A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.2.12.1 Content: A Value 2.2.12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.4 Content: Alternative Elements 2.2.12.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements 2.2.12.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements 2.2.12.7 Mixed Content 2.2.12.8 No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2.16.1 DOM Elements 2.2.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields 6.2.7.1 The Annotation XmlElement 6.2.7.2 The Annotation XmlList 6.2.7.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute 6.2.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue 6.2.7.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute 6.2.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement 6.2.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper 6.2.7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

with a very high level of distinctiveness.1. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.List. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. etc. an attribute. with individual node objects containing an element. as compared to version 1.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler.util. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements.10. a CDATA section. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. the Simple API for XML. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. Version 2. however. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. linked according to the XML document's structure. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. is contained in objects of a single type. In the DOM approach. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. Versions from 2. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. DOM data.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. Values are invariably provided as strings. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the .) 1. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX.1 Introduction 1. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. The JAXB runtime library. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM).

3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . which is to contain a series of salutations. -.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection. it's just here to give you the overall picture. Some of these features are: -.sun. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code.The XML Schema generator schemagen. <?xml version="1.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.xsd defines the structure of our document. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. -.w3. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.obviously an area for experts. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. The XML Schema on hello. 1. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.

e. Here's a sequence of these calls: . and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.xml.setText( t ).. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // .newInstance( "hello" ). } public void make( String t. m. import javax. grList.*.out ).bind. private GreetingListType grList. i.*.*. GreetingListType. g.createGreetingType(). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.marshal( gl. Finally. xjc -p hello hello. grList = of.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. Marshaller m = jc. defining the package name hello for the generated classes.setLanguage( l ). The class Hello shows how to use them. the list is wrapped in its XML element. System.createGreetings( grList ).add( g ). } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of..util. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute. with a call to marshal. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. import java.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. import hello.createMarshaller().getGreeting(). g..createGreetingListType(). } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. String l ){ GreetingType g = of.

The output is shown below.make( "Bonjour.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. for better readability. "en" ).marshal(). you". h.Hello h = new Hello(). h. madame". madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey. <?xml version="1. formatted. h. "fr" ). you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> .make( "Hey.

Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. the composition of document nodes. list. This (or some other name. dates and times.g. structure (or record) and union. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language.e. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. and to define a pattern for a string type. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types.w3. e. strings.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. Other facets. URIs. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. <xsd:union>. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. This is done by adding so-called facets. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. Type information deals with the definition of structure. however. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1.0"> 2. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section.. For child elements. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. such as lists or maps.sun. with xsd as the namespace identifier. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. booleans. to limit the precision. are ignored by the Schema Compiler.. Although all data in XML is text. If used. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. and for references and other XML constructs. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. to enumerate all legal values.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. i.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.

public int getGroup() { return group...1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax... According to the XML Schema definition.validation.xml.math. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. we . the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. you might ask. required = true) protected int group. created from your XML schema. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . // .2. For brevity and clarity. you'll see simple get and set methods. 2.. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. There is one Java type providing just that: java. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. } Where is.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes. } // . to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. Doing away with fractional digits. 2..2. Leaving double and float aside. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and.BigDecimal. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. If you peek into one of these class definitions.group = value. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. perhaps. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits.Schema object.

e. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. .arrive at xsd:integer. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. i. simplified for better readability.but only for descendants of Object. nil. another one for their obscure cousins. BigInteger integer. For xsd:unsignedLong. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code.math. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. With xsd:unsignedInt. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. Below the integer type. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types...math. JAXB reverts to simple types. hence java. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. Short shortNil. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. it has to be represented by java.BigInteger must be used. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. int _int. e. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far.math. there is no fitting simple type. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers.BigInteger. short for xsd:unsignedByte.g. This adds another value to the set of possible values.BigInteger. too. long _long. and therefore this type maps to java. which still has an unspecified number of digits. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges.

} Well. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. it's quite a zoo indeed.decimal = value.. public int getCounter() { return counter. For some element such as counter. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. } 2. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal... schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. long unsignedInt. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> .. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. protected int counter.2. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. So.counter = value. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. BigInteger nonNegative. BigInteger unsignedLong.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. of course. // . <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type.

this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.2.util. Java's own java.xml.GregorianCalendar. alternatives and grouping. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. This class is in the package javax. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. no Java class is required for DirType. 2. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.datatype. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. Once more. (Do not confuse this with java. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date.String is used.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. . public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. 2.lang.2.

} public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter.newInstance(). DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.MINUTE ).} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().date = value. now. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. meta.get( Calendar. } } However. It is.time = value. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.createDateTimeType(). The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. meta. DatatypeConstants.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now.get( Calendar.get( Calendar. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. now. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.HOUR_OF_DAY ). now. not possible to omit seconds entirely. however. now. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. DateTimeType meta = of. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.SECOND ). // no fraction DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar.MONTH ).YEAR ).setTime( gcTime ).DAY_OF_MONTH ).get( Calendar.setDate( gcDate ).get( Calendar. null.

2. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this.2.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. A sample schema declaration is shown below.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. public byte[] getData() { return data. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. } } 2. All conversions are handled by JAXB. as shown below. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. Using NumberListType as an attribute . public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. for inclusion in an XML file. use an xsd:list. still be represented in printable characters. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type.data = ((byte[]) value). 2.

.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . separated by white space. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. ... } return this. 2. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code... use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-. } // . protected List<Integer> numbers.numbers.. // .8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType="..2.dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>().."/>. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list.2. 2. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string.

and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . SpDrL. public enum IXLType { eStwA. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> .. } . VGS_80("VGS80"). </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. eStwS. SpDrS. } public String value() { return value. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). E_STW_S("eStwS"). VGS80..public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). for each enum constant name. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. public String value() { return name(). IXLType(String v) { value = v. private final String value. } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. as shown below. SP_DR_S("SpDrS").. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding..

2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. Try to avoid xsd:union. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. } else { return pos. . public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. even if they do not have content.2.pos = value. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. 2.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.2.value. protected String dir. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.

Obviously. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions.2. "Doc"). from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". //. i. 2. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. or even a combination of both. } public void setDir(String value) { this.2. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { .e.. simply because there is no such element. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.} public String getDir() { return dir. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type..12. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element.dir = value. except for list types.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. this element itself and its siblings. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. So..1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. or one or more subordinate elements. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. the one describing the containing element. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and.

null. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.12. (The default for both is 1. public int getX() { return x. public class PointType { protected int x. } public void setY(int value) { this.x = value. value). } public int getY() { return y. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content..2.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .2.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element.y = value. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.. } public void setX(int value) { this. 2.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates. DocType.class. } } 2.12. protected int y. } // .

2.starter = value. There is. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. however.12. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. entree. . the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. public String getStarter() { return starter.(more getters and setters) } Here. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course.. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. dessert. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. soup.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives..XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. } // .2.

5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. may contain any number of elements. public String getSMS() { return sms. There is.util. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. Various combinations are possible. or a fixed number. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. protected String email.List is used. a java. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it..) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. for instance. Also. } // .12.. 2. Here. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. protected String mms. } public void setSMS(String value) { this.sms = value. and for all similar element lists. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down.2. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { .public class CommType { protected String sms. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements.

} return this. Other possibilities are java.List may be applied to the returned value. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.textOrNumberOrPoint. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. .lang.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). in the same Java code.add( new PointType( 4. } return this. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. The list can be added to one by one.getPoints().points = new ArrayList<PointType>().2. code like this polygon. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created.util. therefore.Object will do. Sometimes only java.Most importantly.Serializable. 9 ) ).12. Obviously.points. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. 2. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. adds another point. All methods defined in java.lang.

} . e. Also.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . say. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. For one thing.g.: for( Object o: mix.. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.getClass() ). } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones. after the third sub-element.. type xsd:string..JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops..bind.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // .xml. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. If we add another element of. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. mercifully...) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning.

if( "Text"..equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je.return this. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. // .getLocalPart(). These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. for( JAXBElement je: mix. (other alternatives) } } Again. to be rendered in boldface. // . and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. in italics or underlined. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. // . (process) } else if( "Number". we define a schema for our very simple text markup language..2. (process) } else if( //. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.12. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below.textOrNumberOrPoint. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees.. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> ...getValue()..getValue().7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.getName().. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. } } Consequently. 2.

} . } return this.getName(). The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. } return this. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>. I and U. The generic list type now happens to be java. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.Serializable. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().out.lang. System. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s). we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. indeed. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). dumpChunk( chunk ).content. we did use ChunkType with B. System.print( ":" + tag + ")" ).out. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.p. and. as ChunkType features just one method getContent.getLocalPart().print( "(" + tag + ":" ).getValue(). } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.out. As we already know.print( (String)s ).<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.

.. required = true) protected String a. @XmlElement(name = "C". for( ChunkType c: text. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil..2. which can not be omitted.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. } 2. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations..w3. However. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>..org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ).12. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. even though its value could be the empty string. nillable = true) protected String c.} } //.(process a text) TextType text = . Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". in general. the characterless thing. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". required = true.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. not a good idea. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. . @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present.

public String getA() { return a.2. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. (more getters and setters like this) } 2. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. radio buttons and sub-menus. } public void setA(String value) { this.. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type. check boxes..a = value. } // .13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .

// . rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema.CheckBoxType extends ItemType.. Before we look at the generated Java code. -. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type.(getText. -.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. however. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. The JAXB compiler. // . public class EntryType { protected String text. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command..MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list... including itself. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state. -..(getCommand. again adding some attributes. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . // .(isState.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.. Group is the button group's identification. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection.

public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.List<EntryType>. which contains a java. and that's why we have to be content with a list. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. } return this.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. literally. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>().2. protected String operator.protected String group. // .util.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. . the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. Below is a simple example..14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. protected Boolean state. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. } } 2. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. reverse engineered the common superclass. protected String value.

getContent(). m. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. A PosType element represents a position in an order. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".createBinop( bt ). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. bt. } return this. is conceptually an abstract type. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.createBinopType(). } public String getOperator() { return operator.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. m. bt.marshal( jbe. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. however.add( op2 ). either by restriction or by extension.getContent(). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. BinopType bt = of. } public void setOperator(String value) { this. This type. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. Marshaller m = ctxt.content. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. . ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().14" ).createConstant( "3. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3.add( op1 ). but they must be derived from the same base type.operator = value. bt.out ).newInstance( "generated" ). The elements of the group may have different types. true ).createVariable( "d" ). System.createMarshaller().14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.setProperty( Marshaller.setOperator( "*" ).public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. This is what we have in the example.

0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .w3.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.<?xml version="1.sun.

. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages.. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements.. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. Here is the skeleton of this class: . (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. returning an object whose type is ItemType. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item.. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. // . And finally there is createItem. (more getters and setters) } Once again.. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. // .. } // . each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. element construction is a tad more complicated.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType.. Also. parameterized with BookType or DiskType. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. // .. protected int quantity. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. protected int price.<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. and its use as the generic type parameter.

} public PosType createPosType() { ...createItem( bk ) ).setItem() PosType. // Order two copies of a book. } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { . Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType. p2. // Order a disk. dk. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { .setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" )...createBookType().setItem( of.createPosType(). . PosType p1 = of..setItem() Looking at this table. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . // createItem for BookType p1. dk. p1..setPrice( 20 ).setQuantity( 2 ). bk.setDuration( 50 ).add( p2 )..createOrderType().getPos(). listPos.createPosType(). } public OrderType createOrderType() { .. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used.. bk.setItem() PosType. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element..createDiskType().setQuantity( 1 ). List<PosType> listPos = st. // createDisk p2...createDisk( dk ) ). } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .add( p1 )...public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { . PosType p2 = of. // Create an order OrderType st = of. } public DiskType createDiskType() { .setPrice( 120 ). bk.setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" )... BookType bk = of. DiskType dk = of.setPages( 832 ).setItem( of. listPos. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). dk.

getValue().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.namespace.println( item.getLocalPart().getItem().QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.getName().getValue(). The tag is represented as an object of class javax.xml.getTitle() + " " + p.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>. along with the lengthy namespace declaration. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe.out. System.w3. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies. for( PosType p: order. String tag = p. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction. .xml" ) ).getPos() ){ ItemType item = p. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.getItem().out. <?xml version="1.createOrder( st ). System.getSimpleName() ). } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.getClass(). but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.println( tag + " " + item. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.getQuantity() ).

A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish.e. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. which are scheduled from one airport to another one.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship. in full. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. They let you represent references to XML elements.2. An AirportType element is presented only once.. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.2. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. aren't they) into all places where it is used. i. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights.

. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight. String carrier.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. as the string implementing the XML link.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . Object to. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key. So.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this.from = value. int number.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To.to = value. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.getTo()). We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. } // . public Object getFrom() { return from. to retrieve the origin of some flight.. } public Object getTo() { return to. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away.

As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. The example given below is for railway buffs. Nevertheless. in general. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. graphs. lists or. same thing.references. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other.

} public void setEast(Object value) { this. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . by definition. as the "null" element. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. because. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. Again. i. perhaps in a category of its own.west = value. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. protected Object west. there must be some element where that string is an id value..east = value.e. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. } } But wait . } public Object getWest() { return west.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. public Object getEast() { return east. } public void setWest(Object value) { this.

} } But what will be the class of the Content . To see how this is handled in JAXB.Object.. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No.lang.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. but we might just as well use some null values there.if not java. too.2. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.2.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java..perhaps Id="null" . i.Object (which would be .16 Elements With Any Type 2. public Object getContent() { return content. e. 2. the Null element as shown below. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. In the XML file you would have one extra element. } public void setContent(Object value) { this. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. Its name is distinction enough.16. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.lang.content = value. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value .e.g.

w3c. . the actual class doesn't really matter ..obtuse). like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().16.Node. if you really have to.g.2.getChildNodes()..dom.Object. 2.Element.xerces. which is a subinterface of org.dom. String tag = content.w3c.dom.lang. e.ElementNSImpl. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces. This means that... i.internal.more DOM accesses..w3c. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.e. Node<List> = content. class apache.dom.the important thing is that it implements org.getTagName(). // .: Element content = (Element)bag.getContent(). If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org. then what? Well.

comm.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process. ready for marshalling.unmarshal( f ). } else { // . CommType comm = of. } 2.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .class.setText( "Mr.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.2.w3. if( comm.w3.. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. // Let's have some hearsay. ).getValue(). HearsayType hearsay = of.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn..createHearsayType().getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm. comm ).. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.getComm(). CommType comm = (CommType)je.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example..setSource( "Ms Jones" )." ). hearsay.setComm( hearsay )..// Create the container object.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.createCommType(). Harper does naughty things.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example..w3. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.w3. Harper does naughty things. comm. In fact.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www. // Prepare a JAXBElement. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).(investigate other possibilities). CommType.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.w3.

null ). anonymous types result in some inner class. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = . g. For one thing. Image img = jbe. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace.getValue(). JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.setJPEGPicture( img ). The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. Image.read( imgFile ). To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO.. itemEl. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB.3. Well.getScaledInstance( 512.getJPEGPicture().createItemType().drawImage( img. 0. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.SCALE_DEFAULT ). // Get the image from the content tree. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. // Draw it Graphics g = .3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.createPicture( itemEl ).1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. Image img = bimg.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. Moreover. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. Unmarshalling is just as simple... -1.. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes. More importantly..drawImage() with this object as the first argument. 0.

If the documents share common XML types.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach..item. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. // . they should be written once..(getters and setters) } 2. } public static class Item { protected String productName. .(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.Item> item. protected String partNum. protected AddressType billTo.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. in a separate schema file.3. protected List<PurchaseOrderType.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas.Item>().. protected BigDecimal price. // . Note that PurchaseOrderType.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. protected BigInteger quantity. and re-used from there wherever they are required. } return this..

xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element. .org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy....0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema . e..astronomy.common and org.g.org/common" schemaLocation="common.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.astronomy. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.> .org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. resulting in org.<?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.: <?xml version="1.w3.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.solarsystem.

PlanetType planet = of. //. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. 2. If an XML schema is extended. SolarSystem sol = of.createPlanet( planet ). //.. Marshaller m = context. use the attribute ref="...g. m.3.out ). Add planets.3.marshal( sol.. e. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org.solarsystem. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.out ). // Create a solar system. This may be regretted. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().marshal( jbe. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.. 2. System. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. m..3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable.astronomy. 2. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.createSolarSystem().3. System. it is possible to define . respectively.createMarshaller().createPlanetType()." specifying the group's given name.. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. // Create a single planet instance document.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. Given the complex type ItemType.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

put( ourClass2Conv. public abstract void handle( Object o ). h. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. new AddrHandler() )..class. new ChildHandler() ).put( //. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.process( obj ). protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. new NameHandler() ).isResident() ){ process( p. if( h != null ){ h. AddrType.getClass() ). . Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.get( obj. new PersonHandler() ). } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o.class.handle( obj ).put( ourClass2Conv.getChild ). static { ourClass2Conv. } processList( p.Handler>().put( ourClass2Conv.class.getHandler( obj ). NameType. if( p. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>.getName() ). Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. } PersonType.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. process( p. ChildType..getAddr() ).class.

If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl(). because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children.process( obj ). you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. Don't make such a map global. try { . to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName().validation.newInstance( XMLConstants. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter.getHandler( obj ). } } Finally. } Handler h = this.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ).xml. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. h. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types.getValue().Schema to the Unmarshaller object. 3. if the tag is required for processing as well. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. First. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list.

} } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. as explained in the next section.getMessage().createUnmarshaller(). we might write: .. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.xml. int column = vel. u..newInstance( packagePath ).(error handling) mySchema = null. an UnmarshalException (from javax." + column + ": " + msg ).getLineNumber(). If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.newSchema( file ).getLocator().ValidationEventHandler is quite simple. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. you pass it the schema. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.getColumnNumber().bind. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.err. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. If you want to continue as long as possible. If the XML data validation fails.setSchema( mySchema ). alas. int line = vel. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register.mySchema = sf. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.println( origin + ": " + line + ".xml. 3. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . Unmarshaller u = jc.setEventHandler( vec ). System.4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. Basically that's all there is to it. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). u. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. If you'd like to create your own error messages.bind) is thrown. or at least as many as possible but.

are not included.foo. all static references. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb.g.Boo Foo.Foo.index. e.class. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages.Foo Foo # inner class some.setEventHandler( this ). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Bar. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. you may use the package path form as well. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. For JAXB annotated Java code.foo.newInstance( Foo.newInstance( "some foo:more.foo # class some. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. 3.class ).Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. u. earlier in this chapter. recursively.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow. Usually. Subclasses. however. . such as the types of instance variables. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.bar" ).Unmarshaller u = jc. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.: # package some. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.createUnmarshaller(). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.

// create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below. Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase"..1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. . // .createFooBarListType().. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call..createRulebase( rulebase ).add( fooElem ). FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.createRulebaseType().. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. ModuleType module = objFact.getFooOrBar().createFooBarType().createFooBarType().(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>. // Add it to its parent's list. // .. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings. // Add it to its parent's list.4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>..createFooBarTypeBar( bar ). fbList.. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.add( barElem ). fbList.createFooBarTypeFoo( foo )..createModuleType().

Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. for instance. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. without any actual XML content. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. If. 4. the data is in post-order. as you can create. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element.

.. Append (add) it to the List<X>. folder.createCustomerType(). we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX..id ). with a setter call current.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. Item[] items = .. } . // Data for an order int custId = . Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. itemList. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. String custName = . itemElem. // Create and add item elements.setX( xElem ). with a call to the getter current. // Create and insert the customer element.getOrders()..setId( item. orderElem. It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.createItemType(). for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact. itemElem. a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. custElem.. // Complete customer. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. simply to be repeated for other child elements. // Create order and insert in top-level document.setQuantity( item. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation..createOrderType(). CustomerType custElem = objFact. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet.add( orderElem ).setCustomer( custElem ). Add this object to the current element. of course. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.. custElem.. This is.setId( custId ).getX().add( itemElem ).setName( custName ).getItems(). If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.qtty ).

Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. On the one hand. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. Here. Our example is a variation of the order data. You may. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. and. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. or for a customer reference. the full. even though . 4. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. (In the example there is ItemType and Item.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection.3. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. i. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. we have the classes representing XML elements. on the other hand. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. of course. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema.e. IDREF) 4. inline customer element. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects..

order.CustomerType>().setCustomer( cust ). where we'll use the second method. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. Map<String.custref = value. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. String custId. cust = oFact. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. too. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). Continuing our example. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates.setId( custId ). } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). . } return this. // complete customer cust.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String.customer = value. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. public void addCust( OrderType order. protected List items. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer.get( custId ). } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. This means that the full elements must be added separately.items.createCustomerType(). protected Object custref.

4. i.put( custId..e.setCustref( cust ).3. If the customer lookup returns an object. JAXB.setName( custName ). then we meet a customer for the first time. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. // save in map id2cust. We create a CustomerType object. } else { order. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. But .0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string.cust.aren't useful in an XML text file. cust ). we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. where we keep that element for future reference. however. <?xml version="1. Memory addresses . This key is also used as a key in the map. the "id" string.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object.the convenient material for references . hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null.

The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. To see how this works. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. This map uses the object's default hash code. . Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. Also. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this.util) to register marshalled elements. even if hashCode has been overridden. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element.of type AddressType.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory.AddressType>(). Map<Address.

Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. provided that the class of the object implements the java. But the need does arise occasionally.id pair in the identity hash map.. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. // Register the object . 4.. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element. addrElem ). addrElem.. for instance. // . addrElem = objFact. it is surprisingly simple. // Set the xsd:ID attribute. All in all.int refcount = 0. which is just what ..(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. pojo2elem.and insert it into its parent. arElem..util. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact..put( addrPojo.setAddr( addrElem ). <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact.createAddressType()..4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. may have to use this rather extreme technique. Special dumps of application data. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference.get( addrPojo ). we map these to assembled AddressType objects.setAddrRef( addrElem ).). arElem. } return arElem. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. // . the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. For an encore..Serializable interface.createAddrOrRefType(). AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. } Using Address objects as keys.setId( makeNextId() ).

. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext. or the encoding in the XML prolog. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact.. which requests nice formatting of the XML text. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object. oiStream. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data.io. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. ooStream.close(). joElem.getData() ).io.readObject().5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. as defined by your schema.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. Here it is.toByteArray() ).*. such as the one that's used below. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). Object pojo = oiStream. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. import java. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below.w3.close(). ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. import javax. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. return pojo. ooStream. return joElem. you might set a number of properties. } 4. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ).writeObject( pojo ). Then.createJavaObjectType().xml. or a JAXBElement<?>. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element.we need for calling the java. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element.flush().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial.bind. ooStream.setData( baos.* void writeDocument( Object document. String pathname ) .

createMarshaller().) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.out ). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. m. m. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.. but this is cumbersome.setProperty( Marshaller. the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .getPackage(). st ).com". T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.acme. A generic solution is presented below. return jbe. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T.getValue().getClass(). . of course. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. Boolean.marshal( jbx. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>.TRUE ). o ). } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types.getClass(). tag ). Class<?> clazz = o. "someTag". add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. System. String tag.throws JAXBException... } To use it.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.newInstance( clazz.marshal( document.getName() ). m. Marshaller m = context. You could. clazz.

5. however. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. ususally of file type .com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.: xjc -p jess.5 Customizing 5. By default. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file.xsd This.0"> . and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema..1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone..0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun. </jaxb:bindings> . One of these things is the package name.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1.xjb.

You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.sun.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel. the outermost element of an XML schema.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.xjb -d gen-src RuleML. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element. 5.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.w3.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.sun.

it is replaced by Clazz. using an jxb:property element. For this one. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. But. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.util. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.List. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. If you don't fancy this..) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. it does happen. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. (Arguably this isn't good XML design.util. believe me. you can request your own substitute. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice.e. i.

by renaming either element: . this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: ..sun.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> .. Documentation is probably best written inline. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema..4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. 5. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. <?xml version="1.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. as part of the type definition in your schema.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.

you add a child as shown in the example below. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section.".. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. Java class for GlobalType complex type. For either of these schema components. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt.code>GlobalType&lt. i.e.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. see below. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). ." and "&amp. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.. <xsd:schema> . The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*')..

This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter..intern(). <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings. including their subordinate elements. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.bind.parseString( value ). is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.xml. import javax. 5.jessrules.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0. } . So.StringInterner. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.DatatypeConverter.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings.. First. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.

rom2int.Entry<Character.put( 'I'.4}L?X{. entry. import java. In those rare cases where this is not adequate.put( 'L'. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. for( Map.HashMap.util. 500 ). we have to write a simple class like the one given below. rom2int.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. 5.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. rom2int. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations.put( 'C'. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. rom2int.getValue().6 Overriding the Datatype 5. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. import java. as in the next example.put( entry.Integer>().Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. private static Map<Integer. 50. rom2int.put( 'X'. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. 100. 1000 ).entrySet() ){ int2rom. 100 ).put( 'M'. 10 ). For this.6. package util. 1 }. 10.put( 'D'.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. 50 ). This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.Character>(). } .Integer> entry: rom2int. 5. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.Map.roman. rom2int. 1 ).util. 500. static { rom2int.getKey() ).4}V?I{.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.put( 'V'. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. 5 ).

toString(). with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.RomanNumberConverter.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax. } } return sb. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. <?xml version="1.roman.w3. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.append( int2rom.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.6. i < value.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. } return result.roman. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.charAt( i ) ).org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.get( d ) ). sb.get( value.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.bind.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5. You may choose any names you like.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). for( int i = 0.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.length(). .sun.xml.RomanNumberConverter.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. i++ ){ result += rom2int. but the methods must be static.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. this. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. import java.artists = artists.<?xml version="1. String program ){ this.bind.EntryType>().*.Map. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. import java.util. public DocType(){ } } import javax.datetime = datetime. this.V>. } } public class EntryType { public String program.datatype. public class KeyType { public String event. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. public String artists.. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.program = program.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .HashMap. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.*. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.annotation. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .util..xml.event = event.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.xml. import javax.

. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. Below is an example.xml. 6. "cluster" } ) public class Document { .bind.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.2. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right.2. It must be written on a file package-info.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace.. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.laune. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. and key data from value data.at/hospital".E.java situated in the package.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. requesting that the elements title. } 6. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title".) Here is an example for XmlType. . according to the Schema Datatypes specification. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.annotation. @javax. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. "items".

2.xml.annotation.XmlNsForm.laune. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.at/hospital".XmlNs( prefix = "med".laune.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.xml. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .annotation. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.xml.bind. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.laune. 6. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.annotation..class.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.at/med" ) }. elementFormDefault = javax. namespaceURI = "http://www.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element. annotated with XmlRegistry. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.elementFormDefault = javax.bind.w3. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory. TreeType. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "".laune.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.bind.XmlNsForm.QUALIFIED) package hospital. } . name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. value).XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.bind.QUALIFIED) package hospital. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. null.annotation. xmlns = { @javax.xml.. Therefore.laune. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.

You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting.. or public fields. public SomeClass(){ . setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML.e. then. all public members will be bound. by default. Any protected.. Member getB is blocked from being bound.. } public void setA( String value ){ . If FIELD is set every non static. and methods getFoo and setFoo. } public void setB( String value ){ .6.. private String b. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process.. i. } public String getA(){ .. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. public getter and setter pairs.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a.2... with one member explicitly annotated as an element. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.NONE ) ... This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER. PROPERTY. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. say foo. non transient field will be automatically bound. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.

<xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>.. private String b.. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. with changes being made on the list object. } } The generated complex type features both elements.. public SpecialClass(){ .. Second... public OtherClass(){ .. } public String getA(){ .... return b. } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ ...) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. First. } public void setA( String value ){ .PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. private List<String> b.public class OtherClass { private String a. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB.. } public void setA( String value ){ ... } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). } public String getA(){ . } public void setB( String value ){ . which doesn't have its setB spouse. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true.

this means that you can. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. } 6. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. Cat.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. or restrictive. Here are two annotated fields. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. either at package level or at some superclass. This strategy may be generally permissive..2.2. because they are used as types for a field. Once more. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. a default value and the Java class. i. 6. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.class} ) class Animal { //. e. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. the namespace. Within a class. It permits you to define the XML element name.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. In the . 6..2. oriented on fields or properties.. respectively. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. permitting nothing by default. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced.g. the ones that are bound to schema elements.class. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation.. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class.7.e. whether it is optional or nillable.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace.

class). } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say.class definition below. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you .2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements.2. type = MenuType.7. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". type = CheckBoxType. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast. 6. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles.class) }) protected List entryList. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. type = ItemType. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".class). the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes.

It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. is a good example. the default being the class field's name.can be sure that no string value contains a blank.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. (If you look for guidance. with one element or attribute for each field. 6.Sentence isn't a simple type.name defines the namestring for the attribute.) JAXB. making judicious use of both. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. public Price(){} @XmlElement . A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . -. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42. -. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. List<Sentence> word. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value.) 6. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value".A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required".3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. Also.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.2.2." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.7.7. of course. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount.

. 6.. } } If this type is used for some field..amount = value. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer.7. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. too. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // . e.: <price> <amount>123. } // . .5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.2. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this.g.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute.

entrySet() ){ System. for( Map. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.getAny().unmarshal( new File( "mixture.getTitle() ).out.Object>.getValue() + """ ).getValue(). an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName.println( e. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u.Object> e: amap.Entry<QName.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName. DocumentType doc = jbe. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value.Object>(). } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title. MixtureType mix = doc. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.getMixture(). System. Map<QName.Object> amap = mix.getKey() + "="" + e. } return any. Then.xml" ) ). public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.out.Object> any.println( "Title: " + mix. private String title.

util.2.getTextContent() ). for( Element el: doc. or an array or list of such elements.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType. subsection DOM Elements.class ). } .getZoo().g.getNodeName() + "->" + el. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().println( el. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java. cf. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.bar="attribute of bar" 6.dom.Element.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.w3c.out.annotation.newInstance( DocumentType. return animals.xml.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.getAnimals() ){ System.*. e. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.*.createUnmarshaller().Element. Unmarshaller u = jc.unmarshal( f ). import org. import javax. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.dom.bind.w3c.

or "wrapping". child elements embedded in the element's own data.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. return item..7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>. with one field for each element and attribute.7.2. you need some additional element bracketing. } } 6. and another one for the content text. public ParentType(){ . i. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . For this.2. as indicated in the XML snippet below. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute.7. for the repeated element. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item..e.

FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message".class). A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.class).FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "code". Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id".class). @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. which doesn't have mixed content any more. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). type = JAXBElement. } return this. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. @XmlElementRef(name = "id".content. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. slightly more specific than Object. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . type = JAXBElement.

(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). // .lang. 6. and by default. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").content.2.String but other types. } return this.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). this is java. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant.lang. For a straightforward enum type. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. Its required element defines the XML representation string.. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . SubElemType(String v) { value = v. Usually. are equally possible. } public String value() { return value. } } This does. It has an optional element value of type java. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants..Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation.. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. even numeric ones.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum.. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. in fact.

values()) { if (c.2.bind. To achieve our goal.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.toString()). Such mappings require an adapter class. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object.ApplType> from the package javax.. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.annotation. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle.adapters.e. i. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. <?xml version="1. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. } } 6. Also.value. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.xml.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.class) .45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123.equals(v)) { return c.

} Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter.public class Brochure { Map<String. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). return courses. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map.toArray(new Course[c. @XmlElement String name. Course>().carray ) b. courses. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. the interesting class. In this method.put( c. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object.size()]).Course> courses. return b.courses. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.id. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. of course. Collection<Course> c = b.values().courses. c ). and this is. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id.carray = c. @XmlAttribute Price price. for( Course c : value. . which is easily done by putting the map values into an array.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure().

Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. . but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation. // . one defining TextType as a container for a string..lang.append( " that Jack built.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID.6. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling.strbuf.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation.g. TextType elements are now StringBuffers. i. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content.e.2. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. If you need multiple mappings at package level. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.String that is suited to be used as a key.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation." ).. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. 6.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. which is the default mapping for xs:string. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).: TextType text = new TextType().toString(). Below are the essential Java classes. a StringBuffer is better than String. e. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory.2. For this. text. text.

. import java. } } import java. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class.. public class Item { private String id..xml. import java.annotation.bind.. import javax. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .bind.annotation. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list.*.List.*. import javax.xml.HashSet.ArrayList.util. In this case. import javax..*..Set. } } package elset.util..annotation.. import java.util.util.bind. the collection item type must contain an id field..xml... private String name. public Cluster(){ . private String title. } public void setId( String value ){ . } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ . public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ . } public void setName( String value ){ .We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .

... private String title.. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ .... } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . public Document(){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ ..END --- ... } } --.private Cluster cluster... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ . private List<Item> items. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .