A JAXB Tutorial

Wolfgang Laun
Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GesmbH

1 Introduction 1.1 About JAXB 1.2 Overview 1.3 Hello World 2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2.1 XML Schema Types 2.2 JAXB Examples 2.2.1 Defining an Integer Range Type 2.2.2 Numeric Types 2.2.3 Defining a String with Length Limits 2.2.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern 2.2.5 Date and Time 2.2.6 Binary Data 2.2.7 Defining a List of Integers 2.2.8 Defining Other Lists 2.2.9 Defining an Enumeration 2.2.10 Defining a Type Union 2.2.11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content 2.2.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content Content: A Value Content: An Ordered Set of Elements Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content: Alternative Elements Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements Content: A Mixed List of Elements Mixed Content No Value 2.2.13 Defining Subtypes 2.2.14 Substitution Groups 2.2.15 Referring to Another XML Element 2.2.16 Elements With Any Type DOM Elements Another Content Tree as Element 2.2.17 Image Data 2.3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2.3.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types 2.3.2 Common Schema Definitions 2.3.3 A Note on Groups 2.3.4 Conserving Compatibility 2.3.5 Spurious Classes 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> 3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling 3.2 Using the Element Tree 3.3 Validation 3.4 Validation Event Handling 3.5 The JAXB Context 4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.1 The Object Factory 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes 4.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID, IDREF) 4.3.1 One Element per Identification

4.3.2 Preserving Object Identity 4.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object 4.5 Calling marshal 5 Customizing 5.1 Reasons for Customizing 5.2 Defining Package Names 5.3 Overriding Names 5.4 Adding Documentation 5.5 Interning Strings 5.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.6.1 Replacing the Conversions 5.6.2 Replacing a Simple Type 6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement 6.2.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType 6.2.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema 6.2.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry, XmlElementDecl 6.2.5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType, XmlTransient 6.2.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso 6.2.7 Annotations for Fields The Annotation XmlElement The Annotation XmlList Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef, XmlMixed 6.2.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum, XmlEnumValue 6.2.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter 6.2.10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType 6.2.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID, XmlIDREF

List. In the DOM approach. JAXB also supports marshalling and unmarshalling for SAX. however.) 1.1. etc. The application can then navigate through the tree in memory to access the data it needs. the Simple API for XML. The resulting set of classes defines the types required for accessing elements. It constitutes a convenient framework for processing XML documents. a CDATA section. with individual node objects containing an element. attributes and other content in a typesafe way. Values are invariably provided as strings.10. supported with the code generated by the Binding Compiler.1 Introduction 1. using the JAXB Binding Compiler xjc. provides methods for unmarshalling a document from various sources as well as for marshalling a content tree to various destinations. It should be noted that the XML Schema language is capable of defining XML structures that cannot be bound by a schema compiler. As of the time of this writing (March 2009) JAXB is available as version 2. DOM data. usually written in the W3C XML Schema Language. The most convenient way to obtain the Java type information describing the node elements is by compiling an XML schema. Lists of values and certain element groupings are mapped to Java's java. as compared to version 1. with the significant difference being that the nodes in this tree correspond to XML elements. Unmarshalling an XML document with the appropriate JAXB method also results in a tree of objects. JAXB uses Java's annotations for augmenting the generated classes with additional information that bridges the gap between what is decribed by an XML schema and the information available (via Java's reflection mechanisms) from a set of Java class definitions. Schemas written in the XML Schema Language can describe structural relationships and data types. which contain attributes and the content as instance variables and refer to child elements by object references. The JAXB runtime library. Adding such annotations to existing Java classes prepares them for being used by JAXB's runtime.1 About JAXB JAXB is an acronym derived from Java Architecture for XML Binding. with a very high level of distinctiveness. In many of these cases it is possible to circumnavigate the problem by adding binding declarations to direct the schema compiler in some specific way to achieve a successful binding.0 on contain bug fixes and minor additions.util. Versions from 2. was a big step ahead and has brought JAXB to a mature level.2 Overview The chapter Writing an XML Schema for JAXB discusses how JAXB represents the . the parser creates a tree of objects that represents the content and organization of data in the document. Version 2. linked according to the XML document's structure. an attribute. is contained in objects of a single type. (JAXB version 1 should not be used any more. providing significant benefits as compared to previously available methods such as the one following the Document Object Model (DOM). The scalar datatypes of the XML Schema Language are mapped to Java data types.

xsd defines the structure of our document.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. influencing several aspects of the generated Java code.Some features rely on specific implementations of JAXB. A good place for digging up remarkable tricks is the archives of Kohsuke Kawaguchi's Blog.3 Hello World We'll stick with the tradition and use a sort of "Hello World" XML document to illustrate the typical scenario for creating the Java classes and their use to marshal a document. -. Chapters Unmarshalling and Using the Data and Building and Marshalling an XML Document describe how to convert XML document data into a content tree and vice versa.0"> <xsd:element name="Greetings" type="GreetingListType"/> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Greeting" type="GreetingType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GreetingType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> . Some of these features are: -. 1.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. which is to contain a series of salutations.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. -. Customizing discusses the various options for augmenting and modifying schema information.w3.obviously an area for experts. We'll not discuss any details in this subsection.various XML Schema language constructs in Java. it's just here to give you the overall picture. The XML Schema on hello. each of which contains a greeting (such as "Hello world") and an attribute for registering the language of the salutation.The XML Schema compiler xjc may be extended with plugins . The intention of this tutorial is to provide you with examples and guidelines for the essential features of JAXB. The chapter JAXB Annotations presents the most important JAXB annotations and examples using them on hand-written Java classes.The XML Schema generator schemagen.sun. The examples illustrate how a schema should be written to produce easy-to-use Java code. <?xml version="1. Much of what can be done with JAXB is not covered here. which derives a schema from a set of Java classes.

} } } The constructor uses a method from the object factory to create an object of the document's top level XML element type.setText( t ).createGreetingType().createGreetings( grList ). public class Hello { private ObjectFactory of. import hello. grList = of.<xsd:attribute name="language" type="xsd:language"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> Now we can call the JAXB schema compiler. import java. Here's a sequence of these calls: .xml.marshal( gl. m.*. the list is wrapped in its XML element. public Hello(){ of = new ObjectFactory(). xjc -p hello hello.util.*. Finally. JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. System. GreetingListType. import javax.createMarshaller().xsd This generates several classes in the subdirectory hello. The class Hello shows how to use them. g.getGreeting(). The make method adds another salutation with its text element and the language attribute.. private GreetingListType grList.bind.createGreetingListType(). String l ){ GreetingType g = of.e. } public void marshal() { try { JAXBElement<GreetingListType> gl = of. } catch( JAXBException jbe ){ // . with a call to marshal.out ).*.add( g ). } public void make( String t.setLanguage( l ). and the resulting XML document is written to the standard output stream. Marshaller m = jc.newInstance( "hello" ). defining the package name hello for the generated classes. grList.. g.. i.

madame".make( "Hey. you</Text> </Greeting> </Greetings> . The output is shown below.Hello h = new Hello(). h. h. you". madame</Text> </Greeting> <Greeting language="en"> <Text>Hey.marshal(). h. for better readability.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <Greetings> <Greeting language="fr"> <Text>Bonjour. <?xml version="1. formatted. "en" ).make( "Bonjour. "fr" ).

Only by using these features will you receive the full benefit of JAXB. <xsd:choice> and <xsd:sequence> in combination with repetition limit attributes let you define XML structures that are the equivalent of the classic concepts of array. xs) identifier must be bound to the URI identifying the XML Schema language. This is done by adding so-called facets.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jxb="http://java. Although all data in XML is text. where examples of XML Schema language constructs are related to the Java code that the JAXB compiler uses for their representation. list. Please notice that the tags of schema elements are presented in the qualified form. are ignored by the Schema Compiler.1 XML Schema Types A schema describes data types. For child elements. The XML Schema Language offers a rich set of features to achieve the required structuring and typing. also the jxb namespace prefix must be bound. to limit the precision. and to define a pattern for a string type.com/xml/ns/jaxb" jxb:version="2. which are available to set lower or upper bounds for values or string lengths. strings. such as lists or maps. with the intent of defining one or more hierarchical types defining XML documents. booleans. which will not only take care of all the necessary conversions to or from the textual representation in XML but also with the transformation of XML structures to Java data patterns. If used. <xsd:union>.) Data structuring concepts are expressed by using the complex type construct of the schema language. structure (or record) and union. it should generally not be defined as String in the Java classes derived from a schema.0"> 2. and for references and other XML constructs.w3. We'll discuss schema structuring and typing concepts in more detail in the next section. An XML element of some complex type may have child elements or attributes or both.. however. This (or some other name.g.2 Writing an XML Schema for JAXB 2. to enumerate all legal values. dates and times. A good introduction to the XML Schema language is the XML Schema Part 0: Primer. provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).e. and the classification of scalar (or list) values for content and attributes.sun. the composition of document nodes. e. Type information deals with the definition of structure.. (Section Validation explains how to enable facet checking. the schema's element grouping facilites <xsd:all>.2 JAXB Examples This chapter discusses various XML Schema constructs and how they are bound by . The XML Schema language provides the elementary data types for numbers.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Both is done in the schema element of the XML schema: <?xml version="1. JAXB uses enumerations restricting strings to define an enum type. i. User-defined data types can be derived from any elementary type by adding one or more restrictions. Other facets. with xsd as the namespace identifier. URIs.

created from your XML schema. 2.xml.2 Numeric Types The schema language features a multi-tiered type hierarchy of built-in numeric datatypes. you might ask. you'll see simple get and set methods. to the marshaller or unmarshaller used for handling your data. limiting permissible values to the range 1 to 255.2. // .2.BigDecimal... the resulting Java code is generally shown without the annotations. The JAXB compiler will simply fall back to int (or Integer) in all the places where GroupType is used. <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="1"/> <xsd:maxInclusive value="255"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> A simple type restricting xsd:int will not result in a separate Java class being generated. @XmlAttribute(name = "Group". } Where is.. like in this class derived from a schema type where an element has an attribute with name Group and type GroupType: public class ElementType { // . the root of the tree is given by xsd:decimal. Doing away with fractional digits.group = value. we .. this data type represents decimal numbers with an unspecified range of fractional and total digits..validation.. } // . the code that ensures that the integer value is between the bounds? The short and.1 Defining an Integer Range Type The XML Schema snippet shown below defines an integer type. If you peek into one of these class definitions. required = true) protected int group. We'll discuss this in the section on Validation. Leaving double and float aside. public int getGroup() { return group. } public void setGroup(int value) { this.math. disappointing anwer is that there is no such code. JAXB expects you to request detailed validation explicitly by passing a javax.Schema object. For brevity and clarity. We'll discuss them briefly in this subsection. 2. There is one Java type providing just that: java.the JAXB schema compiler xjc. perhaps. According to the XML Schema definition.

The non-negative types comprise xsd:nonNegativeInteger and the unsigned variations of the binary integer types.. from xsd:unsignedLong down to xsd:unsignedByte.BigInteger must be used.BigInteger. i.math. which still has an unspecified number of digits. the Java code generated by JAXB does not reflect any of this. Although both types can be constrained using facets to delimit the number of digits or the value range. and therefore this type maps to java.BigInteger. <xsd:complexType name="NumericZooType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="decimal" type="xsd:decimal"/> <xsd:element name="integer" type="xsd:integer"/> <xsd:element name="long" type="xsd:long"/> <xsd:element name="int" type="xsd:int" default="42"/> <xsd:element name="short_nil" type="xsd:short" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="byte" type="xsd:byte" default="13" nillable="true"/> <xsd:element name="nonNegative" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedLong" type="xsd:unsignedLong"/> <xsd:element name="unsignedInt" type="xsd:unsignedInt"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> And here is the resulting Java code. For xsd:unsignedLong. simplified for better readability. With xsd:unsignedInt. hence java. This adds another value to the set of possible values. public class NumericZooType { protected protected protected protected protected BigDecimal decimal. The types long down to byte are normally mapped to Java's eponymous simple types. Exceptions result from the property nillable being set to true for an element or attribute. Since xsd:nonNegativeInteger is defined as a restriction of xsd:integer. another one for their obscure cousins. indicating that the element or attribute is simply absent. the non-positive integers and the traditional line of integer types representing the typical two's complement ranges. the tree branches off into a hierarchy of non-negative integers. . too. Below the integer type. JAXB reverts to simple types.but only for descendants of Object. Java provides null as a convenient value for this abstract nil value . Short shortNil. using the smallest type capable of holding all values. e.math.g. there is no fitting simple type. short for xsd:unsignedByte.. long _long.e. it has to be represented by java. The following schema snippet contains a selection of the types discussed so far. nil. xsd:unsignedShort and xsd:unsignedByte.arrive at xsd:integer. int _int. BigInteger integer.math.

} // All other getters and setters follow the same pattern.. BigInteger unsignedLong. <xsd:simpleType name="CounterType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> <xsd:minInclusive value="0"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> .protected protected protected protected Byte _byte. For some element such as counter.3 Defining a String with Length Limits The XML Schema snippet shown below defines a string type. where a simple type is defined as a restriction of the built-in type xsd:int. // . BigInteger nonNegative. protected int counter. limiting string lengths to the range 1 to 3. schema designers who just want to express a simple integer counter (with a moderate upper limit) are not at all pleased when one of the "Big" types crops up in the generated Java code. the question is: can you retain the more convenient simple types while defining suitable value range limits? The answer is yes..2. } public void setDecimal(BigDecimal value) { this. public int getCounter() { return counter.. of course.counter = value. <xsd:simpleType name="ShortNameType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> . } public void setCounter(int value) { this. So. Although applications dealing with monetary quantities prosper on BigDecimal. } Well.decimal = value. } 2. long unsignedInt. and it's demonstrated in the schema snippet shown below. <xsd:element name="counter" type="CounterType"/> No separate Java class is generated for CounterType.. it's quite a zoo indeed. JAXB simply generates the type suitable for the base type of the restriction. public BigDecimal getDecimal() { return decimal.

util.2. alternatives and grouping.2.xml.lang. Once more.String is used. Java's own java. 2.datatype. 2.5 Date and Time JAXB binds all three of the schema types xsd:date. (Do not confuse this with java.GregorianCalendar. public XMLGregorianCalendar getDate() { return date.<xsd:maxLength value="3"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> Again. xsd:time and xsd:dateTime to XMLGregorianCalendar. It should be noted that a regular expression is always matched against the entire string value.4 Defining a String Type Restricted By Pattern A string type may also be restricted by a pattern facet. no Java class is required for DirType. We'll illustrate this with a simple example for marshalling date and time. protected XMLGregorianCalendar time. <xsd:complexType name="DateTimeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Date" type="xsd:date"/> <xsd:element name="Time" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class contains the usual getters and setters: public class DateTimeType { protected XMLGregorianCalendar date. The example below defines a type for strings of arbitrary length consisting of 'L' and 'R' only. This class is in the package javax. this simple type doesn't warrant a class definition of its own. The XML schema snippet shown below defines an element containing sub-elements with xsd:date and xsd:time. But creating any of these values isn't quite so simple because XMLGregorianCalendar is an abstract class. <xsd:simpleType name="DirType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="[LR]*"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The syntax for regular expressions in pattern facets provides the basics for repetition. and the length restriction isn't checked unless you request it.) There is a convenient set of methods for getting at the various components such as year or day or minute. .

XMLGregorianCalendar gcDate = df.createDateTimeType(). now. GregorianCalendar now = new GregorianCalendar().get( Calendar. now.SECOND ).setDate( gcDate ). now.MINUTE ). meta.MONTH ). DatatypeConstants. // Insert sub-elements into the DateTimeType element.newXMLGregorianCalendarTime( now.setTime( gcTime ).time = value. You may have noticed the null argument in the method constructing an XMLGregorianCalendar with the time.get( Calendar. This indicates that we don't care about fractions of seconds.HOUR_OF_DAY ). DateTimeType meta = of. however. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current time.get( Calendar.YEAR ). It's the class DatatypeFactory that provides the methods with which we can create the XMLGregorianCalendar objects. } public XMLGregorianCalendar getTime() { return time. } public void setTime(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this. } } However. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().DAY_OF_MONTH ).newInstance(). null. // Create a DateTimeType element for the current time and date.date = value.} public void setDate(XMLGregorianCalendar value) { this.get( Calendar.FIELD_UNDEFINED ).FIELD_UNDEFINED ). DatatypeFactory df = DatatypeFactory. now.newXMLGregorianCalendarDate( now. XMLGregorianCalendar gcTime = df.get( Calendar. not possible to omit seconds entirely. // no fraction DatatypeConstants.get( Calendar. It is. some work remains to be done before we can call either setter. The XML element produced by this code will look like this: . // Obtain a DatatypeFactory instance. // Create an XMLGregorianCalendar with the current date. meta.

6 Binary Data Data that has no "natural" representation with printable characters must. Using NumberListType as an attribute .2.data = ((byte[]) value). as shown below.2. for inclusion in an XML file. A sample schema declaration is shown below.<DateTime> <Date>2008-07-23</Date> <Time>18:42:24</Time> </DateTime> You should notice that the date and time representations follow ISO 8601. public byte[] getData() { return data. <xsd:complexType name="BinaryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java class produced by JAXB contains a convenient pair of getter and setter methods for accessing the instance variable (called data) that stores the binary data. <xsd:simpleType name="NumberListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:int"/> </xsd:simpleType> The Java type used for this schema type will be List<Integer>.7 Defining a List of Integers To obtain a simple type that can be used for XML element values as well as for attribute values consisting of a simple series of values. Its type and the type for passing the binary data is byte[]. use an xsd:list. The simple technique for this consists in converting the binary byte values to their hexadecimal representations. still be represented in printable characters. 2. } public void setData(byte[] value) { this. All conversions are handled by JAXB. so again no Java class has to be generated for this simple type. public class BinaryType { protected byte[] data. } } 2. The XML Schema datatype to use in this case is xsd:hexBinary.

<xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrL"/> <xsd:enumeration value="SpDrS"/> <xsd:enumeration value="VGS80"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The JAXB compiler generates a Java enum. unless you can be very sure that your strings are free from spaces or any other white space... public List<Integer> getNumbers() { if (numbers == null) { numbers = new ArrayList<Integer>(). separated by white space.2.dangerous! --> </xsd:simpleType> To be on the safe side. } // .. . Below is the (somewhat shortened) Java code. 2..or child type results in an instance variable and a getter method in the parent class: public class ListsType { // .. The XML representation would be a list of values of that type.9 Defining an Enumeration If you want a data type that enumerates discrete values you should use a restriction of the schema type xsd:string. There is no corresponding setter which means that all additions or deletions of list elements have to be made on the "live" list."/>.8 Defining Other Lists You can use any other atomic simple type definition or built-in primitive datatype in <xsd:list itemType=". use a complex type that contains a sequence of string elements.numbers. 2. but the names of the enum constants are transformed so that they conform to the style commonly accepted in the Java community. don't use anything like <xsd:simpleType name="StringListType"> <xsd:list itemType="xsd:string"/> <!-.. enumerating all the values as you would in a Java enum type.2.. } return this. And right here is a potential catch: what if one of these values contains a blank? Therefore. } The code in the getter method ensures that the List<Integer> is created. // .. protected List<Integer> numbers.

for each enum constant name...public enum IXLType { E_STW_A("eStwA"). and method value may now simply call name() to obtain the stringified . </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> The generated enum class will now contain enum constant names that exactly match the original strings. SpDrS.. public String value() { return name(). IXLType(String v) { value = v. VGS_80("VGS80"). E_STW_S("eStwS"). <xsd:simpleType name="IXLType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="eStwA"/> <xsd:annotation><xsd:appinfo> <jxb:typesafeEnumMember name="eStwA"/> </xsd:appinfo></xsd:annotation> . SP_DR_S("SpDrS"). } There is no need now to store the XML representations along with each enum constant. as shown below. eStwS. } public String value() { return value.. SpDrL. VGS80. } } If you want to use the original identifiers as enum constant names. public enum IXLType { eStwA. private final String value. } . SP_DR_L("SpDrL"). you may resort to an explicit specification of the binding.

2. even if they do not have content. Try to avoid xsd:union. } else { return pos. 2.10 Defining a Type Union A simple type may also be constructed as a union of two or more simple types. The snippet below defines a simple element with two attributes and no sub-elements.2. protected String dir. public class RouteType { protected Integer pos. public int getPos() { if (pos == null) { return 1. .11 Defining Types for XML Elements Without Content Types for XML elements are constructed using xsd:complexType. The JAXB compiler simply inserts Java's String type wherever the union type is used and leaves it up to the application programmer to handle the rest. there is no convenient way of expressing unions of simple types. } } public void setPos(Integer value) { this.pos = value.value.2. <xsd:complexType name="RouteType"> <xsd:attribute name="Pos" type="xsd:int" use="optional" default="1"/> <xsd:attribute name="Dir" type="DirType" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> The compiler generates a class RouteType with getters and setters for the attributes. <xsd:simpleType name="SpeedOrNumberType"> <xsd:union> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:int"> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:simpleType> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="+?d+"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> </xsd:union> </xsd:simpleType> In Java.

Obviously. a setter method (here: void setQuantity(int value)). except for list types. public JAXBElement<DocType> createDoc(DocType value) { . from any stand-alone element definition that looks like this <xsd:element name="Doc" type="DocType"/> you may expect the generated class ObjectFactory to contain public class ObjectFactory { private final static QName _Doc_QNAME = new QName("". the one describing the containing element. } } The absence of a value for the optional attribute Pos is represented by an object where the instance variable pos remains at null.} public String getDir() { return dir. So.. Method getPos takes care of supplying the default value if the variable is null. An element definition like this may also be provided for specifying the root element of an XML document. "Doc"). Let's look at an XML element with a value of some type.1 Content: A Value The content of an XML element may be some value. The xsd:element defines the XML tag...e. } public void setDir(String value) { this. this element itself and its siblings. or even a combination of both. so that an example of this XML element is bound to look like this: <Quantity>144</Quantity> The Java code resulting from such an embedded element definition is part of some class definition.dir = value.2. and it consists of the declaration of an instance variable. //. simply because there is no such element. a getter method (here: int getQuantity()) and. The code generated for a stand-alone element definition can be found in the class ObjectFactory which is generated along with all the classes derived from your schema's type definitions.2.12. or one or more subordinate elements. i. but it may occur as some part of a complex type definition that describes the structure and attributes of the containing element. such an element cannot be part of yet another type definition describing the structure of an enclosing element.12 Defining Types for XML Elements With Content 2. 2. This is defined by a schema construct like this: <xsd:element name="Quantity" type="xsd:int"/> This does not define another type.

null. public class PointType { protected int x. public int getX() { return x.) Notice that you are not restricted to a single document root element. (The default for both is 1. } public void setX(int value) { this.2.3 Content: An Unordered Set of Elements Content consisting of a set of elements that may occur in any order within its parent . <xsd:complexType name="PointType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="X" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Y" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code is straightforward. } public void setY(int value) { this. } // .2 Content: An Ordered Set of Elements The schema element xsd:sequence defines that the enclosed set of elements should occur in the given order and according to the specified minimum and maximum repetition counts. 2. DocType.2. } (We'll have a closer look at the other methods in this factory class in the section The Object Factory.y = value. protected int y.. value).12.12. The following subsections describe the structuring facilities of the XML Schema language for defining element content.class. } } 2.) The following complex type defines a set of two coordinates..return new JAXBElement<DocType>(_Doc_QNAME. } public int getY() { return y.x = value.

. <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="SMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="MMS" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Email" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Although only one out of the three elements will actually be present. Here is the definition for an XML element describing the courses of a dinner which does not permit repetitions of any course. entree. dessert. There is. the generated Java class provides instance variables and getters and setters for all alternatives. the getters for the optional child elements may return null to distinguish "not present" from any possible value. but you may omit all courses except for the main dish. <xsd:complexType name="DinnerType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="Starter" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Soup" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="Entree" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Dessert" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:all> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java conforms to the structure of a JavaBean: public class LunchType { protected protected protected protected String String String String starter. 2. } public void setStarter( String value ) { this. } // .(more getters and setters) } Here.XML element can be defined by using the schema element xsd:all. public String getStarter() { return starter. . soup. however.2.starter = value.4 Content: Alternative Elements The schema element xsd:choice lets you define a type for an XML element which has a content of exactly one element from a given set of alternatives.12.. a severe restriction: the maxOccurs may not have a value greater than 1.

Also.) <xsd:complexType name="PolygonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Points" type="PointType" minOccurs="2" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The resulting Java code does not express the required minimum of two points in a polygon. (PointType is shown in subsection Content: An Ordered Set of Elements.. Therefore the generated code will always be as simple as the one shown below.2. we make use of the optional attributes minOccurs and maxOccurs. protected String email. nothing in the generated code that will keep you from calling more than one setter.5 Content: A Homogeneous List of Elements To define an element where some sub-element occurs repeatedly. public class PolygonType { protected List<PointType> points. 2. permitting the definition of a list that may be empty. public List<PointType> getPoints() { if (points == null) { . protected String mms.. Here. using such a class may easily lead to errors that are hard to track down. This topic is discussed in the section Defining Subtypes.public class CommType { protected String sms. } // . and for all similar element lists.util. There is. a java. or a fixed number.sms = value. public String getSMS() { return sms. may contain any number of elements. Various combinations are possible. The definition of an unbounded list with at least two elements is given below.List is used.12. } public void setSMS(String value) { this. Object oriented languages have no unions because a set of alternative structures is meant to be implemented by a set of subclasses. for instance. a Java class like this just doesn't have a nice feeling about it.(more getters and setters) } Although a handful of unused references isn't all that expensive.

Most importantly. Other possibilities are java.) <xsd:complexType name="MixType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java class has an instance variable for a mixed list of such elements.textOrNumberOrPoint.Serializable. public class MixType { protected List<Object> textOrNumberOrPoint.getPoints(). Sometimes only java.points.points = new ArrayList<PointType>(). public List<Object> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<Object>(). therefore. The list can be added to one by one. All methods defined in java.Object will do.12. .List may be applied to the returned value. (Using xsd:choice as the sole element within a xsd:sequence would result in the same structure definition and. } } Note well that this technique does not retain an indication of the XML tag in the objects created during unmarshalling as long as the types of the choices are distinct. } return this. 2.add( new PointType( 4. in the same Java code. the generic parameter of the List object must refer to some superclass of all the element types. } } The Javadoc documentation (omitted here) emphasizes that getPoints returns a reference to the actual list while making sure that the list is created. code like this polygon.lang. Obviously. adds another point.util. } return this.lang. 9 ) ). and you could remove or even clear to delete elements.2. With all of these possibilities there is just no need for a setter for the entire list. or you may use addAll for bulk additions. or a user-defined type from which all the types in the choice set have been derived by subclassing.6 Content: A Mixed List of Elements To define an element type where the element should have a content consisting of a mixed list of elements use the schema element xsd:choice with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded" or some value greater than 1.

. (Notice that the agglomeation of the list field's name stops. even though a failure of the cast would show that something went wrong.getClass() ). e. } } It's a good idea to use a third test to guard against the class not being one of the three expected ones. mercifully.bind.You must distinguish individual elements by testing a list element with the instanceof operator.. the instanceof test avoids the compiler warning.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ if( o instanceof String ){ // . cast o to String and process } else if( o instanceof Integer ){ // . the schema definition might then look like this: <xsd:complexType name="Mix4Type"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Number" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="Point" type="PointType"/> <xsd:element name="Token" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> Now the JAXB compiler is forced to use an artificial construct of type javax.xml.JAXBElement as a container for each of the elements within MixType. after the third sub-element. Also. Section Using the Element Tree contains a detailed example illustrating this approach.: for( Object o: mix.. cast o to Integer and process } else if( o instanceof Point ){ // . If we add another element of. say.. type xsd:string. The class Mix4Type reflects this by the generic list type being <JAXBElement<?>>. we can produce a more significant error message in the exception we throw in the final else branch. For one thing. Writing lengthy if statement cascades like this isn't considered to be good object oriented style.. The preferred implementation technique is to map element classes to distinct objects created from subclasses of some element handler class hierarchy. } .) public class Mix4Type { protected List<JAXBElement<?>> textOrNumberOrPoint.g. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getTextOrNumberOrPoint() { if (textOrNumberOrPoint == null) { textOrNumberOrPoint = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). cast o to Point and process } else { throw new IllegalArgumentException( "class " + o..

// . </P> To see how JAXB handles mixed content.. (process) } else if( "Number". } } Consequently.. we define a schema for our very simple text markup language.. the cascading if statements aren't exactly the bee's knees.textOrNumberOrPoint.7 Mixed Content Mixed content lets you embed child elements into the value of an element.getValue().. for( JAXBElement je: mix.. (process) } else if( //. // . where parts of a paragraph's text value might have some specific property such as boldface or italic.getLocalPart(). // .getName(). These stretches are best represented as children of the paragraph element.2..equals( Tag ) ){ String text = (String)je.12.equals( Tag ) ){ Integer number = (Integer)je. if( "Text". a pass through the list would have to be changed as shown below. One example for the natural application of mixed content would be the representation of text. <xsd:complexType name="ChunkType" mixed="true"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="B" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="I" type="ChunkType"/> <xsd:element name="U" type="ChunkType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> ...return this. We'll have chunks of text that may be used as an entire paragraph as well as part of a paragraph.getTextOrNumberOrPoint() ){ String tag = je. 2. See section Using the Element Tree for a better way of dealing with tags to distinguish between elements. in italics or underlined.getValue(). Here is an example written in some simple markup similar to HTML: <P> <B>Mixed content</B> lets you embed <I>child elements</I> into the value of an element. and an unbounded repetition of choices as child elements. to be rendered in boldface. where the tag and the value are retrieved from the container of type JAXBElement<?>. The complex type ChunkType has its attribute mixed set to true since we'll want to have plain text as well. (other alternatives) } } Again.

System.out. } } The documentation JAXB generates is kind enough to inform us that the elements in the list returned by getContent are either of type String or of type JAXBElement<ChunkType>.print( ":" + tag + ")" ). I and U. } else { String tag = ((JAXBElement)s).lang. } return this. as ChunkType features just one method getContent. Having penetrated this slight obfuscation. dumpChunk( chunk ). } . we did use ChunkType with B. The content list of a text chunk yields plain and decorated chunks in any order. As we already know. } } public class ChunkType { protected List<Serializable> content. The generic list type now happens to be java. which is just another way of saying "(almost) anything goes".Serializable. and. this is the wrapper class JAXB uses whenever elements have to be distinguished by their tags.getContent() ){ if( s instanceof String ){ System.getName().print( (String)s ).print( "(" + tag + ":" ). private static void dumpChunk( ChunkType c ){ for( Serializable s: c.out. indeed.getLocalPart().content.out. ChunkType chunk = (ChunkType)((JAXBElement)s).p. we can now write code to process a text as a list of paragraphs.<xsd:complexType name="TextType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="P" type="ChunkType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated Java code is somewhat opaque. } return this. public List<ChunkType> getP() { if (p == null) { p = new ArrayList<ChunkType>(). public class TextType { protected List<ChunkType> p. apparently the Swiss army knife for slicing a chunk of text. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). System.getValue().

in general. A better solution is provided by the definition of element <B>.... } 2. we'll have a peek at the crucial ones right now. Although we are going to discuss annotations in more detail later on. required = true. @XmlElement(name = "B") protected String b. However. as shown in this valid example for a DemoType element: (The prefix xsi must be bound to http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. for( ChunkType c: text.12.} } //. where its absence can be expressed by simply omitting it from its parent element..no element <B> here --> <C xsi:nil="true"/> </demo> The declarations. Let's look at the complex type defined like this: <xsd:complexType name="DemoType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="A" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="B" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:element name="C" type="xsd:string" nillable="true"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Element <A> must be present. which can not be omitted. in accordance with the attribute minOccurs="0". and the getters and setters for all three fields are identical.getP() ){ dumpChunk( c ). the characterless thing. not a good idea. @XmlElement(name = "C". JAXB distinguishes between the three representations by attaching suitable annotations.) <demo> <A></A> <!-. public class DemoType { @XmlElement(name = "A".. .2. even though its value could be the empty string.w3.(process a text) TextType text = . using the empty string as an indication for the absence of a value is. but its attribute nillable="true" permits the usage of an XML element that doesn't even contain the empty string but uses the attribute xsi:nil. nillable = true) protected String c.8 No Value XML can express the absence of a value in different ways. Yet another possibility is shown with element <C>. required = true) protected String a.

This is based on the schema element xsd:extension which lets you add both child elements and attributes to some elsewhere defined type acting as the base type. <xsd:complexType name="EntryType"> <xsd:attribute name="Text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Command" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="CheckBoxType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RadioButtonType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ItemType"> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:attribute name="State" type="xsd:boolean"/> <xsd:attribute name="Value" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="MenuType"> ..13 Defining Subtypes Although object orientation isn't a key feature of XML or the XML Schema language.public String getA() { return a. } public void setA(String value) { this. (more getters and setters like this) } 2..2. it's still possible to apply the fundamental OO paradigm when designing a schema: inheritance.a = value. } // . check boxes. The example given below presents the components for defining a simple menu (this time it's for a graphical user interface) where menu entries may come in several flavours: simple items. radio buttons and sub-menus.

The JAXB compiler. -.. including itself. one still must explicitly put all the subclasses into the choice list.(isState. // . setText) } public class ItemType extends EntryType { protected String command.(getCommand. A look at the (much abbreviated) code shows the expected inheritance structure. setCommand) } public class CheckBoxType extends ItemType { protected Boolean state. // . // .. and Value defines the string to be used for indicating the selection. rewards you with a set of class definitions that uses extends wherever we have xsd:extension in the schema. Group is the button group's identification.ItemType adds a command definition to the base type. Using just the supertype EntryType in an xsd:sequence would result in very dull menus.. After all the pains taken to establish this little class hierarchy.<xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="EntryType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Item" type="ItemType"/> <xsd:element name="CheckBox" type="CheckBoxType"/> <xsd:element name="RadioButton" type="RadioButtonType"/> <xsd:element name="Menu" type="MenuType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> The base class EntryType is extended in several ways: -. public class EntryType { protected String text. setState) } public class RadioButtonType extends ItemType { .(getText.CheckBoxType extends ItemType.RadioButtonType is another extension of ItemType. we should note that the definition of MenuType isn't quite what an OO aficionado would expect.. however.. -. -.. inheriting the command and adding an attribute for the initial state of the check box. Before we look at the generated Java code.MenuType reflects the recursive structure of menus by being both another subclass of ItemType (so that it may represent cascades) as well as a container for all kinds of menu entries. again adding some attributes.

public class MenuType extends EntryType { protected List<EntryType> itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. defining a complex type for a binary arithmetic operation. protected String value. which contains a java. JAXB has briefly reflected upon the element types bunched into the choice and has.itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton. and that's why we have to be content with a list..util. // . The substitution group is headed by the global operand element. which is referenced from the group members constant and variable. literally.. protected Boolean state. reverse engineered the common superclass. } } 2. The generated Java code shouldn't surprise you. the field content must act as a portmanteau for all possible operand pairs. A reminder that the list is a mixture is embedded in the name of the getter which is made up from the first three tags. protected String operator. <xsd:complexType name="BinopType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> <xsd:element ref="operand"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="operator" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="operand" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="constant" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="variable" type="xsd:string" substitutionGroup="operand"/> <xsd:element name="binop" type="BinopType"/> The benefit of this schema definition is that it permits you to create binop elements consisting of any combination of constant and variable elements.2. public class BinopType { protected List<JAXBElement<String>> content.(getters and setters) } Finally there is MenuType. } return this.List<EntryType>. Below is a simple example.protected String group. .14 Substitution Groups A substitution group lets you write schema structures that reference one element but permit the substitution of any other element from the substitution group in an instance document. public List<EntryType> getItemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton() { if (itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton == null) { itemOrCheckBoxOrRadioButton = new ArrayList<EntryType>().

} return this. } public void setOperator(String value) { this. } } Creating an element from a substitution group is slightly more complex now because such elements have to be represented by an object from some parameterized JAXBElement<?> class.add( op1 ).operator = value.content. A typical scenario would be the use of a base type in the head element and various extensions for the other elements. And here is the resulting instance document: <?xml version="1. System. This type.marshal( jbe.createConstant( "3.createMarshaller(). Marshaller m = ctxt.getContent().newInstance( "generated" ). either by restriction or by extension. This is illustrated in the Java code snippet shown below that demonstrates the assembly of a well-known formula.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <binop operator="*"> <constant>3. JAXBElement<String> op2 = of. The elements of the group may have different types. which should be expressed by the attribute setting abstract="true". BinopType bt = of. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). bt.createBinopType(). JAXBElement<String> op1 = of.setOperator( "*" ). JAXBElement<BinopType> jbe = of.out ). m. m.createVariable( "d" ). .setProperty( Marshaller. true ). bt.getContent(). This is what we have in the example. but they must be derived from the same base type.createBinop( bt ). A PosType element represents a position in an order.public List<JAXBElement<String>> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<String>>().14" ). is conceptually an abstract type. bt. however. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. where ItemType is the base type and BookType and DiskType are the subtypes. } public String getOperator() { return operator. It is defined as containing one element of ItemType.14</constant> <variable>d</variable> </binop> Another example illustrates the usage of a substitution group with complex schema types.JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT.add( op2 ).

0"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="acme.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.<?xml version="1.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.item"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xs:appinfo> </xs:annotation> <xs:element name="item" type="ItemType"/> <xs:element name="book" type="BookType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:element name="disk" type="DiskType" substitutionGroup="item"/> <xs:complexType name="ItemType" abstract="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/> <xs:element name="price" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="BookType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="pages" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="DiskType"> <xs:complexContent> <xs:extension base="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:extension> </xs:complexContent> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="PosType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref="item"/> <xs:element name="quantity" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:complexType name="OrderType"> <xs:sequence> .com/xml/ns/jaxb" jaxb:version="2.

(getters and setters) } public class DiskType extends ItemType { protected int duration.. // . Here is the skeleton of this class: . And finally there is createItem. // .. where the wildcard ? is suitably restricted to subtypes of ItemType. // .. public JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> getItem() { return item. returning an object whose type is ItemType. we can create an element by calling a method that returns an object of type JAXBElement. The ObjectFactory provides create methods for a surprisingly large number of elements. (getters and setters) } public class BookType extends ItemType { protected int pages.item = ((JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> ) value). protected int quantity.. protected int price..<xs:element name="pos" type="PosType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="order" type="OrderType"/> </xs:schema> The interesting sections of the generated code are outlined below. Also. } // .. element construction is a tad more complicated. } public void setItem(JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> value) { this. (getters and setters) } public class PosType { protected JAXBElement<? extends ItemType> item. (more getters and setters) } Once again. We see the abstract base class ItemType with its extensions for books and disks. public abstract class ItemType { protected String title. There are methods returning elements of one of the plain types BookType and DiskType. parameterized with BookType or DiskType.. each of which requires an argument of the parameter type. and its use as the generic type parameter..

Some experimenting exhibits that indeed all three can be used: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). } public JAXBElement<DiskType> createDisk(DiskType value) { . bk.add( p1 ). dk.setTitle( "Keyclick Calypso" )..add( p2 ). Method createBookType createDiskType createBook createDisk createItem Result Type BookType DiskType JAXBElement<BookType> JAXBElement<DiskType> JAXBElement<ItemType> Use as argument of createBook() createDisk() PosType.createDiskType(). listPos.createPosType().setQuantity( 2 )..setItem() PosType...setItem() Looking at this table.setDuration( 50 )... listPos. List<PosType> listPos = st.createOrderType().createBookType(). PosType p2 = of.setPrice( 20 ). BookType bk = of. // Order two copies of a book. DiskType dk = of.. you may wonder why there are three methods to create an item in a PosType element.createDisk( dk ) ).setItem() PosType. } } The table below shows where each of these lements can be used. // createItem for BookType p1. p1. dk. } public PosType createPosType() { .. dk. PosType p1 = of.createItem( bk ) ). // createDisk p2.setQuantity( 1 ). } public JAXBElement<ItemType> createItem(ItemType value) { ...setTitle( "The Joy of JAXB" ). // Create an order OrderType st = of.setItem( of.. // Order a disk. } public DiskType createDiskType() { .public class ObjectFactory { public ObjectFactory() { } public BookType createBookType() { .setPages( 832 ). } public OrderType createOrderType() { .. p2.createPosType(). } public JAXBElement<BookType> createBook(BookType value) { .setPrice( 120 ). bk. } public JAXBElement<OrderType> createOrder(OrderType value) { .setItem( of.....getPos(). . bk.

JAXBElement<OrderType> jbe = of.getItem().getItem().getTitle() + " " + p.getPos() ){ ItemType item = p. System. } In addition to using the standard Java technique for determining an object's class we can also extract the tag by calling method getName() on the JAXBElement containing the ItemType object. String tag = p.QName which contains the simple name as well as the namespace prefix. for( PosType p: order. System.getValue().getValue(). The marshalled XML text shows that the generic element tag item can indeed be instantiated (even though its schema type ItemType is abstract) but at a price: The actual type of the element has to be specified using the XML instance attribute xsi:type="BookType".xml" ) ).getLocalPart(). The tag is represented as an object of class javax. but common subelements can be accessed via calls of ItemType methods. JAXBElement<?> jbe = (JAXBElement<?>)u.out.getClass(). along with the lengthy namespace declaration. In spite of the restrictions and the slightly more complex element construction. substitution groups are an adequate technique for representing object hierarchies.xml.w3. <?xml version="1.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="BookType"> <title>Inside JAXB</title> <price>120</price> <pages>832</pages> </item> <quantity>2</quantity> </pos> <pos> <disk> <title>Keyclick Calypso</title> <price>20</price> <duration>50</duration> </disk> <quantity>1</quantity> </pos> </order> Unmarshalling requires an additional call to get at the value wrapped in a JAXBElement<? extends ItemType>. The subtype element tagged disk does not require this burden as its tag is unambiguous.getName().getSimpleName() ).getQuantity() ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <order> <pos> <item xmlns:xsi="http://www.createOrder( st ). . OrderType order = (OrderType)jbe.println( item.unmarshal( new FileInputStream( "order.out.println( tag + " " + item.namespace.

A naive schema definition would simply have two AirportType sub-elements for each flight: <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="AirportType"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> Instead of copying an element of class AirportType (biggish. i. Our document type should be defined along the lines of TimetableType.2. Our first example uses references for factoring out frequently occuring elements. An AirportType element is presented only once.2. aren't they) into all places where it is used. and a reference is inserted for the From and To sub-elements of FlightType where the original element was.15 Referring to Another XML Element Among the data types of the XML Schema language there is an inseparable pair of types operating complementary to each other: xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. in full. Below is a schema snippet defining XML elements dealing with airports and flights. <xsd:complexType name="AirportType"> <xsd:attribute name="LocId" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="FlightType"> <xsd:all> <xsd:element name="From" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="To" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:element name="Carrier" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="DepTime" type="xsd:time"/> <xsd:element name="ArrTime" type="xsd:time"/> </xsd:all> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="TimetableType"> . which are scheduled from one airport to another one. whenever you need linkage in addition to the natural parent-tochild relationship. This can be put to good use in several circumstances.e. bundling the actual AirportType elements and the list of flights. They let you represent references to XML elements.. we'll now change our schema to employ element linkage.

from = value. } public void setFrom(Object value) { this. } // . We'll continue to use the IATA Location Identifier. Object to..getLocId() Don't blame JAXB for not making the From and To sub-elements AirportType . Otherwise you'll just have to use some synthetic key.getTo()). all you'll have to code is (AirportType)flight.. XMLGregorianCalendar depTime. and FlightType has xsd:IDREF as the type for From and To. So. it may very well be possible to compose one from the element's other attributes. } public void setTo(Object value) { this.) The resulting Java code for AirportType has the usual JavaBean layout. as the string implementing the XML link.<xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Airports" type="AirportType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> <xsd:element name="Flight" type="FlightType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The only change required within AirportType is the definition of the attribute Id as xsd:ID.to = value. String carrier. int number. XMLGregorianCalendar arrTime. } public Object getTo() { return to.(more getters and setters) } The elements From and To are now represented as Object references. to retrieve the origin of some flight. public Object getFrom() { return from. More interesting is the code for the class FlightType: public class FlightType { protected protected protected protected protected protected Object from.getFrom() The destination's IATA Location Identifier is obtained by ((AirportType)flight. (If there is no attribute that could serve as an identification right away. which we would have used as an airport identification anyway.

saving you the hassle of establishing this linkage yourself.) <xsd:simpleType name="GroupType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:enumeration value="SWITCH"/> <xsd:enumeration value="TRACK"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> <xsd:complexType name="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Group" type="GroupType" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Number" type="xsd:int" use="required"/> <xsd:attribute name="Name" type="xsd:string" use="optional" default=""/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PointLeftRightType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="point" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="left" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="right" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="EastWestType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="ElementType"> <xsd:attribute name="east" type="xsd:IDREF"/> <xsd:attribute name="west" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:extension> . graphs. the ones of xsd:IDREF) to be unique across all of your XML document.references. flight identifiers would have to make their appearance as another class of values for xsd:ID. and xsd:IDREF is the union of all reference values. Notice that by dropping the necessity to have a full-blown XML element for From and To. Nevertheless. There is a good chance that location identifiers and flight identifiers (a concatenation of the carrier id and some number) don't clash. Another excellent reason for using references is the representation of linked data structures such as trees. lists or. It demonstrates how a track layout can be represented by linking elements such as sets of points (or switches) and tracks to each other. we could now define this value pair as a couple of attributes. The example given below is for railway buffs. same thing. creating the graph that represents the topology of a shunting yard. unmarshalling will automatically create FlightType objects that are actually linked to their airports. The XML type xsd:ID is a universal reference type. (Signals are omitted for brevity's sake. but you'd better research this thoroughly before you commit yourself. As soon as we begin to think about adding bookings to our XML data. Keep in mind that XML requires the values of xsd:ID (or. in general.

One solution would be to define all the link attributes as optional. there is Object as the type used in the getters and setters for the attributes linking to the neighbours. } public Object getWest() { return west.west = value. protected Object west. but this makes it difficult to discriminate an inadvertently dropped element from an intentionally omitted one. } public void setEast(Object value) { this. because. Simply using "null" or "" as an IDREF value will cause problems as soon as the XML is validated. by definition.e. Again. public class EastWestType extends ElementType { protected Object east. public Object getEast() { return east. there must be some element where that string is an id value.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> From the generated classes.east = value. line tracks? We'll need some sort of replacement for Java's null.what do we do with dead-end tracks? Or with tracks that lead out of the shunting yard. We extend ShuntingYardType accordingly: <xsd:complexType name="NullType"> <xsd:attribute name="Id" type="xsd:ID" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ShuntingYardType"> <xsd:choice maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Switch" type="PointLeftRightType"/> <xsd:element name="Track" type="EastWestType"/> <xsd:element name="Null" type="NullType"/> </xsd:choice> . perhaps in a category of its own. } } But wait . as the "null" element.. i. One solution that avoids this ambiguity is to use a single artificial element. } public void setWest(Object value) { this. we select EastWestType for a closer inspection.

1 DOM Elements The XML Schema language provides xsd:anyType which is the equivalent of java.Object. the Null element as shown below. e.2.lang. 2.e. Its name is distinction enough.g.16 Elements With Any Type 2. but we might just as well use some null values there.provides a null element that is comfortably distinguishable from all the actual trackside equipment by class as well as by its Id value.content = value. <xsd:complexType name="BagType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Content" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The class that is generated by JAXB shouldn't come as a surprise: public class BagType { protected Object content.lang... too. public Object getContent() { return content. To see how this is handled in JAXB. it can be envisaged as the base type from which all simple and complex types are derived. and one element of that type with an arbitrary Id value . <Track Id="TRACK_168" Group="TRACK" Number="168" Name="b101" east="SWITCH_42" west="null"/> <Null Id="null" Group="NULL" Number="0"/> The generic element attributes Group and Number could be set to arbitrary values. } } But what will be the class of the Content .if not java.2.Object (which would be . i.perhaps Id="null" . In the XML file you would have one extra element. Here is the Java code JAXB generates for it: public class NullType extends ElementType { } No.</xsd:complexType> This will give you a class NullType. } public void setContent(Object value) { this. we define the complex type BagType which is nothing but a wrapper for any content. this is no typesetting accident: this class is indeed empty because it doesn't need any additions to its base class.16.

xerces.) So we can write some code to marshal such an XML communication.the important thing is that it implements org.w3c.e. 2.more DOM accesses.Node. // .w3c..2. the actual class doesn't really matter ..2 Another Content Tree as Element It's also possible to insert an arbitrary content tree as an element.getChildNodes().ElementNSImpl..dom. . which is a subinterface of org.: Element content = (Element)bag. This means that.lang. class apache. if you really have to.getTagName(). ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(). you can leave the cushy and plushy JAXB environment and continue with traditional DOM processing methods..getContent(). e.obtuse). We'll assume that we have several document definitions. Node<List> = content.g. then what? Well.. i. If you need to marshal arbitrary content you'll have to create a content tree according to org.Element.dom.16.dom.internal. like this: <xsd:complexType name="HearsayType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="GrapevineType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="RumourType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="text" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> We want any of these nice documents to be envelopped by a container document: <xsd:complexType name="CommType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="source" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="comm" type="xsd:anyType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no surprise in the classes generated by the JAXB compiler. String tag = content.Object.dom. (The comm subelement of CommType has the type java.w3c. Sun's JAXB currently uses the implementation from Apache's Xerces.

The JAXBElement is now ready to be passed to a Marshaller. // Let's have some hearsay.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:tns="http://example.w3.setSource( "Ms Jones" )..com/know-type" xmlns:xmime="http://www.class. } else { // . } 2.getComm().17 Image Data An element containing a JPEG image has an XML schema definition like this: <?xml version="1.(investigate other possibilities). // Prepare a JAXBElement. Harper does naughty things. JAXBElement<CommType> je = new JAXBElement<CommType>( qn. JAXBElement<CommType> je = (JAXBElement<CommType>)u.setText( "Mr.</text> </comm> </comm> It should be satsifying to note that JAXB has annotated the comm element with xsi:type="HearsayType" which is going to help a lot during the inverse process. ).. CommType.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="HearsayType"> <text>Mr. Harper does naughty things..0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www. In fact.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <comm> <source>Ms Jones</source> <comm xmlns:xsi="http://www. hearsay. comm.w3..com/know-type"> <xs:import namespace="http://www. CommType comm = of. QName qn = new QName( "comm" ).w3. ready for marshalling. if( comm. CommType comm = (CommType)je.unmarshal( f ).org/2005/05/xmlmime"/> ..// Create the container object.setComm( hearsay ).createCommType()..createHearsayType(). comm." ). The resulting XML text looks like this: <?xml version="1.getComm() instanceof HearsayType ){ HearsayType hearsay = (HearsayType)comm.org/2005/05/xmlmime" targetNamespace="http://example.w3. comm ).getValue().org/2005/05/xmlmime" schemaLocation="http://www.2. all you have to do to get this document unmarshalled into a content tree and to access the nested contents is this: File f = new File( . HearsayType hearsay = of.

anonymous types result in some inner class...getValue().setJPEGPicture( img ). JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = . Image. Unmarshalling is just as simple.. Image img = jbe. Consider the following XML schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="PurchaseOrderType"> <xsd:sequence> ... JAXBElement<ItemType> jbe = of.getScaledInstance( 512. and here she is: <<<picture deleted>>> 2. 0.read( imgFile ).drawImage() with this object as the first argument. For one thing.<xs:complexType name="ItemType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="JPEGPicture" type="xs:base64Binary" xmime:expectedContentTypes="image/jpeg"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> <xs:element name="Picture" type="ItemType"/> </xs:schema> The <xs:import> element is not required.. JAXB appears to "know" about this namespace. // Draw it Graphics g = . To create XML content and to marshal an instance document containing an image you can write code to create an object of type Image and set its reference in the appropriate element of the content tree: BufferedImage bimg = ImageIO. // Create the Item element and store the image reference ItemType itemEl = of. -1.SCALE_DEFAULT ).getJPEGPicture(). But when you're using JAXB to generate Java classes.drawImage( img. g. the resulting Java class will be given the name defined in the schema rather than a name selected by JAXB. You extract the Image object from its parent element and call Graphics. Moreover. Image img = bimg. More importantly.3. The schema type xs:base64binary is the type best suited for representing image data. // Get the image from the content tree. this means that you will be able to re-use the type within your schema. null ).3 Hints on Writing XML Schemas 2. it's preferable to define all schema types explicitly.createPicture( itemEl ). 0. itemEl.1 Don't Use Anonymous Types The XML Schema language lets you define XML types anonymously.createItemType(). Well.

3.(getters and setters) } 2.. they should be written once. // .2 Common Schema Definitions Different document types (within one project) require different schemas. public class PurchaseOrderType { protected AddressType shipTo.item.Item>().Item is the somewhat unwieldy name of the class for an order item as it results from an inlined schema type..<xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="item" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="productName" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:positiveInteger"/> <xsd:element name="price" type="xsd:decimal"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="partNum" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="orderDate" type="xsd:date"/> </xsd:complexType> The relevant parts of the generated class PurchaseOrderType are presented below. in a separate schema file. } public static class Item { protected String productName. If the documents share common XML types. Note that PurchaseOrderType. protected List<PurchaseOrderType. protected BigInteger quantity. protected BigDecimal price.(getters and setters) public List<PurchaseOrderType. to avoid any conflicts with type or element names in the schemas where they are used. . // .Item> getItem() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<PurchaseOrderType. The XML schema snippets given below illustrate this approach. protected String partNum. The common definitions could be assembled into a namespace of their own. protected AddressType billTo. } return this..Item> item. protected XMLGregorianCalendar orderDate. and re-used from there wherever they are required..

. e.astronomy. and you may have as many as you like within a single schema..g.solarsystem.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy. .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www.org/common" xmlns:ast="http://astronomy.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.w3..astronomy.xsd"/> <xsd:complexType name="MoonType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="xsd:IDREF"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="PlanetType"> <xsd:extension base="ast:BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="moon" type="ss:MoonType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The schema compiler derives the package names from the URIs given in the namespace definitions.org/common"> <xsd:complexType name="BodyType"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:ID"> <xsd:element name="mass" type="xsd:float"> <xsd:element name="radius" type="xsd:float"> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:schema> The definitions from this schema can be used by importing the schema file..> . resulting in org. It should also be noted that it is not necessary to have one schema file for each document type.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <xsd:schema xmlns:xsd="http://www. Any top-level element definition (by some xsd:element schema element) is a candidate for a root element. The previous schema snippet might be extended with the following element definitions: <xsd:schema .common and org.: <?xml version="1.w3.org/solarsystem" xmlns:ss="http://astronomy.org/solarsystem"> <xsd:import namespace="http://astronomy.<?xml version="1.org/common" targetNamespace="http://astronomy.org/common" schemaLocation="common.

// Create a single planet instance document.out ).. System.marshal( jbe. PlanetType planet = of. ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory().. Given the complex type ItemType.<xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType"/> <xsd:element name="solarSystem"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="planet" type="ss:PlanetType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> Marshalling either element is possible with a marshaller created from the context based on the package org. Marshaller m = context.marshal( sol. // Create a solar system.3. Add planets. 2. Add attributes and moons JAXBElement<PlanetType> jbe = of.4 Conserving Compatibility One of the advantages of XML is that data may be omitted wherever a default is acceptable..5 Spurious Classes It's not necessary to define a separate type for a list resulting from a maxOccurs="unbounded" attribute attached to some element if this element occurs in an xsd:sequence group. respectively. but it does not affect the Java code generated by JAXB's schema compiler xjc. //.createMarshaller(). by defining new attributes with use="optional" and providing a default.createPlanet( planet ). since groups or group combinations might provide a basis for adding interface definitions to the generated set of classes.out ).astronomy." specifying the group's given name. 2. SolarSystem sol = of. m. //. They let you put a name to a structured group of elements or attributes.. If an XML schema is extended.solarsystem. System. you have the option of making existing XML files compatible with the new version. This feature is useful if your elements have common subsets of elements or attributes. To insert the elements or attributes in some other place.createPlanetType(). it is possible to define . use the attribute ref="..g.createSolarSystem().3 A Note on Groups The XML Schema language provides the constructs xs:group and xs:attributeGroup. e. 2. This may be regretted.3.. m..3.

another type, say ItemListType, as a list of items. <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> ... </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Within some other type definition it is equally possible to use either ItemListType, or ItemType with the attribute maxOccurs="unbounded": <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="WrapItemListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="ItemList" type="ItemListType"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The code for WrapItemType contains a list of ItemType objects, providing immediate access to the list: public class WrapItemType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); } return this.items; } } With the additional type definition in the schema you get an additional Java class. public class ItemListType { protected List<ItemType> items; public List<ItemType> getItems() { if (item == null) { item = new ArrayList<ItemType>(); }

return this.item; } } public class WrapItemListType { protected ItemListType itemList; public ItemListType getItemList() { return itemList; } public void setItemList(ItemListType value) { this.itemList = value; } } The additional class layer requires an additional getter call to retrieve an item, e.g., a.getItemList().getItems(). We note that the XML text is verboser, too. The additional type and class requires an additional tag, bracketing the list. <A> <ItemList> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </ItemList> </A> This isn't required in the simpler variant: <B> <Item>...</Item> <Item>...</Item> ... </B> Notice, however, that having the <ItemList> element in place has some advantages, too. For one thing, even an empty list of items appears visibly, and may evoke some processing triggered by the empty wrapper element. Also, it is now possible to insert a complete item list in one fell swoop into the parent element, since now there is a setItemList setter. This may help when one object tree is assembled from another one. 2.3.6 Avoid Unnecessary JAXBElement<?> Try to avoid JAXBElement<?> as type of list elements. JAXB has to use this auxiliary type for elements if you have a complex element that contains a sequence consisting of elements with different tags but identical types. But you can always create distinct subtypes for each tag, even if the extension does not add anything. This means that, at the price of a few additional empty type definitions in your schema, you can avoid the bother resulting from distiguishing elements retrieved from a list not only by their class but also by their tag.

3 Unmarshalling and Using the Data 3.1 Unmarshalling A simple approach for unmarshalling an XML document consists of the creation of a JAXB context and the call to unmarshal the document. A JAXBContext object provides the entry point to the JAXB API and maintains the binding information between XML and Java. One way of creating a context instance is by calling the static method newInstance with a list of colon separated names of the packages containing the JAXB schema-derived classes. From this context, an Unmarshaller object is obtained, which functions as the driver for processing an XML text to create the equivalent set of Java objects. It offers several unmarshal methods, accepting a wide range of object types as the source for XML text data. The method shown below illustrates this with a single package containing the class of the type defining the top level element of the XML document. public <T> T unmarshal( Class<T> docClass, InputStream inputStream ) throws JAXBException { String packageName = docClass.getPackage().getName(); JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.newInstance( packageName ); Unmarshaller u = jc.createUnmarshaller(); JAXBElement<T> doc = (JAXBElement<T>)u.unmarshal( inputStream ); return doc.getValue(); } The return value of the call to JAXB's unmarshal is a representation of the root node of the parsed XML document in an instance of JAXBElement<T>. If we're not interested in the tag of the root element we might just as well return the extracted content value. 3.2 Using the Element Tree The javadoc contained within the classes generated from an XML schema documents all the getters for accessing an XML element's attributes and child elements. A good approach is to implement a set of handler classes, one for each schema element type. Its handle method retrieves attributes and child elements, for which it invokes the handle method in turn. This corresponds to a depth-first traversal of the document tree.The example assumes that there is a simple set of schema types: <xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="NameType"> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="AddrType" minOccurs="0"> <xsd:element name="Child" type="ChildType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ChildType"> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="PersonType"/>

process( p. static { ourClass2Conv. . if( h != null ){ h.put( ourClass2Conv.getName() ).Handler>().getAddr() ).process( obj ).put( ourClass2Conv.get( obj. abstract class Handler { protected static Map<Class<?>.put( //. AddrType. ChildType. } } } protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ Handler h = this. new AddrHandler() )..class.. } PersonType. Note that delegation to some handler for a sub-element or attribute depends on the item having a specific class.put( ourClass2Conv.isResident() ){ process( p.handle( obj ). Let's assume a small change in the definition of PersonType. } } Not all subclasses of Handler will be quite so simple.getHandler( obj ). new PersonHandler() ). There is one noteworthy complication that arises if subordinate elements have to be distinguished by their tag.getClass() ).class. } } } class PersonHandler extends Handler { public void handle( Object o ){ PersonType p = (PersonType)o. new ChildHandler() ). public abstract void handle( Object o ). new NameHandler() ).class. h.getChild ).class.</xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Below is the essential Java code for a handler class hierachy. } processList( p. if( p.Handler> ourClass2Conv = new HashMap<Class<?>. protected void process( Object obj ){ if( obj != null ){ Handler h = ourClass2Conv. NameType.

you create this schema object by setting up a schema factory for the schema language of your choice.Schema to the Unmarshaller object.xml. We have seen that the JAXB compiler doesn't care much about these facets as it just translates the basic datatype into one of Java's built-in types.process( obj ).getValue(). try { . protected <T> void processList( List<T> list ){ for( T obj: list ){ if( obj instanceof JAXBElement ){ obj = ((JAXBElement<?>)obj). if the tag is required for processing as well. } } Finally. All we have to do is a slight extension of the generic method processList. that returns a List<JAXBElement<ChildType>>. This is best put into the handler class hosting the list. First.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI ).<xsd:complexType name="PersonType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Name" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="Addr" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="Boy" type="ChildType"/> <xsd:element name="Girl" type="ChildType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="resident" type="xsd:boolean"/> </xsd:complexType> To get at a person's children. } Handler h = this. An additional lookup table mapping tag names to handlers might be required as well. h. because XML tags need not be unique across the various element types. Don't make such a map global. to access the JAXBElement object and continue to use its value attribute instead of the object obtained from the list. Then you create the Schema object by calling the factory's method newSchema: Schema mySchema. the methods process and handle would have to be extended by an additional String parameter. A meticulous interpretation of these facets for checking that the XML data meets the constraints must be done during a schema validation. we now have (in class PersonType) a method getBoyOrGirl(). If you want to validate your document before it is unmarshalled.newInstance( XMLConstants. 3.validation.3 Validation A considerable part of the XML Schema language deals with facets. SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory.getHandler( obj ). enabling the programmer to restrict the basic datatypes. The value is obtained by a call of the JAXBElement method getName(). JAXB lets you request validation by passing an object of the class javax.

getMessage().ValidationEventHandler is quite simple.mySchema = sf. alas. you'll have to catch all errors with a ValidationEventHandler. If the calling object is implementing the event handler interface. 3. the Unmarshaller method setEventHandler is called.getColumnNumber().xml. Make sure to let the user of your program see the exception message so that the problem can be fixed. } After the Unmarshaller object has been established.err. Insert these lines before you call the unmarshal method: ValidationEventCollector vec = new ValidationEventCollector(). an UnmarshalException (from javax..println( origin + ": " + line + ". JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext. Implementing classes must provide a single method to catch a ValidationEvent as we've seen it in the previous section.(error handling) mySchema = null. we might write: ." + column + ": " + msg ). If you want to continue as long as possible. If you'd like to create your own error messages. The best place for checking the event collector is in the finally phrase of the try statement wrapping all of this: if( vec != null && vec. as explained in the next section.setEventHandler( vec ).4 Validation Event Handling The interface javax.getEvents() ){ String msg = ve..setSchema( mySchema ).newSchema( file ). } catch( SAXException saxe ){ // . ValidationEventLocator vel = ve.xml. } } Now this looks as if the validation process would be kind enough to present you with all the errors in your XML document. or at least as many as possible but.createUnmarshaller().getLineNumber().bind) is thrown.newInstance( packagePath ). Unmarshaller u = jc.bind. If the XML data validation fails. u.getLocator(). System. boolean handleEvent( ValidationEvent event ) To register. int column = vel. it appears that the validation process throws an exception as soon as the first deviation is detected. Basically that's all there is to it.hasEvents() ){ for( ValidationEvent ve: vec. you can pass a ValidationEventCollector to the unmarshaller which will store validation events into it so that you can retrieve an event and query its individual attributes. int line = vel. you pass it the schema. u.

such as the types of instance variables.Foo Foo # inner class some.newInstance( Foo.setEventHandler( this ).: # package some. Each package must contain its own class ObjectFactory or a file named jaxb. you may use the package path form as well. and therefore this form of newInstance is usually used in connection with schema derived classes. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext.index. are not included. recursively.Unmarshaller u = jc.foo. the packages or classes associated with a JAXB context also determine the namespace declarations written as attributes into the top-level element of the generated XML document.newInstance( "some foo:more. 3.class ).class. earlier in this chapter. JAXBContext ctxt = JAXBContext. Usually.5 The JAXB Context As we have seen. (But see the section Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso about the annotation XmlSeeAlso. which provides a way of extending the closure of recognized classes.createUnmarshaller().foo # class some. An ObjectFactory class is generated by the XML schema compiler.Foo. For JAXB annotated Java code.foo. Subclasses.g. One way is to create a context from a colon separated list of packages. the top level classes are sufficient since JAXB will follow.bar" ). all static references.) If packages or classes are associated with namespaces.index resource file containing a list of the class names to be considered by JAXB. Bar.Boo Foo. u. an object of the class JAXBContext must be constructed as a starting point for other operations. e. . either with a hand-written ObjectFactory class or with a jaxb. This file simply lists the class names relative to the package where it occurs. however.Boo An alternative form of the newInstance method lists all classes that the new context should recognize.

// Add it to its parent's list. // create a "bar" element FooBarType bar = objFact.4 Building and Marshalling an XML Document 4.. A possible sequence of calls is shown in the Java code below.. fbList.createFooBarListType().add( fooElem ).1 The Object Factory Usually hidden in the middle of the list of the classes derived from the types defined in an XML schema there will be one class called ObjectFactory. // .createFooBarType(). ModuleType module = objFact. It's convenient to use the methods of this class because they provide an easy way of creating elements that have to be represented by a JAXBElement<?> object. // create a "foo" element FooBarType foo = objFact. Here is a schema snippet: <xsd:complexType name="FooBarListType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> <xsd:element name="foo" type="FooBarType"/> <xsd:element name="bar" type="FooBarType"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The ObjectFactory would now contain several methods for creating a FooBarListType and its offsprings.add( barElem ).createFooBarTypeBar( bar ). one such doument object can be created by code as shown below..createFooBarTypeFoo( foo ). A simple element that does not require a JAXBElement<?> wrapper is created by a straightforward method call. FooBarListType fblElem = objFact.(add attributes and components to foo) // Create the element <foo>.(add attributes and components to bar) // Create the element <bar>. RulebaseType rulebase = objFact. ObjectFactory objFact = new ObjectFactory(). fbList.createRulebaseType()..</bar> JAXBElement<FooBarType> barElem = objFact.getFooOrBar(). A JAXBElement<?> is also required for element sequences containing elements of the same type but with differing tags.createRulebase( rulebase ). // .createModuleType().</foo> JAXBElement<FooBarType> fooElem = objFact. JAXBElement<RulebaseType> doc = objFact. .createFooBarType(). // Add it to its parent's list. Given that the top-level element of a document is represented as a JAXBElement<RulebaseType> with the tag "rulebase".... List<JAXBElement<FooBarType>> fbList = fblElem..

but their arguments may be "empty" element objects. as you can create. 4.2 Assembling Document Tree Nodes Neither the methods of the element object factory nor the constructors of the classes derived from the types defined in the XML schema require that you have any of an element's child elements or attributes at the time of the call. you might use a stack to keep assembled XML elements until their parent element becomes eligible for construction. If the data isn't arranged in one of the tree traversal orders you could set up two or more "cursors" that point into the emerging tree so that you might add to several places in parallel. without any actual XML content.) This gives you maximum freedom to design your tree-building algorithm. We'll illustrate these with a skeleton layout for a product order.You may avoid these complications by subtyping FooBarType into identical types FooType and BarType. Building the document tree from comparable hierarchical structures is the easiest way. Usually it will be the structure of the input material that advocates some specific approach. The frequently used construction method that proceeds from the tree root towards the leaves may be written according to two typical scenarios for the construction of an element. Sequential orderings that correspond to one of the basic tree traversal orders can be handled with elementary techniques. for instance. insert and fill the elements as you traverse the existing structure. (The single exception is the set of factory methods creating a JAXBElement<?>. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:int"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="ItemType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="quantity" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="folder"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="orders" </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> type="OrderType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> . the data is in post-order. If.

. } .. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. custElem. CustomerType custElem = objFact. It may be a good strategy to insert a newly created element immediately after its creation.setQuantity( item.setName( custName ). // Create and insert the customer element. For each subordinate element: Create it using the factory method createX. itemElem.setX( xElem ).qtty ). // Create order and insert in top-level document. This is. with a setter call current. we extend this algorithmic outline somewhat: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. String custName = . Add this object to the current element.add( orderElem ).id ).. orderElem.getOrders(). itemElem.setId( custId )...add( itemElem ). Append (add) it to the List<X>. Obtain the reference to the subordinate List<X>. It reduces the risk that this essential operation is left out. custElem.createOrderType()..createItemType(). If the subordinate element occurs repeatedly.createCustomerType(). // Data for an order int custId = . of course. Item[] items = . a list of orders OrderType orderElem = objFact. // Complete customer. itemList. // Create and add item elements... List<ItemType> itemList = orderElem. the sequence for adding a solitary subordinate element of type X goes like this: Create the subordinate element xElem via a call to factory method createX. simply to be repeated for other child elements..getItems().</xsd:element> Assuming that we are about to add the content for a "current" element. Make the new element the current element and repeat this process recursively for the new element's offsprings. with a call to the getter current. You should now have no problems understanding the Java code that creates an order element according to the previously given schema snippet. folder.getX().setId( item. for( Item item: items ){ ItemType itemElem = objFact.setCustomer( custElem ).

we have the classes representing XML elements. 4.) The counter-strategy to adopt here is to enforce a rigid naming convention which should not only deal with class names but also include naming rules for the temporary variables referencing objects of classes from either group.3 Assembling Data with Links (ID. Here. i. (In the example there is ItemType and Item.Another thing that can be gleaned from these lines is the danger of confusion. which we've already discussed in the section Referring to Another XML Element. Recalling briefly that a key element or attribute with type xsd:ID has to be added to the element that is to be referenced from elsewhere and that a simple element or attribute with type xsd:IDREF is used in place of occurrences of the full element. We now have getters and setters for a CustomerType. the full. and their classes are bound to have names that aren't entirely different from the ones coming from the schema. an order may either contain a full customer XML element. You may. the data for the XML document is likely to be around in a more or less similar set of objects. The Java type JAXB uses for the reference is plain Object. Our example is a variation of the order data. or for a customer reference. we'll proceed to discuss the techniques for assembling a document tree where elements are linked in this way. There will be duplicated objects when the unmarshalled data is transferred into application objects. decide to emit each of these occurrences in full. On the one hand. but this has obvious disadvantages: It increases the volume of the XML text. or a reference to a customer element that is in some other place. inline customer element. <xsd:complexType name="CustomerType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> <xsd:element name="name" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The Java code for OrderType deserves a quick inspection. and. The XML Schema language provides the schema data types xsd:ID and xsd:IDREF. IDREF) 4. on the other hand.3.. of course. even though .1 One Element per Identification It is not unusual that the data that is to be represented as XML contains elements repeatedly that are either identical or equal.e.

protected Object custref. String custName ){ CustomerType cust = id2cust. The first possibility replaces all occurrences with references. The other option is to leave the first occurrence of a specific element in place and replace all duplicates. . String custId. Notice that "first occurrence" is not necessarily the foremost element in the final XML text. public class OrderType { protected CustomerType customer.CustomerType> id2cust = new HashMap<String. we'll look at a method that adds the customer to an order.setCustomer( cust ). Continuing our example. protected List items. } public List getItems() { if (items == null) { items = new ArrayList().CustomerType>(). } public void setCustomer(CustomerType value) { this.custref = value.setId( custId ).createCustomerType(). cust = oFact.customer = value.we'll only use objects of type CustomerType here. } return this. where we'll use the second method.get( custId ). Map<String. order. // complete customer cust.items. } public Object getCustref() { return custref. and in a way that is not to be confused with the actual document. if( cust == null ){ // Create and insert customer. public CustomerType getCustomer() { return customer. } public void setCustref(Object value) { this. This means that the full elements must be added separately. Both ways you'll have to keep track of the association between keys and element references. } } The XML element may contain full elements and references in two slightly different arrangements. too. public void addCust( OrderType order. private ObjectFactory oFact = new ObjectFactory().

changing them magically to the corresponding string values. however.2 Preserving Object Identity In the previous section we have tacitly assumed that there is one and only one object with a certain identification which is readily available from the object.put( custId.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <folder> <orders> <customer> <id>c12789</id> <name>Smith</name> </customer> <items> <id>12</id> <quantity>1</quantity> </items> <items> <id>24</id> <quantity>100</quantity> </items> </orders> <orders> <custref>c12789</custref> <items> <id>35</id> <quantity>10</quantity> </items> </orders> </folder> Don't be confused when you look at the generated XML code and detect that the value in the "custref" element is nothing but a string. cust ). If the customer lookup returns an object. where we keep that element for future reference. we simply use the object reference value of the full element as an argument to the alternative setter for the custref element. then we meet a customer for the first time.setCustref( cust ). and make sure that the assembly of this element includes a call to the setter for the key element. 4. JAXB.aren't useful in an XML text file.e. <?xml version="1. hides this as long as possible by letting you handle references implemented as addresses. JAXB takes care of generating the XML text representing the reference. Here is a look into a folder containing two orders to the same customer.3. We create a CustomerType object. the "id" string. Memory addresses . i.the convenient material for references . But . } else { order. // save in map id2cust..cust. This key is also used as a key in the map. } } If the lookup in the mapping of customer ids to customer elements returns null.setName( custName ).

<xsd:complexType name="AddressType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="street" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="city" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="country" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="zip" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:ID"/> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="AddrOrRefType"> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="addr" type="AddressType"/> <xsd:element name="addrRef" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="OrderType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="customer" type="CustomerType"/> <xsd:element name="custref" type="xsd:IDREF"/> </xsd:choice> <xsd:element name="shipTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="billTo" type="AddrOrRefType"/> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> The generated class AddrOrRefType enables us to choose between an address in full or a reference to such an XML element. This map uses the object's default hash code.util) to register marshalled elements.AddressType>(). For an example we extend the schema describing orders with an additional AddressType and use this. .what do you do if there is no such identification? Generating synthetic identifications isn't a problem. Luckily there is a better way: we can use an instance of an IdentityHashMap (from java. we assume that we have addresses in objects of type Address. Map<Address. The code below creates another XML element for AddressType from an Address object. once for a shipping address and once for a billing address. but how does this help to avoid generating full XML text for each occurrence? Should we use the equals(Object o) method for identifying objects that deserve the same synthetic identifier? The answer is that with a little extra effort you can still preserve object identity so that the same number of objects can be reconstructed when the XML data is read and unmarshalled back into memory.AddressType> pojo2elem = new IdentityHashMap<Address.of type AddressType. Also. even if hashCode has been overridden. To see how this works. we have to add an (artificial) identification to our objects as this is required as the xsd:ID value. Object identity can be tested by applying the operator == to any two objects. Keeping a list of marshalled elements and searching through it isn't attractive.

setAddrRef( addrElem ). All in all.. // .Serializable interface. // Register the object . addrElem = objFact..put( addrPojo... arElem..util. Whenever we encounter a new object of class Address. 4.. // . } Using Address objects as keys.id pair in the identity hash map.. AddressType addrElem = pojo2elem. the AddrOrRef receives the reference to the previously created AddressType element. which is just what .createAddrOrRefType(). } else { // We've had this one before: insert its reference.get( addrPojo ). But the need does arise occasionally. arElem.4 Last Resort: Assembling a Java Object With all the features XML schema provides and JAXB translates you might think that including arbitrary Java objects in an XML document won't ever be necessary. The schema element that is to contain the serialized binary data should be declared with a type of xsd:hexBinary. may have to use this rather extreme technique. } return arElem. for instance.int refcount = 0.createAddressType(). For an encore. } public AddrOrRefType makeAddrOrRefElement( ObjectFactory objFact. The schema snippet shows a simple container for some such object. we map these to assembled AddressType objects. Special dumps of application data. provided that the class of the object implements the java. Address addrPojo ){ AddrOrRefType arElem = objFact.setId( makeNextId() ). pojo2elem. <xsd:complexType name="JavaObjectType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="data" type="xsd:hexBinary"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="container" type="JavaObjectType"/> The generated Java class JavaObjectType has a field byte[] data. private String makeNextId(){ return "a" + refcount++. addrElem )..setAddr( addrElem ).).and insert it into its parent. // Set the xsd:ID attribute. addrElem. it is surprisingly simple.(Copy attributes from addrPojo into addrElem. if( addrElem == null ){ // First time: generate the full XML element. we enter it into the map and generate an AddrOrRef element containing the full AddressType element.

First you obtain a Marshaller from a JAXBContext. import java. import javax.io. which requests nice formatting of the XML text. ooStream.5 Calling marshal Only a handful of source code lines is required to make a JAXB Marshaller object write a document tree as an XML file. return joElem. JavaObjectType joElem = objFact.close(). since all object data required for a full reconstruction is included in the serialized data. you might set a number of properties. ooStream. Object pojo = oiStream. Other properties concern the inclusion of a schema location as an attribute in the top-level element.close(). The code required to serialize a Java object into a XML element is shown below.xml. return pojo.ObjectOutputStream methods writeObject and readObject. The byte array returned by the getter for the data element is fed to the ObjectInputStream which smartly returns the original object.* void writeDocument( Object document. } 4. } The generated XML text is verbose and lengthy.getData() ). Here it is.. ObjectOutputStream ooStream = new ObjectOutputStream( baos ).we need for calling the java.w3. joElem.flush().7878</data> </container> The reverse process is even simpler.createJavaObjectType(). or the encoding in the XML prolog. ooStream.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="serial. Object pojo ) throws IOException { ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(). String pathname ) .. ClassNotFoundException { ByteArrayInputStream bais = new ByteArrayInputStream( joElem. or a JAXBElement<?>. Object getPojo( JavaObjectType joElem ) throws IOException.toByteArray() ).0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <container xmlns:xsi="http://www. Then. as defined by your schema. oiStream. JavaObjectType makePojoElem( ObjectFactory objFact. ObjectInputStream oiStream = new ObjectInputStream( bais ).bind. The first argument must be an object that is either a root element.writeObject( pojo ).setData( baos.*. omitting a few hundred hexadecimal digits: <?xml version="1.readObject().xsd"> <data>ACED00057372.io. such as the one that's used below.

newInstance( clazz.TRUE ). IOException { Class<T> clazz = document. @SuppressWarnings( "unchecked" ) JAXBElement<T> jbe = new JAXBElement( qtag. m. m. o ). of course. m.getPackage(). Boolean. Marshaller m = context. The method wraps an arbitrary element of some type T into a JAXBElement<T>.com". clazz. . <T> JAXBElement<T> wrap( String ns. String tag.getClass().acme... tag ). } To use it.marshal( jbx.getValue(). add xsd:element definitions for all of them to the top level xsd:schema element. return jbe. Class<?> clazz = o.marshal( document.getName() ).getClass().createMarshaller(). the application of wrap is as simple as this: SomeType st = . st ).JAXB_FORMATTED_OUTPUT. (Creating a JAXBContext for several packages or classes is explained in section The JAXB Context.out ). You could. System. A generic solution is presented below. you must create a context capable of handling all the classes that might crop up as instantiations for T. but this is cumbersome. "someTag". T o ){ QName qtag = new QName( ns.) With a Marshaller m obtained from this context.setProperty( Marshaller. } Sometimes marshalling needs to be done not only for one or two root documents but for objects of many different schema types.. new FileOutputStream( pathname ) ).throws JAXBException. JAXBContext context = JAXBContext. JAXBElement<SomeType> jbx = wrap( "http://www.

ususally of file type . in addition to the option defining the root directory for the generated source files. however. is neither flexible enough nor easy to maintain.0"> . By default. Several customizing features are provided for adding information to the compiler's output. Its outermost element is jaxb:bindings..2 Defining Package Names Some Java entities don't have a counterpart in an XML schema. This XML file uses elements from the jaxb namespace.sun. The main reasons for customizing are: providing meaningful package names overriding the default class name (to avoid name clashes) overriding the default names for enum constants adding documentation associating a specific Java class with an XML Schema built-in type Customizing can be added inline to the schema. We'll see these techniques in the succeeding subsections.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.5 Customizing 5.ruleml -d gen-src RuleML.1 Reasons for Customizing It may not always be possible for the JAXB Schema compiler to determine all details of the generated Java code from the XML schema alone.xsd This.: xjc -p jess.xjb. A better place would be in the schema file itself where you may write an xsd:annotation element containing an xsd:appinfo sub-element: <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess. One of these things is the package name.. 5. and for overriding the compiler's defaults for binding schema definitions to Java classes. You can set a more appropriate package name in the call of the JAXB compiler.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. </jaxb:bindings> . or it can be written on a separate file that is passed to the schema compiler.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> If you don't want to burden your XML schema with these annotations you can collect this and other customizing directives in a separate file. JAXB uses the somewhat unimaginative package name generated. where you would indicate the namespace URI: <?xml version="1.

xsd To put all of your classes into the same package you define the package name in a jaxb:schemaBindings element at the outermost level: <?xml version="1. with the inner ones being associated with some xsd:schema element. Let's assume that you have a schema where a complex type has been given the uninspired name List: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:sequence> .flight"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Hotel. Here is an example: <?xml version="1. 5.ruleml"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> A slightly more complicated element structure is necessary if you want to compile several schema files in one run and the classes resulting from different schemata should emerge in separate packages. Usually it is more convenient to fix the XML schema.sun.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="Flight.3 Overriding Names Overriding the name of a class or of an element's child is something you may have to do to avoid name clashes. the outermost element of an XML schema.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.hotel"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> Now we have nested jaxb:bindings elements.com/xml/ns/jaxb" version="2.sun. Notice that it's necessary to define the mapping of the XML Schema namespace prefix (here: xsd) to its URI in the top-level jaxb:bindings element.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel. but you may not always be at liberty to do so. The value of the node attribute is an XPath expression referring to that outermost element.0"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="jess.You pass the file name to the schema compiler: xjc -b RuleML.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.xjb -d gen-src RuleML.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:package name="travel.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.

To avoid having to use the full class name for one of these two classes. believe me. For this one.List. using an jxb:property element. you might override the class name for the generated class: <xsd:complexType name="List"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class name="MyListType"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Another unlucky choice for the name of an element or attribute would be Class.. But. JAXB's workaround is the standard programmer's choice.util. like this: <xsd:complexType name="School"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="class" type="ClassType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="klass"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> Other Java keywords won't constitute a problem. But wherever this class is used it is potentially in conflict with its namesake from java. Yet another reason for changing a name arises from the use of the same name for a sub-element and an attribute within the same complex type definition. If you don't fancy this. i.<xsd:element name="items" type="ItemType" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> JAXB's schema compiler circumnavigates the threatening name clash between this class and java. (Arguably this isn't good XML design. it is replaced by Clazz.util. The instance variable will be given a name consisting of an underscore followed by the letters of the keyword. required within the generated class code for declaring the field items.e.) <xsd:complexType name="ClassType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="grade" type="xsd:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="grade" type="xsd:string" use="optional"/> </xsd:complexType> . it does happen. you can request your own substitute.

..w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jxb:version="2. <?xml version="1.4 Adding Documentation Both the readers of your XML schema and the users of the generated Java classes will be more than grateful for each morsel of documentation.We'll resolve this conflict by renaming the attribute to gradeAttr.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jxb:bindings node="//xsd:attribute[@name='grade']"> <jxb:property name="gradeAttr"/> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> </jxb:bindings> XML Schema even lets you define a sequence where two individual elements have the same tag <xsd:complexType name="StrangeType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="tagb" type="xsd:string"/> <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> There is no such thing as a Java class that has two distinct fields with the same name.sun.0"> <jxb:bindings schemaLocation="School. by renaming either element: .. This way it remains close to the schema text it refers to and documents (not quite perfectly) the XML schema itself. as part of the type definition in your schema.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. JAXB does a good job by providing most if not all of the Javadoc that can be generated automatically. this time by specifying the property name in the bindings file. <xsd:element name="taga" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property name="taga2"/> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> . Documentation is probably best written inline. 5. Here is one way of adding some documentation for a class derived from a complex type definition: .. You must help the schema compiler to resolve this conflict.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jxb="http://java. While this is good at describing the relation between the generated Java code and the originating chunks of the XML schema. it conveys nothing about the intentions behind the schema itself.

"<" and "&" must be written as "&lt.) The text is added up front to the Javadoc text JAXB will provide anyway.code>GlobalType&lt. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:class> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> <xsd:complexContent> <xsd:extension base="AssignmentType"/> </xsd:complexContent> </xsd:complexType> Notice that any XML markup requires the escaping of all less-than and ampersand characters. i. Documentation for elements and attributes is added in a similar manner. see below. </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:property> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> </xsd:element> Finally. <xsd:element name="elemA" type="xsd:string"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:property> <jxb:javadoc> This documents a property which happens to be an XML Schema element.".... The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*'). For either of these schema components./code> object represents a single defglobal variable definition. <xsd:schema> . we'll look at a snippet as it might be included to appear as package level documentation." and "&amp. (Another possibility is writing the text as a CDATA section. Java class for GlobalType complex type. . It can be written at the outermost level of the schema.e. you add a child as shown in the example below.<xsd:complexType name="GlobalType"> <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:class> <jxb:javadoc> A &lt. Your browser will show you this text as the head of the documentation for the class GlobalType: public class GlobalType extends AssignmentType A GlobalType object represents a single defglobal variable definition. The variable name must begin and end with an asterisk ('*').

<jaxb:globalBindings> <jaxb:javaType name="String" xmlType="xsd:string" parseMethod="faststring. we customize a small change for the mapping of xsd:string to String.xml.parseStringToString"/> </jaxb:globalBindings> The other thing is to write the class StringInterner which contains a tiny wrapper for the method parseString from DatatypeConverter: package faststring.bind. public class StringInterner { public static String parseStringToString( String value ){ return DatatypeConverter. } . Two documents are supported: <ol> <li>rulebase documents containing Jess constructs and function calls <li>fact-list documents containing the result of a call to <code>save-facts-xml</code> </ol> </body>]]> </jxb:javadoc> </jxb:package> </jxb:schemaBindings> </xsd:appinfo> </xsd:annotation> This example features the XML technique for including arbitrary content as a CDATA section.StringInterner. <xsd:annotation> <xsd:appinfo> <jxb:schemaBindings> <jxb:package name="com. It enables you to write HTML tags in a more readable way. to sneak in our own method for parsing the XML string data to a Java string. First. 5.5 Interning Strings If your XML data contains a large number of strings with many repetitions it may be well worth interning these strings. This may reduce your memory footprint considerably. So. They represent XML element content for Jess constructs and function calls. including their subordinate elements. but is guaranteed to be from a pool of unique strings...jessrules.jessml"> <jxb:javadoc> <![CDATA[<body>This package contains classes derived from the XML schema JessML2_0.DatatypeConverter. Calling the intern() method on a String returns a string that has the same contents as this string. import javax.intern()..parseString( value ). is there a simple method for interning all strings resulting from unmarshalling? There is only two things to do.

rom2int.4}"/> <xsd:minLength value="1"/> </xsd:restriction> </xsd:simpleType> (The pattern does not cover the subtractive notation which wasn't used in ancient times anyway. 100.Integer> rom2int = new HashMap<Character.Entry<Character.roman. it is possible to customize the datatype binding.} Peeking at the implementation of DatatypeConverter reveals that parseString just returns its argument. rom2int.put( 'M'. as in the next example. We'll illustrate this by a simple example where a xsd:simpleType for roman numbers is defined like this: <xsd:simpleType name="RomanNumberType"> <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string"> <xsd:pattern value="M*D?C{. rom2int.Character>(). 1 }. 100 ). But its a good strategy to go by the book and call the basic conversion except when we are prepared to do it all on our own.getValue(). 1 ). for( Map. public class RomanNumberConverter { private static Map<Character. 10.put( 'I'. 500. 50. private static Map<Integer.put( 'X'.put( entry. private static int[] digits = new int[]{ 1000. entry.4}L?X{.util.util. 500 ). we have to write a simple class like the one given below.getKey() ). import java.entrySet() ){ int2rom. we'd like to have these values represented by Java's int. rom2int.4}V?I{. 50 ). import java. and the standard conversion of values between binary and string is just what you need. In those rare cases where this is not adequate.put( 'C'.6 Overriding the Datatype 5.Integer> entry: rom2int.6. rom2int.1 Replacing the Conversions Most of the time JAXB's mapping of XML Schema types to Java datatypes will meet your expectations. 10 ).HashMap.) Although the XML type is xsd:string. 1000 ). For this.put( 'V'. 5.put( 'D'. This means that we'll also have to supply the conversions between the Roman number as a string of letters and as an integer value. static { rom2int. 5 ). package util. 5.Integer>().put( 'L'. } .Character> int2rom = new HashMap<Integer. rom2int.Map.

2 Replacing a Simple Type Replacing a simple schema type such as string by some user defined Java type is a little more complicated than what we have seen in the previous section.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:simpleType[@name='RomanNumberType']"> <jaxb:javaType name="int" parseMethod="util.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www. } return result. } } return sb.charAt( i ) ).xml.RomanNumberConverter. The essential methods are the ones we'll have to announce to JAXB.get( d ) ).org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="1.parseStringToInt" printMethod="util. <?xml version="1. for( int i = 0. We'll discuss the proceedings on the basis of this type definition of a complex type meant to describe integer variables.length(). You may choose any names you like. The customizing entry supplied in a bindings file should then look like the one given below. .bind. i < value. i++ ){ result += rom2int.RomanNumberConverter.roman. with a threefold nesting of <jaxb:bindings> providing the level where you define the schema position with an XPATH expression.roman. but the methods must be static.sun.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java. } } There is a useful class that supports the writing of convertes such as this one: javax.printIntToString"/> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> 5. } public static String printIntToString( int value ){ StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(). so that it will call our methods for the to and fro between the representations.DatatypeConverter provides a rich set of methods that come in handy whenever the XML representation must follow the specifications in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="roman. for( int d: digits ){ while( value > d ){ value -= d.get( value.append( int2rom. sb.toString().6.w3.} public static int parseStringToInt( String value ){ int result = 0.

<xsd:complexType name="VariableType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Value" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> <xsd:attribute name="Impl" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:complexType> The type we want to replace by customization is the one for the attribute Impl which is to be represented by the following enum type. package impl; public enum ImplType { UINT8( 1, false ), INT8( 1, true ), // ... UINT64(4,false), INT3644,true); private final int bytes; private final boolean signed; ImplType( int b, boolean s ) { bytes = b; signed = s; } } The utility class providing the conversions between a string representation and the enum constants is easy. package impl; import java.util.*; public class ImplConv { public static ImplType parseStringToEnum( String value ){ return ImplType.valueOf( ImplType.class, value ); } public static String printEnumToString( ImplType impl ){ return impl.toString(); } } Now we are prepared to set up the bindings file such as the one shown below, in full. Notice the progressive restriction of the scope for the binding specifications, first restricted to a specific schema (i.e., signal.xsd, then to the complex type definition for VariableType, and finally to its Impl attribute node. Also, the binding syntax requires that now, when we're substituting a type of our own for a base type, the <jaxb:javaType> element must be enclosed in a <jaxb:baseType>, and this, in turn, must be wrapped by a <jaxb:property element. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <jaxb:bindings xmlns:jaxb="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/jaxb" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" jaxb:version="2.0"> <jaxb:bindings schemaLocation="signal.xsd" node="/xsd:schema"> <jaxb:schemaBindings>

<jaxb:package name="signal"/> </jaxb:schemaBindings> <jaxb:bindings node="//xsd:complexType[@name='VariableType']"> <jaxb:bindings node="./xsd:attribute[@name='Impl']"> <jaxb:property> <jaxb:baseType> <jaxb:javaType name="impl.ImplType" parseMethod="impl.ImplConv.parseStringToEnum" printMethod="impl.ImplConv.printEnumToString"/> </jaxb:baseType> </jaxb:property> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> </jaxb:bindings> You can glean the reward of your pains from looking at the generated code for the impl field of VariableType which lets you now deal with this attribute via ImplType enums, e.g.,: ObjectFactory of = new ObjectFactory(); VariableType var = of.createVariableType(); var.setValue( 42 ); var.setImpl( ImplType.INT16 );

6 JAXB Annotations 6.1 How a Schema Mapping Is Implemented The Java code generated by the JAXB schema compiler contains annotations providing metadata on packages, classes, fields and methods. Together, this metadata is intended to reflect the information contained in an XML schema, of which only a very small part can be expressed by the actual Java code. Annotations can be easily retrieved from their target construct with methods contained in classes such as java.lang.Class or java.lang.reflect.Field. Each annotation type has its own set of attributes, which are accessed in the usual way. Given some class, an annotation of type XmlType can be retrieved with Class clazz = ...; XmlType typeAnn = clazz.getAnnotation( XmlType.class ); If the result of the annotation getter is not null, annotation element values may be obtained by calling methods on the returned XmlType object. To retrieve the name of the corresponding XML Schema type you would write String schemaName = typeAnn.name(); Classes that can be used for marshalling and unmarshalling XML need not be generated by the JAXB schema compiler. It is equally possible to write these classes by hand, adding the JAXB annotations. We'll discuss some basic annotations in the next section. 6.2 A Survey Of JAXB Annotations 6.2.1 Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement A class that describes an XML element that is to be a top-level element, i.e., one that can function as an XML document, should be annotated with XmlRootElement. Its optional elements are name and namespace. By default, the class name is used as the name. This annotation corresponds to an xsd:element construct being used at the outermost level of an XML schema. The sequence of Java, XML and schema snippets given below illustrates this relation. @XmlRootElement( name="doc" ) public class Document { @XmlElement protected Foo foo; // ... } <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <doc> <foo>...</foo> </doc>

.*.util. String program ){ this..event = event.<?xml version="1. @XmlRootElement(name="doc") public class DocType { public Map<KeyType.xml. you could produce XML data like so: <doc> . import java.Map.program = program. import java. public XMLGregorianCalendar datetime. public EntryType(){} public EntryType( String artists. this.datatype.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <xsd:complexType name="Foo"> .artists = artists.HashMap. public class KeyType { public String event.EntryType>().EntryType> key2entry = new HashMap<KeyType. this.V>. </xsd:complexType> <xsd:complexType name="Document"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="foo" type="Foo"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> <xsd:element name="doc" type="Document"/> It's a surprising fact that if all of your Java classes permit a straightforward mapping to XML Schema. public DocType(){ } } import javax. XMLGregorianCalendar datetime ){ this. import javax. public KeyType(){} public KeyType( String event. } } public class EntryType { public String program. } } Applying the usual incantations for creating and marshalling content.bind. XmlRootElement may be the only annotation you have to make! Here's a small set of classes.xml.*.util.annotation. public String artists. that is even capable of marshalling a Map<K.datetime = datetime.

.xml.bind. The annotation has several attributes: factoryClass and factoryMethod define the class containing a no-argument method for creating an instance of this class as the equivalent of an empty XML element. "items". (It's pretty obvious that there can't be a connection between the textual order of items in a class definition and the order its fields are returned by reflection methods. and key data from value data.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www. @javax. Below is an example.annotation. and the 'T' between the date and the time is just right.2 Annotation for Classes: XmlType This annotation adds information that would be available from a schema type. but isn't implied by a Java class declaration. 6. } 6.E.3 Annotations for the Schema: XmlSchema This annotation can only be used with a package. It must be written on a file package-info. You can see that JAXB had to "invent" a few tag names for the intermediary element levels separating map entries from each other. It defines parameters that are derived from the xsd:schema element. The string array value defined by propOrder establishes an ordering of the subelements..2.2.M</artists> </value> </entry> </key2entry> </doc> The XMLGregorianCalendar is mapped to xsd:dateTime. "cluster" } ) public class Document { . but you'd have to do something similar if you'd design it yourself. .laune. The namespace attribute provides the name of the target namespace. specifying the namespace and elementFormDefault elements. according to the Schema Datatypes specification.at/hospital". The attribute name provides the XML schema name if you don't want to use the class name. items and cluster should appear in the given order: @XmlRootElement @XmlType( propOrder={ "title".) Here is an example for XmlType.java situated in the package. requesting that the elements title.<key2entry> <entry> <key> <event>Soiree</event> <datetime>2008-08-23T20:00:00</datetime> </key> <value> <program>Man on the Moon</program> <artists>R.

elementFormDefault = javax.4 The Object Factory: XmlRegistry. an additional factory method for wrapping the "pure" Java object of some class Foo into an element of class JAXBElement<Foo> must be provided. namespaceURI = "http://www.at/hospital" xmlns:xs="http://www.xml.bind.laune. This is a snippet from some object factory where an element of TreeType is wrapped into a JAXBElement<TreeType>: @XmlElementDecl(namespace = "".0" > For defining namespace prefixes you use the xmlns element of the XmlSchema annotation.at/hospital". TreeType.XmlNsForm.at/med" as an attribute in the xs:schema element.bind. The previous example is extended with a namespace definition for the prefix med: @javax.2. value).annotation. 6.laune.xml.bind.QUALIFIED) package hospital.laune.w3. name = "tree") public JAXBElement<TreeType> createTree( TreeType value) { return new JAXBElement<TreeType>(_Tree_QNAME. } Most objects require nothing but a simple create method.annotation.. annotated with XmlRegistry. This annotation is equivalent to an xs:schema element <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www. } .bind.at/med" ) }. Therefore. This corresponds to using xmlns:med="http://www.XmlSchema( namespace = "http://www.org/2001/XMLSchema" version="1.annotation.laune.xml.class.XmlNsForm. But whenever an element has to be represented as a JAXBElement<?>. xmlns = { @javax.xml. It contains an array of XmlNs annotations.XmlNs( prefix = "med". the unmarshaller must have an object factory with methods for creating all sorts of objects.elementFormDefault = javax. XmlElementDecl To be able to create objects from XML elements. null. This method is then annotated with XmlElementDecl. each of which contains a prefix and a namespaceURI element. @XmlRegistry public class ObjectFactory { . each package containing JAXB classes must contain one class ObjectFactory.at/hospital" xmlns:tns="http://www.QUALIFIED) package hospital.annotation.. providing the components of the element's tag name through the attributes namespace and name.laune.

You have several possibilities to influence this default behaviour. } public String getA(){ . public SomeClass(){ .. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. XmlTransient If JAXB binds a class to XML. Member getB is blocked from being bound. The other annotation to be mentioned in this context is XmlTransient. non transient field will be automatically bound. @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. A class without this annotation inherits the XmlAccessorType setting either from its superclass or from the package setting.... It shows a class with the most restrictive accessor type setting... or public fields. PUBLIC_MEMBER or NONE. and methods getFoo and setFoo. } public void setA( String value ){ .6..NONE ) .5 Controlling Element Selection: XmlAccessorType.e... private String b. } public void setB( String value ){ . all public members will be bound. NONE suppresses bind except for explicitly annotated fields or properties. The first class illustrates a class that restricts the set of XML elements from an accessor type setting of PUBLIC_MEMBER.. public getter and setter pairs.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SomeClass { private String a. i.. PROPERTY. It suppresses binding for its target which can be an entire class or a field or a method. This is also useful if you have a name clash resulting from a public field. say foo. by default. then. setting its value element to one of the enum constants FIELD. } } The corresponding XML schema type definition looks like this: <xs:complexType name="someClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The second example illustrates the reverse process. } @XmlTransient public String getB(){ . You can annotate a package or a top level class with XmlAccessorType. PROPERTY instructs JAXB to do this for getter and setter pairs. with one member explicitly annotated as an element.2. package-visible or private member is bound if it is annotated with a suitable annotation such as XmlElement or XmlAttribute. If FIELD is set every non static. Any protected.

. public OtherClass(){ . <xs:complexType name="specialClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="a" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/> . with changes being made on the list object.....public class OtherClass { private String a.. public SpecialClass(){ .. Second. private String b.... } public void setB( String value ){ . } } Since we have set the annotation element required to true. private List<String> b.. First. (The getter follows the standard pattern of the JAXB generated Java code for elements bound to List<?>.) @XmlAccessorType( XmlAccessType. which doesn't have its setB spouse. } public void setA( String value ){ .. the generated schema snippet is slightly different: <xs:complexType name="otherClass"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="b" type="xs:string"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The final example for this topic demonstrates using these annotations in somewhat special circumstances.. return b.PUBLIC_MEMBER ) public class SpecialClass { @XmlTransient public String a. } public void setA( String value ){ . } @XmlElement public List<String> getB(){ if( b == null ) b = new ArrayList<String>(). } @XmlElement( required = true ) public String getB(){ . } public String getA(){ . XmlElement is used to request binding for getB. } public String getA(){ . } } The generated complex type features both elements.. XmlTransient is used on the public field to avoid the name clash with the method pair...

6.6 Class Inclusion: XmlSeeAlso The annotation XmlSeeAlso instructs JAXB to include the specified classes in the set of recognized classes. as shown in the example below: @XmlSeeAlso( {Dog. and below is the corresponding schema snippet. this means that you can.2. @XmlElement(name = "Preamble". Here are two annotated fields. You use XmlSeeAlso on some class.1 The Annotation XmlElement The basic annotation for a field that's intended to be an element is XmlElement. } 6. <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="Preamble" type="com:PreambleType"/> <xsd:element name="Workplace" type="SysWorkplaceType" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </xsd:sequence> If a field has some collection type.g.7.e. required = true) protected PreambleType preamble. the namespace. This strategy may be generally permissive. 6. respectively. the ones that are bound to schema elements.7 Annotations for Fields Fields of a class may correspond to XML elements. Once more.class.. or you may inhibit bindings using the XmlTransient annotation. It permits you to define the XML element name. @XmlElement(name = "Workplace". e.2. you may extend a restrictive setting by adding XmlElement or XmlAttribute.. The typical case where this is required is for the subclasses of some class that is included.class} ) class Animal { //. because they are used as types for a field. define the strategy for all classes within the package or for all subclasses. oriented on fields or properties. more than one @XmlElement may have to be associated with this field. This requires that these annotations are assembled in a XmlElements (not the plural "s") annotation that merely acts as a container. In the . required = true) protected List<SysWorkplaceType> workplace.. in contrast to those classes that are statically referenced. either at package level or at some superclass.2. permitting nothing by default. i. or restrictive. whether it is optional or nillable. Cat. a default value and the Java class. there is a gap between what can be defined in an XML schema and the information available from field definitions within a Java class. Within a class.<xs:element name="b" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> Taken together..

class) }) protected List entryList. 6. The annotated class Sentence @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement List<String> word. the field entryOrChoiceOrCascade is a collection composed from objects of three different classes.class). } results in <sentence> <word>This is terse</word> </sentence> Needless to say. type = MenuType.2. } As a bonus you may avoid the complicated name for the list element that JAXB concocts from the first three possibles. @XmlElement(name = "Menu". type = ItemType. the addition of XmlList @XmlType class Sentence { @XmlElement @XmlList List<String> word.class).7. type = CheckBoxType. } produces XML such as <sentence> <word>This</word> <word>is</word> <word>verbose</word> </sentence> In contrast. @XmlElement(name = "CheckBox".class definition below. @XmlType(name = "MenuType") public class MenuType extends ItemType { @XmlElements({ @XmlElement(name = "Item". using the XML representation of lists for strings is risky unless you .2 The Annotation XmlList The attribute XmlList instructs JAXB that a list value is to be represented as a blank separated list of values of some simple type rather than a list of individual child elements.

-.) 6.A "true" value of required is the same as using the XML Schema definition's attribute use="required". (The Java compiler has no way of knowing that something is amiss here. the default being the class field's name. which is only valid for types that are simple according to XML Schema rules. } is bound to fail as soon as JAXB inspects the annotations. has to be told when to make a field into an XML attribute.2.2. the schema describing the XML Schema language itself.3 Class Fields as Attributes: XmlAttribute Provided that XML lets you represent a data item as a single value. List<Sentence> word. @XmlAttribute final static int answer = 42.7. public Price(){} @XmlElement . Now consider this simple Java class with a single instance variable: public class Price { private BigDecimal amount. 6. The annotation for creating an XML attribute is XmlAttribute. making judicious use of both. This has the same effect as an XML Schema definition where the attribute element's attribute fixed is set to that value. Also.) JAXB. If you ask about some way for defining the equivalent for the XML Schema attribute default="value". of course.7." Just write the getter so that it returns the default value if the field's value is null. A class such as Paragraph @XmlType class Paragraph { @XmlElement @XmlList // Not valid . (If you look for guidance. with one element or attribute for each field. Its elements correspond to what can be defined in an XML schema: -. It's possible to annotate a static final field with XmlAttribute. then the simple answer is: "Do it yourself.name defines the namestring for the attribute. there is no cutand-dried rule for deciding between using an element or an attribute.4 Mapping a Class to Simple Content or Simple Type: XmlValue Usually a Java class results in a complex type.Sentence isn't a simple type.can be sure that no string value contains a blank. remember the restriction for XML Schema's xsd:list.namespace specifies the XML target namespace to be used for the attribute's name. is a good example. -.

6. } // .5 Collecting Unspecified Attributes: XmlAnyAttribute An XML element may carry attributes which aren't defined in the XML schema. too.7.amount = value... This is done by annotating the single field amount with XmlValue instead of XmlElement: public class Price { // .: <price> <amount>123.public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount.45</amount> </price> What is required here is a way of telling JAXB to map class Price to a simple schema type.45</price> Notice that fields of type Price could now be mapped to an XML attribute. ..2..g. } } If this type is used for some field. } This is now equivalent to this simple type definition: <xs:simpleType name="price"> <xs:restriction base="xs:decimal"/> </xs:simpleType> The XML data is pleasantly reduced to: <price>123. or have no explicit mapping to some field in the Java class defining the element type. @XmlValue public BigDecimal getAmount(){ return amount. the result will be according to this XML Schema type definition: <xs:complexType name="price"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="amount" type="xs:decimal" minOccurs="0"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The marshalled XML data is unnecessarily complicated due to an addtional element layer. } public void setAmount( BigDecimal value ){ this. e.

getAny(). } This is the resulting output: A mixture of elements foo="a foo attribute" .Entry<QName.unmarshal( new File( "mixture.getMixture(). } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ return title.getValue().getValue() + """ ).It's possible to collect these unspecified attributes into a map with the type Map<QName.println( "Title: " + mix.out. Here is an example using the annotation XmlAnyAttribute: public class MixtureType { private Map<QName. MixtureType mix = doc.Object>().Object> amap = mix. public MixtureType(){} @XmlAnyAttribute public Map<QName. private String title. Map<QName. System. } } Let's assume that the top level element of type DocumentType contains nothing but one MixtureType element. the sub-element and its spurious attributes can be extracted like this: JAXBElement<DocumentType> jbe = (JAXBElement)u.Object> any. DocumentType doc = jbe.getKey() + "="" + e. for( Map.Object>.Object> getAny(){ if( any == null ){ any = new HashMap<QName. Then.out. an XML data file that can be unmarshalled into an object of this class would look like this: <document> <mixture foo="a foo attribute" bar="attribute of bar"> <title>A mixture of elements</title> </mixture> </document> After unmarshalling this into a DocumentType object.entrySet() ){ System.println( e. } return any.getTitle() ).Object> e: amap.xml" ) ). } public void setTitle( String value ){ title = value.

7. cf.: <document> <zoo> <a>Anaconda</a> <b>Buffalo</b> <c>Chameleon</c> <d>Dromedar</d> </zoo> </document> The interesting class is ZooType.util. for( Element el: doc. (We have already seen that this corresponds to an object of type org. e.Element.getNodeName() + "->" + el.w3c.) The annotation XmlAnyElement instructs JAXB to map a field to a DOM Element object.bar="attribute of bar" 6.bind.newInstance( DocumentType. defining the structure of the element tagged zoo as a list of DOM elements: import java. } } Unmarshalling and accessing this data is done like this: JAXBContext jc = JAXBContext.annotation.getZoo(). return animals.6 Collecting Unspecified Elements: XmlAnyElement Arbitrary content is indicated by the XML Schema type xsd:anyType.xml. public class ZooType { protected List<Element> animals. subsection DOM Elements.println( el. DocumentType doc = (DocumentType)u.createUnmarshaller().w3c. } .dom.*. Let's say that we want to unmarshal XML data with arbitrary tags and some text content. or an array or list of such elements.g. import org.2. import javax.Element. public ZooType(){ } @XmlAnyElement public List<Element> getAnimals(){ if( animals == null ) animals = new ArrayList<Element>().getAnimals() ){ System.unmarshal( f ). Unmarshaller u = jc.getTextContent() ).*. } public void setAnimals( List value ){ animals = value.dom.class ).out.

.8 Annotations for Mixed Content: XmlElementRef.7 Wrapping Repeated Elements: XmlElementWrapper With a repeatable XML element you may want to distinguish between a list that is absent and an empty list. Doing so would lose the order of the sub-elements and the chunks of content text wherein they are embedded. cannot be bound to a class in the usual bean style. public ParentType(){ . XmlMixed An XML complex type with mixed content.The resulting output looks like this: a->Anaconda b->Buffalo c->Chameleon d->Dromedar 6.7. with one field for each element and attribute.2. i.7. <parent> <wrapper> <item>A</item> <item>B</item> <item>C</item> </wrapper> </parent> You instruct JAXB to generate this additional element by adding the annotation XmlElementWrapper to a collection type attribute. } } 6. for the repeated element. child elements embedded in the element's own data. return item. and another one for the content text.. } @XmlElement( name="item" ) @XmlElementWrapper( name="wrapper" ) public List getItem(){ if( item == null ) item = new ArrayList(). as indicated in the XML snippet below. JAXB binds such a type to a class containing a single list attribute typed List<JAXBElement>. or "wrapping". @XmlType( name="ParentType" ) public class ParentType { protected List item.e.2. Here is a schema snippet for a complex type with mixed content: <xs:complexType name="MessageType" mixed="true"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> . For this. you need some additional element bracketing..

except that XmlMixed is omitted and the generic parameter for List should be JAXBElement<?>. you'll have to distinguish between JAXBElement objects for the sub-elements and String objects for the chunks of the content of the element itself. public List<JAXBElement<?>> getContent() { . @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType.class). type = JAXBElement. type = JAXBElement.class) }) protected List<JAXBElement<?>> content. propOrder = { "content" }) public class MessageType { @XmlElementRefs( { @XmlElementRef(name = "code". } return this.class). propOrder = { "content" } ) public class Message { @XmlElementRefs({ @XmlElementRef(name = "id".FIELD) @XmlType(name = "MessageType". @XmlElementRef(name = "id". slightly more specific than Object. you would write an annotated Java class like this: @XmlAccessorType(XmlAccessType. which doesn't have mixed content any more. @XmlElementRef(name = "id". @XmlElementRef(name = "code". type = JAXBElement.class) }) @XmlMixed protected List<Serializable> content.class). When you process the elements of the content list after unmarshalling. } } The generic parameter for the content list is Serializable.FIELD) @XmlType(name = "Message".To achieve the same effect with an annotated class. public List<Serializable> getContent() { if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<Serializable>(). but contains a repetition of element id (ours not to worry why): <xs:complexType name="MessageType"> <xs:sequence> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> <xs:element name="code" type="CodeType"/> <xs:element name="id" type="xs:int"/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> The annotated Java code would be similar to the one shown previously.content. A similar but rarely encountered situation is created by duplicating an element in a sequence. type = JAXBElement. Below is a slightly modified version of the schema snippet for the complex type MessageType. type = JAXBElement.

Usually. this is java. even numeric ones. are equally possible.8 Annotations for Enums: XmlEnum. with arbitrary alternations of all three elements. } public static SubElemType fromValue(String v) { . SubElemType(String v) { value = v. in fact. the enum type might define the XML representation as a parameter for the constructor. 6.lang. and by default. } return this... Such a deluxe version of an enum type is shown below.. @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { @XmlEnumValue("PrMaSig") PR_MA_SIG("PrMaSig").(more enum constant definitions) private final String value.2. It has an optional element value of type java.String but other types.Class which defines the class used for the values used in the XML representation.. this is sufficient: @XmlEnum public enum SubElemType { //.if (content == null) { content = new ArrayList<JAXBElement<?>>(). XmlEnumValue An enum type is annotated with XmlEnum. @XmlEnumValue("Track1") TRACK_1("Track1"). provide a getter for the XML string and perhaps even a lookup function (fromValue) to convert a string to the enum constant. marshal or unmarshal many more sub-element sequences than the one shown in the schema snippet. This is defined with an @XmlEnumValue annotation that is attached to individual enum constants. } public String value() { return value.content.lang. If it might be useful for the Java application to have support for the conversion between Java values and XML representations as well. Its required element defines the XML representation string.(enum definition) } Individual enum constants have to be annotated if there is a difference between the Java name and the string used to represent the value in XML. } } This does. // . For a straightforward enum type.

values()) { if (c. } } 6. we write a class Brochure containing the map we have in mind and declare that this is the one that has to be adapted to something JAXB knows how to handle. public Training(){} public Training( Brochure b ){ brochure = b. Also. } } @XmlJavaTypeAdapter(BrochureAdapter.9 Type Adapters: XmlJavaTypeAdapter For some Java container types JAXB has no built-in mapping to an XML structure.adapters.for (SubElemType c: SubElemType.annotation.2.45" id="c0"> <name>Course 0</name> </course> </brochure> </ns:training> The course elements could be represented as a list or array. @XmlRootElement(name="training") public class Training { @XmlElement public Brochure brochure. you may want to represent Java types in a way that is entirely different from what JAXB is apt to do. i. the class Courses containing a simple array of Course objects.ApplType> from the package javax. we have seen (in section Top-level Elements: XmlRootElement) that the resulting XML structure isn't as simple as possible. The annotation XmlJavaTypeAdapter is provided for announcing the adapter in the desired place. <?xml version="1.bind. } } throw new IllegalArgumentException(v.45" id="c1"> <name>Course 1</name> </course> <course price="123.class) . but we would like to process this data in our application as a map of the id attribute to the Course object.e.xml.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <ns:training xmlns:ns="http://foo/bar"> <brochure> <course price="123. Such mappings require an adapter class.. written as an extension of XmlAdapter<XmlType. Although JAXB is capable of handling maps. To achieve our goal.equals(v)) { return c.value. We'll illustrate adapters by defining a substitution of a map for an array. Here is an XML example of the data we have to deal with.toString()).

} @Override public Courses marshal( Brochure b ){ Courses courses = new Courses().Brochure> { @Override public Brochure unmarshal( Courses value ){ Brochure b = new Brochure().public class Brochure { Map<String.carray ) b. for( Course c : value. public class BrochureAdapter extends XmlAdapter<Courses. return courses. @XmlElement String name.toArray(new Course[c. courses.put( c. To summarize: XML binding happens against the class Courses. The reverse marshalling process has to convert a Brochure object with its map to a Courses object.Course> courses. return b. the interesting class.carray = c. } } public class Courses { @XmlElement(name="course") public Course[] carray. @XmlAttribute Price price.values(). It has to override methods unmarshal and marshal. and this is. c ). we convert the data to a structure according to the desired class Brochure with its map.id. . of course. Course>(). defining class BrochureAdapter as its adapter. Collection<Course> c = b.courses.courses. public Brochure() { courses = new HashMap<String. and the result of JAXB's innate capabilities is passed to the adaption for unmarshalling. which is easily done by putting the map values into an array. whereas application programming uses the Map type field courses in class Brochure. In this method. } } Courses is a class JAXB knows how to handle with respect to XML data.size()]). } Class Brochure is annotated with XmlJavaTypeAdapter. } public class Course { @XmlAttribute String id.

and XmlIDREF is attached to any field that references objects of that class. either after unmarshalling or before the emitting marshalling.strbuf = new StringBuffer( "This is the house" ).append( " that Jack built. Two annotations instruct JAXB to use references: XmlID must define a field of some class with type java. Let's assume that the processing of chunks of text requires their extension.11 Annotations for Object References: XmlID.String that is suited to be used as a key. Such a type mapping can be defined either for an individual element or for all occurrences within a package. text. and the type adapter class for the simple conversion between String and StringBuffer.6. Notice that the latter class is specified in a separate annotation. // . XmlJavaTypeAdapter. If you need multiple mappings at package level.e.g. a StringBuffer is better than String..toString()." ).lang.strbuf.StringBuffer> { @Override public String marshal( StringBuffer strbuf ){ return strbuf.: TextType text = new TextType()..10 Type Mapping: XmlSchemaType The annotation XmlSchemaType defines a mapping between an arbitrary Java type and a simple schema built-in type.. public class TextType { @XmlElement @XmlSchemaType(name="string") @XmlJavaTypeAdapter( String2StrBuf. Below are the essential Java classes. text.2. Most of the time the default mapping is satisfactory. TextType elements are now StringBuffers.class ) public StringBuffer strbuf. e. } public class String2StrBuf extends XmlAdapter<String. Both annotations may be used in addition to XmlElement. . but every now and then an alternative may be more convenient.2. i. and the XmlJavaTypeAdapter annotiations are packed into a single XmlJavaTypeAdapters annotation. which is the default mapping for xs:string. XmlIDREF The section Referring to Another XML Element describes the usefulness of using references rather than repeatedly serialized content. 6. } @Override public StringBuffer unmarshal( String string ){ return new StringBuffer( string ). } } Within the Java code that unmarshals or marshals an instance document. you'll have to bundle the XmlSchemaType annotations in an XmlSchemaTypes (note the plural) annotation. one defining TextType as a container for a string. For this.

annotation. @XmlRootElement public class Document { . } @XmlElement public String getName(){ .. } } import java. public class Cluster { private Set<Item> items.xml. import java. public class Item { private String id. In this case. } public void setName( String value ){ . private String title. } } package elset.List. } public void setId( String value ){ . private String name.We'll illustrate an application of these annotations in a somewhat more sophisticated pattern resulting from the possibility of attaching XmlIDREF to a field of some collection type.ArrayList.bind.*.annotation. } @XmlIDREF public Set<Item> getItems(){ ..HashSet.util.annotation...util. import javax.*. import javax. import java.bind. the collection item type must contain an id field.util. import java..xml.Set.bind...xml.*. The latter contains a list of existing items and a Cluster object that wraps a Set<Item> field containing references to some of the items from the list. public Item(){} @XmlID public String getId(){ . Below is a group of Java classes defining an Item class and a Document class.... import javax.util. public Cluster(){ ...

} public void setCluster( Cluster value ){ . } public void setTitle( String value ){ .. } } --.END --- .private Cluster cluster. } @XmlElement public String getTitle(){ ......... public Document(){ . private String title. } @XmlElement public List<Item> getItems(){ .... } @XmlElement public Cluster getCluster(){ . private List<Item> items.

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