A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. etc. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.) 1. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. The JAXB runtime library. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. the Simple API for XML. Version 2. attributes and other content in a typesafe way.10.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. DOM data. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. is contained in objects of a single type.1 Introduction 1.List. a CDATA section.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . Versions from 2. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. In the DOM approach. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime.1. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. with individual node objects containing an element.util. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. as compared to version 1. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. an attribute. Values are invariably provided as strings. however. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. linked according to the XML document's structure. with a very high level of distinctiveness.

Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code. The XML Schema on hello.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . -.w3. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document.obviously an area for experts. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. it's just here to give you the overall picture.The XML Schema generator schemagen.sun. 1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. -.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.xsd defines the structure of our document.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.various XML Schema language constructs in Java.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . which is to contain a series of salutations. Some of these features are: -. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. <?xml version="1.

} } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. g. Marshaller m = jc.newInstance( "hello" ). public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). System.out ).createGreetings( grList ). public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.marshal( gl. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.setText( t ).*. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of.*. GreetingListType.createGreetingListType().. xjc -p hello hello.createGreetingType().createMarshaller().xml. i.getGreeting(). import java. The class Hello shows how to use them. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.add( g ).. g. with a call to marshal.. grList = of.util. String l ){ GreetingType g = of.setLanguage( l ). grList. import javax.e.*.bind. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . Here's a sequence of these calls: . private GreetingListType grList. the list is wrapped in its XML element. defining the package name hello for the generated classes. Finally.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. } public void make( String t. import hello. m.

you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . you". madame". h.marshal().Hello h = new Hello(). The output is shown below.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. <?xml version="1. "en" ). h. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. for better readability.make( "Hey. formatted. "fr" ). h.make( "Bonjour.

xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. dates and times. with xsd as the namespace identifier.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers.g. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. however. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form.sun. strings. booleans. to enumerate all legal values. This (or some other name. This is done by adding so-called facets.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. i. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. such as lists or maps. and to define a pattern for a string type. Although all data in XML is text.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. Type information deals with the definition of structure. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. <xsd:union>. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). the composition of document nodes. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. If used. For child elements.w3.e. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. list. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. Other facets. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. URIs.0"> 2. and for references and other XML constructs. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. to limit the precision. e. structure (or record) and union. are ignored by the Schema Compiler..

The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. we . For brevity and clarity.group = value. 2. } // ... limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated.. There is one Java type providing just that: java. you might ask.validation. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. 2.BigDecimal. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. required = true) protected int group.xml. Leaving double and float aside.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes..2.math. } Where is. If you peek into one of these class definitions. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. According to the XML Schema definition. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. perhaps. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. } public void setGroup(int value) { this.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. you'll see simple get and set methods.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. // . Doing away with fractional digits. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // .2. created from your XML schema. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. public int getGroup() { return group.Schema object..

With xsd:unsignedInt..e. nil. it has to be represented by java. int _int. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. i. JAXB reverts to simple types. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal.BigInteger must be used.math. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far.math. BigInteger integer. Below the integer type. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer.BigInteger. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. .g. short for xsd:unsignedByte. too. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this.. This adds another value to the set of possible values.arrive at xsd:integer. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. simplified for better readability. which still has an unspecified number of digits. For xsd:unsignedLong. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. there is no fitting simple type. another one for their obscure cousins. long _long. Short shortNil. hence java.BigInteger. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . and therefore this type maps to java.but only for descendants of Object. e.math.

BigInteger unsignedLong. So. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. } 2.. For some element such as counter. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code.. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . it's quite a zoo indeed. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern.. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte.decimal = value. of course. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. protected int counter.counter = value. BigInteger nonNegative. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below.. public int getCounter() { return counter.2. long unsignedInt. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. } Well. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. // .

The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. (Do not confuse this with java. 2. alternatives and grouping.String is used. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. .lang. This class is in the package javax. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date.2.util.GregorianCalendar. no Java class is required for DirType. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. Once more. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.2. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. 2. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. Java's own java.xml.datatype.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it.

newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. It is. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.setTime( gcTime ).createDateTimeType().newInstance().} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).MINUTE ). DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.MONTH ).newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now.YEAR ). now. now. meta.setDate( gcDate ).get( Calendar.SECOND ). XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. now. not possible to omit seconds entirely.HOUR_OF_DAY ).date = value.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). however. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). null. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. } } However. meta.DAY_OF_MONTH ). XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().get( Calendar.get( Calendar.time = value.get( Calendar. DatatypeConstants. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element. // no fraction DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar.get( Calendar. DateTimeType meta = of. now. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter.

<xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>.2. 2. public byte[] getData() { return data. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations.data = ((byte[]) value).7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. for inclusion in an XML file. use an xsd:list. Using NumberListType as an attribute . public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. as shown below. A sample schema declaration is shown below. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. All conversions are handled by JAXB. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. } } 2.2. still be represented in printable characters.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type.

// . protected List<Integer> numbers. 2. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community.2. ..dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>().... } return this.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements."/>. separated by white space. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.2.. 2. } // . Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType="... unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space.numbers.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.

. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. IXLType(String v) { value = v. } . <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . public String value() { return name().. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). eStwS. SpDrS. private final String value. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding.. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. VGS_80("VGS80"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. } public String value() { return value. SpDrL. as shown below. public enum IXLType { eStwA. E_STW_S("eStwS"). and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . for each enum constant name.. SP_DR_S("SpDrS").public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). VGS80.

<xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. protected String dir. . 2.2. 2. even if they do not have content. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1.value. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. Try to avoid xsd:union. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this.2.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. } else { return pos.pos = value. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements.

So.12. simply because there is no such element. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type.. Obviously. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element.dir = value. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . //. or even a combination of both.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value..2. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. or one or more subordinate elements. 2. the one describing the containing element. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. } public void setDir(String value) { this. this element itself and its siblings. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null.e. "Doc"). The xsd:element defines the XML tag.} public String getDir() { return dir. i. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. except for list types.2.

return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. } public void setY(int value) { this.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts. value).x = value. public class PointType { protected int x. 2. protected int y..12. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content.class. } public void setX(int value) { this.2. } // .. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory. public int getX() { return x.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. DocType. null.2. } } 2.y = value. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.12.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent . (The default for both is 1. } public int getY() { return y.

entree. . public String getStarter() { return starter. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter.2.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all.. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this.12.starter = value. 2. dessert. } // . soup.. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. however.(more getters and setters) } Here.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. There is. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value.

or a fixed number. may contain any number of elements. Also.util. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs.2. a java.. Various combinations are possible. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. for instance. } // . (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. protected String mms. There is. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. public String getSMS() { return sms. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. 2. Here.List is used.12. and for all similar element lists. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it.sms = value. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below.public class CommType { protected String sms. protected String email.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly..

9 ) ).points. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct.List may be applied to the returned value. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.points = new ArrayList<PointType>().) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. in the same Java code. 2. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.Most importantly. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). adds another point. The list can be added to one by one. Obviously.getPoints(). code like this polygon.lang. } return this. therefore.lang.Serializable.Object will do. Other possibilities are java.util.2. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. } return this.add( new PointType( 4. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.textOrNumberOrPoint. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. . and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. Sometimes only java. All methods defined in java. or you may use addAll for bulk additions.12.

The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. e. type xsd:string. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops.: for( Object o: mix.. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>.. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax..You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator..xml. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). after the third sub-element. } .getClass() ).. mercifully. Also. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. If we add another element of. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones.g. For one thing.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. say. cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o.bind..getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // .

// . (process) } else if( //.return this.. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph. in italics or underlined. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. 2.. to be rendered in boldface.getLocalPart(). for( JAXBElement je: mix.. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> .7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element. } } Consequently. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. (process) } else if( "Number". if( "Text". a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. // .12..getValue().getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. // .. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element.textOrNumberOrPoint..2. (other alternatives) } } Again..getValue()..equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.getName(). The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well.

getValue(). indeed. System.print( (String)s ). as ChunkType features just one method getContent.content. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. } return this.Serializable. The generic list type now happens to be java. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.lang.out. I and U.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. } return this.out. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). System.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". } . The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s).getName(). } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. and.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c. dumpChunk( chunk ). As we already know. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>(). we did use ChunkType with B. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.p.out. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getLocalPart(). } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).

12. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. . } 2. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present.2. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". required = true) protected String a. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. in general. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. for( ChunkType c: text. not a good idea.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element..} } //. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. nillable = true) protected String c.w3... the characterless thing.(process a text) TextType text = . @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. which can not be omitted. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". However.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. @XmlElement(name = "C". required = true. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). even though its value could be the empty string. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical...

} // . <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .public String getA() { return a.a = value.2. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items.. check boxes. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. radio buttons and sub-menus.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. (more getters and setters like this) } 2.. } public void setA(String value) { this. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.

again adding some attributes.(getCommand. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. -. // . setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.. -... Before we look at the generated Java code. Group is the button group's identification..CheckBoxType extends ItemType.. including itself. public class EntryType { protected String text. -. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . however. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box.(isState.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. // .MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. // .<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. The JAXB compiler.(getText. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy..

itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. } } 2. . } return this. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.. which contains a java. protected Boolean state. and that's why we have to be content with a list. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation.List<EntryType>.2. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). Below is a simple example. reverse engineered the common superclass. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. protected String operator.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document.util. // . protected String value.protected String group. literally.. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.

marshal( jbe.getContent().createBinopType(). } public void setOperator(String value) { this. The elements of the group may have different types. is conceptually an abstract type. } public String getOperator() { return operator. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. but they must be derived from the same base type. however. bt.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.createBinop( bt ). . BinopType bt = of.content. JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. } return this.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true". either by restriction or by extension. m.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. Marshaller m = ctxt. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). System. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula. A PosType element represents a position in an order.out ). bt.setProperty( Marshaller. bt. This type.createConstant( "3. true ).add( op1 ).setOperator( "*" ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). JAXBElement<String> op2 = of.newInstance( "generated" ).getContent().operator = value. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.add( op2 ).createVariable( "d" ).createMarshaller(). This is what we have in the example.14" ). m.

item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .w3.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.sun.<?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.

. element construction is a tad more complicated. protected int price. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. protected int quantity. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. } // . public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. and its use as the generic type parameter. // . each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. // ... } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. // . Here is the skeleton of this class: . parameterized with BookType or DiskType.. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks.. (more getters and setters) } Once again. returning an object whose type is ItemType. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType.. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements..<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. And finally there is createItem. Also.. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value).

setPrice( 120 ). p2. } public DiskType createDiskType() { . PosType p1 = of.. PosType p2 = of. // createItem for BookType p1.setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ).setItem() PosType. bk. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { ...createDisk( dk ) ).getPos(). dk. bk. .. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { . p1. } public PosType createPosType() { . // Order two copies of a book.. // createDisk p2.createPosType(). DiskType dk = of.setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ).createOrderType().. BookType bk = of. // Create an order OrderType st = of. bk.. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.. listPos...createBookType().setPrice( 20 ). dk. Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.setItem( of.setDuration( 50 ). // Order a disk.setPages( 832 )....createItem( bk ) )..createPosType().add( p2 ). List<PosType> listPos = st. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { . dk.setItem( of.. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used.setQuantity( 1 ).setItem() PosType.add( p1 ). listPos. } public OrderType createOrderType() { .setItem() Looking at this table..public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .createDiskType().setQuantity( 2 ). Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().

for( PosType p: order.println( tag + " " + item. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.getItem(). along with the lengthy namespace declaration. <?xml version="1.getTitle() + " " + p.out. The tag is represented as an object of class javax.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p. System.getQuantity() ).xml" ) ). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType".w3. System. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.println( item.getSimpleName() ).xml.getClass().getItem(). . OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. String tag = p.createOrder( st ).getValue().unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.getValue().getName(). JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.out. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.getLocalPart().namespace.

whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.2. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements.e.2. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. aren't they) into all places where it is used. An AirportType element is presented only once. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . They let you represent references to XML elements.. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. in full. i. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.

all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. So.from = value.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To.to = value. } public Object getTo() { return to. String carrier. } // . public Object getFrom() { return from. to retrieve the origin of some flight.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. as the string implementing the XML link.getTo()).(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references.. Object to. int number. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.

references. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. Nevertheless. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. same thing. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. The example given below is for railway buffs. in general. graphs. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. lists or.

but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . we select EastWestType for a closer inspection.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes.east = value. by definition. because.. as the "null" element. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours.e. perhaps in a category of its own. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. } } But wait . protected Object west. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. there must be some element where that string is an id value. public Object getEast() { return east. i. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. } public void setWest(Object value) { this.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. Again. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated.west = value. } public Object getWest() { return west.

2. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. } public void setContent(Object value) { this. Its name is distinction enough..e.content = value.perhaps Id="null" . } } But what will be the class of the Content .1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. 2.if not java.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.lang. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. too. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. To see how this is handled in JAXB.. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value .Object.lang. the Null element as shown below. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content. public Object getContent() { return content.16 Elements With Any Type 2. In the XML file you would have one extra element.2.Object (which would be . e. i.g.16. but we might just as well use some null values there.

if you really have to.Element. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().dom. 2. We'll assume that we have several document definitions. class apache. i..dom. // . which is a subinterface of org.w3c. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.more DOM accesses..xerces.16.getChildNodes(). (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.lang.2. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org. This means that.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.dom.obtuse).: Element content = (Element)bag.g.internal.w3c..e. String tag = content.getContent().Object.dom. e. the actual class doesn't really matter .ElementNSImpl. then what? Well.getTagName(). Node<List> = content. .Node..the important thing is that it implements org.w3c. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.

ready for marshalling. Harper does naughty things.createHearsayType(). Harper does naughty things. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.unmarshal( f ).. // Let's have some hearsay. HearsayType hearsay = of. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. CommType comm = of. if( comm. } 2.w3.createCommType().. comm.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.setComm( hearsay )..0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.." ). ).// Create the container object. } else { // .class.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).setText( "Mr.. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . comm. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. In fact.getValue(). CommType comm = (CommType)je.w3. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.getComm().org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process.(investigate other possibilities).. CommType. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).2.w3.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.w3. // Prepare a JAXBElement.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www. comm ). hearsay.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.

Image img = bimg.. // Draw it Graphics g = .createPicture( itemEl ).. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. Unmarshalling is just as simple. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2.. Image img = jbe.getJPEGPicture().. -1.getScaledInstance( 512. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.drawImage() with this object as the first argument. Well. 0. null ).<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .drawImage( img. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.createItemType(). anonymous types result in some inner class. itemEl. Image. More importantly. // Get the image from the content tree. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. Moreover. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.setJPEGPicture( img ). 0. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics.SCALE_DEFAULT ).3. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly..getValue(). For one thing.read( imgFile ). g..

in a separate schema file.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType. protected AddressType billTo.. If the documents share common XML types. // .Item>(). . Note that PurchaseOrderType. protected List<PurchaseOrderType. } public static class Item { protected String productName.. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. protected BigDecimal price..Item> item. } return this. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. they should be written once. protected BigInteger quantity.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. and re-used from there wherever they are required.3. protected String partNum.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas..(getters and setters) } 2.item. // . protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type.

solarsystem.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema .w3..org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file..org/common" schemaLocation="common..org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.<?xml version="1.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.common and org..org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.g.: <?xml version="1. . and you may have as many as you like within a single schema. e. resulting in org.astronomy.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.> .

<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.marshal( sol. Marshaller m = context..createMarshaller().... // Create a solar system.solarsystem.3.. 2. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.. SolarSystem sol = of. 2. //. m.3.. respectively. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. use the attribute ref=". If an XML schema is extended. PlanetType planet = of.3. System. Given the complex type ItemType. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes.out ).createPlanetType(). System.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable.out ). but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc.createSolarSystem().astronomy. m." specifying the group's given name.g. it is possible to define .createPlanet( planet ). 2. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. This may be regretted.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. //.marshal( jbe. Add planets. e. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). // Create a single planet instance document.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

isResident() ){ process( p. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.put( //.getAddr() ). public abstract void handle( Object o ).getChild ). There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.put( ourClass2Conv. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.getName() ). new ChildHandler() ). } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. NameType. process( p.handle( obj ). ChildType. } processList( p.Handler>().</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy. AddrType. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. new AddrHandler() ).class. new NameHandler() )..class.put( ourClass2Conv.get( obj. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.getHandler( obj ). if( h != null ){ h. . static { ourClass2Conv.put( ourClass2Conv. h..class. if( p.process( obj ). protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. } PersonType. new PersonHandler() ).class.getClass() ).Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.

Don't make such a map global.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl(). protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj).validation.getHandler( obj ).newInstance( XMLConstants.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets.process( obj ).<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. if the tag is required for processing as well. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. First. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. 3. } Handler h = this. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes.getValue(). the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. h. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice.xml.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. try { . } } Finally.

hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. u. an UnmarshalException (from javax.. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.newInstance( packagePath ). If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.(error handling) mySchema = null.getMessage(). Basically that's all there is to it. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.xml. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().err.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. we might write: . System.. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. you pass it the schema.setSchema( mySchema ). int column = vel.bind) is thrown. or at least as many as possible but. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // .xml. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. If you'd like to create your own error messages. Unmarshaller u = jc.getLineNumber().4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.println( origin + ": " + line + ". } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document.bind. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes.newSchema( file ). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.getLocator(). If you want to continue as long as possible. If the XML data validation fails.createUnmarshaller().getColumnNumber().mySchema = sf. 3. as explained in the next section. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. alas. u. int line = vel. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register.setEventHandler( vec )." + column + ": " + msg ).

index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize. however.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow. are not included. .foo. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. For JAXB annotated Java code.Boo Foo.foo. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. you may use the package path form as well.setEventHandler( this ). either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. 3. e. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.newInstance( "some foo:more. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.newInstance( Foo. recursively.class.foo # class some. such as the types of instance variables.Foo. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. earlier in this chapter. all static references. Usually.createUnmarshaller().g.class ).: # package some. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.index. Subclasses.bar" ). Bar.Foo Foo # inner class some. u.Unmarshaller u = jc.

Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory..createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ). // Add it to its parent's list.. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call.. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact.createModuleType().4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.createRulebase( rulebase ).. // ..getFooOrBar().add( barElem ).. // Add it to its parent's list. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact.createFooBarListType(). RulebaseType rulebase = objFact.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.. . It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object.createFooBarType(). ModuleType module = objFact.createFooBarType(). // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ). A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.. fbList. // . fbList. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem.(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.createRulebaseType(). one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.add( fooElem ). JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.

2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. If. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. the data is in post-order. without any actual XML content. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. 4. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. as you can create. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. for instance.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType.

itemList.. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX...setId( item. Add this object to the current element. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. itemElem. Item[] items = . // Create order and insert in top-level document. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. with a setter call current.createOrderType(). Append (add) it to the List<X>. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX.setX( xElem ).. CustomerType custElem = objFact.setQuantity( item. // Create and insert the customer element.add( itemElem ). for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element.id ). } . of course.. // Create and add item elements.add( orderElem ). a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. custElem. simply to be repeated for other child elements. custElem.getItems().qtty ).createItemType(). String custName = . // Data for an order int custId = . itemElem. It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out.createCustomerType(). with a call to the getter current. // Complete customer. This is. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.setCustomer( custElem ). If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.setName( custName ).getOrders(). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings..getX().. folder. orderElem..setId( custId )..

which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. inline customer element. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. 4. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. we have the classes representing XML elements. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. even though . on the other hand. Our example is a variation of the order data. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType..) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion.e. i. of course.3. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. You may. or for a customer reference. the full. and. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. IDREF) 4. Here. On the one hand.

public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. protected Object custref.setCustomer( cust ).customer = value.items. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. } return this. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. This means that the full elements must be added separately. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this. cust = oFact. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. // complete customer cust. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. order. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.CustomerType>(). public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. Map<String. Continuing our example. public void addCust( OrderType order. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().custref = value.get( custId ). String custId. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. too.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. protected List items.createCustomerType().setId( custId ). . The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. where we'll use the second method. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList().

JAXB. changing them magically to the corresponding string values.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. If the customer lookup returns an object. then we meet a customer for the first time.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object.cust. But .setCustref( cust ). however.setName( custName ). we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. } else { order.aren't useful in an XML text file. Memory addresses .put( custId. i. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.e. cust ). <?xml version="1.. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. where we keep that element for future reference. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. We create a CustomerType object.3. 4. // save in map id2cust. This key is also used as a key in the map.the convenient material for references . the "id" string.

Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. even if hashCode has been overridden. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive.AddressType>().what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem.of type AddressType. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object.util) to register marshalled elements. Also. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. To see how this works. . we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. Map<Address. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. This map uses the object's default hash code. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address.

// Set the xsd:ID attribute.. addrElem.util. } return arElem. All in all. 4. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact.setAddrRef( addrElem ).and insert it into its parent. Special dumps of application data. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address...get( addrPojo ). } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. for instance. which is just what . The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.. But the need does arise occasionally. it is surprisingly simple. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. // .id pair in the identity hash map.put( addrPojo. arElem.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem.Serializable interface.. pojo2elem.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. // Register the object . addrElem ).createAddressType().setId( makeNextId() ). arElem.). // . Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact.. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element.int refcount = 0. provided that the class of the object implements the java. For an encore..setAddr( addrElem ). } Using Address objects as keys. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. may have to use this rather extreme technique. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.. addrElem = objFact.createAddrOrRefType(). if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element.

The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. Object pojo = oiStream. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. or a JAXBElement<?>. ooStream. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.bind.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www.* void writeDocument( Object document. return joElem. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. which requests nice formatting of the XML text. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object. Then.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. ooStream. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.. or the encoding in the XML prolog.. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. such as the one that's used below.getData() ). ooStream.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler.xml. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. Here it is.close(). joElem.close().we need for calling the java. import java.io. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. oiStream.toByteArray() ). as defined by your schema. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.io. you might set a number of properties.*.setData( baos. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). import javax.createJavaObjectType(). return pojo.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. } 4. String pathname ) . Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream().writeObject( pojo ).flush().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial.readObject().w3.

but this is cumbersome.. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. . tag ). Marshaller m = context. m. System.getClass(). } To use it. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.getValue(). Boolean.com".throws JAXBException.out ). you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) )..TRUE ).getPackage(). m. clazz. You could.getClass(). m. of course.newInstance( clazz. Class<?> clazz = o. st ). "someTag". A generic solution is presented below. return jbe. String tag. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context.getName() ).setProperty( Marshaller. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>.marshal( jbx. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.acme..marshal( document. o ).createMarshaller(). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types.

The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema.xjb.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.sun..: xjc -p jess. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. ususally of file type . We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. 5.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.5 Customizing 5. however. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. </jaxb:bindings> .ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. By default. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file.0"> . One of these things is the package name.xsd This. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files.

w3. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.xjb -d gen-src RuleML. the outermost element of an XML schema.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. 5.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.sun. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.

To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.e. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. it does happen. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. For this one. But. i. If you don't fancy this. it is replaced by Clazz.. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.util. using an jxb:property element.List.util. you can request your own substitute. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. believe me.

Documentation is probably best written inline. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.. as part of the type definition in your schema. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file. by renaming either element: .We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically..w3..com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict.sun.. 5. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself. <?xml version="1.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .

. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. <xsd:schema> . The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). For either of these schema components.. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition.". Java class for GlobalType complex type./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition.e.code>GlobalType&lt.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. i.." and "&amp. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally.. see below. you add a child as shown in the example below. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section.

but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. including their subordinate elements. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.. import javax.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter. } .parseString( value ).jessrules.xml.intern().DatatypeConverter. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. So. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. First. 5. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string.StringInterner..bind.

Entry<Character.put( 'X'.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. import java. 10.util. we have to write a simple class like the one given below.put( 'D'. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument.getValue(). In those rare cases where this is not adequate.put( 'I'.put( entry. 1 ). 10 ). private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. private static Map<Integer. } .Integer> entry: rom2int. 500. 100. rom2int. package util.getKey() ).put( 'C'.put( 'M'. For this.HashMap.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer.util.put( 'V'. static { rom2int. 1000 ).put( 'L'. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value. 1 }. rom2int.Character>().Integer>(). rom2int.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.4}L?X{.Map. 50 ).6. as in the next example.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.entrySet() ){ int2rom. 500 ).) Although the XML type is xsd:string. entry. rom2int. for( Map. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own. rom2int. 100 ). 5. 50.roman.4}V?I{. import java. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. 5.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. 5 ). it is possible to customize the datatype binding. rom2int.

DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes.roman. sb.xml.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util. but the methods must be static.RomanNumberConverter. } } return sb. i++ ){ result += rom2int.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.bind.toString().roman. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.length().RomanNumberConverter. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d. .get( d ) ).charAt( i ) ).parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.append( int2rom. <?xml version="1. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). } return result.sun. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.w3. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. i < value.6.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.get( value. for( int i = 0.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. You may choose any names you like. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

} } public class EntryType { public String program.V>.Map.util. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> . this. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. public DocType(){ } } import javax.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .xml.program = program.<?xml version="1.event = event. import java. this.*. public class KeyType { public String event.. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content.util.xml. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType.datetime = datetime.artists = artists.datatype.HashMap. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.bind.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType. public String artists. import javax. import java. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this.*. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. String program ){ this.EntryType>().annotation..

items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements.laune. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. and key data from value data. @javax. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. It must be written on a file package-info.. 6.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type.E.. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element.2. .<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. requesting that the elements title.) Here is an example for XmlType.java situated in the package.xml. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. "items". The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace.2. according to the Schema Datatypes specification. } 6.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package.bind. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods.annotation. Below is an example. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. "cluster" } ) public class Document { .at/hospital".

annotation. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations. elementFormDefault = javax. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.elementFormDefault = javax. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.xml. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME.bind. namespaceURI = "http://www.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.XmlNsForm. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.laune. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { . This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.xml.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method. TreeType.bind.QUALIFIED) package hospital.xml.annotation.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.XmlNs( prefix = "med". null.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.laune. value).2.QUALIFIED) package hospital.laune. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.class.xml.annotation.laune.bind.at/med" ) }. annotated with XmlRegistry.XmlNsForm. xmlns = { @javax.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects. Therefore.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. 6..annotation.at/hospital".laune. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory. } . each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.w3.bind.

} @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . then. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process... } public void setA( String value ){ . setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.6. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. PROPERTY.e.. and methods getFoo and setFoo... by default.. non transient field will be automatically bound. public getter and setter pairs. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. say foo. } public String getA(){ .. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. all public members will be bound. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs... PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. } public void setB( String value ){ ...5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. If FIELD is set every non static.NONE ) . It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. i. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. private String b.2. Any protected. public SomeClass(){ . It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. Member getB is blocked from being bound. or public fields.

.. First.. Second. } public void setA( String value ){ .... public SpecialClass(){ . <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. } public String getA(){ . } public void setA( String value ){ ... public OtherClass(){ . } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. return b. } public void setB( String value ){ .public class OtherClass { private String a. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. which doesn't have its setB spouse. } public String getA(){ .. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. } } The generated complex type features both elements. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances.. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ .PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. with changes being made on the list object. private List<String> b..) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType... private String b...

7. i. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. Within a class.. 6.2. either at package level or at some superclass. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. the namespace. permitting nothing by default. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble.. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. In the . define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. This strategy may be generally permissive. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.e.. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type.class. or restrictive.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. this means that you can. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. e. because they are used as types for a field.g. oriented on fields or properties. a default value and the Java class.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. } 6. Cat. the ones that are bound to schema elements. 6.2. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". Here are two annotated fields. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. whether it is optional or nillable. respectively. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced.. Once more. It permits you to define the XML element name.2.class} ) class Animal { //.

} As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles.class).class).class definition below.7. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word.2. the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".class) }) protected List entryList. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". type = CheckBoxType. type = MenuType. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". 6. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. type = ItemType.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.

7. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. (If you look for guidance.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. of course. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. public Price(){} @XmlElement ." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required".7. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations. 6. is a good example. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . -.) 6. Also. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. making judicious use of both. List<Sentence> word. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -.) JAXB. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value.2. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. with one element or attribute for each field. the default being the class field's name.name defines the namestring for the attribute. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. -.Sentence isn't a simple type. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type.2. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value".can be sure that no string value contains a blank.

: <price> <amount>123. 6.2.. .public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type. } // . } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.7. too. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. } } If this type is used for some field. e..5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .amount = value.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer..g.

private String title.println( e. } return any. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. Then. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. Map<QName. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . DocumentType doc = jbe. for( Map.xml" ) ).Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.println( "Title: " + mix.getKey() + "="" + e. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName. MixtureType mix = doc.Entry<QName.unmarshal( new File( "mixture.Object> amap = mix. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value.getValue().Object> any.entrySet() ){ System.getValue() + """ ).out.getMixture().Object>().It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.getAny().getTitle() ).Object>. System.Object> e: amap. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.out.

Element.dom.*.createUnmarshaller().class ).out.annotation.7. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.*. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.unmarshal( f ). subsection DOM Elements. e. import org.getAnimals() ){ System.getNodeName() + "->" + el.w3c.getTextContent() ). } .) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. import javax. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.w3c. return animals.println( el.bar="attribute of bar" 6.newInstance( DocumentType. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.Element.getZoo(). for( Element el: doc.dom.g. cf. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>(). or an array or list of such elements.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.bind.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.util. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. Unmarshaller u = jc.2.xml. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.

XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. as indicated in the XML snippet below.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list.e.2. For this. and another one for the content text. } } 6. with one field for each element and attribute. i.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef.. return item. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.. public ParentType(){ . <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.7.. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList().The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> .7. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded.2. or "wrapping". for the repeated element. child elements embedded in the element's own data. you need some additional element bracketing.

FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". @XmlElementRef(name = "code". type = JAXBElement. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). @XmlElementRef(name = "id".class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. } return this.content. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself.class). } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". @XmlElementRef(name = "id". When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling.class). public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { .class). Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. type = JAXBElement. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. slightly more specific than Object. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. which doesn't have mixed content any more. type = JAXBElement. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content.

} } This does.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.content.lang. 6.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. } return this. It has an optional element value of type java.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value.. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig"). and by default. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet.. Usually. are equally possible. } public String value() { return value. in fact. For a straightforward enum type. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. even numeric ones.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). // . Its required element defines the XML representation string. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . SubElemType(String v) { value = v.String but other types. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. this is java. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements.. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor..lang.2. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.

you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle.class) . } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.value. i. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible. <?xml version="1.2. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure. Such mappings require an adapter class. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. Also. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.ApplType> from the package javax. To achieve our goal. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. } } 6.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.equals(v)) { return c.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.e.xml.adapters.values()) { if (c.annotation.toString()).bind. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.

carray ) b. of course. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. return courses. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses.values(). .put( c. Collection<Course> c = b.carray = c. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. and this is. @XmlAttribute Price price. the interesting class. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. courses. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure.toArray(new Course[c. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray.id. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. c ).Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). @XmlElement String name.courses. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. for( Course c : value.size()]).courses. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. Course>(). In this method. return b. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.public class Brochure { Map<String.Course> courses.

.2. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ). } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.String that is suited to be used as a key. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement. text. // .StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. e. . public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf.: TextType text = new TextType().e.toString(). 6. i.append( " that Jack built. a StringBuffer is better than String. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. Below are the essential Java classes. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation." ). Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java. For this. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. text.g. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type.lang.. one defining TextType as a container for a string.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. which is the default mapping for xs:string.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.6. If you need multiple mappings at package level.2.strbuf. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package.

*.HashSet.*. } } package elset..util.. public class Item { private String id.annotation.bind... import java. } public void setId( String value ){ .util.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type. import java.annotation.util..Set. } } import java. private String title. import javax. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .. private String name. the collection item type must contain an id field. } public void setName( String value ){ .. import javax. In this case.. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list.xml. public Cluster(){ . public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ ..bind.bind.. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class.List.xml.util.ArrayList. import javax. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.*.xml.annotation. import java.

private Cluster cluster...... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ .. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ . private List<Item> items. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .. private String title.. public Document(){ .END --- . } } --. } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ ... } public void setTitle( String value ){ ...

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