A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. DOM data.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the .10. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. Versions from 2.List. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. an attribute. with a very high level of distinctiveness. In the DOM approach.) 1. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. etc. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.1 Introduction 1. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. as compared to version 1. the Simple API for XML.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. with individual node objects containing an element. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. however. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level.1. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). Version 2. is contained in objects of a single type. The JAXB runtime library. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. a CDATA section. Values are invariably provided as strings. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document.util. linked according to the XML document's structure. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc.

xsd defines the structure of our document. 1.obviously an area for experts. <?xml version="1. Some of these features are: -.sun. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. -. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. -. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.The XML Schema generator schemagen. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . it's just here to give you the overall picture. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The XML Schema on hello.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. which is to contain a series of salutations.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.various XML Schema language constructs in Java.

.add( g ).e. GreetingListType.xml. m. Finally. The class Hello shows how to use them. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.setLanguage( l ).bind. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). g. the list is wrapped in its XML element. i.newInstance( "hello" ).out ).*. import javax. with a call to marshal.getGreeting(). } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. grList. defining the package name hello for the generated classes.createGreetings( grList ).*. } public void make( String t. import hello.createGreetingType()..setText( t ). import java. xjc -p hello hello.createGreetingListType(). System. private GreetingListType grList.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.. } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.createMarshaller().<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. g.util. Here's a sequence of these calls: . grList = of.*. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . Marshaller m = jc.marshal( gl.

h. you". The output is shown below. madame". you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> .marshal().make( "Hey. "fr" ). for better readability. "en" ). h.make( "Bonjour. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. formatted.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. h.Hello h = new Hello(). <?xml version="1.

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.0"> 2. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. i. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. the composition of document nodes. dates and times. to enumerate all legal values. such as lists or maps. URIs. however. and to define a pattern for a string type. list. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. strings. Type information deals with the definition of structure. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. <xsd:union>. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. Other facets. This is done by adding so-called facets. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . e.. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section.w3. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. structure (or record) and union. Although all data in XML is text. to limit the precision. If used. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation.sun.. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language.e.g.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. booleans. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). For child elements. with xsd as the namespace identifier. This (or some other name. and for references and other XML constructs. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type.

The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes.2.math.. Leaving double and float aside. perhaps. 2.xml. There is one Java type providing just that: java. we . <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. you might ask. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. 2. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". // . } // . limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . For brevity and clarity..group = value. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation...Schema object. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. you'll see simple get and set methods. If you peek into one of these class definitions. created from your XML schema.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. Doing away with fractional digits. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code.validation. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. According to the XML Schema definition...BigDecimal. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. public int getGroup() { return group. } Where is.2.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. required = true) protected int group.

math.g.arrive at xsd:integer. simplified for better readability. Short shortNil. i. With xsd:unsignedInt. there is no fitting simple type. it has to be represented by java.but only for descendants of Object. and therefore this type maps to java. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code.math. For xsd:unsignedLong. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. .. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. using the smallest type capable of holding all values.. another one for their obscure cousins. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. which still has an unspecified number of digits. nil. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. too. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers.BigInteger. This adds another value to the set of possible values. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte.e. JAXB reverts to simple types.BigInteger. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. Below the integer type.BigInteger must be used. long _long. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. int _int. e. short for xsd:unsignedByte. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. BigInteger integer. hence java.math. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte.

. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. BigInteger nonNegative. of course. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . BigInteger unsignedLong.. So.. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. } Well.. For some element such as counter. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. // . } public void setCounter(int value) { this.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. public int getCounter() { return counter.decimal = value. it's quite a zoo indeed.counter = value. protected int counter. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } 2.2. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . long unsignedInt. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern.

String is used. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. This class is in the package javax. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.lang.2. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time.GregorianCalendar. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. 2. Java's own java. no Java class is required for DirType. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. .2.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.xml.util. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. alternatives and grouping.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date.datatype. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. (Do not confuse this with java. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. Once more.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. 2.

get( Calendar.createDateTimeType(). meta. now.setTime( gcTime ). You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.time = value.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).get( Calendar. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.newInstance().get( Calendar. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . DateTimeType meta = of.setDate( gcDate ). // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar(). now. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. DatatypeConstants.YEAR ). It is.DAY_OF_MONTH ). not possible to omit seconds entirely. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().date = value.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.SECOND ). meta. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. null.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now.get( Calendar.MINUTE ).get( Calendar. now. however. now. } } However. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.get( Calendar. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.HOUR_OF_DAY ). // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. // no fraction DatatypeConstants.MONTH ).

A sample schema declaration is shown below.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values.2. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. as shown below. public byte[] getData() { return data. 2.data = ((byte[]) value). public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. use an xsd:list. All conversions are handled by JAXB. still be represented in printable characters. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. } } 2. for inclusion in an XML file. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.2. Using NumberListType as an attribute .<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601.

2. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>().2.. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum..9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. // . use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements."/>..8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.. } return this. . 2.. } // .numbers.dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list. separated by white space. protected List<Integer> numbers.. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // .. 2.

<xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . VGS_80("VGS80").. } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. SpDrS. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. E_STW_S("eStwS").. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). for each enum constant name. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. } public String value() { return value. } .. SpDrL. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. as shown below. public enum IXLType { eStwA. private final String value.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . public String value() { return name(). IXLType(String v) { value = v. eStwS. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). VGS80..

10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. Try to avoid xsd:union.value. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos.2. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. 2. protected String dir. } else { return pos.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. even if they do not have content. .pos = value.2. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. 2. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1.

Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)).dir = value. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. } public void setDir(String value) { this.2. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. i. or one or more subordinate elements.e. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. So.12. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". or even a combination of both. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. //. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable... the one describing the containing element.2. simply because there is no such element. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. this element itself and its siblings. 2. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. except for list types. Obviously. "Doc").} public String getDir() { return dir.

2.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.2.12.12.y = value. (The default for both is 1. value). public class PointType { protected int x. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. public int getX() { return x.class. } public void setX(int value) { this. protected int y. } public void setY(int value) { this. } public int getY() { return y. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. DocType.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .x = value. } // . 2. } } 2.. null.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.

4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. however. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course.12.(more getters and setters) } Here. entree. soup. } // . } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. public String getStarter() { return starter. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value.2. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. 2.. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives.starter = value. .. dessert. There is.

} // . There is. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. protected String mms. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below.12. Also. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { .List is used. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down..(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive.public class CommType { protected String sms. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. 2. protected String email.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. Various combinations are possible. and for all similar element lists. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. or a fixed number. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. may contain any number of elements. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below. for instance.sms = value. Here. a java..util. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon.2. public String getSMS() { return sms.

lang. in the same Java code.util.getPoints(). code like this polygon.lang. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. adds another point. 2.points. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. } return this.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). Sometimes only java.12. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created.Most importantly. therefore. All methods defined in java. Other possibilities are java. } return this.add( new PointType( 4.Object will do. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). 9 ) ).textOrNumberOrPoint.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1.List may be applied to the returned value. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. The list can be added to one by one.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. Obviously. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. .Serializable.2. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.

the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. mercifully. say. cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. after the third sub-element.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>().. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. e.getClass() ). If we add another element of.. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. } .: for( Object o: mix. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax.xml... Also. For one thing.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // .. type xsd:string.g. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops.bind..

and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. (process) } else if( "Number". See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je. // . <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . (process) } else if( //..textOrNumberOrPoint. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. 2. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je.. if( "Text".2.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.return this.. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language. (other alternatives) } } Again. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well.getName(). for( JAXBElement je: mix. // .. in italics or underlined. to be rendered in boldface. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element.. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. // . where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic..equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je.12.getLocalPart().getValue(). the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. } } Consequently. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text.getValue()..

private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p. dumpChunk( chunk ). as ChunkType features just one method getContent.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System. I and U. and. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).out.print( (String)s ). public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>(). System. As we already know. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s).content.getName(). this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.p. } return this.out. System. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". we did use ChunkType with B.out.lang.getValue(). The generic list type now happens to be java.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.getLocalPart(). } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>. } return this. indeed. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). } .Serializable.

and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical.12.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. nillable = true) protected String c.. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on.. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. for( ChunkType c: text. However.} } //. which can not be omitted. not a good idea. the characterless thing. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b.. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations.(process a text) TextType text = . @XmlElement(name = "C".. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now.. required = true. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0".8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways.w3. } 2. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). in general. . required = true) protected String a.2. even though its value could be the empty string. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil.

it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance.. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. radio buttons and sub-menus. check boxes. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type..a = value.2. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .public String getA() { return a. } // . (more getters and setters like this) } 2. } public void setA(String value) { this.

setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . -. -.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -. // . public class EntryType { protected String text. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. again adding some attributes.. // . including itself. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.(getCommand.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. The JAXB compiler. however.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection.. -. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. // . A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure.CheckBoxType extends ItemType. Group is the button group's identification. Before we look at the generated Java code.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy.(getText...(isState...

util.protected String group. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.2. protected Boolean state. protected String operator. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. // . which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. } } 2. reverse engineered the common superclass. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content.List<EntryType>.. protected String value.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. and that's why we have to be content with a list.. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. Below is a simple example. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. which contains a java.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. . literally. } return this.

add( op2 ). Marshaller m = ctxt. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of.add( op1 ).out ). m.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.operator = value. This type.createVariable( "d" ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). The elements of the group may have different types. but they must be derived from the same base type. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.createBinopType(). is conceptually an abstract type.createBinop( bt ). And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. } return this.setOperator( "*" ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3.marshal( jbe. true ). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of.createConstant( "3. however.content. bt.newInstance( "generated" ). bt.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. m.getContent(). } public void setOperator(String value) { this. A PosType element represents a position in an order.getContent(). This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.createMarshaller(). It is defined as containing one element of ItemType. This is what we have in the example.setProperty( Marshaller.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). } public String getOperator() { return operator. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. BinopType bt = of.14" ). where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. . A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. System. bt. either by restriction or by extension. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.<?xml version="1.w3.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.sun.

returning an object whose type is ItemType. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item.. protected int quantity. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. // . Also.<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below.. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. } // . The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements.. element construction is a tad more complicated. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType.. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. // .item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. (more getters and setters) } Once again. protected int price. Here is the skeleton of this class: .. And finally there is createItem.. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. parameterized with BookType or DiskType.. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement.. // . and its use as the generic type parameter.

setPrice( 20 ). } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { . } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { ...setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ). PosType p1 = of.. p2. bk... } public OrderType createOrderType() { .createPosType(). // createItem for BookType p1.setPages( 832 ). dk. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { ... bk... // Create an order OrderType st = of. List<PosType> listPos = st.setPrice( 120 ). p1. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used.. PosType p2 = of. Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.createDisk( dk ) ).setItem( of..setDuration( 50 ).setItem() PosType. listPos.add( p1 ).. // Order two copies of a book.add( p2 ).setItem() PosType.getPos(). Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().createItem( bk ) ). bk. // createDisk p2. listPos. // Order a disk.setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ).setQuantity( 2 ). dk.. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .. } public DiskType createDiskType() { .setQuantity( 1 ).. } public PosType createPosType() { .setItem() Looking at this table. DiskType dk = of. BookType bk = of.createOrderType(). } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { .createDiskType().setItem( of. dk.createBookType().. .createPosType().

for( PosType p: order.xml" ) ). System.getName().getItem().println( item.getTitle() + " " + p.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.createOrder( st ). <?xml version="1. System.getItem().getValue(). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.out.getClass(). The tag is represented as an object of class javax.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.println( tag + " " + item. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType".w3. along with the lengthy namespace declaration.out. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.getQuantity() ).getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.getValue(). OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.getSimpleName() ). String tag = p.getLocalPart().xml. .org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.namespace. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.

2. An AirportType element is presented only once. in full.e. They let you represent references to XML elements. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> .2.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType.. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. aren't they) into all places where it is used. i. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. which are scheduled from one airport to another one. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights.

from = value..to = value. as the string implementing the XML link.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. So. to retrieve the origin of some flight. int number. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.. String carrier.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. public Object getFrom() { return from. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. Object to. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. } // . Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.getTo()). } public Object getTo() { return to. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . } public void setFrom(Object value) { this.

flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. lists or. The example given below is for railway buffs. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. same thing. in general. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values.references. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. graphs.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . Nevertheless. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or.

public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. public Object getEast() { return east.e.west = value. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. protected Object west. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. } public Object getWest() { return west. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . } } But wait . line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null.east = value.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. there must be some element where that string is an id value.. Again. perhaps in a category of its own. because.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. as the "null" element. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. by definition. i. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional.

2. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.2. i.e.. too.lang..provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.lang.if not java. } } But what will be the class of the Content . and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . e. the Null element as shown below. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. but we might just as well use some null values there.2. public Object getContent() { return content. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. Its name is distinction enough. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No.16 Elements With Any Type 2.content = value. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.g.perhaps Id="null" . To see how this is handled in JAXB.16.Object (which would be . In the XML file you would have one extra element.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.Object.

i.dom. Node<List> = content. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.obtuse)..w3c.e.w3c.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.getTagName(). If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.getContent(). like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler. class apache.dom..: Element content = (Element)bag.more DOM accesses. which is a subinterface of org. the actual class doesn't really matter .2. This means that.g.dom.. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods.Object. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. then what? Well.ElementNSImpl.dom. // .Node.. if you really have to.internal. e.w3c. 2.16.getChildNodes().2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.lang. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). String tag = content.Element.. .xerces.the important thing is that it implements org. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.

createCommType().org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www..w3.class. } 2.// Create the container object.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1. // Prepare a JAXBElement.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( .w3.createHearsayType().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.setText( "Mr.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm. hearsay.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.. HearsayType hearsay = of. Harper does naughty things. Harper does naughty things.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example. comm..unmarshal( f ). ). CommType comm = of.getValue(). comm ).. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. } else { // . if( comm. ready for marshalling.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .getComm().0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www..w3. comm.setComm( hearsay ). The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. // Let's have some hearsay. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).w3. In fact. CommType." ).2.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.(investigate other possibilities). CommType comm = (CommType)je. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.

JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = . To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO.read( imgFile ). // Draw it Graphics g = .createPicture( itemEl ). Image img = jbe.drawImage() with this object as the first argument.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.createItemType(). JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of. 0. 0. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. Image. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. Image img = bimg. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes. anonymous types result in some inner class. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . g.. For one thing.setJPEGPicture( img ).getJPEGPicture().drawImage( img. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. Well.SCALE_DEFAULT ). // Get the image from the content tree. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB... this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2.. Unmarshalling is just as simple.. -1. itemEl.getScaledInstance( 512. Moreover.getValue(). null ). More importantly. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.3..

Item>().<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below.(getters and setters) } 2.3. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. protected AddressType billTo. If the documents share common XML types. protected BigDecimal price.item. . // ..2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. they should be written once.. in a separate schema file.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. } return this.Item> item. protected BigInteger quantity. // . Note that PurchaseOrderType. } public static class Item { protected String productName. protected String partNum.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType... to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. protected List<PurchaseOrderType. and re-used from there wherever they are required.

w3. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/common" schemaLocation="common..org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.solarsystem. .common and org.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.: <?xml version="1.astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.<?xml version="1.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.astronomy. e..org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.. resulting in org.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.> . The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema . Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www..org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.g.

// Create a solar system." specifying the group's given name. e. use the attribute ref=".marshal( jbe. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. // Create a single planet instance document.createPlanetType().createPlanet( planet ).solarsystem. it is possible to define .3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes. m..<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. //.createMarshaller().5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group.astronomy. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. System.. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place. m.createSolarSystem(). 2. PlanetType planet = of.. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version.g. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default..out ). //. Marshaller m = context. 2.3. If an XML schema is extended..out ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. System.3. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.. 2. Add planets. SolarSystem sol = of.marshal( sol.3. This may be regretted. respectively. Given the complex type ItemType.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

class. if( p. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.put( ourClass2Conv. AddrType.isResident() ){ process( p.get( obj. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. public abstract void handle( Object o ).Handler>().getAddr() ). if( h != null ){ h. new PersonHandler() ). protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. process( p. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o. new NameHandler() ). static { ourClass2Conv.class. new AddrHandler() ). } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.getName() ). h..handle( obj ). abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. new ChildHandler() ).getClass() ).Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.class.put( //.getChild ).</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.put( ourClass2Conv.put( ourClass2Conv. . Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. NameType. } processList( p.class. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType.getHandler( obj ). } PersonType.. ChildType.process( obj ).

if the tag is required for processing as well.newInstance( XMLConstants. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().process( obj ).3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets.xml. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. } Handler h = this. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). } } Finally. Don't make such a map global. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName().getValue(). A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. 3. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well.getHandler( obj ). Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. try { .validation.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). h.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. First. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes.

int column = vel.createUnmarshaller(). int line = vel. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler.bind.xml. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.setSchema( mySchema ). we might write: . ValidationEventLocator vel = ve. If you want to continue as long as possible.getLocator(). 3. u. alas. as explained in the next section. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.newSchema( file ).4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.getColumnNumber().println( origin + ": " + line + ". } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document.bind) is thrown.xml. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register.getMessage(). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.getLineNumber(). or at least as many as possible but.. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // .setEventHandler( vec ). u. Unmarshaller u = jc. System. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. you pass it the schema. Basically that's all there is to it.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.(error handling) mySchema = null.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec..mySchema = sf. If the XML data validation fails. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called.err. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec." + column + ": " + msg ).newInstance( packagePath ). an UnmarshalException (from javax. If you'd like to create your own error messages.

an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. all static references. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize. e.newInstance( "some foo:more.Boo Foo.: # package some. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.Foo. For JAXB annotated Java code. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb.Unmarshaller u = jc.foo # class some.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.class ).g.createUnmarshaller().index. are not included. Subclasses. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. such as the types of instance variables. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.foo.foo. 3. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. however.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces.bar" ).Foo Foo # inner class some. u.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB.class. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. earlier in this chapter. Bar. Usually.setEventHandler( this ). you may use the package path form as well. recursively. . JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.newInstance( Foo. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.

.getFooOrBar().add( fooElem ). RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. fbList. // Add it to its parent's list. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory().createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below..createFooBarListType().(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>.createFooBarType().createRulebase( rulebase ). A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.createRulebaseType(). A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.createModuleType()...(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. // . Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase"...createFooBarType(). fbList. .add( barElem ).1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. // .4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. ModuleType module = objFact.. // Add it to its parent's list.

You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. the data is in post-order. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. If. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. 4. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. as you can create.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . without any actual XML content. for instance. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects.

setX( xElem ). For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX...getOrders().createItemType().add( itemElem ). we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. itemElem.id ). It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.. // Complete customer. custElem.setCustomer( custElem ).getItems(). with a setter call current.setQuantity( item.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. CustomerType custElem = objFact. Add this object to the current element. Item[] items = . simply to be repeated for other child elements. // Data for an order int custId = . // Create and add item elements. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly. orderElem. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. itemElem. Append (add) it to the List<X>.add( orderElem ).. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>... You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet.setId( item.setName( custName ).. with a call to the getter current. String custName = . itemList. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.setId( custId ).qtty ). custElem. This is. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out.createOrderType(). folder. // Create and insert the customer element. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact...createCustomerType(). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.getX(). of course. // Create order and insert in top-level document. } .

inline customer element. and. the full. an order may either contain a full customer XML element.. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. or for a customer reference. 4. i.3. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. On the one hand. on the other hand. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. IDREF) 4. of course.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. we have the classes representing XML elements. You may. even though . Our example is a variation of the order data. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. Here.e. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType.

createCustomerType(). Continuing our example. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. too. String custId. .customer = value. cust = oFact. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer.get( custId ). The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. // complete customer cust. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. This means that the full elements must be added separately. protected Object custref. order. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().setId( custId ). protected List items. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust.CustomerType>(). Map<String. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements.items. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.custref = value.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. public void addCust( OrderType order. } public Object getCustref() { return custref.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order.setCustomer( cust ). } return this. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. where we'll use the second method.

setName( custName ). changing them magically to the corresponding string values. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. // save in map id2cust. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. 4. But .0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string.the convenient material for references .3. then we meet a customer for the first time. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. If the customer lookup returns an object.e. } else { order.setCustref( cust ).. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element.aren't useful in an XML text file. cust ).cust. however. i. JAXB. <?xml version="1. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. the "id" string. We create a CustomerType object.put( custId. where we keep that element for future reference. This key is also used as a key in the map. Memory addresses .

we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address.of type AddressType. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. even if hashCode has been overridden.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem.util) to register marshalled elements. Also. Map<Address. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. . For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. This map uses the object's default hash code.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory.AddressType>(). once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. To see how this works. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element.

// Register the object . it is surprisingly simple. which is just what .createAddressType(). for instance. addrElem. addrElem ). But the need does arise occasionally. arElem. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem.setAddr( addrElem ). } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference.id pair in the identity hash map. All in all..createAddrOrRefType(). The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.). Special dumps of application data.. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. may have to use this rather extreme technique. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element.. addrElem = objFact. } Using Address objects as keys. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. arElem. // Set the xsd:ID attribute.. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact.and insert it into its parent.setId( makeNextId() ).int refcount = 0. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. // .Serializable interface. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary..util. For an encore. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element.setAddrRef( addrElem ). // . <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data... provided that the class of the object implements the java. pojo2elem. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact.get( addrPojo ).put( addrPojo.. } return arElem. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. 4.

since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. or the encoding in the XML prolog.xml. import java. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. Then. return joElem. Object pojo = oiStream. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.toByteArray() ). } 4. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1.. or a JAXBElement<?>. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy.readObject().bind. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). oiStream. you might set a number of properties. ooStream.we need for calling the java. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. which requests nice formatting of the XML text.getData() ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. Here it is.io.close().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.createJavaObjectType()..xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. String pathname ) . joElem. return pojo.*. import javax.w3.close(). as defined by your schema. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. ooStream.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject.* void writeDocument( Object document. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. such as the one that's used below. ooStream.writeObject( pojo ).io.setData( baos.flush(). ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ).

the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = . JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.. Boolean.getValue(). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>.newInstance( clazz. but this is cumbersome. clazz.throws JAXBException.. m. } To use it. o ). A generic solution is presented below.getPackage(). "someTag". You could. return jbe. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). tag ). Marshaller m = context.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.out ). . st ).marshal( document.acme. String tag. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. m. System. Class<?> clazz = o.getClass().getName() ).setProperty( Marshaller. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. m.com".createMarshaller().getClass().TRUE ).marshal( jbx. of course. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T.. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.

sun.xjb. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. By default. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. 5. however.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. </jaxb:bindings> ..0"> . where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files.. One of these things is the package name. ususally of file type . The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema.5 Customizing 5. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.xsd This.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.: xjc -p jess. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.

with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.sun.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.sun.w3.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> . the outermost element of an XML schema. 5.

you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. believe me.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes. you can request your own substitute. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem.List. But. it is replaced by Clazz.util. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. using an jxb:property element.e. For this one.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . If you don't fancy this. it does happen. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items.util. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. i.

xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2. as part of the type definition in your schema. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. by renaming either element: . this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file... You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.. <?xml version="1.w3.. 5. Documentation is probably best written inline.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .

you add a child as shown in the example below./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. For either of these schema components.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway.. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. see below. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*')." and "&amp. <xsd:schema> . </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. ..code>GlobalType&lt. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters.e.".<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. i.. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). Java class for GlobalType complex type.

StringInterner. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. First.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.bind.intern().. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls..jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0. including their subordinate elements.DatatypeConverter. 5.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String. So. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.xml. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. import javax. } . <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring.parseString( value ). but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.jessrules.

we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. 500 ). } .Map.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. private static Map<Integer.entrySet() ){ int2rom. 1000 ). 100. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. 5.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character. 5. 100 ). In those rare cases where this is not adequate.put( 'C'.put( 'I'.6.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000.4}L?X{. 1 ). rom2int.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer.Entry<Character. we have to write a simple class like the one given below. 5 ).roman. rom2int.getValue(). 1 }.put( 'D'. 10 ). 50.4}V?I{. entry. import java.put( 'M'.getKey() ).util.Character>().} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. rom2int.Integer>(). But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. rom2int. rom2int. for( Map. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.Integer> entry: rom2int.put( 'X'. 500.) Although the XML type is xsd:string.put( 'L'. rom2int. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{.util.put( entry. static { rom2int.HashMap. package util. as in the next example. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. For this. 50 ). import java. 10.put( 'V'.

xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util. i < value. . i++ ){ result += rom2int. for( int i = 0.roman.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. sb.get( d ) ).bind.charAt( i ) ).RomanNumberConverter. <?xml version="1. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.sun.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. but the methods must be static.w3.append( int2rom. } return result.RomanNumberConverter.6. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.get( value.length(). } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder().xml.roman. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.toString(). The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables. You may choose any names you like.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. } } return sb.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes.util.*.<?xml version="1.annotation. public String artists..0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .xml.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. this.EntryType>().xml.util. import javax. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content.V>. public DocType(){ } } import javax.*. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime. this.HashMap. public class KeyType { public String event. String program ){ this. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .bind. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event.event = event. import java.artists = artists. import java.. } } public class EntryType { public String program.Map. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.datetime = datetime.datatype.program = program.

"cluster" } ) public class Document { .xml.java situated in the package. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right.E. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.2.2.) Here is an example for XmlType. "items".<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime... The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. requesting that the elements title. It must be written on a file package-info.bind. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name.laune. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. } 6. 6. Below is an example. according to the Schema Datatypes specification. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. .annotation. @javax. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title".at/hospital". You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. and key data from value data. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element.

w3. 6.at/med" ) }. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .at/hospital".QUALIFIED) package hospital.xml.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.XmlNsForm. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory..XmlNs( prefix = "med".org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.bind.bind. namespaceURI = "http://www. Therefore.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.elementFormDefault = javax. } .bind.class. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.XmlNsForm.annotation. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.bind. xmlns = { @javax. annotated with XmlRegistry.laune. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. null. value). But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.annotation. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name. TreeType.laune.xml. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.laune. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.xml.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.annotation. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.laune.laune. elementFormDefault = javax.QUALIFIED) package hospital. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.xml..annotation.

.NONE ) . PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs.e.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. all public members will be bound. Member getB is blocked from being bound. i.. PROPERTY. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. non transient field will be automatically bound. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient. } public String getA(){ . This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. or public fields. by default. public SomeClass(){ . private String b... } public void setA( String value ){ . It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method..6.. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. then.. say foo. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. } public void setB( String value ){ . public getter and setter pairs. If FIELD is set every non static.2.. Any protected. and methods getFoo and setFoo. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ .. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties..

(The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. public SpecialClass(){ . with changes being made on the list object.. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true.. private String b. private List<String> b...public class OtherClass { private String a. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> . } } The generated complex type features both elements. } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ . } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). First.. } public void setB( String value ){ . } public void setA( String value ){ .... XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.... which doesn't have its setB spouse. return b. } public void setA( String value ){ . } public String getA(){ .... Second. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. } public String getA(){ . the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a.. public OtherClass(){ ..

e. Cat.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". and below is the corresponding schema snippet... there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes.2. the namespace. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. e. } 6. In the . 6.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. respectively.class. because they are used as types for a field. the ones that are bound to schema elements. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. Here are two annotated fields..g. It permits you to define the XML element name. a default value and the Java class. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. whether it is optional or nillable. either at package level or at some superclass.. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced.7.2. Once more. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". i. permitting nothing by default. Within a class. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. this means that you can. or restrictive. oriented on fields or properties.2.class} ) class Animal { //. This strategy may be generally permissive. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. 6.

type = CheckBoxType. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. @XmlElement(name = "Menu".2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. type = MenuType.class). } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you .2.7.class definition below.class).class) }) protected List entryList. type = ItemType. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. 6.

Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. is a good example.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. the default being the class field's name. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. List<Sentence> word. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. -. of course.2. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. -. Also. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. public Price(){} @XmlElement . This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid ." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.7.) 6. 6.7. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". the schema describing the XML Schema language itself.name defines the namestring for the attribute.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.Sentence isn't a simple type.2. with one element or attribute for each field.) JAXB. (If you look for guidance. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations. making judicious use of both. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required".

6. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. e.: <price> <amount>123..45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute.7. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer.g.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. } // .. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. . } } If this type is used for some field.. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. too.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.amount = value.2.

public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.getAny().println( e.getValue().entrySet() ){ System. Then. System. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.Object> e: amap. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.getMixture().getTitle() ).Object>(). DocumentType doc = jbe. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.unmarshal( new File( "mixture. Map<QName.Object> any.xml" ) ).It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. MixtureType mix = doc.println( "Title: " + mix. private String title. for( Map.out.Object> amap = mix.Object>.getValue() + """ ).getKey() + "="" + e. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . } return any.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.Entry<QName.out.

e. return animals.*. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.annotation.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.*. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.class ).bind.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.getZoo().) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.unmarshal( f ).println( el. subsection DOM Elements.dom.7. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().out.createUnmarshaller(). defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.newInstance( DocumentType.Element. Unmarshaller u = jc.getTextContent() ). } . DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u. cf.w3c.dom. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content. or an array or list of such elements.bar="attribute of bar" 6.getAnimals() ){ System. for( Element el: doc.w3c. import org.Element.2. import javax.getNodeName() + "->" + el.util.xml.g.

for the repeated element.. i. public ParentType(){ . } } 6.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. or "wrapping". child elements embedded in the element's own data. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList().e.7. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.7. you need some additional element bracketing.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded.. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>. return item.. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . with one field for each element and attribute. as indicated in the XML snippet below.2.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. and another one for the content text. For this. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style.2.

type = JAXBElement. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". type = JAXBElement. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". } return this.class). type = JAXBElement. slightly more specific than Object. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message".class). except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. which doesn't have mixed content any more.content. type = JAXBElement. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.class).class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content.

(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. are equally possible. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. // . @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. and by default. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant.. For a straightforward enum type. even numeric ones.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). 6. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.2. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { .. this is java.lang. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor.lang. Its required element defines the XML representation string. Usually. in fact..Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig"). } return this. } } This does.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML.String but other types. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. } public String value() { return value.content.. It has an optional element value of type java. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet.

written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. Such mappings require an adapter class.ApplType> from the package javax. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. i.class) .xml. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects. To achieve our goal.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.values()) { if (c. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.annotation.e. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure..adapters. } } 6.2. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. <?xml version="1. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.equals(v)) { return c. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. Also. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.value.bind.toString()).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.

@XmlElement String name. c ). which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. . public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. Collection<Course> c = b.Course> courses.id. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.courses. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal.carray = c. @XmlAttribute Price price. return courses.toArray(new Course[c.courses. the interesting class.carray ) b. and this is. courses.put( c. return b. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. Course>(). we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object.size()]).Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). of course. In this method. for( Course c : value.public class Brochure { Map<String.values().

text. i. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. // . . For this.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf.strbuf.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.e. 6. text. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ).6..append( " that Jack built. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation.2. which is the default mapping for xs:string.String that is suited to be used as a key. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ). and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class.lang. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. a StringBuffer is better than String. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. one defining TextType as a container for a string..2. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. If you need multiple mappings at package level. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.: TextType text = new TextType(). XmlJavaTypeAdapter." ). public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. e.toString(). Below are the essential Java classes.g. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package.

. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .HashSet. the collection item type must contain an id field.bind.bind. } public void setName( String value ){ .*. } public void setId( String value ){ .annotation.List.util.annotation.*...Set.. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class.. import java. private String title.xml.bind.. public class Item { private String id. private String name. import javax.ArrayList. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ . In this case.xml. public Cluster(){ . } } package elset.. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ ..util.. import java.util. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type. import javax.*..util. import javax.annotation. import java.xml.. } } import java.

. } public void setTitle( String value ){ .. } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ ..private Cluster cluster... private String title..END --- .. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ . private List<Item> items.. public Document(){ . } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ . } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ ..... } } --.