abad century berabad-abad: for centuries abuk abadi eternal; immortal keabadian: immortality mengabadikan: perpetuate; immortalize


ash mengabui: to cheat; to deceive


pomelo abah father acah tease mengacah-acah: to tease abah-abah harness acapkali often abai neglect mengabaikan: to disregard; to neglect acar pickle abang elder brother abang angkat: foster brother abang ipar: brother-in-law abang tiri: stepbrother acara event; item in a programme mengacarakan: to compere or host a programme pengacara: master of ceremonies; compere

abdi slave mengabdikan: to enslave pengabdian: slavery; enslavement acu abjad alphabet to direct weapon at target mengacukan: to aim weapon at target mengacu: to test; to try on acuan: a mould aci shaft

abu acuh


to care for; to heed mengacuhkan: to care for; to heed acuh tak acuh: to show indifference adegan

mengadatkan: to make it a practice or custom teradat: has become a custom

scene acum provoke or instigate mengacum: to provoke or instigate acuman: provocation pengacum: instigator pengacuman: agitation adib well-mannered

adik ada have; possess; contain adakala: sometimes adakalanya: sometimes adalah: is; are; am; was; were adapun: with regard to berada: (1) rich (2) to be diadakan: to be held keadaan: condition; situation; circumstances mengada-ngada: to boast; to pretend mengada-ngadakan: to concoct an excuse mengadakan: to hold or conduct; to convene younger brother or sister adik-beradik: brothers and sisters beradik: having siblings

adikung assistant officer

adil fair; just keadilan: justice mengadili: to judge mengadilkan: to judge; to evaluate pengadil: judge; referee pengadilan: judgement

adab politeness; good manners; courtesy beradab: courteous; polite peradaban: civilization; culture adinda adang obstruct; block mengadang: to obstruct or block adu

younger brother or sister (esp. in letter-writing)

(1)complain (2)compete adas fennel (yellow-flowered fragrant herb) beradu: (1)to report (2)to compete aduan: complaint mengadu: to report; to accuse pengadu: complainant pengaduan: complaint peraduan: a contest or competition

adat custom; social tradition or practice beradat: polite; customary; ceremonious aduh


exclamation of pain mengaduh: to groan; to wail agama

immeasurable; immense

religion aduhai exclamation of sorrow beragama: having a religion keagamaan: religious

aduk mix; stir mengaduk: to mix or stir agar-agar jelly knead (dough) adunan: dough mengadunkan: to mix together agas gnat; sandfly afiat healthy mengafiatkan: to restore to good health agih distribute diagihkan: distributed mengagihkan: to distribute pengagihan: distribution afrit goblin; mischievous elf or spirit aguk pendant agah murmuring sound mengagah: (1)to gurgle (2)to confront agung supreme agak guess agak-agak: (1)to guess (2)approximately agaknya: perhaps; maybe beragak: not sure mengagak: to guess; to estimate teragak-agak: to hesitate; to be undecided ah exclamation of surprise keagungan: supremacy mengagungkan: to honour; to revere agar so that


aha agam exclamation of triumph


mengajak: to invite ajakan: invitation Ahad Sunday ajal doom; death ahli (1)member (2)expert ajar keahlian: membership teach kurang ajar: disrespectful ajaran: teaching belajar: to learn berajar: educated; courteous mempelajari: to learn in greater detail mengajar: to teach mengajarkan: to teach pelajar: student pelajaran: lesson: education pengajar: teacher pengajaran: something serving as a lesson or warning terpelajar: educated; learned

ahmak stupid

aib (1)disreputable; shameful (2)blemish; flaw; defect keaiban: shame mengaibkan: shameful

air water air batu: ice berair: watery mengairi: irrigate pengairan: irrigation

aju moot; bring up for discussion; propose mengajukan: to propose; to put forward for discussion

ajuk imitate mockingly; tease ais ice aiskrim: ice-cream akad ajaib baffling; inscrutable; miraculous keajaiban: miracle mengajaibkan: miraculous akaid religious dogma ajak invite contract; promise mengakad-nikahkan: to promise marriage mengajuk: to imitate mockingly; to tease ajukan: mockery; ridicule; teasing


akal ability to think and reason akal budi: common sense akal-akal: to pretend or feign berakal: intelligent; smart mengakali: to outwit; to deceive mengakalkan: to think up a plan akidah

consequence; result akibatnya: as a result berakibat: resulted in mengakibatkan: to cause; to result in

belief; faith; confidence akan will; shall akan tetapi: but akan-akan: as if seakan-akan: like; similar; as though akikah head-shaving of an infant

akil akar root berakar: having roots akrab akhbar newspaper akta akhir final; conclusive; at the end; last akhir-akhir: lately; recently akhiran: suffix akhirnya: finally berakhir: ended mengakhiri: to end pengakhiran: process of ending terakhir: last one aku me; I akuan: confession; acceptance memperakui: to certify memperakukan: to certify; to recommend mengaku: to confess; to admit mengakui: to admit: to accept; to acknowledge pengakuan: acknowledgement; confession; admission perakuan: recommendatory act; law passed by legislative body intimate in relationship clever akil baligh: grown up; adolescent

akhirat eternity; the next world; life after death

akhlak behaviour; character; morals

akur agree; consent; approve mengakuri: to agree; to consent; to approve keakuran: agreement; approval



akusaksi attest alat appliance; instrument; tool alabangka crowbar alat ganti: spare part alat kelamin: genital organs alatulis: stationery alatan: various tools peralatan: various tools beralatkan: to equip memperalatkan: use as a tool

alah (1)allergic (2)lose; defeated alahan: allergy beralah: to surrender mengalah: to surrender mengalahkan: to defeat

algojo hangman; executioner

alam (1)nature; world; universe (2)experience berpengalaman: experienced mengalami: to experience pengalaman: experience sealam: having the same nature alih displace; oust; shift; change beralih: altered; shifted mengalih: to shift; to alter; to change; to displace pengalihan: displacement peralihan: transition; alteration

alamat address; sign alim beralamat: addressed to mengalamatkan: to address to alir alang (1)crossbeam (2)of little account alangan: obstacle alangkah: how mengalangi: to obstruct mengalangkan: to put crosswise alis alas foundation; basis; framework; underlayer alasan: excuse; reason; explanation beralasan: well-founded beralaskan: to base on; to line with mengalaskan: to base on; to place an underlayer aliterasi alliteration eyebrow aliran: current or flow; trend of opinion mengalir: to flow mengalirkan: to direct or channel the flow pengaliran: process of channelling the flow of flow learned; pious; religious


alkisah the story is that

mengalunkan: to billow; to rise and roll like big waves

Allah Muslim name for God

alur groove; furrow

allahyarham the late; the deceased

am general (not detailed or specific); common

almarhum the late (for male royalty)

amah female housekeeper; maid

almarhumah the late (for female royalty)

amal practice; good deed amalan: practice; good deed beramal: to do good work; to perform good deeds mengamalkan: to practise pengamal: practitioner pengamalan: performance

almari cupboard

alpa negligent kealpaan: negligence mengalpakan: to neglect aman peaceful keamanan: peace mengamankan: to pacify pengamanan: act of creating peace pengaman: peace-maker

alpukat avocado

alu pounder (rice) mengalu-alukan: to welcome or greet ceremoniously dialu-alukan: welcome or accepted

amanah trust mengamanahkan: to entrust pengamanah: trustee

amanat commendation alun billow; great wave alunan: act of billowing or rolling beralun-alun: wavy; billowy amar


command; order mengamarkan: to order amir emir (Muslim ruler or commander) amaran warning ampai (1)hang (2)tall and slim amat very; extremely mengamati: to scrutinize pengamat: controller pengamatan: observation; scrutiny ampu ingratiate; bring oneself into a person's favour ambang (1)threshold; lintel (2)bob; float ambang pintu: doorway; doorstep mengambang: to hover in the air ampun pardon; forgiveness; amnesty ambil take; obtain; fetch mengambil: to take; to obtain; to fetch ambilan: derivation from pengambilan: act of taking or fetching amuk amboi oh! amuck; violently out of control; state of murderous frenzy mengamuk: attack without thinking pengamuk: person who runs amuck ambul bounce; rebound mengambul: to bounce or rebound mengambulkan: to cause to rebound anai, anai-anai termite keampunan: forgiveness; pardon mengampunkan: to forgive; to pardon pengampun: one who forgives or pardons pengampunan: amnesty or pardon mengampu: to ingratiate pengampu: sycophant; supporter ampai-ampai: jellyfish mengampaikan: to hang clothes out to dry terampai: hung to air or dry ampaian: clothes-line

ambung back-basket

anak child anak angkat: adopted child anak bulan: new moon anak dara: virgin anak merah: newborn

amin amen; so be it


anak-beranak: together with the children anak-anak: many children; still a child anak-anakan: doll; puppet anakanda: son or daughter (in letter-writing) beranak: to bear a child; to give birth keanak-anakan: childish peranakan: native

aneh bizarre; odd; unconventional; funny; strange

aneka anasir an element; a distinct social group anasir jahat: bad social element multifarious; varied; all sorts of aneka ragam: variety show beraneka: having a variety of anekarama: concert

ancam menace; threaten mengancam: to threaten ancaman: a threat terancam: threatened

angan imagination angan-angan: imagination; a day-dream berangan-angan: to day-dream mengangan-angankan: to wish for; to daydream about terangan-angan: to constantly wish for

anda you angau lovesick andai if; suppose andainya: suppose andaian: assumption berandai: to discuss; to debate mengandaikan: suppose anggap assume; deem menganggap: to assume; to regard as anggapan: assumption; opinion beranggapan: of the opinion

andam beautician who does the make-up for the bride and bridegroom mengandam: to make-up the bride and bridegroom anggar estimate anggaran: estimation; budget menganggarkan: to estimate

andas anvil; chopping block

anggerik orchid

anduh suspend by means of a sling



(1)limb (2)member beranggota: (1)having limbs (2)having members anggota badan: part of the body keanggotaan: membership menganggotai: to be a member of

angkat lift; raise angkatan: troops; armed forces berangkat: to depart; to leave keberangkatan: departure; act of leaving

angkuh angguk nod keangkuhan: arrogance anggukan: act of nodding mengangguk: to nod terangguk-angguk: to keep nodding angkup callipers; pincers; forceps anggur (1) grape (2) jobless menganggur: unemployed penganggur: one who is unemployed pengangguran: unemployment angkut convey; transport; transmit mengangkut: to transport berangkut: to transport several times pengangkutan: transportation; means of transport haughty; arrogant; proud

angin wind berangin: windy; breezy mengangin: to winnow menganginkan: to put in a windy place peranginan: holiday resort angsa goose

aniaya angka numerical figure perangkaan: statistics maltreatment; abuse; injustice; tyranny menganiayai: to oppress; to do injustice penganiaya: oppressor penganiayaan: oppression; tyranny; abuse

angkara bad or nasty behaviour

anjak shift position slightly beranjak: to shift position slightly menganjakkan: to change the position of

angkasa space (beyond earth's atmosphere) angkasawan: astronaut anjal elastic; flexible


keanjalan: flexibility; elasticity menganjal: to be elastic or flexible

antarabangsa international

anjing dog

antero whole; totally seantero: the whole; totally

anjung projecting facade (of a building) anti opposed to; counteracting; against anjungan bridge (platform on a ship) anting pendulum anjur to jut out menganjur: to jut out anjuran: proposal; sponsored by menganjurkan: to propose; to advocate penganjur: organizer; sponsor; promoter anting-anting: ear-ring

anu so and so

ansur progress or move in stages beransur: to progress in stages ansuran: instalment mengansurkan: to pay by instalments

anugerah award; honour; grace menganugerahi: to bestow an award; to confer an award menganugerahkan: to bestow; to confer penganugerahan: bestowal

antah rice grains left unhusked after pounding

anut embrace; accept; profess; adopt (religion) menganut: to follow or profess (a religion) anutan: adherence (to a religion) penganut: follower or convert (religion)

antan pestle anyam antara among; between mengantarai: to mediate; to separate perantara: mediator perantaraan: mediation; medium

weave; plait menganyam: to weave; to plait anyaman: product of plaiting or weaving; act of plaiting or weaving


apa what apa-apa: whatever; anything apakah: what apalagi: above all apabila: when apakala: when; if berapa: how much; how many mengapa: why mengapa-apakan: to harm

berarah: having a direction mengarah: to direct mengarahkan: to direct towards pengarah: director searah: in the same direction

arak (1)liquor (2)procession berarak: to walk or march in procession mengarak: to walk in procession pengarak: participant in a procession perarakan: procession arak-arakan: cortege; procession; pageant

api fire berapi: on fire berapi-api: fiery mengapikan: to provoke; to instigate

aral obstacle; hinderance; difficulty

apit squeezed between two surfaces berapit: wedged in between; closely situated mengapit: to squeeze between two surfaces pengapit: best man (at wedding); maid of honour aras April April arca apung float; drift berapungan: floating or drifting in great numbers mengapungkan: to allow to float terapung: floating or drifting about ari abdomen ari-ari: abdomen image; picture a level arang charcoal batu arang: coal

ara fig

arif learned; wise kearifan: cleverness

arah direction arahan: command; order; instruction; direction arkib archives


asam sour arloji clock; watch asam jawa: tamarind mengasamkan: to preserve in vinegar or tamarind (as pickle) asam-asaman: sour fruits preserved in salt

arnab rabbit asap smoke arus current (flow) of water, air or electricity berasap: emitting smoke mengasap: to become smoke; to vapourize mengasapi: to fumigate pengasapan: fumigation perasap: censer

arwah late (no longer living) asar afternoon asa hope asas foundation for a theory; basis; principle asah sharpen; grind; whet mengasah: to sharpen asahan: act of sharpening pengasah: sharpener; grinder pengasahan: act of sharpening or grinding berasah: whetted asasnya: in principle berasas: founded or based on mengasaskan: to base on pengasas: founder

asasi basic; fundamental

asak pack; cram berasak-asak: packed; crammed mengasak: to pack; to stuff asakan: crowd; jam; cramming asin salty mengasinkan: to preserve in salt

asal origin; source asalkan: provided that asalnya: originally berasal: originated

asing foreign; separate asing-asing: separately berasingan: separate mengasingkan: to separate terasing: isolated; separated pengasingan: segregation; exile


askar soldier

atas above; up; upon atasan: superior or upper class mengatasi: to overcome teratas: the highest indigenous; native; natural; original keaslian: originality atau or


asmara love; passion berasmara: to be in love; to make love atuk

ataupun: or

grandfather asrama hostel atur arrange astaka pavilion mengatur: to arrange atur cara: programme aturan: regulation; arrangement; rules; procedure; order beratur: arranged: to queue up beraturan: orderly mengaturkan: to arrange peraturan: regulations teratur: orderly; arranged

asuh bring up (a child); educate mengasuh: to bring up (a child); to educate; to nurse (an infant) asuhan: up-bringing; care (of a child) pengasuh: baby-sitter

aum roar mengaum: to roar

asyik besotted; infatuated; in love; engrossed asyik maksyuk: infatuated; besotted mengasyikkan: engrossing; occupying one's attention fully aur


atap roof beratap: having a roof beratapkan: to have as a roof mengatapi: to roof

aurat parts of the body that should not be exposed according to Islamic belief


auta bluff; deceit ayak sieve awak you perawakan: personality; posture mengayak: to sieve pengayak: a sieve; a person who sieves pengayakan: act of sieving

awal early; beginning awalan: grammatical prefix berawalan: having a prefix

ayak-ayak crane-fly

ayam chicken; fowl awam civil; public; common; general ayam belanda: turkey ayam denak: jungle fowl ayam sabung: fighting cock

awan cloud berawan: cloudy merawan: to be high in the clouds ayat sentence (set of words) awas caution mengawasi: to supervise; to watch closely berawas-awas: to be cautious pengawas: supervisor; monitor pengawasan: supervision ayatullah senior Muslim religious leader ayan tin; corrugated iron

ayu awet conserve; preserve; embalm mengawet: to preserve pengawet: preservative pengawetan: preservation ayun oscillate; swing berayun-ayun: to swing mengayunkan: to swing ayah father berayah: having a father ayahanda: father (in letter-writing) azab pretty


suffering mengazab: to torture keazaban: sufferings

embroil; involve (in argument or quarrel) membabitkan: to involve; to implicate pembabitan: involvement

azali from time immemorial baca read azam determination; firmness of purpose berazam: to be determined keazaman: determination bacul azan a Muslim call to prayer cowardly; timid kebaculan: cowardice membaca: to read bacaan: act of reading; material to be read membacakan: to read for pembaca: reader pembacaan: act of reading

azimat talisman bab chapter

badai hurricane

badak rhinoceros babad chronicle badam almond babak act or scene(of a play); episode; section of a long piece of music badan (1)body (2)organization babas drift; sweep away terbabas: driven out of its course; driven away from from one's goal or principle badik babi pig badut babit clown; comedian dagger berbadan: having a body berbadan dua: pregnant memperbadankan: to corporatize perbadanan: corporation; institution


Badui Bedouin

bah deluge; flood

bagai as if; like bagaikan: as if berbagai-bagai: of various types kepelbagaian: variety pelbagai: various

bahagi allot; distribute; divide bahagian: division; part; portion; section membahagi: to divide membahagi-bahagikan: to distribute; to give away membahagikan: to divide; to distribute pembahagi: divider pembahagian: allotment terbahagi: divided

bagaimana how bagaimanapun: however; no matter how or what sebagaimana: as; like bahagia

blissful; lucky; blessed berbahagia: fortunate; blissful kebahagiaan: bliss; happiness membahagiakan: to cause to be happy

bagasi baggage; cargo bahak baghal mule

guffaw terbahak-bahak: to laugh loud and long

bagi (1)for (2)give membagi: to give

baham gobble membaham: to gobble

baginda His or Her Majesty

bahan substance; matter; material bahan api: fuel

bagur large and clumsy bahana loud noise or sound bagus nice; pleasant; good


bahang heat membahang: to heat

bahkan moreover

bahlul bahantara medium (environment) bahu bahari ancient baiduri baharu new membaharui: to renew pembaharuan: renewal baik good; all right; fine baik-baik: carefully berbaik: to be on good terms kebaikan: goodness; benefit membaiki: to repair memperbaiki: to repair pembaikan: correction; improvement sebaik-baik: as good as; just sebaiknya: better; as it should be terbaik: the best opal shoulder inane; silly

bahas debate or discussion berbahas: to debate; to discuss membahaskan: to discuss; to debate; to criticize pembahas: debater perbahasan: a debate or discussion

bahasa language berbahasa: courteous; cultured; using a language perbahasaan: speech; customary etiquette

bait a poem with two lines; couplet

baitulmal treasury

bahawa that

baja fertilizer membaja: to fertilize

bahaya danger berbahaya: dangerous membahayakan: to endanger bajak a plough membajak: to plough


bakat talent; flair; aptitude baji a wedge membaji: to split using a wedge bakau mangrove bajik welfare kebajikan: welfare bakawali a medicinal herbal plant berbakat: talented

bajingan scoundrel; rascal

bakhil stingy; miserly

baju clothes; dress berbaju: dressed membajui: to put on clothes

baki balance; remainder berbaki: having a balance or surplus

bakti bak like; similar berbakti: to be devoted or dedicated membaktikan: to dedicate baka heredity baku kebakaan: hereditary standard membakukan: to standardize pembakuan: standardization bakal future (adj.); aspirant; destined to become bakul basket bakar burn kebakaran: a fire membakar: to burn terbakar: on fire; burnt pembakaran: act of burning bakung amaryllis (lily-like plant) devotion; dedication

bala disaster; calamity


balada ballad

baldi pail; bucket

balah bicker berbalah: to bicker or quarrel membalah: to oppose or defy

baldu velvet

baligh puberty balai hall; station balai raya: community hall balik (1)return (2)behind berbalik: to turn back; to return kebalikan: contrary to membalik-balik: to flip over membalikkan: to invert; to reverse to position menterbalikkan: to turn upside down pembalikan: act of turning upside down; act of returning sebaliknya: on the contrary terbalik: upside down; reversed

balak log (timber) membalak: to log pembalakan: logging

balam spotted-neck dove baling berbalam: unclear; vague; hazy throw; fling membaling: to throw; to fling balang flagon (vessel with lid, lip and handle for serving wine) baling-baling propeller; wind-vane

balar albino balu widow balas reciprocate; reply; avenge membalas: to reciprocate balasan: reciprocation; response; reply; revenge berbalas-balasan: exchange baluarti bulwark; stone wall of defence

balung comb (of fowl)


balut wrap; envelop; bandage balutan: wrapping; bandage berbalut: bandaged membalut: to wrap; to bandage membaluti: to wrap pembalut: wrapping; bandage

bandul pendulum membandul: to swing like a pendulum

bangang duff; stupid

banci census bancian: census bangat fast; quick

bancuh mix; stir membancuh: to mix; to stir bancuhan: mixture pembancuhan: act of mixing or stirring

bangau stork; flamingo

bangga elated; proud berbangga: feeling proud kebanggaan: pride membanggakan: to arouse a feeling of pride

bandar town bandaran: municipal perbandaran: municipality bandaraya: city

banggul hillock; mound

bandela bale; large bundle

bangkai carcass

banding compare membandingkan: to compare berbanding: compared with perbandingan: comparison sebanding: comparable

bangkang oppose membangkang: to oppose bangkangan: protest; objection; opposition pembangkang: the opposition; one who is opposing

banduan convict; prisoner

bangkit evoke; bring to one's mind; get up


berbangkit: to get up kebangkitan: awakening; resurgence; emergence membangkitkan: to evoke; to awaken; to raise; to arouse a feeling in one's mind banjir

berbanjar: forming a line or row membanjarkan: arrange in a row

flood bangku bench; stool bantah bangsa race; nation of people kebangsaan: national sebangsa: of the same race membantah: to protest; to oppose bantahan: a protest pembantah: opposer protest; disobey; oppose membanjiri: to flood

bangsal barn; shed

bantai slaughter; beat up membantai: to slaughter; to beat up; to thrash pembantaian: act of slaughtering pembantai: butcher vagrant; scoundrel bantal


bangsawan high class or rank; nobility; Malay opera

pillow berbantalkan: to use as a pillow bantal golek: bolster bantal peluk: bolster

bangsi bamboo flute banteras fight against; eradicate; exterminate bangun stand; get up; wake up bangunan: building membangun: to get up; to rise; to develop membangunkan: to awaken someone; to develop; to construct pembangunan: development; construction membanteras: to fight against; to eradicate pembanterasan: eradication

banting lambaste; reprimand severely membanting: to beat; to lambaste; to thrash membanting tulang: to work hard

banjar row; range banjaran: range of mountains bantu


help; assist; back; aid membantu: to help; to assist bantuan: assistance pembantu: assistant; helper

barang goods; things barangan: goods; commodity sebarang: whatever; any sembarangan: whatever; any

bantut stunt; hinder; stop membantutkan: to stunt; to hinder; to stop terbantut: stunted barangkali perhaps; maybe

barat banyak much; many banyak-banyak: in large quantities banyaknya: amount; a large number of kebanyakan: most of; majority of membanyakkan: to increase sebanyak: as much as; as many as sebanyak-banyaknya: at the most terbanyak: the most west kebaratan: westernized kebarat-baratan: westernized pembaratan: westernization

baring lie down berbaring: to lie down; to recline membaringkan: to place in a recumbent position terbaring: in a recumbent position

bapa father bapa saudara: uncle berbapa: having a father sebapa: having the same father

baris line; row barisan: line; front; troops berbaris: to line up membariskan: to arrange in rows pembaris: ruler perbarisan: parade

bara embers membara: furious; smouldering

barah cancer berbarah: having cancer membarah: cancerous

baru new baru-baru: recently membarui: to renew memperbarui: to renew pembaruan: renovations; reforms

baran grumpy; ill-tempered barut diaper; dressing; bandage


(1) limits; confines; boundaries (2) vegetable bed basah wet basah kuyup: drenched basahan: daily used items or clothes membasahi: to wet membasahkan: to wet batik type of textile print basi stale; mouldy (of food) batin of the inner feelings; mental basmi eradicate; destroy membasmi: to eradicate pembasmian: eradication batu basuh wash basuhan: something that is washed membasuh: to wash (1) stone; rock (2) mile batu api: instigator batu asah: whetstone berbatu-batu: stony membatu: to keep silent batuan: rock tok batin: Proto-Malay tribal chief batiniah: spiritual kebatinan: inner self membatasi: to limit pembatasan: limitation perbatasan: border area; frontier area terbatas: limited; restricted berbatas: having a border

bata brick batuk cough batal invalid; null; cancelled membatalkan: to cancel pembatalan: cancellation bau smell; aroma; odour bau-bauan: scent; fragrance; perfume berbau: to emit an odour terbau: got the smell terbatuk-batuk: to cough uncontrollably

batang bar; strip; long solid piece; numerical coefficient for cylindrical objects batang hidung: bridge of the nose bauk

sideburns; whiskers batas


baur mix berbaur: mixed (with) bauran: mixture; hotchpotch

shadow; reflection bayang-bayang: shadow; reflection; imagination bayangan: shadow; image berbayang: shadowy; to cast a shadow membayangi: to form an image; to follow and spy on membayangkan: to suggest; to imply terbayang: reflected; pictured terbayangkan: imagined; reflected

bawa bring; carry membawa: to bring; to carry membawakan: to bring something for someone terbawa: taken unintentionally terbawa-bawa: to be involved; to be influenced pembawa: bearer; carrier pembawaan: talent

bayar pay membayar: to pay bayaran: payment membayarkan: to pay pembayar: payer pembayaran: payment

bawah below; under bawahan: subordinate; of lower rank or position; inferior terbawah: lowest terkebawah: lowest

bayi baby

bawal ponfret

bayu breeze

bawang onion bawang merah: shallot bawang putih: garlic

bazir waste membazirkan: to waste pembaziran: wastage

baya age sebaya: same age group

bebal imbecile; idiotic; silly; foolish; stupid

beban burden; responsibility bayam spinach bebanan: burden; responsibility membebani: to burden someone membebankan: to burden someone



bebas free; independent kebebasan: freedom membebaskan: to liberate; to release bedak powder bedak sejuk: powder made from rice berbedak: powdered membedaki: to powder bandage; dressing membebat: to apply a dressing to a wound bedal whip; beat bebawang bulb (of plant) bedek bebel incomprehensible utterings membedek: to take aim at membebel: to utter incoherently bedil beberapa several gunpowder; gun bedilan: shooting; firing membedil: to shoot bebibir flange; projecting rim beduk big drum used in the mosque beca trishaw; rickshaw begar headstrong; hard; firm becak muddy begini like this becok fond of chatting; talkative begitu like that; so bedah operate; dissect beguk membedah: to operate pembedahan: surgical operation mumps aim at membedal: to whip; to beat



(1) advocate; defend; avenge (2) rear or breed bejana canister membela: to defend; to avenge; to look after pembelaan: defence; protection belaan: that which is taken care of

bekal cater; supply food bekalan: provisions; stock; supply; ration berbekal: having a supply of membekalkan: to supply; to provide; to furnish pembekal: supplier pembekalan: that which is supplied

belacan shrimp paste

belacu calico

belah bekam seize; grip membekam: to draw blood from belahan: cleft; cleavage berbelah bagi: half-hearted membelah: to split menyebelahi: to take sides; to side with sebelah: half; beside; towards sebelah-menyebelah: on both sides bersebelahan: side by side; near terbelah: apart; separated to split; to bisect; to cut in half

bekas (1) former; ex- (2) container (3) traces bekas darah: blood stain bekas luka: scar berbekas: having marks or traces belai

cherish; coaxing; caress bekat full belaian: coaxing; caress membelai: to cherish; to caress membelai-belai: to cherish; to caress

beku frozen; hardened; solidified otak beku: stupid person membekukan: to cause to freeze or solidify membeku: to coagulate or clot pembekuan: coagulation

belak mottled

belaka altogether; entirely; quite

bekuan hot belakang back; rear; behind belakangan: recently membelakangi: to ignore; to disregard membelakangkan: to ignore; to disregard; to



place at the back terkebelakang: out-of-date; far behind

belas (1) compassion; pity; mercy (2) numerals from eleven to nineteen belasan: teenager; numerals from eleven to nineteen kesebelasan: eleventh berbelas: having sympathy or pity

belalai elephant's trunk; proboscis

belalang grasshopper

belasah flog; whip membelasah: to flog; to whip

Belanda Dutch belat fish-trap belang stripe berbelang: striped belati European

belanga clay cooking pot

belau shimmering belauan: diffraction of light

belangkas king-crab belebas ledge; lath belanja expenses; expenditure belanjawan: budget berbelanja: to spend membelanjakan: to spend perbelanjaan: expenditure belek scrutinise membelek: to scrutinise

belantan club; bludgeon; truncheon

belengas sticky

belantara forest

belenggu manacle; handcuff; shackle membelenggu: to handcuff; to shackle terbelenggu: handcuffed; shackled


pembelit: swindler; deceiver terbelit: coiled; twined belerang sulphur beliung hatchet; small axe; adze beli buy belok membeli: to buy belian: the purchase membeli-belah: shopping membelikan: to buy for pembeli: purchaser pembelian: the purchase terbeli: able to buy belot belia youth membelot: to betray pembelot: traitor pembelotan: betrayal; treason beliak dilated; wide open (of eyes) terbeliak: wide open membeliakkan: to dilate belukar bush; shrub; secondary forest betray turn (in direction) membelok: to turn (in direction) membelokkan: to change the course or direction belokan: a bend or curve; a change of direction

beliau he or she

belulang hide; untanned leather; patch of hardened skin

belikat shoulder-blade

belum not yet sebelum: before

belimbing starfruit belut eel belit circumlocutary; twisting; twining membelit: to coil or twine around belitan: a coil berbelit-belit: coiled; twined; twisted membelitkan: to entwine bembam roast in hot embers membembam: to roast in hot embers


benak silly; stupid

treasurer; bursar

benam embed; immerse in water terbenam: immersed in water; embedded membenamkan: to immerse; to embed

bendalir fluid

bendang wet rice-fields

benang thread bendar ditch or moat benar genuine; true; real; correct benar-benar: really; truly; very kebenaran: truth; permission; approval membenarkan: to allow; to permit sebenarnya: in fact bendela bale; package

bendera flag

bencana (1) harmful; very unpleasant (2) disaster

bendi lady's finger

benci hate; detest kebencian: hatred membenci: to hate; to loathe pembenci: one who hates bendul cross-beam

bendung barrier; dyke benda thing kebendaan: materialism bengal temporarily deaf; stubborn bendahara chief minister of a Malay State perbendaharaan: treasury bengang buzzing or ringing in the ears membendung: to barricade; to dam




cruel; harsh membengis: to act cruelly benih


seed bengkak (1) swollen; bloated (2) swelling membengkak: to swell bening transparent; clear; limpid bengkalai unfinished terbengkalai: unfinished

benjol bump or swelling, esp. left by a blow

bengkang zig-zag bengkang-bengkok: zig-zag

bentak snarl; snap membentak: to snarl; to snap

bengkarung newt

bentan relapse

bengkel workshop

bentang spread out (carpet or mat) membentang: to spread out (carpet or mat); to put forward (a proposal) membentangi: to spread out or unroll (carpet or mat) terbentang; spread out or unrolled

bengkeng cantankerous; irritable membengkengi: to scold; to irritate bentar

moment bengkok bent; crooked membengkokkan: to bend bentara bengkung sash for the waist; corset; girdle benteng benguk herald; state proclamation officer sebentar: a moment sebentar-sebentar: at short intervals


stronghold; fortress berbentengkan: use as a fort membentengi: fortify berbenteng: fortified


berangsang pep; vigour memberangsangkan: to fill with vigour; to enliven

bentuk form; shape; appearance berbentuk: having the form of membentuk: to form; to create; to mould pembentukan: formation; creation; establishment sebentuk: numerical coefficient for curved objects terbentuk: formed; established

berangus muzzle

berani brave keberanian: bravery memberanikan: to encourage berani mati: not afraid of death

benua continent

bera blush; flushing of face

berapa how much; how many seberapa: any amount; as much or as many as

berahi amorous; feeling sexual love keberahian: passion memberahikan: to arouse passion beras rice beras kunyit: saffron rice beras pulut: glutinous rice berak defecate terberak: to defecate berat heavy; tough beratnya: weight keberatan: reluctant beranda gallery; verandah; terrace berenga maggot berang disgruntled; discontented; annoyed beres in order; settled berangan


membereskan: to settle; to arrange pemberesan: settlement; arrangement

boon; benefit; blessing memberkati: to bless

Berhad Limited berlian diamond berhala idol; image; fetish; worshipped object bernas full (of grain); highly spirited (of speech); factual and convincing (of writing); fertile and productive (of cultivation) beri give memberi: to give memberikan: to give pemberian: gift; allowance pemberi: one who gives berontak rebel; revolt memberontak: to rebel; to revolt pemberontak: a rebel; an insurgent pemberontakan: a rebellion; a revolt

beringin banyan tree beroti batten berita news bersih berita angin: rumour berita kilat: newsflash memberitakan: to inform pemberita: reporter; journalist clean kebersihan: cleanliness membersihkan: to clean pembersih: cleaner pembersihan: act of cleaning

beritahu inform bersin memberitahu: to inform pemberitahuan: announcement; notification bersut berkas bundle memberkas: to bind; to arrest memberkaskan: to bind; to fasten bertih rice fried in the husk bertih jagung: popcorn berkat glower; scowl sneeze


besok tomorrow beruang bear bestari well-bred; intelligent berudu tadpole besut refine metal beruk monkey membesut: to refine metal; to spurt (of water or blood)

berus brush memberus: to brush

beta I; me (used by king)

betah recovered; accustomed besan parents of a married couple betapa how (emphasising the degree) besar big besar hati: proud; elated besar kepala: stubborn; conceited; big-headed besar mulut: boastful besar-besaran: grand; on a large scale berbesar hati: grateful kebesaran: greatness membesar: to grow big membesar-besarkan: to exaggerate membesarkan: to enlarge membesarkan diri: to brag memperbesar: to enlarge or expand pembesar: dignitary terbesar: largest betik papaya

betina female

beting sandbar; sandbank

besi iron (metal) besi baja: steel besi berani: magnet

betis calf (of leg)

betul correct; true betul-betul: truly; exactly; really


kebetulan: by coincidence; by chance; incidentally membetulkan: to correct; to rectify pembetulan: correction sebetulnya: in fact

bias deflect; refract biasan: refraction; diversion membiaskan: to deflect; to refract

betung a large type of bamboo pembetungan: sewerage

biasa habitual; usual; ordinary biasanya: usually kebiasaan: custom; habit; practice membiasakan: to accustom; to familiarise

beza difference berbeza: to differ; to be different berbeza-beza: differently membeza-bezakan: to differentiate; to discriminate; to distinguish between membezakan: to differentiate perbezaan: difference; dissimilarity pembezaan: differentiation; discrimination; classification biasiswa scholarship

biawak iguana

biaya biadab impolite; discourteous kebiadaban: rudeness cost; expenses dibiayai: defrayed membiayai: to defray; to subsidise pembiayaan: financing; subsidisation pembiaya: the person who pays for the expenses

biak prolific; productive; fertile membiak: to multiply; to reproduce membiakkan: to breed; to rear pembiakan: breeding; reproduction bibir lip

bicara biar let; allow membiarkan: to allow; to neglect; to ignore terbiar: neglected; ignored discussion berbicara: to discuss membicarakan: to discuss; to deliberate over; to preside over a court case pembicaraan: discussion perbicaraan: court hearing or trial

biara convent; monastery bicu jack (for lifting heavy objects)


biduan male singer bidaah heresy biduanda pageboy; valet bidadari houri (beautiful woman of the Muslim paradise)

biduanita female singer

bidai blinds; screen bijak judicious; smart; wise kebijakan: intelligence; smartness bidak pawn bijaksana judicious; smart; wise bidal thimble bidalan: proverb bijan sesame seed bidan midwife biji bidang domain; field or range of activity; numeral coefficient for things that are spread out and flat seed; grain; pip; numerical coefficient for fruits and small spherical objects berbiji: having seed biji-bijian: cereals kebijaksanaan: wisdom; prudence

bidas criticise; spring back or rebound membidas: to criticise; to spring back or rebound

bijih ore bijih besi: iron ore bijih timah: tin ore

bidik aim at membidik: to aim at

bijirin cereal



make membikin: to make; to manufacture bikinan: product; creation bimbang fearful; worried; anxious; nervous kebimbangan: anxiety; worry membimbangkan: to cause anxiety edging; trimming bimbing lead; guide when; if bila-bila: whenever bimbingan: guidance; tuition; advice membimbing: to lead; to guide pembimbing: a guide or leader; adviser



bilah blade (of knife or sword); lath; numerical coefficient for weapons of sharpened metal bimbit carry dangling in the hand membimbit: to carry dangling in the hand bilal muezzin bin son of bilang calculate; count; tell; repeat bina bilangan: number; amount; quantity berbilang: several; numerous membilang: to count; to call out; to say sebilangan: a number of terbilang: counted; included; famous construct; build binaan: something built or constructed membina: to construct; to build pembina: builder pembinaan: construction

bilas rinse; wash; cleanse membilas: to rinse or wash bilasan: cleansing; rinsing binasa destroyed; ruined membinasakan: to destroy pembinasa: destroyer pembinasaan: destruction

bilik room binatang animal bilis bloodshot eye kebinatangan: animalistic characteristics; bestiality


bingkis parcel; package bincang discuss berbincang: to discuss; to deliberate berbincang-bincang: to discuss membincangkan: to discuss perbincangan: discussion bingkisan: a gift or present membingkis: to send a gift or present accompanied by a letter

bingung bewildered; confused kebingungan: bewilderment; confusion membingungkan: to confuse; to puzzle; to perplex

bincut lump; swelling

bingal stubborn

bini wife berbini: married (for a man)

bingit deafening membingitkan: to deafen tmporarily bintang star berbintang: starry sebintang: compatible membintangi: to act in a film perbintangan: astronomy; astrology

bingka a type of cake made from tapioca

bingkah nugget; chunk

binti daughter of

bingkai frame

bintik spot; dot berbintik: spotted; dotted

bingung bewildered; confused

bintil nodule; pimple

bingkas bounce; rebound membingkas: to bounce; to rebound biola violin


birai blind or screen, esp. on roller, for window; balustrade bisu

expert; skilled

mute or dumb biras relationship between two brothers' wives or between two sisters' husbands bisul biri-biri sheep bius biru blue biru lebam: blue black biru muda: light blue kebiru-biruan: bluish kebiruan: blueness bobok sleep bisa venom; malice berbisa: venomous; malicious bocor leaking; a leak bisik whisper bisikan: a murmur; a whisper berbisik: to whisper membisikkan: to whisper bodoh stupid bising noisy kebisingan: noisiness membising: to make noise bogel nude; naked biskop bishop berbogel: nude; naked membogelkan: to undress kebodohan: stupidity memperbodohkan: to make a fool of kebocoran: leakage membocorkan: to cause a leak; to puncture membobok: to gurgle membobokkan: to put a child to sleep membius: to anesthetise pembiusan: anesthetisation anesthesia boil; abscess membisu: to remain silent




cow's moo bomoh bohong lie; bluff berbohong: to lie membohongi: to lie to; to deceive membohongkan: to denounce as a lie; to deny pembohong: liar pembohongan: a lie bonceng sponger; ride pillion membonceng: to get a lift from; to sponge on somebody memboncengkan: to give a lift to pembonceng: passenger Malay medicine-man

bola ball bonda mother bolak-balik vacillation berbolak-balik: to vacillate; to hesitate membolak-balik: to twist and turn boneka doll; puppet

boleh can; able to; permitted to boleh jadi: maybe berkebolehan: capable; talented kebolehan: ability membolehkan: to permit; to allow seboleh-bolehnya: to the best of one's ability

bonggol hump berbonggol: having a hump

bongkah block or solid piece berbongkah-bongkah: in large chunks or pieces

bolos pierced; penetrated; stripped off (hair, feathers, clothes, etc. membolos: to abandon; to desert

bongkak arrogant; boastful

bolot wrap up membolot: to wrap up; to bundle together; to win bongkar unpack; unload membongkar: to unpack; to unload bongkar-bangkir: in disorder membongkar rahsia: to expose a secret membongkar sauh: to raise up the anchor terbongkar: forced open; exposed pembongkaran: disclosure; upheaval

bomba fire brigade


wholesale bongkok hunchback membongkok: to stoop; to humble oneself membongkokkan: to bend; to stoop; to bow terbongkok-bongkok; doubled up memborong: to buy wholesale memborongkan: to sell wholesale pemborong: wholesaler

boros extravagant memboroskan: to waste borosan: extravagance pemboros: spendthrift

bongsu youngest (of children); lowest (of rungs of ladder or steps) bosan bonjol a bulge; a lump

bored kebosanan: boredom membosankan: to bore pembosan: one who is easily bored

boo exclamation of disapproval botak bald bopeng pock-marked membotakkan: to make bald

bor tool for drilling

boyak drab; dull; uninteresting; tasteless

borak talk idly berborak: to talk idly

boyot pot-bellied

buah (1)fruit (2)numeral coefficient for large objects borang form (document) buah fikiran: opinion; thought buah hati: sweetheart buah-buahan: fruits berbuah: to bear fruit membuahkan: to produce; to yield; to cause buah pinggang: kidney

borek speckled; spotted




swing; rock; sway buaian: a cradle; a swing berbuai-buai: to swing membuai: to make something swing terbuai-buai: swinging; swaying; rocking

buaya crocodile buaya darat: thief; scoundrel

bubar disband; disperse; scatter buak effervescence membubarkan: to disperse; to liquidate pembubaran: liquidation; disbandment

bual converse bualan: talk; chatter; conversation berbual: to converse perbualan: conversation bubuh put; add; affix buang discard; throw membuang: to throw membuangkan: to throw away; to discard terbuang: discarded buangan: something that has been discarded membubuhi: to add; to affix membubuhkan: to add; to affix bubu fish-trap made of bamboo and rattan

bubuk woodworm

buas savage; uncivilised; wild membuas: act savagely

bubul cobble; mend roughly

bubur buasir pile; haemorrhoid bucu buat make; do or perform membuat: to do; to make; to cause buat sementara: temporarily buatan: brand; manufactured by; product of perbuatan: deed; act pembuatan: manufacture; production buat-buatan: pretence budak child kebudak-budakan: childish corner; angle porridge



culture budayawan: cultured person kebudayaan: culture

membuka: to open membukakan: to expose; to open; to reveal pembukaan: opening terbuka: not covered; unlimited; public bukaan: an opening or aperture

budi kindness; good deed budi bahasa: good manners budi bicara: discretion; common-sense budi pekerti: disposition; character berbudi: kind; wise; sensible bukit hill budiman wise; generous berbukit: hilly berbukit-bukit: hilly membukit: to pile up; to heap up bukan non-; not; does not bukan-bukan: absurdity; nonsense

bugar strong and healthy bukti evidence; proof buih foam berbuih: foaming buku bujang (1)celebate (2)unmarried man; bachelor (1)book (2)loaf (of bread) (3)knot (in wood) (4)node buku lima: fist membukukan: to record; to note; to put into book form pembukuan: an entry in a book membuktikan: to prove terbukti: proven

bujuk persuade; coax bujukan: persuasion bulan

(1)moon (2)month bujur oblong; oval; longitudinal membujur: to stretch out lengthwise terbujur: stretched out lengthwise bulan madu: honeymoon bulan purnama: full moon bulan sabit: crescent bulanan: monthly berbulan-bulan: for several months

buka open



band; strip; head-dress bulangan: ribbon buncit bulat circular; round; spherical bulatan: (1)circle (2)traffic roundabout membulatkan: to make circular or round sebulat: unanimous bundar

mengebumikan: to bury pengebumian: burial

distended; bloated membuncitkan: to inflate

round; globular bulbul nightingale bunga buli-buli (1)small flask or jug (2)small gland (1)flower (2)interest (monetary) bunga api: sparklers bunga-bungaan: all kinds of flowers berbunga: to produce flowers berbunga-bunga: floral; flowery membungai: to decorate membundarkan: to make something round

bulu fur; body hair; feathers berbulu: hairy; feathery bulu babi: sea-urchin bulu kambing: wool bulu kening: eyebrows

bungkal lump; weight

buluh bamboo

bungkam quiet; speechless membungkam: to gag; to silence pembungkam: silencer

bulur hungry kebuluran: starvation bungkus wrap up bungkusan: parcel; package membungkus: to wrap pembungkusan: packaging berbungkus: wrapped up pembungkus: wrapper

bumbung roof membumbung: to rise; to ascend

bumi (1)earth (2)dry land

bunian invisible forest elf or spirit


sound buntak short and stout bunyi-bunyian: music berbunyi: to sound membunyikan: to produce a sound sebunyi: of the same sound

buntal (1)bloated; pot-bellied (2)globe-fish

buru hunt berburu: to hunt memburu: to hunt pemburu: hunter pemburuan: a hunt perburuan: prey terburu-buru: in great haste

buntang wide open and staring (of eyes) membuntang: to stare wide-eyed

buntil cloth knapsack

buruh labourer; worker perburuhan: labour

bunting pregnant (of animals) buruj constellation of stars buntu blocked or closed kebuntuan: deadlock buruk bad; ugly buruk laku: ill-mannered buruk makan: gluttonous buruk sangka: prejudiced buruk siku: to take back what has been given keburukan: ugliness; badness; wickedness memburukkan: to worsen; to aggravate

buntut bottom or buttocks membuntuti: to trail; to follow

bunuh kill berbunuhan: killing of one another membunuh: to kill pembunuh: killer; murderer pembunuhan: murder; killing terbunuh: killed

burung bird

burut hernia




froth; foam berbusa: to froth; to foam membusa: to pant; to puff cabang branch busuk rotten; bad; putrid membusuk: to give out a strong bad odour membusukkan: to disgrace or defame; to putrefy kebusukan: decay; badness cabar challenge cabaran: a challenge mencabar: to challenge pencabar: challenger busung bloated; distended cabik tattered; ragged; torn busur bow (for shooting arrows) mencabik: to tear or rip mencabikkan: to tear or rip bercabang: having branches bercabang-cabang: having many branches

busut molehill; anthill cabul indecent; disgusting buta blind buta huruf: illiterate membuta: (1)to sleep soundly (2)to act blindly cabut (1) to pull out (2) to flee butang button cabut lari: to leave immediately cabutan: a draw (as in a lottery) mencabut: to pull out; to extract by pulling mencabut nyawa: to take a life mencabut undi: to draw lots tercabut: has been pulled out mencabul: to molest mencabuli: to molest pencabulan: violation; molestation

butir (1)item; fact; point (2)numeral coefficient for small round objects cacah

tattoo buyung earthenware cabai chilli bercacah: tattooed mencacah: to tattoo


cacak upright or erect (for pole) mencacak: to plant upright mencacakkan: to plant upright tercacak: upright or erect cagar

lift up (e.g. snake's head about to strike) mencaduk: to lift up (e.g. snake's head about to strike)

deposit; mortgage cacar smallpox bercacar: vaccinated against smallpox pencacaran: vaccination against smallpox cagut cacat defective; handicapped; deformed mencagut: to peck or eat with beak cacat akal: mentally retarded kecacatan: a handicap or defect mencacati: to abuse; to deface; to deform cahaya light; radiance caci scorn; abuse cacian: an abusive remark bercaci-cacian: to exchange abusive remarks mencaci: to scorn; to abuse cair liquid cairan: solution; dilution mencairkan: to liquefy; to melt; to dilute pencairan: liquefaction worm cakah cadang intend bercadang: intend cadangan: proposal; suggestion mencadangkan: to propose; to plan; to suggest pencadang: proposer cakap talk; speak bercakap: to talk; to speak bercakap-cakap: to chat percakapan: conversation; talk cadar bedsheet cakar (1) a claw (2) claw or scratch caduk bercakar: to argue obtuse; blunt bercahaya: giving out light peck or eat with beak cagaran: a deposit mencagarkan: to pawn; to mortgage; to deposit as security



mencakar: to scratch; to claw pencakar langit: skyscraper

cam recognise; identify mengecam: to recognise; to identify mengecamkan: to ascertain the identity of pengecaman: identification

cakera wheel; disc cakera padat: compact disc camar

seagull cekerawala universe; firmament cambah burgeon; begin to grow rapidly cakup catch something by using hand or mouth mencakup: to catch something using hand or mouth camca spoon calar abrasion; scratch calar-balar: badly scratched bercalar: having been scratched mencalarkan: to scratch tercalar: injured by being scratched campak (1) throw; fling; hurl (2) measles mencampak: to throw; to fling mencampakkan: to throw away; to fling; to hurl; to cast away tercampak: thrown bercambah: germinate; sprout mencambahkan: to sow percambahan: germination

calit smear or smudge calitkan: to smear with mencalit: to smear or smudge mencalitkan: to smear or smudge campur mix campur tangan: interfere campuran: mixture; combination bercampur: to be involved; to associate bercampur baur: mixed (feelings) bercampur gaul: to mingle mencampur: to mix mencampuradukkan: to mix up; to muddle up mencampuri: to mix with; to associate with mencampurkan: to mix tercampur: mixed; blended

calon candidate mencalonkan: to nominate pencalonan: nomination

calung dipper; ladle; cup for collecting latex canai grind; polish


batu canai: whet-stone; grinding wheel roti canai: a flat Malaysian bread made from wheat mencanai: to roll out the dough; to grind; to polish

cangkir small cup

canang gong mencanangkan: to announce

cangkuk hook mencangkuk: to hook mencangkukkan: to attach hooks to tercangkuk: hooked

candat grapnel cangkul hoe candu opium cangkung squat look up mencangkung: to squat mencangak: to look up cantas canggah (1) fork (2) dissent bercanggah: in opposition; conflicting; forked bercanggahan: in opposition; conflicting; forked percanggahan: opposition; conflict to prune, trim or lop mencantas: to prune, trim or lop mencangkul: to hoe; to dig


cantik beautiful kecantikan: beauty mencantikkan: to beautify

canggih (1) sophisticated (2) excessively talkative kecanggihan: sophistication cantum

coalesce; join together; come together canggung gauche; awkward; clumsy bercantum: to join together; to coalesce; to come together mencantumkan: to join; to merge; to bring together percantuman: merger; union tercantum: joined together

cangkat hillock


cap stamp; print; trade mark cap jari: fingerprint cap mohor: royal or official seal mengecap: to imprint; to stamp a mark or brand

carik tear or rip mencarik-carikkan: to tear into small pieces

carta chart; map; table; diagram capai achieve; attain; accomplish caruk mencapai: to achieve; to attain; to accomplish pencapaian: achievement; accomplishment; attainment tercapai: achieved carum fee; subscription capal sandals carut capik lame; limping mencarut: to talk obscenely tercapik-capik: limping cas cara way; means; method secara: by way of; like; resembling cat paint cari search mencari: to search; to look for mencari-cari: to search; to look for mencarikan: to look for tercari-cari: looking for; searching pencarian: livelihood bercat: painted mengecat: to paint electrical charge obscenity caruman: fee; subscription gorge; eat greedily

catat note down; jot down mencatat: to note down; to jot down catatan: a note mencatatkan: to note down; to jot down pencatat: registrar

carigali exploration mencarigali: to explore catu



catuan: a ration; a fixed allowance mencatukan: to ration pencatuan: rationing

cebis bit; piece cebisan: a small piece or quantity

catuk peck with beak mencatuk: to peck with beak cebok (1) water dipper (2) wash up after defaecating or urinating mencebok: to wash the lower part of the body after defaecating or urinating catur chess cebur catut pincers mencebur: to plunge menceburi: to get involved in; to plunge into menceburkan: to plunge into; to get involved in cauk dimple cecah dip lightly cawak dimple mencecah: to dip lightly mencecahkan: to touch something lightly plunge

cawan cup

cecair liquid

cawangan branch (e.g. of office)

ceceh bleat

cawat loincloth bercawat: to wear a loincloth

cecekik noose

cedera cebik pout; jeer; mock mencebik: to pout; to jeer; to mock mencebikkan: to pout injure kecederaan: injury mencederakan: to injure; to hurt tercedera: injured; wounded


cedok scoop up mencedok: to scoop up pencedok: a scoop cekau

kecekapan: competence; efficiency ketidakcekapan: incompetent

clutch at; grasp at cegah deter; prevent mencegah: to deter; to prevent; to hinder pencegah: something that prevents; preventive pencegahan: prevention cekik choke; strangle mencekik darah: daylight robbery tercekik: choking; to be choked cegat stand erect or upright tercegat: stand erect or upright cekuh hold with the hand mencekuh: to hold with the hand cekah to crack or split cekung concave cekak amount one can hold with thumb and finger secekak: amount one can hold with thumb and finger bercekak: with arms akimbo bercekak pinggang: standing with arms akimbo mencekak: to hold between thumb and finger cekup cover or catch something with the palm mencekup: to cover or catch something with the palm mencekau: to clutch at; to grasp at

cela cekal resolute; firm; determined cekal hati: stout-hearted; steadfast celaan: criticism; rebuke mencela: to blame; to criticise; to rebuke mencelakan: to blame; to criticise; to rebuke tercela: despicable fault; blame; flaw; misdeed

cekang stiff; taut; tight celaan severe criticism and rebuke cekap efficient; proficient; competent celah


interspace; slit; crevice; cleft mencelah: to interrupt

celoteh chat berceloteh: to chatter

celak eye-liner celungap eat greedily

celaka fatal; fateful; inauspicious; damn kecelakaan: misfortune; accident mencelakakan: to cause misfortune; to ruin celup dip in liquid; dye mencelup: to dip; to immerse temporarily mencelupkan: to dip; to immerse temporarily pencelup: dye pencelupan: act of dipping

celana trousers celur immerse in boiling water; scald celapak straddle mencelapak: to straddle celus penetrate or slip in celaru disorganised; disorderly bercelaru; disorganised; disorderly mencelarukan: to disorganise cemar contaminated; impure; polluted celepa metal containers for cigarettes, tobacco, etc mencemari: to contaminate; to pollute mencemarkan: to dirty; to tarnish pencemaran: pollution; contamination tercemar: contaminated; polluted mencelus: to penetrate; to slip in mencelur: to scald

celik open (eyes); wake up mencelik mata: to open the eyes mencelikkan: to open the eyes cemas celopar talkative; out-spoken; very frank dreaded; frightened; worried; desperate kecemasan: emergency; urgency mencemaskan: to cause fear cemara wig; artificial hair


prawn pickle cembul container; receptacle cencang chop or mince mencencang: to chop or mince cembung convex cencorot musk-shrew or shrew-mouse cemburu jealous cendana sandalwood cemerlang excellent kecemerlangan: excellence; glory; glow; radiance cendawan mushroom bercendawan: mouldy cemeti whip cendekia intellectual; learned cemik pout lips to sneer mencemik: to pout one's lips to sneer or tease mencemikkan: to pout; to sneer cendera (1) moon (2) deity cempaka a type of tree with sweet-smelling flowers cendekiawan: an intellectual

cenderamata souvenir

cempedak a fruit resembling the jackfruit

cenderawasih bird of paradise

cemuh flout or disobey openly; ridicule mencemuhkan: to ridicule kecenderungan: tendency; inclination cencaluk cenderung inclined or sloping


cendol a drink made of jelly-like strands of dough and coconut milk

cepat quick; fast; early kecepatan: quickness; speed mempercepatkan: to quicken; to speed up secepat: as quickly as

cengang amaze tercengang-cengang: amazed cepiau hat with strings that tie under the chin; bonnet cengkadak praying mantis

cepoa abacus

cengkam grasp or clutch tightly cengkaman: grasp; grip; clutch; stranglehold mencengkam: to grasp; to clutch

cepoh club-footed

cepu cengkeram deposit small ornamental casket cepudebunga: anther

cengkerama amuse bercengkerama: to amuse

cepumas jackpot

ceracap cengkerik cricket or cicada (insect) ceracau cengkih clove (spice) mutter or talk nonsense menceracau: to mutter or talk nonsense; to cry in one's sleep castanets

cengkung sunken or hollow (of eyes or cheeks)

cerah bright; fair (light-coloured); fine (weather); promising

cenuram cliff cerai


divorce; separate; scatter ceraian: section of a written law or agreement bercerai: divorced; to part bercerai-berai: scattered; broken up menceraikan: to divorce; to separate perceraian: separation; divorce tercerai: separated; scattered

bright; clever; intelligent kecerdekan: intelligence

cerek kettle

cerakin to analyse mencerakin: to analyse mencerakinkan: to analyse

cereka story; fiction

cerewet fussy; fastidious ceramah a lecture or talk berceramah: to lecture penceramah: speaker cergas energetic; alert; full of initiative kecergasan: agility; alertness cerana metal box cerita story cerang moor bercerita: to tell a story menceritakan: to narrate penceritaan: narration of a story

cerat nozzle

cermat careful; cautious; thrifty mencermatkan: to economise

cerca scorn; insult mencerca: to scorn; to insult cermin mirror cermin mata: spectacles cerminan: reflection bercermin: having a mirror mencerminkan: to reflect; to give an impression of

cerdas apt; intelligent kecerdasan: intelligence cerna cerdik


digest mencernakan: to digest pencernaan: digestion cerun steep slope (at edge of plateau) kecerunan: gradient; steepness ceroboh (1) trespass; gatecrash; intrude (2) graceless menceroboh: to trespass penceroboh: trespasser; intruder pencerobohan: intrusion cerut (1) cheroot (2) to tie tightly; to strangle with rope mencerut: to tie up tightly; to strangle mencerut leher: to strangle cerobong ship's funnel; chimney cerutu cigar cerompong muzzle (of firearm) cetai tattered cerpelai mongoose bercetai-cetai: tattered

cerpen short story cerpenis: short story writer

cetak print cetak rompak: piracy (in printing) cetakan: edition; print (noun) mencetak: to print percetakan: printing

cerucuk pile driven into the ground cetek shallow cerucup love-grass ceti money lender ceruh to pound (rice) menceruh: to pound (rice) cetus outburst (of feeling); outbreak ceruk nook; corner cetusan: outburst; outbreak mencetuskan: to cause an outburst


pencinta alam: nature lover percintaan: love affair tercinta: loved cicak lizard cipan (1) battle-axe (2) tapir cicit great grandchild mencicit: to squeak cipta create; invent cicir drop or fall out berciciran: dropping scatteredly keciciran: drop-out mencicirkan: to scatter little by little tercicir: left behind; dropped out; lagged behind ciptaan: creation mencipta: to create; to invent pencipta: creator; author penciptaan: the creation of tercipta: created; composed

ciri characteristic bercirikan: featured; characterised mencirikan: to characterise

Cik Miss

cikgu teacher

cirit-birit diarrhoea

ciku sapodilla (fruit)

cita-cita ambition bercita-cita: ambitious citarasa: taste; flavour

Cina Chinese cium (1) kiss (2) smell cincin ring bercium: (1) to kiss (2) to smell ciuman: (1) a kiss (2) a sniff; a smell bercium-ciuman: to exchange kisses mencium: (1) to kiss (2) to smell; to sniff tercium: (1) kissed accidentally (2) sniffed; smelt

cinta love bercinta: in love; having feeling of love mencintai: to love pencinta: lover; fan; admirer cocok


suitable; agreeable; compatible secocok: suitable; agreeable; compatible; identical; similar

condong incline; slant kecondongan: inclination mencondongkan: to slant; to incline

cogan ensign cogan kata: slogan; motto congkak conceited; proud brown; chocolate conteng cokmar ceremonial mace menconteng: to doodle on mencontengkan: to doodle colek a bit contoh secolek: a bit mencolek: to touch; to scrape up example; sample; model mencontohi: to take as an example percontohan: specimen; sample coli brassiere copet pickpocket colok joss-stick mencopet: to pickpocket pencopet: a pickpocket doodle congak count mentally


comel cute

corak design; pattern; colour bercorak: having designs and colour mencorakkan: to design

comot dirty; grubby corat-coret sketch; scrawl compang-camping in rags or tatters (clothes) corek scratch


cubit pinch coreng scratch or streak coreng-moreng: full of streaks and scratches bercoreng: streaked cuci (1)wash (2)develop (a film) coret scribble or scrawl mencuci: to wash cucian: laundry or washing mencubit: to pinch secubit: a pinch (very small amount) cubitan: a pinch

corong funnel; chimney; microphone cucu grandchild cucu-cicit: grandchild and great grandchild corot hindmost cucuh ignite cota baton mencucuh: to ignite mencucuhkan: to set fire to pencucuh: igniter

cuaca weather; climate cucuk prick; inject; pierce cuai careless; negligent kecuaian: carelessness; negligence mencuaikan: to neglect; to act carelessly mencucuk: to prick; to inject; to poke tercucuk: pricked; pierced; stabbed

cucunda grandchild

cuak afraid; nervous cucur flow; trickle; sprinkle cuba try; attempt cubaan: an attempt; an experiment mencuba: to try; to attempt; to test percubaan: act of trying bercucuran: to flow; to gush mencucuri: to pour on; to sprinkle on mencucurkan: to sprinkle



beckon with finger mencuit: to touch with the fingertips

kidnap menculik: to kidnap penculik: kidnapper penculikan: kidnapping

cuka vinegar cuma cuka getah: formic acid only; merely percuma: free (without any charge) cukai tax cumbu cukai pendapatan: income tax cukai pintu: assessment cukai kepala: levy cukai tanah: quit rent mencukai: to tax praise; flatter; caress; kiss cumbuan: smooch; flattery; caress; kiss bercumbu-cumbuan: smooch bercumbuan: to flirt

cukup enough; exactly cukup bulan: end of the month cukup letih: exhausted cukup umur: having reached the required age mencukupi: enough; sufficient; adequate mencukupkan: to supplement; to make sufficient

cungap pant tercungap: panting tercungap-cungap: panting

cungkil pick; dig out; extract mencungkil: to pick; to dig out; to extract

cukur shave bercukur: to shave mencukur: to shave pencukur: shaver; person who shaves cupak a cubic measure

cula horn of rhinoceros

cuping ear-lobe

culas lazy

curah pour mencurah: to pour curahan: downpour; outpour mencurahi: to pour on mencurahkan: to pour out



curam steep kecuraman: steepness mencuram: to steepen

dada chest mendada: to walk proudly; to strut

dadah curang insincere; disloyal; dishonest kecurangan: dishonesty mencurangi: to deceive dadak sudden; abrupt curi steal mencuri: to steal kecurian: stolen; theft pencuri: thief dadu dice curiga suspicious; questionable kecurigaan: suspicion mencurigai: to suspect; to distrust mencurigakan: to arouse suspicion daerah district kedaerahan: regionalism dadih curdle drug

curut cigar; cheroot

daftar register berdaftar: registered mendaftar: to register or enrol mendaftarkan: to register or enrol pendaftar: registrar pendaftaran: registration

cuti leave; holiday; vacation cuti am: public holiday bercuti: to be on holiday percutian: vacation; holiday dabik to beat or thump dagang

foreign; alien; trade dagangan: merchandise berdagang: to trade memperdagangkan: to commercialise; to trade in something pedagang: trader; merchant perdagangan: trade; commerce

dacing weighing scale or balance


weak; feeble; humble; lowly kedaifan: weakness; incompetence daging meat; flesh dajal mischievous dagu chin dakap embrace or hug dahaga thirsty mendahagakan: to cause thirst berdakap: to embrace or hug dakapan: a hug berdakap-dakapan: embracing one another mendakap: to embrace or hug

daham hum; clear throat berdaham: to hum; to clear throat especially to attract attention

daki (1)dirt or stain (2)climb pendakian: a climb mendaki: to climb or ascend pendaki: climber terdaki: to manage to climb

dahan branch (of plant) dakwa accusation dahi forehead dakwaan: summons; accusation; indictment mendakwa: to accuse; to indict; to charge pendakwa: prosecutor; complainant pendakwaan: prosecution; summons

dahsyat horrible; awful; terrible dakwah sermon or preaching dahulu before; former; of the past; earlier dahulu kala: long ago mendahului: to be ahead mendahulukan: to advance or bring forward pendahuluan: a preface; an advance (of payment, etc.) terdahulu: earlier berdakwah: to preach pendakwah: preacher

dakwat ink

dakyah daif propaganda


damak dart (for blow-pipe) dalal fee or commission damar resin dalam (1)inside; in (2)deep dalamnya: depth; profundity mendalam: profound; detailed mendalami: to probe further mendalamkan: deepen pedalaman: hinterland; interior sedalam: as deep as sedalam-dalamnya: as thoroughly as possible dampar cast ashore; stranded terdampar: washed ashore; stranded

damping intimate (friendship) berdampingan: adjacent; adjoining; side by side; close to mendampingi: to stand next to; to flank

dalang mastermind mendalangi: to mastermind dan dalih equivocation; pretext berdalih: to give excuses berdalih-dalihan: to blame one another mendalihkan: to feign; to pretend danau



dalil proof

dandan coiffure; hair-style dandanan: coiffure; make-up; outfit berdandan: adorned mendandan: to adorn draughts (board game) dangau


damai peace; tranquility berdamai: to make peace kedamaian: peace; tranquility mendamaikan: to pacify pendamai: peacemaker; mediator perdamaian: peace

small temporary hut (in rice-field or orchard)

dangkal shallow; unintelligent kedangkalan: shallowness; superficiality


dansa dance

mendaratkan: to bring something to land pendaratan: landing

dapat earn; get as reward; gain as interest; can (be able to) mendapat: to receive; to obtain mendapati: to realise; to discover mendapatkan: to get; to communicate pendapat: opinion pendapatan: income sedapat-dapatnya: if possible; as far as possible terdapat: found; discovered

dari from (place or time)

daripada from (person)

darjah degree; standard; class

dapur kitchen; stove

darjat status; rank berdarjat: of high rank or status sedarjat: of equal status

dara maiden; virgin darurat darab multiplication mendarabkan: to multiply pendarab: multiplier das


gun or rifle shot

darah blood darah daging: blood relation darah muda: youthful darah panas: hot-headed darah tinggi: hypertension berdarah: bloody; bleeding pendarahan: haemorrhage sedarah: of the same family line

dasar base; policy; underlying principle berdasarkan: based upon

datang come or arrive mendatang: to come or appear suddenly kedatangan: arrival mendatangi: to pay a visit; to attack; to invade mendatangkan: to bring about pendatang: immigrant

darat land daratan: mainland mendarat: to land datar


flat; even dataran: plain; area of flat land mendatar: horizontal; level or flat

dayu rumble; moan mendayu: to rumble; to moan

datin a title of distinction for woman

dayung oar berdayung: rowing (boat) mendayung: to row pendayung: oarsman (1)grandfather (2)title of distinction for man and woman dayus man whose wife has committed adultery


daulat majesty; kingly power berdaulat: sovereign; supreme kedaulatan: sovereignty debar palpitation or throbbing debaran: throbbing or palpitation berdebar: to throb or palpitate mendebarkan: to cause to palpitate leaf berdaun: having leaves debu dust; dirt dawai wire mendawaikan: to connect wires in pendawaian: wiring debunga pollen mendebungakan: to pollinate pendebungaan: pollination power; capacity; ability memperdayakan: to cheat or deceive berdaya: to have the ability sedaya: to the extent possible terdaya: capable of terperdaya: tricked; deceived debus whistling or rustling sound berdebu: dusty



dedah divulge; expose; reveal dayang court maiden mendedahkan: to introduce; to expose; to reveal pendedahan: revelation; exposure terdedah: exposed


dedak bran

demikian thus; hence; therefore

degil stubborn; obstinate kedegilan: stubbornness

denai spoor; track or scent left by an animal

denda fine (imposed for offence) dekah guffaw; loud laughter dendam revenge; grudge; spite dekan dean berdendam: having a grudge mendendami: to have a grudge against pendendam: the person who has a grudge

dekat near berdekatan: nearby kedekatan: proximity mendekati: to come close to berdekat: to be nearby terdekat: nearest dendang singing happily and for fun berdendang: to sing gaily dendangan: singing mendendangkan: to sing for someone

delapan eight

dengan with

delima (1) ruby (2) pomegranate

dengar hear or listen mendengar: to hear or listen kedengaran: audible mendengarkan: to listen to; to overhear memperdengarkan: to let someone hear pendengar: listener pendengaran: sense of hearing

demam fever

demi (1) for (2) when (3) one by one (4) by (for oath or vow) berdemi: to swear by the name of God dengki jealousy; envy berdengki-dengkian: jealous; envious


mendengki: to envy; to spite kedengkian: jealousy; envy

depa fathom; length measured by outstretched arms mendepakan: to stretch the arms out sideways

dengking squeal; yelp (of a dog) berdengking: to yelp; to squeal mendengking: to yelp; to squeal depan front di depan: in front ke depan: to the front berdepan: face to face mengedepankan: to bring forward; to propose terdepan: foremost terkedepan: first in line

dengkur snore berdengkur: to snore

dera dengung buzzing sound berdengung: to buzz punish deraan: punishment mendera: to punish; to abuse

dengus a snort

derai crumble

dengut emit a long murmur

deram a growl berderam-deram: to rumble menderam: to growl

denting a tinkling sound derap (1)footstep (2)pattering sound dentum an explosive sound dentuman: a loud bang berdentum: to make a loud bang deras rapid; quick; swift

denyut beat (heart) or throb denyutan: a beat (heart); a throb; pulsation berdenyut: to pulsate; to throb; to beat (heart)

derau sound of wind in the rain



row or line deretan: rows (of houses) berderet: in rows berderet-deret: lined up in rows berderetan: lined up in rows sederet: in a single row or line

menderu: to roar deruan: a roar

desa countryside

derhaka disloyal; treacherous menderhaka: to betray penderhaka: traitor penderhakaan: betrayal; treachery

desak insist or urge; jostle; press desakan: pressure; compelling force mendesak: to push; to urge terdesak: desperate

deria sense (e.g. sight, smell, hearing, taste, touch)

desas-desus heresay; rumour

dering a chime or burr berdering: to ring (of phone); to chirp

desing whistle of the wind

desir derita suffering or distress menderita: to suffer penderitaan: suffering destar turban derma donation dermawan: philanthropist menderma: to donate mendermakan: to donate something penderma: donor desur babbling sound rustle of leaves; hissing or sizzling sound desiran: rustle; hiss

detak throbbing or thumping dermaga wharf or dock detik second or moment; tick deru roar berdetik: ticking terdetik: ticking


candle dewa male deity or god mendewa-dewakan: to show excessive devotion diang bask berdiang: to bask

dewan hall; council Dewan Negara: Senate Dewan Rakyat: House of Representatives (Lower House of Parliament)

didih boil mendidih: to boil

didik educate or train; bring up (children); breed dewasa adult kedewasaan: adulthood didikan: educational training; upbringing berpendidikan: educated mendidik: to educate; to train; to teach; to nurture pendidik: teacher; educator pendidikan: education terdidik: educated; well brought up

dewi female deity or goddess dif di at dikau dia he or she; him or her; it; his dikit diam (1)silent or quiet (2)inhabit or live diam ubi: quiet but diligent person diam-diam: secretly; quietly kediaman: residence mendiami: to reside or inhabit mendiamkan: to silence mendiamkan diri: to become silent pendiam: quiet person terdiam: become speechless or silent



a few; a little berdikit-dikit: bit by bit

dinding wall pendinding: a screen or partition berdindingkan: walled mendindingi: to enclose within a wall



dingin cold kedinginan: coldness dogol bald kedogolan: baldness mendogolkan: to make bald dinihari before dawn dompet purse; wallet diraja royal dondang swinging-cot diri (1) oneself (2) stand berdiri: to stand mendirikan: to build; to erect pendirian: standpoint terdiri: to consist of dondang-sayang: a traditional Malay song sung alternately by two persons

dongak tilt the head upwards mendongak: to tilt the head upwards mendongakkan: to tilt the head upwards

Disember December

doa prayer berdoa: to beg; to pray mendoa: to beg; to pray mendoakan: to pray for

dongeng fable; myth dongengan: fable; myth

dorong impel; urge into being interested; motivate dobi laundry or dhobi mendorong: to impel; to urge; to motivate dorongan: urging; motivation; encouragement pendorong: one who impels terdorong: motivated

dodoi lullaby dosa mendodoikan: to sing to sleep sin berdosa: to be sinful dodol a sweet Malay delicacy dua


two dua sejoli: lovebirds berdua: both berdua-dua: two by two berdua-duaan: the only pair kedua: second menduakan: to make two of

dukacita feeling sorry; sad berdukacita: to grieve mendukacitakan: to aggrieve

dukun medicine man dubur anus dukung carry astride the back or waist duda widower mendukung: to carry astride the back or waist berdukung: to be seated astride the back or waist pendukung: one who carries something or someone astride the back or waist

duduk (1)to sit (2)to stay or reside duduk-duduk: sit around duduknya: situation berpenduduk: populated bersekedudukan: to live together kedudukan: situation; position menduduki: to occupy for residence mendudukkan: to place; to seat terduduk: to flop down penduduk: inhabitant dulang tray mendulang: to pan for ores

duli your majesty; dust

duga guess menduga: to guess dugaan: anticipation; conjecture; trials

dungu stupid kedunguan: stupidity

duit money

dunia world duniawi: worldly keduniaan: worldliness sedunia: the whole world

duka sadness; grief; sorrow duka lara: sorrowful kedukaan: sorrow duri thorn berduri: thorny


durjana evil; wicked eh dusta a lie; untrue statement berdusta: to lie mendustai: to lie to ehwal

pengedar: distributor pengedaran: distribution peredaran: circulation; rotation; revolution; orbit

exclamation of enquiry

matters; affairs dusun orchard eja spell duta envoy; ambassador kedutaan: embassy ejek jeer; mock duyun in a swarm or crowd berduyun-duyun: in a swarm or crowd eka one; sole duyung mermaid ekanada monotone dwi dual dwibahasa: bilingual dwibulanan: bimonthly dwimata: binocular dwipihak: bipartite dwitahunan: biennial edar circulate; distribute beredar: to circulate; to distribute mengedar: to circulate; to distribute edaran: cycle; circulation; rotation mengedari: to revolve around mengedarkan: to distribute; to ciculate ekar acre mengejek: to mock; to jeer ejekan: mockery mengeja: to spell ejaan: spelling

ekasuku monosyllable

ekor tail; numeral coefficient for animals ekoran: consequence; result


berekor: having a tail mengekor: hang like a tail mengekori: to tail; to follow closely empang dam ela yard (measure of length) empar elak dodge; evade; avoid emparan: centrifuge mengelak: to dodge; to avoid; to evade mengelakkan: to evade; to dodge; to avoid empat four elok beautiful; good mengelokkan: to beautify memperelokkan: to beautify seelok-eloknya: the best or most appropriate way berempat: group of four keempat: fourth centrifugal; off course empangan: dam

emper penthouse

emak mother emping flake (e.g. of snow); sweetmeat made from unripe rice fried and pounded flat emas gold keemasan: golden empuk soft; tender

embek cry of a sheep, goat or calf mengembek: to bleat

empulur pith (of stem or fruit)

enak embun dew berembun: wet with dew enam six embut raise a fishing-line slowly enapan delicious


sediment engsot enau kind of palm enjal Encik Mr. mengenjal: to cram or stuff (as of food into the mouth) endah heed; pay attention to entah mengendahkan: to heed don't know entah-entah: maybe endap ambush enteng mengendap: to wait in ambush light; easy keentengan: ease; lightness endul cradle epal apple enggan unwilling; reluctant keengganan: unwillingness; reluctance epipusat epicentre cram or stuff move slightly and slowly

enggang hornbill

eram brood; sit on eggs to hatch them; incubate mengerami: to sit on eggs to hatch them pengeraman: incubation

engkau you; your erang a groan or moan engkol crank of a machine mengerang: to groan or moan erangan: a moan or groan

engsel hinge



tight; firm mengeratkan: to tighten; to strengthen

faharasat index to a book

Eropah Europe; of European origin

fajar dawn

erti meaning bererti: having a meaning dimengerti: understood mengerti: to understand pengertian: understanding seerti: synonym

fakir religious beggar

falak universe; astronomy

falsafah esa sole; only one fana esak sob faraj esok tomorrow keesokan: the next day faedah benefit; interest (on money) berfaedah: beneficial; useful fasal (1)clause in a treaty, law or contract (2)about faham understand fahaman: understanding; comprehension; doctrine berfahaman: school of thought kefahaman: understanding memahami: to understand pemahaman: understanding persefahaman: mutual understanding sefahaman: sharing the same view fasih fluent; eloquent kefasihan: fluency fardu duty; obligation vagina ephemeral; short-lived philosophy

Februari February


fikah law based on Muslim theology

foya revel; enjoy oneself berfoya-foya: to relax; to enjoy oneself

fikir think fikiran: opinion; thought berfikir: to think berfikiran: having the ability to think and to form opinions memikirkan: to think over; to ponder pemikiran: thinking terfikir: remembered sefikiran: having the same opinion furak difference; dissimilarity gabung join together; unite; combine gabungan: affiliation; combination; merger bergabung: to affiliate; united menggabungkan: to affiliate; to combine

Filipina of the Philippines

gabus cork

firasah hunch; intuitive feeling; premonition

gada club used for fighting

firasat clairvoyance

gada-gada pennant

Firaun Pharaoh

gadai pawn; mortgage gadaian: a pledge bergadai: to mortgage; to pawn menggadaikan: to mortgage; to pawn menggadaikan nyawa: to sacrifice one's life tergadai: mortgaged; pawned

firdaus paradise; heaven

firman divine decree

gadang (1)colossal; immense (2)large round tray used for winnowing

fitnah libel; slander; defamation memfitnah: to slander; to libel memfitnahkan: to slander; to libel gadis gading ivory; tusk


girl; virgin kegadisan: virginity; purity gagau grope gado-gado (1) a Malay dish made from vegetables (2) mixed up; disorderly gahara of royal descent gaduh (1) quarrel (2) noise; uproar bergaduh: to quarrel pergaduhan: a quarrel gaharu sandalwood menggagau: to grope

gagah gallant; brave; strong; mighty kegagahan: strength; might; bravery menggagahi: to force; to compel; to conquer

gait hook; connection gaitan: hook; connection penggait: hook; connection

gagak crow

gajah elephant

gagal failed; unsuccessful kegagalan: failure menggagalkan: to fail (another person)

gaji salary; wages bergaji: salaried menggaji: to employ

gagang handle; cradle (of telephone); stem

gajus cashew nut

gagap stammer; stutter tergagap: stammering

gak caw (e.g. of a rook)

gala gagas to have an idea gagasan: idea; plan galah a type of resin


pole bergalah: using a pole sepenggalah: a pole's length gamang suffering from acrophobia (fear of heights) galak encourage galakan: encouragement menggalakkan: to encourage penggalak: one who encourages gamat noisy; unruly; chaotic

gambang xylophone galang obstruct gambar picture; photograph; drawing; illustration galas carry on the back menggalas: to carry on a pole over the shoulder; to vend gambar rajah: diagram gambaran: impression bergambar: illustrated; to be photographed menggambarkan: to illustrate; to depict; to imagine tergambar: depicted; reflected

gali dig menggali: to dig galian: mineral penggalian: act of digging; excavation gambut peat; soft and loose (of soil) galur furrow; groove manggalurkan: to explain gamelan Javanese orchestra gambus an Arab musical instrument with six strings

gamak estimate menggamak: to estimate tergamak: willing; able

gamit beckon menggamit: to beckon

gamam nervous; stunned tergamam: nervous; stunned

gampang easy


ganas ferocious; fierce; savage; violent keganasan: savagery; ferocity; violence mengganas: to terrorise; to rampage pengganas: terrorist

gandung bamboo or wooden outrigger on the sides of a Malay boat menggandung: to load things onto a boat using bamboo or wooden outriggers

gancu long hooked stick

ganggang dry over a fire

ganda double berganda: doubled berganda-ganda: many times more menggandakan: to double gandaan: multiple of a number

ganggu to bother; to trouble; to disturb; to disrupt mengganggu: to bother; to trouble; to disturb; to disrupt gangguan: disturbance; disruption; inconvenience; interference mengganggu-gugat: to bother; to disturb terganggu: disturbed; mentally or emotionally unstable

gandar axle menggandar: to carry gangsa bronze gandik (1) gold ornament on bride's forehead (2) decoration on hilt of kris ganja cannabis; hemp

gandin mallet

ganjak move or budge slightly berganjak: to move or budge slightly menganjak: to shift

ganding alongside; close beside berganding: alongside bergandingan: alongside gandingan: coupling menggandingkan: to place beside ganjal base; stand; wedge

ganjar reward; gratuity gandum wheat ganjaran: reward; gratuity mengganjarkan: to reward


ganjil odd; queer; strange gapura arch gantang a cubic measure garam salt ganti substitute berganti: in substitution for berganti-ganti: taking turns mengganti: to replace; to compensate menggantikan: to replace; to substitute pengganti: replacement gantirugi: indemnity; compensation menggarami: to add salt

garang fierce menggarang: to rage

gantung hang or suspend bergantung: to depend on bergantungan: hanging in great numbers menggantung: to hang; to suspend menggantungkan: to hang up pergantungan: dependence; support tergantung: hanging

garau hoarse (of voice)

gari handcuffs

garing ganyar tough (not tender) garis ganyang chew up; devour; destroy mengganyang: to chew up; to devour; to destroy line menggaris: to draw a line menggariskan: to draw a line penggaris: ruler garisan: line crisp

gapah hurriedly; hastily

garit line; scratch menggarit: to scratch; to move; to stir

gapai stretch out the hand menggapai: to reach for; to clutch at garpu fork


pergaulan: mingling (in society); association (with other people) garu (1)a rake (2)scratch gaung menggaru: to scratch tergaru-garu: scratching repeatedly (1) deep ravine (2) echo bergaung: to echo garuk hoarse, deep or husky (of voice) gawal confused; mistaken gasak (1) strike (2) eat gluttonously menggasak: to strike; to eat gluttonously gaya gasal odd gaya hidup: lifestyle bergaya: having style; stylish menggayakan: to show; to parade gasang lecherous person gayat feeling dizzy looking down from a high place gasar fierce and rough gayung water dipper gasing a top gayut hang gatal (1) itchy (2) lewd (of person) gatal-gatal: itching all over bergayut: to hang bergayutan: to hang in large numbers menggayutkan: to hang style; manner gawang waving with both arms

gaul mix (in society); associate bergaul: to be together in a friendly way menggaul: to mix; to blend menggauli: to associate with; to mingle with

gebar blanket

gebu soft; delicate in texture; fluffy


gecar (1) saliva (2) watery

gegar jarring; jolting; shaking gegaran: jarring movement bergegar: to shake; to rumble menggegarkan: to shake dewlap gegas


gedang huge; massive

hurry bergegas-gegas: to hurry

gedempol fat

gegat worm that lives in books

gedempong very fat

gegua cavern

gedoboh big and loose

gejala symptom or sign

gedung storehouse; office; large building

gejolak big flame bergejolak: to flare up

gegabah wildly impulsive (person) gelabir dewlap; wattle gegak noisy gegak-gempita: noisy; clamorous geladak (1) deck of ship (2) stray dog (3) crook; criminal

gegancu sprocket

gelagat indication; habits

gegap noisy


gelak laugh gelak ketawa: laughter tergelak: laugh unintentionally gelebat double blade paddle

gelambir dewlap

gelecah slip

gelang bangle gelang-gelang: ring-shaped objects pergelangan tangan: wrist

gelecek slip; lose one's balance

geledah search; ransack gelanggang arena; court menggeledah: to search; to ransack

gelangsar slide; glide; slip

geledak cur

gelap dark; secret gelap hati: sinister gelap pekat: dark gelap-gelita: pitch dark kegelapan: darkness; caught in the dark menggelapkan: to embezzle

geledang stretch out both arms

geleding warp

gelegak gelar nickname gelaran: alias; title bergelar: titled gelegar girder gelatuk tremble gelegata a skin condition; urticaria gelebar flapping boil; seethe menggelegak: to boil; to seethe


gelek (1) a kind of dance (2) roll over menggelek: to roll over gelepai dangling gelekak peel off gelepar flounder; flutter menggelepar: to flounder; to flutter gelekek chuckle gelepik dangling; hanging down limply gelema phlegm gelepur leaping up flapping its wings geleman scared; afraid gelesek rub gelembung bubble gelembung-gelembungan: bubbles geleser flap the wings; start turning (of wheels) gelempang sprawling bergelempang: sprawling

geletar tremble; shiver menggeletar: to tremble; to shiver

gelendong spindle

geletek tickle; incite menggeletek: to tickle

geleng shake the head menggeleng: to shake menggelengkan: to shake geletuk making a sound like the teeth chattering

gelentang roll over and over

geli amused; ticklish


geli-geman: tickled geli hati: amused; tickled kegelian: amusement menggelikan: to amuse; to tickle penggeli: one who is ticklish

gelinjang jump about menggelinjang: to jump about

geliang-geliut wriggling gelintar search all over geliat stretch oneself menggeliat: to stretch oneself tergeliat: sprained gelintir pellet; pill segelintir: a small part; a small group geliga (1) sharp-witted; ingenious (2) bezoar bergeliga: sharp-witted; ingenious gelisah nervous; restless; anxious; jumpy kegelisahan: restlessness; anxiety menggelisah: to worry; to be anxious gelimpang sprawl bergelimpangan: to sprawl tergelimpang: sprawled gelobor too long or baggy (for clothes)

gelimun covered (with blanket)

gelodak arouse

gelincat sprained; rebound

gelodar struggle

gelincir derail; slip; skid menggelincir: to slip; to skid tergelincir: slipped; skidded

gelojak big flame

gelojoh greedy

gelincuh stumble



wave bergelombang: in waves

gelung bight; loop of rope; coil; knot of hair bergelung: coiled up menggelungkan: to coil

gelongsor slide menggelongsor: to slide gelupas peel menggelupas: to peel gelora storm; great wave bergelora: to rise or move like waves; stormy menggelorakan: to inflame; to arouse emotionally gelupur flutter menggelupur: to flutter

gelosok rub menggelosok: to rub

gelut struggle; wrestle bergelut: to struggle to get free pergelutan: struggle; scuffle

gelugut shiver; chatter (of teeth) gema echo geluh loam; rich soil gemal gelulur slide down a handful; a bunch bergema: to resound menggema: to resound

gemala gelumang dirty bergelumang: dirty gemalai swaying geluncur slip or slide down menggeluncur: to slip or slide down gemam to hold (sweet) in mouth bezoar stone


gemap shocked gembur loose gemar have a liking; desire kegemaran: hobby; favourite menggemari: to like very much penggemar: lover; fan; devotee; interested person menggemburkan: to loosen

gementar tremble

gemawan fleeting of clouds

gemercik splattering sound

gembala shepherd penggembala: herdsman

gemerencang loud clash (e.g. of cymbals)

gemerlap iridescent; shining; glittering; shimmering gembereng cymbal bergemerlapan: to glitter gemerlapan: shining; glittering

gembira happy; pleased; cheerful bergembira: to rejoice menggembirakan: to cheer someone up

gemilang glorious; magnificient; brilliant kegemilangan: splendour; magnificance; glory

gembar-gembur mere talk; bragging; pandemonium menggembar-gemburkan: to create an uproar

gempa tremor; earthquake

gempal sturdy; chubby; plump gembleng unite menggembleng tenaga: to unite penggemblengan: unification gempar pandemonium; uproar menggemparkan: to shock tergempar: urgent gembung swollen


gempita noisy

obstacle; disruption menggendalakan: to disrupt; to interrupt tergendala: disrupted; interrupted

gempur attack in a blitz menggempur: to attack; to storm penggempur: destroyer; assault troops penggempuran: an attack; an assault gendak mistress

gendang drum gemuk fat menggemukkan: to fatten up genderang big drum

gemuruh thunder bergemuruh: to thunder; thunderous

genggam grasp in the fist genggaman: a grasp menggenggam: to grasp in the fist menggenggam erat: to grasp firmly segenggam: a fistful; a handful

genahar crater

genang suffuse bergenang: stagnant; filled with tears

genggang apart

genit cute and petite genap complete; even genjang menggenapkan: to round up a figure segenap: all genjot gencat cease; stop; discontinue gencatan senjata: ceasefire genjur stiff gendala askew; awry (1 )parallelogram (2) askew; awry


genta large bell gera gentar (1) vibration (2) afraid menggentar: to quiver menggentarkan: to cause to vibrate


alarm; scare; frighten menggera: to scare; to frighten; to alarm; to give a warning signal penggera: one who causes a fright; an alarm penggera kebakaran: fire alarm

gentas (1) severed (2) end or finish gerabak railway coach

gentat dented geragai hook for catching crocodiles gentel pellet menggentel: to roll in the fingertips geragau a small shrimp fibre geraham molar (1) crucial; decisive (2) pass or gap in mountains (3) roof tile genting bukit: mountain pass kegentingan: crucial gerai stall geragas comb one's hair in anger



genyeh rub menggenyeh: to rub

gerak move gerak hati: intuition gerak laku: behaviour gerak-geri: movements gerakan: action; movement bergerak: to move menggerakkan: to cause to move penggerak: motivator tergerak: shifted; moved suddenly

gepok bundle



geram angry menggeram: to growl gerhana eclipse

gerangan perhaps

geriak swarm

gerantang din of voices; outburst of noise

gericau screeching sound

gerat causing teeth to chatter geridip glitter; sparkle

gerbang gateway

gerigi serrated

gerecak sound like water boiling gerigis unevenly serrated

gereja church gerimis drizzle gerek perforated gerimit a drill

gerenyam lustful

gering sick (for king)

gergaji saw menggergaji: to saw gerlap gergasi giant menggerlap: to sparkle; to glitter sparkle gerinjam (1) grindstone for teeth (2) ear scoop


gersang dry; uninteresting; dull gerlip twinkle menggerlip: to twinkle; to flicker gertak threat gertakan: intimidation; threat menggertak: to threaten germut swarm gerudi a drill gerenyut squirm; throb menggerudi: to drill penggerudian: act of drilling

gerobak coach or cart

gerugut grooved

gerobok cupboard

geruh misfortune

gerodak rattling sound

geruk to wrap

geromboi group together bergeromboi: to group together geromboian: group or gang

gerun frightened; terrified menggerunkan: to terrify; terrifying

gerombong group or party

gerutu rough to the touch menggerutu: rough to the touch

geronggang hollow gesa hurry geronyot throbbing tergesa-gesa: hurried gesaan: urge menggesa: to hasten; to urge


getil pinch gesek grate or scrape bergesek: to grate; to scrape gesekan: a fiddle menggesek: to play the violin getir bitter menggetil: to pinch

gesel rub bergesel: to rub each other geselan: a rub menggeselkan: to rub tergesel: rubbed against

ghaib disappear; vanish; mysterious mengghaibkan: to cause to vanish

ghairah strong desire or passion geser rub; shift bergeser: to rub; to shift geseran: friction ghalib getah rubber bergetah: sticky; having latex giat energetic; active getap grit menggetap: to grit bergiat: working eagerly kegiatan: activity menggiatkan: to activate; to inspire; to encourage mempergiatkan: to activate; to inspire; to encourage usual keghairahan: strong passion, desire or enthusiasm mengghairahkan: to arouse passion or desire

getar tremble; vibrate getaran: vibration bergetar: to tremble; quivering menggetarkan: to cause to vibrate gigi tooth gigi air: edge of water meeting land gigi kacip: incisor gigi rongak: gap between teeth bergigi: toothed

getas brittle; sensitive gigih


determined; obstinate kegigihan: determination

grind; roll menggiling: to grind; to roll

gigil tremble or shiver menggigil: to tremble; to shiver

gilir take turns bergilir: to take turns giliran: a turn bergilir-gilir: to take turns

gigit bite gilis gigitan: act of biting; a bite menggigit: to bite tergigit: bitten accidentally gincu lipstick gila mad; insane gila angau: infatuated gila bayang: crazy about someone gila pangkat: crazy for power kegilaan: craziness; craze menggila: act like a mad person; infatuated with or crazy over someone tergila-gila: mad; crazy tergila-gilakan: driven crazy by someone or something bergincu: wearing lipstick menggincu: to apply lipstick run over by a train

ginjal kidney

girang glad; cheerful kegirangan: happiness; joy menggirangkan: to cheer up someone

gilang-gemilang bright; glittering

gilap shine brilliantly menggilap: to polish

giring to herd

glur voluptuous gilas crush; run over gobek tool for crushing betel leaf, areca nut, etc giling mengobek: to grind or pound areca nut


gocoh haste; hurry tergocoh-gocoh: hastily; hurriedly gomol

golongan: group tergolong: relevant

wrestle goda temptation godaan: temptation; lure; enticement menggoda: to tempt; to lure; enticing penggoda: seducer tergoda: seduced; enticed bergomol: to wrestle menggomol: to hug or embrace tightly

goncang shake bergoncang: to shake menggoncangkan: to shake something

godam large mace gondok godok base of skull gondol gogok a gulp

(1)short and fat (2)goitre

(1)bald; leafless (2)carry off; win bergondol: bald; leafless menggondol: to carry off; to win; to gain

golak disturbed or confused bergolak: to boil; disturbed or confused pergolakan: disturbance; agitation; turbulence gonggong carry in the mouth menggonggong: to carry in the mouth

golek roll bergolek: to roll

gonyeh munch

gonyoh golok machete scrub menggonyoh: to scrub

golong classify menggolongkan: to classify

gopoh-gapah hastily tergopoh-gapah: in a hurry


disagree; dispute goreng fry; fried menggoreng: to fry guaman: disagreement; conflict; quarrel perguaman: disagreement; conflict; quarrel peguam: lawyer Peguam Negara: Attorney-General scratch goresan: scratches bergores: scratched menggores: to scratch menggoreskan: to scratch something tergores: scratched gubah arrange; compose menggubah: to arrange; to compose gubahan: (1) composition (2) garland penggubah: composer guam disagree; conflict; dispute


gosok brush; rub; polish gubal gosokan: something that has been ironed menggosok: to brush; to rub; to polish menggosokkan: to rub something penggosok: a cleaner; an iron; a brush draft (legislation) menggubal: to draft (legislation) penggubal: legislator penggubalan: act of drafting; legislation

gotong-royong cooperation bergotong-royong: to cooperate

gubuk hut

gudang goyah loose (not firm) gugat goyang unsteady; shaky bergoyang: to shake; to sway menggoyangkan: to rock or jerk lightly gugup gua cave kegugupan: state of panic guam panicky menggugat: to accuse; to claim; to criticise tergugat: threatened; jeopardised; to be at stake accuse; claim; criticise godown; warehouse


gugur drop; miscarry; abort berguguran: dropping in large numbers keguguran: miscarriage; abortion menggugurkan: to abort; to drop

gumpal clod; lump gumpalan: a clod; a lump of; conglomeration bergumpal: lumpy bergumpal-gumpal: in clods or lumps; in clots

gugus bundle or bunch segugus: a bundle or bunch of gugusan: group

guna use; purpose guna tenaga: employment guna-guna: charms berguna: useful kegunaan: use; function menggunakan: to use; to consume pengguna: consumer; user

gula sugar gula-gula: sweets gundah

depressed gulai curry gundik concubine guli marble guni jute bag or sack guling roll gunting berguling: to roll bergulingan: rolling over and over menggulingkan: to roll something; to topple; to overthrow terguling: overthrown; toppled guntur gulung roll gulungan: a roll bergulung: rolled up; rolling; winding menggulung: to roll menggulung perbahasan: to conclude the debate menggulung ucapan: to conclude the speech gunung mountain gunung berapi: volcano gunung-ganang: mountains menggunung: to soar like a mountain pergunungan: highlands; mountainous thunder scissors; shears menggunting: to cut with scissors or shears mengguntingkan: to cut something


wrestle bergusti: to wrestle gurau joke gurauan: the butt of a joke bergurau: to joke habis finished; completed; done gurindam a proverbial verse berhabis: to squander berhabis-habisan: to the best of one's ability and effort kehabisan: exhausted; depleted penghabisan: conclusion; last sehabis: immediately after haba heat

guru teacher berguru: having a teacher perguruan: institute; education

hablur crystal berhablur: to become crystallised menghablur: to crystallise terhablur: in a crystallised state

guruh thunder guruh-gemuruh: thunderous habuan gurun desert habuk gus simultaneously sekaligus: simultaneously had gusar angry; worried menggusarkan: to anger; to cause worry

share (e.g. of prize)

dust berhabuk: dusty

limit berhad: limited mengehadkan: to limit terhad: limited

gusi gum (dental)

hadam digest menghadamkan: to digest penghadaman: digestion



haiwan animal hadap front; direction berhadap-hadapan: face-to-face hadapan: forward part; in front berhadapan: to face menghadap: to have an audience with the king menghadapi: to face; to meet menghadapkan: to cause to meet or face terhadap: about; toward hajah a Muslim woman who has fulfilled the pilgrimage to Mecca

hajat purpose; intention; desire berhajat: to have the intention berhajatkan: to wish for menghajati: to wish for

hadas ritual impurity

hadiah present; gift; prize menghadiahkan: to present a gift

haji a Muslim man who has fulfilled the pilgrimage to Mecca

hak hadir to be present kehadiran: attendance; presence menghadiri: to attend menghadirkan diri: to be present hadirin: those present hakikat truth; reality hafaz memorise menghafaz: to memorise hakiki true; real right; entitlement hak cipta: copyright hak milik: proprietary rights berhak: having the right; to be entitled

haid menstruation

hakim judge kehakiman: judicial menghakimi: to judge menghakimkan: to judge penghakiman: judgement

hairan astonished; amazed; surprised kehairanan: amazement; astonishment menghairankan: to astonish; to amaze hakis


erode menghakis: to erode hakisan: erosion

halia ginger

halilintar thunder hal matter; situation hal-ehwal: affairs menghalkan: to talk about halimunan invisible

hala direction menghala: in the direction of menghalakan: to aim at

halkum larynx; Adam's apple

haloba greed; greedy halaju velocity haluan (1) bow of boat (2) direction; course halal rightful; permissible; legitimate menghalalkan: permit; allow halus halaman (1) compound (2) page fine; soft; gentle; refined halus-halus: finely menghalusi: to find out in detail; to treat gently memperhalusi: to find out in detail; to treat gently berhaluan: to follow a course sehaluan: following the same course

halang block; obstruct; hinder menghalang: to block; to obstruct; to hinder halangan: obstacle penghalang: obstacle; hindrance halwa fruits preserved in syrup

> halau chase or drive away menghalau: to chase or drive away

hama germ

hamba slave


memperhamba: to enslave; to treat as a slave perhambaan: enslavement hampar spread out (a carpet) hambar tasteless; insipid menghampar: to spread out (a carpet) hamparan: carpet; mat menghampari: to cover menghamparkan: to spread out (like a carpet)

hambat pursue or chase menghambat: to pursue or chase hampas dregs hampas kelapa: coconut dregs; coconut husk hambur scattered berhamburan: scattered menghamburi: to fill up menghamburkan: to scatter hampir near; close; almost hampir-hampir: nearly; almost berhampiran: to be near; near by menghampiri: to approach menghampirkan: to bring close to go away berhambus: to go away hamput scold hamil pregnant kehamilan: pregnancy hamun chide; scold; abuse hamis stink hancing hampa devoid; lacking; disappointed; frustrated hampa beras: husk hampa hati: frustrated; disappointed kehampaan: disappointment; frustration menghampakan: to frustrate; to disappoint hancur destroy; dissolve; shatter hancur luluh: destroy (of marriage, friendship); devastated kehancuran: destruction; ruin menghancurkan: to destroy; to shatter stinking; foul-smelling menghamun: to scold; to berate menghamput: to scold


hampagas vacuum


bump or knock into handai friend; associate berhantuk: to bump or knock into menghantukkan: to knock terhantuk: to knock or collide accidentally hantukan: bumping or knocking sound

handal reliable; strong; clever kehandalan: cleverness

hanya only hanya satu: except one; only one

hangat hot

hanyir stinking; fishy

hangit having a burning smell

hanyut drift; wander; carried away by a current berhanyut-hanyut: to drift menghanyutkan: to cause to drift away

hangus burnt; scorched

hantam (1) hit or punch (2) finish all at once menghantam: to beat violently

hanyutan drifting movement

hapak musty; stale-smelling

hantar send; pass (a ball) hantaran: dowry; something that is sent menghantarkan: to send off; to bring; to escort penghantar: sender; deliverer penghantaran: delivery hapus vanish; disappear menghapuskan: to wipe out; to abolish; to eradicate penghapusan: abolition; eradication terhapus: eradicated; abolished

hantu ghost; phantom; spectre berhantu: haunted menghantui: to haunt harafiah literal

haram hantuk unlawful; forbidden; illicit


mengharamkan: to forbid; to ban pengharaman: banning harum fragrant harap hope harapan: hope; expectation pengharapan: hope; expectation berharap: to hope; to wish berharapkan: to hope for mengharap: to hope; to wish; to expect mengharapkan: to hope for; to wish for harung wade harga price; value berharga: valuable menghargai: to appreciate penghargaan: honour; appreciation harus necessary; inevitable; must; fitting mengharuskan: to compel; to permit seharusnya: necessarily; inevitably; actually hari day haribulan: date harian: daily berhari-hari: day after day sehari: one day sehari-hari: every day sehari-harian: all day long hasad jealous; envious; malevolent mengharungi: to wade haruman: fragrance; perfume mengharum: fragrant mengharumi: to make fragrant mengharumkan: to make fragrant; to make famous

hasil product; result hasil bumi: natural resources hasil jualan: sales returns hasil negeri: state revenue hasil pertanian: agricultural products berhasil: successful; fruitful menghasilkan: produce

harimau tiger

harta property harta tanah: real estate hartawan: wealthy person; magnate berharta: having property; wealthy hasrat desire; ambition; object of desire berhasrat: to have a desire haru-biru uproar; chaos mengharukan: to plague terharu: upset; grieved

hasta length from elbow to tip of middle finger


hasut instigate menghasut: to instigate hasutan: instigation penghasut: instigator heboh noisy menghebohkan: to cause an uproar; to publicise hati (1) liver (2) heart (in emotional sense) hegeh berhati binatang: cruel berhati-hati: cautious memperhatikan: to pay attention pemerhati: observer perhatian: attention sehati sejiwa: one heart and soul (togetherness) flaunting; swagger

hela drag or haul menghela: to drag or haul

haus (1) thirsty (2) worn out kehausan: (1) thirst (2) abraded menghauskan: to cause thirst; to yearn for helah contrivance; trick; excuse

hawa atmosphere; air; climate

helai piece

hayat life menghayati: to appreciate; to experience penghayatan: appreciation

helang eagle

hemah manners

hebah announce; broadcast juruhebah: announcer; broadcaster penghebah: announcer; broadcaster menghebahkan: to announce; to broadcast penghebahan: announcement hemat frugal; careful and economical berhemat: to be careful; to be thrifty menghematkan: to economise

hebat grand; great kehebatan: power; awe memperhebatkan: to intensify

hembus blow; exhale hembusan: a puff; a gust of wind; exhalation menghembus: to blow; to exhale menghembuskan: to blow out


hentak stamp (of feet) hempap crushed menghempap: to crush by falling on top of menghempapkan: to cause something heavy to fall on hentam bash; strike; batter; beat hempas slam; throw; lash menghempas: to slam; to throw; to lash berhempas pulas: to work very hard terhempas: thrown; tossed henti stop hempedal gizzard berhenti: to stop memberhentikan: to cause to stop menghentikan: to cause to stop pemberhentian: stoppage perhentian: a place for stopping terhenti: stopped menghentam: to bash; to strike; to batter; to beat hentam keromo: to finish all at once menghentak: to stamp (of feet) hentakan: stamping of the feet menghentakkan: to stamp (of feet)

hempedu bile henyak hendak want; desire; need; wish berkehendak: to wish for berkehendakkan: to want; to require kehendak: a wish menghendaki: to require; to ask for sekehendak hati: according to one's wish

stamp menghenyak: to stamp menghenyakkan: to throw oneself upon terhenyak: sit down suddenly

herdik scold; find fault herdikan: scolding mengherdik: to scold

hendap lurk; latent; spy menghendap: to spy; to lurk terhendap-hendap: to lurk; to be latent

heret drag mengheret: to drag

hening calm; clear; pure keheningan: quietness; clearness herot



hias adorn; make-up; decorate menghias: to decorate menghiasi: to decorate menghiaskan: to decorate perhiasan: decoration; adornment

hidung nose hidung tinggi: snobbish

hidup live; alive; life hiba sorrow; longing berhiba hati: sorrowful menghibakan: to arouse feelings of sorrow hidup-hidup: alive hidupan: living things kehidupan: life menghidupkan: to start; to switch on penghidupan: livelihood

hibur entertain; amuse menghibur: to entertain; to amuse; to cheer up hiburan: entertainment; amusement menghiburkan: entertaining penghibur: entertainer terhibur: entertained

hijau (1) green (2) immature kehijauan: greenish; greenery menghijau: to appear to be green; to become green

hijrah (1) Muslim era (2) migrate hidang serve; present (food) menghidangkan: to serve; to present (food) hidangan: a dish of food hikayat story; history hidap suffer from (an illness) menghidap: to suffer from (an illness) menghidapi: to suffer from (an illness) hikmat wisdom; magical powers berhijrah: to migrate penghijrahan: migration

hidayat guidance

hilang lost; lose kehilangan: loss; disappearance menghilang: to disappear menghilangkan: to cause to disappear

hidu smell menghidu: to smell


hilir downstream hilir-mudik: up and down menghilir: to go downstream hingus mucus from nose

himpit squeeze or crush himpitan: act of squeezing or crushing; crowd berhimpitan: pushing; pressing; squeezing; crushing menghimpit: to squeeze or crush; to press terhimpit: squeezed; crushed; pressed

hingga till; until

hinggap perch menghinggapi: to perch on; to attack (by illness)

himpun assemble; collect berhimpun: to assemble; to gather himpunan: accumulation; collection menghimpunkan: to assemble; to collect perhimpunan: assembly; gathering hinggut shake; sway

hirau pay attention to; feel concern for hina low-down; contemptible; dishonourable; mean menghinakan: to insult penghinaan: humiliation; insult terhina: scorned menghiraukan: to pay attention to

hiris slice; subdivide hirisan: a slice menghiris: to slice terhiris: be offended; be hurt; be touched emotionally

hincut lame terhincut-hincut: limping

hindar avoid menghindar: to avoid; to pull to the side menghindari: to avoid; to evade menghindarkan: to avoid terhindar: averted

hiruk-pikuk clamour; uproar

hirup sip; suck menghirup: to sip; to suck

hingar-bingar noisy



calculate ilmu hisab: arithmetic

communicate hubungan: connection; ties; link; sexual affair berhubung: regarding; in respect of berhubungan: having regards to menghubungkaitkan: to interrelate menghubungi: to contact menghubungkan: to connect perhubungan: connection; relationship

hisap suck menghisap: to suck; to smoke penghisap: smoker; sucker; drinking-straw hisapan: suction hujah

argument; debate; quarrel hitam black kehitaman: very black menghitamkan: to blacken hujan rain hitung count; enumerate; consider berhitung: to count menghitung: to count memperhitungkan: to take into consideration perhitungan: consideration hujung end; edge hodoh ugly hujung minggu: weekend hujung tahun: end of the year penghujung: conclusion; ending hujan rintik-rintik: drizzle berhujan: to expose oneself to the rain kehujanan: caught in the rain menghujani: to rain upon berhujah: to wrangle; to contend; to argue menghujahkan: to contend

honar chaos; deceit; fraud

hukum law hukuman: punishment; penalty; sentence hukuman maut: death sentence hukuman penjara: jail sentence menghukum: to sentence for punishment

hormat respect berhormat: respected kehormat: honourable kehormatan: honour menghormati: to respect penghormatan: honour; respect terhormat: respected

hulu (1) butt; handle (of tool or weapon) (2) upstream


hulubalang commander; warlord


uproar; chaos menghuru-harakan: to create chaos hulur stretch menghulur: to stretch menghulurkan: to stretch; to release huruf letter of alphabet huruf besar: capital letter huruf kecil: small (lower case) letter huma dry field hurung cancel humban fling; throw; hurl menghumban: to fling; to hurl; to throw hutan forest perhutanan: forestry huni inhabit berhuni: inhabited berpenghuni: inhabited menghuni: to inhabit penghuni: inhabitant; dweller hutang debt hutang lapuk: bad debt hutang-piutang: all kinds of debts berhutang: to owe

hunjam bore vertically; dive; plunge down huyung stagger hunus unsheathe menghunus: to unsheathe ia it; he; she beria-ia: truly; really mengiakan: to assent to seia sekata: agreeable expound; elaborate; untie huraian: elaboration; explanation; description menghuraikan: to untie; to separate; to settle; to decide iaitu namely; that is to say terhuyung-hayang: to stagger



ialah is; are


display the feathers mengigal: to display the feathers iau mew (cat's cry) mengiau: to mew igau sleep-talk; nightmare ibadat pious duties; worship mengigau: to talk in the sleep; to have a nightmare igauan: incubus (nightmare); burdensome person or thing

ibarat example; parable mengibaratkan: to liken to

ihsan good deed

ijab iblis dickens; deuce; Devil (in exclamation) answer to a prayer; tender for goods ijab kabul: formalisation of matrimony

Ibrani Hebrew

ijazah degree (academic)

ibu mother ibu ayam: pimp ibu jari: thumb ibu kota: capital city ibu negara: national capital ibu mentua: mother-in-law ibu sawat telefon: telephone exchange keibuan: motherly

ijtihad study

ijuk black fibre of enau palm

ikal curly idam crave; longing for idaman: desire; craving; longing mengidam: to crave; to long for mengidamkan: to crave for ikal mayang: long curly hair

ikan fish perikanan: fisheries



ikat tie; bind; bunch; bundle ikat jamin: bail ikatan: string; union; band; ties; restriction ikatan kasih: love ties ikatan keluarga: family ties ikatan perkahwinan: matrimonial ties mengikat: to tie; to bind; obligatory pengikat: fastener perikatan: alliance; union; confederation

ikrab (1) inflexion (changing of the form of a word grammatically) (2) intimate

ikrar promise; pledge berikrar: to promise; to pledge mengikrarkan: to promise

ikhlas candid; unsophisticated; sincere; frank keikhlasan: honesty; sincerity

iktibar example; teaching

iktikad ikhtiar endeavour; attempt; effort berikhtiar: to endeavour mengikhtiarkan: to devise; to plan iktiraf recognise; acknowledge; accept ikhtisar compendium; summary; digest mengiktiraf: to recognise; to acknowledge; to accept pengiktirafan: recognition; acknowledgement; acceptance faith beriktikad: having the intention

ikhtisas professional iktisad economy ikhwan brothers ikut follow iklan advertisement mengiklankan: to advertise; to publicise pengiklanan: advertising periklanan: advertising mengikut: to follow ikut angin: moody; temperamental ikut serta: participate ikut-ikutan: follow blindly; trend berikut: next; following berikutan: following that mengikuti: to shadow; to follow pengikut: follower terikut-ikut: imitating

iklim climate ilai


laugh loudly; scream mengilai: to laugh loudly; to scream imbuh augment; increase; supplement; extra ilham inspiration; sudden brilliant idea mengilhamkan: to inspire; to instil an idea into imla dictate (words) ilmiah erudite; learned; scholarly impi dream; have visions ilmiawan scholar imsak ilmu knowledge; learning berilmu: learned inai henna imam Muslim spiritual leader who leads the congregation in prayer inang nursery maid iman piety inap lodge; reside imbang balance seimbang: equal; balanced berimbang: balanced; equal; matched; to balance keseimbangan: equilibrium imbangan: balance (noun) menginap: to lodge; to reside penginapan: lodging berinai: to have henna applied the time of commencement of fast impian: a dream imbuhan: affix; addition; augmentation

incar gimlet (a tool for boring)

imbas glimpse imbasan: a glimpse mengimbas: to glimpse

inci inch


incut lame; crippled ingin indah beautiful keindahan: beauty mengindahkan: to beautify


agog; eager; desirous; want; wish keinginan: desire; want; wish menginginkan: to wish for; to desire; to yearn for teringin: craving

India of India or Indians ingkar disobedient mengingkari: to break a pledge; to disobey indik trample ingus mucus from the nose inding covet; desire eagerly beringus: having a runny nose

induk mother (animal)

ini this

inframerah infra-red

injak pedal menginjak: to step on; to trample

ingat remember; memorise; recall ingat-ingat: be cautious; remember ingatan: memory; recollection; remembrance beringat-ingat: to be careful; to be aware mengingat: to remember; to think mengingatkan: to remind; reminiscent mengingati: to remember; to recall memperingati: to commemorate peringatan: reminder; warning seingat: as far as can be remembered teringat: being reminded teringat-ingat: recalling repeatedly; picturing in the mind Injil Bible

insaf disabuse; realisation; repentance keinsafan: realisation menginsafi: to realise; to repent

insan mankind Inggeris


insang gill (of fish)

(1) catty; spiteful (2) jealousy iri hati: jealous; envious

intai peep mengintai: to peep; to spy

iring escort; accompany iringan: accompaniment beriringan: walking together; followed by mengiringi: to escort; to accompany pengiring: an escort; entourage seiring: side-by-side

intan diamond

intim intimate

iris slice or thin broad piece

intip peek; peep; glance mengintip: to spy on pengintip: a spy; a secret agent pengintipan: act of spying

isak sob terisak-isak: sobbing

isi contents intisari kernel; central or important part isi hati: feelings isi padu: volume berisi: to contain mengisi: to fill up; to occupy mengisikan: to fill perisian: programming

ipar brother- or sister-in-law ipar duai: in-laws isirung

kernel irama rhythm berirama: rhythmic Islam of the Muslim religion

iras alike

Isnin Monday





announce perisytiharan: declaration; proclamation

isteri wife isteri muda: second wife isteri tua: first wife beristeri: to be married (of a man) memperisteri: to take a wife memperisterikan: to give in marriage itik duck

itu that

istiadat ceremony; ceremonial

izin permission; consent; authorisation keizinan: permission mengizinkan: to permit; to consent

istilah term (word or phrase); terminology peristilahan: terminological jabal istimewa special; extraordinary keistimewaan: specialty; peculiarity teristimewa: most special jabang baby istirehat rest; relax; interval (1) mountain (2) rob jaat a kind of bean

jabar almighty (for God)

isyak evening prayer (of Muslims) jabarut sphere attained by the mystic isyarat cue or signal mengisyaratkan: to signal jabat shake hands (in greeting) sejabat: colleague jabatan: department berjabat: to shake hands (in greeting) menjabat: to occupy a post pejabat: office

isytihar declare; proclaim; announce mengisytiharkan: to declare; to proclaim; to


jabel nab

make; happen; become; be born jadi-jadian: apparition menjadi: to become menjadikan: to make; to cause; to create kejadian: incident; happening terjadi: happened jadi-nya: so; therefore jadilah: thus

jabhati determination

jabil sac; pouch; small cloth purse jadual programme; schedule; list; table jabing prominent or large (of ears) menjadualkan: to schedule penjadualan: scheduling

jabu billowy (of dust, smoke, etc)

jae ginger

jabun billowy (of dense foliage)

jaga be awake; be alert; guard; take care of jagaan: custody; care; charge; supervision berjaga: to guard berjaga-jaga: to be on guard; to be careful; to be alert menjaga: to look after penjaga: watchman; guardian; caretaker penjagaan: care; supervision terjaga: woke up jagabaya: village-police

jabung glue; resin

jabur mixed up; psalm

jadah bastard

jagal (1 )deal in small wares (2) slaughter (as a butcher) jagalan: small wares; merchandise

jadam a kind of medicine jagang shore jadar a kind of plant jagat (1) world; universe (2) blackhead; blemish jadi sejagat: worldwide; universal


jagoan fighting cock; champion; candidate

jahi ginger

jaguh champion

jahid ascetic

jagung maize; corn

jahil ignorant; stupid; uneducated kejahilan: ignorance

jagur robust; burly jahim blazing (of hell) jah respect; honour jahit sew or stitch jahanam destroy; ruin; hell; scoundrel menjahanamkan: to wreck; to destroy; to ruin menjahit: to sew or stitch tukang jahit: tailor jahit-menjahit: needlework menjahitkan: to sew something

jahang (1) to abuse angrily (2) dark red

Jahudi Jew

jahar aloud

jail (1) rod with noose of fibre (2) sneaky; nagging

jaharu low-class scoundrel; pariah

jais unreceptive; inattentive

jahat bad; evil; immoral kejahatan: badness; wickedness penjahat: villain sejahat-jahat: however bad

jaiz lawful or permitted (of Muslims)



hawk; peddle goods berjaja: to hawk; to peddle goods menjaja: to hawk; to peddle penjaja: hawker jalan (1) road; street; way; route (2) walk berjalan: to walk berjalan-jalan: to take a walk menjalani: to undergo menjalankan: to perform; to carry out pejalan kaki: pedestrian perjalanan: journey

jajah colonise menjajah: to colonise jajahan: colony; district penjajah: coloniser; colonialist penjajahan: colonialism jalar

creep jajal try or attempt jalin jajan buy sweets menjalin: to plait; to braid; to establish menjalinkan: to establish a relationship terjalin: woven; plaited; established jajar parallel; on same level; row or line berjajar: in a row; next to each other sejajar: parallel; in line with; in alignment jalur stripe; strip jaluran: stripe berjalur-jalur: striped jajat mimic jam clock; watch; hour jaksa judicial officer; justice berjam-jam: for hours plait; braid menjalar: to creep; to crawl

jala fishing net jala-jala: hairnet menjala: to fish with cast net penjala: fisherman

Jamadilakhir sixth month of the Muslim calendar

Jamadilawal fifth month of the Muslim calendar

jalad executioner jamah


touch; taste; eat in small amounts menjamah: to touch; to taste; to eat in small amounts jampuk

incantation; magic spell

owl jamak plural (in grammar) jamu (1) herbal medicine (2) feast jambak bunch of flowers; bouquet; compliment jamuan: a feast; party; reception berjamu: to feast menjamu: to feast; to entertain

jamban latrine; toilet; lavatory jana life jambang (1) sideburns (2) flowers arranged in a vase jambangan: flowers arranged in a vase janda jambat bridge jambatan: bridge a widow janda berhias: childless widow menjanda: to be a widow janakuasa: generator menjanakan: to generate penjana: generator penjanaan: generation of energy

jambu guava

jangan don't jangan-jangan: maybe jangankan: let alone

jambul crest; tuft on head; plume on helmet janggal awkward jamin guarantee; promise jaminan: a guarantee menjamin: to guarantee terjamin: guaranteed penjamin: guarantor kejanggalan: awkwardness

janggus a type of tree bearing edible fruit




beard berjanggut: bearded jantan male jangka (1) a meter (measuring device) (2) expect; anticipate (3) period of time jangka angin: anemometer jangkamasa: duration of time jangka suhu: thermometer jangkahayat: life expectancy jangkaan: expectation; anticipation menjangka: to expect; to anticipate menjangkakan: to expect; to anticipate jantina gender; sex kejantanan: masculinity

jantung heart jantung hati: sweetheart

jangkau reach out with the hand jangkauan: the reach of one's hand menjangkau: to reach out terjangkau: reached out jarah pillage; plunder; rob

jarak jangkit infectious berjangkit: infectious; infected menjangkitkan: infectious; communicable (of disease) jangkitan: infection menjangkiti: to infect distance berjarak: to be at a distance menjarakkan: to space out

jaram a compress or pad to stop bleeding, etc

jangkung heron

jarang (1) seldom (2) transparent (of material) (3) thin (of hair) jarang-jarang: rarely; seldom

janin foetus jari janji promise janji temu: appointment berjanji: to promise menjanjikan: to promise perjanjian: agreement; contract jaring


net penjaring: scorer (of goal)


menjauhi: to stay away from; to shun sejauh: as far as jarum needle jauhari jarum peniti: pin jeweller; expert

jasa merit; service jasa baik: good offices berjasa: to fulfil one's duty

jawa tamarind asam jawa: tamarind

jawab jasad body jawapan: an answer berjawab: answered menjawab: to answer; to reply jasmani physical jasmaniah: physical jawat colleague jata blazon sejawat: colleague jawatan: post; appointment; job jawatankuasa: committee berjawatan: holding a post menjawat: to hold a post perjawatan: post; job answer; reply; respond

jati (1) pure; genuine (2) teakwood sejati: real; true (of friends) Jawi Arabic characters

jatuh fall kejatuhan: a fall; a collapse menjatuhkan: to cause to fall or drop terjatuh: dropped or fell

jaya successful jayanya: successfully berjaya: to succeed; successful kejayaan: success menjayakan: to make successful

jauh far; distant berjauhan: far apart kejauhan: afar jebak snare; trap


menjebak: to trap terjebak: trapped

trail berjela: to trail berjela-jela: to trail

jeda interval jelaga soot jegil stare with bulging eyes jelah menjegilkan: to stare in horror or astonishment legible

jejak footstep; trail; track menjejak: to trail menjejaki: to trail

jelajah explore menjelajah: to explore menjelajahi: to explore penjelajah: explorer penjelajahan: exploration

jejaka bachelor; young man jelak fed up; bored jejambat flyover jelang eve of jejantas flyover jelapang granary; rice bowl jejari radius jelas clear; well-defined; evident; obvious jejas affect menjejaskan: to affect; to act upon in an adverse manner terjejas: affected; acted upon in an adverse manner menjelaskan: to explain; to clarify; to settle penjelasan: explanation; clarification

jelata commoner; ordinary people


jelatang nettle


jelik ugly; bad; repulsive

jemala chump; block

jeling ogle flirtatiously jelingan: a glance through the corner of the eye menjeling: to ogle flirtatiously; to look through the corner of the eye

jembalang gnome

jempul superfine

jelir stick out (tongue) menjelir: to stick out (tongue) menjelirkan: to stick out (tongue) jemput invite menjemput: to invite jemputan: invitation sejemput: a pinch of

jelita pretty; beautiful jelitawan: beautiful girl kejelitaan: beauty jemput-jemput dumpling made from mixture of flour and bananas

jelma incarnate; materialise menjelma: to incarnate; to materialise jelmaan: metamorphic; incarnation menjelmakan: to create penjelmaan: incarnation; materialisation; metamorphosis

jemu bored; weary menjemukan: to bore

jemur sunbathe; bask berjemur: to sunbathe; to bask jemuran: clothes hung out to dry menjemur: to dry in the sun

jeluas gory; bloody

jelujur baste; temporary stitches

jenak moment sejenak: a moment

jemaah pilgrim; assembly; congregation jenaka


banter; joke berjenaka: to joke

jengkel annoyed; irritated menjengkelkan: to annoy; to irritate

jenama brand; trade mark berjenama: branded jengket tiptoe berjengket: to tiptoe menjengket: to tiptoe jenang window or door frame; jamb jenguk look with head thrust forward jenayah crime penjenayah: criminal jenggul protrude jenazah corpse menjenggulkan: to protrude menjenguk: to look with head thrust forward menjengukkan: to thrust head forward

jendela window

jenis type; sort; kind berjenis-jenis: of many types; a variety penjenisan: classification sejenis: of one type; a type of peep; glance menjengah: to peep; to glance jentera machinery; machine


jengkal span between the tips of stretched thumb and little finger sejengkal: a span between the tips of stretched thumb and little finger jentik (1) snap or flick with finger (2) larva menjentik: to snap or flick with finger jentik-jentik: larva jentikan: fillip

jengkau reach out menjengkau: to reach out jentolak bulldozer


jenuh satisfied; full jerekit cohere jera discourage; dishearten; dissuade jerembat fall headlong jeram rapids terjerembat: to fall headlong

jerami hay; straw

jerempak meet by chance terjerempak: to meet by chance

jeran discourage jerih tired jerang boil menjerang: to boil menjerangkan: to boil jering jerangkap booby trap jerit jerangkung human skeleton scream menjerit: to scream terjerit-jerit: screaming jeritan: act of screaming a type of tree and its malodorous fruit jeriji a grate

jerat a snare or trap menjerat: to snare or trap jerjak trellis; lattice

jerawat pimple

jerkah snarl; yell menjerkah: to snarl

jerebu haze


jernih clear; transparent; pure kejernihan: clarity; purity menjernihkan: to make clear; to purify jika

menjijikkan: revolting; loathsome; to cause disgust

if jeruk pickle jikalau if jerumat to darn jilat lick; lap jerumus cause to fall menjerumuskan: to cause to fall terjerumus: to fall forward jilid binding; volume (of printed material) menjilid: to bind (printed material) penjilidan: binding (of printed material) shark jimak jerut constrict; tighten a knot; strangle with rope menjerut: to constrict; to tighten a knot; to strangle with rope jimat thrift berjimat:thrifty; prudent menjimatkan: to save thimble jin jihad holy war jinak jidar margin; border; edge tame; domesticated berjinak-jinak: to familiarise with kejinakan: tameness menjinakkan: to tame; to domesticate spirit copulation menjilat: to lick; to lap



jijik distasteful; disgusting


jingga orange (colour)

correct; accurate; exact kejituan: accuracy menjitukan: to correct

jinjang long and slender (of neck) jiwa soul; spirit jinjing carry light objects in the hand menjinjing: to carry light objects in the hand jodoh jintan herb with spicy seeds jintan manis: aniseed jintan putih: cummin joget jiplak copy or trace a Malay dance berjoget: to dance the joget marriage partner or match berjodoh: to take as a spouse menjodohkan: to marry off berjiwa: to be alive: to have the spirit menjiwai: to put more life or spirit into; to enliven

jiran neighbour berjiran: to have as a neighbour; neighbouring; neighbourly kejiranan: neighbourhood

johan champion kejohanan: championship

jolok jirat non-Muslim grave poke or thrust menjolok: to poke; to thrust menjolok mata: shameful; unsightly

jirus douse; pour water on menjirus: to douse; to pour water on jong junk (sailing ship)

jisim body; mass

jongang protruding (of teeth)





fight; struggle berjuang: to fight; to struggle memperjuangkan: to fight for pejuang: fighter perjuangan: a fight; a struggle; war seperjuangan: a common fight or struggle

jongkok cringe;cower

jongkong (1) ingot; bullion (2) large dug-out canoe

juara champion kejuaraan: championship menjuarai: to become the champion

joran fishing rod jubah joreng a small piece or shred jubin jorong (1) betel leaf container (2) funnel judi jua also

robe; chasuble


gamble berjudi: to gamble memperjudikan: to gamble penjudi: gambler perjudian: gamble

juadah comestibles; things to eat judul juak court page

title; subject berjudul: having a title

jual sell berjual: to sell berjual beli: to trade menjual: to sell penjual: seller jualan: sale

juga also; too

juita lovely; sweet




trickle berjujuh: to trickle jumbai


frill jujur honest; trustworthy kejujuran: honesty jumlah total Julai July berjumlah: having a total of menjumlahkan: to total up sejumlah: a total of; a sum of

julang boost; push upwards; soar menjulang: to boost; to push upwards; to soar julangan: upward thrust

jumpa (1) meet (2) find ; discover berjumpa: to meet jumpaan: a finding; a discovery menjumpai: to meet; to find; to discover perjumpaan: meeting terjumpa: found

julap laxative Jun June juling squint junam dive; nosedive julukan nickname; pet name; epithet menjunam: to dive; to nosedive terjunam: plunged head first

julung primary; the first julung kali: the first time

junjung (1) respect deeply (2) carry on the head menjunjung: (1) to respect deeply (2) to carry on the head

julur protrude menjulur: to protrude menjulurkan: to cause to protrude juntai dangling; pendulous berjuntai: dangling; pendulous



jurang ravine; gap jurang generasi: generation gap

jurukira accountant

jurulatih coach; trainer juru expert jurumasak chef juruacara master of ceremonies; compere jurumudi helmsman juruaudit auditor juruoptik optician juruazan muezzin jururawat nurse jurubahasa interpreter jurusawat mechanic jurubina architect juruselam diver jurucakap spokesman jurusolek beautician jurugambar photographer jurutaip typist juruhebah announcer juruteknik technician jurukamera cameraman jurutera


engineer kejuruteraan: engineering kabu

leap year

cotton tree juruterbang air pilot kekabu: cotton tree

jurutrengkas stenographer

kabul fulfil; grant mengabulkan: to fulfil; to grant terkabul: fulfilled; granted

juruukur surveyor kabung juruulas commentator mourn berkabung: to mourn perkabungan: mourning; expression of grief

juruwang cashier

kabur blur; dim; unclear; vague mengaburkan: to make blur mengaburi: to make blur

jurus moment sejurus: a moment jurusan: department; direction; stream menjurus: in the direction of

kabus mist

justeru hence; for this reason

kabut fog berkabut: foggy kelam-kabut: chaos; chaotic

juta million jutawan: millionaire berjuta-juta: millios of Kaabah cubic black stone building in the mosque in Mecca kacak kaca


handsome; smart-looking kabisat


kacang bean kacang bendi: lady's fingers kaduk fool (of Malay folklore) kacau (1) harass; disturb (2) stir kacau-bilau: chaotic kekacauan: disturbance mengacau: (1) to harass; to disturb (2) to stir mengacaukan: to stir; to mix pengacau: trouble-maker; one who disturbs kaedah method; procedure

kafan shroud

kacip nutcracker

kafilah caravan; convoy of travellers

kacuk cross-bred kacukan: offspring of cross-breed

kafir infidel; person with no religious faith mengkafirkan: to consider as an infidel

kacung mantis

kaget startled mengagetkan: to startle

kadam sole of foot kagum impressive; amazing; astounding kadang-kadang sometimes kadang kala: sometimes; now and then kahak phlegm kadar rate; ratio; proportion berkadar: proportional sekadar: just; only kahwin marry kahwin lari: elope mengahwini: to marry mengahwinkan: to marry off perkahwinan: marriage; wedding mengagumi: to amaze; to astound mengagumkan: to amaze; to astound

kadi Muslim judge


kaji bintang astronomy kail fishing-rod mengail: to fish with a rod pengail: angler; fisherman kaji bumi geology

kain cloth

kaji cuaca meteorology

kais scratch with the claws mengais: to scratch with the claws

kaji haiwan zoology

kaji hayat biology kait (1) crochet; knit (2) metal hook (3) correlate mengait: to knit; to crochet kaitan: correlation; relationship; relevance berkaitan: having a connection or correlation mengaitkan: to connect; to associate; to correlate perkaitan: connection kaji purba archaeology

kaji selidik survey or study

kajai collar

kaji tumbuhan botany

kajang awning; roofing (for boat or cart)

kakak elder sister

kaji study mengkaji: to study; to do research into kajian: a study; analysis; scrutiny mengaji: to read the Koran pengajian: pursuit of knowledge; academic study pengkajian: research pengkaji: researcher

kakak ipar sister-in-law

kakaktua cockatoo; parrot



elder brother or sister

kaki (1) foot; leg (2) measure of length equal to one foot (12 inches) kakisama: isosceles; having two sides equal (of triangle) kakitangan: staff; personnel; employees kalam

kalah mati: knock-out system (in sporting competition) kekalahan: a defeat mengalah: to concede defeat mengalahkan: to defeat

writing pen

kalang kaki ayam barefoot transverse support

kaki bangku one who cannot play football

kalangan circle or group with similar interests

kalau kaki bola one who loves football if kalau-kalau: maybe kaki gaduh trouble-maker

kalbu heart

kaki judi gambler

kaldu broth

kaku stiff kaku lidah: tongue-tied kali-kali: multiplication table berkali-kali: repeatedly sekali: once; at the same time; superlative sekali imbas: glance sekali-sekala: once in a while sekalipun: although sekalian: all kali times; multiply

kala length or period of time kala jengking: scorpion berkala: periodical

kalah lose; defeated

kalimantang fluorescent light


kalimat sentence; period kambus engulf; cover kalis proof; able to withstand mengambus: to engulf; to cover terkambus: covered with earth

kalis air waterproof

kami we; us

kalis api fireproof

kamir yeast

kalis karat rust-proof

kampit portable case; sack

kalis peluru bullet-proof

kampung village berkampung: to assemble perkampungan: a group of villages

kaloi carp kamu kalung necklace mengalungkan: to garland kalungan: a garland kamus

you; your


kalut muddle; confusion; disorder

kanak-kanak child

kamar room

kanan (1) right (2) senior

kambing goat gembala kambing: goat-herd

kancil mousedeer


kanta cembung: convex lens kanta pembesar: magnifying lens kancing buckle; fastener kantuk berkancing: to have a fastener mengancing: to fasten terkancing: fastened sleepiness; drowsiness mengantuk: sleepy; drowsy

kandang cage; pen; fold mengandang: to cage

kantung pouch; purse

kanun code of law kandas (1) run aground (2) fail terkandas: failed; stranded; aground kapah gasp; tremble kandung contain mengandung: pregnant kandungan: contents mengandungi: to contain; to consist of; filled with

kapai to flap the arms to stay afloat

kapak axe mengapak: to cut with an axe

kangkang straddle; astride mengangkang: to straddle terkangkang: with legs wide apart kapal

ship perkapalan: shipping

kanji starch berkanji: starched; starchy menganji: to starch kapal angkasa spaceship

kanta lens kanta cekung: concave lens

kapal induk mothership

kapal korek



kara all alone

kapal perang battleship

karam sink (of ship); submerge

kapal selam submarine

karang (1) coral (2) compose batu karang: coral mengarang: to compose karangan: composition pekarangan: front portion of house pengarang: author

kapal terbang aeroplane

kapar scattered; sprawled karat berkaparan: scattered terkapar: sprawled (1) rust (2) carat berkarat: rusty; to rust karatan: rustiness kapas cotton karau churn kapit flank; escort kardus mengapit: to flank; to escort pengapit: bridesmaid terkapit: flanked kari curry kapuk a type of cotton karib intimate kapung afloat karkas crabbed (of handwriting) kapur lime; chalk mengapuri: to white-wash karung sack hardboard


ostrich karut nonsense; ridiculous karut-marut: nonsense kata karya literary work; masterpiece karyawan: writer kata hati: intuition katakan: tell; say; suppose katanya: he or she said berkata-kata: to chatter mengata: to gossip mengatakan: to tell memperkatakan: to talk; to discuss; about perkataan: word sekata: even word; say kasut shoe

kasa gauze

kasap craggy; rugged katak frog kasar rough; crude; rude kekasaran: coarseness; rudeness; roughness mengasarkan: to make rough katil kasi (1) give (2) castrate mengasi: to castrate bed katil bujang: single bed katil kelamin: double bed katik small; short; stunted

kasih affection; love kasih sayang: affection; love; fondness kasihan: pity berkasih-kasihan: to be in love with each other kekasih: lover; sweetheart mengasihani: to pity mengasihi: to love someone pengasih: lover ubat pengasih: love spell

katuk to knock; to tap

katung float terkatung-katung: floating

katup (1) closely held (2) cover kasuari


berkatup: closed terkatup: shut tight kawasan area; region kau you (abbreviation of 'engkau') kawat cable; wire kaum community; group perkauman: racial kawat berduri barbed wire

kaus hose kaya rich; wealthy kaus kaki footwear kaya anak: having many children kaya raya: very rich kekayaan: wealth memperkayakan: to enrich terkaya: richest

kaut scoop up kayangan fairyland; very beautiful place kawah cauldron; large pan; crater kayap shingles kawal control; guard; check kayu berkawal: on guard mengawal: to guard; to control; to watch mengawali: to guard; to escort; to control mengawal diri: to restrain oneself pengawal: a guard; a controller kawalan: state of being under control or under guard wood kayu-kayuan: wood; timber kayu-kayan: wood; timber kayu api: firewood kayu balak: log perkayuan: logging; timber industry kayu manis: cinnamon

kawan friend; companion berkawan: to be friends; to have friends berkawan-kawan: in groups of friends mengawani: to accompany kayuh row; paddle; pedal berkayuh: to row; to paddle mengayuh: to row; to paddle pengayuh: an oar; a paddle; a pedal


taste; enjoy mengecap: to taste; to enjoy kebal impenetrable; immune; invulnerable; exempt kekebalan: immunity kecapi lute kebas numb kekebasan: numbness kekecewaan: disappointment; frustration mengecewakan: to disappoint; to frustrate kebil to blink (of eyes) kecil terkebil-kebil: blinking (of eyes) small kecil hati: hurt (of feelings) kecil-kecilan: small scale memperkecilkan: to belittle garden; plantation berkebun: to do gardening; to do farming pekebun: gardener; farmer perkebunan: gardening; farming kecimpung dabble; plunge in; splash; be involved; participate berkecimpung: to dabble; to plunge in; to be involved; to participate shattered berkecai: to shatter; shattered kecoh uproar; outcry kecam criticise severely; reprimand mengecam: to criticise severely; to reprimand kecaman: criticism kecuali except; exempt kecamuk causing to feel stunned or bewildered; furious (of combat) berkecuali: neutral kekecualian: exception mengecualikan: to exclude; to exempt pengecualian: exemption kekecohan: uproar; outcry kecewa disappointed; frustrated




kecundang defeated; beaten


kecur mouth-watering

kedut crease; wrinkle kedutan: crease; wrinkle berkedut: wrinkled mengedutkan: to cause to be creased or wrinkled

kecut shrink; shrivel; contract kecut hati: afraid mengecutkan: to shrink pengecut: coward

kehel sprain terkehel: sprained

kedai shop berkedai: to be a shopkeeper pekedai: shopkeeper kejam cruel kekejaman: cruelty kedal skin disease of hands and feet kejang cramp; inflexible; stiff kedang outstretched (of limb) kejap kedap impervious; sealed kedap udara: airtight moment sekejap: a moment berkejap: to blink kekejangan: cramps

kedek waddle (like a duck) terkedek-kedek: to waddle (like a duck)

kejar chase mengejar: to chase berkejar-kejaran: to chase one another terkejar-kejar: in a hurry

kedekut stingy

keji despicable; contemptible mengeji: to despise; to discredit

kedip blink; twinkle; flicker


Kejora Venus

kelabu grey

keju cheese

keladak dregs; sediment

kejur stiff

keladi yam

kejut shock terkejut: shocked kejutan: great shock mengejut: sudden mengejutkan: to shock; to startle; to surprise

kelah picnic berkelah: to picnic perkelahan: a picnic

kelahi quarrel kekal everlasting; eternal; permanent berkekalan: to be everlasting; to be permanent mengekalkan: to perpetuate kelak soon after kekek giggle; chortle terkekek-kekek: to giggle; to chortle mengekek: to giggle kelakar funny; antic; joke berkelakar: to joke; to jest kekang bridle; means of restraint kekangan: constraint; restriction kelalang earthenware pitcher; flask berkelahi: to quarrel perkelahian: a quarrel

kekok clumsy

kelam dusky; gloomy; dim kelam-kabut: chaotic kekelaman: gloom

kekuda trestle kelambu



kelawar bat (animal)

kelamin couple sekelamin: a pair; a couple

keldai ass; donkey

kelecek kelamun daydream mengelamun: to daydream keledek kelana wanderer berkelana: to wander kelek-kelek armrest kelangkang crotch; groin kelemayar glow-worm kelapa coconut kelapa kering: copra kelemayuh gangrene sweet potato dribble (in football) mengelecek: to dribble (in football)

kelapa sawit oil palm

kelemumur dandruff

kelar (1) nick; small cut (2) segment of centipede

kelengkeng little finger

kelasi sailor

kelenjar gland

kelat bitterish in taste

kelentang clanking sound


kelenting clanging noise

keliling around berkeliling: around mengelilingi: to encircle; to surround; to go around; to encompass pekeliling: circular sekeliling: surrounding

kelentong (1) to bluff (2) hawker's rattle

kelentit clitoris

kelim hem (of cloth); seam

kelepet lapel

kelinci hare

kelepur flutter mengelepur: to flutter

kelip blink; twinkle; wink berkelip-kelip: to blink; to twinkle; to wink sekelip mata: in a wink

keletah coquettish kelip-kelip firefly

keli river catfish keliru puzzled; confused; bewildered keliar to gallivant; to prowl kekeliruan: confusion; bewilderment mengelirukan: to confuse; puzzling; to bewilder terkeliru: puzzled; confused; bewildered

kelibat double-headed paddle kelmarin day before yesterday

kelicap sun-bird kelok crook; bend; curve kelikir gravel; rattan ring kelola berkelok: bent; curved


organise mengelola: to organise; to manage kelolaan: management mengelolakan: to organise pengelola: organiser pengelolaan: organisation; supervision

flying fox

keluar go out; exit keluaran: publication; product; made in mengeluarkan: to bring out; to publish; to produce pengeluar: producer pengeluaran: production terkeluar: excluded; expressed

kelompok batch; cluster; group berkelompok-kelompok: in groups; in clusters mengelompokkan: to put into groups

keluarga family kelompong part of telephone on which the receiver rests berkeluarga: having a family kekeluargaan: family; kinship

kelonet measly; meagre kelubung veil; hood berkelubung: veiled; hooded kelong fish tunnel net keluh sigh kelongsong leaf or paper cone used as container or wrapper keluhan: a sigh; a moan berkeluh-kesah: to moan mengeluh: to moan; to sigh

kelontong haberdashery

keluk curve; bend berkeluk-keluk: winding

kelopak sepal; calyx kelopak bunga: sepal; calyx kelopak mata: eyelid keluli


kelu speechless

kelumit morsel; very small amount



kelupas peel off mengelupas: to peel off; to come off

kembang expand; enlarge; blossom berkembang: to expand; to enlarge; to blossom mengembangkan: to develop; to cause to expand memperkembangkan: to develop; to cause to expand perkembangan: development

kemala bezoar

kemanakan nephew; niece

kembar twin

kemarau drought

kembara explore; wander mengembara: to explore; to wander pengembara: explorer; wanderer pengembaraan: exploration; adventure

kemaruk rapacious; ravenous; very hungry or greedy kembiri kemas orderly; neat; tidy kemaskini: update berkemas: to pack; to clear away mengemaskan: to arrange; to tidy up; to pack mengemaskinikan: to update


kemboja frangipani

kembu kematu corn (hardened area of skin) creel; angler's basket

kembali return; over again mengembalikan: to return something pengembalian: restoration

kembung flatulent; distended from pressure within

kemeja shirt

kemban cloth tied above the bosom berkemban: to tie the cloth (sarong) above the bosom

kemelut crucial or critical; crisis; emergency



incense kena kemik dent; dented kena-mengena: connection; relation berkenaan: in connection with; in relation to mengenai: in connection with; regarding mengenakan: to impose terkena: affected; tricked incur; strike; touch

kemis beg mengemis: to beg pengemis: beggar kenal

know; recognise kempas-kempis inflate and deflate kenalan: acquaintance berkenalan: having acquaintance with mengenal: to know; to recognise mengenali: to know; to recognise; to identify memperkenalkan: to introduce pengenalan: identification; introduction perkenalan: acquaintance terkenal: famous; well-known

kempis shrink mengempiskan: to deflate kenan kempunan longing for

agree; assent berkenan: to agree; to assent memperkenankan: to approve perkenan: approval; consent

kemudi helm; rudder mengemudikan: to steer pengemudi: helmsman kenang recall mengenang: to recall kenang-kenangan: souvenir; reminiscence kenangan: memory; remembrance; nostalgia mengenangkan: to recall terkenang: reminiscent

kemudian then; later; afterwards mengemudiankan: to postpone; to delay terkemudian: last kenapa

why kemuncak peak; summit kencang boisterous; strong (of wind) kemuncup love grass


kencing urine kening kencing manis diabetes mellitus kenit kendali conduct; manage; operate; hold the reins mengendalikan: to manage; to conduct; to operate; to handle; to hold the reins kendalian: operation; management kental

to walk with legs wide apart


tiny; midget; dwarf

thick (of fluid)

kendati although

kentang potato

kenderaan vehicle

kentut flatulence terkentut: passed flatus

kendi (1) cylindrical glass or earthenware jar (2) curlew kenyal pliable; elastic

kendong carry something in the folds of a sarong mengendong: to carry something in the folds of a sarong

kenyang sated (with food) kekenyangan: fullness (of stomach) mengenyangkan: to satiate

kendur loose; slack; not taut mengendur: to slacken; to sag mengendurkan: to slacken; to loosen kenyit wink; blink mengenyit: to wink; to blink

kenduri a feast

kepada to (person)





kepit (1) fasten with a clip (2) a clip (3) hold under the arm

kepak wing berkepak: winged berkepak-kepak: to flap (for wings)

mengepit: (1) to fasten with a clip (2) to hold under the arm

kepiting soft-shelled crab kepal lump kepompong chrysalis; pupa kepalan lump kepuk rice barn kepala (1) head (2) chief person kepala angin: moody mengepalai: to be the leader kepul thick puff (e.g.of smoke) kepulan: a cloud of smoke kepalang little

kepung besiege berkepung: to besiege kepungan: siege; blockade mengepung: to besiege pengepungan: siege; blockade terkepung: besieged; surrounded

keparat non-believer

kepialu typhoid kera monkey kepil attach kerabat kinship; relatives keping piece; sheet kerah kepingan: pieces; sheet berkeping-keping: in pieces; fragmented call up (into the armed forces) mengerahkan: to call up (into the armed


forces) kerahan: conscription keranjang crate; basket keraian festival; entertainment kerap frequent; close (of texture) kerak crust (e.g of bread) kekerapan: frequency

kerakal pebble

keras hard; firm; harsh; stiff; loud berkeras: to act harshly; stubborn kekerasan: force; power; might mengeraskan: to harden; to make loud keras hati: stubborn; indomitable

keramat one having supernatural powers

kerambit small sickle with curved end

kerat cut; incise mengerat: to cut; to incise keratan: a slice; a piece keratan akhbar: news clip

keran faucet; tap

kerana because; for the sake of

kerawang fretwork

kerawit keranda coffin; casket pin-worm cacing kerawit: pin-worm

kerang cockle; shellfish

kerbau buffalo kerbau pendek: pig

kerangka framework; chassis; carcass; draft kerdil (1) cretinous; dwarfish (2) cretin; dwarf kerani clerk


kerdip twinkle; wink kering kerek apparatus for hoisting things


dry kering-kontang: parched; arid kekeringan: dryness mengeringkan: to dry something pengering rambut: hair dryer

kerekot twisted

kerenah whim; caprice

keringat sweat berkeringat: to sweat; sweating

kerengga red ant

kerinting frizzy; a perm or artificial wave in the hair

kerepek fried chips of banana, tapioca, sweet potato, etc.

kerip nip with the front teeth

kereta car; carriage keretapi: train kereta sorong: wheelbarrow kereta jenazah: hearse

keris Malay dagger

kerisik (1) dry old banana fronds (2) rustling of dry leaves

keretek a type of cigarette containing tobacco and cloves keriting curly mengeritingkan: to curl keria crane (bird) kerja work kericau chirp kerjasama: cooperation bekerja: to work; working bekerjasama: to cooperate pekerja: worker



pekerjaan: occupation; work kerjatangan: handiwork; handicraft kerongsang brooch kerjaya career keropok crackers or chips (usually made from shrimps) kerkah crunch noisily with the teeth kersang barren; dry kerkap a crunching sound kersik grit kerlap a short nap kertak gnash or grind (one's teeth) kerling glance sideways briefly mengerling: to glance sideways briefly kerlingan: a brief glance kertas paper

kerlip flicker; wink kerlipan: a flicker

kertau mulberry

keruan kernyih grin kerubung swarm certain; definite

keroncong (1) a kind of traditional Malay music (2) rumbling sound from hungry stomach keroncongan: a type of plant

kerudung cowl

kerongkong throat kerongkongan: throat

keruh cloudy (of liquid); turbid kekeruhan: turbidity


kerumun besiege; throng; swarm berkerumun: to besiege; to throng; to swarm mengerumuni: to crowd around; to swarm; to besiege

kesan (1) effect; impression (2) indelible (of a mark) kesan jari: fingerprint kesan sampingan: side effect berkesan: effective keberkesanan: effectiveness mengesan: to track down

keruping scab; crust or clotted blood on a wound kesat (1) abusive; crude-mannered (2) coarse or rough in texture kerusi chair kerusi roda: wheelchair pengerusi: chairman mempengerusikan: to chair mengesat: to wipe mengesatkan: to make rough pengesat kaki: doormat

kesatria warrior kerut frown kerutan: wrinkle berkerut: wrinkled; to frown mengerutkan: to frown kesot drag berkesot: to drag mengesot: to drag kerutu rough to the touch ketak cackle (of hens) kesah restless ketam (1) crab (2) reap or harvest (3) plane (of wood) kesahan authenticity; legality; legitimacy mengetam: (1) to reap or harvest (2) to plane (of wood)

kesak move on slowly

ketap (1) clench; grit (2) plain; evident

kesal regretable; deplorable; regret

ketar doddery; trembling


sting of a mosquito bite; pinch ketara conspicuous; obvious ketitir turtle-dove ketat tight; taut mengetatkan: to tighten memperketatkan: to tighten; to make more strict ketua chief; leader; headman mengetuai: to lead; to head pengetua: principal

ketawa laugh; laughter mengetawakan: to laugh it out

ketuhar oven

ketuk ketemu meet knock berketuk: to crow like a rooster; to rap (of engine) mengetuk: to knock; to strike ketukan: a knock

ketiak armpit ketul a lump ketik clack (short sharp sound) seketul: a lump berketul-ketul: lumpy

ketika juncture; point of time; moment; when seketika: a moment ketumbar coriander

keting part of the leg just above the heel

ketumbit stye

ketupat ketingting hopscotch khabar ketip cooked rice packed in palm leaves


news khabarnya: it is said mengkhabarkan: to inform khatib khadam household servant; subordinate assistant

circumcision mengkhatankan: to circumcise

preacher in mosque

khalayak creature; mankind; God's creations

khatulistiwa equator

khayal khalifah caliph daydream; fantasy; imagination berkhayal: to daydream; to fantasise khayalan: daydream; fantasy; imagination mengkhayalkan: to fantasise khalwat state of an unmarried couple being together in seclusion khazanah treasury Khamis Thursday khemah camp; tent khas special berkhemah: to camp perkhemahan: camping

khasiat nutrient berkhasiat: nutritious

khianat betrayal; treachery mengkhianat: to betray mengkhianati: to betray pengkhianat: traitor pengkhianatan: betrayal; treachery

khat hand-writing khidmat serve; work khatam end; conclude; complete berkhidmat: to serve; to work perkhidmatan: service




blunder; mistake kias khuatir worried; afraid mengias: to hint at mengiaskan: to make an analogy khunsa hermaphrodite kibar fly (of flag) khusus special; specific; exclusive mengkhusus: to specialise mengkhususkan: to make special pengkhususan: specialisation berkibar: to fly (a flag) mengibarkan: to wave or fly (a flag) analogy

kibas fan vigorously; flap mengibaskan: to fan vigorously; to flap

khusyuk (1) engrossed (2) humility kiblat direction of Mecca khutbah sermon berkhutbah: to deliver a sermon pengkhutbah: preacher kicap ketchup

kial struggling; having difficulty terkial-kial: to struggle; to have difficulty

kicau chirp berkicau: to chirp kicauan: a bird's chirp

kiamat doomsday; day of judgement kidal left-handed kiambang water-lily

kijang deer

kian this much sekian: that's all kikir (1) stingy (2) a file (for smoothening things)


sharpener; strop mengilir: to sharpen kikis scrape off mengikis: to scrape off kimia chemistry kilan dissatisfied; discontented terkilan: dissatisfied; discontented kimpalan: welding kilang (1) factory (2) gland mengilang: to manufacture; to produce perkilangan: manufacturing kincir water-wheel or wind-mill; spool; reel kincir air: water-wheel kincir angin: windmill kimpal solid

kilap lustrous kilapan: lustre kipas kilat (1) lightning (2) brightness; shine mengipas: to fan berkilat: to shine; to flash berkilat-kilat: shining; glittering; glossy mengilatkan: to polish; to make shiny pengilat: polishing wax a fan kini now

kira (1) calculate; compute; count (2) regard as; suppose

kilau glossy; sparkling; glittering berkilau-kilau: to sparkle; to glitter kilau-kamilau: glossy kilauan: gloss; luminosity; sparkle; glitter

kira-kira: (1) approximately (2) arithmetic kiraan: calculation kiranya: in case; if berkira: calculated mengira: to calculate; to count; to compute mengira-ngira: to estimate pengiraan: act of counting; calculation; estimation

kili-kili spool kirai shake out; winnow (rice) kilir


kiri left kobar ardent; full of enthusiasm; flare up kirim send berkirim: to send kiriman: something that is sent; consignment mengirimkan: to send pengiriman: shipment; delivery pengirim: sender berkobar: to flare up

kocak agitate; shake briskly; stir berkocak: agitated; stirred kocakan: agitation mengocak-ngocakkan: to agitate

kisah story mengisahkan: to narrate pengisahan: narration kocek pocket

kisar rotate; revolve berkisar: to revolve; to rotate mengisarkan: to grind; to grate pengisaran: rotation; gyration; grinding

kocok to shake; to mix; to incite

kodi a score (twenty)

kismis raisin kodok frog kita we; us kohong fetid; stinking kitab book kokok crow berkokok: to crow kitar surrounding sekitar: surrounding kolah square stone or cement water tank kitaran cycle of events kolam



abrupt; sudden; curt sekonyong-konyong: sudden; abrupt; curt

kole mug kopak dilapidated; in disrepair kolek canoe kopak-kapik: dilapidated; in disrepair mengopak: to break open

kolot old-fashioned; out-of-date

kopek peel mengopek: to peel terkopek: peeled off

kompang shallow drum kopi coffee komplot conspiracy komplotan: conspiracy kopiah Malay cap

kongkong pillory

korban sacrifice berkorban: to offer as sacrifice mengorbankan: to sacrifice terkorban: killed pengorbanan: a sacrifice

kongsi association; partnership berkongsi: to enter into a partnership perkongsian: partnership korek

dig konon it is said mengorek: to dig pengorek: excavator; spade; digger

kontang dry; parched

korok a burrow




empty; vacant kekosongan: emptiness; vacancy mengosongkan: to empty; to vacate kuala estuary; confluence of rivers kota fort; city mengotakan: to fortify kuali frying-pan

kotak box

kuap yawn menguap: to yawn terkuap-kuap: yawning repeatedly

kotor dirty kekotoran: dirtiness mengotorkan: to dirty pengotor: a dirty person kotoran: dirt kuasa power; authority; strength berkuasa: having the power or authority menguasai: to dominate; to manage kekuasaan: power

koyak tear; torn mengoyakkan: to tear terkoyak: torn kuat strong kekuatan: strength; power menguatkan: to strengthen

ku I; me (abbreviation of 'aku') kuatkuasa enforce; authority berkuatkuasa: to be in effect; to be enforced menguatkuasakan: to enforce; to implement; to impose penguatkuasa: enforcement officer penguatkuasaan: enforcement

kuaci dried melon seed

kuah gravy kubah dome kuak croak; bellow kubang menguak: to croak: to bellow


mud-hole berkubang: to wallow

kuda padi: short-legged horse for riding memperkuda: to use as a horse; to exploit

kubis cabbage

kuda belang zebra

kubu fortress

kuda-kuda trestle; easel

kudap kubung lemur kudapan: snack kubur grave menguburkan: to bury (the dead) perkuburan: graveyard kudrat God's might kucai chive (vegetable) kudung maimed kucar-kacir in complete confusion kudup bud kucing cat kudus holy; sacred; blessed kucup kiss mengucup: to kiss kucupan: a kiss kugiran musical group kudis skin sore snack

kuda horse kuda lumba: race-horse

kuih cake; cookie


kuil temple kulat kuinin quinine kuli kuis kick aside; shove menguiskan: to kick aside; to shove kuliah kuit touch with the fingertips kulit kuku nail; claw


fungus; mushroom

unskilled labourer berkuli: to work as a labourer


skin menguliti: to peel; to skin

kukuh strong; firm mengukuhkan: to strengthen mengulum: to suck (keep in the mouth) kukur grater; scraper mengukur: to grate; to scrape pengukur: grater; scraper kumai moulding kukus steam mengukus: to steam kuman germ kulai droop; dangle terkulai: drooping; dangling kumandang echo kulup foreskin kulum suck (keep in the mouth)




mumble terkumat-kamit: mumbling

kuncup close; contract menguncup: to contract menguncupkan: to close; to furl terkuncup: furled

kumbang beetle kundang a page boy kumis moustache kundur wax-gourd kumparan bobbin kuning yellow kumpul gather; collect; assemble berkumpul: to gather; to assemble kumpulan: group; collection mengumpulkan: to collect pengumpul: collector perkumpulan: association; union; assembly sekumpulan: a group kekuningan: yellowish menguning: to turn yellow; to ripen

kunjung visit berkunjung: to visit kunjungan: a visit mengunjungi: to visit pengunjung: visitor; tourist

kumuh excrete kuno kumur gargle berkumur: to gargle kuntum

ancient; old-fashioned

flower bud kunang-kunang firefly kunyah kunci key; lock mengunyah: to chew mengunci: to lock menguncikan: to lock; to fasten kunyit chew sekuntum: a flower



mengurniakan: to award; to bestow pengurniaan: bestowal; awarding

kupang an old type of coin kursus course (of study) berkursus: to attend a course kupas peel; analyse mengupas: to peel; to analyse kupasan: analysis kurun century

kuping ear; scab

kurung confine; imprison kurungan: (1) prison; cage; coop (2) bracket (in writing) berkurung: confined; imprisoned mengurung: to confine; to imprison

kupu-kupu butterfly

kura-kura tortoise

kurus thin; lean kurus kering: emaciated

kurang less; insufficient; deficient kurang-kurang: less berkurangan: lacking kekurangan: shortage; lack; deficit mengurangkan: to reduce sekurang-kurangnya: at least kusam matt or dull (of a surface)

kusta leprosy

kurap ringworm kusut dishevelled; ruffled; tangled; kinky kurma (1) a date (fruit) (2) a spicy dish kekusutan: confusion; complication mengusutkan: to entangle; to perplex; to confuse

kurnia bestow; award mengurniai: to award; to bestow

kutak shake violently


kutang bodice; brassiere labu kutip (1) pick; collect (2) cite; quote mengutip: (1) to pick; to collect (2) to cite; to quote kutipan: citation; quotation labuci

river turtle


sequin; spangle

kutu louse; flea

labuh (1)hanging down; long (of dress) (2)to anchor

kutub pole (of earth's axis or magnet)

labur to invest

kutuk curse; condemn kutukan: anathema; a curse; condemnation mengutuk: to curse; to condemn terkutuk: cursed; damned

laci drawer

lacur indecent; obscene

kuyu dewy-eyed; sad lada chillies; pepper kuyup drenched laba profit ladang labah-labah spider laden labang hard of hearing lading labi-labi (1)a type of broad and curved chopper (2)a dug-out canoe to serve; to wait on estate; farm; plantation ladam horseshoe


lahir born lafaz utterance laici lychee laga clash; collide; fight laidaun blade (e.g. of grass) lagak manner; conduct; behaviour; swank lain other; different lagang to begin weaving lain-lainnya etcetera; others lagi again; still; and; also; more; additional lajak fast; outspoken lagi-lagi again and again laju fast lagipun moreover; besides lajur column (e.g. of troops) lagu song lakar to sketch; to outline lahad niche for the corpse in a Muslim grave lakaran a sketch lahap (1)gluttonous; greedy (2)to eat greedily laki husband lahar lava laki-laki


male lalak laknat to damn; to curse; a curse lalang lakon to act (in a play or film) lalat lakonan an act; a play; a drama lali laksa a preparation of noodles lalu laksamana admiral to pass; to make way; to elapse (of time) immune a fly (insect) long-bladed grass to yell

laksana to perform; to execute; to accomplish

lalu lintas traffic

laku (1)to happen; to occur (2)marketable

lalu-lalang passing back and forth

laluan lakur fuse; blend lalut lala a type of sea mollusc lama lalah to gobble lama-lama finally careless; negligent; indifferent old; a long time disjointed (of talk) passage



lama-lamaan in the long run lampan lamar to put forward; to propose lampau lamaran proposal; application lampin lambai to wave lampir lambak disorderly heap

lanky; slim

tin mine

abysmal; extreme; excessive

napkin; diaper

to affix; to attach; to enclose

lambang symbol; emblem;

lampiran attachment; enclosure; appendix

lampu lambat slow; late lampung float lamp

lambat-laun sooner or later

lamun lambuk friable lamunan a day-dream to day-dream

lambung (1)to lob; to toss up; to bounce up (2)bulwark

lanar lamin bridal dais lanau lampai silt alluvium


landasan rail lanca rickshaw langah to open widely lancang (1)outspoken; cheeky (2)a swift-sailing yacht langak to search lancar fluent; smooth langau bluebottle fly lancip tapered langgai the shell of leguminous seeds lancong to travel or tour langgan to subscribe lancung phoney; sham; false langganan subscription lancur to gush out langgar to collide landa to enter forcefully; to hit; to strike langit sky landai gently sloping langit-langit canopy landak porcupine; hedgehog langkah a step landas base; foundation langkan


baluster lantai langkas fall of the fruit; end of fruit season lantak langkau to skip or omit lantang langkup overturned or upside-down lantar langsai to settle or clear (of debt) lantas langsing slender; slim and graceful lantik langsir curtain lantikan appointment to appoint forthwith; straight away to put forward clarion; audible; loud hammer floor

langsuir a female vampire

lantun langsung direct lantur lanjur to expand lanun lanjut continuous lanyak lanjutan continuation to trample pirate to digress; to deviate to bounce; to rebound


lap to wipe; to mop lapuk lapah to skin; to devour lara lapan eight laram lapang spacious; roomy; open and wide; free (of time) larang lapangan (1)field (2)sphere of interest

a report

mouldy; stale

heartache; sorrow

stylish; showy

to prohibit; to forbid

lapangan terbang airfield

larangan prohibition

laras lapar hungry larat lapik underlayer; lining lari lapis layered larik lapisan layer; class laris lapor to report larut laporan (1)dissolving; melting (2)late (of night) in damand; marketable to smoothen with a lathe; to carve to run able; dragging on barrel (e.g. of gun)


lasak durable

lau burung aviary

lasam faded

lauk a cooked dish of fish, meat, etc

lastik catapult

lauk-pauk a variety of cooked dishes

lata (1)to creep (2)cascade; waterfall

laung to shout; to call loudly

latah to say or do something unconsciously out of shock or fright

laungan a shout; a loud cry

laut latar setting lautan latar belakang background lawa latih to train; to practise lawak latihan training; practice; lawan latihan asas basic training opponent; opposite comedy pretty; elegant ocean sea

latuk a type of large knife curved at the top

lawan dalam infighting


lawat to visit lebam lawatan a visit lebar layak qualified; fit; suitable; eligible; competent



wide; broad

layan to serve (food); to entertain

lebarnya width; breadth

lebat layanan hospitality; service lebih layang-layang kite lebihan layar to sail; a sail lebih kurang approximately; more or less wilted; withered lebih-lebih lagi especially to parch lebuh lazat delicious; tasty lebuhraya highway habitual; usual lebur lebah molten avenue excess more; extra dense (of foliage or hair); heavy (of rain)





legeh watershed lecah muddy; sloppy legup-legap sound of heartbeat; throbbing sound leceh troublesome; worthless leher neck lecek mashed leka lax; slack; not strict; absorbed; carried away lecet footsore lekah crack; groove; crevice (e.g. in wood) lecur blistered; scalded lekang not adhering; cracking (from heat) ledak to blow up with explosives lekap to cuddle; to sit or lie close to; to stick to ledakan explosion; detonation lekar stand for cooking pots lega relieved (e.g. from pain, anxiety, discomfort) lekas quickly; fast legam pitch; dark; deep (of colour) lekat to adhere; to stick legap opaque lekit sticky legar to revolve lekuk


hollow; concavity; dent lelong lekuk-lekak bumpy lelopak lekung sunken chamber holding cartridges (in a gun) or slides (in a projector) auction

lelabah spider

leluasa unlimited; uncontrolled; unrestrained

lelah (1)tired; exhausted (2)asthma; wheezing

lelucon humour

lelai droop (of branch, coconut leaf, etc)

leluhur ancestor

lelaki male; man

lelurah gully

lelangit palate

lemah weak; feeble; frail

lelap asleep

lemah gemalai graceful

lelas abrasive

lemah hati soft-hearted

lelasan abrasion

lemah lembut gentle; graceful

leleh to trickle; to ooze

lemah semangat weak-willed


lemak fat; fatty

lembung inflatable

lemang glutinous rice and coconut milk cooked in bamboo

lembur overtime

lembut lemas suffocation (in smoke, gas or by drowning) lempang to slap; to smack; to hit soft; gentle

lembaga (1)board; governing body (2)embryo; foetus

lempar lembah valley lempeng a kind of cake; pancake moist; humid; damp lempuk lembar a strand; numeral coefficient for paper, thread a cake made from durian or jackfruit cooked with sugar to hurl; to fling


lembaran sheet (of paper)

lempung soft and light

lembik flaccid

lena sound asleep

lembing javelin; spear

lencana badge

lembu cow

lencong to divert; to detour; to deviate


lenggok gait lencongan a detour; a diversion; a deviation lengkap complete; equipped lendap a clot lengkok curve; bend; arc lendir mucus lengkuas a type of root resembling ginger lendung to sag lengkung curve; arc lendut sagging lengkungan curvature lengah to dilly-dally; to dawdle; to idle lenguh to moo lengan arm; forearm lengung to brood lengan baju sleeve lentam-lentum loud sound like that of a cannon lengang desolate; deserted; uninhabited lentik somewhat curved lengas moist; humid; clammy lenting to rebound; to spring back lenggang to swing the arms; to sway the head and body lentok


to incline the head lepur lentuk a bend lerai lentur flexible; supple lereng lenyak sound asleep leret lenyap to disappear; to vanish lesap lepa plaster; mortar leset lepak (1)very white; fair (2)to sit in a lazy way lesi lepas (1)after; past (2)to free lesu lepasan a graduate or school-leaver lesung lepat a type of cake steamed in banana leaves letak leper flat-surfaced leter lepuh blister to nag to place; to put; to lay rice mortar listless; drawn looking drawn and sickly feeling depressed to disappear; to vanish too long and trailing a slope to disengage; to break up to die through suffocation in mud


leteran chatter licin letih tired; weary lidah letup to explode lidas letupan explosion lidi letus to erupt ligat lewat late lihat liang a hole; a burrow likat liar wild; uncivilized liku liat hard; firm lilin libat to involve lilit libur holiday lilitan licik

cunning; crafty; shrewd



itchy (of tongue) after eating sour fruit

vein of coconut palm frond

spinning fast

to look at

thick and sticky

meandering or winding course

candle; wax

to entwine



lincir smooth (in moving) lima five lindung to take refuge or shelter limau orange; lime; lemon lindungan haven; refuge limau gedang grapefruit lingga colossus limau nipis lime lingkar a coil limbang to pan (in search of gold ore) lingkaran a convolution; a coil limbungan dockyard lingkung to surround; to encircle limpa spleen lingkungan encirclement; enclosure; sphere limpah to overflow lingkup cover limpap (1)in layers (2)excessive debt lintah leech linang to flow (for tears or sweat) lintang horizontal lincah nimble lintang-pukang


helter-skelter litar lintas to pass by; to cross litup lipan centipede liuk lipas cockroach liwat lipat to fold loba lipatan a fold lobak lipit narrow hem lobak merah carrot to comfort; to console loceng liput to cover; to comprise lodak liputan coverage; inclusion lodeh lisan oral; verbal logam lisut shrunken; soft metal mixed vegetables cooked to pulp sediment bell radish grasping; greedy for money or possessions sodomy to snake; to sway covered and concealed circuit



logamaya mirage

a jump; a leap

loghat dialect; slang

lompat bergalah pole vault

lohong hole

lompat jauh long jump

loji industrial plant; factory; industrial site

lompat kijang triple jump; hop, step and jump

lok curve of a kris

lompat tinggi high jump

loncat lokek mean; miserly; stingy loncatan a hop a loud cry; a howl londeh lombong mine for extracting metal, coal, etc long lombong bijih tin mine longgar lompang vacant; empty; a vacuole; an air pocket longgok lompat to jump; to leap longgokan a heap a heap or mass; a pile loose; diffuse a bottomless coffin to slip off or drop (as for sarong) to hop




lori truck; lorry longkah easily peeled off (e.g. flesh from the seed) lorong lane; path longkang drain loteng attic longlai swaying of body; weak lotong black long-tailed monkey lonjak to gambol; to jump about playfully loya nausea lonjakan gamboling movement loyang brass lonjong oval; ovoid luah to eject; to spit out lontar to throw; to hurl luak decreased in quantity lontong a type of Malay food made of rice and gravy luang free lopak puddle luap to boil over lopong agape; empty luar outside lorek stripe; band luaran


exterior lucu luar bandar rural lucut luar batas off limit ludah luar biasa extraordinary luhur luar dalam inside out luka luar negara overseas; abroad lukah luar nikah out of wedlock lukis luas wide; broad lukisan luat to feel nauseated; to feel disgusted; to despise luluh lubang hole lulur lubuk gulf; deep part of a river lulus lucah obscene; lewd to pass to gulp crushed to powder drawing to draw fish trap wound; injury majestic; noble saliva denude funny; comical


lumang to smear lunak lumas to paint lunas lumat fine (powdery) luncur lumayan handsome (of amount); sufficient lundi lumba to race

moss; lichen

mellow; soft

(1)main point; source (2)keel

to glide


lumba-lumba dolphin

lungkup upside down

lungsur lumpuh paralysis; paralytic lunjur lumpur mud luntur lumrah normal lupa lumur to smear with fat during cooking luput lumuran a smear lurah lumut valley; groove expiry; termination of validity to forget to discolour or fade to stretch out the legs to slide down


forgiveness luru to dash maafkan saya excuse me; forgive me

luruh to drop mabuk drunk lurus (1)straight (2)frank; honest mabuk asmara love sick

lurut to rub; to smoothen with fingers mabuk laut seasick

lusa day after tomorrow Mac March lusuh worn out; faded macam like; kind; sort; type lut penetrative macang horse-mango lutcahaya translucent

madah eulogy

lutsinar transparent madat opium lutut knee madrasah Islamic school

luyu sleepy maaf madu (1)honey (2)woman sharing the same husband


mahir skilful maghrib sunset mahkamah court of law maging carnivorous mahkota royal crown maha great mahligai palace mahaguru great teacher; professor mahsul products of a country maha kuasa almighty mahu to want; to desire mahal expensive mahupun (1)although (2)either/or mahar dowry main to play maharaja emperor mainan toy; act of playing maharani empress; queen majal blunt (of knife) mahasiswa university student majalah magazine maharajalela to rampage majikan


employer makbul majlis council; meeting; assembly makhluk a creature fulfilled; answered (of prayers)

majmuk compound; complex

maki maju developed makian mak mother makin mak angkat adopted mother increasingly a curse; act of hurling abuse to abuse

makcik auntie

maklum to know

mak tiri stepmother

maklumat information

maka then; therefore; hence; so

makmal laboratory

makam mausoleum; tomb

makmur prosperous; to prosper

makna makan to eat makruf makanan food famous meaning


maksiat vice; immorality


maksud meaning; purpose; intention

malapetaka calamity; disaster

malar maktab college malas maktub recorded in writing malik malah on the contrary; in fact; but malim malahan on the contrary; in fact; but malu malaikat angel malung malam night mamah malam minggu Saturday night mamak malang unfortunate; unlucky mambang ghost; spirit maternal uncle to munch; to chew large sea eel shy; ashamed; embarrassed expert lord lazy constant; continuous

malangnya unfortunately


mampat compress


manfaat benefit mampu able to; capable mangga (1)mango (2)padlock mampus to die (unrefined expression) manggar base of coconut palm frond mana where manggis mangosteen mana satu which one mangkat to die (of royalty) mana-mana anywhere; wherever mangkin catalyst mancis matches mangku acting (of official post) mancung high and sharp mangkuk bowl mancur to spout; to squirt mangsa victim; prey; casualty mandi to bathe mangu amazed; perplexed; bewildered mandul barren or sterile (of female) mani semen mandur head of the labourers manik


bead marah manikam gem marak manis sweet mari manisan sweet dish Marikh manja pampered; indulgent markah manjur potent; effective markas mansit cuff (of sleeve) marmar marble to vanish; to disappear; to annul; to abolish marmut marmot; guinea-pig established martabak a kind of bread with meat fillings headquarters mark Mars to come to flare up angry



mantera magical charm or spell; incantation

manusia human being

martabat prestige

maruah mara to advance pride; self-respect


masa time; period; era masjid masa depan future

each and everyone


masa lalu past

mastautin to reside

masuk masa silam past to enter

masak (1)to cook (2)ripe

masuk campur interfere

masakan (1)cookery (2)how could it be

masyarakat society; organized community

masalah problem

masyghul depressed; sad

masam sour

masyhur famous

mata maserba omnivore eye

masih still

mata air spring (water)

masin salty

mata hitam iris


mata wang currency


mawar rose matahari sun maya illusion; delusion mata-mata policeman mayam unit of weight for gold matang mature mayang palm-blossom matarah beacon mayat corpse mati to die mazhab religious sect or school of thought mati-matian with full effort mazmur hymn matlamat aim; objective; target medan field maujud existing medan perang battlefield maun herbivorous megah proud; conceited maung unpleasant in smell or taste Mei May maut death meja


table memerang otter; beaver to blossom or bloom mempelai bridegroom; bride a type of tree with edible fruit mempelam mango destitute; needy menang melati jasmine menantu son-in-law; daughter-in-law Malay menara meleset not precise; not to the point; irrelevant; nonspecific mendak sediment melukut broken rice grains mendap to settle as a sediment melulu hasty mendapan sedimentation melur jasmine mendiang the late memang of course; naturally mendung overcast; cloudy memar contusion; bruise tower; minaret to win






mengah breathless; dyspneic

merah red

mengkal half-ripe

merah jambu pink

mentadak praying mantis

merah lembayung magenta

mentah (1)raw; uncooked; unprocessed (2)immature; inexperienced

merah manggis maroon

merak mentang-mentang just because merana mentega butter merbah menteri minister merbuk mentimun cucumber mercu mentua father or mother-in-law mercun mentul bulb merdeka independent; free fire-crackers peak; summit; climax turtle dove thrush to languish; to live miserably or in ill-health peacock or peahen

menung to ponder; to contemplate

merdu melodious


mesti must mereka they; them; their mestika jewel; bezoar mergastua wild animals of the forest mesyuarat meeting meriah hilarious; joyful; happy meterai official seal meriam cannon mewah luxurious merinyu inspector or supervisor mi noodles merosot in deteriorated condition miang itchy merpati dove; pigeon milik to own; to possess mersik shrill; piercing (of sound) mimbar rostrum; pulpit Mesir of Egypt mimpi dream meskipun although; in spite of minat interest; enthusiasm; liking mesra amicable; hospitable; friendly; close minggu


week misai mingguan weekly misal minta to ask; to beg; to request miskin minum to drink modal minuman a drink capital poor example moustache

minuman keras liquor; alcoholic drink

moga-moga may it be

mogok minuman ringan soft drink a strike

minyak oil; fat; petroleum

mogok lapar hunger strike

mohon minyak sapi ghee mohor minyak tanah kerosene molek miring oblique; slanting; to tilt momok mirip to resemble ghost; evil spirit; something causing fear pretty; attractive; lovely official seal to apply


mongel beautiful; attractive muatan montel plump and healthy

having sufficient capacity

cargo; load

montok chubby; plump

muazam majesty

muazin monyet monkey mubaligh preacher; missionary great-grandparent muda mu you; abbreviation of `kamu' mudah muafakat agreement easy; convenient young; not ripe summoner to prayer


muak nauseated; sated

mudah-mudahan hopefully; perhaps

mual nausea

mudarat harmful; detrimental

mudik mualim religious teacher muflis muara estuary mufti muat Muslim religious expert bankrupt to go upstream


mukah fornication Muharam first month of Muslim calendar mukim district muhibah goodwill mukjizat miracle mujarab efficacious; effective (of medicine) muktamad definitive; final mujur luckily; fortunately muktamar conference; congress muka face mula beginning; to begin muka depan front page mulai to start muka-muka insincere mula-mula at first; first of all muka pintu doorway mulas colic muka selamba poker face mulia noble; distinguished; honourable; respectable muka surat page mulur ductile muka tebal thick-skinned mulut


mouth mungkin possible; maybe; perhaps

mulut manis sweet-tongued

mulut murai chatterbox

mungkir to breach or default

munsyi mumbang green unripe coconut muntah munafik hypocrite murah munasabah credible; reasonable; suitable cheap to vomit language teacher

muncul to emerge; to appear

murah hati generous

murai muncung muzzle; snout; beak; spout muram mundar-mandir walk to and fro murid mundur to retreat; to recede; backward or underdeveloped murka wrathful; angry mungil small and cute murni clean; pure; genuine mungkar to disobey; to deny; sinful pupil; student gloomy; dismal; glum magpie


murtad apostate

mustajab effective (of medicine)

murung depressed

musuh enemy; foe

musafir traveller

Musytari Jupiter

musang civet-cat

mutakhir modern; the latest

musim season

mutiara pearl

muslihat trick; stratagem

mutlak absolute; complete; categorical

Muslim one who believes and follows the teachings of Islam

mutu quality

Muslimat Muslim women

muzakarah discussion nabi prophet

musnah to destroy; destructible nada tone; intonation mustahak important

nadi pulse

mustahil impossible; incredible

nafas breath


bernafas: to breathe pernafasan: respiration nak want nafi deny menafikan: to deny penafian: denial nakal naughty kenakalan: naughtiness nafkah maintenance; livelihood; subsistence; alimony nakhoda captain nafsu lust; intense desire naluri instinct naga dragon nama (1) name (2) reputation nahas mishap; misfortune; disaster nama samaran: pseudonym nama timang-timangan: nickname bernama: named menamai: to name menamakan: to name kenamaan: respectable; noble penama: person who nominates ternama: famous namaan: nominal; in name only

nahu grammar

naib deputy nampak catch sight of; see nampaknya: it seems; apparently menampakkan: to display ternampak: visible; seen

naik ascend; rise; climb; ride naik angin: bad mood naik darah: bad temper naik gila: driven mad kenaikan: an increase; a rise menaiki: to climb on; to ride on or in menaikkan: to raise

namun yet; still

nanah najis excrement; faeces; filth pus


nanas pineapple

natijah result; consequence; conclusion

nangka jackfruit

naung aegis; patronage naungan: protection; shade; shelter; patronage bernaung: sheltered; shaded menaungi: to shelter; to shade; to protect penaung: patron; guardian; protector

nanti wait; later menanti: to wait for menantikan: to wait for penantian: a state of waiting ternanti-nanti: keep waiting with hope

nazak moribund

nasab lineage of ancestors or descendants

nazar vow menazarkan: to vow bernazar: to vow

nasi cooked rice nazir school inspector nasib chance; luck; fate; destiny bernasib baik: lucky negara country; kingdom nasihat advice menasihati: to advise menasihatkan: to advise penasihat: adviser negarawan: statesman memiliknegarakan: nationalise pemiliknegaraan: nationalisation

negeri country; state kenegerian: state consciousness

naskhah copy (of a book, etc); manuscript nekad determined Nasrani Christian; Eurasian


nelayan fisherman nguak nenek grandmother nenenda: grandmother (usually in letterwriting) niaga

gnawing pain

bray like a donkey

trade neraca a kind of weighing apparatus with hanging pans berniaga: to trade memperniagakan: to trade; to barter peniaga: trader perniagaan: a business or trade

neraka hell niat intention; wish nescaya certainly nikah nganga open the mouth wide menganga: to open the mouth wide mengangakan: to open the mouth wide ternganga: wide open marriage bernikah: married menikahi: to marry menikahkan: to give in marriage pernikahan: marriage; wedding berniat: to have an intention terniat: intended

ngeri appalling; eerie; horrifying; terrible mengerikan: frightening; terrifying

nikmat enjoyment; pleasure; bliss kenikmatan: pleasure; enjoyment; comfort; delight menikmati: to enjoy

ngiang buzzing sound (in the mind) nila blue dye; indigo ngiau mew (of a cat) mengiau: to mew (of a cat) nilai value bernilai: valued; worth menilaikan: to evaluate or assess penilaian: assessment; evaluation



menodai: to stain; to disgrace ternoda: stained nilam sapphire noktah full stop nipah a type of palm nombor number nipis thin nombor ganjil: odd number nombor genap: even number bernombor: numbered

nirinsani dehumanize

nona miss; maam buah nona: sweet-sop

nirwana state of perfect bliss nota note nisan gravestone November November nisbah ratio nujum prophet; fortune-teller niskala having no material or physical substance; abstract nusa motherland; fatherland nista insult; abuse Nusantara Malay archipelago

nobat Malay royal band nya his; her; its noda spot of dirt; stain nyah


go away!; get away!

nyaring piercing and shrill (of sound)

nyahcas release the electric charge of

nyaris almost; nearly

nyahjangkit disinfect

nyata apparent; evident; clear; concrete kenyataan: notice; statement menyatakan: to state penyata: statement; report pernyataan: explanation; statement; announcement ternyata: obvious; clear; defined

nyahpecutan deceleration

nyala flame bernyala: ignited menyala: to flare up; to ignite menyalakan: to kindle nyalaan: ignition nyawa life bernyawa: alive; living; animate persenyawaan: fertilisation

nyaman fresh; pleasant (of atmosphere, food) menyamankan: to refresh; to enliven penyaman udara: air-conditioner

nyenyak sound asleep

nyiru triangular tray made from bamboo nyamuk mosquito nyiur coconut nyanyi singing nyanyian: singing bernyanyi: to sing menyanyi: to sing menyanyikan: to sing for penyanyi: singer nyonya term used for married Chinese lady

nyunyut suck nyanyuk dotage; senility with feeble mind obor torch


oceh talk rapidly; jabber; chatter mengoceh: to chatter ocehan: jabbering talk

by; because of beroleh: to get; to obtain memperoleh: to obtain; to acquire; to achieve perolehan: earnings; gains

ogah hookah

oleng sway; rock

Ogos August

olok-olok jest; joke; make fun

oh exclamation of delight, pain or emphasis

ombak wave berombak: wavy

oi a shout for attention omel grouse; grumble Oktober October omong olah attitude; manner olah-olah: playfully seolah-olah: as if; as though memperolahkan: to make fun of; to play a joke on onar commotion; uproar chatter; empty talk mengomel: to grumble

olahraga athletic (adj.); athletics (noun) olahragawan: male athlete olahragawati: female athlete

onde-onde sweet dumpling of flour and coconut

ongkos cost; expenditure mengongkosi: to pay the expenditure; to finance

olakan convection; eddy ooh oleh

exclamation of surprise, pleasure or pain


at; on; in; to; according to opah grandmother padah omen; warning orang person or people orang rumah: wife orang-orangan: puppet; scarecrow keseorangan: lonely; alone perseorangan: individual seorangan: alone seseorang: somebody padam to extinguish; to put off; to switch off; to rub off

padan matched; fitting; suited

oren orange

padanan suitability;

otak brain; mind otak udang: stupid berotak: brainy; clever

padang field

padang pasir desert otot muscle pacak to erect a pointed pole in the ground padat compact; packed; dense

pacal I; me (when addressing royalty)

paderi priest

pacat land (or jungle) leech

padi rice-plant; rice-grain with its husk

pacul (1)hoe (2)to appear suddenly

padu (1)solid (2)united


paduka excellency; majesty


pak father; uncle pagar fence pakcik uncle pagi morning pakai to wear; to use pagi-pagi early in the morning pakaian clothes pagut to peck (of bird) pakaian seragam uniform paha thigh pakal to caulk pahala reward; merit pakar expert; specialist pahat chisel pakar runding consultant pahit bitter pakat to agree; to conspire pahlawan hero; warrior pakatan pact; agreement; treaty; conspiracy pajak lease pakis fern pajak gadai pawnshop paksa


to force; to compel palung paksaan compulsion palut paksi axis pamah paku nail; ferns paman pala nutmeg pamer palam (1)grout (2)plug pameran exhibition crossbar pampang to spread out; to stretch out (1)the most; extremely (2)to turn away pampas palit to smear; to smudge pampasan compensation false panah palu to hit; to beat panahan archery a knock; a blow bow (for shooting arrows) compensation to exhibit uncle lowlands wrapping; covering pool; trough






panas hot; feverish pancit panas terik very hot; blistering; scorching

fishing hook; to fish

a puncture

panas-panas hot

pancung to behead

panau pityriasis versicolor (a type of skin disease)

pancungan decapitation

pancur panca five pancut pancalogam an alloy of five metals to gush out; to spurt to spurt out; to spout; to flow

pancaindera the five senses

pancutan a spurt; an ejection

pandai pancang pole or stake driven into the ground clever; intelligent

pancar to gush out; to radiate; to broadcast; to emit

pandang to look; to consider

pancaran spout; broadcast; emission; beam or ray

pandangan opinion; view

pancaragam band or orchestra

pandang-memandang to exchange looks or glances

pandir pancing stupid


pangkas to clip or cut pandu to guide; to drive; to pilot pangkat rank panduan guidance; directory pangkin bunk pandu puteri girl guide pangku (1)to take on one's lap (2)to hold office in an acting capacity panggang to roast; to toast; roasted pangkuan the lap panggil to call panglima warrior; commander panggilan a call; a summon; name or title pangsa compartment; section (of fruit) panggung theatre; stage pangsapuri apartment panggung wayang cinema panitia commission; committee pangkah a cross; to put a cross panjang long pangkal beginning; base panjang akal resourceful; intelligent pangkalan base; jetty


panjangnya length papa kedana destitute panjat to climb papah supported; to support panji-panji bunting; streamer papan plank pantai beach; coast papan catur chess-board pantang prohibition; abstinence; to abstain papan hitam blackboard pantang larang prohibition; taboo papan iklan billboard pantas fast; quick; swift papan kenyataan notice-board pantat posterior or bottom; external genitalia papar flat pantul to bounce back; to bound; to spring papas (1)to take off; to strip off (2)to counteract pantulan reflex; rebound para prefix denoting large numbers or large amount pantun quatrain para-para rack; shelf papa very poor


parah serious; critical (of illness or injury)

(1)pair; set (2)to install; to affix; to fasten (3)to rise (of tide)

parang chopping-knife

pasangan couple

paras face; level

pasang badan to dress up

parau hoarse (of voice)

pasang telinga to eavesdrop

pari ray; skate

pasar market

pari-pari fairy

pasar borong wholesale market

parit ditch; drain

pasar gelap black market

paru-paru lung

pasar malam night market

paruh (1)bill; beak (2)half

pasaraya supermarket

parut (1)scar (2)to grate or scrape

pasir sand

pasak pin; peg; wedge

pasti definite; certain; sure


pasu flower-pot; vase


pasu-pasu cheek bones

patung-patung dragon-fly

pasukan team; unit of troops

patut fair; reasonable; right and proper; appropriate

pasung pillory; handcuffs

paus whale

patah (1)broken (of long objects); fracture (2)numeral coefficient for words

paut to hold on tightly; to cling on

patah hati broken-hearted

pawagam cinema; theatre

pawah pateri solder pawang pati essence; extract paya patik I; me (used when talking to royal person) paya bakau mangrove swamp obedient payah patuk to peck; to bite (of snake) payau patung statue; dummy; doll; idol brackish difficult swamp Malay witch doctor sharing of profits between tenant and landlord



payung umbrella pegaga pecah to break pegang pecahan fraction

to bother about; to mind; to care

a kind of creeping plant

to hold; to control

pecat to dismiss

pegangan a hold; something that is held

pecut to accelerate

pegawai officer

peguam pedang sword peguambela advocate; barrister to imbibe or absorb peguamcara solicitor hot (of chillies and curry); caustic pegun pedati caravan; cart; carriage pejal pedih smarting; sorrowful pejalwapan condensation solid; firm (1)petrified (2)silent in meditation lawyer



pedoman compass; guide

pejam peduli to close or shut (of eyes)


pelanduk mouse-deer peka sensitive pelangi rainbow pekak deaf pelantar long bench; landing on stairs pekan town; marketplace pelanting to scatter pekap to cover (mouth or ears) with the hand pelat faulty pronunciation; dialect; accent pekasam fish or meat pickled in brine pelawa to invite pekat thick or concentrated (of liquid) pelawaan invitation pekerti character; disposition pelbagai assorted; variety pekik to scream pelecok to sprain pelamin bridal dais pelekat gum; glue pelampung float; buoy pelepah rib of palm leaf; rib of feather; frond of palm tree pelana saddle


pelesir to gallivant pena pen (writing device) pelihara to rear; to take care of penat tired peliharaan that which is being reared penawar antidote pelik strange; queer pencak self-defence; to parry pelita lamp pencil to isolate pelopor pioneer pendam to hide or conceal (of feelings, emotions, secrets) corner; nook (of country) pendaman something that is concealed chance; opportunity pendek peluh sweat; perspiration pendekar warrior; expert in Malay art of self-defence to embrace; to hug pendita pelukan a hug great scholar short




peluru bullet

pengantin bride; bridegroom


pengaruh influence; authority

penting important

penggal (1)term (2)paragraph; chapter; volume (3)to behead

penuh full

penyek penggawa village headman penyu penghulu village headman turtle flattened

pengsan unconscious; to faint

pepatah saying; maxim; proverb

perabot pening dizzy; giddy; feeling confused perah pening-pening lalat slightly dizzy to wring; to squeeze furniture

peniti safety pin

perahan juice; that which has been squeezed out

perahu penjara jail; prison perajurit soldier boat

penjuru corner; angle

perak pentas stage silver


peraka a ship's hold

peras to extort; to extract

peram to keep fruit till ripe

perasan aware of; conscious of

peran clown; jester

perawan maiden; virgin girl

peranan role

perca remnants of cloth

Perancis French

percaya to believe

perang (1)war (2)brown

percik to sprinkle

peperangan war

percuma (1)free of charge (2)in vain (of time or effort)

perangai behaviour; character; nature; disposition

perdana premier; principal; prime

perangkap trap

perdu base of tree trunk

peranjat startled; shocked; surprised

perempuan female; woman; girl

perap (1)to flap (wings) (2)to lock oneself up in the house

perencah something used to add taste to a dish

perenggan (1)boundary (2)paragraph


periksa to examine; to check; to investigate pergi to go perinci to describe in great detail peri nature; manner (of feelings, situations) peringkat grade; stage peri-peri fairy perintah command; order peria bitter gourd perisai a shield peribadi private; personal peristiwa incident; event; happening peribahasa proverb perit painful peribumi native periuk cooking pot perigi well perkakas instrument; tool; apparatus; equipment perigi buta disused well perkara matter perihal matters; situation perkasa strong; brave; powerful perikemanusiaan humanity; compassion perkosa


(1)brave; strong (2)to force; to rape perosok perkosaan the act of forcing or raping persegi perlahan slow square to sink or slip into

perli to tease

pertama first

perut perlu necessary: must perwira permai beautiful; magnificent; wonderful pesan permaidani carpet message; order hero; warrior stomach

permaisuri queen

pesanan message; order

pesat permata jewel quick; rapid (of development)

pernah to (ever) have

pesawat machine

pesisir peroi friable pesona peronyok to crumple (of paper) a spell or charm beach; shore


pesong to change direction or course


pesta festival

peti surat post-box

petik pesuruhjaya commissioner petikan peta map petola petah eloquent; fluent petir petai stinking edible green pod petua petak compartment; section piagam petala layer; stratum; storey piala petaling small hardwood tree piat petang afternoon; evening piatu peti box; casket; case piawai peti sejuk correct; precise; accurate; exact; standard orphan to twist cup charter; constitution advice; ruling thunder loofah quotation (1)to pluck (2)to quote


picagari syringe

pilihan choice; selection

picing to blink; to wink; to close the eyes

pilihanraya general election

picit to press; to squeeze; to pinch

pilu sad; sorrowful; mournful

pidato speech; lecture; talk

pimpin to lead; to guide

pihak side; party

pimpinan leadership

pijak to step on

pinang (1)areca-nut (2)to propose (for marriage)

pijat bed-bug

pinar glowing; shimmering

pikat to trap; to tempt; to attract

pincang (1)lame (2)unbalanced (of music)

pikul (1)a unit of weight (=133lbs.) (2)to carry on the shoulder

pinda to alter; to amend; to correct

pilin to twist or wind

pindaan amendment

pindah pilih to choose; to select; to elect to move or shift from one place to another


pindah milik transfer of ownership pinggul pindah tangan change of hands pinjam pindahan a transfer


buttocks; hip

to borrow

pinga astounded; stunned

pinjaman loan

pinta pingat medal pintal pinggan plate; dish pintar pinggan mangkuk crockery pintas pinggang waist to cut short; to intercept or interrupt; to cut across cunning; sharp-witted; smart; clever to twist; to spin to ask for; to request

pinggir edge

pintasan short-cut

pinggir jalan roadside

pintu door

pinggir kota suburbs

pipi cheek

pinggir laut

pipih thin and flat


pohon (1)tree (2)to apply; to beg; to request pipis to mash or grind pokok (1)tree (2)principle; capital pipit sparrow pondan transvestite piring saucer pondok hut; booth; shed piring hitam gramophone record ponteng (1)to play truant (2)to cheat; to swindle pisah to be separated pontianak female vampire pisang banana porak-peranda chaotic; in disorder pisau knife potong a piece; a slice; to cut pita ribbon; tape potongan the cut (of clothes) pitam dizziness prakata foreword piutang credit; monies receivable pramugara air-steward plumbum lead (metal) pramugari


air-stewardess puding prasangka prejudice; suspicion puisi prasejarah prehistorical puja prestasi performance pujangga author; literary person group; tribe puji puaka evil spirit pujian puan (1)lady; Mrs (2)plate for betel-leaf pujuk puas satisfied; contented pujukan persuasion; enticement fast pukal pucat pale pukang pucuk (1)a shoot or sprout (2)numeral coefficient for letter or gun pukat dragnet (for fishing) pudar dim (of light); faded crotch lump; block to coax;to persuade; to entice a compliment or praise to praise to worship; to adore poetry an ornamental shrub




pukau charm used (by burglars) to make people fall asleep

pun also

punah pukul (1)to beat or hit (2)hour punai pula again; also; yet; too punat pulang to go back; to return punca pulangan the act of returning puncak pulang kerahmatullah to die peak; summit; acme source; origin (1)button (2)core of a boil pigeon; dove to destroy

pulas to twist; to wring

pundi-pundi purse

pulau (1)island (2)to boycott

pundi-pundi kencing urinary bladder

pulih to recover; to restore

punggah to unload

puluh ten

pungguk Malayan hawk owl

pulut glutinous rice

punggung buttocks; back; hips

pungut to pick; to collect; to harvest


purdah veil pungutan collection puri castle; palace; city puntal coiled; wound up purnama full moon puntung butt (e.g. of cigarette); stump pusaka heirloom; heritage punya to have; to possess; to own pusar to revolve pupu degree of kinship pusaran rotation pupuk to manure; to nurture pusara cemetary; graveyard pupus extinct pusat centre; navel pura-pura pretending pusing to rotate; to revolve purata average pusingan rotation; a round purba ancient puspa flower purbakala ancient times pustaka


book puyu pustakawan librarian puyuh putar to rotate qada an action performed as a replacement putaran rotation qari a male Koran reader putera prince qariah a female Koran reader puteri princess Quran Koran (sacred book of Muslims) putih white; fair raba to grope; to touch; to fondle quail whirlwind

putih kuning cream-coloured

rabak large tear; ragged; tattered

putik newly-formed fruit; pistil

Rabiulakhir fourth month of the Muslim calendar

puting nipple; teat

Rabiulawal third month of the Muslim calendar

puting beliung whirlwind; tornado

rabik torn; tattered; ripped

putus to break off; to finish

rabit torn at the edge


radas apparatus Rabu Wednesday raden title of Javanese nobility rabuk tinder raga (1) basket (2) a kind of rattan ball (3) to show off rabun poor eyesight ragam rabun dekat long-sightedness (1) manner; way (2) bad behaviour (3) melody; tune (4) united; faithful

ragi rabun jauh short-sightedness yeast

rabung ridge of a roof

ragu-ragu doubtful; dubious; suspicious

ragum racik cut into thin slices ragut racikan finely cut slices to grab; to snatch pincer; clamp

rahang racun poison rahim radak to stab (1) womb (2) merciful (of God) jaw

rahmat radang angry blessing; mercy (bestowed by God)


rahmati blessed rakam rahsia secret

to sulk; to bicker

to record

rai to entertain; to celebrate

rakaman a recording

rakan raih to buy up for resale rakit raja king raksa Raja Muda crown prince raksasa raja sehari bridegroom rakus rajah diagram; chart rakyat rajau unripe rice-stalks left at reaping ralat rajawali sparrow-hawk mistake; error people; public; citizen greedy giant;demon mercury raft friend; companion; comrade

rajin hardworking; industrious; diligent

rama-rama butterfly


Ramadan ninth month of the Muslim calendar (the fasting month)


rampas to confiscate; to seize; to capture; to hijack ramah friendly; cordial; amiable ramping slim; slender (of waist) ramai many (of people) rampok to burgle ramal to predict; to forecast ramu to collect all sorts of material ramalan prediction ramuan ingredients ramas to knead ranap to flatten out; to level to the ground rambang random; uncertain (of feelings, aim, etc.) rancak lively rambang mata flirtatious; having a roving eye rancang to plan; to prepare rambu-rambu fringes; tassels rancangan a plan rambut hair randuk to wade rami jute; hemp rang (1) a draft; a sketch (2) fallow (of land) rampai mixed; various rang undang-undang


bill (in Parliament) rantai rangka skeleton; outline rantai leher necklace (1) a bunch; a bundle; a cluster (2) a unit of length rantai tangan bracelet rangkak to crawl rantaian connected series or sequence rangkap link lines of a verse; two-fold rantau bay; creek; region; colony rangking a type of large basket with lid ranting twig rangkul to embrace ranum over-ripe (of fruit) rangkum to embrace; to cuddle; to enclose; to include rapat close; intimate; compact rangsang stimulus rapi neat; orderly rangup brittle; crisp rapuh fragile; brittle; friable ranjang iron bed-stead rasa (1) feeling; emotion (2) taste (3) opinion ranjau mantrap; booby-trap chain; series; sequence



rasi compatible; suitable

to wail or moan aloud

rasmi official; formal

raungan loud weeping or wailing

raup rasuah bribe raut rasuk possessed (by evil spirits); obsessed rawak rasul messenger of God; prophet rawan rata flat; level; even (1) anxious (2) numeral coefficient for articles made of cord at random to pare two handfuls; to scoop up with both hands

ratap to grieve; to wail

rawat to nurse

ratapan grief

rawatan treatment; medical care

ratna jewel

raya large; main; principle; great

ratu queen

rayap to creep; to crawl

ratus hundred

rayau to roam; to wander


rayu to appeal; to plead; to request


rayuan an appeal; a plea

redah to take a direct way through (e.g. a forest, desert, flood, etc.)

rebah to collapse redaksi editorial rebak to spread (for fire, news, epidemic) redup obscured; clouded; gloomy reban a fowl's pen regang taut; tight; stretched rebas drizzle regu team; gang; group; pair rebung bamboo shoot rehat rest rebus boiled reja scraps; leftovers rebut to snatch; to seize; to grab; to scramble for something Rejab the seventh month of the Muslim calendar

recih remnants; small change

rejam to stone to death

recik to sprinkle

reka to invent; to create; to design; to compose

reda (1) to decrease in intensity; to subside (2) willing; consenting

reka bentuk the design


rembesan secretion rekaan invention remeh-temeh unimportant; trivial; petty rekah to split or crack rempah spices rekahan a split, fissure or crack rempak (1) chipped (2) united rekat to glue together rempang-lempung injured; tattered rela willing rempuh to storm at; to stampede relau furnace rempuhan a stampede remah crumb remuk to smash; to shatter remaja adolescent remuk hati broken-hearted remang fine body hair remuk-redam smashed; crushed rembat (1) whip (2) trap renang to swim rembes secrete; ooze rencah


seasoning; condiment; flavouring rentang rencana article; feature; story rentap rencat stunted; retarded rentas renda lace rentetan sequence; series low renung rendam to soak renungan the act of staring or gazing; contemplation to stare; to gaze; to ponder to take a short cut to pull violently; to snatch to stretch tight; to spread along


rendang food fried in coconut oil

renyai renek small and short renyuk renggang far apart to crumple drizzle

rengus grumpy; sullen

renyuk-renyik crumpled

repek renjis sprinkle; scatter reput rentak rhythm; beat rotten; decayed to talk nonsense


resah fidgety; restless; uneasy riba resam custom; tradition ribu resap to penetrate into; to seep into; to diffuse into ribut restu blessing ridip retak to crack rimas retakan a crack rimba retas to rip open rimbun rezeki livelihood; luck rinci ria jovial; joyful; cheerful rindu riadah exercise; recreation

happy; cheerful; merry

(1) hold on one's lap (2) interest on money lent


violent; storm

dorsal fin of a fish

uneasy (because of heat, etc.)

forest; jungle

dense; thick (of hair, foliage, etc.)

specify in details

to long for; to yearn for

riak (1) ripple on the water (2) vain; proud

rindu dendam passionate longing

ringan riang light (in weight)


rintihan a groan or moan ringan mulut friendly rintik speckle; spot ringan tangan helpful person rintik-rintik drizzle ringan tulang hardworking rintis to clear a way; to open up; to pioneer Ringgit Malaysia Malaysian currency risalah pamphlet ringkas brief; concise risau worried ringkasan summary risik to make discreet inquiries ringkasnya briefly; in short riuh noisy ringkuk to bend or stoop; to crouch riwayat story; tale rintang to block with a barricade riwayat hidup biography rintangan barricade; obstacle robek to tear or rip rintih to moan; to groan (in pain) roboh


to collapse rombakan a reshuffle wheel rombong (1) large basket made of palm leaves (2) to form a group


rodok to stab

rogol to rape

rombongan a group (of travellers)

roh spirit; soul

rompak to rob

rohani spirituality

rompakan robbery

rohaniah spiritual

rompong damaged at the tip; mutilated (of ear, nose, etc.)

rojak salad of mixed vegetables taken with sauce

ronda to patrol

rokok cigarette

rongak gap (in teeth, fence)

roma fine body hair

rongga cavity; hollow space

roman a person's looks or appearance

ronggeng a dance (for couples)

rombak to demolish; to reshuffle

rongkong throat


ruang waktu time frame ronta to struggle; to resist ruap to boil over; to bubble or foam over; to evaporate rosak damaged; spoilt ruas the section between two joints; internode rosot decline; deteriorate; diminish rugi to suffer a loss rotan rattan; cane ruji staple food; basic; main roti bread rujuk to refer ruam rash rujukan reference ruam panas prickly heat rukun pillar; basic principle ruam saraf shingles rumah house ruang a space; a room rumah tangga household ruangan column rumbia sago-palm ruang makan dining-room


Rumi Roman rungutan a complaint rumit difficult runsing worried rumpai weed runtuh to collapse rumpair a kind of sea plant; alga runtun to drag; to pull violently rumpun a clump; a cluster runtunan series rumput grass rupa appearance; form rumus formula rupa kata adverb runcing tapered; pointed; sharp rupa nama adjective runcit retail rupanya apparently runding to discuss; to negotiate rupawan beautiful rundingan discussion; negotiation rusa deer rungut to grumble; to complain


rusa senggerik unicorn

sabungan cock-fighting

rusuh to create trouble

sabung-menyabung flashing (of lighting)

rusuhan a riot; a rebellion

sabut husk

rusuk (1)side; flank; edge (2)rib saat second (time); moment

sadai stranded; beached (of boat)

sadap to tap a palm tree for its juice saban every saderi celery sabar patient; calm sadur metallic plating or coating sabda saying; verbal expression saga a type of red seed sabit sickle sagat to grate; to scrape Sabtu Saturday sagu sago sabun soap sah authentic; genuine; legal sabung to fight (of cocks) sahabat



to serve (food)

sahaja only; merely; just

sajian a dish

saham a share

sakat to make fun of; to tease

sahih true; valid; sure; certain

saki-baki remainder; balance

sahsiah personality

sakit ill; pain; painful

sahur pre-dawn meal in the Muslim fasting month

sakit hati annoyed

sahut to answer a call

saksama just; impartial; fair

sahutan an answer; a response

saksi witness

saing compete; companion bersaing: to compete; in the company of; side by side pesaing: competitor; rival saingan: competition; rivalry menyaingi: to compete with; to rival; to accompany

sakti supernatural power

saku pocket

salah sajak poem salai saji to roast; to dry over a fire (1)wrong (2)guilty; at fault


saliran drainage salak to bark salji snow salam peace; greetings salur to lead or channel into salang a method of execution saluran a channel salangkan even if salur darah blood vessel salasilah genealogy; pedigree salur kencing urethra salib cross for crucifixion salur mani vas deferens salih pious; virtuous salur nadi artery salin (1)to change clothes (2)to give birth salut to coat; to enwrap salinan a copy salut bunga calyx saling mutual sama same; together salir to flow off; to drain away samak


tannin sampah samar dim; vague; obscure sampah sarap garbage of all sorts spicy condiment sampai sambar to swoop down and seize; to snatch sampai hati to have the heart to do something while; simultaneously sampan sambilan part-time; subsidiary small boat (1)to reach; to arrive (2)till; until rubbish; garbage; litter



sambil lalu incidentally; by the way

samping side; flank

sambung to fasten or join together; to continue

sampingan a by product

sampuk sambungan continuation; connection; extension sampul sambut to welcome; to receive; to celebrate or observe samseng gangster; hooligan envelope; wrapper; cover to interfere; to interrupt; to intervene

sambutan reception; welcome; response; celebration

sami Buddhist monk

samudera ocean; sea


samun to rob

to support

sana there

sanggah-menyanggah to oppose; to protest against

sanak saudara relatives

sanggama union; confederation

sanggul sandang shoulder-strap coiffure; knot of hair

sandar to lean on; to rely on; to depend on

sanggup willing; ready; able; capable

sangka sandar-menyandar to depend on one another to presume; to expect; to guess

sandaran prop; support; maintenance

sangkaan presumption; conjecture; guess; imagination; expectation

sanding near; close; adjacent

sangkak to hinder; to obstruct; to impede

sandiwara stageplay; concert

sangkal (1)to deny (2)handle (of hammer)

sang honorific epithet

sangkalan denial

sangat very; extremely

sangkar cage


sangkut stuck; attached


sapaan greeting; salutation sangkut-paut involved; implicated sapi cow or bull sangsi to doubt; to be suspicious sapu to wipe; to sweep; to rub gently sanjung to praise; to flatter; to adulate sapu tangan handkerchief sanjungan flattery; adulation sara pension; allowance santai relaxation sara hidup livelihood santan coconut milk saraf nerve santap to eat and drink (of royalty); to dine saran to suggest; to propose santapan food; dishes; meal saranan suggestion; proposal; propaganda santun well-mannered sarang nest; web sanubari heart; emotions sarap to have breakfast sapa to greet; to speak to; to address sarapan


breakfast sasterawan male scholar heavily loaded sasterawati female scholar


saribunga corolla; petals

sasul saring to filter; to refine; to sift; to sieve; to purify satah saringan refinement; preliminary rounds of contest satu sarjana scholar satu-satu one by one one plane; flat; level overshot; gone too far

sarjana muda bachelor's degree

sarung sarong; sheath; cover; wrapper

satu-satunya the only one

sasa strong; sturdy

saudagar merchant; trader

sasar eccentric; odd; confused; crazy

saudara brother or sister; relative; comrade

sasaran target

saudara-mara relatives in general

saudari sastera literature female relative or friend


sauh anchor sayup saujana spacious; extensive

sad; melancholic

very faintly visible or audible

sauk a scoop

sayup-sayup vague; indistinct

sayur sawah rice-field sayur-sayuran variety of vegetables fits; epilepsy sayur-mayur variety of vegetables cobweb se sawat belt sebab saya I; my; me sebab-musabab reason love; affection sebak sayap wing sebal sayat to slice sebar sayu to spread; to distribute; to disseminate resentful; disillusioned; dissatisfied to shed tears; choked reason; cause; because one; same; a; an vegetable





sebaran seed

sedar conscious; aware

sebat to whip; to cane; to steal

sedekah alms

sebatan whipping; caning

sederhana moderate; average; medium; simple

sebaya similar (of age, looks)

sedia ready; prepared; willing

seberang opposite side (of river, road); across

sediakala immemorial; old; of long past

sebu choked (of nose); full (of stomach)

sedih sad; sorrowful

sebut to utter; to mention; to say; to pronounce

sedu sobbing

sebutan expression; utterance; pronunciation

sedu-sedan sobbing

sedak to choke; to hiccup

sedut to inhale; to suck up

sedang (1)to be in the process of; while (2)medium (size); average; sufficient

sedutan inhalation; suction

segak sedap pleasant (of taste, smell); nice (of voice); tasty; delicious smart-looking; chic; elegant; stylish


segala all; entire; whole; every

equilateral triangle

segala-galanya everything

sejahtera peaceful

sejak segan shy; bashful sejarah segan-silu bashful sejat segar fresh sejuk segar-bugar fit; like new cool; cold to evaporate history since

segera without delay; urgent; quick

sekaligus all at once

segi aspect; angle; view; side; facet

sekalipun although

sekam segi empat square grain husk; chaff

segi tiga triangle

sekarang now

sekat segi tiga sama kaki isosceles triangle sekatan segi tiga sama sisi obstruction to block; to obstruct


selam to dive sekerap scrap selamat safe sekoi millet selamat datang welcome sekolah school selamat jalan goodbye; farewell sekongkol conspiracy selamat malam goodnight seksa to torture selamat pagi good morning seksaan suffering; torture selamba poker-faced; shameless sekutu partner; ally selang interval; pause sela interval; gap; opening selaput membrane seladang wild ox selaput mata cataract selak (1)a bolt (2)to pull out a garment selar branding iron selalu always Selasa


Tuesday selesa selasih a type of plant selesai selat straits seleweng to divert; to deviate south selia selawat prayer for peace and prosperity selidik selekeh stain; smudge selimut selekoh curve; bend; twist selinap selempang sash to sneak away blanket to investigate; to study; to do research to inspect finished; settled; completed comfortable; leisure


selendang shawl

selindung to hide; to conceal; to take cover

seling selenggara to maintain; to look after; to keep in good condition alternate

selingan interlude selera appetite; zest selirat confused selerak scattered


selisih difference; dispute; disagreement seluk selit to insert

to smuggle

to put the hand in the pocket

seliuh sprained

selumbar wooden splinter

seluruh selok intricacy selusup selok-belok intricacy selut selongkar to ransack; to rummage semadi seloroh comical; joking; humorous semai selsema a cold (medical) semaian nursery; seedlings trousers; pants semak seluar dalam underpants (1)bush; undergrowth (2)to check (3)to revise to sow; to plant seedlings (1)concentration (2)to bury mud to penetrate; to infiltrate entire; whole


selubung cover; veil

semak-samun undergrowth of all kinds


semangat spirit; zest; enthusiasm; soul; vigour


sembarangan at random semangka watermelon sembelih to slaughter semarak splendour; excellence sembelihan slaughter; bloodshed semat a pin sembelit constipation; constipated semayam To reside; to sit; to rest (of rulers) sembilan nine sembah to worship; to idolize semboyan signal; alarm sembah salam good wishes sembuh to recover from ill-health sembahyang to worship; to pray sembul to protrude sembam to fall in a prone position or on one's face sembunyi to hide; to conceal sembang chatter sembur to spout; to spray; to sprinkle sembap to swell semenanjung peninsula sembarang arbitrary semenjak


since sempurna complete; perfect

semenjak itu ever since

semua sementara temporary; while all

sementara itu meanwhile

semuanya wholly; entirely

semut semerbak fragrant sen semesta all; entire; the whole senak semesta alam the whole universe tight; feeling stuffed cent ant

sempadan boundary

senak perut indigestion; feeling of fullness in abdomen

senam sempang hyphen to do physical exercise

sempat having the time; early

senaman physical exercise

senang sempena in conjunction with; in commemoration of easy; comfortable; free (from care)

sempit narrow

senapang gun


senarai list sengau senda joke senget sendat tight; close-fitting

a sting

nasal (of voice)

slanting; inclining

sendawa to belch; to burp

senggugut dysmenorrhoea

sendeng slanting; sloping; leaning; askew

sengguk to nod

sengih sendi joint sengihan a grin alone; on one's own sengit sendiri-sendiri each; individually violent to grin


senduk ladle

sengkang a dash

sengaja purposely; intentionally

sengketa a dispute

sengal pain in the joints; rheumatism

sengsara suffering; agony

seni sengat (1)art; skill (2)fine


senonoh proper; decent; well-behaved seni bahasa fine language sentak to jerk; to pull suddenly seni bina architecture sental to rub; to scrub; to erase seni lukis art of painting or drawing sentap to tug; to pull sharply seni ukir sculpture senteng short or scanty (of clothes) seniman male actor sentiasa always seniwati actress sentosa peaceful; tranquil senja dusk; twilight sentuh to touch senjakala evening sentuhan contact senjata weapon; arms senyap quiet; silent senjata api firearms senyap-senyap quietly; without anybody's knowledge senjata berat artillery senyum


to smile sepoi-sepoi gentle; mild

senyuman a smile

sepah (1)to chew (of betel leaf) (2)scattered

sepoi-sepoi bahasa soft breeze

sepuh sepak (1)to slap (2)to kick serabut sepanduk banner; placard serah separa a section only serahan separuh half; semi serai sepatu shoe serak sepatu besi horse-shoe seram seperti like; such as serambi verandah; porch quiet; desolate; deserted serampang a harpoon tweezers; pincers; chopsticks terrifying; frightful hoarse (of voice) lemon-grass something that is submitted to surrender fibre gilt




serang boatswain serbu serangan an attack; an assault


to invade; to attack

serangga insect

serbuan a raid; an attack

serbuk Serani Eurasian serempak coming suddenly and unexpectedly to absorb serentak simultaneously absorption seret serapah a curse sergah seraya while; simultaneously sergahan a snarl; act of startling all sergam serba aneka various; all sorts seri serba-serbi various sorts (1)splendour; brightness (2)royal honorific (3)a draw or tie (of a game) conspicuous startling to drag powder





Seri Paduka His Majesty


serigala wolf; jackal

serpihan a chip; a fragment; a splinter

serik to discourage

serta (1)together with; along with (2)as soon as

sering often; frequently

serta-merta immediately

seringkali often; frequently

seru to cry aloud; to exclaim; to call

seringai a grin

seruan an exclamation

serkap conical fish-trap

seruling flute

serkup conical coop

sesah beat with a cane

serlah gleaming white against dark background; exposed

sesak congested; tight; crowded; packed

sesal serong askew; crooked; unfaithful; insincere sesalan seronok enjoyable; pleasant sesat serpih a chip; a fragment; a splinter lost; gone astray repentance regretful; repentant


sesuai suitable; appropriate siak sesungut feeler; antenna sial seterika iron (for clothes)

useless; futile; in vain

mosque caretaker

unlucky; unfortunate

seteru enemy; foe

siamang a gibbon

siang setia loyal; faithful siang hari daytime (1)daytime (2)to cut up and clean (meat or fish)

setiausaha secretary

setinggan squatter

siang-siang early

siap sewa rent; lease siap sedia ready; well-prepared rental siapa sewa beli hire purchase siar sfera sphere siaran sia-sia a broadcast to stroll who; whose ready; prepared; finished; completed



sihir magic; sorcery siasat to investigate sijil certificate siasatan investigative; investigation sikap demeanour; attitude siat to tear into small pieces; to shred sikat (1)a comb (2)a bunch (of bananas) sibuk busy siku elbow sibur-sibur dragon-fly siku-siku a set-square sidai to hang out (clothes) sila (1)please (2)to sit cross-legged sidang council; board; meeting silam the past sifar zero silang a cross sifat characteristic; feature; quality silap wrong; mistaken sifir an arithmetical table silau glitter; dazzle sihat healthy silih


alternate sinaran silu shy; bashful; timid sindir simbah soaked; wet sindiran insinuation to keep; to store; to save (money) singa simpanan savings singgah simpang junction to stop by on the way lion to hint; to insinuate; to tease; to mock a ray; a glow; a gleam; a glitter; illumination


simpangan cross-roads

singgahsana throne

simpang-siur criss-crossing

singgung to insult; to offend

singkap simpul a knot singkat simpulan a knot; a bond short; brief to reveal; to expose; to lay open; to lift (skirt)

simpulan bahasa an idiom

singkatan abbreviation

singkir sinar a ray; a beam (of light) to expel; dismiss


singsing to roll up (sleeves; trousers) sisi sini here sisih sinis cynical sisik sipi off target sisip sipu shy; bashful sisipan siput snail sisir siram to water siswa sirap slightly raised sita sirat netting; mesh sitaan sirih betel leaf situ sirip fin siul sisa

remainder; leftovers

side; edge

to stay apart

scale (of fish)

to insert


(1)to comb (2)a comb (of bananas)


forfeited; confiscated

confiscation; confiscated goods


to whistle


sompek chipped siulan whistling sondol to butt with lowered head siuman recovered consciousness; sane songkok Malay male head-dress soal to question songsang upside down; inverted soalan a question sopan respectful; courteous; polite soal selidik questionaire sopan santun courtesy; politeness sodok to shovel sorak-sorai applause; cheering sogok a bribe sorakan applause; cheers sokong to support; to back up sore afternoon; early evening sokongan support; backing sorok to hide; to conceal solek make-up sorong to push forward; to shove; to urge sombong proud; conceited; snobbish sorot


(1)ray; beam (2)to review suasana sorotan (1)glow; radiation (2)reflection; review suatu sotong cuttlefish subahat sua to meet; to encounter; to join subang suai suitable; fit; appropriate subuh suai kenal orientation subur suam lukewarm; feverish suci suami husband sudah suap (1)to feed (2)to bribe sudahlah that's enough voice sudahnya finally already; finished chaste; pure; virtuous; holy flourishing; healthy; fertile dawn ear-ring; ear-stud accomplice one; a mood; atmosphere; situation; circumstances


suara hati conscience

suara ramai opinion of the majority

sudah-sudah past; bygone


sudi willing sukar sudip wooden ladle


difficult; hard

sudu spoon

sukarela voluntary

sudut corner; angle; aspect; point of view

sukarelawan volunteer

sukat sugul sadness; grief; sorrow sukatan suhu temperature suku sujud prostrate (in prayer) suku kata a syllable like; enjoy suku bangsa tribe a quarter measurement; assessment quantity; capacity


suka hati delighted; happy

suka ria gay; happy

suku-sakat family; clan

sula sukacita glad; happy; cheerful sulah sukan bald to impale


sumbangsih contribution; aid; alms sulam to embroider sumbat (1)cork; stopper (2)tight (hole) sulaman embroidery sumber source; resource suling distilled sumbing torn; split sulit (1)secret; confidential (2)difficult sumbu horn of a rhinoceros sultan Muslim ruler sumpah oath; solemn promise sultanah Muslim ruler's consort sumpahan curse suluh a torch sumpah-sumpah chameleon sulung the first; the eldest sumpit shoot with a blow-pipe sulur tendril sumpitan blow-pipe sumbang (1)to donate; to contribute (2)indecent; immoral sumsum bone marrow sumbangan contribution sumur


a well sunting sunat circumcision suntuk sungai river sunyi sungguh true; real; indeed supaya sungguh-sungguh truly; really; indeed; ernestly surah sungguhpun although surai sungkur (1)to lower one's head (2)a shovel suram sungut feeler; antenna surat sungut-sungut feeler; antenna letter gloomy; hazy; dim (1)to disperse (2)tress; horse's mane a chapter of the Koran so that; in order to quiet; lonely short of time; overdue an ornament worn in the hair

sunti a female child

suratkhabar newspaper

surau suntik to inject; to inoculate; to vaccinate suri suntikan injection; inoculation; vaccination queen Muslim prayer house


suri rumahtangga housewife susuk suria the sun

a spur (of cock)

figure; shape

suruh to order or instruct

susuk badan bodily shape or figure

susul suruhan an order susulan suruhanjaya commission susun surut to subside; to ebb; to decrease susunan arrangement (1)difficult (2)misery; worry susup susah hati worried; troubled susur susah-susah to bother; to take the trouble susut susila ethical sutera susu milk sutradara director of a play or film silk to decrease; to shrink edge; fringe; margin; border to enter secretly; to infiltrate pile; layer follow-up to follow




syarahan a lecture swasta private (not public) syarat condition; requirement; prerequisite Syaaban eighth month of the Muslim calendar syariah Islamic law syabas well done; good syarikat company; corporation syah ruler Syawal tenth month of the Muslim calendar syahbandar harbour-master syirik polytheism syahdan meanwhile; then; furthermore; moreover syok attractive; appealing; pleasant syahid martyr syor suggestion; recommendation syair poem syukur thanks; gratitude syaitan satan; the devil syurga heaven syak suspicion taat obedient; faithful; loyal

syarah to lecture

tabah determined; persevering


tabal to install; to inaugurate tadbir tabiat habit; behaviour tadi tabii natural; inborn tadika tabik a salute tafakur tabir curtain; screen tafsir tabuh a mosque drum tagak tabung money-box; fund; tube



just now




(1)durable; lasting (2)to hesitate; to dilly-dally; to defer

tabungan savings

tagih to crave for; addictive

tabung uji test tube

tahan to endure; to last; to tolerate

tabur to scatter; to disseminate

tahan api fireproof

tadah to receive with both palms

tahan lasak hardy


tahan uji endurance test


tahunan annual tahanan detention tahyul superstition tahap level; stage taja to sponsor tahi dung tajaan sponsorship tahi arak an alcoholic tajak a hoe tahi judi a gambler tajam sharp tahi mata eye discharge tajuk title tahi telinga ear wax tak no; not (abbreviation of tidak) tahniah congratulations takabur proud; arrogant tahu (1)to know (2)soya takal pulley tahu-tahu without being aware of takar glass or porcelain jar tahun year takat


extreme degree or limit takungan reservoir destiny; fate takut takhta throne takwim takik notch; indentation takziah takjub astonished; amazed takzim takkan impossible; can't; won't tala taklimat briefing talak takluk to subject; to subdue; to subjugate talam takrif definition; description tali taksir to assess; to evaluate; to appraise talian taksiran assessment; estimate; evaluation talu takung stagnant to flog; to wallop a line (of telephone) rope tray divorce (1)tune; pitch (in music) (2)padlock high respect condolence almanac; calendar afraid



tamadun civilization; civilized


tamak greedy

tampaknya apparently; obviously

tampal taman park; garden tampalan a patch; a plaster; a poultice date (fruit) tampan tamat finished; ended; terminated (1)handsome; smart-looking (2)to stop something moving to patch; to plaster


tambah to add; to increase

tampar to slap

tambahan addition; an increase; additional

tamparan a slap

tambak embankment; dyke

tampi to winnow or sift

tambang fare (for transport)

tampil to appear; to come forward

tambat to tie up; to moor

tampuk calyx

tambatan connection; mooring buoy

tampung to bear; to endure; a patch


tamsil parable; analogy


tanam to plant tamsilan comparison tanaman plants tamu guest tanam-tanaman all kinds of plants tanah soil; land; ground tanda sign; mark; symbol tanahair motherland tandan bunch; cluster (of bananas, etc.) tanah gambut peat tandang visit tanah gembur loam tandas toilet; latrine tanah jajahan colony tandatangan signature tanah liat clay tanding to compete tanah pamah plains tandu stretcher tanah tumpah darah motherland tanduan palanquin tanak to cook rice tanduk


horn tangisan weeping; crying hand tangkai tangga ladder; stairs; a scale tangkai jering stingy (1)to drop off; to take off (2)date (of calendar) tangkal tanggap to listen carefully an amulet; a talisman a stalk; a handle; a stem



tanggapan response; reaction; notion; idea

tangkap to catch

tangguh postpone

tangkapan a catch; the capture

tangkas tangguk a small fishing net tangkis tanggung (1)to bear; to be responsible (2)inadequate to ward off; to repulse; to repel nimble; agile

tanggungan responsibility; obligation; surety

tanglung lantern

tangsi tanggungjawab responsibility tani tangis to weep farming barracks


tanjak (1)head-dress (2)going obliquely upwards tarian tanjung cape (land jutting out into the sea) tarik tanpa without tarikh tanya to ask; to enquire taring tapa hermitage taruh tapak palm of the hand; sole of the foot; base; site tarung tapis to filter; to sieve; to censor tasik tapisan filtrate tata tara equal; par; even

to dance

a dance

to pull

date (of the calendar)

tusk; fang

(1)stake; bet (2)to put; to place

to clash; to dispute; to quarrel


system; order

taraf standard; status; level

tataacara agenda

tarah to plane wood

tatabahasa grammar


tatacara procedure


taufan typhoon tatahukum legal system tauge bean sprout tatasusila code of ethics tauhu soyabean curd tatatertib discipline tauke Chinese business proprietor tatah inlaid work taulan friend tatahan inlay tauliah letter of appointment; commission tatang to carry in the palm of the hand taun cholera tatap to observe intently; to scrutinize Taurat Old Testament tatapan scrutiny taup united; connected; joined together tatih unsteady; wobbly; to toddle taut joined together; united (of wound) tatkala when tawa laugh taubat repentance; penitence tawan


to capture; to captivate; to conquer tebar tawanan a prisoner; a captive tebas tawar (1)tasteless (2)to bargain tebing tawaran an offer tebu tawar hati disheartened tebuan tawar hambar tasteless tebuk tawar-menawar to bargain; to haggle tebus tawarikh history; annals tebusan tayang to show; to display; to screen (a film) teduh tayangan a show; a display; a screening tedung tebal thick; dense (of growth) tegah tebang to fell (a tree); to cut down to forbid; to prohibit cobra protection or shelter ransom; redemption to recover or redeem by payment to pierce; to drill; to perforate hornet sugar-cane bank (of river) to clear the undergrowth scattered; to scatter (seeds); to cast (a net)


tegahan prohibition teh tegak upright; erect teka tegang taut; tight; tense

criticism; greeting


to guess

tegap well-built; sturdy; firm

teka-teki a riddle

tekaan tegar stubborn; obstinate tekad tegas firm; well-defined; precise tekak tegasan clarification tekan teguh firm; secure; steady tekanan pressure; stress a gulp tekap tegun to stop suddenly tekat tegur to greet; to accost; to criticize teko teguran teapot embroidery (1)to trace (2)to cover (1)to press (2)to oppress; to ill-treat throat will-power; determination a guess



tekong anchorman (in sports)

telanjang nude; naked

tekukur large cuckoo-dove

telap permeable

tekun diligent; hardworking; industrious

telapak palm of hand; sole of foot

telaah to study; to examine

telatah behaviour

teladan example

telekung a white praying veil used by Muslim women

telaga well

telentang supine

telagah to quarrel; to disagree

telinga ear

telah (1)already; have; did; has (2)to forecast; to predict

telingkah to argue; to dispute; to quarrel

teliti telahan prediction teluk telan to swallow telungkup to lie prone bay care; close attention; accuracy; precision

telangkup upside-down


telunjuk index finger tembak telur egg


to shoot

telur dadar omelette

tembak-menembak a shoot-out

telur masin salted egg

tembakan shooting

telut to kneel

tembakau tobacco

teman companion; friend

tembam plump

temasya a show or event (cultural, musical)

tembelang addled (of eggs)

tembaga copper: brass

temberang to tell a lie; to brag

tembaga merah copper

tembikai watermelon

tembaga kuning brass

tembikar porcelain; earthenware

tembok tembaga perunggu bronze wall; embankment

tembaga putih

tembolok crop, gizzard (of birds)


tempelak to rebuke; to reproach; to censure tembung meet; encounter tempeleng to slap on the face tembuni placenta; afterbirth tempiar scattered tembus perforated; penetrable tempik a short loud cheer tempa to weld; to forge (metals) tempikan loud shouting tempah to reserve; to book tempik-sorak cheering tempahan booking tempoh period of time tempang lame; crippled tempoyak preserved durian tempat place; location tempua weaver bird tempatan local tempuh to go or pass through tempayan large earthen water-barrel tempuling harpoon tempel to stick; to paste; to glue tempur


to clash tengah hari midday

tempurung coconut shell

temu to meet; to find

tenggala a plough

temu duga an interview

tenggara south-east

tenggek temu ramah an interview to squat; to crouch; to perch

tenaga energy; power; strength

tenggelam to sink; to set (of sun)

tengger tenang calm; quiet; still; composed tenggiling armadillo critically ill; exhausted tengik tendang to kick tengkar tendangan a kick to quarrel rancid (of oil) to perch


tengadah to look up

tengking to snarl

tengah middle; centre

tengkingan a snarl


tengkolok head-dress

(1)to forecast (2)to gaze fixedly

tengkorak skull

tenungan prediction

tenusu tengku a Malay prince or princess tepak tengkuk nape of neck tepat tengok to see; to consider tepi tentang about; regarding tepis tentangan objection; opposition; resistance tepu tentera army; military; troops tepuk tenteram calm; peaceful; tranquil; quiet to clap brimful; full to push aside side; edge exact; precise a metal box dairy

tentu sure; certain; definite

tepukan gemuruh loud applause

tepung tenun to weave tera tenung stamp; official seal flour


terbit to rise; to emerge; to appear terajang to kick and trample terbitan publication; issue; edition teraju weighing scales teriak a loud cry or shout terang bright; clear terik tight; excessive; unbearable terang-benderang very bright terima to receive; to accept terang-terang clearly; frankly terima kasih thank you terap (1)to apply (2)mould (for cakes) terima salah plead guilty teras core; essence terjemah to translate teratai lotus terjemahan translation teratai kecil blue water-lily terjun to jump down; to dive teratak a small hut terkam to pounce on terbang to fly ternak


livestock teruna ternakan breeding; rearing terung teroka to open new land terus terompah clogs (wooden footwear) terusan teropong telescope canal straight; direct brinjal youthful (male); young man

terowong tunnel

terus-menerus continuously; non-stop

tetak terpa to leap; to spring forward; to pounce tetakan tertib order; discipline; system tetamu tertib nikah marriage rites guest a slash to chop; to slash

tertib sopan tradition of politeness

tetangga neighbour

tetap terubuk herring tetapi teruk very bad; serious; severe but; yet specific; unambiguous; fixed; permanent


tetas to slit open; to hatch

no; not

tetek breast

tidak apa never mind

tetes drop (of fluid)

tidak apa-apa nothing

tidur tetesan drops (of fluid) tidur ayam to sleep lightly defeated tidur mati to sleep soundly no; not; not any tiga tiang pillar; post tikai tiap every; each tikam tiarap to lie prone tikaman a stab to arrive; to reach tikam dadu gamble (1)to stab (2)to bet quarrel three to sleep




tiba-tiba suddenly

tikar tidak mat; rug


tikus rat

timbang (1)to weigh (2)to consider; to contemplate

tilam mattress

timbang rasa sympathy

tilik (1)to observe carefully; to gaze fixedly (2)to foretell

timbul to emerge; to appear; to float up

timbun tilikan prediction; observation timbus tilik nasib fortune-telling timpa timah tin timpaan obstacle to dandle; to caress; to rock (child) timpal timangan darling; pet; nickname timun timba pail; bucket timur timbal balanced; equable tindak timbalan vice; deputy to take action east cucumber balanced; proportionate to strike or hit (of falling object) to fill up (a hole); to bury heap; pile; mass



tindakan action

tingkap window

tindak balas reaction

tingkat storey; floor

tindak tanduk behaviour; character; nature

tinkatan form or grade (in school)

tindas to oppress; to suppress; to intimidate; to bully

tinjau to observe; to watch

tindasan oppression

tinjauan observation; survey; review

tindih to press upon; to oppress

tinju boxing

tindik to pierce (ear)

tinta ink

tinggal (1)to live (2)to leave (3)to stay behind (4)to be left

Tionghua Chinese

tinggi high; tall

Tiongkok China

tipis tingkah behaviour tipu tingkahan musical accompaniment tirai curtain deceit; cheat; fraud thin; slim; fine (of thread); sheer (of material)


tiram oyster

titik dua a colon (:)

tiri step-

titis a drop

tiris to leak through

titisan droplets; trickle

tiru to copy; to imitate

tiup to blow

tiruan imitation; counterfeit; a copy

tiupan a gust (of air)

tirus tapering

tocang plait; braid (of hair)

titah formal address or speech (royal); royal command

todak sword-fish

togel titi wooden bridge tohor titian wooden crossing tok titik (1)a drop of liquid (2)a full-stop; a dot; a point toko titikberat emphasize shop grandfather shallow bald; tailless


tokoh a figure; a personality tombak tokok addition tombol tokong a Chinese or Buddhist temple tompok tolak (1)to push (2)to subtract (3)to reject tong tolakan a shove; a push; rejection tonggek tolak ansur to give and take

to help one another

spear; lance; javelin

(1)knob (2)knot (in wood)

(1)spot; mark; blotch (2)heap; pile

barrel; bin

protruding (of buttocks)

tolak bala to avert evil

tongkang lighter; flat-bottomed boat or barge

tongkat toleh to look back tongkol tolok equal; matching tonjol tolol stupid tonton tolong assistance; to help; please tontonan a show or display to watch (as a spectator) a hump or protrusion; to protrude cob (of maize); chunk; nugget walking-stick



tuai harvesting knife; to harvest tonyoh to scrub thoroughly tuak toddy; palm-wine topang support; prop tuala towel topeng mask tuan sir; master topi hat tuan rumah landlord toreh to tap (e.g. rubber) tuang (1)to pour (2)to be absent torehan an incision tuanku sir (to royalty); your Highness toyol a type of evil spirit or ghost tuas lever trengkas shorthand tuba poisonous root used in fishing tua (1)old; ripe (2)dark (of colour) tubi persistently; repeatedly tua-tua old; ripe; mature tubuh body tuah luck; fortune tubuh badan


the whole body tujuh tuduh to accuse tukang tuduhan accusation tukar tuding index finger; to point at tukaran replacement cover; lid; veil tukar ganti to substitute duty; task tukul tugasan assignment tulang tugu monument tular Tuhan God tulat tujah to stab; to pierce tulen tuju direction tuli tujuan intention; purpose; aim deaf pure; genuine third day after today contagious; infectious; to spread (disease) bone a hammer to change; to exchange skilled workman seven




tulis to write

to spill

tulisan writing

tumpahan spillage

tulus honest; sincere; heartfelt; straightforward

tumpah darah motherland

tumbang collapse; fall

tumpang (1)to reside (2)to take a lift or ride

tumbesar growth (of plants, etc.)

tumpangan lodging

tumpas tumbuh to develop; to grow tumpat tumbuhan growth tumpu tumbuh-tumbuhan plants (1)to focus; to concentrate (2)to support compact; packed; crowded; full to annihilate; to destroy

tumbuk (1)to punch (2)to pound

tumpuan focus; support

tumpul tumis to fry Tun tumit heel (of foot) tunai tumpah (1)cash (2)accomplished an honourable title blunt


tungkus lumus overworked tunang fiancé or fiancee tunjal to poke; to thrust tunas a bud; a sprout tunjam to dive; to plunge tunda (1)to tow (2)to postpone tunjuk to show; to point tunduk to bow; to submit tunjuk ajar guidance tunggak (1)to be in arrears (2)tree stump tunjuk perasaan demonstration tunggakan arrears tuntun to lead by the hand; to guide tunggal sole; solitary; single tuntut (1)to claim (2)to study tunggang (1)upside-down (2)to ride tuntutan a claim; a demand tunggu to wait tupai squirrel tunggul tree stump turas to filter tungku trivet; brazier turun


to descend; to disembark; to come down

yawn menguap: to yawn

turunan descent; genealogy ubah alter; change turun-temurun hereditary; from generation to generation mengubahsuaikan: to modify berubah: to become changed berubah-ubah: changing; inconsistent mengubah: to change pengubahsuaian: modification perubahan: alteration; change

turus main post or pillar uban turut to follow; to go along

grey hair beruban: having grey hair

turutan sequence

ubat medicine berubat: to be treated mengubat: to treat mengubati: to treat pengubatan: treatment perubatan: medical terubat: curable; treatable

tusuk skewer; pin

tut a graft ubi parsnip; tapioca tutup to shut; to close ubin tile tutur to speak; to talk; to converse uak croak menguak: to croak ubun crown or top part of the head ubun-ubun: crown or top part of the head


ubur-ubur jellyfish


ucap make a speech berucap: to make a speech ucapan: speech mengucapkan: to express pengucapan: utterance; expression

ukir carve; engrave; emboss mengukir: to carve ukiran: engraving; sculpture berukir: to be carved; to be engraved mengukirkan: to carve pengukir: engraver; carver pengukiran: engraving; carving terukir: carved; engraved

udang prawn ukur measure; assess udara air; atmosphere angkatan udara: air force pesawat udara: aircraft pos udara: air mail pengudaraan: aeration ulam raw vegetable to be eaten with rice udik upstream ulama Muslim scholar ufuk horizon; limit of knowledge or interests ulang repeat ugut threaten; intimidate mengugut: to threaten; to intimidate ugutan: threat; intimidation ulang tahun: anniversary berulang-alik: to commute; to travel back and forth regularly ulang kaji: revision berulang-ulang: repeatedly mengulang: to repeat; to revise mengulangi: to repeat mengulang kaji: to revise perulangan: repetition mengukur: to measure; to assess pita ukur: measuring tape ukuran: measurement; size pengukuran: measurement

uji test menguji: to test; to try out ujian: examination; test ujikaji: experiment mengujikaji: to experiment penguji: examiner teruji: tested ujibakat: audition

ular snake



(1) clove; one division of a compound bulb such as garlic (2) comment ulasan: a comment ulasan buku: book review mengulas: to comment; to review pengulas: commentator umbuk convince; persuade mengumbuk: to convince; to persuade

ulat maggot; caterpillar; larva; worm

umbut edible palm pith

uli knead menguli: to knead

umpama example seumpama: such as; for instance; for example mengumpamakan: to exemplify; to honour perumpamaan: proverb; simile

ulit croon mengulit: to sing (a child) to sleep pengulit: lullaby umpan bait; lure; decoy mengumpan: entice; lure

ulung first-born; eldest; superior

umpat backbiting; spiteful talk; gossip; slander umpatan: backbiting; defamation; calumny mengumpat: to backbite; to gossip; to defame pengumpat: slanderer

umang-umang hermit-crab umpil umat humanity; religious sect or community; follower (of religion) umum


general; public umbang float; drift; sail terumbang-umbang: floating; drifting; bobbing up and down umur umbi corm (underground stem); tuber age rapat umum: rally mengumumkan: to announce pengumuman: announcement


berumur: aged seumur: of the same age; all (one's) life

superior keunggulan: superiority

undan swan; pelican unggun stack or pile (of wood) undang (1) invite; tempt (2) law mengundang: to invite undangan: invitation ungkai untie; unfasten; undo undang-undang law; rules perundangan: legislation ungkap expression of feelings undi vote; ballot undian: vote; ballot mengundi: to cast a vote pengundi: voter pengundian: voting ungkit repeat undur move backwards berundur: to retreat mengundurkan: to drive back mengundur: to retreat; to postpone pengunduran: withdrawal; postponement mengungkit: to reiterate (the past); to lift pengungkit: lever mengungkap: to express one's feelings ungkapan: expression (word, phrase or mathematical symbol) mengungkai: to untie; to unfasten; to undo ungka gibbon

ungu purple

unggas birds

unjuk hold out; hand over mengunjuk: to hold out; to hand over

unggis gnaw; nibble unjur stretch one's legs unggul mengunjur: to stretch one's legs


means; ways; ability unsur element; constituent substance berunsur: characterised by ura unta camel discuss ura-ura: discuss memperurakan: to plan; to discuss berupaya: to be able to cope berkeupayaan: capable keupayaan: capability mengupayakan: to endeavour; to strive

untai a chain; numeral coefficient for necklace,etc. urai loose; apart untuk for; with a view to; in order to memperuntukkan: to allocate peruntukan: allocation urat vein or nerve untung profit; advantage; luck untung-untung: maybe; perhaps beruntung: lucky; profitable keuntungan: advantage; profit; benefit menguntungkan: to bring profit uri placenta menguraikan: to disentangle penguraian: disentanglement; act of unravelling

urus manage untut elephantiasis mengurus: to manage; to settle urusan: matter; affair berurusan: to deal; to do business menguruskan: to manage; to arrange; to organise pengurus: manager pengurusan: management terurus: arranged; regulated; organised urusniaga: business deal

upacara ceremony

upah fee; wage mengupah: to hire or let out for pay urut massage mengurut: to massage berurutan: in sequence



usul motion or proposal put forward for discussion usaha effort berusaha: to make an effort mengusahakan: to perform; to work diligently pengusaha: industrialist perusahaan: industry usahawan: entrepreneur keusahawanan: entrepreneurship mengusulkan: to propose; to suggest usul periksa: thorough investigation

usus intestine

utama main; chief; special; most important usai finished; over; dispersed mengusai: to disperse keutamaan: priority mengutamakan: to give priority to terutama: especially

usang decrepit; dilapidated; obsolete

utara (1) north (2) suggest mengutarakan: to put forward an idea

usap stroke; caress utas mengusap: to caress; to stroke string; chain

usia age berusia: aged

utuh intact; complete; undamaged keutuhan: perfection; totality; wholeness

usik disturb; tease mengusik: to tease; to disturb usikan: disturbance; teasing

utus send mengutus: to send utusan: messenger; delegate berutus: to correspond; to despatch perutusan: message

usir chase away; expel; drive or force out uzur mengusir: to chase away; to expel; to banish pengusiran: exile; banishment sick; ill; not well; weak from age or illness menguzurkan: to obstruct; to weaken uzuran: debility


vaksin vaccine

waja steel

van van

wajah facial features

vanila vanilla

wajar appropriate; fitting; proper and right sewajarnya: naturally

video video wajib compulsory; obligatory virus virus kewajipan: duty; obligation mewajibkan: to compel

visa visa

wajik sweet sticky rice cake

vitamin vitamin wabak epidemic

wakaf religious donation mewakafkan: to donate for a religious purpose pewakaf: one who donates for a religious purpose

wacana discourse; speech; lecture wakil agent; representative wafat to pass away berwakilkan: represented by mewakili: to represent mewakilkan: to appoint as one's representative perwakilan: representation

waham suspicion; doubt waktu time sewaktu: while wahyu revelation through a dream walau


if waras walaupun although lucid; sane kewarasan: sanity walhal in fact wargakota inhabitant of a city

walhasil eventually; finally

warganegara citizen of a country kewarganegaraan: citizenship

wali sponsor; godparent; guardian waris heir wang money; currency berwang: moneyed; having money kewangan: financial warisan: heritage mewariskan: to bequeath mewarisi: to inherit pewaris: beneficiary; heir

wangi fragrance mewangikan: to make fragrant

warkah epistle; letter

warna colour wanita woman; female kewanitaan: feminity berwarna: coloured berwarna-warni: multi-coloured mewarnakan: to colour pewarnaan: colouring

wap vapour; steam berwap: steaming mengewap: to vaporise pengewapan: vaporisation

warta gazette; journal mewartakan: to inform; to announce

wartawan warak devout; pious


journalist kewartawanan: journalism; journalistic

wawancara an interview

warung stall

wawasan vision

wayang wasangka suspicion performance on a screen

wasiat a will mewasiatkan: to bequeath by a will

wayang gambar cinema; movie

wayang kulit traditional Malay shadow play waspada cautious; gingerly wenang berwaspada: cautious power

waswas indecision; hesitation; doubt

wibawa authority

watak character; role perwatakan: characterisation

wilayah administrative territory; province

wira hero admired for his brave deeds watan native land wirawan: hero wirawati: heroine keperwiraan: heroism

watikah letter of authority wisma house wau kite wujud exist; become visible; become a fact


X-ray X-ray ya yes mengeyakan: to say yes; to agree Yahudi Jew zakar



zakat tithe

yakin assured; confident keyakinan: confidence; faith; trust meyakini: to believe meyakinkan: to assure; to convince

zalim brutal; cruel; merciless kezaliman: cruelty menzalimi: to oppress; to tyrannize

yang who; which; that

zaman epoch; particular period or age inhistory; era

Yang Teramat Mulia Highness

zamrud emerald

yatim orphan

zapin a song and dance of Arab origin

yayasan foundation (institution or fund)

zarah particle; atom

yu shark

zat nutritional value

yuran fee zahid ascetic; recluse

ziarah visit berziarah: to visit menziarahi: to call on; to pay a visit penziarah: a visitor




adultery berzina: to commit adultery penzina: adulterer

zirafah giraffe

Zuhal Saturn

Zuhrah Venus

zuhur noon

Zulhijah the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar

Zulkaedah the eleventh month of the Muslim calendar

zuriat descent: genealogy


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