Paper Number- TTTITM2
Baja 09 design report
Captain, Member design team
Steering and brakes department
Copyright © 2006 SAE International
The design report focuses on explaining engineering and design process behind each system in the Baja vehicle that is developed till now. The report also throws some light on the alternatives considered. The design of the vehicle is in accordance with the specifications laid down by the rule book. This design report is a cumulative effort towards explaining the design process to the readers.
1. Maximum speed – 45 km/hr 2. Weight – 270 kg 3. Ground clearance – 20 cm or 8 inch 4. Track width – 160 cm or 64 inch approx 5. Wheel base – 190 cm or 75 inch approx 6. Braking distance – 1400 cm 7. Turning radius – 240 cm or 96 inch Further, as designing is based on prevention of failure so let me define the condition of failure of each system of our vehicle. • For roll cage, failure is yielding as this would change the distance between various parts and thus their working is affected. It should be rigid and the mountings should be able to bear its load. For brakes, failure is their inability to lock all the four tires simultaneously. For tires, it is failure to transmit the required torque maintaining the traction with the track surface. For suspensions, failure occurs if they are not able to isolate the driver from the shocks or if they are so soft that they compress to their solid length while working. For transmission there is less scope of failure but failure is if any part is not able to transmit the required torque or also if torque provided in the first gear is unable to drive the vehicle from a halt.
The design process of the vehicle is iterative and is based on various engineering and reverse engineering processes depending upon the availability, cost and other such factors. So the design process focuses on: Safety, Serviceability, Cost, Standardization, Strength and ruggedness, Driving feel and ergonomics, Aesthetics The design criterion followed here is design for the worst and optimize the design while avoiding over designing, which would help in reducing the cost. We proceeded by setting up the budget for the project. Throughout the design process we distributed the budget in such a way that if we assign more money to one system, we reduce that amount from some other system. Our last year vehicle design was based on the criterion of prevention of failure, as that year no one knew the track and the obstructions prevalent over there. So the procedure of over designing was followed as the safety of the driver is of utmost importance. The design targets of our vehicle for Baja 09 are as follows:
• • •
Thus we had a little choice while working on transmission. sprockets and chains. To find the speed of the vehicle corresponding to different gear ratios. For 45 km/hr O.65D
Hence for maximum speed of 45 km/hr.5 D=24 inch 9 15.4 40 62 10 D=24 inch 15.5 17. We decided to work on the latter option and so did reverse engineering process trying to find if the gears would be able to transmit the increased torque. electrical components occurs if they are not able to fulfill their desired function.8 26.82D 2. thus increased the reliability of the transmission system. As engine and gear box were given to us.2 24. the formulae used is Velocity on road = 2π×N×R×60÷ (1000×G) Km/hr Where.8 D=28 inch 10. Engaging the reverse gear lever while driving in all the forward gears and using the first gear in forward as reverse gear.38D 14.96:1 12. Also following this method.35:1 55. Reduce the cost of the vehicle as we avoided the use of additional gears.7 15.6 43.08:1 32. sprockets and chain.70:1 11. we selected tires of 28 inch outer diameter. levers. We decided to keep the maximum speed of the vehicle at 45 km/hr as the vehicle is not about larger speed but greater torque and stability. We were able to check the weight 2.7 29 45 18.109D 1. 2. For attaining this speed.40:1 7.87:1 31. Failure of various other mechanisms like pedals. of the tire came out to be 16 inch. Some of our calculations for reverse and forward orientation are as follows: Normal orientation Final Gear Ratios Speed (km/hr) Speed (km/hr) D=22 inch 0.5
55. for better economy.8 kW at 4400 rpm Max Torque – 19 Nm at 3000 rpm About gear box.38D 0.6 67. 1.45 14.82D 0.7 9
Hence. the only thing we can vary was the outer diameter of the driving tire. Hence in order to counter this problem options available were: 1. We used standard parts. G=gear ratio N=revolutions per minute R=outer radius of the tire in meters.D.•
For steering. Further.04D 1. This diameter is too small as ground clearance decreases. Configuration of our vehicle would be rear engine rear wheel drive. In between this
0.61D 0. First Second Third Forth Reverse
First Second Third Forth Reverse
MAIN SECTION ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION
A quick look at the engine: Power .9 38.65D 1.
Reverse orientation Final Gear Ratios Speed (km/hr ) Speed (km/hr) D=22 inch 8. Manipulation of power transmission outside the gear box using gears.8 35.3 13.75:1 19.45:1 18.5 24. we have 4 forward and 1 reverse gear box with built in differential and universal joint. our designing process targets on the above lying facts to ensure the proper working of our vehicle. we assume engine rpm to be ranging from 2750 to 3250 as maximum torque produced by the engine is at 3000 rpm. failure is defined in terms of effort applied by the driver and ability of the various components to facilitate the function of steering.9 22.63D 1.
5. side wall width.
1.D.11 to 14 km/hr . 28 inches. They should be such that they are able to provide enough traction on all kind of surfaces so as to transmit the torque available at the wheels without causing slipping. load handling capacity. The relation between outer diameter of the tires and the vehicle speed is as given below: Velocity on road = Angular velocity × (Outer radius of tire ÷ gear ratio) For the reverse orientation of the transmission system and maximum speed of the vehicle as 45 km/hr radius comes out to be 28 inches. operating in reverse orientation is: First Second Third Forth Reverse . fig e1). Built with a 6 ply rating and a reinforced casing makes these one of the most puncture resistant tires in the market today. for better economy. 4.29 to 37 km/hr . Apart from outer radius of the tire. Use of the larger outer diameter tire at the rear helps to provide good ground clearance and also 10 inch treads provides good traction to the power wheels. for the driving tires of O.7 to 9 km/hr . Thus. The deep tread and open wing design provides excellent clean-out with each lug and an improved traction. tire resistance to wear and puncture and performance of the tire on various terrains.
Apart from this. tread design. other factors for the selection of tires include tread width.
Outer diameter of tire – 28 inch Outer diameter of rim – 12 inch Tread width – 10 inch Aspect ratio . Smaller tires in front results in a smaller magnitude of moment on the wishbones due to cornering forces during steering. Large shoulder knobs wrap down the sidewall to provide excellent side to pull out of the ruts without causing sidewall failure. Special natural compound delivers added traction.range the torque produced by the engine is almost constant (from engine characteristics graph.1 Number of plies – 6 Side with – 198 mm
The criterion for designing the brakes stated as per the rule book is that all the four wheels should lock simultaneously as the brake pedal is pressed.1 Number of plies – 6 Tread design – mud cutting Side with – 210 mm
THIS YEAR: FRONT
Outer diameter of tire – 24 inch Outer diameter of rim – 12 inch Tread width – 8 inch Aspect ratio .12 to 15 km/hr
One of the most important parameter for the selection of the outer diameter of the tires in rear was the maximum speed of the vehicle.1 Number of plies – 6 Side with – 231 mm Shown in fig t1
LAST YEAR‘S BRAKING SYSTEM:
Front Rear Disc brake of Maruti800 (91 mm) Drum brake of APE (180×30mm)
. for mounting the engine we are going to use neoprene rubber mountings. number of plies and treads on side wall etc which define the traction ability. Also for designing an all terrain vehicle tires form the most important part.
Selecting the tires is one of the most important things as the whole vehicle is in contact with the road on these 4 points or rather patches.18 to 24 km/hr .6. 2. 6.
Front and rear same tires Outer diameter of tire – 24 inch Outer diameter of rim – 12 inch Tread width – 6 inch Aspect ratio . 3. the range of speed in each gear.
COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS YEAR BRAKES:
1. L= Length of the wheel base. But in dynamic conditions.In the last years vehicle we found that the braking force was not enough to lock all the four wheels simultaneously For designing the braking system this year. We selected these as per our design of the braking system for 5. 2. we calculated the weight of our vehicle in static condition as well as in dynamic condition as per the deceleration (0. H=Height of center of the gravity. We have calculated the dynamic weight using the formulae as given below: Front axle dynamic load = w1 + (α ÷ g) ×W× (H ÷ L) Rear axle dynamic load = w2 – (α ÷ g) ×W× (H ÷ L) Where.
Using these formulae. the front and the rear. So we have a higher coefficient of friction 2. T(disc) = Frictional torque on the disc T(drum) = Frictional torque on the drum f = deceleration m = mass of vehicle R = radius of tires P = Pressure applied by the TMC. The friction material is semi-metallic which has got better frictional properties. Initially we thought of using disc brakes for all four wheels but disc with parking brakes have higher cost and we found it necessary to use the parking brakes to increase the all terrain capabilities of the vehicle. µ= Coefficient of friction R1=Radius of the disc A= Area of the caliper for disc brake and wheel cylinder for the drum brake.9 6 17. Use of X-type brake fluid lining which will give us better response and has a higher reliability. Standardization of parts is there. W2=Weight on the rear axle in the static condition. we consider weight to be 85kg on each tire. We planned to use disc brake in front and drum brakes in rear. 3.
.9 3 Pr 2.5 5 3 5 3 D1 16.
1. W= Total weight of the vehicle.6 4 D2 50 50 50 50 50 D3 30 30 30 30 30 R1 91 91 91 91 91 R2 90 90 90 90 90 R3 12” 12” 12” 12” 12 ” R4 14” 14” 14” 14” 14”
Where the parameters shown above are as under: F=Pedal force required for braking (kg) Pr = Pedal ratio D1=Diameter of the TMC (mm) D2=Diameter of caliper cylinder for the disc (mm) D3=Diameter of the wheel cylinder for the drum (mm) R1= Radius of the disc (mm) R2=Radius of the drum (mm) R3=Outer radius of the front tires (inch) R4=Outer radius of the rear tires (inch) The above highlighted specifications have been selected for our vehicle.7 8 19. W1=Weight on the front axle in the static condition. So the force on pedal would be 9 kg approx. The pedal force would decrease further by a factor 3 due to the use of booster. These are the standard specifications of Maruti Zen’s braking system with vacuum booster.6 g) and stopping distance. In static condition it is around 60kg on each front tire and 110kg each on the rear tire.2 5 22. Deceleration of the vehicle is α. Vacuum booster is used for giving the better comfort in applying the paddle force.8 8 20. Ventilated disc for higher heat dissipation rather than a single disc.9 m/s^2 deceleration. we have done our calculation and selected our brakes. Some formulas that we used for designing our brakes: T (disc) + T (drum) = m × f ×R T (disc) = µ×R1× (P × A) ×2 T (drum) = (P × A) × Brake factor×R2 Where. The cost of standard parts is lower. 4. g = Acceleration due to gravity. Some of calculations are shown in the table: F kg 1 2 3 4 5 20 20 20 15 26. Thus reliability is there.
R Where. track width. It can be slightly adjusted for different parameters of suspension tuning like camber angle. Our main concern in the design of the steering mechanism. Reticulating ball type steering has lower wear and tear as compared to rack and pinion steering. Apart from deciding the steering ratio we have not been able to design the linkages. only driver effort would be transmitted to the wheels.3. the use of booster would get the pedal force to a lower value. using reticulating type steering.53:1 Turning radius . Further. But unlike rack and pinion. Ergonomically. So the movement of springs was too small ride was not comfortable. at the pitman arm speed of 20 to 25 RPM. Two pivots were used as shown in fig above
• • • • Reticulating ball type (ZF steering) Turning radius – 9 feet Gear ratio . 3. 4. apart from keeping the steering ratio to be 17:1.
1. is to reduce the weight of the mechanism and to incorporate as minimum joints as possible which would help to reduce the human force required to steer the vehicle.Mac Pherson strut Rear – Mac Pherson strut and rubber bumpers Last year. the problem with out suspensions was that they were too stiff.40 degree One flexible coupling is used in column One universal joint was used. human effort at the steering wheel and the desired response of the steering system. Last year Front . In double wishbone suspension. The formulae used for steering calculations are: C^2 = X^2 + Y^2
Unequal wishbone suspension in both front and rear X = c sin (p) + (a+ b sin (q) – a cos (q)) Reason: Y = b cos (q) + a sin (q) . The only problem lying with it is its higher weight than rack and pinion type steering. ground
. Y – lengths as shown in fig s1 p. This Year –
While designing the steering system the constraints that we possessed were centre alignment of steering system. It has an advantage that being worm type. Friction material is in the disc and drum is of semi-metallic which has very good frictional property.50 mm OBJ to OBJ . It can withstand 25000 cycles at the constant load of 250N/m. pitman arm 4 tie rods used Steering ratio 19. q – angles as shown in fig s1 a – length of steering knuckle from center of tire b – perpendicular distance of steering knuckle from pivot point as shown in fig s1 We stick to reticulating ball type steering as we had a good experience using it in last year vehicle in terms of • Wishbone suspension give more movement of the tires and hence the vehicle for the same movement of the spring.19:1 Steering ratio – 17:1
Suspensions act to provide cushioning action to the driver by absorbing the shocks from the road and also help the tires to maintain good traction.1090 mm Column inclination from horizontal . force is distributed at 5 points on the roll cage unlike at only one point in Mac Pherson strut. Thus facilitating the driver.9 feet IBJ to IBJ .
STEERING SYSTEM LAST YEAR:
• • • • • • • • • • Reticulating ball type. the wheels reaction generated from the track would not be transferred to the driver. 2. tie rods etc as presently we do not have the gear box of steering. Independent suspension. C – length of tie rod X.
The range of travel is small as compared to the previous two methods and hence our damper buckling problem is also solved to an extent. This criterion can be fulfilled by the 2 alternatives: 1. 3. ground clearance required and space limitations Weight of the last 472
year’s vehicle Estimated weight this year’s vehicle of 270 kg approx. in the case when the vehicle is falling on ground after jumping from a speed breaker. driver etc….
The spring damper would be placed at the centre of the lower wishbone. this was the approximate ratio of distribution of the vehicle weight of last year vehicles. transmission. 360 kg approx. By putting a spring of gradually changing pitch and hence stiffness. Design of suspension system should be such that it is able to sustain the worst of the conditions. But the main problem is that the spring might buckle. But if we design our springs according to this situation. with driver)
The spring design is to be for the total weight of around 300 kg now. the springdamper system might buckle. On the other hand softer spring mean that a larger spring travel should be more otherwise they would reach to their solid length. Thus static load on each spring would be 100 kg as spring is mounted at the centre of the wishbone Length of spring = 300 mm Total length (spring + damper) = 430 mm Wire diameter (d) = 9mm Mean coil diameter (D) = 70 mm Allowed travel of the spring = 160 mm Maximum travel of the spring = 192 mm Spring stiffness (K) = 20 N/mm Pitch = 25 mm No of active turns = 10 Total no of turns = 12 Springs are squared and grounded
Spring Design started with some arbitrary parameters within the constraints Constraints: Weight. This method was used by one of the team last year.clearance at the time of testing and then finalized (proper adjustments are made at the time of fabrication). Also. By putting a very long soft spring which has enough uncompressed length left so that it would remain in its working range without reaching its failure limit. Hence the suspension system would fail. This is the method that we will follow because: • • It can be said to be equivalent to the first system. This is the best method to encounter this problem but we could not find a vendor who could manufacture for us a continuously varying spring. our spring will be a lot stiffer and hence the ride will not be comfortable. Also if we choose stiffer springs. Since the major components of the sprung mass(in terms of weight) like engine. We might be able to solve the problem using guides but this is making the system unnecessarily complex. 2. For example.
Driver with accessories Total weight with driver Unsprung mass Sprung mass
90 kg approx. By putting a system of compound spring (in parallel) in which only one spring is acting in normal conditions and a stiffer spring starts to work only after reaching a certain amount of load. 75 kg approx. Even with a damper. are at the back only. 300 kg (at max. just the two wheels support the vehicle as it lands on the ground. they would not be able to facilitate tire traction. Taking ground clearance to be around 8 inches and load of 50 kg on each tire. the weight distribution is taken as 50 kg on each suspension in the front and 100 kg on each suspension at the back.
The rear suspension system is as shown in fig sus3. position of shaft below the horizontal level is 4. their will be load on the spring. full jounce 3 degree and full rebound 12 degree In here. Assuming tire and brake assembly weight to be 20 kg.5 degree of shaft movement would be sufficient for allowing the movement of tire if it encounters a ditch. we designed a layout which was modified again and again to take the present shape as shown in fig r1.5 degree (12-7. Now.1 mm Mean coil diameter (D) = 80 mm Allowed travel of the spring = 72 mm Maximum travel of the spring = 96. This was followed by study of compatibility of various other systems with the roll cage.3mm From initial compression we conclude movement of shaft required is 6. Length of spring = 230 mm Total length (spring + damper) = 490 mm Wire diameter (d) =11. the roll cage design got modified. We also studied the rules and safety instructions as per Baja SAE INDIA 2009 rulebook. The failure criterion for the roll cage is yielding.720 mm
. It should be strong enough to bear the laden load and should be designed against impact load that it might encounter.65 (considering myself as standard) and designed a roll cage model for a person of height 6 feet 3 inches. we keep the mounting point of the spring on the upper wishbone and at its end. if one of the rear tire falls in a ditch.5 degree or we can allow spring movement of 39 mm. deflection of spring required is 6.3 mm Now.870 mm . Initially I assumed the ratio of total height of driver to length of driver below waist as 1.
Here also the constraints were ground clearance 8 inches. Our design of the roll cage started with ergonomic and driver comfort study. as these systems were developed in the process. the allowed movement of shaft under dynamic conditions is 7. Then slowly as the other systems of the vehicle were developed. Hence under static but loaded conditions. for 15 degree spring movement is 80 mm as calculated by the formulae: LENGTH OF ARC = RADIUS * ANGLE SUBTENDED So for 1 degree movement of shaft deflection of spring is 5.7 mm or in terms of shaft movement we can say that 1. the rear suspension can accommodate an additional load of 117 kg.Initial compression (after driver is seated) = 50mm Thus springs can take up a load of 220 kg apart from the weight of vehicle and driver The dimensions and assembly of front suspensions is as shown in fig sus1
Further. Dimensions of the roll cage are see (fig r3): Length – 2300 mm Width – Max At front end At rear end Height – 1440 mm . vehicle weight 110 kg on each tire and movement of transmission shaft as shown in fig sus2. the distance between spring mounting point and shaft hinge point is 12 inch approximately. The software used by us is Pro-E for 3D modeling and design and Auto-CAD for 2-D drafting. Thus. Thus.3 degrees that the
ROLL CAGE AND MATERIALS
The kind of body we are required to manufacture is a unitized body. The roll cage is of utmost importance for us as it would be the one which would provide safety to the driver. Adjacent to fig r1 we also have the roll cage of last year vehicle as fig r2. full angle being 15 degree. Based on these.540 mm .5 degree).8 mm Spring stiffness (K) = 30 N/mm Pitch = 19 mm No of active turns = 10 Total no of turns = 12 Springs are squared and grounded Initial compression (after driver is seated) = 33. For the smaller half drive shaft. mounting points for various systems and even ergonomics and looks to the vehicle.
brake lights. Apart from the accessories provided by Lombardini.
This section includes all the levers.The FEM analysis of the roll cage is still pending and would be included in the final design report. While working on the project.D. heavy duty pipe with the following specifications: Bore – 20 mm Wall thickness – 3. – raman. Our top priority would always be the safety of the driver and working in this direction. oil pressure lamp.040
Odometer. For fabrication of the roll cage. IS: 1239 (part 1):2004. we are going to use Battery: 12 V. brake switch.040 PHOSPHORUS 0. Gurgaon Email I. I would also like to express my gratitude towards our Mechanical department and on the whole towards the college for supporting us and believing in us.
The pipe we are using is of electric resistance welded type. our approach is to design for the worst and still optimize so that we avoid over designing.87 kg Yield strength – 480 N/mm^2 (as per UTM test) As the yield strength is as per UTM test so we assume working yield strength of 400 N/mm^2 The pipe of above specification has a higher bending strength and rigidity than the material specified by the rule book. we are going to use metal inert gas welding and cold bending techniques. The material has chemical composition as: CARBON 0. SAE has provided us with an excellent platform for learning and showcasing real life projects.26. 44 Ah Kill switches: 2
Raman Sarin Mechanical Engineering student Institute of Technology and Management.2 mm Outer diameter . speedometer. Sector 18-C.3 mm Weight per meter – 1.
The design process is not a single handed effort and so it is my team. This step would ensure standardization and reliability would follow as a by part. Ethan foam padding would be used over the pipes in the adjacent of the driver. Chandigarh
.5 to 27.sarin@yahoo. For safety of the driver.co. The approach that we followed is iterative in nature and processes like reverse engineering are adopted in order to select various systems from the ones. existing in the market.2 MANGANES E 1. we will strive to add aesthetic value and a sense of ergonomics to the vehicle. electrical equipments etc that form an important part of our vehicle. The material that we are going to use is mild steel. This would help us to reduce the cost. it was really heartening to see that the people from industry were willing to help us and they provided us with their precious time.in Address .30 SULPHUR 0. whom I wanted to thank for standing with me under all circumstances. reverse alarm We are going to use a separate reversing lever We also worked on a gear shifting mechanism which would be available near the steering wheel
As discussed earlier.#1178. fuel indicator.
REAR and FRONT Fig t1
Steering mechanism (Tie rods to steering knuckle) Fig s1
THIS YEAR ROLL CAGE
LAST YEAR ROLL CAGE