A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2.2.12.1 Content: A Value 2.2.12.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements 2.2.12.4 Content: Alternative Elements 2.2.12.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements 2.2.12.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements 2.2.12.7 Mixed Content 2.2.12.8 No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type 2.2.16.1 DOM Elements 2.2.16.2 Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields 6.2.7.1 The Annotation XmlElement 6.2.7.2 The Annotation XmlList 6.2.7.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute 6.2.7.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue 6.2.7.5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute 6.2.7.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement 6.2.7.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper 6.2.7.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

In the DOM approach. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. however. Versions from 2. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime. linked according to the XML document's structure.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. the Simple API for XML. an attribute. The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). as compared to version 1. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. etc. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level. with a very high level of distinctiveness. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. The JAXB runtime library. with individual node objects containing an element. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding. a CDATA section. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions.) 1. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions.util.List.1.1 Introduction 1. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. Version 2.10. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. Values are invariably provided as strings. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. DOM data. is contained in objects of a single type. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX.

obviously an area for experts. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. -.xsd defines the structure of our document. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes. it's just here to give you the overall picture. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog. The XML Schema on hello.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB.sun.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . <?xml version="1. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.w3.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. 1. -.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. Some of these features are: -. which is to contain a series of salutations.The XML Schema generator schemagen.

import javax.xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. defining the package name hello for the generated classes.createGreetingListType().createGreetings( grList ). The class Hello shows how to use them. import hello. The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.util.e.createGreetingType(). m. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of.getGreeting().. i.setLanguage( l ). and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream.*. Here's a sequence of these calls: . import java. xjc -p hello hello. Marshaller m = jc.newInstance( "hello" ). grList = of. private GreetingListType grList.*. grList. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . GreetingListType. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory().setText( t ).<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. Finally.add( g ). g..createMarshaller(). g. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.marshal( gl. System. } } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.bind. the list is wrapped in its XML element.*.xml.out ).. with a call to marshal. String l ){ GreetingType g = of. } public void make( String t.

<?xml version="1. "fr" ). madame". h. "en" ). madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey.marshal().make( "Bonjour.Hello h = new Hello(). The output is shown below. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> .0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. h.make( "Hey. you". h. formatted. for better readability.

e. strings.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers. e. the composition of document nodes. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. If used. URIs. <xsd:union>. to limit the precision. Other facets. structure (or record) and union. are ignored by the Schema Compiler. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. such as lists or maps. This (or some other name. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer.0"> 2. booleans. This is done by adding so-called facets. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. and to define a pattern for a string type.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. For child elements.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema.sun. however. Type information deals with the definition of structure. with xsd as the namespace identifier. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).w3. dates and times. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both. and for references and other XML constructs.. list. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths.. i. to enumerate all legal values.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types.g. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. Although all data in XML is text. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section.

We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection..Schema object. required = true) protected int group.. the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. } Where is. If you peek into one of these class definitions. the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and. you might ask.validation.. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits..xml. 2.2. you'll see simple get and set methods.group = value. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. perhaps.. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . According to the XML Schema definition. Doing away with fractional digits. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. // . limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255. } public void setGroup(int value) { this. created from your XML schema. public int getGroup() { return group.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. } // . There is one Java type providing just that: java.2. we . 2. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data.BigDecimal. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group".2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes.math. Leaving double and float aside.. For brevity and clarity.

the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. nil. . Below the integer type. hence java.but only for descendants of Object. BigInteger integer.math.BigInteger must be used. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. which still has an unspecified number of digits. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte. simplified for better readability. i. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte. long _long. For xsd:unsignedLong. The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types. This adds another value to the set of possible values. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent.. With xsd:unsignedInt. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. there is no fitting simple type. another one for their obscure cousins. it has to be represented by java.math. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code.BigInteger. short for xsd:unsignedByte. using the smallest type capable of holding all values.g. JAXB reverts to simple types.arrive at xsd:integer. and therefore this type maps to java. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. too. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. Short shortNil. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal.. e.BigInteger.math. int _int.e.

Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. // . } public void setCounter(int value) { this. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . For some element such as counter. it's quite a zoo indeed. } 2. long unsignedInt. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal. protected int counter.decimal = value. of course.. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> . BigInteger nonNegative..counter = value. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. } Well. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType. BigInteger unsignedLong. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below.. public int getCounter() { return counter.protected protected protected protected Byte _byte.2. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes. } // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type.. So.

util. . 2.xml.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute.String is used. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it. alternatives and grouping. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. 2. (Do not confuse this with java. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. no Java class is required for DirType. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.2.lang. Java's own java. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition.2. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time.GregorianCalendar.datatype. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. This class is in the package javax. Once more.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only.

The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . It is.get( Calendar.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now.SECOND ).MONTH ). meta. // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance. } } However. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time. // no fraction DatatypeConstants. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df. XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df. meta.DAY_OF_MONTH ).get( Calendar. DateTimeType meta = of. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element. now.get( Calendar. however.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory. now. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time.date = value. null. It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects.MINUTE ).FIELD_UNDEFINED ).HOUR_OF_DAY ). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().time = value.setTime( gcTime ). now.get( Calendar. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time.get( Calendar. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().get( Calendar.FIELD_UNDEFINED ). } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. now.createDateTimeType(). DatatypeConstants.YEAR ). This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds.setDate( gcDate ).newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. not possible to omit seconds entirely. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.newInstance().

2. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. 2. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. public byte[] getData() { return data. still be represented in printable characters. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. for inclusion in an XML file.2. All conversions are handled by JAXB.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary. } } 2. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. Using NumberListType as an attribute .6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. as shown below. use an xsd:list. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. A sample schema declaration is shown below.data = ((byte[]) value). <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>.

numbers.or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // .. 2. // .. protected List<Integer> numbers.. public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. } return this.. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list..2. 2. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements.2..8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=".. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type. separated by white space. Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string."/>..dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space. } // . enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. .

} public String value() { return value.. SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . eStwS.public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding. SpDrS.. for each enum constant name. } . } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. VGS80. E_STW_S("eStwS"). VGS_80("VGS80"). as shown below. <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> .. private final String value.. public String value() { return name(). </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). SpDrL. IXLType(String v) { value = v. public enum IXLType { eStwA.

The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. 2. Try to avoid xsd:union. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this. } else { return pos. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos.value.2. 2.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types.2. even if they do not have content.pos = value. . <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements. protected String dir.

i. from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("".. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null.2.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. 2. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type. or one or more subordinate elements. So. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. } public void setDir(String value) { this. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions. this element itself and its siblings. The xsd:element defines the XML tag. except for list types.e. Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type. Obviously. the one describing the containing element.2. "Doc"). public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { .12. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)).dir = value. //... or even a combination of both. simply because there is no such element. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document.} public String getDir() { return dir.

null.. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory. 2. <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent .2. public int getX() { return x.y = value. DocType.2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts.12. value). public class PointType { protected int x. } public void setX(int value) { this. } public int getY() { return y.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. (The default for both is 1. protected int y.return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. } // .x = value. } } 2.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates.2.class.12. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content.. } public void setY(int value) { this.

XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. however. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. dessert. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish.(more getters and setters) } Here. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value.. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. 2. entree. } // . Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. . a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1.starter = value.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives. There is. soup. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. public String getStarter() { return starter..12.2.

5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. and for all similar element lists.. } // . } public void setSMS(String value) { this.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty.sms = value. may contain any number of elements. for instance. a java. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. protected String email. Various combinations are possible.2.public class CommType { protected String sms. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. public String getSMS() { return sms. There is. protected String mms. Here. Also. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. or a fixed number. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs.12. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements. 2. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.List is used.util..

2. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1. Obviously.add( new PointType( 4. therefore. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint.Most importantly. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. } return this.List may be applied to the returned value. public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). adds another point. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing. in the same Java code.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements.12.textOrNumberOrPoint.lang. All methods defined in java. and you could remove or even clear to delete elements. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list.Serializable.Object will do.getPoints(). } return this. The list can be added to one by one. 9 ) ). Other possibilities are java. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. Sometimes only java. 2.lang. code like this polygon.points = new ArrayList<PointType>().util. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct.points. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. .

. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . say.bind. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . For one thing. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones.xml. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. e. Also. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. after the third sub-element.getClass() ).JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType.. } .g.. If we add another element of.) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint. the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax. mercifully. type xsd:string.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o..: for( Object o: mix. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong..

where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je. in italics or underlined. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements.equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je.. (process) } else if( "Number".getLocalPart(). } } Consequently. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. for( JAXBElement je: mix. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.getValue().equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je.. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.getName(). <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> .. (process) } else if( //. // . // ..getValue().. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. // . if( "Text".. These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element. 2.. (other alternatives) } } Again.12. a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content. to be rendered in boldface. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text.textOrNumberOrPoint.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element..return this.2.

print( (String)s ).out. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>().getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System. } return this. private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c. System. I and U. and. we did use ChunkType with B. as ChunkType features just one method getContent. } return this. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation.getName(). } . public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p.lang. The generic list type now happens to be java. System.print( "(" + tag + ":" ). this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque.p. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes". indeed.content. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order.out. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content.getLocalPart(). dumpChunk( chunk ).out.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.getValue(). } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s). ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s). we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs. As we already know.Serializable.

required = true..w3. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>. } 2.} } //. and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element. the characterless thing.no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations..getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). even though its value could be the empty string.(process a text) TextType text = . public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A"..2.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present.. using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. in general. nillable = true) protected String c. for( ChunkType c: text. @XmlElement(name = "C". JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. required = true) protected String a.12. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www. However. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>.. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. not a good idea. . in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". which can not be omitted.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on.

public String getA() { return a. (more getters and setters like this) } 2. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> .a = value. This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type.2. check boxes. } // .. } public void setA(String value) { this. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. radio buttons and sub-menus..13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance.

we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect.(getText.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries.. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy. Before we look at the generated Java code. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { . Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -.. however. // .(isState.. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. // .. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. -. // . rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. Group is the button group's identification. The JAXB compiler. public class EntryType { protected String text. -.. setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command. including itself..CheckBoxType extends ItemType. -.(getCommand. again adding some attributes.

// . literally.. which contains a java.2.protected String group. reverse engineered the common superclass. .. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. protected String value.util. protected String operator. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content. protected Boolean state. public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. and that's why we have to be content with a list. } return this. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation.List<EntryType>.14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. The substitution group is headed by the global operand element.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. } } 2. Below is a simple example. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>(). A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags.

createBinopType().14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types. This is what we have in the example. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. } public void setOperator(String value) { this.content.getContent(). m. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true".public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>(). A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements.setProperty( Marshaller. either by restriction or by extension.createConstant( "3. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.out ). System. is conceptually an abstract type. m. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.newInstance( "generated" ).14" ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.operator = value. JAXBElement<String> op1 = of. This type. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). however. bt. BinopType bt = of.add( op1 ).getContent(). but they must be derived from the same base type. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. bt. true ). } return this. The elements of the group may have different types. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.marshal( jbe.createVariable( "d" ).createMarshaller(). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of.add( op2 ). A PosType element represents a position in an order.createBinop( bt ). } public String getOperator() { return operator.setOperator( "*" ). Marshaller m = ctxt. bt. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. .

w3.<?xml version="1.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.sun.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.

we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement.. (getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. // . protected int quantity. (more getters and setters) } Once again. // . (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. parameterized with BookType or DiskType. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. } // .item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. And finally there is createItem.. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type... where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType.. // .. Also. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title.. Here is the skeleton of this class: . and its use as the generic type parameter. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks.. element construction is a tad more complicated. protected int price. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages.<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. returning an object whose type is ItemType.

} public DiskType createDiskType() { ..public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .setPrice( 20 ). dk.add( p2 ). listPos... p1.. // Create an order OrderType st = of..setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). // Order a disk. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element. } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { .add( p1 ). dk. } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { ..setQuantity( 1 ).createItem( bk ) ). bk.createPosType()..getPos(). } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used.setItem( of.createBookType(). // createDisk p2..setPrice( 120 ). Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). DiskType dk = of.setItem( of. List<PosType> listPos = st.setDuration( 50 )..setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" ). } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { . } public OrderType createOrderType() { . . } public PosType createPosType() { .createOrderType().. // Order two copies of a book.. PosType p1 = of. BookType bk = of.setQuantity( 2 ). listPos. // createItem for BookType p1..setItem() PosType.createPosType(). p2.setItem() PosType.setItem() Looking at this table. PosType p2 = of. dk.createDisk( dk ) ). bk. bk...setPages( 832 )..createDiskType(). Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .

getTitle() + " " + p. OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object.createOrder( st ). The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType". The tag is represented as an object of class javax.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>.out.getItem(). JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.println( item.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix. System.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p.getItem().getName(). along with the lengthy namespace declaration.println( tag + " " + item. . but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods.out.xml.w3. System.xml" ) ).getValue(). String tag = p.getValue().getLocalPart().getSimpleName() ). for( PosType p: order.getQuantity() ). <?xml version="1.getClass(). In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.namespace.

They let you represent references to XML elements. in full. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType.2.e. i.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. An AirportType element is presented only once. A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was. This can be put to good use in several circumstances. aren't they) into all places where it is used. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights.2. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship.. which are scheduled from one airport to another one.

. } public Object getTo() { return to. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. } // .from = value. String carrier. Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away.to = value. int number. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. to retrieve the origin of some flight. public Object getFrom() { return from. Object to..(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. So.getTo()). XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this.getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } public void setTo(Object value) { this. as the string implementing the XML link. all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.

) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself.references. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document. lists or. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. The example given below is for railway buffs. graphs. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. same thing. in general. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. Nevertheless.

One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. } public void setWest(Object value) { this.east = value. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. by definition. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . i.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. } } But wait ..e. there must be some element where that string is an id value. Again. perhaps in a category of its own. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. because. public Object getEast() { return east. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. protected Object west. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null. as the "null" element. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes. } public Object getWest() { return west.west = value. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east.

perhaps Id="null" . public Object getContent() { return content.16. <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. In the XML file you would have one extra element. but we might just as well use some null values there. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. i.if not java.. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.Object (which would be .lang. Its name is distinction enough.content = value. the Null element as shown below.16 Elements With Any Type 2.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. } } But what will be the class of the Content . e.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.e.2. } public void setContent(Object value) { this.1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java. too.. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No. 2.lang.Object.2. To see how this is handled in JAXB.g.

Element.16.g.dom.xerces.. e. the actual class doesn't really matter . .dom.e. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.Object. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.Node.dom. class apache..internal. This means that. which is a subinterface of org. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.obtuse).w3c. String tag = content.getContent().more DOM accesses.dom.. you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods.: Element content = (Element)bag. 2..2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.lang..w3c.2.ElementNSImpl. if you really have to.w3c. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler. then what? Well. We'll assume that we have several document definitions.the important thing is that it implements org. Node<List> = content.getChildNodes(). // . i.getTagName().) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.

createHearsayType(). } 2. HearsayType hearsay = of.getComm().org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> . QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.(investigate other possibilities).getValue().. Harper does naughty things.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www.setText( "Mr. The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process.org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www. comm. CommType comm = (CommType)je. } else { // . all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . ready for marshalling.. The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1..w3.unmarshal( f ).// Create the container object.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example. ). hearsay. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr.createCommType().2. CommType. comm ).w3.setComm( hearsay ). CommType comm = of.com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www. // Let's have some hearsay.com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1. // Prepare a JAXBElement. In fact. Harper does naughty things.class." ).org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example..w3.setSource( "Ms Jones" ). comm.w3.w3.. if( comm.

drawImage( img.. Unmarshalling is just as simple..getJPEGPicture(). To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics..getValue(). // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of.drawImage() with this object as the first argument. Well.. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. itemEl. g. 0. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> .read( imgFile ).getScaledInstance( 512.SCALE_DEFAULT ).3. Moreover. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.createItemType(). Image.. anonymous types result in some inner class. More importantly. But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required. Image img = bimg. JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = .. For one thing. // Draw it Graphics g = . Image img = jbe.setJPEGPicture( img ).createPicture( itemEl ). The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. null ). // Get the image from the content tree. 0. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. -1. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB.

protected AddressType billTo. protected String partNum.3. . protected List<PurchaseOrderType. they should be written once.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType.<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. } return this. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach.(getters and setters) } 2..Item> item... and re-used from there wherever they are required. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. If the documents share common XML types. in a separate schema file. // . } public static class Item { protected String productName. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate.Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. // .2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas..Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo. protected BigDecimal price. protected BigInteger quantity.item. Note that PurchaseOrderType.Item>().

org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element.g.astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.w3. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy. e..solarsystem.> .astronomy.<?xml version="1... and you may have as many as you like within a single schema.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file. resulting in org.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema .org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.common and org.: <?xml version="1. .org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/common" schemaLocation="common.

//. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. 2.3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup.. This may be regretted.3. 2. use the attribute ref=".5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. SolarSystem sol = of.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable.createSolarSystem(). System.. e.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes. // Create a single planet instance document.createMarshaller().out ).astronomy. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of. respectively. it is possible to define . Given the complex type ItemType. since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). PlanetType planet = of. If an XML schema is extended.createPlanetType()..3. m. System. by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default.g..marshal( sol. 2..out ).. m.3.marshal( jbe.. // Create a solar system." specifying the group's given name.solarsystem. Marshaller m = context.createPlanet( planet ). you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. Add planets. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place. //.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

new AddrHandler() ).put( ourClass2Conv. } PersonType. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.getName() ).get( obj. AddrType.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy. NameType. new ChildHandler() ). Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. if( h != null ){ h.getChild ).Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>.Handler>(). process( p..getClass() ). There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag. public abstract void handle( Object o ).class.put( //. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>. new NameHandler() ). Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class. } processList( p. new PersonHandler() ).getAddr() ).class.isResident() ){ process( p.class.put( ourClass2Conv. ChildType..class.getHandler( obj ). if( p. h. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv.put( ourClass2Conv. .process( obj ).handle( obj ). } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o. static { ourClass2Conv.

First. JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList.<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. if the tag is required for processing as well.getHandler( obj ). The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list.newInstance( XMLConstants.process( obj ).3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. Don't make such a map global. If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.xml. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. } Handler h = this.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ). try { . An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. h. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl().getValue(). } } Finally.validation. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>.Schema to the Unmarshaller object. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types. you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice. 3.

4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.bind. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established. ValidationEventLocator vel = ve. Basically that's all there is to it. as explained in the next section. an UnmarshalException (from javax.err.mySchema = sf. or at least as many as possible but.getLocator(). Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section. } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document.xml.getLineNumber().. alas. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. If the XML data validation fails.createUnmarshaller(). you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec. System.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve.ValidationEventHandler is quite simple. Unmarshaller u = jc.bind) is thrown.xml.newInstance( packagePath ). we might write: .setEventHandler( vec ).println( origin + ": " + line + ". If you want to continue as long as possible. int line = vel.(error handling) mySchema = null.getMessage(). you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newSchema( file ).hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. u. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected. If you'd like to create your own error messages. int column = vel. 3." + column + ": " + msg ). the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector().. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface. u.getColumnNumber(). you pass it the schema.setSchema( mySchema ).

foo.: # package some. u.setEventHandler( this ). One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages.class. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs.Foo Foo # inner class some. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. e. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes.bar" ). however.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.newInstance( Foo. recursively.index. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.Unmarshaller u = jc. Usually. earlier in this chapter. .createUnmarshaller(). For JAXB annotated Java code. you may use the package path form as well.newInstance( "some foo:more. such as the types of instance variables. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.foo. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Subclasses.Foo.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document.Boo Foo. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.foo # class some. 3. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler. are not included.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. all static references.class ).g. Bar.

// Add it to its parent's list.createFooBarType().</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact.createFooBarListType().createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ).1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). fbList. one such doument object can be created by code as shown below.createRulebase( rulebase ).add( fooElem ). // Add it to its parent's list. A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.. ..add( barElem ). // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>..(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.createModuleType(). A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact.createFooBarTypeBar( bar )...getFooOrBar().createRulebaseType(). // ...4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact. fbList.</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact. A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase". List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem. // . Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object.createFooBarType(). ModuleType module = objFact..

The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. for instance.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. If. 4. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . the data is in post-order. as you can create. but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. without any actual XML content. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType.

. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet.setId( custId ). itemList. of course. simply to be repeated for other child elements. List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. // Create and insert the customer element. String custName = .. folder.qtty ). // Data for an order int custId = . itemElem. itemElem. orderElem.setQuantity( item. custElem. This is.setName( custName ).setCustomer( custElem ). It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. // Create order and insert in top-level document. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.. } . a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact.. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.id ). the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.getX().getItems(). Item[] items = . with a setter call current. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings.createItemType(). CustomerType custElem = objFact..setX( xElem ).. with a call to the getter current. // Complete customer.add( orderElem ).add( itemElem ). // Create and add item elements.getOrders(). custElem. Append (add) it to the List<X>.createCustomerType().setId( item. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>.. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX.. Add this object to the current element. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.createOrderType()..

3 Assembling Data with Links (ID.. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. Here. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. the full. 4. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema.e. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. Our example is a variation of the order data. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects.3. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. or for a customer reference. i. inline customer element. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. You may.1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal. IDREF) 4. and. (In the example there is ItemType and Item. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group. we have the classes representing XML elements. even though . On the one hand. on the other hand. of course.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion.

order. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList(). The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. protected Object custref. where we'll use the second method. cust = oFact.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String.items. Continuing our example. too. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. . } return this. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. This means that the full elements must be added separately.createCustomerType(). public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document.CustomerType>(). protected List items. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.setCustomer( cust ). // complete customer cust.get( custId ). Map<String. public void addCust( OrderType order. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. String custId.setId( custId ).customer = value.custref = value. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements.

cust. JAXB. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference.setName( custName ).e. the "id" string.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. however. We create a CustomerType object. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. changing them magically to the corresponding string values. // save in map id2cust. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer. cust ).2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object. But . then we meet a customer for the first time. Memory addresses . If the customer lookup returns an object. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. 4.. } else { order.setCustref( cust ). This key is also used as a key in the map. <?xml version="1. where we keep that element for future reference.aren't useful in an XML text file.the convenient material for references .3. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null. and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. i.put( custId.

<xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. . This map uses the object's default hash code. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address.AddressType>(). even if hashCode has been overridden. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object.of type AddressType. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. Also. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive.util) to register marshalled elements. To see how this works. Map<Address.what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address.

. for instance.createAddressType().util.and insert it into its parent. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element.setAddr( addrElem ). Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact. may have to use this rather extreme technique. pojo2elem.). Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. addrElem = objFact. All in all. we map these to assembled AddressType objects.get( addrPojo ). But the need does arise occasionally. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. provided that the class of the object implements the java.. // Register the object . // . // Set the xsd:ID attribute. } return arElem. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++..Serializable interface. Special dumps of application data. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element.int refcount = 0. } Using Address objects as keys.. For an encore.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem..id pair in the identity hash map.setId( makeNextId() ). } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary.. which is just what . } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference. addrElem )..put( addrPojo. it is surprisingly simple. arElem.. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. 4. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. addrElem.createAddrOrRefType(). // .setAddrRef( addrElem ). we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element. arElem.

w3.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file.createJavaObjectType().readObject().org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. Object pojo = oiStream.xsd"> <data>ACED00057372. you might set a number of properties.close(). return pojo.*. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element. Here it is. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1. Then.7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException. import java. or a JAXBElement<?>. The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below.close(). since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data.xml. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). or the encoding in the XML prolog. String pathname ) .writeObject( pojo ).setData( baos. oiStream. ooStream. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact.bind.we need for calling the java. return joElem. such as the one that's used below. import javax.flush().getData() ). JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext.io. ooStream. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. joElem.. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ). which requests nice formatting of the XML text.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www.toByteArray() ).io. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject.* void writeDocument( Object document. as defined by your schema. } 4. ooStream.. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ).

. System. "someTag". new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ).com". The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>.out ).marshal( document.. of course. return jbe. <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. o ). String tag. A generic solution is presented below.getName() ).newInstance( clazz. } To use it. . T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.getValue(). @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. Class<?> clazz = o. m. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www.getPackage(). tag ). st ). the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = ..marshal( jbx. m. add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. You could. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types. Marshaller m = context.createMarshaller().) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context. but this is cumbersome.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.getClass().setProperty( Marshaller. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T.acme. Boolean. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext.TRUE ).throws JAXBException. clazz.getClass(). m.

and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes.5 Customizing 5. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output..1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.: xjc -p jess. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1.2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2. in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. 5.0"> . You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections. ususally of file type . The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema. </jaxb:bindings> . or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.xjb.xsd This. One of these things is the package name. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings. By default..ruleml -d gen-src RuleML. however.sun. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated.

but you may not always be at liberty to do so.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. 5. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema. the outermost element of an XML schema.xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element. Here is an example: <?xml version="1.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.sun.flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.sun.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages.w3.

The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. believe me. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java. it is replaced by Clazz. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition.. To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes.util. i. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> .List.util. you can request your own substitute. For this one.e. If you don't fancy this. using an jxb:property element. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. it does happen. But.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java.

. as part of the type definition in your schema. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file..We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.sun..0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. by renaming either element: .org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself.. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.w3. 5. Documentation is probably best written inline. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation. <?xml version="1. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict.

see below. ./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition..". Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway. Java class for GlobalType complex type. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element. "<" and "&" must be written as "&lt. It can be written at the outermost level of the schema. <xsd:schema> . </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. For either of these schema components. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation." and "&amp. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. i. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section.e. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). you add a child as shown in the example below...code>GlobalType&lt.

including their subordinate elements. <jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. 5. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com.intern(). is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section. First..jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.bind. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter.xml. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings.parseString( value ). Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. import javax...jessrules. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. So.StringInterner. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. } .5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings.DatatypeConverter.

private static Map<Integer. 500.Integer> entry: rom2int.entrySet() ){ int2rom. 50. static { rom2int.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.Entry<Character.Map. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. 5. rom2int.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway.6 Overriding the Datatype 5. package util. rom2int. In those rare cases where this is not adequate. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value.put( 'X'. 1000 ). rom2int. it is possible to customize the datatype binding.getKey() ).) Although the XML type is xsd:string.4}L?X{.roman.put( 'L'. rom2int.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. 10.put( 'M'. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. for( Map. 1 ). For this.Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. 500 ).put( 'I'. But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.HashMap. import java.util. import java. rom2int.put( 'C'.Character>().} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. entry. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. 5 ).getValue(). we have to write a simple class like the one given below.Integer>(). rom2int. 10 ). 100. } .4}V?I{.util.put( entry. 100 ).put( 'D'.put( 'V'. 1 }. as in the next example. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. 5. 50 ).6.

length().0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util. i < value.get( value.toString(). <?xml version="1.bind.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.6.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression. i++ ){ result += rom2int. for( int i = 0. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.RomanNumberConverter. } } return sb.w3.charAt( i ) ).DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util.get( d ) ). but the methods must be static.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0. You may choose any names you like.roman. sb. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.append( int2rom. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.sun. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below. } return result.xml.roman.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.RomanNumberConverter. .0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

<?xml version="1. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this.EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType.datatype.util.annotation.*. } } public class EntryType { public String program. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K..Map. import java. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema.*.HashMap. this. import javax. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime.xml. public class KeyType { public String event. public String artists.program = program.artists = artists. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType. import java. public DocType(){ } } import javax. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> .EntryType>(). this.V>..0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .xml. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes.datetime = datetime.bind.util. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists. String program ){ this.event = event.

specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title"..2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type.2. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element.) Here is an example for XmlType.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R. (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements.. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right. Below is an example.annotation. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. "items". } 6. but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself.E.bind. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration.java situated in the package. @javax.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. "cluster" } ) public class Document { . according to the Schema Datatypes specification. . and key data from value data.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. 6.at/hospital". requesting that the elements title. It must be written on a file package-info.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.laune. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other.2.xml. The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace.

at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.bind. value).xml.0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.XmlNsForm.laune. TreeType.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry..2.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www. } . XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements.bind. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.bind. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { .laune.xml.annotation. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.w3. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element.laune.bind.annotation.QUALIFIED) package hospital.annotation.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www. elementFormDefault = javax. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl.laune.XmlNs( prefix = "med". namespaceURI = "http://www.QUALIFIED) package hospital. xmlns = { @javax. annotated with XmlRegistry.laune. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. Therefore.annotation. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.XmlNsForm. the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.at/med" ) }. null..at/hospital".xml. each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "". 6.class. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.xml.elementFormDefault = javax.

. say foo. then. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting. PROPERTY. You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType.2. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient..6. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER.. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML.. You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. all public members will be bound.. private String b. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. } public void setA( String value ){ . public SomeClass(){ .e. and methods getFoo and setFoo. Any protected. by default. with one member explicitly annotated as an element. Member getB is blocked from being bound.. or public fields..NONE ) . @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. non transient field will be automatically bound... } public void setB( String value ){ .PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting. If FIELD is set every non static. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ ...5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType. i. } public String getA(){ . public getter and setter pairs. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties.

private List<String> b. public OtherClass(){ .. } public void setA( String value ){ .PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>().. XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> .. private String b... } } The generated complex type features both elements. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>. } public String getA(){ . which doesn't have its setB spouse.. Second. } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ ... XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair. } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. return b.. public SpecialClass(){ .public class OtherClass { private String a... } public void setB( String value ){ .. with changes being made on the list object. } public String getA(){ .. First.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType... } public void setA( String value ){ ..

7. This strategy may be generally permissive.. 6. Once more. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together. or restrictive. e. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". permitting nothing by default. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included. respectively. i. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. Within a class.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute.class} ) class Animal { //.g. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble.2. either at package level or at some superclass. 6. the ones that are bound to schema elements. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type. because they are used as types for a field. this means that you can. the namespace. } 6..7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. It permits you to define the XML element name. required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. Here are two annotated fields.2. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation...class. whether it is optional or nillable.e. a default value and the Java class. In the . Cat.2. oriented on fields or properties.

The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".class).class definition below. type = CheckBoxType.7.2. 6. @XmlElement(name = "Menu".class). } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast.2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements. type = ItemType. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word. the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes.class) }) protected List entryList. type = MenuType. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you . @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item".

} is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute.7.) JAXB.name defines the namestring for the attribute. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". List<Sentence> word. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself. the default being the class field's name. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -.2. of course." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute.7.Sentence isn't a simple type.) 6.2. -. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute. making judicious use of both. 6. -.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type. (If you look for guidance. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42. (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself. Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. public Price(){} @XmlElement . is a good example. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". Also. with one element or attribute for each field.

5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.amount = value. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123.. } // .45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.7.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute..2. . 6.: <price> <amount>123.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. too.g.. e. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. } } If this type is used for some field. This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .

Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName.println( "Title: " + mix.entrySet() ){ System. DocumentType doc = jbe.println( e.Object> e: amap.getKey() + "="" + e.xml" ) ). private String title. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.unmarshal( new File( "mixture. } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value. Map<QName.getMixture().Object> any. MixtureType mix = doc. } return any.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName.out. System.Object>.It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.Object> amap = mix.Entry<QName. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u.getAny().getValue(). Then. for( Map.Object>().out. } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" . } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName.getValue() + """ ).getTitle() ).

getTextContent() ). } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.out.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.newInstance( DocumentType. cf. Unmarshaller u = jc.*. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java.bind. return animals. for( Element el: doc. subsection DOM Elements.xml.getZoo().class ).Element.bar="attribute of bar" 6.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.getAnimals() ){ System.Element. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>(). (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org.dom.unmarshal( f ).2.*. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content. import org.g.dom.getNodeName() + "->" + el.util.w3c.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object. } . } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.println( el.annotation.createUnmarshaller(). or an array or list of such elements. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.7. e.w3c. import javax.

with one field for each element and attribute. you need some additional element bracketing.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6. for the repeated element. For this. @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item. XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef.2. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list.7.. i..2. } } 6. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style.7. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). return item. or "wrapping". and another one for the content text.e.. as indicated in the XML snippet below. public ParentType(){ . child elements embedded in the element's own data.

type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id". propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". slightly more specific than Object. type = JAXBElement. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". @XmlElementRef(name = "code". you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously.class).FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message". @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. which doesn't have mixed content any more. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable. } return this.To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. type = JAXBElement. Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. type = JAXBElement. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType".class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content.class).class). public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling.content. type = JAXBElement.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content.

8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum.lang. are equally possible. 6. Its required element defines the XML representation string.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. } return this. provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant.content.. Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //. SubElemType(String v) { value = v. For a straightforward enum type. } } This does. // . in fact. even numeric ones. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum..if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").lang.. } public String value() { return value. It has an optional element value of type java. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { .. and by default.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML.2.(more enum constant definitions) private final String value. Usually. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1").String but other types. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. this is java.

. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.e.2.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123.adapters. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array.bind. To achieve our goal.values()) { if (c. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType.class) .equals(v)) { return c. <?xml version="1.value. Such mappings require an adapter class.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.toString()).ApplType> from the package javax. Also. i. } } 6. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123.annotation. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter.xml.

for( Course c : value. @XmlElement String name.values().courses. Course>(). } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. Collection<Course> c = b.courses. return b.put( c. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. of course. } @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses().carray ) b. It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. @XmlAttribute Price price.toArray(new Course[c. and this is.Course> courses. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses.carray = c. return courses. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String.size()]). courses. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id. the interesting class.id. we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map.Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure(). The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object.public class Brochure { Map<String. In this method. . whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. c ). } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.

lang. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package.2.append( " that Jack built. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer.. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. a StringBuffer is better than String.toString(). but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient.. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. // . i. XmlJavaTypeAdapter.e.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ). and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string )." ). } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. 6. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation. } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. e. Below are the essential Java classes.. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation.2. For this. which is the default mapping for xs:string. . text.strbuf. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java.g.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.6.String that is suited to be used as a key. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. If you need multiple mappings at package level. text. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.: TextType text = new TextType(). one defining TextType as a container for a string.

util..bind. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items..*. import java.ArrayList. } } package elset. } } import java. public class Item { private String id.annotation. import javax. In this case.bind. import javax. @XmlRootElement public class Document { .Set. the collection item type must contain an id field.xml. import java.*. import javax.bind.xml.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ .. Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class....annotation.HashSet.List.*. private String title. } public void setName( String value ){ .util. private String name. public Cluster(){ .util.xml.. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. import java.util.. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ . } public void setId( String value ){ ..annotation.. } @XmlElement public String getName(){ ...

} @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ .. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ . public Document(){ ..private Cluster cluster.... private String title.END --- ... } public void setTitle( String value ){ .. private List<Item> items... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ ... } public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . } } --.

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