A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.2.12.1 Content: A Value 2.2.12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.4 Content: Alternative Elements 2.2.12.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements 2.2.12.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements 2.2.12.7 Mixed Content 2.2.12.8 No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2.16.1 DOM Elements 2.2.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields 6.2.7.1 The Annotation XmlElement 6.2.7.2 The Annotation XmlList 6.2.7.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute 6.2.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue 6.2.7.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute 6.2.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement 6.2.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper 6.2.7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding.) 1. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions. is contained in objects of a single type. Values are invariably provided as strings. Versions from 2. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements.List. a CDATA section. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. etc. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. Version 2. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. The JAXB runtime library.util. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. DOM data. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. the Simple API for XML. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements.1. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler.1 Introduction 1. with individual node objects containing an element. with a very high level of distinctiveness. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. In the DOM approach.10. the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. linked according to the XML document's structure. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. as compared to version 1. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. an attribute. however.

3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. 1.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. Some of these features are: -. -. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. -. <?xml version="1. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> .w3.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.sun. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.xsd defines the structure of our document. The XML Schema on hello.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins .obviously an area for experts. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.various XML Schema language constructs in Java.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here.The XML Schema generator schemagen. which is to contain a series of salutations. it's just here to give you the overall picture. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes.

createGreetings( grList ). GreetingListType. grList = of. and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.bind. The class Hello shows how to use them. import javax. } public void make( String t.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. Finally.setText( t ).createGreetingListType(). Marshaller m = jc..newInstance( "hello" ). } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type. import java. xjc -p hello hello. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. with a call to marshal.e. Here's a sequence of these calls: . The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute. private GreetingListType grList.createGreetingType(). import hello... defining the package name hello for the generated classes.*.getGreeting(). g. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. grList.marshal( gl. m.util. System. the list is wrapped in its XML element. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.add( g ).out ). i. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // .xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. g.xml.*.*.createMarshaller().setLanguage( l ).

you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . you".make( "Bonjour.make( "Hey.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. formatted. madame". for better readability. <?xml version="1. "en" ). h. h.marshal(). "fr" ). h. The output is shown below. madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey.Hello h = new Hello().

dates and times.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. and for references and other XML constructs. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing.g. This is done by adding so-called facets. This (or some other name. e.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. list. For child elements. Other facets. however. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. URIs. Type information deals with the definition of structure.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. are ignored by the Schema Compiler.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . strings. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. booleans. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking.w3. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. If used..0"> 2. and to define a pattern for a string type. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths..sun. such as lists or maps.e. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). <xsd:union>.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. the composition of document nodes. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. i. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. with xsd as the namespace identifier. to enumerate all legal values. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema. structure (or record) and union. Although all data in XML is text. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. to limit the precision.

} public void setGroup(int value) { this. we . perhaps. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated.2. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".the JAXB schema compiler xjc. required = true) protected int group. For brevity and clarity. you might ask.. } Where is. you'll see simple get and set methods.. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and.validation. public int getGroup() { return group. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes.. Doing away with fractional digits.. If you peek into one of these class definitions. created from your XML schema. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. 2. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code.xml. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data..group = value. Leaving double and float aside. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax.2.. // . this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. According to the XML Schema definition.BigDecimal. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. } // .1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. There is one Java type providing just that: java. 2.math.Schema object. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection.

and therefore this type maps to java. JAXB reverts to simple types.e. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. . e. int _int. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. With xsd:unsignedInt. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent.math.. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. Below the integer type.math.BigInteger. hence java.but only for descendants of Object. simplified for better readability.math. it has to be represented by java. This adds another value to the set of possible values. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. which still has an unspecified number of digits. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. there is no fitting simple type. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. nil. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. another one for their obscure cousins. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. For xsd:unsignedLong. BigInteger integer. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. too. Short shortNil. long _long.BigInteger.BigInteger must be used. i.. short for xsd:unsignedByte. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code.arrive at xsd:integer. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value .g.

Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. } 2.counter = value. long unsignedInt. For some element such as counter. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> ..2. protected int counter. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } public void setCounter(int value) { this.decimal = value. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. of course... limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. So.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. public int getCounter() { return counter. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. } Well. it's quite a zoo indeed.. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. // . BigInteger nonNegative. BigInteger unsignedLong. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code.

<xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time.xml.2. alternatives and grouping.String is used. 2. 2. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. (Do not confuse this with java.lang. This class is in the package javax. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.datatype. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. . It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.util.GregorianCalendar. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time.2. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. no Java class is required for DirType.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. Java's own java. Once more.

get( Calendar.get( Calendar. now. meta.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects.get( Calendar.SECOND ). DateTimeType meta = of. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory.date = value. now.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element. now.get( Calendar.YEAR ). // no fraction DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().MONTH ). It is.get( Calendar. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).newInstance(). } } However. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.time = value. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time. null. DatatypeConstants.HOUR_OF_DAY ). // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance.setTime( gcTime ). however.DAY_OF_MONTH ). meta.setDate( gcDate ). // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.MINUTE ).createDateTimeType().} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). now. not possible to omit seconds entirely. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().

as shown below. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. A sample schema declaration is shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>. All conversions are handled by JAXB.2. 2. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. } } 2. public byte[] getData() { return data. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations.2. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. still be represented in printable characters. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. use an xsd:list.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values.data = ((byte[]) value).6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. Using NumberListType as an attribute . for inclusion in an XML file.

. separated by white space. 2... public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>().2. } // .. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. protected List<Integer> numbers. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore.2.. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // . <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum.. 2. } return this. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code.dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. .8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list..numbers. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. // .."/>. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string.

SpDrL. SpDrS. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . public enum IXLType { eStwA. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. for each enum constant name. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). VGS_80("VGS80"). as shown below. you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding.. </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings.. public String value() { return name(). SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). } public String value() { return value.. eStwS.. IXLType(String v) { value = v. E_STW_S("eStwS"). } . and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . VGS80.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. private final String value.

} else { return pos. 2. .11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. even if they do not have content.2. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes.2. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. protected String dir. 2. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.pos = value. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. Try to avoid xsd:union.value.

this element itself and its siblings. Obviously..12. i. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition.2. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element.dir = value. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)).e. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. or even a combination of both. So. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. or one or more subordinate elements. 2. //.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. "Doc"). } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. simply because there is no such element. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions.. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. the one describing the containing element. } public void setDir(String value) { this. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . except for list types.. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element.} public String getDir() { return dir.2.

} public void setY(int value) { this. DocType.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME.12. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content. 2. (The default for both is 1.12. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward. } } 2..3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. public class PointType { protected int x. value). } public int getY() { return y. } public void setX(int value) { this.y = value.2. null.x = value. } // . protected int y.2..class. public int getX() { return x.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.

a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1. public String getStarter() { return starter...XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all.(more getters and setters) } Here. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. . the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives.2.starter = value. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. There is. 2. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. soup.12. dessert. } // . <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. entree. however.

sms = value.public class CommType { protected String sms. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points.. for instance.2. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. Here.12. public String getSMS() { return sms. protected String mms. may contain any number of elements.. 2. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { .5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. } // . Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. Various combinations are possible. There is. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. and for all similar element lists. Also. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. a java. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.List is used.util. protected String email.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. or a fixed number.

lang. adds another point. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.Serializable. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements.points. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and.textOrNumberOrPoint. code like this polygon. The list can be added to one by one. . or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.12.add( new PointType( 4. 9 ) ). therefore. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. Sometimes only java.Object will do.List may be applied to the returned value.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). } return this. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. } return this.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). in the same Java code. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. Obviously. 2.getPoints().util.Most importantly.lang. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint. All methods defined in java.2. Other possibilities are java.

. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. mercifully. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style. For one thing. If we add another element of. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). after the third sub-element. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops.g.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones.... cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. type xsd:string. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.xml.getClass() ). e. } . say. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // .JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType.bind. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch.: for( Object o: mix. Also.. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint..You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.

2. 2.return this. // . <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> . // .textOrNumberOrPoint.. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.getLocalPart(). (process) } else if( "Number".getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je.getValue().getValue().. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. (process) } else if( //.. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph..12.. } } Consequently. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. if( "Text". See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements.. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. in italics or underlined. // . where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element..equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je. for( JAXBElement je: mix.. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. (other alternatives) } } Again.getName(). to be rendered in boldface.

indeed. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags. System.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System. I and U. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.lang.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). } return this. we did use ChunkType with B.getLocalPart(). ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s).content.p.print( (String)s ).out. dumpChunk( chunk ). As we already know.Serializable. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s). } .out. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.getName(). The generic list type now happens to be java. and. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.out. System.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. } return this. as ChunkType features just one method getContent.getValue().print( ":" + tag + ")" ). public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().

12.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. not a good idea. However.2. required = true) protected String a. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. for( ChunkType c: text. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. nillable = true) protected String c. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance.} } //.. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A". required = true.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ).. @XmlElement(name = "C". the characterless thing. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. even though its value could be the empty string.w3. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is.. in general.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. .. which can not be omitted.(process a text) TextType text = .. } 2.

} // . This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.2. radio buttons and sub-menus. } public void setA(String value) { this. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance.a = value. check boxes..13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. (more getters and setters like this) } 2.public String getA() { return a. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items.

// . public class EntryType { protected String text. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect. // .. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. -. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. -. however. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType.(getCommand. including itself. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box... -.CheckBoxType extends ItemType.. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection.(getText.. again adding some attributes. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. The JAXB compiler.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. Before we look at the generated Java code. // . one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.(isState.. Group is the button group's identification.

.List<EntryType>. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. . protected String operator. literally. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton.2. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). // .util.. } return this. which contains a java.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. Below is a simple example. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. } } 2.protected String group. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. protected Boolean state. reverse engineered the common superclass. and that's why we have to be content with a list. protected String value.

bt.marshal( jbe. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.createBinop( bt ). JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. m. BinopType bt = of.setProperty( Marshaller.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. however.getContent().14" ). JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.getContent(). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().createMarshaller(). m. } public String getOperator() { return operator. } public void setOperator(String value) { this. but they must be derived from the same base type. The elements of the group may have different types. .newInstance( "generated" ). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of. This is what we have in the example.setOperator( "*" ). bt.add( op1 ). } return this. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.createVariable( "d" ).public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>().out ).14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.createConstant( "3. either by restriction or by extension. A PosType element represents a position in an order.operator = value.createBinopType(). bt. This type. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. true ).add( op2 ). } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true". Marshaller m = ctxt. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. is conceptually an abstract type. System.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.content.

com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.sun.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.w3.<?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .

// .. (more getters and setters) } Once again.... } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. And finally there is createItem. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. parameterized with BookType or DiskType.. protected int price. element construction is a tad more complicated. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. Here is the skeleton of this class: .item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value).<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. protected int quantity. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. and its use as the generic type parameter. // ... We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. returning an object whose type is ItemType. } // . Also. // . public abstract class ItemType { protected String title.. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration.

bk.createBookType().setItem( of. // createItem for BookType p1..setQuantity( 1 ).createItem( bk ) )..createDisk( dk ) ).getPos(). DiskType dk = of.createPosType(). // createDisk p2.setItem() PosType.. dk. // Order a disk. // Order two copies of a book. Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType. } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { . bk. } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { . you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element. BookType bk = of. PosType p1 = of. p1. // Create an order OrderType st = of. p2..setItem() PosType.createPosType(). } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { .setQuantity( 2 ).. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .setDuration( 50 ).. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used..setPrice( 20 ).. listPos..createOrderType(). ..setPrice( 120 ).. } public DiskType createDiskType() { .setItem() Looking at this table.setPages( 832 ).add( p1 ).. Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). dk.setItem( of.. dk. } public PosType createPosType() { .add( p2 ).createDiskType()..setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ).public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { . PosType p2 = of. listPos...setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). List<PosType> listPos = st. } public OrderType createOrderType() { . bk.

org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.getSimpleName() ). } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object. but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.getValue().0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.out.out.println( tag + " " + item. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.w3. String tag = p. The tag is represented as an object of class javax. The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". . System. for( PosType p: order.getItem().getQuantity() ).QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.xml. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. System.getLocalPart().getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.namespace.xml" ) ).getTitle() + " " + p.getName().getItem(). along with the lengthy namespace declaration.getValue().unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.createOrder( st ).getClass().JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.println( item. <?xml version="1.

2.2. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . aren't they) into all places where it is used. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. They let you represent references to XML elements. An AirportType element is presented only once.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. i. in full. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. which are scheduled from one airport to another one..e. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.

getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. Object to.. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. } public Object getTo() { return to. public Object getFrom() { return from. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.getTo()). which we would have used as an airport identification anyway. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. int number. String carrier.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. So.from = value. to retrieve the origin of some flight. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime.to = value. as the string implementing the XML link.. } // . all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references.

same thing. graphs. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. Nevertheless. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. The example given below is for railway buffs. lists or.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. in general.references. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees.

</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. because. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. there must be some element where that string is an id value. } public Object getWest() { return west.. } } But wait .e. protected Object west. as the "null" element. public Object getEast() { return east.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. perhaps in a category of its own.west = value. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. Again. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. i. by definition.east = value. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> .

g.lang.16. To see how this is handled in JAXB. the Null element as shown below. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.if not java. public Object getContent() { return content. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. } public void setContent(Object value) { this. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. but we might just as well use some null values there. 2.lang.perhaps Id="null" .Object (which would be . too.e..content = value.16 Elements With Any Type 2. In the XML file you would have one extra element.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. } } But what will be the class of the Content . i. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content.2.2.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. Its name is distinction enough. e.Object.. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value .

then what? Well.internal. 2.: Element content = (Element)bag. which is a subinterface of org. class apache.2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.the important thing is that it implements org. String tag = content. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.Node.getContent().. Node<List> = content. e.. if you really have to.w3c. i.w3c.xerces. // . the actual class doesn't really matter . If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.dom. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler.Object.. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.obtuse).dom.dom.Element.getChildNodes().2. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods.. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.ElementNSImpl.more DOM accesses.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.getTagName().lang.e. .g.dom.16. This means that..w3c.

class.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process. } else { // . JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.createHearsayType().w3. CommType.w3. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn.. if( comm.. HearsayType hearsay = of.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> .w3.unmarshal( f ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.2.. // Prepare a JAXBElement. CommType comm = (CommType)je. comm ).createCommType(). hearsay.setComm( hearsay ). Harper does naughty things. QName qn = new QName( "comm" )." ).(investigate other possibilities).org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( .org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example. In fact.setText( "Mr. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller.setSource( "Ms Jones" ).0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3. comm. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1. ). // Let's have some hearsay.. ready for marshalling.getValue().17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.getComm(). } 2.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.w3. CommType comm = of. comm..// Create the container object.. Harper does naughty things.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www.

0. To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.read( imgFile ).createPicture( itemEl ). // Get the image from the content tree.. Moreover.getValue(). JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace.drawImage() with this object as the first argument.getJPEGPicture(). 0.drawImage( img. Image img = bimg.setJPEGPicture( img ). the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. Image. // Draw it Graphics g = . -1.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. More importantly. null ). and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required.. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes..SCALE_DEFAULT ). this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema.. anonymous types result in some inner class. For one thing. g. Unmarshalling is just as simple. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = ..getScaledInstance( 512.createItemType(). Image img = jbe.3. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.. itemEl. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. Well. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> .

The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. If the documents share common XML types. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType. and re-used from there wherever they are required. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate.item.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type.Item> item.Item>(). .(getters and setters) } 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas.Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. protected BigInteger quantity. } public static class Item { protected String productName.. Note that PurchaseOrderType. they should be written once. protected String partNum. in a separate schema file.. protected BigDecimal price. } return this. protected List<PurchaseOrderType.. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. // . protected AddressType billTo.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach.. // .

org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.solarsystem.: <?xml version="1. resulting in org.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common" schemaLocation="common.. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element..astronomy.<?xml version="1. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema . .xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.w3.> .g.. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.astronomy.common and org.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy. e.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.

by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default. m.astronomy. This may be regretted.createMarshaller(). Given the complex type ItemType.. m. System.3.out ).4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable.5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. it is possible to define . Add planets. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. //.createPlanet( planet )... If an XML schema is extended. 2. e.g..createSolarSystem(). To insert the elements or attributes in some other place." specifying the group's given name.marshal( sol.createPlanetType(). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes. System..3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup. use the attribute ref=". SolarSystem sol = of. respectively. // Create a single planet instance document.solarsystem.. 2. // Create a solar system.3.out ). 2.3. PlanetType planet = of. Marshaller m = context.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org.. //. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes.marshal( jbe.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

process( obj ). abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. .getHandler( obj ).getName() )..getChild ).isResident() ){ process( p. new PersonHandler() ).put( ourClass2Conv.class. } PersonType.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType.put( ourClass2Conv.get( obj.handle( obj ). new ChildHandler() ). static { ourClass2Conv. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple. NameType. if( p. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. public abstract void handle( Object o ).class.class. if( h != null ){ h. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.put( ourClass2Conv.getClass() ).class.Handler>().getAddr() ). new AddrHandler() )..put( //. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o. process( p. new NameHandler() ).</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy. ChildType. AddrType. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. h. } processList( p.

All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.xml. h. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. if the tag is required for processing as well. } Handler h = this. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well.getValue().3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). First.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. } } Finally.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. try { . enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. Don't make such a map global.getHandler( obj ). We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. 3.process( obj ). JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list.newInstance( XMLConstants. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().validation.

getLineNumber(). 3. System. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected. If the XML data validation fails. as explained in the next section.. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. u.getColumnNumber(). int column = vel. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. an UnmarshalException (from javax.. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.(error handling) mySchema = null.err.bind) is thrown. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . If you'd like to create your own error messages. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. you pass it the schema.setSchema( mySchema ). The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec.xml. Unmarshaller u = jc.bind. we might write: .createUnmarshaller(). JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.xml.setEventHandler( vec ). int line = vel. Basically that's all there is to it.getLocator().mySchema = sf. u.getMessage().hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. alas.println( origin + ": " + line + ".newSchema( file ).getEvents() ){ String msg = ve." + column + ": " + msg ). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). If you want to continue as long as possible.newInstance( packagePath ).4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. or at least as many as possible but.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.

foo # class some. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. 3. Bar. recursively. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Subclasses.class. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb.setEventHandler( this ). which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.Foo. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. all static references.Foo Foo # inner class some.newInstance( Foo. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document. e.Unmarshaller u = jc. For JAXB annotated Java code.foo. you may use the package path form as well.newInstance( "some foo:more.class ). such as the types of instance variables. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.createUnmarshaller(). are not included.bar" ).g. Usually.foo. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. earlier in this chapter. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen. however. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. u.Boo Foo. .: # package some.index. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.

. List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. // Add it to its parent's list.createFooBarTypeBar( bar ).</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact..createFooBarType().1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory().getFooOrBar(). fbList. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>.createFooBarListType().. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. fbList. ModuleType module = objFact..createRulebase( rulebase )..4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. .createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ). // .createFooBarType(). // Add it to its parent's list.add( fooElem ).createModuleType(). It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. // . Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.createRulebaseType().add( barElem )..</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags... JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact.

Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. for instance. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. without any actual XML content. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. the data is in post-order.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. If. 4. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. as you can create. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> .2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call.

.createCustomerType(). a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact.setId( custId ). It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out.getX().. itemElem. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem.add( orderElem ).setX( xElem ). folder. itemList.. Item[] items = . It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.createItemType(). This is. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.. with a setter call current.. Append (add) it to the List<X>.setName( custName ). Add this object to the current element.id ). Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. orderElem. // Create and add item elements.setId( item.. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>.createOrderType(). // Complete customer. custElem. // Create order and insert in top-level document. simply to be repeated for other child elements. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX..add( itemElem ). we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. itemElem.setQuantity( item. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact. // Create and insert the customer element. of course.setCustomer( custElem ).qtty ).getItems(). String custName = . } . with a call to the getter current. custElem. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. // Data for an order int custId = .getOrders().</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element.. CustomerType custElem = objFact.

an order may either contain a full customer XML element.. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. and.3. Here.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. of course. inline customer element. on the other hand. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. On the one hand. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. IDREF) 4. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. Our example is a variation of the order data. or for a customer reference. even though . the full.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. i. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. we have the classes representing XML elements.e.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. 4. You may. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full.

} public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.CustomerType>(). . public void addCust( OrderType order. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. Continuing our example. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this.items. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer.setCustomer( cust ). order. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements.custref = value. This means that the full elements must be added separately. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references.setId( custId ). if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. } return this. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. protected Object custref. protected List items. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). where we'll use the second method.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. cust = oFact. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().createCustomerType(). too. Map<String. String custId.get( custId ).we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here.customer = value. // complete customer cust.

3. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.setName( custName ). then we meet a customer for the first time. cust ). changing them magically to the corresponding string values.put( custId. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. If the customer lookup returns an object.. We create a CustomerType object. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. This key is also used as a key in the map.aren't useful in an XML text file. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. } else { order. JAXB. i. <?xml version="1.the convenient material for references .e. // save in map id2cust. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element.cust. But . 4.setCustref( cust ). however. Memory addresses . where we keep that element for future reference. the "id" string.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object.

of type AddressType. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive. To see how this works. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. Map<Address.util) to register marshalled elements. even if hashCode has been overridden.AddressType>(). once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. Also.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address. <xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. . This map uses the object's default hash code. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem.

// Register the object .. 4.). <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. addrElem ). The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary.... addrElem. provided that the class of the object implements the java. which is just what . Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address.setAddr( addrElem ). may have to use this rather extreme technique. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. But the need does arise occasionally. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. // . For an encore. for instance. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element..util.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.createAddressType().get( addrPojo ). // Set the xsd:ID attribute.setAddrRef( addrElem ). arElem. pojo2elem. Special dumps of application data.. } return arElem. // . addrElem = objFact.. } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. } Using Address objects as keys.put( addrPojo.setId( makeNextId() ). if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element.id pair in the identity hash map. All in all. arElem.createAddrOrRefType().int refcount = 0.and insert it into its parent. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object.Serializable interface. it is surprisingly simple.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary..

close(). Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream().close().setData( baos. you might set a number of properties. or the encoding in the XML prolog.bind. String pathname ) .* void writeDocument( Object document. since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. import java.getData() ).we need for calling the java. which requests nice formatting of the XML text.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ).xml. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. or a JAXBElement<?>. Here it is.*. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. ooStream. import javax. Then. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.io..io. such as the one that's used below.readObject(). return joElem. } 4.w3. Object pojo = oiStream.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.flush(). Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. ooStream.toByteArray() ).createJavaObjectType(). return pojo. as defined by your schema.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. joElem. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. oiStream. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais )..ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. ooStream.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.writeObject( pojo ).

<T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. of course. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.getName() ). String tag. o ).newInstance( clazz. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www. Boolean.getPackage(). Marshaller m = context. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types... IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. m. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. "someTag". .marshal( document.getValue().JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.getClass(). the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = .out ). st ).setProperty( Marshaller. You could.throws JAXBException. m. T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.getClass(). } To use it. m. clazz. Class<?> clazz = o.acme.TRUE ). return jbe..) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.com". System. but this is cumbersome. tag ). new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ).createMarshaller(). @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>. A generic solution is presented below.marshal( jbx.

sun.: xjc -p jess. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated.5 Customizing 5. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain. however. or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. </jaxb:bindings> .ruleml -d gen-src RuleML.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. 5. One of these things is the package name. ususally of file type . Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace.xjb. By default.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema..0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.xsd This.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections.0"> .. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output.

ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element. 5. the outermost element of an XML schema.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.sun.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.sun.w3.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. but you may not always be at liberty to do so.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.

For this one. i. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. believe me. you can request your own substitute. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. it is replaced by Clazz. using an jxb:property element.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem.List.util. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.e.. If you don't fancy this. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. it does happen. But.util.

<xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> .xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. 5.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. <?xml version="1..com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.sun. as part of the type definition in your schema.. by renaming either element: ..org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file.w3. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself. Documentation is probably best written inline.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: ..

Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. you add a child as shown in the example below. we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation.. For either of these schema components. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. see below. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). Java class for GlobalType complex type. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*')."." and "&amp. <xsd:schema> .. i. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. .e. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition..<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition.code>GlobalType&lt.

<jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings. is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do.DatatypeConverter.StringInterner.intern(). So. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. import javax. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string.xml. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. First. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.parseString( value ). They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. 5.jessrules..bind. including their subordinate elements. } ..5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.

} .put( 'D'.getValue(). 5. 50 ).Integer>().HashMap.put( 'M'.getKey() ). package util.6.Character>().put( 'C'. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{.util.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. for( Map.Map.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway.put( 'X'. For this. import java. 100.util.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. 500 ). rom2int. private static Map<Integer.put( entry. 5 ). This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. import java. 500.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character. 10 ). rom2int.Integer> entry: rom2int.entrySet() ){ int2rom.4}L?X{. 50. rom2int. rom2int.put( 'I'. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own. it is possible to customize the datatype binding. static { rom2int. 5.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. 10. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. as in the next example. entry. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character.Entry<Character. 1 ).roman.put( 'V'. 100 ). rom2int.4}V?I{.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. rom2int.put( 'L'. 1000 ). we have to write a simple class like the one given below. 1 }.

6. } } return sb.roman. i < value.get( value.RomanNumberConverter.w3.append( int2rom.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5.xml.length(). .roman. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.RomanNumberConverter. so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.bind. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.sun. You may choose any names you like.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.toString().parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman.get( d ) ). } return result.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). i++ ){ result += rom2int.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. sb. for( int i = 0.charAt( i ) ). but the methods must be static. <?xml version="1. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.HashMap.event = event. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. public class KeyType { public String event. public String artists.*. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists.V>. this. this. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes. public DocType(){ } } import javax..Map. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.artists = artists.annotation. String program ){ this.xml. import java.program = program. import javax. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content.<?xml version="1.util. } } public class EntryType { public String program.xml.bind.datatype. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .*.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> . import java.datetime = datetime.EntryType>()..util.

) Here is an example for XmlType. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. "items". but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. and key data from value data.. It must be written on a file package-info.laune. 6. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title". "cluster" } ) public class Document { . according to the Schema Datatypes specification. .M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. Below is an example. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.xml. requesting that the elements title. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element.at/hospital".<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.bind. @javax..2. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. } 6.2.java situated in the package.annotation.E.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package.

.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element. 6.bind. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects. xmlns = { @javax.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.XmlNsForm. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>.annotation.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www..bind.laune.xml. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.laune.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.at/hospital". @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .class. TreeType.bind.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.QUALIFIED) package hospital. annotated with XmlRegistry.XmlNsForm. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided.w3. namespaceURI = "http://www.2. } . value).laune.XmlNs( prefix = "med".QUALIFIED) package hospital.laune. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.laune.bind.elementFormDefault = javax. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.xml.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry.annotation.xml.xml. Therefore.annotation. elementFormDefault = javax. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.at/med" ) }. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.annotation. null. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME.

package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. public getter and setter pairs. or public fields. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. private String b. i. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process.. by default. } public void setB( String value ){ .NONE ) . setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. Any protected. } public String getA(){ . @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. and methods getFoo and setFoo. Member getB is blocked from being bound.. public SomeClass(){ .... The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient.. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method.6. all public members will be bound. say foo. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE.. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER.. PROPERTY. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. } public void setA( String value ){ .e. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. non transient field will be automatically bound.. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. then. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting.2.. If FIELD is set every non static.. with one member explicitly annotated as an element.

(The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. which doesn't have its setB spouse. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. First. public SpecialClass(){ . Second. with changes being made on the list object. private String b.....PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a... } public void setA( String value ){ .public class OtherClass { private String a. } public String getA(){ ... } } The generated complex type features both elements. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> . XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair..... the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). private List<String> b. return b.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. } public String getA(){ .. } public void setA( String value ){ ... } public void setB( String value ){ . public OtherClass(){ . } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ ..

You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. } 6. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.. e. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class..2.7. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace".6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. Within a class. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. or restrictive. This strategy may be generally permissive. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute. 6. oriented on fields or properties. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation.. In the . as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. i. permitting nothing by default. It permits you to define the XML element name.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". Cat. 6. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. a default value and the Java class.. respectively. Here are two annotated fields.e. Once more.class.class} ) class Animal { //.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. the ones that are bound to schema elements. whether it is optional or nillable. either at package level or at some superclass. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace.2. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. this means that you can. because they are used as types for a field.2. the namespace.g.

type = MenuType. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements.7. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . type = ItemType.class). The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word.class definition below. @XmlElement(name = "Menu".class) }) protected List entryList. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. 6. the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.class). } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".2. type = CheckBoxType. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles.

Sentence isn't a simple type.name defines the namestring for the attribute.7. the default being the class field's name. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here.2. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself.) JAXB. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute. of course. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . is a good example.2.can be sure that no string value contains a blank." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. with one element or attribute for each field. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. -. 6. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. public Price(){} @XmlElement . making judicious use of both. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. List<Sentence> word. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. -. Also.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required".3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.) 6. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list.7. (If you look for guidance.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations.

the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. 6. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this.2. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. too.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. e.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.amount = value. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // . } } If this type is used for some field..g. .. } // .public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.7...: <price> <amount>123.

Object>().unmarshal( new File( "mixture.println( "Title: " + mix.Object> amap = mix. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element.Object>.getValue().It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. DocumentType doc = jbe.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName. System.getMixture().Object> any.xml" ) ). private String title.println( e. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.out. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.getTitle() ). } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . Map<QName. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.getAny().getKey() + "="" + e.entrySet() ){ System. for( Map.Object> e: amap.out. Then. } return any.getValue() + """ ).Entry<QName. MixtureType mix = doc.

public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals.annotation.bar="attribute of bar" 6.println( el.getTextContent() ).g. return animals. subsection DOM Elements. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.dom.getNodeName() + "->" + el. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.getZoo().getAnimals() ){ System.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().Element. Unmarshaller u = jc.class ).w3c. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. for( Element el: doc. import org.*. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.out.Element. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. } .util. or an array or list of such elements.*.unmarshal( f ).createUnmarshaller().xml.7. cf.2.w3c.newInstance( DocumentType. e.bind.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType. import javax.dom.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.

2..7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef. For this. public ParentType(){ . or "wrapping". JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>. for the repeated element. and another one for the content text. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute.7. return item.. with one field for each element and attribute. i. as indicated in the XML snippet below. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style.2. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> .The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.. } } 6. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded.e. you need some additional element bracketing. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. child elements embedded in the element's own data.

To achieve the same effect with an annotated class.class).content. When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "code". slightly more specific than Object. type = JAXBElement. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.class). Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. which doesn't have mixed content any more. type = JAXBElement. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content. @XmlElementRef(name = "id".FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". @XmlElementRef(name = "id".FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . type = JAXBElement. } return this.class).

SubElemType(String v) { value = v.2. are equally possible.lang. } return this. 6. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor.content. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well.. // . It has an optional element value of type java. Its required element defines the XML representation string. } public String value() { return value.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. Usually. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig"). } } This does. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { .8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1").String but other types.lang. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. and by default. For a straightforward enum type... provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. in fact. this is java. even numeric ones.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation..

xml. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object.annotation. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.2.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible.values()) { if (c.toString()).9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure. i.ApplType> from the package javax.. To achieve our goal. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.equals(v)) { return c. Also. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps.bind. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter. } } 6.e. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b.adapters.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. <?xml version="1. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v. Such mappings require an adapter class.class) .value.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.

courses. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray.courses. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.carray = c. of course. . @XmlElement String name.courses. Collection<Course> c = b. the interesting class.Course> courses. Course>().id. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling.carray ) b. c ). return b. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object. return courses. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map. for( Course c : value. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure.public class Brochure { Map<String. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array.put( c. @XmlAttribute Price price.toArray(new Course[c. and this is. } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter.values(). In this method.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure().size()]). defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses().

2.. i. Below are the essential Java classes. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java." ). Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension.g. 6. // .e.6.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. TextType elements are now StringBuffers. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. . you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation. which is the default mapping for xs:string. but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf. For this. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation.2. and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. e.: TextType text = new TextType(). either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. text. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ).strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). text.append( " that Jack built.strbuf.String that is suited to be used as a key. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. XmlJavaTypeAdapter. a StringBuffer is better than String. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document..10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. If you need multiple mappings at package level. one defining TextType as a container for a string.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf.toString().lang..

import java.Set.List. } public void setId( String value ){ .ArrayList...bind.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type... Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class.bind.annotation. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items..*..*.HashSet.. public Cluster(){ ..annotation. public class Item { private String id. } } package elset. the collection item type must contain an id field. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. import javax. In this case.util.xml. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .util. import javax...xml. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ . import java. private String name.*.xml. private String title. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ . } public void setName( String value ){ .bind. import javax. } } import java..annotation. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ .util. import java.util..

.... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ .. private String title... } } --......END --- . } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . public Document(){ . } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ . } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .private Cluster cluster. private List<Item> items.

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