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The main objective of this experiment is to compare the accuracy and characteristics response of the different types of thermometers. Set up requirements Temperature measurement bench with accessories Make: Arm field Model: HT2 Addition: a) pure water and crushed ice made of pure water b) stop watch
First of all make sure that the water heater is full with clean water, and place the power cord to the replaceable in its base. Place the platen on the support bracket above the water heater. Then crushed the ice into fine particles and fill the vacuum flask with a mixture of crushed ice and pure water.
1) Measure the ambient air temperature by glass thermometer. 2) Insert the bulb of the thermometer into the vacuum flask and stirring carefully to ensure intimate contact with the water-ice mixture. 3) You will observe that the reading on the thermometer is 0 degree centigrade. 4) Partially unscrew the top portion of the gland fitted to the platen and moisten the o-ring within the gland. Carefully insert the bulb of thermometer into the water heater and make sure that the bulb is immersed in the water then tighten the gland to retain the thermometer. 5) Turn on the rocker switch for water heater and turn the regulator clockwise. After few minutes water starts to boil and you will observe that the reading on the thermometer is 100 degree centigrade. 6) Repeat the reading in the mixture of ice and water and boiling water and observe that the reading is consistently 0 degree centigrade and 100 degree centigrade. 7) Repeat the reading in ice-water mixture and boiling water with different types of thermometers and record the temperature in the table.
7 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
Type of Thermometers
Freezing temperature of pure water
Boiling temperature of pure water in degree centigrade
8) Repeat the above reading in ice-water mixture and boiling water and hot water and hat air blower with different types of thermometer and record the response time required in the table: S.N. Type of Time Thermometers (seconds) Ice-water mixture Boiling water hot air
On the completion of this experiment, turn the regulator fully anti-clockwise and turn the switch off. Also make sure that the water heater and vacuum flask are empty.
8 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
Experiment No: 2 Heat Conduction
To investigate Fourier’s law of linear conduction To investigate the temperature profile and heat transfer in radial direction of a cylinder To investigate the effect of change in cross-sectional area on the temperature profile
Heat transfer is defined as the transmission of energy from one region to another as a result of temperature gradient takes places by the following three modes: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Conduction is the transfer of heat from one part of a substance to another part of the same substance or from one substance to another in physical contact with it, without appreciable displacement of molecules forming the substance. Fourier‘s law of heat conduction states that the rate of flow of heat through a simple homogeneous solid is directly proportional to the area of the section at right angles to the direction of heat flow, to the change of temperature with respect to the length of the path of the heat flow. Mathematically it can be represented by the equation:
Q α A.dt/dx Where, Q = heat flow through a body per unit time, W A = surface area of the heat flow (perpendicular to the direction of the flow), m2 dt = temperature difference of the faces of the block of thickness dx through which heat flow, oC or K dx = thickness of the body in the direction of flow, m. Thus,
9 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
Q = -k A.dt/dx Where k = constant of proportionality is known as a thermal conductivity of the body.
Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of the fluid with another. Convection is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly linked with the transport of medium itself. Convection constituents the microform of the heat transfer since macroscopic particles of a fluid moving in space cause the heat exchange. The effectiveness of the heat transfer by convection d largely depends upon the mixing motion of the fluid.
The rate equation for the convective heat transfer between a surface and an adjacent fluid is prescribed by Newton’s law of cooling.
Q = h*A (ts-tf) Where Q = rate of conductive heat transfer, A = area exposed to heat transfer, Ts = surface temperature, Tf = fluid temperature and h = co-efficient of conductive heat transfer Conduction of heat along a simple bar Observation: Specimen material: Brass Thermal conductivity of the specimen from tables: Diameter of specimen: 25 mm Length of specimen: 30 mm Distance between temperature probes: 10 mm
Test no. 1 2 3
Wattmet T1 er watts, °C Q
5 10 15
Conduction of heat in radial direction: Observation sheet
10 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
Specimen material: Brass Thermal conductivity of the specimen from tables: Outer diameter of specimen: 110 mm Inner diameter of specimen: 8 mm Length of specimen: 3 mm Distance between temperature probes: 10 mm
Test no. 1 2 3
Wattmeter T1 °C watts, Q 5 10 15
11 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
Experiment No: 3 Air and Water Heat Pump
Set up requirement Air and water heat pump Make: Model: P.A. Hilton Ltd. R831
Equipment Description: HFC134a vapor generated by absorption of low grade heat in either the air or water source evaporator is drawn into the compressor. This extraction of heat from air or water reduces the temperature of the air or water flow leaving the unit. The work done on the gas by the compressor increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant vapor. This hot high pressure gas flows to a concentric tube water tube condenser. In the condenser the gas is desuperheated and then condensed at essentially constant temperature. Before leaving the condenser the liquid refrigerant is slightly sub-cooled below the saturation temperature for the condensing pressure and this liquid then flows to a liquid receiver. The liquid receiver gives a large volume, into which excess refrigerant can flow during operating conditions. In addition the receiver ensures that liquid is always available for changes in demand due to evaporator loading. The compressor motor has winding resistance losses, internal friction and the compression process is not isentropic. All of these conditions result in some of the electrical energy input being covered into heat. The compressor and the motor are contained within the hermetically sealed steel casing and run in oil which during normal operation is warmed by circulation around the casing and collects at the base of the unit. During normal operation some oil will be carried around the system and under certain conditions may appear in the variable area flow meter as a discoloration to the flow. This is quite normal and will disappear during normal running. As the compressor is designed specifically for heat pump uses a copper heat transfer coil is located at the base of the compressor with in the oil reservoir. By passing the cold water from the main supply through this coil before the water is
12 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
transferred to the condenser the normally waste heat from the oil can be added to that given up to the condenser. Sub-cooled liquid HFC134a at high pressure passes through a panel mounted flow meter to a thermostatically controlled expansion valve. On passing through the valve the pressure is reduced to that of the evaporator and the two phase mixture of the liquid and vapor begins to evaporate within the selected evaporator. Control of the heat pump is by variation of the condensing temperature by the source air( or water) temperature and flow rate, and by variation of condensing temperature by the flow rate of the condenser water. The range of the source temperature can be extended directing warmed air from a fan heater at the air intake or by warmed or chilled water to the source water inlet. Relevant system temperature can be measured by thermocouples and a panel mounted digital temperature indicator. The thermocouples used are type K (Nickel-Chrome, Nickel-Aluminum). Condenser and evaporator pressure are indicated by panel mounted pressure gauges. Water and refrigerant flow rates are indicated by panel mounted variable area flow meters. The electrical input to the compressor motor is indicated by the panel mounted analog meter.
Purpose; The purpose of this experiment is 1 To determine the power input, power output as well coefficient of performance of heat pump. 2 To draw actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle on a P-h diagram and compare it with the ideal cycle. 1. Experimental procedure: Turn on the water supply to the unit turn on the main switch. Select the air evaporator by pressing the evaporator change over switch down. Set the condenser gauge pressure to between 700 and 1100 kN/m2 by adjustment of the condenser cooling water flow rate. Allow the unit time for all system parameters to reach a stable condition and fill up the observation sheet. Repeat the above procedure for water evaporator by switching the change over switch up condition and fill up the observation sheet.
Observation sheet: For source of low grade heat: Air
13 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Compressor electrical power input (W)………………………………Watts Cooling water inlet temperature (t5)………………………………..……oC Compressor cooling water outlet temperature (t 6)…………………….…oC Condenser water outlet temperature (t 7)…………………………………oC Condenser water mass flow rate (mc)………..…………………………..g/s
For source of low grade heat: Water S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Particulars units
Compressor electrical power input (W) …………………………….Watts Cooling water inlet temperature (t 5)…………………………….…….…oC Compressor cooling water outlet temperature (t 6)…………………….…oC Condenser water outlet temperature (t7)…………………………………oC Condenser water mass flow rate (mc)……………………………………g/s
Relevant Eqations: Qcomp = mc Cpw (t6-t5) Qc = mc Cpw (t7-t6)
COPhp = rate of heat delivered/ compressor electrical power input. If the heat delivered to the condenser only is considered, then COPhp = Qc/ W If the total heat delivered to the water is considered, i.e., including the waste heat from the compressor cooling oil, then COPhp = (Qc + Qcomp)/W Where, Qcomp = heat delivered to cooling water from compressor Qc = heat delivered to condenser cooling water 14 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
=coefficient of performance of heat pump =specific heat of water (4.18kJ/kg oC)
2. Experiment procedure: 1. Turn the water supply to the unit turn on the main switch. 2. Select the water evaporator by pressing the evaporator change over switch up. 3. Set the condenser cooling water flow rate to approximately 50 % of full flow and evaporator water flow as said by the instructor. 4. Allow the unit time for all of the system parameters to reach a stable condition and fill up the observation sheet. Observation sheet: Atmospheric pressure = 1.05 bar = 105kN/m2 S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. particulars units HFC134a gauge pressure at compressor suction (p1)…………………….…kN/m2 HFC134a absolute pressure at compressor suction (p1)…………………….kN/m2 HFC134a gauge pressure at compressor discharge (p2)…………………....kN/m2 HFC134a absolute pressure at compressor at discharge (p 2)……………….kN/m2 HFC134a temperature at compressor suction (t 1)…………………….…………oC HFC134a temperature at compressor suction (t 2)…………………..…………....oC HFC134a temperature condensed liquid (t 3)….....................................................oC HFC134a temperature at expansion valve outlet (t4)………………..….....……..oC
Result and Analysis: Draw ideal as well as practical vapor compression cycle in the P-h diagram and compare their energy input, desired output as well as COP.
15 Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Lab Manual (Kantipur EC) By: Shankar S. Dhami
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