearsayType(). Harper does naughty things. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1. Harper does naughty things. CommType comm = (CommType)je.unmarshal( f ).createCommType().w3. } 2.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www. // Prepare a JAXBElement.. In fact.setText( "Mr..17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.

it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly..3.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.drawImage() with this object as the first argument. Moreover. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. 0. // Get the image from the content tree.. Image img = bimg.. Image img = jbe. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.setJPEGPicture( img ).getValue(). You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. // Draw it Graphics g = . JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .createPicture( itemEl ). -1. Image. 0. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> .<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. itemEl. For one thing. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. Unmarshalling is just as simple... anonymous types result in some inner class. Well.drawImage( img.getJPEGPicture().read( imgFile ).SCALE_DEFAULT ).createItemType().getScaledInstance( 512. g. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. null ). More importantly.

public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below.. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own.Item>(). protected List<PurchaseOrderType.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. and re-used from there wherever they are required. // . } public static class Item { protected String productName.3. . protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. they should be written once. protected BigDecimal price. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. in a separate schema file.. protected BigInteger quantity. } return this.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.item.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. // . If the documents share common XML types. protected AddressType billTo. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used.Item> item. protected String partNum.(getters and setters) } 2. Note that PurchaseOrderType...

..org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy..common and org.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.solarsystem.g.> .org/common" schemaLocation="common..org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.: <?xml version="1. .<?xml version="1.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file.astronomy. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy. resulting in org. e. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema .w3.astronomy.w3.

.createMarshaller().3.createPlanet( planet ).. System. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.solarsystem. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes..createSolarSystem().g.3. 2.marshal( jbe.astronomy.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. m. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes. If an XML schema is extended. 2.. Add planets. PlanetType planet = of. Given the complex type ItemType.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. This may be regretted.. m. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. System. // Create a solar system. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. //. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). respectively.. SolarSystem sol = of. //.out ).3. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version.createPlanetType(). 2.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group.out ).4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. e." specifying the group's given name. it is possible to define . use the attribute ref=". // Create a single planet instance document.marshal( sol. Marshaller m = context. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

class.process( obj ). static { ourClass2Conv. if( p. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. } PersonType. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. new AddrHandler() ). new ChildHandler() ). } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this.getClass() ).get( obj.class. process( p. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. AddrType.isResident() ){ process( p. ChildType. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.put( //.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.getHandler( obj ). .getChild ).Handler>(). public abstract void handle( Object o ).class. if( h != null ){ h. } processList( p.handle( obj ).put( ourClass2Conv.getName() ). } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. h. new PersonHandler() ).put( ourClass2Conv.class. new NameHandler() )..getAddr() ).put( ourClass2Conv. NameType.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType.

enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. } } Finally.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. try { . h.xml.getValue(). because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. if the tag is required for processing as well. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. } Handler h = this. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice.validation. Don't make such a map global.newInstance( XMLConstants. First. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation.process( obj ). to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. 3. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children.getHandler( obj ). The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().

getColumnNumber(). the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.mySchema = sf. an UnmarshalException (from javax.createUnmarshaller().println( origin + ": " + line + ". Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().ValidationEventHandler is quite simple... ValidationEventLocator vel = ve. Basically that's all there is to it.(error handling) mySchema = null.bind) is thrown. we might write: .4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.newInstance( packagePath ).setEventHandler( vec ). int column = vel. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. If you want to continue as long as possible.xml. u. alas. int line = vel. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. 3.newSchema( file ). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.getMessage(). Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. If you'd like to create your own error messages.xml.setSchema( mySchema )." + column + ": " + msg ).getLineNumber(). } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . u. Unmarshaller u = jc. If the XML data validation fails. as explained in the next section. System. you pass it the schema. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.bind. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.err. or at least as many as possible but.getLocator().hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler.

An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler.setEventHandler( this ).foo. . recursively.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. are not included. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.foo.foo # class some. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages.: # package some.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.bar" ).createUnmarshaller(). all static references. such as the types of instance variables.class. For JAXB annotated Java code. 3. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.g. Subclasses.Foo Foo # inner class some. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb.class ). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.Unmarshaller u = jc. you may use the package path form as well.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.newInstance( "some foo:more. earlier in this chapter. u. e.Foo. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. however. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.index. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. Bar. Usually. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.Boo Foo.newInstance( Foo.

(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.createFooBarType(). FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. // Add it to its parent's list... Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.createFooBarType(). // Add it to its parent's list.createRulebase( rulebase ). fbList.createModuleType(). A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call.add( fooElem )..add( barElem ). JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. fbList. .. ModuleType module = objFact.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).createFooBarListType().getFooOrBar().createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ). ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory()..createRulebaseType(). // . // . // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem.1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>.

2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. If.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. the data is in post-order. as you can create. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. for instance. 4. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> .You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. without any actual XML content. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects.

For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation. with a setter call current.setCustomer( custElem ). List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. folder. // Complete customer. of course. custElem.add( itemElem ). itemList. custElem.setId( item..add( orderElem ). // Data for an order int custId = . itemElem. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact..qtty ).setX( xElem ). You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet..getX(). itemElem. Item[] items = . It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. This is. CustomerType custElem = objFact. // Create and insert the customer element. } . we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. // Create order and insert in top-level document.createItemType().createCustomerType(). // Create and add item elements. simply to be repeated for other child elements. with a call to the getter current.setName( custName ). a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact.. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.. orderElem.getOrders().setQuantity( item. Append (add) it to the List<X>. String custName = ..getItems().createOrderType()....setId( custId ). the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.id ). Add this object to the current element. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.

an order may either contain a full customer XML element. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way.e. On the one hand. 4. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. of course. You may. Here. we have the classes representing XML elements.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. IDREF) 4.. and. or for a customer reference.3. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. (In the example there is ItemType and Item.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. on the other hand. i. inline customer element. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. Our example is a variation of the order data. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. even though . the full. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group.

public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. too.get( custId ). The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. } return this. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. protected List items. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. cust = oFact. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). Map<String. This means that the full elements must be added separately.setCustomer( cust ). and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. protected Object custref.customer = value.setId( custId ). public void addCust( OrderType order. order. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. // complete customer cust. where we'll use the second method.custref = value. Continuing our example.items. . } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here.createCustomerType().CustomerType>(). String custId.

We create a CustomerType object. JAXB. But .put( custId. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. <?xml version="1.aren't useful in an XML text file.the convenient material for references . then we meet a customer for the first time.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object.3. // save in map id2cust.e. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. cust ).. Memory addresses . JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. } else { order.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. however. If the customer lookup returns an object.setName( custName ). This key is also used as a key in the map. i.cust. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. where we keep that element for future reference. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.setCustref( cust ). and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. 4. the "id" string.

what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. Map<Address.AddressType>(). To see how this works. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. . but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. This map uses the object's default hash code. even if hashCode has been overridden. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. Also.util) to register marshalled elements. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element.of type AddressType.

.setAddrRef( addrElem ). private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++.. for instance.setAddr( addrElem ). But the need does arise occasionally. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element.createAddressType(). Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. addrElem..). if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. may have to use this rather extreme technique.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. we map these to assembled AddressType objects. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element.. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact.. // . arElem.and insert it into its parent. provided that the class of the object implements the java.Serializable interface. } return arElem. // .createAddrOrRefType(). which is just what .util.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. it is surprisingly simple.int refcount = 0.get( addrPojo ). 4. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data.setId( makeNextId() ). All in all. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. arElem... AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. } Using Address objects as keys. For an encore. addrElem ). } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. // Register the object . The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.id pair in the identity hash map. addrElem = objFact. // Set the xsd:ID attribute..put( addrPojo. Special dumps of application data. pojo2elem.

Then. ooStream.bind.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. such as the one that's used below. return pojo.toByteArray() ). } 4.* void writeDocument( Object document.xml. ooStream. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.io. return joElem. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream().readObject(). or the encoding in the XML prolog.io. Here it is.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy.. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. import javax. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact..close().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. ooStream. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. joElem. as defined by your schema. String pathname ) . Object pojo = oiStream. oiStream.setData( baos. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ).w3.we need for calling the java.close(). which requests nice formatting of the XML text.createJavaObjectType().ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject.flush(). JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372.getData() ). Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data.writeObject( pojo ). you might set a number of properties. import java.*. or a JAXBElement<?>.

TRUE ).) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www.. st ). Marshaller m = context. A generic solution is presented below. of course.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.getClass().createMarshaller(). m.newInstance( clazz.getClass().marshal( jbx. return jbe. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.getPackage().out ).throws JAXBException.acme. o ). tag ). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. } To use it. System. clazz. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.com"... m.marshal( document.getName() ). (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .getValue(). "someTag".setProperty( Marshaller. Boolean. m. String tag. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. but this is cumbersome. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext. You could. Class<?> clazz = o. . new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ).

A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.xjb. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.0"> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. however.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. </jaxb:bindings> . One of these things is the package name. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. By default.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.sun. 5.xsd This.: xjc -p jess. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file... or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema.5 Customizing 5. ususally of file type .ruleml -d gen-src RuleML.

sun.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. the outermost element of an XML schema.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. but you may not always be at liberty to do so. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.w3. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.xjb -d gen-src RuleML. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> . 5.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.

JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. using an jxb:property element. For this one. (Arguably this isn't good XML design.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. you can request your own substitute.. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.e. But. believe me. If you don't fancy this.util.List. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. i.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. it does happen. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword.util. it is replaced by Clazz.

by renaming either element: . it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr. <?xml version="1.sun.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> ... as part of the type definition in your schema.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. 5. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .w3.. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. Documentation is probably best written inline.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.

" and "&amp. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*').code>GlobalType&lt. see below.. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema.". Java class for GlobalType complex type. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. i. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). For either of these schema components... you add a child as shown in the example below.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt.e. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. . (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. <xsd:schema> . </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters.

So.StringInterner. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.. including their subordinate elements.. } .jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0. First. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.jessrules. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.intern(). It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring.bind. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably.xml. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section.DatatypeConverter. 5. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.parseString( value ).. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. import javax.

public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument.put( 'X'. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.util.put( 'C'. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.put( entry.Integer>().Entry<Character. rom2int. as in the next example.roman.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. package util.Character>(). We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. import java.put( 'L'. 1 }. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. For this. rom2int. 1000 ).Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character. private static Map<Integer. we have to write a simple class like the one given below. 500 ). entry. for( Map.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations.Integer> entry: rom2int. import java. In those rare cases where this is not adequate.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. 5. 1 ).put( 'V'. 500. 10 ). 50 ). 5.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. rom2int.Map.4}V?I{. 100.put( 'I'. 5 ).put( 'M'.put( 'D'.util. static { rom2int.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.getValue(). 50. rom2int. rom2int. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own. 100 ).HashMap.4}L?X{. rom2int. } .entrySet() ){ int2rom. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int.getKey() ). 10.6.

with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section. } return result.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5. You may choose any names you like. sb.charAt( i ) ). but the methods must be static. i < value. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.RomanNumberConverter.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.length().toString().sun. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB. .xml.6. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.RomanNumberConverter.append( int2rom.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman.w3.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.roman.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.roman. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.get( d ) ). } } return sb.bind. i++ ){ result += rom2int. for( int i = 0.get( value.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. public class KeyType { public String event.annotation.util. public String artists.bind.event = event. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. import java.*. import javax. import java.program = program. this.util. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.xml.datatype.artists = artists..HashMap.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> . you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .V>. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.EntryType>(). } } public class EntryType { public String program. public DocType(){ } } import javax. String program ){ this. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. this.*..xml.datetime = datetime. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.<?xml version="1.Map. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event.

You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.. It must be written on a file package-info.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. and key data from value data. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title".annotation.. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace.bind. } 6. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. Below is an example. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.java situated in the package. "cluster" } ) public class Document { . and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods.2.xml. according to the Schema Datatypes specification. requesting that the elements title.E. 6.laune. @javax.) Here is an example for XmlType.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. .at/hospital".M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime.2. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. "items".

name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { . TreeType.xml.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method. value).. xmlns = { @javax.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element. Therefore.XmlNsForm. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.QUALIFIED) package hospital.2.bind.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.laune. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.annotation.bind.w3. null. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element. 6. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.laune. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.annotation.XmlNsForm.bind.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. namespaceURI = "http://www. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.bind.QUALIFIED) package hospital. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.at/hospital". annotated with XmlRegistry. } .laune.annotation. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.laune.annotation.XmlNs( prefix = "med".elementFormDefault = javax. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.class.xml.xml. elementFormDefault = javax. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.laune.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www..xml.at/med" ) }.

The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. or public fields. } public void setA( String value ){ . NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs.NONE ) . PROPERTY. Any protected. If FIELD is set every non static.e. then.6. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . } public String getA(){ . It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method.2. private String b. i. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML... non transient field will be automatically bound.. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. } public void setB( String value ){ . public getter and setter pairs. and methods getFoo and setFoo.. say foo.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a... Member getB is blocked from being bound... by default. public SomeClass(){ . all public members will be bound. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field..

. public SpecialClass(){ .PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a.. Second.. } public String getA(){ .. } public void setB( String value ){ . First.. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances.... (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. public OtherClass(){ .. } public void setA( String value ){ . } public String getA(){ .) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. private String b.. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). with changes being made on the list object.. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. private List<String> b. return b.. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> . } } The generated complex type features both elements... } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ .public class OtherClass { private String a... } public void setA( String value ){ . which doesn't have its setB spouse.

1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement.7. whether it is optional or nillable.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". because they are used as types for a field. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. or restrictive. either at package level or at some superclass. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. oriented on fields or properties. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. Once more. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation.2. a default value and the Java class. permitting nothing by default. i. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class..g. the namespace. It permits you to define the XML element name. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class... Within a class. In the . in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. 6.2.class. e.. Here are two annotated fields. 6. the ones that are bound to schema elements.class} ) class Animal { //. respectively. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble".2.e. } 6. this means that you can. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. This strategy may be generally permissive. Cat.

the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements.class definition below. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. 6.2.class) }) protected List entryList.class).7.class). } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. type = MenuType. type = CheckBoxType. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast. type = ItemType.

6.) JAXB. the default being the class field's name. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. (If you look for guidance.can be sure that no string value contains a blank.Sentence isn't a simple type.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . with one element or attribute for each field.7. List<Sentence> word. making judicious use of both. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. public Price(){} @XmlElement .2.7.) 6. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. of course. -. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. is a good example.2. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount.name defines the namestring for the attribute. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. -. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. Also. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.

e.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. 6.7. } } If this type is used for some field.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type. .. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.g. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. too..5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.: <price> <amount>123. } // . or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type.2. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .amount = value. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount...

getValue(). System.getTitle() ). public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.entrySet() ){ System.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . DocumentType doc = jbe. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.xml" ) ). } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value.println( e.Object> e: amap.getMixture().Object> any.Object>.unmarshal( new File( "mixture. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.getKey() + "="" + e.getValue() + """ ).getAny(). Then.out. for( Map. Map<QName.println( "Title: " + mix.Object> amap = mix.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName. private String title. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.out. MixtureType mix = doc. } return any.Object>().Entry<QName.

out.g.7. or an array or list of such elements. import org.newInstance( DocumentType. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>(). } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.getZoo(). import javax.xml.bar="attribute of bar" 6. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.class ).dom.util. } . defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.dom.w3c. subsection DOM Elements.Element.*. Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller().Element.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. e. for( Element el: doc.getNodeName() + "->" + el. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.annotation.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.println( el. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.bind. return animals.w3c.2.*. cf.unmarshal( f ).getAnimals() ){ System.getTextContent() ).6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.

or "wrapping". XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content.7. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. For this.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. with one field for each element and attribute. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. for the repeated element. and another one for the content text. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list.. i.e.2. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> .. you need some additional element bracketing. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item. public ParentType(){ .. child elements embedded in the element's own data. as indicated in the XML snippet below.7. } } 6.2. return item. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.

type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class).FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). @XmlElementRef(name = "id". Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. type = JAXBElement. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". slightly more specific than Object. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. type = JAXBElement. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. } return this.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously.class).class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content.content. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. which doesn't have mixed content any more.class).

XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum.lang. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants.. in fact. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").String but other types. Usually.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. } } This does.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. Its required element defines the XML representation string. } return this. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor..content. even numeric ones.2. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below. It has an optional element value of type java. 6. // . For a straightforward enum type.. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. } public String value() { return value.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). and by default.lang. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . this is java. are equally possible.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum..

We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.value. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.xml. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.annotation.bind. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. <?xml version="1.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.e.equals(v)) { return c.class) . you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. Such mappings require an adapter class.2.. i. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object.toString()).ApplType> from the package javax. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v. } } 6.values()) { if (c.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.adapters. Also. To achieve our goal.

values().Course> courses. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. return b. return courses.id. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.courses. the interesting class. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. @XmlElement String name. In this method.size()]). } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. courses. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. . for( Course c : value. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter.carray = c. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses.public class Brochure { Map<String.put( c. @XmlAttribute Price price. c ). The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray.carray ) b.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). of course.courses. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id.toArray(new Course[c. Course>(). and this is. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. Collection<Course> c = b. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal.

Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation.strbuf. a StringBuffer is better than String. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf.e. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.lang. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package... // .String that is suited to be used as a key. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. For this. 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. If you need multiple mappings at package level.6. one defining TextType as a container for a string. which is the default mapping for xs:string. . } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.g.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.toString().append( " that Jack built." ). XmlJavaTypeAdapter. i. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. text. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. text. e.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf.2. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ). Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID.: TextType text = new TextType(). Below are the essential Java classes. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.

. import javax. } public void setId( String value ){ . } public void setName( String value ){ . import javax. private String name. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .. import javax. import java. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. the collection item type must contain an id field. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .xml.List.. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .xml.annotation. In this case.annotation. import java.*. public Cluster(){ .bind.bind.HashSet..Set. } } package elset. public class Item { private String id.xml.*..annotation. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.util.. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list..util. private String title.bind.util. } } import java...ArrayList. @XmlRootElement public class Document { ... import java..*.util.

. } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . } } --....... public Document(){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ . } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ . } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ ..private Cluster cluster.... private List<Item> items.END --- . private String title. } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ ..