A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.2.12.1 Content: A Value 2.2.12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.4 Content: Alternative Elements 2.2.12.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements 2.2.12.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements 2.2.12.7 Mixed Content 2.2.12.8 No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2.16.1 DOM Elements 2.2.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields 6.2.7.1 The Annotation XmlElement 6.2.7.2 The Annotation XmlList 6.2.7.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute 6.2.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue 6.2.7.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute 6.2.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement 6.2.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper 6.2.7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. as compared to version 1. with individual node objects containing an element. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. DOM data. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. etc. a CDATA section. the Simple API for XML. In the DOM approach. Version 2.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . however. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language.1. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. linked according to the XML document's structure. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema.) 1. The JAXB runtime library. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types.10. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding.util. is contained in objects of a single type. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime.1 Introduction 1. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. Values are invariably provided as strings. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. Versions from 2. with a very high level of distinctiveness. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. attributes and other content in a typesafe way.List. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. an attribute. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects.

various XML Schema language constructs in Java. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. it's just here to give you the overall picture. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. -. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. 1.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. <?xml version="1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes.xsd defines the structure of our document. The XML Schema on hello. -. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.w3. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. Some of these features are: -. which is to contain a series of salutations.The XML Schema generator schemagen.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins .sun. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.obviously an area for experts.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java.

Finally.getGreeting(). grList. with a call to marshal. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. i..out ). Here's a sequence of these calls: . GreetingListType.marshal( gl.createGreetingListType(). } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . xjc -p hello hello. private GreetingListType grList.*. defining the package name hello for the generated classes. Marshaller m = jc.newInstance( "hello" ). System. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.createGreetingType().xml. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. } public void make( String t.setText( t ).util. import java. m.createMarshaller().setLanguage( l ).. g.add( g ). g.. The class Hello shows how to use them. the list is wrapped in its XML element.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. import javax.createGreetings( grList ). and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.e.*.bind. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). import hello. grList = of.*. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.

marshal().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour.make( "Bonjour.make( "Hey. "fr" ). h. The output is shown below. for better readability. <?xml version="1. you". h. "en" ). formatted. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey.Hello h = new Hello(). madame". h.

with xsd as the namespace identifier.w3. Other facets. strings.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes.g.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. This (or some other name. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. booleans.sun. This is done by adding so-called facets. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. If used. Type information deals with the definition of structure.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound.e. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. i. dates and times. URIs. structure (or record) and union. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. e. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents.. and for references and other XML constructs.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . For child elements. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. to limit the precision. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). however. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. list. and to define a pattern for a string type.0"> 2. Although all data in XML is text. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. the composition of document nodes. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1.. to enumerate all legal values. such as lists or maps. <xsd:union>.

JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code...2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255.math. you'll see simple get and set methods. If you peek into one of these class definitions. we . like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . required = true) protected int group. 2. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations.the JAXB schema compiler xjc.BigDecimal. public int getGroup() { return group. } Where is.. created from your XML schema. According to the XML Schema definition. For brevity and clarity. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. 2. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. // . perhaps. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used.2.group = value.. } // .2.validation. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. Doing away with fractional digits. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection.xml.Schema object. Leaving double and float aside.. There is one Java type providing just that: java. you might ask.

. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent.g. e. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. Below the integer type. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. there is no fitting simple type. it has to be represented by java. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. With xsd:unsignedInt. int _int. and therefore this type maps to java. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value .BigInteger. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. JAXB reverts to simple types.. hence java. BigInteger integer. simplified for better readability. . Short shortNil. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges.math. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this.math. nil. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types.arrive at xsd:integer. too.math. This adds another value to the set of possible values. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. i.e. long _long. short for xsd:unsignedByte. another one for their obscure cousins.BigInteger must be used.BigInteger. For xsd:unsignedLong. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal.but only for descendants of Object. which still has an unspecified number of digits.

} // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. of course.2. BigInteger nonNegative.decimal = value. BigInteger unsignedLong. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int.counter = value. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. public int getCounter() { return counter. So. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . protected int counter. } Well... limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3..protected protected protected protected Byte _byte.. } 2. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> .3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. it's quite a zoo indeed. // . } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. } public void setCounter(int value) { this. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. long unsignedInt. For some element such as counter. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction.

It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.String is used. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time.xml. . Java's own java. 2. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet.2. Once more.GregorianCalendar.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date. 2.2. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own.lang.datatype. (Do not confuse this with java. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date.util. alternatives and grouping.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. This class is in the package javax. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. no Java class is required for DirType.

meta. not possible to omit seconds entirely. however. now. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.get( Calendar.time = value. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. DateTimeType meta = of.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.get( Calendar. now. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time.SECOND ).date = value. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds.get( Calendar.YEAR ).get( Calendar.get( Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH ).newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. } } However.newInstance(). // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. now. meta. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.HOUR_OF_DAY ). null.setTime( gcTime ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). DatatypeConstants.MONTH ).FIELD_UNDEFINED ). It is.setDate( gcDate ). // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.createDateTimeType(). now. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time.MINUTE ).get( Calendar. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. // no fraction DatatypeConstants. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.

public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data.data = ((byte[]) value). <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. A sample schema declaration is shown below. use an xsd:list. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. 2.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. All conversions are handled by JAXB. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. still be represented in printable characters. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. Using NumberListType as an attribute . Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. as shown below. public byte[] getData() { return data. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. } } 2. for inclusion in an XML file.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values.2.2.

2. 2. // . Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // ..dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.... } // . There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. } return this."/>.numbers. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.2. separated by white space. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space... The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. .. protected List<Integer> numbers. 2..

. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. eStwS. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified .. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). private final String value. SP_DR_L("SpDrL").. as shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . public String value() { return name(). for each enum constant name. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. } public String value() { return value. E_STW_S("eStwS"). SpDrL. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. public enum IXLType { eStwA. VGS_80("VGS80").public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). IXLType(String v) { value = v.. SpDrS. VGS80. } . } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant.

public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. 2.2. protected String dir. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java.2.value. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.pos = value. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. Try to avoid xsd:union. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. even if they do not have content. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. } else { return pos. 2. .

//. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { .12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. 2. the one describing the containing element. The xsd:element defines the XML tag.dir = value. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. Obviously. So.. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. i.2. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. except for list types. or even a combination of both. or one or more subordinate elements. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. this element itself and its siblings. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. simply because there is no such element. "Doc").2. } public void setDir(String value) { this.. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions.} public String getDir() { return dir..e. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("".12. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value.

} public void setY(int value) { this. (The default for both is 1. value). } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME.12. } public int getY() { return y. DocType.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. public int getX() { return x.12. public class PointType { protected int x.2.x = value. } } 2. } public void setX(int value) { this.class. protected int y..) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.. null.2. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts. 2. } // .y = value.

(more getters and setters) } Here..starter = value. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. There is. dessert. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. 2.12. . entree.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. public String getStarter() { return starter.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. } // . however. soup.. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1.2.

List is used.2. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements.util.12.public class CommType { protected String sms. may contain any number of elements.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. There is. } // . public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . Various combinations are possible. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. for instance.. Also. protected String mms. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. protected String email. public String getSMS() { return sms.. and for all similar element lists.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below. or a fixed number. 2. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. a java. Here.sms = value.

2.List may be applied to the returned value.Most importantly.textOrNumberOrPoint. } return this. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. in the same Java code. Other possibilities are java.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). and you could remove or even clear to delete elements.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements. therefore. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint.util. adds another point.add( new PointType( 4. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. The list can be added to one by one. code like this polygon.Serializable.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1.Object will do.lang. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. .lang.getPoints().2.points. } return this. Sometimes only java.12. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. 9 ) ). All methods defined in java. Obviously.

You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . If we add another element of. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax. after the third sub-element. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). Also. type xsd:string. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong.bind.. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. For one thing.. cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. say.g. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // ... mercifully. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. e.. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // .getClass() ).. } .xml.: for( Object o: mix.

// ..equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below.textOrNumberOrPoint. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . (other alternatives) } } Again.getLocalPart().getName(). We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.. where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. in italics or underlined. 2.2. (process) } else if( "Number". and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements.return this. // . (process) } else if( //. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element...getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je...12. if( "Text".getValue(). } } Consequently.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.. // .getValue(). One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements.. for( JAXBElement je: mix. to be rendered in boldface. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees.

out. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. As we already know.lang. private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.print( ":" + tag + ")" ).Serializable. The generic list type now happens to be java.getLocalPart(). as ChunkType features just one method getContent. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s).getValue(). System. dumpChunk( chunk ).getName(). } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. we did use ChunkType with B. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. } . public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().print( (String)s ). indeed.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.p. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.out. System.content.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System. } return this. and. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s). I and U. } return this.print( "(" + tag + ":" ).out.

we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now..) <demo> <A></A> <!-. in general.w3. for( ChunkType c: text. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. the characterless thing...12.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance.. @XmlElement(name = "C". nillable = true) protected String c.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. even though its value could be the empty string. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b.(process a text) TextType text = . using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. . not a good idea. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). which can not be omitted. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>. However. required = true) protected String a. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations.2.} } //. } 2.. required = true.

2. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> . (more getters and setters like this) } 2. } public void setA(String value) { this. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. } // . check boxes. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items.a = value.. radio buttons and sub-menus.public String getA() { return a..

<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. including itself.. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. again adding some attributes. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. Before we look at the generated Java code. Group is the button group's identification. // . // . -.(getCommand.(getText... however.. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list. public class EntryType { protected String text. The JAXB compiler.. // . After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. -. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.(isState.. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { .CheckBoxType extends ItemType. -. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure.

.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document.List<EntryType>.. reverse engineered the common superclass. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. and that's why we have to be content with a list. literally. protected Boolean state. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. . } return this.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you.util. } } 2. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. protected String value. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. Below is a simple example. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. // . The substitution group is headed by the global operand element.2. protected String operator. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable.protected String group. which contains a java. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs.

System. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".createBinopType().14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.newInstance( "generated" ). BinopType bt = of. } return this.createConstant( "3.createVariable( "d" ).public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). .14" ). } public void setOperator(String value) { this. either by restriction or by extension. JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of.getContent(). } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.createMarshaller(). JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.setProperty( Marshaller.createBinop( bt ). but they must be derived from the same base type.add( op2 ). m. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. bt. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. Marshaller m = ctxt. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. This type.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3.add( op1 ). The elements of the group may have different types. bt.setOperator( "*" ). however. } public String getOperator() { return operator. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.marshal( jbe. true ). This is what we have in the example.getContent(). m. A PosType element represents a position in an order.out ).content.operator = value. bt. is conceptually an abstract type.

w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.<?xml version="1.sun.

. Also. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. And finally there is createItem. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. // . element construction is a tad more complicated. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item.. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement.. // . each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. parameterized with BookType or DiskType. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements..item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. and its use as the generic type parameter. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. // . protected int price. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration... (more getters and setters) } Once again. Here is the skeleton of this class: . } // . public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. protected int quantity.<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. returning an object whose type is ItemType...

p2. PosType p2 = of.createDiskType().createBookType().createPosType().setItem( of..setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { . } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. PosType p1 = of. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . // Create an order OrderType st = of.. dk.createDisk( dk ) ).setItem() Looking at this table.. // Order a disk. listPos. Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.setItem() PosType. List<PosType> listPos = st. bk.createPosType().setItem( of. bk.createOrderType().getPos().createItem( bk ) ).. BookType bk = of. DiskType dk = of. } public OrderType createOrderType() { .setDuration( 50 ).setQuantity( 1 )... } public PosType createPosType() { . } public DiskType createDiskType() { .setPrice( 120 ). // Order two copies of a book. p1. listPos.setPages( 832 ). you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" )... Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().setQuantity( 2 ). ..setPrice( 20 ). } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .. // createItem for BookType p1. // createDisk p2..setItem() PosType. dk. dk.public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .add( p1 ).add( p2 ).. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { ..... bk.

for( PosType p: order. .out. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies. but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.getValue().getItem().unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.namespace. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". <?xml version="1. along with the lengthy namespace declaration. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. System.getLocalPart().println( tag + " " + item.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix.out.getItem(). The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.createOrder( st ). String tag = p.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.getValue(). The tag is represented as an object of class javax.getSimpleName() ). In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.println( item.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.xml" ) ). } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.getClass().xml.getName().w3.getQuantity() ).getTitle() + " " + p. System.

i. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. aren't they) into all places where it is used. in full.2. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF.. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights.e. which are scheduled from one airport to another one.2. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. An AirportType element is presented only once. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. They let you represent references to XML elements. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> .

. int number.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . So. } // . and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.getTo()). More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight.. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. to retrieve the origin of some flight. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references.to = value. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. Object to.from = value. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } public Object getTo() { return to. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. String carrier. as the string implementing the XML link. public Object getFrom() { return from.

in general. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. same thing. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. Nevertheless. The example given below is for railway buffs. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. lists or. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data.references. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. graphs. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself.

east = value. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. i.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. public Object getEast() { return east. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. there must be some element where that string is an id value. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. as the "null" element. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. because. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> .what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. protected Object west. } public Object getWest() { return west.west = value.. perhaps in a category of its own. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. } } But wait . by definition. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. Again. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours.e. } public void setWest(Object value) { this.

perhaps Id="null" . it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.e. the Null element as shown below.. public Object getContent() { return content.if not java. but we might just as well use some null values there.. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.2. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class.lang. i. 2.content = value. too.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java. In the XML file you would have one extra element. To see how this is handled in JAXB. e.Object.g.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType.lang. } } But what will be the class of the Content .16.Object (which would be . and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . Its name is distinction enough.2. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.16 Elements With Any Type 2.

dom. String tag = content. if you really have to..dom.Node. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods. which is a subinterface of org. then what? Well.lang.internal.dom.getContent().e. e.the important thing is that it implements org. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.Object.more DOM accesses.getChildNodes(). 2.w3c. class apache.: Element content = (Element)bag.16.. i. the actual class doesn't really matter .2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element..Element.w3c.obtuse). Node<List> = content. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.getTagName(). This means that.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.dom.w3c.2. // . ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). . like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler..xerces..g.ElementNSImpl.

.createHearsayType().0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www. } else { // .</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process..getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.unmarshal( f ). In fact. HearsayType hearsay = of. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1. // Let's have some hearsay.setText( "Mr. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr." ).// Create the container object. ). comm. // Prepare a JAXBElement.w3. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. CommType comm = (CommType)je. ready for marshalling.setSource( "Ms Jones" ). if( comm. CommType..(investigate other possibilities).org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example. hearsay.w3.w3. comm ). } 2..org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> . all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . Harper does naughty things. CommType comm = of.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.class.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn.w3.getValue(). comm.getComm().createCommType().com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www..com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).. Harper does naughty things.2.setComm( hearsay ).17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.

1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.createPicture( itemEl ). You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics.. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data.setJPEGPicture( img ). null ).createItemType(). anonymous types result in some inner class... the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB.drawImage( img.getJPEGPicture().getValue(). -1. 0.SCALE_DEFAULT ). g. itemEl.. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of. Image img = jbe. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. 0. Unmarshalling is just as simple.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. // Draw it Graphics g = . Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> . To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = . Image.drawImage() with this object as the first argument. Image img = bimg. Well.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. // Get the image from the content tree. Moreover. More importantly.read( imgFile ). JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace.. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. For one thing..getScaledInstance( 512.3.

protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. in a separate schema file.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below... The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. . protected AddressType billTo. Note that PurchaseOrderType.3.. protected BigInteger quantity.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType. protected List<PurchaseOrderType. they should be written once.(getters and setters) } 2. } return this.. If the documents share common XML types. protected BigDecimal price. // . // .Item>(). and re-used from there wherever they are required. protected String partNum.item.Item> item. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. } public static class Item { protected String productName. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType.

and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.> .g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www..org/common" schemaLocation="common.w3.org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.: <?xml version="1.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. resulting in org. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema ..org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.. e.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.<?xml version="1. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type. .org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.solarsystem.common and org.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.astronomy.w3..astronomy.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.

respectively. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes..5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group.out ). SolarSystem sol = of.. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc.astronomy. 2. 2. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. System.3.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable. Marshaller m = context. it is possible to define .marshal( jbe. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory()." specifying the group's given name. // Create a single planet instance document. 2. //.. use the attribute ref=". If an XML schema is extended. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.. m.3. m..3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup. e.marshal( sol.out ). // Create a solar system. System.solarsystem.createMarshaller().createSolarSystem().. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. //.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org.. Add planets. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.3. This may be regretted.createPlanet( planet ). Given the complex type ItemType.g.createPlanetType(). PlanetType planet = of.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

AddrType. new NameHandler() ).Handler>(). . if( p.isResident() ){ process( p.put( ourClass2Conv.getHandler( obj ).put( ourClass2Conv. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy.class. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. } PersonType.put( //. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o. if( h != null ){ h. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv.getChild ). h. public abstract void handle( Object o ).process( obj ).class.class. } processList( p. new AddrHandler() ). new PersonHandler() ).get( obj... ChildType.getClass() ). Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. NameType.handle( obj ).class. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this.put( ourClass2Conv. new ChildHandler() ).getAddr() ).getName() ). process( p.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. static { ourClass2Conv.

Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. try { . to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.getValue(). JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. h.getHandler( obj ).3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. } Handler h = this. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types.newInstance( XMLConstants. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. First. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation.process( obj ). SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. if the tag is required for processing as well. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().validation. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. Don't make such a map global.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ).Schema to the Unmarshaller object. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. } } Finally. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. 3.xml. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj).

an UnmarshalException (from javax. Basically that's all there is to it. u. as explained in the next section. you pass it the schema. or at least as many as possible but. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected.createUnmarshaller(). } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface.getLineNumber(). ValidationEventLocator vel = ve. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.bind) is thrown. int column = vel.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. Unmarshaller u = jc. System.newSchema( file ).mySchema = sf. we might write: .getLocator(). you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler." + column + ": " + msg ). u.setEventHandler( vec ).. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes.println( origin + ": " + line + ".getMessage(). boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. int line = vel. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.getColumnNumber(). alas.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve. 3. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . If the XML data validation fails.xml.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.newInstance( packagePath ).(error handling) mySchema = null. If you want to continue as long as possible. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().err.xml. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.setSchema( mySchema ). Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed.4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.bind. If you'd like to create your own error messages..

newInstance( "some foo:more.g.foo. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. Bar.setEventHandler( this ). Usually. e.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen. you may use the package path form as well. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.: # package some. earlier in this chapter.class. all static references. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. are not included.Foo. Subclasses.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize. u. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. . One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.createUnmarshaller(). however. 3. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.newInstance( Foo.Foo Foo # inner class some.bar" ).) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. such as the types of instance variables. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.foo. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.class ).Boo Foo.index. For JAXB annotated Java code. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.foo # class some. recursively.Unmarshaller u = jc.

..1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.getFooOrBar().createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below. ModuleType module = objFact. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call.</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. // . ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. . // Add it to its parent's list. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings. fbList..createRulebase( rulebase ).4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. fbList.add( fooElem ). RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem.createFooBarListType()..(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.createRulebaseType().createFooBarType().createModuleType().</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact. // Add it to its parent's list.. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. // .createFooBarType().(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>.add( barElem ).

2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. as you can create. for instance. the data is in post-order. 4. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. without any actual XML content. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. If. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>.

custElem.createCustomerType(). You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet... Item[] items = . Add this object to the current element. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>... It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. orderElem.setQuantity( item. // Complete customer.setId( custId ). It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.createItemType(). a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact.. // Create order and insert in top-level document.. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. // Data for an order int custId = . // Create and insert the customer element. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.setName( custName ). with a setter call current.getX(). itemList. This is. with a call to the getter current.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element.setId( item.. // Create and add item elements. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.setX( xElem ). itemElem.getOrders(). simply to be repeated for other child elements. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX.qtty ). List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.. custElem. } .createOrderType(). String custName = . of course. folder. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.getItems().add( orderElem ). Append (add) it to the List<X>. itemElem.add( itemElem ). the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. CustomerType custElem = objFact..id ).setCustomer( custElem ).

the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. i. Here. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. we have the classes representing XML elements.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group.e. on the other hand. On the one hand. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. IDREF) 4. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way.. 4. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element.3.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. and. the full. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. or for a customer reference. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. Our example is a variation of the order data. even though . inline customer element.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. You may. of course.

and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.setId( custId ). This means that the full elements must be added separately.createCustomerType().we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory(). Continuing our example. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust.customer = value. protected Object custref.CustomerType>(). } return this. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). // complete customer cust. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. String custId. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. protected List items.get( custId ). order. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. cust = oFact.items. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. where we'll use the second method. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. Map<String. public void addCust( OrderType order.custref = value. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order.setCustomer( cust ). The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. too. .

put( custId. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. This key is also used as a key in the map. cust ). } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. the "id" string. JAXB. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.3.setCustref( cust ). where we keep that element for future reference.the convenient material for references .2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. // save in map id2cust..cust. } else { order. If the customer lookup returns an object. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. <?xml version="1.e.setName( custName ). 4. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string.aren't useful in an XML text file. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. however. But . Memory addresses . i. then we meet a customer for the first time. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. We create a CustomerType object.

even if hashCode has been overridden.of type AddressType.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. Map<Address. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects.AddressType>().util) to register marshalled elements. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. Also. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. . To see how this works. This map uses the object's default hash code.

} Using Address objects as keys. // Register the object . it is surprisingly simple.. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. For an encore. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element. // . } return arElem.util.id pair in the identity hash map.put( addrPojo. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. addrElem. 4.. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. addrElem ). may have to use this rather extreme technique. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact.createAddressType().get( addrPojo ). private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. // Set the xsd:ID attribute.setId( makeNextId() ).. All in all.. which is just what . Special dumps of application data. arElem. pojo2elem. arElem.... } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. addrElem = objFact. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element.Serializable interface. for instance.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element.. But the need does arise occasionally. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data.int refcount = 0. provided that the class of the object implements the java. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem.setAddrRef( addrElem ). // .and insert it into its parent.setAddr( addrElem ).).createAddrOrRefType().

org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial.flush().5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file. ooStream.close(). such as the one that's used below.readObject().we need for calling the java. which requests nice formatting of the XML text.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler.w3. Object pojo = oiStream.* void writeDocument( Object document. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data..ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element.setData( baos. Here it is.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. joElem. oiStream. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.toByteArray() ).io. as defined by your schema.getData() ).close(). ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). return joElem. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.bind. import java.. String pathname ) . ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ). or a JAXBElement<?>. } 4. Then. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. import javax. ooStream. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1.createJavaObjectType(). First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.io. ooStream. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. you might set a number of properties.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www.*. or the encoding in the XML prolog. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. return pojo.writeObject( pojo ).xml.

return jbe. but this is cumbersome.acme.. of course. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www.out ).setProperty( Marshaller.getClass(). the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .. .getPackage(). m. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element.createMarshaller(). o ).com". You could. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. st ). System.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.TRUE ). Class<?> clazz = o. Boolean. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext. m. Marshaller m = context. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. tag ). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document.throws JAXBException.marshal( jbx. A generic solution is presented below.getName() ). The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. } To use it.. m. "someTag".getValue(). clazz.newInstance( clazz.getClass(). T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.marshal( document. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ). String tag.

A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.0"> .1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.xjb.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. </jaxb:bindings> . is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain..ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. 5. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. By default. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated.sun. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1.: xjc -p jess. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes..2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema.5 Customizing 5. One of these things is the package name. ususally of file type .xsd This. however. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace.

Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. 5. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element. the outermost element of an XML schema. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.sun.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.w3.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1.sun.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.

To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.e. you can request your own substitute. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.util. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. For this one..) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . If you don't fancy this. i. it does happen. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword.List. believe me.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. using an jxb:property element. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. it is replaced by Clazz. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items.util. But.

by renaming either element: .sun..We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict. 5.. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema.w3. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . Documentation is probably best written inline. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file.. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: ..com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself. <?xml version="1. as part of the type definition in your schema.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2.

i. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation.. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally.". Java class for GlobalType complex type. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. see below. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. .. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*')..e. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. you add a child as shown in the example below. For either of these schema components./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*').<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.code>GlobalType&lt." and "&amp. <xsd:schema> .

bind.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring. including their subordinate elements. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.parseString( value ). <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. So. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. } . Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section.intern(). 5. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do.. import javax. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.DatatypeConverter..StringInterner.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings.jessrules.xml. First. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way.

Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. 5.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. as in the next example. import java.4}V?I{.put( 'V'.) Although the XML type is xsd:string.Entry<Character. we have to write a simple class like the one given below.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations.Integer>().put( 'C'. entry. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. 100.put( 'D'. rom2int. 500 ). rom2int. 1000 ). private static Map<Integer. 1 ). static { rom2int. 100 ).HashMap. package util. rom2int. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000.entrySet() ){ int2rom.put( 'L'. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.Character>(). 50.util.Integer> entry: rom2int. 10. 1 }. import java. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need.Map. } .getKey() ). rom2int. 5.getValue(). rom2int. 50 ). This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.4}L?X{.put( entry.6. 10 ). rom2int.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. For this. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{.put( 'X'. 500.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.put( 'I'.roman. 5 ). we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int.util.put( 'M'. for( Map.

charAt( i ) ). .6.get( value.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression. } return result. You may choose any names you like.RomanNumberConverter.xml.roman.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. <?xml version="1.sun.append( int2rom.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.length().get( d ) ).bind. i++ ){ result += rom2int. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). for( int i = 0. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax. i < value. but the methods must be static.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.roman.RomanNumberConverter.toString().xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. } } return sb. sb. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.w3.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

this. import javax.datetime = datetime. String program ){ this.xml. } } public class EntryType { public String program. public String artists.bind.program = program.Map. import java. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. public class KeyType { public String event. public DocType(){ } } import javax..event = event. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.xml.EntryType>().datatype. this.<?xml version="1.annotation.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> . @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.artists = artists. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .*. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. import java.*.util.V>..HashMap.util. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K.

} 6. according to the Schema Datatypes specification.at/hospital".2.. and key data from value data.xml. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. 6. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements.E.java situated in the package.2.. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type.) Here is an example for XmlType.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements.laune.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself.bind. It must be written on a file package-info. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". Below is an example. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. "items". requesting that the elements title.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. . The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. "cluster" } ) public class Document { . @javax.annotation.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime.

the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.QUALIFIED) package hospital.XmlNsForm. 6.class. elementFormDefault = javax.bind.at/med" ) }. null. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.laune.annotation. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.bind..org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.2.bind.annotation. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "".at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element. annotated with XmlRegistry. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax. xmlns = { @javax.laune. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.annotation.laune.xml. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. namespaceURI = "http://www. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .xml.annotation.laune.QUALIFIED) package hospital.laune. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.XmlNsForm.xml.XmlNs( prefix = "med". This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.at/hospital".. value). name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.bind. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.xml. Therefore. } . TreeType.elementFormDefault = javax.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.w3.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.

say foo. PROPERTY.2. Any protected. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER.. public SomeClass(){ . NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties.. all public members will be bound..e. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process... with one member explicitly annotated as an element. i. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. If FIELD is set every non static. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field.. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute.. then. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. public getter and setter pairs.. or public fields. Member getB is blocked from being bound.. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. } public void setB( String value ){ .NONE ) . by default. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. private String b.. and methods getFoo and setFoo. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD.6. } public String getA(){ .. } public void setA( String value ){ . non transient field will be automatically bound. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType.

. with changes being made on the list object.. which doesn't have its setB spouse. } public void setA( String value ){ . } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true... the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances... private String b. } public String getA(){ .. } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ . private List<String> b. public SpecialClass(){ ..) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. Second.. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. return b.. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. } public String getA(){ ..public class OtherClass { private String a.. First. } public void setB( String value ){ . public OtherClass(){ . } public void setA( String value ){ .. } } The generated complex type features both elements... XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>().

e. i. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. this means that you can. In the . 6. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. This strategy may be generally permissive. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. the namespace.class} ) class Animal { //. or restrictive. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. either at package level or at some superclass. respectively.e.2. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. 6. permitting nothing by default. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. Here are two annotated fields. } 6.7.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes.. the ones that are bound to schema elements. Cat.class.. a default value and the Java class.2.2. because they are used as types for a field. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". whether it is optional or nillable.. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. Within a class.. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. oriented on fields or properties.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements.g. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. It permits you to define the XML element name.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. Once more.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced.

class). type = MenuType.class). @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox". type = CheckBoxType. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.class) }) protected List entryList. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you .class definition below.7.2. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. 6. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". type = ItemType.

(If you look for guidance. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. with one element or attribute for each field.) 6. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute.2. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. -.name defines the namestring for the attribute. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.2. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null.) JAXB. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute.7.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. making judicious use of both. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. 6.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. is a good example. the default being the class field's name. Also. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. of course. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". List<Sentence> word. public Price(){} @XmlElement .Sentence isn't a simple type. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". -.

6. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer.. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. } } If this type is used for some field. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .: <price> <amount>123. too.amount = value.2.. e..45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute.7..g.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type. } // .5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema. .

MixtureType mix = doc.Object>(). Then.getValue() + """ ). } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. for( Map. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.out.println( "Title: " + mix. System.Object> e: amap. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. } return any.getAny().out. DocumentType doc = jbe. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.unmarshal( new File( "mixture.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName.xml" ) ).Object>. private String title.Entry<QName.getValue().getKey() + "="" + e. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.Object> any. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value.println( e.entrySet() ){ System.getTitle() ). Map<QName. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" .Object> amap = mix.getMixture().

g.getZoo().bind. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.Element.annotation.println( el. import javax. or an array or list of such elements. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u. Unmarshaller u = jc.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.*.w3c.getTextContent() ). for( Element el: doc. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().dom.getNodeName() + "->" + el. return animals.out. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content.createUnmarshaller().6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.dom.class ). import org.*. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.newInstance( DocumentType. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.getAnimals() ){ System.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. } . (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.Element.unmarshal( f ). cf.util.w3c.xml. subsection DOM Elements.bar="attribute of bar" 6.7.2. e.

or "wrapping". @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. i. child elements embedded in the element's own data. } } 6. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. you need some additional element bracketing. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). for the repeated element.2. return item.e. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. with one field for each element and attribute.2.. For this. and another one for the content text.7... XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. as indicated in the XML snippet below. public ParentType(){ .

class). you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. @XmlElementRef(name = "code". public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code".class). } return this. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType".FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". type = JAXBElement.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. slightly more specific than Object. @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.content. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. which doesn't have mixed content any more. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". type = JAXBElement.class).To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType.

. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum..String but other types. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig"). It has an optional element value of type java. and by default. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below. 6.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum.lang. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. are equally possible. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet.. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. } public String value() { return value. even numeric ones.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. Its required element defines the XML representation string. Usually. this is java. // .(more enum constant definitions) private final String value.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML.lang. in fact. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). For a straightforward enum type.content. } } This does.. } return this. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.2.

annotation. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. } } 6. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure.2. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.equals(v)) { return c.adapters.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType. <?xml version="1. To achieve our goal. i. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle.class) . public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. Such mappings require an adapter class.value.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.ApplType> from the package javax.xml. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.values()) { if (c. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.bind.. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.toString()).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.e. Also.

put( c. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses(). Course>(). of course.id. return b.carray = c. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. In this method. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter.Course> courses. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object.size()]). } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id.public class Brochure { Map<String. the interesting class. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray.carray ) b.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. courses. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.courses. @XmlElement String name. c ).toArray(new Course[c. return courses. @XmlAttribute Price price. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure.courses. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. . public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses.values(). and this is. Collection<Course> c = b. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. for( Course c : value. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.

text. . If you need multiple mappings at package level.e. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. i. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. one defining TextType as a container for a string. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ). Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.6.toString().11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID..StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.2. which is the default mapping for xs:string. For this. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content..append( " that Jack built. // .: TextType text = new TextType().lang.2. 6.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). a StringBuffer is better than String. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. e. text. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf.String that is suited to be used as a key.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. Below are the essential Java classes. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.strbuf. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation.g.." ).

. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ ..*.xml.annotation.Set.xml. private String name.HashSet.. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list.*. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.. } } import java.annotation.*. @XmlRootElement public class Document { . Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class. } public void setId( String value ){ .xml..annotation. } public void setName( String value ){ ..util. import javax. import java..util. public class Item { private String id. import java... public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .ArrayList. import javax. private String title..List.bind. } } package elset. public Cluster(){ .. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .bind.util.util.. In this case.bind. import java. the collection item type must contain an id field. import javax.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.

private List<Item> items...private Cluster cluster...END --- . } public void setTitle( String value ){ ... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ ... } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ .. } } --... } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . private String title. public Document(){ .. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .

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