Ap

HHlK.

AAHHJ\O P AlilKOBH'Fl

TABJ\. I1UE
H3

OTTIOPHOCTH MATEPHJAJ\.A
e"'AAI OVIO

1I6'f1Y~

xm Jil3ME.If,EHO Jil3.llAH>E
\.

\

"

r PAD E B 11 H C K A KID liT A"
Ii EO r P A)l, 1985.

PeueH3CKT
Jlp HHlK. KATYlUA)(EJlPI1X. B8Hp. npoq,.
MawHHCKor $aKymCTa y HHWY

3a HPO "rpal)eaHHexa ""'MrS": MwtSH BKWlbHh - rnBBHK ype,aHKIC, MwtHUB .uOJlKh
- onroaoplDl YPCIl/IIIJC, OnTa BaCHJloCBKh - ypeJlHIIJC, ' lOBO KapauKh - TexHH'OOI
YPCIl/IIIJC,

CHeJIClIH8 HeuHh -

H8C110BHa C\llaHa

1'Hp8llC: 5.000 npKMep:uca
UJT8Mna: UJTaMnaPKjs .Ba~ap" Bop

nPEllrOBOP llBAHAECTOM H311Al-bY
OBO 1131131he Tu6.1uqa U3 OiJiiiOPHOCiJiu .lfaiJi epujaAa HCTO j c Kao II
npeTXO-UHa H3-ua1h3, aJJH cy nornYHO 113MelheHe Me pH e je-UHHHue nojellHHHX BeJJHqHHa II Y reKCTY H Y TafiJJHllaM3 y -uyxy 33KOHa 0 MepHHM j e-UIIHHU3M3 II MepIIJlIIM3 (CJJYlKfieHH JlIICT C4>PJ 6p. 13/76, QpaH3 341).
Ii

oeorp311, 17. jaHyapa 1982. rO-UIIHe.

ll. P.

llPE,UrOBOP
,Ua 611 CTYAeHTH npH peWaBaH>~' 3allaTaKa 113 OTnoplt0CTU .IUlTepu)ClAc.
Mor JlH JlaKWe KOPHCTHTH pa3He HYMepl1'1Ke H npaKTH'IHe no-uaTKe. aBe cy
To6J1u~e H311BojeHe H3 YI,l6eHHKa 36uPKa 3aaaTaKa IL3 OT1lOPHOCTU AtaTepujClAa. OHe ey YCKJlaljeHe ca MOjHM yufieHHl\HMa OTTlOpHOCT AtaTcpujClAa
11 36upKO 3aaaToKa U3 o'rnopHocTU AtaTepujClAa, na cy cnpoaelleHa MeTa
ofieJle>KaBalha Kao H y y ufir·HHllI1Ma.
TafiJlHl\e ey npBeHeTlleHO HaMetbeHe CTYlleHTHMa MalUHHeKHX q,aKYJlTE1Ta, aJlH >ly. MOry KOPHCTHTH H cry,lleHTH ,lIpyrnx q,aKYJlTeTa, BHCC;-:fX
H BHWKX WKOJla na H TeXHH'{KHX WKOJIa.
no JKeJbH eTY,lleHaTa AonYlbeHe ey TafiJlHlle eJlaCTH'IHHX JlHHHja H
pa3HH MaTeMaTH'IKH ofipacUH Y l\HJbY OJlllKlllatba HYMepK'O<Or pewetba
eJlOJKeHKX npo6.neMa H3 OTIlOPHOCTH MarepHjBJIa M TeopKje OCl\KJlaUl11a.
C Ofi3HpOM Ha BeJIHKY npll1\leHy JlOrapMTMapa ,lIO,lla'r je O,llCJbaK 0 PAA)!
ca JlOrapHridapoM.
npoq,. lIP HHJK. M. Tp60jeBHII fiPHJKJbHBO je npo'lHTao pyxonHC M
y'lHHHO MH KopHCHe npHMeAfie Ha '1eMY My ee HajcpJl.8'1Hltje. 3axBaJbyjeM.
3aXB3JbyjyllH ,.rpa~ea ·ItHCKoj K>I>U3U'-' y neTOM M311aIbY ,lIO,llaTa jc
npoWHpeHa Ta6JIMlla XnI. Y WecTOM M3,l131bY (M3 1965. ro,llKHe) ,lIO,llaTa je
TafiJlHl\a XVIII . .. noaa~u 0 CTaHaapduMQ "peMa JY10CA08eHCKUAt cra'"
oapalUUl Jye", a y OBOM - oeMOM - H3,l1aH>Y H Ta6J1u~e xunep6oAw .. Kl&I
4>YHK~uja 3a apeaHOCTW Oil x=O IlO x = 2r.. CeM TOra OTKJlOIbeHH cy YO'leHH wTaMnapcKH He,llOCTRl\H.
Pa./lM eMaH>elba TpowKoBa WTaMnatba yufieHHKa HHCY ee MOrJle M3MeHHTH MepHe jeAHHHl.\e noje./lHHHX BeJlH'floIHa Y AYXY 33KOH3 0 MepHItM
je./lMHMl\aMa (CnYJKfieHH JlIiCT C4>PJ fip. 45/61), na npH '1IiTaIbY Tpe6a
KOPHCTIiTH 03HaKe H je,llHHHl.\e ,lIaTe Y TafiJlIiUH Ha HapeJlHoj CTpaHIt.
5. MapTa 1961. rOAHHe
7. q,efipyapa 1971. rO./ll1He
Beorpa./l

.II P.

MEPHE JEnYlHYlUE nPEMA 3AKOHY 0 MEPHI1M JMI1H I1 UAMA
(c,1\,>t-:6cHIi ; IIICT C<PPJ Gp. 13/76, CTpaHa 341.}

~l

Mr plIa

I.

Ay>t'HHn

"-,

R l',l lC'IHtU\

OJt13Ka

MepH e

L

j C411HHU C

Mer.p. : rn = 10 drn = 100 ern = 1000 mrn;
MHKpOH (1') = MH,pOMerap (I' rn);
MH.1KMHKpOH (m Il)

=

HaHo~leTap (om).

2.

n ORp wHH a

A

3.

3anp~MHHa

4.

Yrao

V I m ' ; km' = 10' m'; 1 dsm' - 10' m' ; 1 dm' =
; = 10- 1 m'; 1 em' = 10-' m';
'Hrap. 1 I = 1.1000 028 dm' ~ I dm';
6po~e.a TOHa. I hI = 2.8J2 m'.

Im'; ap. I • = 100m'; ""TaD. 1 ha = 10< m';
I kmt = lOa m2; 1 dm:l = 10- : mt; 1 em! = 10 ~ rna;
1 mm2 = 10 - 1 rna.

rad

1

L

CTrn r H. 1° = 90

L ; "HHyr •• I' = 60 ;

I'

1" = -60'' rpa.yc
Ig =
. •
180
= 1 rad = - - L =
5.

Bp. " e

T

6.

6p'HHa

,.

7.

'y 6 p38tbC

~.

Milea

9.
10.

-

CHAa. T\')KHHI

200
- - g r.dusa .

"

U.nH 'UIC

m/s ; m min ; kUl/h ; qBOP (kno l) = I nmUe/h =
= 1.851 km/h.

"

r.rrTlilla

1

-100'
-L ' p·'H)·
...
.

(I min = 60 s) ; l'aT
(1 h = 60 min) ; na. (1 d = 2~ h).
l'(, K~f H .1a · ( S); !-HtUyTB

mIs'
.H.orp'w (kg) ; ;rOHa. 1 I = 10' kg: .,iI.HT.. Hnll
M"UOeKa Ue,na. 1 q=IOO kg; rp .... \' g.....:O.OOI ·kg:·

'M, m

Cne1lH~1I1{1I8 lr.Ia·
~a

,

ee'YHn••

I

kg/m': I g/cm'= 10' kg/ m' = I,OO!) 028 gfrom'.

r = MfV
F; 0

"'YTH (newlon). l N =1. kgm/s'; KHJl1nOHll. I kp _
=9."116 65 N; MerlnOH4. ·Mp=IO' kp;noH4,
I p = U.ool kp; ".'.1I0H4. I
10-" ·kp.

mf'...,

II.

Cn tu.<I>H~. TellC.

12.

Hlnoll , npHTHcaK

13. Pa4, elll'pn'j;o

1'",=01 V
0',

N 'm'; 6ap (bar) : 1 bar = H),' N/n,'; kp/m';
TrXM II""" .. "oc<I>"p. (al) ; 1I0p ....... (<I>H3H"'0:) aT"oc<l>epa (' aim); ... JlH .. eT.p <Tvn'll lIC .ne (mm Hg)
1 .'m = l,n:\3 227 al = 1.013 250 bar = 101 325,U
N/m' = 760 mm Hg.
."
VY~ (i'l,I_). I J = I Nm; 1 kpm = 9,81l6 65 J ;
.." 'C, I Wh = :. 600 J .

r, ·p

A, 1:.

BaT (w.II), I W = 1 J 's ; "Olbe.s
75 kpoo 's < 7;15,5 W.

f'

H . CHa...

N 'm' : 1 kp{dm' = I plem' = II 806, 65 N/ru'.

(.1 ... ,

I KS =

=

Q 6pUOB8tt.e "" 0 *."111 K AtJlOHI "(.'I,II II X jt:Jl HHHUI BPWH t't: l103.81Ialbt"M "pe a M("TKI Hc' np eA je llt lllllte :

repa

(Tl

10 ":

rH". (U) 1011 ;
Nl',,> (M) 10' :

I<H.O (k) Ill-'
'CKT O

(il)

to':

lleK" (d.) 10 :

4tllll
Ut' IiTH
MHJlII

(0) 10-' ;
(to)

I U-"t;

(m) 10-:1;

MHKpU (1\) 10 e

lIaHO (n) 10-'
nllKO (p) 10-".

,

. I EA 91 E 3 Hcre3Ha KPYTOCT 9l=EA 4 flOnpeQH3 ..N N 61 F F o... .... I..e (\). HanoH.. .100'/. A. I. TABJII1UA 0) e6PAC~H 3Ka'lelbC o6pacua 06pa3aa 1.-A'.lloha n6 BrineU'y . 3a npoH3Bo.m<> HOCTH . AI".-FIA II CTeneH cHrypHocTH¥ v =aM/a. A. JlHHeapHo CTalbe Haopeaalba I .V "" (1-2 Il) I: V WTana 13 TBp. 12 flpnpawTaj 3anpeMlfHe 6 V = V' . =a. 7 KOHTpaKUKja npeceKa 8 9 dim91=dimF.VO-::::-·-d'-:::) (Fz3kN: 0 -10 mm. 2 llHnaraunja e=-=-=-=.. D (0 .'bHY -f Pn paBaH (ca HopManoM n) -+ .. .a=Ee 10 HanoH 3a ynpaBHH npeceK a~=a. INr a . FIIEA = FI Hooke'oB saKOH .K· OC:II01e ccj>epHor oTce'!K.2 Flrr. n + TnT T + T.) • v= 4 31 "RPRO onTepehe. liE ~/. .. .llHJlaT3UHja 5 Poisson~oB ' KoecjJHUHje"T 6 Koecj>HUHjeHT enaCTH'I. 1/11. IJa . d npe.

YTH- uajeM conCTBeHe TelKHHe npIt3MaTH'IHH O=y".. .. 6poj o6pTaja y MH"YTY 17 =" 30l/2. 16 - YTHUaj ueHTpHlflyrall He CKlle Ha HanOHe . . o. AI <=: QI/2fA ./g HopMallHH HanoH .. y....2 14 HanOHH 3a KOCH npeceK TOTanHH p.a. (I:+-cos2rp) ". .a.. 01/291. l HanoH A/-Ym l'/6E . sin 2 'I' TaHreHUHjallHH = FIA' = (FIA) cOS'll = a. a.~. . (I-z). ~A sa Z DO. HanOH a.a..edz = (fJ.a. 01/2EA. )' +fo' ''' ('I. .ae. A . . (I-Z).. 3a ". AI - WTan . n V pit [o/miD) YTHUaj TeMnepaTYPCKe npOMtHe Ha HanOHe Ji. '" 'I.='/. = 'I.. HopMallllH an='/. KPYlKHO KOHH'!HH WTan a.a. ' o rYCTHHa MaTepHjalla . 1/'~ z"O. )' ~'h. ..= y . ='/.Ha'!HHa Mohr'oBor Kpyra 15 . d..=.=0°..HlIaTllUHja HanoK' (KoHiaKTHH) TepMH'!KH Koe(j)HUHjeHT wHpeIba a (Ta6l1Hua II) ".. p= ).. yraoHa 6p3HHa o6pTaiba ../f) dz.ylKelbe no. Adz.\~I~~. 3a '1'= ±4So (0. .Y . y ......-. cos 'P 0nmox::::Oz je.'I. a..

--- I '~ ' I !-6l-j .0001/0 /"_-1. r l.-~-".-.. -r"+--<' : . . : 1"~ .r 1I00p(JJ:Jne V iUpu 0. ' . !/fJUJOIDIJ (fEo{JJtJJO) v /: ~ "....oriJuo l/uctJ. l f-.. ~\ I . r II .o' In r I -.t.JQuii}I1/lJJU UOJoIJU toy _(J{!Sln'l' / lJoOproo"e Ij gbo f.'.~ r OJ I ~-J-. --.[x.._ _ _ 1 " I ..... .3 r A. : • --~/ I . (1 • -iF -:.""'--- " / .'.--~"':--'t r . .' . r----..·o t~ zj • ( ~ .llo IIlJiiproolJl' Oy ~------ --- /(Ol'lOO. I CY L lIen.. / Alrcwar..- )------.- --r-..-.~~>. :-- [r.-r " .-----.

= p1?/2" p=(H":" ~}r...) 3a 'Pm'" ±'/.) cos [' I. (a. .'-(3 y.' '.. 02 .H'lga}/4ocosIX am~.(a.. 0'111 a.. " 21' CPm =0° a"mi.(r . 33 'Pm."..mo%::.IRe) = (r/") C!pepHH CYA 0' = pR12.0= - E -- e 1+1\ ' ..a.)]' y' -= 1 cst " H3npe331be TdHKKX CYAOB3 OCI' lIHa .) +'/. - x' . Hanpeaalba Y Asa npaB~a (PasHO CTaibe Haopeaalba) 18 KOMnoHeHTHe AHJlaTa UHj e 19 HopManHH HanOHH 20 KOMnoHeHTHH HanOHH HOPM3J1HH ..-a. a.albe 22 23 HopMaJl'HH HanOH~ 0..-a.)J' +.IR ..n 01 [a. = 'I. (a.(a. CMKu. + a. ..:!/:" .. 3.~'" (a. ... + a. = ±'/. .1[ =0 = E 1+f1 E" 0. ..) sin r n3BHH Ka nOHK O".a. = pRI".4 2.. jeAHa- qV Ja t a. - JeA~a'lHHa Mohr'oBor Kpyra " 21 . - T3HreHUHjaJlHH ~"= '/. (a.B. KOHHtlHH c Y Jt :2 CJ c :- a am =a.=Oy=a. H'Ig a)/1 fj 6 cos a · · .. (1".(a.. 2 '9 3a -+ EJiHnca K3nOHa CI.'I.

) 1 ~.24 KOMnoHeHTHH HanOHK Y KoeOM npeceKY cos 2 'l' HopManHK a.. !.E1 (<1.l).= ±a 31 . IKTIIBUI DOSPWHKa IIHMB A."". Haape3albe y Tpll 3aTeJalb4! y CI" IJ. ~. a" 1J.0..£ (Or-I'(G..lJ. + ".M1IlITaUHje -FIA <'cr.. - :1:45' 25 Knl\3albC y .ynl 28 . '1.'j1l KIIK3a_ (CMH- G- f ua]"H 1I0lJ.785 d&J.HMeH3HOHHcalhe nop Tpelhl 30 £ 2(1+1') -9\ ' 1 E I".+".• aKcHjallHa CHna F~ Moh Howelb..n q> ... <: fd.-2... (OpoCTOPHO CTalb1! Mupeaa .' -=!: 3.-(b-dJ & Ha- cneUlicliH.0 26 CMKWljHa KPYTOCT (!cOA 27 MOIJ.)}.HMeH3HOHHC3lhe 29 3aKHBUH f-F/A<t..~ a. -1' ('.1 t.a~.jHH OT- 4._. ~ . .)1.6 IJ.-1' (": "<I. a". F AI" F=0.57. . np.2a• ~2 ~ £ f.SNd&J" TpH npaaua f -- f ~ FINA-lJ.- 0 1.c 3.~a TaHrCHUKjanHH t...0380lb4!HK nOK --..a: F £ 2.= a sin 2" cKCTpeMIjH 0'''''''.

. l] . y =COS y. r~-Y''''t a....yj +Pn.( I A fl) e.. =1.. .. y-p •• i+ p.. ~ 38 -+ ""..+fl (e. . 1-2fl a.+:1. Ty .\( '.=rx::1' -+ 37 HanoH 32 npOH380Jb ' Hy paBaH (ea HOp- .+Gy..i+T l1 j +'1 . k -+-+ -+ py = .r T Ey +6..... .) :1 (I + fl) G 3(1-2\1} HanOIHI JlHII3Tau. Y. T%~Oy.+'1.. ~ P.Gyy .e.. t'.+&y+e. k .. +e... £ =.. tz=>r. i + 't._ ) .)J..-'fay... . Ty.' . .=1':%.e ~ [(I-fl) e.i'... a 1+ fll + y' . Yx"'y.. ' .1 . S l(d = • e.Sf+20e.... k . + fl (~y +e. ay = ~ ((I-fl) Ey+fl(e...+ey)] A=(1 +fl) (1-2)1)=£flj).Hja 35 Lame'ose KOHCTaHTe 36 Hooke'os JaKOH . MallO"..a. . -+ .. P. -+ -~ n=ai+~j+yk... ~=COSIl. a.S!+2Ge•• 't. i+a y j +Ty. .2fl E «(1. 31 Ky6Ha JlHllaTSUHja 32 XHJlpOCTaTHQKH npHTHcaK 33 MOJlYIl KOMnpeclljc 34 i1HsapHjaHTe &v=AV/V . = £ V 20p.6 HopManHH HanOHH a.y j +'t.. p.. a-eosa..-P. =1... n) HanOHH 3a KOOPJJ:HHaTHe pasHH -+. . = T.. a+pyll+p....

..allapH Jl. n. + a .. 13(6) r lS ) --=--=-0 K(S) 31 48 KO!jlaxTOPH ceKY nap.. S . 0. s = 1.. P.. Io. a. o. 0. e•. • -+ -+-=1 1 46 CK.. HaD OK a .+ r a. ti. 40 KOHjyroBaHH Han01l1! 41 KOMnoHellTHII HanOHH 3a npoH3BolbHY pa· Ball f... +cJ. 0. 43 rllaBHI! HanOHH O'lla~. 0 aJ. . s. 39 CauchYdeBe je..+cJ.0'2 al . a. = (P.u"+a. . +a.\-. 't. 'ry .~' + a. r q' ~.= Ypn"l. - a $. t'z- '(. r.. tile-a. yS + +2 (rx J3y + 0.} = K(s) Krtl r. +) pnx .eTep.aa. r. 44 r lIaBHI! eIlHnCOHJI.eTepMHHaHTe a'+llt + y .(Poi) .. T.. I 1') 'K/<) 31 '" K<.:+ 'tx lX) = I 'tu=rl!l='ru=O .. CJa . . +0. a~) TaHreHUHjallHH 42 't. j) = ex r.-0'. +a.. 3 l~ KW=- 0'.+J3 r. t =a. Oy-O. " HODMallHH 0" =a. t'y e.= fSy t'x t'x 0'. lIanOHa 0. " '• Pn. = 0.z'+ Lame'oB eIlHnCOHJI. + J3 a. =r.II: fI..7 rllaBHH npaaUH .... ry r.llHaqHHe =a ax+ ~ c.I oy-a t'. t'. = ax+cJ.. ra +1'. = r. cJ. + r .S· re Cl1creMa +2 (t'x. 0.= (Pn k) = a c. = a.1 -+ . 4.. ex I + ax r·1 = -t"". xy+r. f.-a"J x·+ayy'+a. t'. .. 0.2.. y. r. He Jl.

IR" n (I-t').H ". :. (a.D.~ G m' X 16 FR . n (BH/leTH Ta6J111ny IV) 56 Top3HcKe onpyre F W" '.-a.=2 W.D.. W'...) = 5_ YBHjalhe 50 O..49 HajsckH TaHrCHUl1janHH Han OH. w = 'JR'Q) 102' .cxlR G -Wi I/Glo =: W. ': .. FI . 51 y . _= ±'/.HOCH HanOHa H . i .' t .Ccj>opMaUHja .t') ':" 53 T-op3HcKa HPYTOCT s: ~ G 10. «' ".3 f) -.D.. R' .. ' 9~ 60P (tW) ' . 10 54 CHara 3f n p . ' d'/64 R' N . . (a. If! y CTClleHIIMa ec _ a-( 180'/" ) ~ 57.(I. =W. '.. = ±'/. .RIJo 3a XpylKHH npeCCH 3a KpylKHo-npCTCHaCTf! npeceH 52 f ._ '/.-a." ~ '-.(a.lll"= --+ -"...HjaHHMa 9=y. t-rlR Yrao YSHjalba y pa.'1.) rill ± II. -=--=-~- 't"'t. c.. . . I/R= I r". HajsehH TaHreHUHjanHH H3nOH 'mc._ d'it .w =W. • (kNcm. 10. 30 ' p. <m.".'. A' 10 10 KpYlKHa 3asojHa onpyra f MaHCHMaJlHH HariOH 'em •• - H3.II' R Y.1lYlKCfuC (yrn6) t=64NFR'=CF G d' HPYTOCT onpyre e .a. . ~ ('.....) r.

.------~~----- <. CIt ~ /.~/h .r OJ!. nOBpwRHa nojle. + 6 (1-2 u) A. W. (R.) 6. . 59 JlO 61'/. 59 HajsehH HOPM3J1HH HanOH (HSHqHH) 60 OTnopHH MOMeHT nOnpe'lHOr npeceKa w.+R. .) . • u. 58 HOpMaJlHH HanOH ~ M e• .16N(R.+6(1-2u)A. +R. 61 Ymu = 'I. '1 Ah "" 0. = 'I.6poj 3KTHBHHX 3asojaKa N Od' Od' ! Od! ---= 64 cR' 64 F R' 4 R' IttJ I KOHHQH3 3asojHa onpyra k = (R. u . TaHK" K8aApaTHH OKBHP 67'1. -=--p £1. 63 JlII"aHH HOCaq Il "" 63'1.' 62 CTeneH HCKopHwhe!ha npoljJHJla w. .'+R..') ----------(R.315 Ah.I+R. "" 'I."" 'l"h' [A. '1="" W.O 60'1. (A.'/IAh 251 /.I) (R. TI""Y 500/. I.. 57 J!.-y-d. .)/2 N" H3JlYlKe!be (yr/l6) ' I ~-FNr: -( R .' h· A. Od' ! 16F(R.-~ HJleaJlHH ornopHII MOMeHT W. h lA.I.R.+R.'+R. npaBoyrloHHK 33'1•. w. CBanj_Hot 57 KpHBHHa 1 M y'" .) 20/.I.) KPYTOCT onpyre Od' c.) 6poj aKTHBHHX 3aBojaKa N ._ 31: Kpyr U~8 npocj>RJlH I C OA 61 AO 65'1. OJ!.

. b) n I £kCfIPUIlJpuwg Op.') oc.10 .. :n '--' ~ ··· ! · . ~ ~: ·· •·· .n .... : n._.-" \ . ..i1JuWi. JroI/XJ fipecPko C) "" " • I • .s. """ gr~.I ".

'/.'+4 .. M(l)s/(l}..:=O UH HanOHH H !bKXOBH npaBllR 68 Mohr'os Kpyr Hanoaa 69 Ig2~~a. M. a.Ah'(~+O)' I.... f. JlHMaUH HOCaq k.\HjaJI- HanOHIi H npaullH tg2a . npaaoyraoKHK 'I..) (a.9 A.~2 (1 0 == 65 HanoHH Y KOCOM npeeeKY HopMallHII +60)13 (1 +4 0) =0. A". == 'I.e 70 <I . '" w (z) 7. . (a.8 -+. A.= M.BJa . Kpyr 'I. '/a..II I ls ='/. W _ ~_ o+~(I+ol . a.IA..d KOWQOKeHTHH 1I0lleHTH 71 HOPWi llUH HanOIl AI (zl w. (OAlloe noupWHlle nojaea npewa nOBpWHRIf pe6pa) a. .. -a.)'+.fA Ah' a+~(l + 0) 4 1+0 = _.'+4 t!) a. IT- -1/tg2a ± 'I.I(S:/~) mo' KUaJl. = 1. A ...0.2 1+20 64 PeAYKosaHa nospwH' Ha npeeeKa <. (1 +e05 2.±'/. a=A. A.A.par "I.-2 rIa.f2f= f •.- . (a. a"I~f/2 a.•• .)-fsin 2 'I' TaHreKllHjallHH 66 r lIaBHR G7 HajuehH Taureul." _ 'I. W(z)" W. Koeo ea."4 = ko A.

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/illtill 11. AJ> = M/.51 H .e Ta6£Hl\8 IX 86 Oine.7 t .·· y.EnaCTUQHe IIHHHje - Ta6.poBa KPIITUQH3 eUJla 87 PeAYKoBaHa AYlKHHa ~8 BUTKoeT wT3na . .F/c/.'+f/ • ' y. 0. aJ..-II' EI .-Iem]. /I.tHIta VI 10. At -= I." c M.... Cno)l(eH8 Hanpesalba XunOTest - Ta6J1Hll. Ijr = -) 6 rpaljJoaHaJlHTHQKa MeTOJl:a IjJHKTHBHO peheH>e OnT~­ (-=-)' [3~1 --=-I 1 I ff. Y. k"".8.=[cm] f-vt. y.f.u."= M.' : y". a)+lx(z. F. c f M dz..y. '" t. yrH6 84 YrII6 npH KOCOM caBHja. ±'ayu ~~ o (: narHO ynl6 83 rpaljJHqKa HeTOAR Koecjllll(KjeKT pa3Mepe If.= -k' y. aJ.1bY 85 PeJl:YKl(Hja AujarpaMa HanaAHor HOHeRTa y. x--6) (z-a)' 1 1jr'(z. 2 t." .a I b 0. HaBRJaa. 'a':' [kNm'] f .ro. (em).13 82 Ijr{:.III -1tN /" = M·f8..y"-M*fJj.al+Ix'{z. t.". ...-Fy/EI.

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ds_ 412!B + . o + " 20A 0 • f F' 1· 0 ds . . . p8Aa • Xc F._• A'I= r'Mt -'mu/S. S.. o J (y)ldz 0 I J!B (yU)1 dz A.lds '+JMIF. 13.=R..' " CaSRJalbe KPHBHX' WTanOBa e = (y A d 'P) / [ (R.·. d.. = dAd =0' dA d • O () X d F. ...) TeopeW8 ~enabre8 ItOA H3BHj8lb1 dA.. A. Ae<l>opltanHje (AHJlaT8UHje H KJlH' S81ba) 101 &- d A'd (a) . o • A _fM('dS . . ds+ • 2 ES. " "R.2m 3a o R. FB • 91IA".:. F. . = 'ms/S..18 enen.F::-.'.+e r o R.=Ae • ds +J F. I I A =F.F A .r (ds-dz) <:s'/IF enOib8WlbH pu. tS.:.. 2EA EAR. R. • R. R. +)I) d 'P1 103 HopllanHH HanOH 104 eKCTpeliBe BpellBOCTH '" necjlopll8UHOHH pall 0..!IJI.. • (}!IJI. I J ()I')I dz o . !B ()lU)" dz KPHTHQH8 CHJla Fk = !B=!B(z) ."' f (Fh 911/. ~ 'II o YCJlOB eKcTpeJtYlia ArA=~incO I ..a' npHBUHn BajMalber Aecjl.

. I mm ".606 25..225 22.416 23. 41/.. = 2.451 6 cro l . q.HOCH Ll. yd. BHY: I. "/ "f.48816 kg/ m. eanpe·. 2.891 14. 1 ki: '" 2. per. Tc". 1 kgJ m '" 0...19 c) O. sq..38 1 2.37 In I m = 3.938 8...315 cub. I cu~ . npeTBapalbe u.763 5.953 .050 "'" "'" WI/.4 z'/" 21/.191 1.. In = 157.097 13..731 9. per yd. fl." 4'." DIG.'.' 1 mm I 19. It. .49605 kg/m. yd. 10.494 13.1.828 22.. 1 kp/ m' . 4. yd• . 1 mt = 1. (pound per loot) .30175 cub.54 1 7.431 21. In.572 3. per It. (cubic yud) = 0.319 10.lJ.6825 kp/m'.44 em. sq.844 20.61197 lb..on H 'I .028317 ' ..I kp/cm' 11. = 14 . 1 ton (2240 Ibs) = 1016... In. toot) '" 929.'." n /u I 13.. II.09361 yd. I em' = 0.76455 m'..397 l/u 3/" 4.366 4. I I em! = 0." 1°/..813 24. ·"1" Ut•• "/ 9.003 2S. 1 sq . 52~ uonH I !fIN 0.669 17. acyl: 1 lb. "/ "'" 57. "/J4 Ill1".859 18. per II. /" " 1.. (pound) = 0.509 11.716 11 .'.. l oo . (pound p" yard) = 0.1 55 sq. 6.6) Mepe UB . = 2' 1 kp = I kp/ mm' = 0.256 18.447 19. In.969 4. 'per sq. 1 sq.747 7. 18 Il.2233 lb.. per sq. per sq. DIet .20462 lb. I m' = 10. = 4) Mepe 8a I cub.272 16.196 ..764 sq.700 mm 4t/" 4'. pcr yel. 12 .638 21. "/.175 3.128 "I .9842 ton 6) Mepe... II... .28084 It 1 m 1. f l.334 8.241 20. == 30. yd. (square Inch) 6.159 5.463 17.066 17.653 19.63491 ton pe.019 23./" "r" tllN 6. (cubic (001) _ 0.806 55 N. uonH . .081 15. 1 cub.488 kp/cm' I lb. 3) Mepe Ba nOBpWBHY: I sq. 1 m' = 1.144 7. 2-'1..303 12. 4"/14 / "/ 47.051024 cub. (square yard) = 0. '"/ %2..OJIOBHHX H METAPCKHX MEPA I) Mepe 8a AY)I(HHY: 1"= 1 In (Inch) 1 It (foof) I yd.622 23. II.45359 kg.. 1 t = 0.0300 erne.. u'" 15/14 I"et I ~OIlB y aallBaeTpe mm UQJtM . ". 10.113 11.54 cm.01593 lb..387 em'.906 12. II" "" 7/" '/u "" 11 /14 tl.875 16. ".aay· ( .794 1.034 21.. 7) Mepe oa HanOHe : 1 tun per sq. (squar.. aa onTepe"elLe: 1 lb. 1 kg/m = 2.. .556 5...778 3.288 14.922 10.. 9.478 15. ." "'" "'" "I. .984 2. 0. "I".83613 m' .05 kg. 1 1~. = 0.684 15. III _ O.209 24.4 Jl/ ~..2048 lb. (yard) = 91. (cubic Inch) = 16.Oi Q307 kpfcm' 1 lb.350 1 m = 39.48 em. 1 m' = 35.588 1.

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-2 - 2 3 ath -'" . IlPECEK 6poj T! 21 I IW'~AI ·-x A I. Silt em' em' em' em' rm J em' "a' b nab' 4 4 ab "a' b 4 - --- " ab' ~ 4 Aa' 4 b' -A4 a b 1.2 '... w.p(. w.. I.l.

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':"f~~+xc Yc A fo''''')o . " • (f!. A f. Ie-f..: ·..) /' f. I '::£:. J' + 4 r-.=1. (I.. f" :"' f.__21 :2Z. (/. npl!CI!K 6po) . -I.. em' SI ll.. ) ±' /..) cos 2 >p -f. (1. '/.. Xl lI t 1. . ) cos 21' + f.. + /~ f.(I.' + b' A. f. + I': .) + '/.:. em' ew' em' W. + I.I. I" I tt -l'u'J.I.I... f.I Pea. f.fy) sin 21'+ I.1: . -:/ " q .-/~+ Y'cA. f.-'/.. I" - vi.+I.. (I. h '/. ~ • f.. • --. 'I.+ /. ~~::.~'"'. -Iy rnaBHH MOMe"TH HHepl1"je 1.-I. + f.I.= 1.::./1 yt 1'. '. ".'1. + 2 bS.y .2 as. f. ) -'/. . (1. POT8D.Hja CHCTeMa f. ...HM npaoUIl tg 2a. ~ V 0 f . fo-'f.'"..7 " It ./ r+ /~a I. W.. -I. em' . sin 2'1' I" . + as.. em' TpaHcnallHja HoopAHHaTHor CHCTeMa OnWT" cnyqaj .1. 10= lc+ (x'c + y' c) A. A.2 bS.0 I' II : ... =..I (cJIIlflcn HHepIIHje)." A::<!::.-.+ 2 oS.+ obA. {. y' y /" d 2·' ~ ~Pf' o v • c.. -I..+a' A.(a' + b') A. cos 2 >p • HUBapHjallTe HHepl1Hjc lo-I.. rna. = f~ +x'c A. f.+ I. sin 2>p. .' . + bS. lv.+ I. (/.

2(. '" 306'" .).il 1~ ~14 11 11 30 172 34 719 30 ..<3 :.4 3..W 8')(..' :VII...) 449 11«1 482700 '0:13' 6111C6 So"./ '33 " "'.!!~.b) BPEL\'HOCTU MOMEHTA UHEPL\HJE H OT n OPHOr MOMEHTA I<PY>t<HOr nPEoCEI<A' ~ t:'.1 I.. 214 :IS 36 31 12<48 .41 IG.'" 12 7r. I7J 131 ..~7 2r...1 [lJ O. .~)'''''." "'''' " .2 "" 6" '" " "" 2685 IXl 12'" !7 21112205 648 284.''. "'''' .:.~ S2t 13 I7G7'J9 lJNJ. GU43. :II:) a7H 11:1 10(9~ I HI !l61 W ~."" '36" "'" "" .<2 i ]¥ 1!1 ~18 2114 .!1 60 ......0 VJ5 1 I~ I 3..4 3.\'}..." '''' '~fl ~m .78.j4 2. 3u 8(.8 .k~" {I..)g ~ ..!I7fi l. 1-1 : CTp.'. " ' 09 M4 113561 &0 ..'iO \114 161 UIWl42..'i417 8810 y...0 • JI'..' 117.~ lHIG ll!. .'! !~"" 171271 I ~H 11 f'I(. OIl fiT W 711)(0 • " :: ::~ri 1535iolal 15 ~6.. 107 ~fS Iln 4-\] 1136.'" (~. .. '" ..tl 13'i 137 t.l.571 1I16m 1GllW III1J 19 .. 111' ".J IG 3 :117 4'fl.) C. 5 7G 11 71 - " eo II ..:n .G'i 1 1'1.0.1\ . 9.47 24!....Hi7:l 11713'1 I J 671 ~~ 141 ~.".. l1i71l1l Hit Jh4 I~ W 201 II)') '''''''' 210151 2U65Q 111111. 770 )'18 2b I 1().51 G.. a67]1Wl 3132492 3 W8 198 4. r.."" ~ 17.) lW G46 11 1 III~!:!! IIH £. ...IO II . ' 10 " J3 " l~~: 14a... J4.1 roh!.. . I.'11 113 II ru450 ! :r!.".i ">I "11 .IS 10 I ~ 10&17 11 s. 'r... :3~~ fQ n ] 3'. " 260576 ISO .9 21'1\.1 6 . .. 61.~ 173m ." 20'""."1'.'iH42 2S!jOlO M. ..) fJ7? &53 &921fl ''' '39 90 1(0 '363 .".Y}7 ~41. ". '''' ifJrn}f".3< 5r. 14' '''2!. ..'! 161 745 I... 41417 "VJG "''" WI '" In asci 116 I~ "&j9 ". !~r Im..970 23fi219 2.)1 4~ M9 11')6 ' 11111~ / ~.a 16 3'>4 411 16 .". 25 r.x 1I!) Wj 117 II. .'" 5387 51" JIS1 323 411 :uJ.'." n') 1!II 2...lWH ." 31 . 11 "" !IO ". ...') llll262 :114151 .U.\lrlJ 6'J '" "'" 10 I 7~.~ !>. [. 28 Cd = OJ.9HI4 .J 293H8 "'" "...: 22 19"347! n" ..17 21..." .M." " ".n' ~.%1 ltIni 29517 813M..4 ~~. " ""933 !/l ~nl 23S~l"f'(l .1Kl 1'..i 4411 . !l 12m Iti 4!(. '" 150 I 12 1n1.311 II !.7 ''''' IS HIS "'-'. . 111\ Ilr1 97 ~ 2 5~4 "" S 742 S32 . "" "" "".1M :/2!1 J1f26!K) IIf7 1112 l!IIH" lS8192 397&1 ...\..13 lll. . III.5 3!12 J2'~lfW ¥YI l UI 1.f1 d / W d •• .. H5 21 fi9'J 116 '" '". 110 9'11:1 1211 2CM I:l.."" '" "'" .H699 11292 2&2 17 W072 t 1I~318 l a~ 416 7J 9k'l ' 7G 4. ll5 "" 100 '" ''''' "'" • 8 HU tt: G.)" 6613.)'l.. •• .11 G14 IS'~ll!'A 16376G2 1 72.!J I 111611) 32 :LSi . 1m 220 4. "' '" '" 876240 9.• """ 6".11 fl!l/i !Mill 5!:H lIiO 6.Oj 4!l7 17 IS '"' 181 l !at 1~5 'III'" :1121)(.. 3S1G Mfj.. 67~' 1.' lJl. ....6 ''"so 14!1312 153 '1. .v.ffllll O.. 219717 ' 3217 ..7 4112..m "."" >n' .S7 II.li 21.08.. 1..j m] 4 ~7li64 411!.97J 'I'" lrr~ 13137 16286 I~ 17..' r..1 1 71.i !J Ii I Ii !J!J. !IOOBM G1!17 111 6 G18 "J87 6~l'J0Ii7 110 h~~~ II Ull S71 I ztl666 1I&a.1 130 ..! ('. . .. ". 748 ~" . 21 \06~ .... (!.11 \ ".23 ••• ."II "" . "liII &42 ~12.1IJ '11 . . "1H.. . IIIIIIY~'" r.. "" .51 32'1... Ih'.:1 .17 7k'i04 511. '00 11* \4 f...tI G2$4G(j 114 173 8li8..' I • "'.1 50 1!. M I.lCi4 fiJ 26...

)'1 CI(1AY Mopa I 6"" 100 =25mm=2. na Jc tte. )Iog 8001· 25+27= 1:1. 5 110 12 b H h •• p . 59. y"w""o .\.." I A 8 c on Que (I) o~bt. Kea WOIY ..3..bill 12 h I. 3) ~I b=h= 12 em Jc 11. 'fa'll.699 .m.1>8C "'etee A H C III PlCfOJI"'7 A C= 12 em H wc~rr. r'" 12 10 S p ..06Nhcwo lOll lelogb+3 Ior. B . rm.H 5~O.=3 : I .uy 8 nco .-1728 CQl • .W-= .o rapKTtWClCe IUIl o~ 5= 0. np •• epa: I) 31 b_ t2 em I lI a 20 em Je J.w. rv.~IOIl ~=Ioa .joII )Iog 121 ·25: 27 mOl. rlt cy >5 I• :. .lMJlW 111:01.3S c) HOMOrPAM aA OIlPE'F"HBAtbE MOMEHTA HHEPU..u=.::do. Oel nou... OJ).llroJle:.22 c.l O.=0 6Mu 1+3 o.. A.uu-. r."UH. •.. sao crr. Je ana YDa. .II }e A8 : A(.t..la .. pe. - b.J. 19".10& 12.699 HHue y". c: . ~ • tiC f! 12 ~J'\ • t-~ :n 20 13 ..llaOll n"lKe 21 3. 4) 3a 11.ri 10 OA(lOCHO o.so P'Jy 01. . Moc..) H. J4 ilo yO~HWO . em."'JE nPABOYfAOHHI{A· IJh ' n orapil UUt WHlIO JJJPU 12 I• b I J::::. npeTCOCTIiMWO AI TO Ito- tclog I.::::h_9. Kypc lIoworpl!f!HA.. 611(WO AI . h..scm." ""o 10 em Kuo je IOi Je npCIlCTlNoe....a nQAe.h-Iog 12 Ilu- " ~ v SO L3 lIn: J~ . =600 cm~ Jt . qptc*y ca nlAy h. r. noeyuawo aapueJllII 0«: •• 1 M h. b= 18 em • 1= 20736 em' 1< h~24 em.5 m<D . . 10=-7 "*M H .laC n:po "310.

_ h' 6 ~ O.475 ( _ 'I .: .1 -L_ _. G (1 - 9Jl.B b H h It A .u =::: ~O. = 16 '1t B m . I _ <= t"m QJ... ::I: . G/ r.!._ _ _ _ _ _.677 0 8 I ."") '" • (B'-b') 0 (8ft) 4.208 h' (_ . /i' " G (9/ 1) I J~ Opo) I n pee E K :Oi I G/) ' . o 1/1 I?s:r~I'A. b 0 I ' .. I' ...b' 4".~") R' 2 G tt 29)1 . t B + x' ".807 '..-!. Gh .:." 1= . - G R' .. 0.. I h' 0 h 7 n.. G il ( " 0.b') 16".... " _B'..: :": s d' . 0. 32:m .---.=:.'i""d'bGII 1"""."l .."a'b'/( a' + b' ) " I----( B' -b' . I 1.--.IV.~.. TASflVll\A a) YBlfJAfbE rPEJlA PAaHOr nOnPEqHOr nPECEI{A • g: '": . I G I' • 5 . ..- . I G d 4 .1404 h' O. 2 !Dl.~ _ __ _ _ _ _ ( 1 -·'1". = -.:..::._ _ _ _ _ _ _ l _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ PUMK 'I" : II"' :.'/IG dil:i 't"." 7 WI.-(B' . = RJ :r '" f? ': . _ E kb' V'1" y' b k..l1I.JJl. ...= n PEe E K !Ul.o1t= <. "'--.Ul .-> I b '11 1' ••• q. B' .l1I.29J!. " (I .. 2.f = f ". (I + ".') . I = ---..!... :ra l b' 9)1.' 11 ~G (l-'lt"') ." f ::. = 1 6 ~I.~ I GB 1 16 (I -=t. ::: 1..2 d' = 2:D1.

333 'II 0.35+n' .745 ti 10 8 0.299 00 0.743 0.229 0.5 2 4 • n'. 0. G b'h (ra6nHlla IVa-I H 7). O. 3a XPYlKHH nOnpeqUH "peeeK KPYToeT j e !!: = Glo . 3a Ol1pe~UBalbc yrna YBitjalba OCTanH X nOnpeQHII X npeceKa npHMe · "'Yie ce o 6puall ' 0. 3a Apyre opeceKe 6Hhe: 0) pasHocCilpOHU iDpoyrao.246 0.263' 0. CEH-BEHAHOBI1 J<OE4>I1L1.743 I CeH-!reHaHoBH KoeqlHllHeHTH 'Mory ce no 06pacUHMa : q.h/b 1 q.281 0.307 0.282 0. '13 .223A d ' . G b' ' b) DPOSUJ/OH wecwoyrooHuK (no Weber-y).130 GAll" . npeqHHKa YOHcaHor Kpyr a d : !!:-O.000 q. Ha npHMep. fAe ie !!: KpyWOCW Upu wOP3UjU (torsional rigidity).743 0.. Il:! n' q.3 13 0.. b' Ga 4fi . = -.6 G 10. KpYToer ee ol1 pe ~yj e nKo 118 ce nOnpeqHH npeCCI! saMe HH "eKBUBO A.217r1<1 c) fiPOBU J/ /lU oCMoyrooHuK. ~.796 0.630 n npH6nHlKHo Ol1peAHTH.:. + 0. A = -d 2 j f mc =- g)/. a sa ' npaaoyraoliH npeeeK ie !l:-q. crpaHe b : '! = 0.~ ~ [ 1 _ 0.29Jl.196 0.743 0. 203)1.231 0.208 0.133G A <1'.267 0.313 0.333 0'.753 0.140 0. npC""H"a yn ucaHor Kpyra d : !l: .:::.38 0) YBHJAIbE rPEAE nPABOyrAOHOr nOnPElIHor nPECEJ<A .858 3 0.052] .' O.299 O. ~ 1 +r. I - !l: .HWHOM tAUDCOM' HeTe nOBpWHUC II HCTor nonapHor MOMeHra HHepllHje Kao H CTBapHH' npeeeK.- f mn O.1 .I1JEHTH 1.9Jl.~07 0.O. 1.

13 V : < 0. dO. 80.eHoJ( maHreHqujaJlHOJ( HauaHY 3 _ __ d _ 16.43. 400 420.. 26~. = 3. 45.l1HH nPE4HHUH TPAHCMHCHOHHX BPATHIIA (0"01. 280.50 ~JI 2. 355..6H20 1. eHaj JJ. n. i< P' n= N 0. 30. 200 220. SO.3 ••• . 330.10 14.. 140. 100 lIO. 56.132 (pI n)"· (P ln)'/" . 10 I (kNlc"" [n ] = [obrtaja/min.S V Pln d l > d. 60.43 < 0. 90.HOCKO I 1.112 <1 < 4. 36. SOC. .1JJA nonpe~HH (KpY>KHH 10 npeMa J/03B O:.04 (. 70. 300 315.112 >1 > 4.4. Jrdd = (kNlc.' I npeara I CTAHllAP.6{!.10 kN lc .e¢op. 160.] %' I1peMa JlOJ80 !.lla quju npCCeK) eo = •/ .'( [P ] = (kWI .. 0 ~ 8 .-14 c) AHMEH6HOHHCAtbE JJAI{HX TPAHCMHCHOHHX BPATJ. V {" n Oll."' 6Hhe: . aKO Je: 1. . 380. 40..137> 12 log 1. (cm)..' Me-rpy n o J! YlKHOM [m] =4k ncmJ . .10 3a P AHMeH3H· n OKHcaibe I I • • J KpHTepHjy" 3.20.5 V : : I npeara "·'1. 25. 180. p. np . 4SO. 1:1'('7iin • 11 .132 = O. 240.80 -l/ p. 125. <" . tJ.43 kN/cm' cm 11 .

'tf: lttoltJl' Opol x. 'I.r • .b.2 3 3. T A 6J1 ~IUA OSJlHLl.2 x3 4 y- i 11/1' bh' I> /I (8/1 .2 1..bU(8 b' ~ b. . y.h.-0 1-./i . _ ±'/. ±O.2 3.O 1... :. ) .4 .40 V. y.H JESrPA BA)I{HHJHX ITP04>HJlAP.. y .")/1 2 v .-4 vI ... "' .bh ) • 0 I " II . KOOpAIIR. O 1.hlH . Jurpa ' -I) .I 6fi (I +.

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. ' (B-b. pacTojalbe YHYTpaWIbKX npo<jlKil8 K B=H. . 1.1 AB . 6poJ KOOpA~IHate nPECI!K tewell' X=Xj.42 P.:. J.. A a (B-b) . " - 1-2 X= ± 2/.(B:\-b-b...-)1 2 ·2 2 y=o (H-h) B'+h (B-b)'.. 4 1= d 12 1-2 _4[S'. ..36 + ~(!!...).!. :lrpa Y=YJ OCMoyraoHHK 1-2.::.. ' S CM3lbelbe CTpaHe KB3ApaTa..)]."-:-:. rAe C}~: b.= 'I. [B'-b'-b.:. 3-4 2J p= .. :z.. b=h.± -"..c 'In [B'-b' . 6B(BH-bh) 11 X=O BH'-bh' /iH (BH-bh) y . KBKlla I. (B'-b')]. 3-4 x=o AB' • y=O 2/" y=±-... Ad 10 A =d -2s'. 12 .:.b.

a... ..b: 3a z. KOOPlHHJTHI oca Jc 'ICOHCUHlIH.Jx=cOf!S/.EHE rPEJlE' t . CTATH4KH OLlPEt. ~ ____. 1H . !.ebH yrH N b 'f '31 [ 1..11.npOCTa rpeAa .acHe" UplC .{ 3 ' npONCII.e. I. 0. a tpt6a YlerH " ..\1) ( b \1 ] }'/' t"... .CltbsC'h-01i .ilCO JeJ... a) nOnpe"lHH I' . Z)' ] + 3z -.. .-z. Zo = Fb M= .I6e:tlHK. • " atCH_ < Ope. I / (."..!!..··=s'i"-. [ I _ . Je: %. .ilea rpe.1eaH leo rput t~ a) npo). Tuo~c: +Ay YCllepCHG Ie Je kOH _""'''''. .EI.43 VI. F(z-G).6\8 y _ F /' {.)' _{~)2 / (Z~G)'} / t~~ 611he Hal..'CHlblU.!!.H!'Utllt l.. . . ab MmoJl =.eCHO 0.IlU je z _ npeen 10tT 'U=~~=CCJnSt.. [ \._ J____ HDIfUX(. CTp. (casoinG KpymocJD) I a)' ] FI' (b.Z z>a \8y'l~ aa I - o.(-. -bz F I"+ F(z-a). •• 35 Z> wnoAi..6\8 .1 alaI MtroJ. TAEJlI1~A EJlACTHlfHE JlHHHJE (. : 3a a • ~'1. a Fe DF Fb M--. \8. b )2 -3 (-.'t. 9.F - .' y.. q:t." '0 I: ').

.7 'P 'IO-· 0 285 480 595 6~0 625 560 455 I 0. 165 0 ..:.=625/10'= HarHIS "POCte rpe.3.5 0..9 1 -.+0.3 0..oHuew YCJlU CHile F . I -u'(I+'): ljJYUKl\Bj.1 0. 6 u= a/I.I Z'.-.0625=11l6. -+ -u 0 .4 0. 0.8 -+ I u=bt/= l-u I I.a. nl Je a=flzJl6 H.= 'I..6 0.08ft"H plcnOH • . 0.' v . I.8 320 a=b-'/.. 0. ~'. -u.7 0.9 ..B~eAHOCT.· 1 6 . 0 -- 0.e HU neBMW OC.5 Je . npHwep 31 u=v=O. 0. H.6 0. 3a • 'P· IOI ::: " rAe je t U6"HQHl =O.4 0.2 0. DO..5 0..·10·' 0.( I+u). <s 'pCllHOCt.

' .I 2b 46 Ff1 23 FI' 1_..=I/.3(~)' -( .1 -' ( f(z=' f41) = F f1 48''l3.~= 648 ~ I-A-FsQ F.-o)). Y = : . 9 'l3 .)"]+ 2 0=1/.Ff1 384 'l3 F...E F '1---+ FA . 3a z.. {-H 3( ~)- . M_.<z<l-a 'l3y"--Fzl +F(z-a)+ I +F(z-(/-.FI' Cl=·-Il--'-' 32 'l3 .36' ..Fa 3 a a ..Fs = F. _~.I 1 Ff1 Cl.-I/.I/.. . 3 .1 2a I f .. a .-Il. sa z. .-Fs-F..

= ( J_ a= g)1I 3\13 ~ 3 ) I.. ] / ..g.. 3 ~ 9ll F. I .. =...r +(-H] 33 Z. ._1 M".: / -= V3 ~~ 30 '!l Y a '!ly= '11l1 =_ '/3 !R /' I .:. 8 I sa z.I I [1.. I 3 3a 1".- F . .._ . = 27 'lI 1 'DII' 1(='1.1) = 16 '!l .' [2. )'] ~1' [2H) -3( 3 .L 'JJl I 'JJl FO . I M 1'13 c. .=-2a. 'JJl Fa= - 'JJl z+ 91! c 'JJl ~...) + 3(.· .6(... .. = -2~.n 'JJl !B)'''....!..

6 '8. Tpe6a y 06pacUI!r.\4 1i8 d) .1] ..sa KO)]' )].(.9)1 . 1 b) -Fa J+ '1I1.V3) I .(IIJlI! 06a) I!Ma cynpoTaH CMep 0)]' cr. .6~ 6~ . )'] I Y. ) - .[2-(f)]+'1I1.1/r bl A}: V 71f~ 'IDI --- a 3~' ~ ..(2 'lIl.)J {'1I1. [( 'B ~ l~. 'By" = 'lIl.).. .'1I1.(~ ) I [I-(. p: . ( ~ ) M : 9J/. . b B ~~ O CIA 3b a . . 6'B y cny~ a jy )]. a . [2-6( ~ )+3(. ( 1.al~711 I A .1 ('1I1 t + 2 911.[1 +(f )]J · .' : 4 ~ 'By : I ~ ).sepa H33HaQeHOr Ha CJlHUH.' A c d 'IDI fJJ/i .a HeKII cnper .) .. '1I1 1 711. 3 1(30 0) 'lIl./ V3 fJJ/ I' KIO 0) "aD t V3S I Kao c} 27 """"§f" z.0THQ}{or copera SHa K UJlyc 3aMeHH'tH 3HaKOM MUHYC. 'lJ1I 'lJ1I 3'8 3 '8 'ID 1 6~ . )']+illl' [I -3( . [ I . + 'lIl.

.__ p.o. 3a =.!!. wr:to.. 301 I I 3a a > .)']'" 3( ~ )' ].. ~ ~ [~ 3m3 ..~ h .)...)].(... - :m-aI b AI .u 1I &eo Z < a DpowettA.40 )' ~/[I -~(.. = 1 ../'3 lIarH6 ~ ..... 24~ • npc .I'-a: '/.A MU - :~ [I - ~ ~ [~ 3'.. Y- r'lC -C)'] qn I' I~u . 'Illt a=~'CD -..!!. [' -3(+r-(. 2 'Ill FA ..]. a . UA Je z .--9J! /.(. M. Cle.lt8& Je z.911 I 5" y2 ~ .a 3Hal(.V". nl + 3 (z~a n l f f ex - - .[.o J npOMU .1:1 3 . 1.....8 ~ a _9111 . I u aeo z > G ..I F- .o.

)' ] Mm •• &I/ •.30 10. 1/1 A 8 s=a+'/. -T-\ O.60 I O~ 0. I .Fs-F.85 I 0.b.70 k~l'''' 0. = F8 ='I..I~ 0.9$ I 0:90 y=Fqkpj .{u-2u*+u 4 ).( .75 1 0 . = .20 409 $99 773 207 0.[ AF. [Z qf q:' qf' M =.10 O.M 928 1059 I 0.TII <l>YHKu.f 6 BpeAlIO.-- 2 2 . O<z<a 7 btl M=q-::.ql' 3az..b..)' ] 2 ~ ~f [ : / _ ( . -. F" ='/.IIJe rp(Cl)= IJ.65 0.=qb. d=c+'/..l . q/ .0.2S 1 °.4$ 1302 q>{uHO' 11&1 /1210 /1286 0..= F.40 O~ 0.80 I0.O~ qo(u ) 'I O~ 0.55 qbd I u +- d s F.='/. F . e-a+b .. u=zll...

24 - 24 - . KaKO je s=o+ (b/2)=e . cneAehcM DOJbY H oAy.q 6Hhe . ~ y = -'-'-""::'+ 61 I I+- I -q (z .0 H Y npeccKy 3) I-e. "2 OBO naKwe nOCTH)I(eMO H3 raj HaqHH lllTO heMO onTepehelbe npo. .q .[.qbd .a)' '. (o+b)<Z<1 y=~: 7 M s I I M=q-I-qb(I-S) =qb - (I-z).50 3a z.aHera MO)l(e" U'palHTH nOMolly MOMeHara Y ABa npeTXOAHa nOJba. rAe je e z a+b. (d' (b )'] ~ . .-24 I'93 [ /8+4 [)+ / " -12 -1. Y npeeeKy 2) I. z+C.eTH ora. 9ly'a ___ '+C. :VY ..+ (Z~ $) (~ r-(~) (Z I'an a=~: ~ ~ [4 -(~r-4(~)l qb d[ (/-$)' (b -I)1. + 4C ~ $)..l ' +"'" " q ( z -a ).- OpeMa Clebsch·OBOj MeTOAH Tpe6a 3a npOMeHJbHBe Y3eTH: y npeeeKy I) I . +-(z-a)' --(z-e)' 21 6 6 qbd"z' C.(b/2) TO je qb(l-S)=[q(i-o)'/2)-[q (l-e)'/2) . /q)=ot (bd//). KaKO jc nOKa33HO Ha ClIHUH.[4-cJ'-4(~r-{T)'] '+(~W~Or + . -" qz ( " e!! ) w I 2 2 .e)'. ns je yKynHo I M--z qbd --(z-a) q " I 2 'I +-(z-e)' q ...= o+(F .q (z . AY)l(HTH y. Te ce MOMeHT y TpeheM DOJbY ..qbd .

_qbdl +.. ..ca'/. 40 ql' = 61 44 m. =FB='I . ql [!.i(l-a). ='.~n+ ~(z .1) = 1944 ~ - 176 31104 - ql' ..- -fl.. s=d='/. 768 ~ t c. ql '1.. e='I..o a 6144 Il ql' 384 'l3 a=----=-~.=O C =qbdl_ . -. 7 'l3 Y= C.~(z.\"j' 51 ---~------------~------~--------------.. 6 24 I 24 1 ' . OJl.. KOHCTaHTe C.e)' 24 a = C..i(~ . ~' 205 ql' /(..ql.1 s=d='/. b='/.1..1 ='I. 'B 2 6 6 ~---------I a =b = c ='/. +.e)' ] .='I.. F.!L(I-a)'+ ~(I -e) " ec a+b' . FA = F.i(l.I.)'1_ (~ _~)'] I I 4 r 4 Y = qt< ~ 24!8 16 I 7b 5 ql' 57 ql' m- ft<='. e - "I.I.-------------~--r_------------------I a . F. z - qbd~.n . --.-'. = 'I.! _(~)31 + (~ _ 1. I.~/)' 2~~ G~ ~ -: (-7-n (-~...f'I3 ( fI=-1 [C.n = 31104 'B 13 ql' 648 ''II a= .~ n-( ~ -:n M=q: 7a Y= + 11 ql' / «='1. na cy = C..p e ~ yj e~1O H3 ycnoaa Jl.i (z - a)' - 24 61 . ql.a j c Y 0 3a ~ 0 H = z=l...1 F.

~r(~f: ~&-2q4'~[2-Cn-Cr . ~' .' . 1 21 I 2 qz' M=F"..~ 1_(Z~b)'I=' I = - I 2:/~[(2 ~ ~ rJ~)~ -2+ -(2 -+)'C)' +(~ )' {~b)'l .- i' + qz· - '" 2 FA l ' ~ z=O z=1 y= I y=O..1(2-(b/llJ: 8 c b qIJ' F. ·. .. ql' 24 \B q + -(z-b)' 2 (z-b)' I q + C. A e=b d"/.= .[~I ~(~) . -[2!.(2-!. qz' ~y=---+-+('Z+C 6 F.F.52 · 0 =0: S='/. +(1. .. " I . - ~.=qb.(z-b)' 6 6 I 24 ' .z-- \By"= -I'AZ+ '1' \By' = 7C _ q~' .) [~(~)3J -:...=O.~)'.='/.. a=2q4-~(2. . q --(z-b)' 24 ' C.~ ..b: ~lllll r-__'B _ -:l>. 'J + 1 1 1 1-.

75 ql' tt . I .) ~(!... = z : Ii F.F.51731.)' 1_ (!..20t8 \II + ( .I M7e 15 q qzl IZ--232 1+"'2q ( z-4'3/)2 ..2048 \II 'l. q.63 M .128 ~c ~ aeOi 7 q I' 384' \B ___ • b·'t. os = .)' • . d=-'/.-'/. B A F.I..: ql1 7d Y= _2 ' I ~[~(!.1·283 F.)3 + 24 \II 16 I c t(=·/. a . = -(.. .F.) • q : q..i F. __21 )' ] 1 5.~ . 33 Z. 2 fa M... 69 qf' i~ = . r q~'1 + ~ (z . r Y. 27 I-(..1. I "" 0.G· = q~'[.~ (!. 'i 3 . ell.!n I.=.n I -= ~ 0.l=ti $='/.1 FA='/.. ql' -768 !ll ql'.2~/~g~~ C) -1: (.3.

b M=F..¥8/IS:o.b I d=c+'/.$...bd (/-z) 21 ..b) M-.8'/••) 5 q.O..0.51 93 I..-. "M q. "" 0..64 t)y" c z[ -'/of.t(z:a). $ca+'/.t' 5 F I' = 768"i""" q :q.._ ..d -.. [3b'dz-/(z-a)'] _.=-q.4~=q.(270( +) (~)f~d )-4~( ~}(f)~ 17( ~ -270(:H~-r] 1+ 27(.00&522"'ql' !e"-33 z. .. ... ".(z.b.. "" I. r(: an = . n Y= .1 (rpewKa 1. . = q..bd z . =/VI.01304 FI'e . .)-IOC)" +3(+).0 ~ {.. 384 • e 33 z. 2 FB=F. J • 21 ..btl [3a +2b'{i1l] 61 . .. 8 I. 8a a<z«a+.... FA = F. r- Y= 1:. 1.[7(.:o.:S~.(..]. I I F..a) :b.+ + f+ 45( ~rf: fi) -28(+)\ 270r~s)' -27(.. M.6bl q. '/.

(z . )( ~ ) (I~ d) . (z - z· 9ly=. (z .270( .Y3MHMO ra.HOC q* : q.0 ~ [270( .eJ' 24 a)'. 'F'" z· 2 I +C + ' q.e) 6 q.0 ~ [17( ~ )' + 45 ( ~ n rC-1).q. = (z .(~z~-_e:.eTOJl:H Tpe6a y nojeJl:HHHM npeceUHMa Y3eTH Kao upOMeHJbHlle z.4)] .(z-e)' 120 b . S ' . (z-e)' Sb 11 HTerpanelbeM Jl:06HB3MO 9l y' = ' ... OHD. z. npeMa Clebsch-oBoj e.q!'. 2 + (q*-q.. = - b Te je yKynHH MOMeHT 9.) + (1 .F"S-+C.}(z-c)' . na je MOMenT OJl:Y3eTor onTepehelba Y TpehcM nOJbY 80 9. 9.)' (T)-17 ( ~ ~ = .ll. (z .aJ' + 120 b q. 360r Tora np0Jl:YlKHMO Tpoyr JlaCTO onTepehelbe Y TpeheM npeceKY H O.a) : b. (z . rJl:e je e=a+b.1:.) (~ )(I~ d) + 3 • 270 ( ~.a nocTojH O.n. 9.z+C.45 ( ~ .-a H z-e._ 24 b I + 9.e)' 24 b . (z'-e)' 2 + 9.a= 1:.!) • q . (z-e)' .

(i-e)'] . _ (z -a)' I . na je C. 3b 12 b' $- 2il0 3 (z .i' 120 8a YCJloaa A3 je y =0 z =0 ~a H Z = i.~)\ ' 1 0~ ' (I . b I ' b i z'l+ 60b' F.C z. [ [7 + 6 ( ~ ) . [20~ .(I-a)((a) 1+ 2 \3/ 3a zo= a+(I-a) y= .+3(z -a)' ) I I i 1' (/-0 )' . ~ . = 0 H CI = F.3 C)' - -IO(-=-)'J '(1-~) ' (-=-) .a)' ) (i./i-a V31 I~~ . ? (i-a)':') 3I F. (z.56 K OHCTatlTe oApeljyjeMo.a)' 8b Mma .e)" 60 b' • acCI/~ ~ e _I ~ [e l I r .~cz-e)412b F. (I-a)' 2 12 b' __ _ Fq (i-e)' _ F .2(i)': (I.~)'+ I $y .Fqd '·6i _ H3 . di + F.

)' + (.1 Be F.I.) -3( .u - 27 9 33 z. F.(I .8 __ 1'.60C). _ 1 _ J 'lly"= - cay' = F.I.180 I I' Z [ 37-40 ( Tz 8eal )11 (2z -1)5j +3 I ' q: q.n M~F.I .57 Bb a=I~~ ' I~ [7+6 (~)-3(. ! F. c-O s-'I..4217 5 . a='/. q.)'] 2f3 M.{I-z)/P _-+~ ..J +60{~)' -lS( ~)'] Y3 "" 0. ' Y . )'] .[I-3(~) + : (. q-2F. . b-'/. F.)..) ~ . O. d='/..)l (1-.l. ~ [B +9 ( ~ ) + 3(.-(J-~) :'1./[2(. F.)~3(fr +(.1~~ .' [2( .I283F.. F..= 'I.'I. FA FT = e'l.I.n F~~' [8.

.l -F(z-a) - . .I ". t' i80!B ~ 1m = 0.)=F(a-z)l +F(z-a) 10 . . G 768 9i ' 8 q.' 38 . I . t + F{Z-D)' C.t'.o - 5 F.O 6 • .4807 ( 5 q...z)'. 4='J.01304-!- 3a m 9 . " = " -F(a. '. '.t' 384 8 F.-C.'.58 F I' I.' : !B • ' F(QZ' 1')" + C. c' zzO.Z+ C• T ' .'6 y.ox '" O.MI(. ' yay'=O. !By"." I .l' 360 21 ' a=--= .' 2 - l{oH30JIa . .

I)='2''B . ~ I(Z=I/t l) F FI' = -.F. . y~ :... (/-z) Ii F.FI 'By"=P . F I' Y(.\Oa 1(.((+n -(+)]1 3 1r=:) =L ~ . = 'f. 8 'B FA . . !IJl A= ."~ 3 'B . FI' Q = 24 'B .

= ql. + 'Dl 'lIl I 12 9Jl Imtu = - «=0 II! 2 I' . 14 " [Z (II)' + (Z/ )'] .... IDI". [(TrI-('~an a ( a) '1Ila . M= 9Jl(-1I + 1)= -9Jl!+911(I-a}' ~y" = y. . = F. 7' -'/I.aj' .F.. I. :m ~y ' = .. 3/-3 . ~y":::. '. . - '13 9Jl . <JRfl f<=n-~(I-. y'= F6''13}. =O.~ 9Jl1 . : .60 'Dl" c.a)-2~ -I 2--" F.'1Il (z .+311 F.

.+2 (:-a) !ll y' . F" ' I'~ . I I u .C = OJ. T ~ I 10134 112..4 (1) I • (Zn I . Y"'Y'.. ... "=z/I 0.0 .10' I 16 u~ . ti~ ..= -' I. ._= .-+ 6 z= O.. +-z+-+ qa' ql' C '8Y=- 15 0.---)- 0 '\ 6:. z· '8 y . a).? .: .) .- y . F6...O...-..4 u~+ ul ).4 -. qa' H ~ I O~ I F"..(ul . ..61 (:y I ' [6 . 4 24 .3 233 173 /83413010 0.L' Cl _ qa I MVI .a'Jltl[3-a~ -. I' ql' .0".2 0. -. = .F" . F" ..-:.a I 0.7 0. 6 ' I' q (z-a)' -6 qat z· + -qz· + C... I ':'=0) - - r (z)' +:(..: +C. t I q 24 .5 0.+ a (z-a)']/ -a y .. 8~ I a Yu=a.a .F.(z-~' C. F. F yc··.F Az .I . . .. 8~ 'lJ 8 - I' ql' -=.4 - 1.qa !B A~ _ .1 0..I-".341 g17~ 442715940 . Y = 24 14 1(1_ 1) ::r.01 .I Ql q 2 ' 2 F .' I.".3(Z)' (z .9 9Jl .6 7.111:'1 • F" z'.!/· 6 '!l 6'!l BptAHOCTII &!>YHkl\oJe l' (II) = I.. Ii .f'~~ 0' ~ I[ (.nI-("=-.

q_(z .)~- I«oa.'1." a)' : . q (z -a)' 1+.qbs.{[I2~ (~) qbt' 2.:(24(+r-32(+r+16(~)' F I' /cralh" - q ql' 64~ 7 - I28!B -. 156 y - ~~. s=a+'/. q~z .. r. k· !B y... F.qb~+ qbs . .qb. 'I. = .-.- /-(2.)'f-(2~ -In 150 y-..' u .t' 192!B 1(.. .=1) .. '.-.62 15 0= 'I. K -·qhs.) . b M'(. I qbl' (a)' 12!B I (3+ '/a). =qb.-F.] 7 qt< 384'B -=-. F. F" =.b=I-'I. 9Jl. I F.ql y··hld[6.-'). ~. -12(~)'+8(.-'I.

10-10/ .I.(/-:) : I 16 t. = '/!ql. [ 2 ( 4-3.. q. -""-- 24 'B ' iI' qo I' ' 15 'B 30 'B F ' ({I "' /) - -' .. 15b qbl' fc= n ~ 24'B a = b='/. ) (. =F.' . ".ql' i) 15c Y(z=tl 7 ql' = - - 48 'B 41 h=.I' ..-1) - F" It -' - 12 'B - .IJIT'~-'/..z)' (Z -H''J F" I' (:)' [ (Z) +5\/ r=60 ' 9. b) $='/. ql' 'B q : qo . - ..1 I + ( -Ib )3] ' F.=384 .

(o . .64 q :q."4 ~ . I' .z:/.z/I' .o-.z):o 160 q:q.-' /. 17 ~y'. . q .2F. . q.~':'[8 (~)-6(+)'+( ~ n i3y- F~~' [20C r-IO( ~ )'+ (~)l 1 Fo I' Yc. .

aobe'/.Z _. .z) 1+ 3~ (z .b~F.l b ) 2 3 ~ y" a Fq [(s .[SZ-~:+Cll +_1_ (:-O)'] 2 170 'By~F.q. s='I. 9Jl A = - 'I. (z - 0)' .F 6~!!l .' ---+C.q. [ 2 6 I 1 ] +-(z-o)' SOb' (z z ( Z)' 1 + (b"/ )' (Z.s. ) -10 ( y. Me .bs= -F.. F /' [ ?5 ( Iz )' -10.6bq. s .z+C.-"2 : 1 )'] 1. (z Y=6~'B )'1 +4 (.-0)' / ] /' [ 30. 12 b' IZ' . b (/.q./ .a)'] 'By'=F.65 FA='I./.

17b 3 - rpep.~/(.. 18 :l!B 3!B 6!B (C~)2·2 [ .66 121 F. - !Ill I Ft' . y-/-[R-VR'-('/. /-.Fz" 1_ F(Z-C)'I_ Fez-e)' ' . I l npella C1ebsch-oBoj . -: ...~.ItHItH . !B 3a A 8 Taql\a eJlaCTHqHa JlHHHja je "'PYlKHIt JlyK nOJlynpeqHHKa R-!B/FC..-F I' fc-fD-IIC+fc• . erOA" Tpe6a y Kpajlboj TaqKH C peTit KoopAHHaTHH noqeTaK.-e) !By'.a ca npenycTHMa .(-C)+3] . 2 2 +C 2 tI)·.Fz' 6 + C z+ C ' • 1_ F(Z-C)'I 6 F(z .I-z)' .-.lJ. e-c+/.)' (2 -= 11.IO !lly"-Fzl-F(z-c) I-F(z . A06H8.1.e)' 6 y .!Oje..I' n480 .. na cy MoileBTIt nOJbHMa' M-':'Fz 1+ F'(z-c) I1HTerp3~elbell I+F(z-e).-c+.

. .-... n3 cy C1 __ Fc(l+c) 2 H3 YCJlOBa: 33 z ~ c H z.)'(-[2+~(.6. n.+-~r Fe --.. :~(.)](~)...... 19 y _ _ FI' 3aAeo AS} '/3 F I' e f. . 0.(~r +~I+ ._+ e z ( -Z)3 + y -F -1-31+ 6'll I I) I I I I 18 to FI' FI' e C !«= l/. .:..[~ .5711. = -Fe.I+e C..Fe' (3 1+2 0) 6 Te je I' [( 3+2-) e ' (C 2 ( -C) _. . y..8'll ' -1 . ...S ..110 ... (~ r(~ ~} 1 • .-.67 KOHCT3HTe Ol\pe~yjeMo je y-O.pc + Ii . .'ll I I I _(~)'] I I sa z• ....27 $ 3aAeoCB) £. I M.)) Ie .8 'll FA~ A .

q2' MB = .1'/6.. ye-Y(.') (Z . Ao6HBaMO I ('1+.31+.O cn~Ae KolleTaHTe C.-. C.+.'/: qe' = . =O.I)' .68 npe.Z+C..y 6Hhe ~a HHTerpane~eM [2' . ql' (z<1) (-+)' .fl'] Fe "6+ C. ( (Z (Z) +' (Z)' I I .)' ]'. 0. = ~ [1 +2C)+(~)'] Mc. '/.=1 je yrH6 y. ~Y=-I 19 6 .(1+. 6~ I · I F. = q (I+e). Clebscb./ Z -1+-\"1) I ) .-..)=F"z-'/.' ] FI' e [ . FA_~/[I-0n 20 · F.1. na cy e[ Y= FI' 6!8 ' -1 'I .") Y-6~'1 e (e 3-+2)..l)lZ-" -1. 113 yenoBa 3a 2-0 H %.= .)= FI' _.

qz' y' I + Fs(z-f) ~ 2:1~{[1-2( ~'r + 20 y= ]-6[ 1.HIIlI'IJl1! CIIJII! Y ape- 21 ceKY (k) a'k .~[1-4{~)'].. . (C)' +4 (-C )' I = . il I . a = 2:1''!l - 2:1~ (-7-)' = 2~t''!l [ 1- 2( -H ]- I ~~ . I I 24 '!l YI'II6 npeceu (I) yUeA Jl. 2:1~ {[1-2(f)' H -2[ 1-( ~f]( ~)' +(~ f + +1-2f 1+2. Yc-flc+ y{ .(/-z). 24'!l \ I fc=flc+fc .(-7)']( ~ rHe r + 1-: 6[1 +2f + (-T)' }(Z.ejCTll& jeJI._ 2 MmF"z . I ./1.a ••.qz' 2 M=F"Z+F.ql'. u = 0. -+(f)' )(~)' j.i!._[ -I + 4 (~)' +4 (~)']. I ] -I. -c ( 3 24.7}.

'fJ . .1 I-Q.).'1..-.I'/'fJ (41." -k'" "'-'I..t-a.) (2..t= rtl Ylk .11 CHila 1I. :tIl I • " AI (F1AiFdz :t~JAI~Ai~Z .- • Ai FI M'J11dz I I' . a. (0. k.:fD ~ 22 lI.. Ta~IIHUa 2 g.t ....· ·· u·) k =' 1'1'fJ je Koe. . "Hlle cmfkg. .) CI. 21 u (1-.. cm/l_ I Ta6nHua ~ ..~u) ® t ~. F ~ J l YTlluajuH koeq. ~!II M'J11M'J11dz I6HpC . 0.® 1°'" <D <D k.e. .Vii. .puqujeHUl rllUKOcUlu rpe/l.t . )!HMeK3Hje [L/f J. .. - V Ut - e" v ti . a. apecesca fAe ce Melbajy Hana)!HH 1I0MeKTH YUt)! reKepaIIftC&BHX CHili Q' H Q' .. nOllepalba O)! cnperoaa 06pTalba ycne)! CHna B.HUHjeHTH 3a: 0'" ..70 = II. -... Q' jeAHaH~Ha reBepallHc&aa CHlla (cHlla III1H caper) y npeeek)' (k) Q" jeJiHU "~ua reRepaJiHC&ua ilJHKTHSHI elUla TpalKeBe AeiIJop' MllUIje y npeceKy (/) yelle)! AejCT1la Q'=l"y apeceKy (k). u' (3 .. Osy CIUIY Tpe6a ySeK peTH y cwepy TpalkeHe AeiIJopllaJtHje npecelC4 (I). ~-uu /Ilk = 6. Sux Y.Btl I I ~. ." • . je)!N - •8 8 (!) (!)' nOMepatha 0.6 tl 06pT81ba yue)! caperosa YIk-Y" 23 .DoKuyje AI HHTerpane 'Tpt6a yseTH y esa TJlH.

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. h • 4+3k 5 6 . =. F.O.Y....!Lf' h 30 4 f-3k 'D!c = . Y e . . 1l1 ... z ·r.. - 4+3k { 1 +k 8 Ye . 'me 2 ql' 24 J z. ~.- 5 FI a -b ( 1+ -b) = -I !DI c 4+3k {{ { 2 M m ila ~MF r.F ..q{ -l' ..-.="s 'm.. i6 +9k -..~ ·" ···T-· ..!. . !II" __ qJ' l+k 24 1_ · _ -·~~' L I... -ZA -'mAlh -Z •. ~ •..-:k=--... - ~ b -gnC - I Fb 'me -{+-{..87 a... 1 h 7 3Jle _ 2 + 3 k 1 +k . :.F. !l!l!iIIlIlIlIDlDlDDIDt \.

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'-c.=O gn.CMAe y C.2g)!. . = 9.. ==10 It ' I..h ~ : ' 13.k' _-... i"" !I1l c = 'lJl 0 2k+3= N 9 0 1 q I' =!Ro= qt' 3+2k 4 4N g)!c '" I. Tpehl )eA.M VII.c (1 +. a" = ~.·9.. !Dlc = gn.. n rUGal U cy ucaJun .=· . 9.= 0 ~. I. 'JJls=gn. !R' ZA :::: -. q h'(l_ 4 .. -Zc= ..9. = 0. 'fI·h gnc II ... = q I + 'DI c = q h (3 _ ~) . h = 2+5k.q h' 48 E. '2'N _ Y .::. T -9Jl c +2(l +k)!JID -6E9k: lD+?C=O..= qt' -g)!c 8 A y .=O A lc = .- 2 ~ .89 ~I = a... • npt~l JaCi~"u. = Y B ='/. nOMepalbe.!. 1" ..a N=2l:+:i ~c. q - gnD=gn.1<) + gnD 2 r. 2 'h ' 4' 2N' .". - h Yo ZB- 9. q. H D cynpoTHe CHAe... A· -.. ZD=~ 2 ..6 £&k. ~ (q h + \lIl C ) . q/ r.. na cy 3.-f c.." 24 '8... ~ gnc+gnq = qh' =Ys / 2/ _ l .). = q h' k .auKa en. = C"==tr. = 311. 11 M.

0..= / / ' . !1I=Hh.. I I. c -F Db( 1 +-b) l. F Db( 0 ) 1I'=-6!1la 1 +/ II A ".OTCTPatlHWO 3rno6oBe A H B H 3~MeHIIMO HX OTnopHwa. Tua cy CA H DB K(. / A+. J 'oS.90 a.-=9.= [-11. 2(1 +k)9'IIc + 9l!.!•• · F fJb =-(b+/)-6£k. H h' 3 !Il. . • J.e I' ZD-ZC=O..e pacrol""".. ~ H B a. 6=h& a YlI=F- t P.1 3rno6oB.= -.. nOBehaa.pyru HOOUN. • F I!. . 3FI D b 9l!c = 9l!" = .. I I.o = . + /'• . O a. AB wopa 68TH nOHHWTeHO XOPH30HTaJlHHM H na cy nOllepalba H YCJIOB CH~alla /'A= f' . L 6tl.-9l!c .lH30Jle enaCTHQHO YKne· wnHe Y C H na cy nowepalb.' 2N I I ' 13 &= Fob 12 tl. b a. .l / 9l! h ~ tl. . [1-2~]' I' D b MF=F 1 . lA= -ZlI=H.gO 61 _8.

2 N h I I MOMeHTH cy ~F I a b 13 !Dle = 91l D =9)l=Hh= _. ..- 2 {I + k)!DIe +!DID = t. . .tI tl3 yc. 7e. [1 _2~].r. 2N <..!DIe I _ !liD I " "" ""e =!DID =!DI = H h 3!l. 7 30 = -F. cy e= F ab 12..6 14 .ao. . 6!l. T' .ln aI. + 6 E k. 2N r • npe ._..180 !l.!. _ .I! . 360r enaCTM"Hor YKnewTetba. na 3 !l..F.. ~" " :4. I -6 E k..91 OAHOCHO XOpH 30HTanHa KOWnOHeHTa OTnOpa a.. =h I II.l C • 0 cynpoTlle ellA. . = 8 F.. VII.Ie ..I 9J!e=9J!D = ._. u.. . ~. nO. KOA H3KOCH !DIe h + e__ a• . Tpeb. HarM6 I I C.. A e.. IUU'IIiBa ue. C1 II:CKja:._ b H= ZA = -ls = -'3 -F_I .6 30 -!DIe + 9J!D = 0 F..":--Z ' !DIJ:+2{1 +k)!DI n = . ---.

3 h !nD -Zs = - h = Zo· . k) 93lc +93lD = ~ 2./ h k 30 6Ek.:. 93l .(~.= . h I.""'''''!'Qr....6 - . -. v 6= '.F ..&.F. 1l = "9 2 93l 1 93l c . ... 60+ 33k p h c 60 N • 8 _-.. 0 2 3 9J1c + 9Jl o ." c I.. . . 180 -2 (1 . L 15 'l'A r~. IPl:!l!!!lBll::!~ 01! _ 60 + 47k F I :.l.F7 + 3 h c -lc = . .93lc + 2 (1 + k)93l o = = 6 £k. ..~: ..SJl c +2 (I +k)93l o 6Ek.92 14 e~ 7 /' I' ~.".. 0 " 1 60N 1 13.

. _ ='I...Ze= -Z. + 4 9JIc.-= h .... .a9R D 2 +k .. 12 .... ="/. M ..= ZD' 8 !Ill. 16 1 q I' = 'Il!s 2+k 12 = . k q Jrl 9Jl c = . . I._. AJ S 2 ~ ... q I' -!Rc Y. q 17 A 01. . 3+kq Jrl 2+" 12 9JI...93 !ill A I.... = YII='/lql l!l!e Z. +4 (2k + S)9Jlca q It" k t l.q Jrl I.-- _t..• IS.-- -!II. 4 Ic'lll .

"': : ' .'(a.• __ . z ria " Of \ -3H. '/"F.~k.. J ab FI . ab PI -..=h g)lc = 2 c' \:l ": -~ 'i) ". +k. I !Ill c ~ a I L h " ' 18 'lllD = = [ 2(-) b ' -'. a b 2 a. 'lll1J.f..=2e(a2-3')k.I I 'lRB= I 2N = 2(~)-IJ . . ~ /JI..) + ~... k.) -· 19 ~.. 1 J! .II N."III k. + . ~m. ='I:q.94 · N.3 r.+4~ ~ 0 cy: .~.= -'/.)k: .a. . ~ k I· 2 2 (~) . = 'I. F.. 2N .=6k+l 2N .I... ' ~2[. 1!.+2p.· +2f1=(k. (k. = IJh. . " k.(F .. tJ. Y.• . - 2N.. I I N.'I£j -.k. _ .:. (F. -. I/E) a. .

- .k. h 2 a.E Clio + 211.~ -M/2E . .'-36'k.-36}k.Ii' fl • 'I.a. = 20 . I' I. = .. (Je. B = z na cy: /.95 'I • F Q _ '3Jle+'mo YA'_ I 19 '=B~+~'DI=D~ Zs= .}I.. =1. +Jc~) +·11.(F. " 'DIe = 'I.. ='I. = -'/i.-39) k. .3eJc.-3&)k. q. + 2 fit (Jc.~ M 8 Yo -39k. hIE) .)+ P. = I. =0 .Je.P.. 'DID = 2. = 'DIc+'DIo = _ 1 YB .Ih.F. +k.. (II'.oF q h+ 2E(a... k. 'DI.-: . F. 2 a.'m h k.'/.)..hIE) a. (p.+Jc.) k.. II =9 h y ..h+2£(2a.k/+ 48 ". k. 'DIo = 2 E(Il. . Jc. ' 0 ( " 21 I..

= [2 ... 9lle' = M . = ~1 Ala 2h-~1! _ h' 2k. M=Fc 0:" = (!.=l. ~D = 3 ~) k.a .3 6) k . F. + 2 P. .. '+. k... 9l1e= 2 E (2 a .. = . KOHTpoita 9Jl" + 9Jtc.96 na cy : '11lA = 2 E (a~ .l =M!!. 9ll n = 2 P (P.2-3~). L .. 2 E • •- 9Jl A = Mb (2h -3b) h' A 22 _ ex" k 2E 1 t .!!... h _ M4.3'!h!"'] = 9Jl 'Dt. = h e.~ p.3(alh) h 2k. k=k.. './k. h 2+k l.ls . 9J1'e + 9ll D -=--=-'-'= I + Y'e=F 6.+k. 2 E (!:t.. 2.3 e) k.<me.=IJI. 'me = M.~.+M+'Ifle h Y..= Ys=F.lh. 21 Y A + Ye = F l" = Y'e = 9ll" -~ h = -2. YA k •..) Ii.{. . AI = 0.h \ .

HajM8lbH MOMeHT HHepUHje nOnpeQHOr rrpece-. I .o Hee"'C1K'fHO n04p. • YUtlooHl.F l28S3-~1 F -I .~k. CTp.19 EI f' 2~1 ..L ~ 89 y h ... --I' 21 0..-I' 0.51 ' I. 7 TaO .. > 112 19740.o .. H +5. (1M' 16102-11._1.. II F a) Ttl F..q>Y'l< I!aJer Tetmajor' f 1-'. 1" Y ..... {.2 ).l.u .. <.r oo.97 IX.o*~e TOnAefto 21 ... : .rt. 10' . ..o*~e: J"IUKO 10 . 28.1 > eo 9870 · 10'· (1/11' 2~716-127 ). Ot •• p.'f1e M"TEPHJAJ1 A Llp.11 A-A._111:>. lOS lfel'KIC TOnJilea 21 100 dl 110 89 < 01 I . I I ). >. 287a-19 A > 100 m .n. ~JL 12.. I .._f... I ~ 1 d) 20. N/c'" I• - 1\ d. 10' < rao1k~t UpeHQ 20 • 10' < 1\2 r. 10' l~ 30402-112 • > lOS 21m· 10'· PM' > 22210· 10' <100 r. cA06oll"a (ptIlYKoBoHa) lIyxuHa uS8uifJlto A.. dk N/cm' f"!/cm 1 ..". "... TABnHUA a) I<PHTHIfHH HAnOH nPH HiiBHJAIhY. e.7 I 1= {. 10' )..on.. F el 'IIAI' lit . 10"' . 1- F Cny~aj EI (l t1J 1 y b) c) n' El - 4 I' ~"'EI....

41 1.u) + 2kF casu I [Sin-k z1 l. /(1'''= H " I : ..=(0.«"1&: -.39 3.64 5..29 5.62 1..33l. tcplTKt 0... CKH~a' P.01 1. . .2sln..fI ~FIF..e.02 (...a)] 1 .12 ~• .cos u) cos u .\_ U20-~9 >". =. . o6p.05. I04ftI8ooo+).!:..=3387 -I4..65 4.lcu..03 1.01' 1.59 US 2.HopMe "A=F/II . .aou (lI..=2800+0.35 1'. .. I "2 = ~~ ...(1028 roJL) ..32 it" 1. Amrr/ea. I.I): •• Itplnce m. Y 1 '!3~E'..Sin kz .. •••nee l1\H"oae 0'. ~I .N/em'l I) Rankine •• -'.39 1. e".76 2..lCz + k F sin 2u I - +1 + Sill k (Z .9~ 7.=980 .).. .07 3.=2013· 19'.13 1.'J(I+al.86 5. d) CABHJAIbE 11 118BI1JAibE k' = F/~. . ..12 1....ll 1./ SI..[ sin~bsi.[Sinkl .noae CJ} ~10s0 3) limIT/con Rallllla.u)] -Y la 2k a=b='/.. g (. J) CCCP .03 1. 6 u= '/.00 1.8.I Co.05 1.a •• o.10 1..Ib) BPEJUfOCT KOE.72 4.02 1. Je crt rp'HHll' r"'t'ltl" .57 4.06 1.01 1. -Y.').".. =2263 . _.Jlcw ·uop"..47 5.86 MI 4. +700) (l-l/tn)..6P'" I 'l I . reo...(93). nkZ Itsin k(z-a) J Sin 2 ..00 1...U) ] cos u YI'!. b ..48 3..9& .94 2.uo.92 SJ't 1.kz + Stn (kz·.) .20 1.03 6.01 1.. a=O.1..00 6.00 3. kl = '/:"/F/'J3 = '/. 60< A".'nttrlnt -Auoe/allon cr.54 1.'l.. apn.J '" MATfPHJAn 1-.u) f mu 48 m ' a= -~~ - Y It _.slrucflo.58 tl7 1.!'.22 1. ..·oa 4apo6'oAI""u 30KOlf . k<3(l 4) Jo"niky .. puo e) Rp.11 6./1 20 10 0 110 40 110 110 70 110 .. 7) Jyr).18 1.. • Koe¢lMllRJtl!lT KlIlj.tllult . .n-ld. ..10 6. sa.00 1. 100 2) > ) Johnfo.H~HJEHTA H8BHJAIbA-.31 ..27 1.OOOOS~• .5 2..II .01 1...em' d F 110 100 ) 120 1110 140 1110 1 1. :in' k U Y [Sin kb .p.If.o .00 1..49 1.1 ...17 1. 3Q • . 16 !ll u' 2 (I ul .. (19.00 4.. AI r (kZ. •• I\.. (kz-..i9 4..2f 3.~t! I 10 \'~I' A = . MOMeHT caBHjslb3 EnacTHqUa nHHHja M/ ~ Y= .l .n) + k (Z . yTu DrT.16 1.36 2.

.· sin 20 coskz= .la20 20 q... 8 .. ] z Ie' .2(1-l) .2a q. 5 I . a" COS a I I :~~ 5q " 24 (sec u ./ 1 = u' 24 'l\ f_ = e M.. CKHQa Y= -L[COlkZ+ ·FIe' ~ 2 :·f!ll"".." ...P. .I . II EJiacTHQH3 IIMHKja M.[I -_1_] ~e(/-Z) Ie' !B 2u sin k (1 sIn 2u 2k' !B co s U !ITt [ k z k Z] ..6p. W 'fa ( sin 20 !ITt MCt='/lf) = ..I] qt'[Z 2 ' -(Z)'l ' +Fy ... 3 ·2(1 -cos a) I .. q I" 3(tga-u) 11= .6p. MOMeBT casNje . iD 'kz _ !t.-sin 1e'!B 2a sln2u ICPJIof/ ~ ~[12k' !B _1_] ':05U . = sin 2a !ITt M(r-ro'/. MOM~BT caBHjalba M..P [ ( z)' 12k'!B 2 T - 3 ( a' TZ) ....- 2coso -!ITt s ink.2 cos U EnaCTHQHa nHHHja Y= _ Z)] I(~/..:. At ( $' II I: .I) = ~..2 (Z) T + Z] +3 -sin-ku" sin 2u I P. = CKHQa I 4 • -!ITt sink(/-z) F ::.'/. u') 5 u' ('='/01) 384!B .cos 2u sin kzsin 2 a k' Z . = qt'. ·' .nl!1i!i:::]o: MIG .

'.HaiBehH T3JlfeuIlHjanH~ HaDOH (N/cm l ). D.11.!~jy AOAHpa l(HnHHapHqHHX · nOBpWHHa ca YKpWTeHHM ocaMa npHTMc:ax ~e Melba no 3aKOHY ellHDCOHAa nOBpWHHa AOARpa ie entinca.Hcnoa AoaHpHe TaOKe Ha YAaibelbY OKO 0. uynjy aoAHp~ l(HnHHApHQHHX nOBpWHKa ca napa.no~ynpeqH"" KpYlKHe aoaHpHe .+D.. H D. b . U. aqKH cpHsHoap Hertz pewelbe np06l1eM. C"paheHHlIe: A= D.-D.~ .. Haio~hH TaHreHl(HianHH HartoH jasroa ce y UqKH . 0 ysa· i.. P. . HajBehH npHTHcaK no IIHRAiH JlOaHpa (N/cml).10 ie He . Pt: Y cnyqaiy aOARpa ccpepHHx noopwHHa HaJaehR. Y3AJAMHl1 fIPI1THCAE< )lBA.. Y c"y.'. Y a Y n6nRUH X AaTe cy KapaKTepHCTHOHe BpeAHOCTII ca OSHaKaMa: F . q"iH ie nonynpeqHIIK Pt . HaiBehH HanOH saTesalba (N/cm'). D. roa.. aOK ie 'y cnyqaiy l(HIIHHAPHqHHX noapWHHa aOa \'pHa noopWHHa ysaHH npaooyrao' HHK ca aylKHM CTpaHa"a napallellHHM H~a.npeqHHIlH aoaHpHHX noapWHH •• a. illHpHRa ' OBor npaBoyraoHHK3 H3HOCH .HIIHieHT. D.5 P.nOMepalbe y npaBIIY nap. - oQTepehelbe no ieAHHHlIH AYlKHHe URJI"Rapa (N/ em). - MOAYJI eJlaCTHqUOCTH. D. TEnA (Hertz-oBH O(!p. D. . - E p.neJIHHM OCOMa npHTllcaK ce Ha DoapwHHH ~OAHpa Melba UO eJlHlllJjqHOM SBKORY. cahe ce H aoaHp TeJla npowHpYi~ ce Ha '"any nOBpwHHy y cnyqaJy ccpepllHx nOBpWHHa OrpaHHqeHY Kpyro". - noacpHOB Koeq. D. y TaqKR AOARpa. ie HanOH npHTHCKa p. npaBoyraoHe AOJlHpHe nOBpWHHe. a Baj8eh" HanOH ' 3aTesalba jaBiba ce y UqKaMa AOAHpHor Kpyra. .C~H) 1881.MHoM npHTHcKy aoa enaC"KqHa Tena OrpaHHQeHa y 611H3HHH aOaHpsHx nUJIlI 6H"0 ccpepHHM 6HIIO l(HIIHHAPHqHHM noopWHKaMa. 1- p. nOBpWlIHC OaHocHO WH o pHH. E. .neIlHOM · np"TRcKY.nOllyoce eJl"nTH'IIIe JlOJlHpHe noapWHHe. II I .X. . G. npe~HHl(a D."pHTHeaK Tella (N).oAIIHIIRMa IIHIIHHAapa. YCJlU ysaiaMHor npHTHCKa Tella OKOIIHHa aOaHpHe TaqKe aecpopMH. q p..

.!lO.IE 0. =E ..616 t F (EID)' 0. q 4 0.ilaehll .55 r P IE' D 2 2a E. +k.133P. mO.881 r FvlE 0.. r F)... 4a . s E.. FIE!' v 1.ynpe ..616 V' F (EIV)~ O.8 0.393 P.!lHpa) .:--!.3 E=2. '--=..-- 09181 / 1 la .. = 111 c 0.6D = 4k.591 VqEID 0.=E._ _ _I~ OpK tHCn 'OPV&Jtftlf P..= E 1'.. Bpcta yuJawRor npRTRC:U 9.JI.133p.798 1/ 1t If Y D (k.. I.3 II F VD'(k.:... . =0...:. O. 'liP.t5VqDIE 0.. (Hlf ....3 0.E 1'. TABJII1UA yaAJAMHH nPHTHCAI{ C4>EPHHX H L\HJJHHAPn'lHHX TEJJA (HERTZ-OBH OBPACLl.I1) nO.OO15~qD 846'/ qlD.:....E 11. O"U Pk 9.81 t I TlRre..61 St F(EfA)' 0.881 'li P. =1'. I-__.~e H .::. + kJ' s 0..pw.X. II 3 30 E.=E 11. "Hk 8pcu y.1·10' N/cm2 1' = 0.!l nOBpWHoe .all.... E.. E" .SS" P IE' A TlHreHU .25 2.-:::.55t b) L\IIIlHUAPH'IlIa Tella (q N/cm) . ..133p. \II (al •• N/em' a) CcJlepHa Tell.y6HHH 3 + In-20) P.::.::.~--=:.uJaWHOr npNTJla'1 aOA"pHt no.881 VF~ 0. '" 1'1 = 0... (~ + 250'iq{0 "0. -.anQH. 1.) 4b E.81 '_N/em' w "m".

=E.(2.+ 2(1 E. .$]-:~ ~ - 5 d' 1. + k.=E.=E P-. 2.3 ~ 3 4D. c I'-t = 0.798'/ q .3 6 1f P'. +.+k.pa 1.k.15 Yqv/E 0. o .. V q A(k..5F -Rob yV~~)' l.6'/qv <k.6'/q (k.) A ·0. +k. v(k.(k.) 0.) + In -- l'-1 = I't = 0..l ..) b.. . k. .afJ').591 '/ qE/l. 1.. +k.591 " qE/v .15'/ qA/E E 0..£. 60 7 ~ ~ W E.) 0 "').798 . +k..D.:. ~ < I .. = E 5a 2..

950 1..-. H R.400 0. H R. AKO Cy Y TaqKH JlOJlHpa R... D.. \58 1..--'K'. Pasa" rnaBHe Kp"SHHe K.350 1.080 2.>R.2. = IIR. = llR.767 2.c--'o$:.482 0.765 0. c) l(oe41J1~HjeHTII a.:2'+7'02'(UK'-. !Sob r Jle cy 8 3 (k.'")'(""K'-. rpUH ca paSHH rnSHe KpHOIIHe yrao '1'.5F .221 2. ..' r A08HU aOJlya/U~uu qu KpHBHHa (R. (1 ) a R..= K.025 1.. I 1. (os nWlRl\e d) . 1.045 1.632 0.) Ten.). .613 .) k = -..--'-KoecpHllHjeHTH «.770 1. Y 2.j 7 ..."). - D.060 .--':K'.308 0. Y OSONe cy cnyqajy p.875 1.(K"...'} Tena (2) OHJla cy rnaSHe KpHS"He y ynpaOH"M paBHHMa K.175 II I 0. ~ H Y oJlpe~yjy ce nONohy opeJlHOCTH e e~.>R'. II H r aa CJly. arc CO" -: yl/(KV--...')""+:-..+k.--UK".5 2 3 4 6 10 II 0..908 1. = llR.-K".' rnaBHH nonynpeQHHI1H KpMBHHa (R.106 ~ OnWTH cIIY'laJ.505 1.

.~o3 1..967.40S 0. • + ( :~) = 2" (0 -b)= 0"-1 + 0"-lb+a"-I .6·11 r 2. (n2 ) -_ n (n2-1 1). ) + • .846 0.319 I.754 1.397 2. n) = n(n . + b~n+1) : (a + b) = oln .) + ( . ) n 10gb Va = b > 1) log.\1 3. : +obO':' I +b.-l + b) = 0 1. a n 4) In x = log.00 1. n ) -.284 1. 3) 2) a2 -b 2 =(a+b ) (a-b). GI I 1.4342944819Inx.944 80· 75' 70· 60· 65· 1. Ol = }. . a .8' 1 • XI.996 1.H A) CTEnEHH I) (a±b)2 = a t ± 2ab + b2 .lnx = O.486 I.71 7 0. .log.550 1 .'btl ) 8) (a l " 9) (a'" + I _ : = n( ~=( n .) pl(n-·p)l . 4) 6) (0+b)'=a'±3a%b+3abl±b ' 8 a' ± b = (a ±b) (112:r:ab + bt ) ('1') .94 4 0.J5b 40· 45' 20· 30' I OU 0. (0) 0.302 585 093 log x...759 0.60·1 0. x = In 10 • log Xc: 2.ml '1.00 0. 2) 10gb (ae) 3) = 10gb a + 10gb e. .612 ~ 1.493 0.. 8) nOrAPHTMH I) 10gb a = c. n-p ( ~ ) + ( .~12 55' 50· .n2 J .2) • •• [n .1.802 (). I 28 1. c 1 = -.893 0.·.1.530 U. (O nl = 1 ·2·3·· ·n . .50'/ 0.875 1.220 0. log x -= loga x "" 0 - .l)(n-.Jog.7:. TAB1U1UA BA)I{HHJH MATEMATHql<H OSPACIl.828 l .""..0 1.d) l<oe411U(HjeHTH n.(p-l)] (p 1·2·3.li:j i 1.bl + .378 1.778 6.202 1.00 1.06 1 I.678 0.-1 b:+ otn-t b! - b1n ) •• . 7) (an .+ b'".-1 b + a1. !Ogb ( . 985 1 1.-1 b~ .n.p = n.-1 : (0 • . 5) logx = log 10 x = loge. PH r sa cnY'Iaj 8 To· eo 90· 85· (l 1.-1 _ 02.926 2:136 2.

t JC=D.= I I· D ~I x = D.z... o.'.) (z-z. .. 2) I I· a. a.JC+b. : D g. : D. z = D. cJ a.=p. a. D. d. O)lHOCRO 27e+20'-90b 27 'j6 0. + 6"y =C1 D. 6. + p ~ 0 u' + v· .(P. X'I • xJ =. = d..lot C) JEARA'IHIII! Je/1. :D..) (z . y +e.-q-+~~.q 3 U I"'. 2t'+. = b. D2 = as ds Ct a. bs '. D. d.'~ I . y = D. : D. Cl1 e.. + l. d. . = c1 Os.a z. b.+=. d..)'KOBaBa Ky61la jeA8nllU x'+px+q=o.HO~UHa z"+dz'+bz+c=O=(z-z. p= 3b . c. JC +b. -b±1I' bl . KyffHa ie/1. .z=d..ZJ:= b.'i)· . b. = . bt '1 dJ b. Ao6KBa ce peJI. a. d.Ha~UHe 1) Upsor ellleueHa a.7/. At b.q"')'l'.1 4) %1 z!! + z~ CMeHOM z=x -'/.y+e. e.q. z=d. = -'lop ± V' /.al 3 q= Pewelbe Je 3u. 3) a. y +e. D. p> .'. x+b.Q x'+px+ q =0. JC+b. c.I'" -l=0. = V'---. At b.40c 20 ax'+ bx +e =0.(.z =d. ef x.

2) P'...'I.Q'+'/ .'1)" A .z-64=0. 31 P. .(27q'+4p') = -:-4 .(l}.-4.=~)f2 COl (l1/u_l= -2(ra -1). t1 = ('1. .q cos. q=O.16Y2. p=_I/:.. PaJilH"HTH (HeCBOJVbHB cily"aj - casus 11 OBOII CJlyqajy cc ynoTpe6Jb3Ba TpHrOHOlleTpHCKa "eTOJla a': .p =21" . na je p Hera//luBHo t1 = . %. • =..ac+d_ -D>O.x. ('.('"p)". +2.cos npaaep •.=2V3-2.-1.='/...=-8.: {z-2J= ~ .o'. Pz{z) =0. r. ._= 2V . P eos('P~21f).to.:.'-4.IllBplIlor elileatHU z.'!').+t/. .c""~UHa ~. p)' ~ rel'I : a + i~ = ...1""2. d=~.: 1i.~~-3zS+4l-1_0 .=2" _ '/.=-2n-2 . -x.3q 2pY .P. '.-b-'/.'/. q)" ('I."I.4 .p + 4n 3 _ I) P~(z) .=4ffCOJ('/'~-1=2(Jf3tll.. q=_:lt.= -·/u. a'b-'I.=z.. . . q)' +('/. (cos 'P + I sin 'P)' ie KaKO D> 0 TO je ".110 J1uc~p"AUlHaHI1JII D .. p)'- o -~ 0 csa < 0 jeAaH KopeH D D> 0 //lpu Kopella peDAll e KopeH" cy irreducibilis)_ peeADH peaAllu " jeJJ.'/. X. P ..-z'+12 .px'+qx + r=O.z'/./. U:. te cy 2..a'-'/.--('/. - rcos'!' : .p' eos(. .1±1. r..p)') : . 4) Je./. =.27 . az' + bI' +cz + d ~ 0.27 [('/. ~ _ L = rl = _I/:rp'. "-21%-32eO.ab+c. -. elleBOII z=x-'I.'. x".'/. - . . z. q)' + (' I. z.. .. D~-4<O: .aH je H ABa llpDAU. q='I.a CBOJlH ee Ha x'. q jI T ('1. Z•• p=l.j.: a. ..=±'.:' -·h:t+Sz-2=O . 1'.p)·<O. .= +1. A=-256. . 'I)' r ('/ . V:::o: II.x=O:°xt=O. z. -. KOHjyroBoHo KOMaUKCHa.2:+1::::t._'1._2: P.r'+.

). VI" = .He Ka <PYl!xu"ja y=/(x) y HHTepeany [a. + VI."-t . 5. {i. I..VI. ( - '~ . -..20r-+6~t==O. ::. y">O a) y' > 0 TaHreHTY nORy!. = 'IA ft.3.::0. .b) y ~w"e j e yy" > 0 nooyhH TaHreH TY Ha KpHBy. Oeaj nocTynaK Tpe6a nOHO~HTH.H . TaKreHTY y' < 0 TaHreHTY y:CO Jrtll A nOByhH H3 Ta4Ke A nOByhH H3 raQKC B.. = X. y" "" O. .''''oj b) A f liolipaBKa Xl . J. . je npH' 6nHlKHa BpeAliocT KopeHa X=b_/(b).(-VI. cy npH6nH)I(Il0 peW80albe jeAHa'lltlla OJ "- Mrwona maHrrHille (Ne wton·""phson)..). 1':. -I. 1::1::=..'<0 frill 11 y" e <0 a) b) (b) 1'(1)) I (. !-beH" cy KopeHH I " x t = 'f) vt. I. . q=O. f' (b) b) y' <0 flOUPOUIlO TaHreHTY nOByhH H~ TJ4KC 1/ f (u) I' (a) I (y"Oj [t(t!H. p=-IO. Vt. bJ HM" 'y' * O. f t. .-. p. -VI.(I)=I' -8~'+ 141:+81-1S=O..'II.q. "p.. . na je 1. P. . ' ..).n Ta4Ke BII l~)J.q' =0 (£qler·oea pe30Raellwa).) 0) A B . n.. '.:. 'II. tV!. -3. n. '/..=0.).r'-lOr+9==O.. -I. CnY4ajeBH. . x.:16. P. 3. KopeK je npeceK TaKreHTe " OCC OX. . ='I.{x)--.' + (p" . OJ h= _ )" :> O..4.2p I. r ~~. 0 vt. x. Y aeny HHTepBann (a . B .4 r) 1 ..III npeTxOAHO Tpe6a peWHTH Ky6HY jeAHa4HHY I' '. ~ vI. x.

. ~ x f (x.: opeHY Cd Dalle te KopMc:rc oCie npenOJJ. 2... pUIIHQ aTHX CTpaBa KpHHe.. (lr. A06.. = a - I (a) t (b) - (b-a) HIlH x = b.5/6.n .M6uHOBGHO MtWOA G (Dude-lin) - Jtp ·npH6nRlICHc 'p eJlKOCT K re*e J.u~e (regula folsi).xf+ l .l . d) Mefiiop.6'250)=2. l:IeKa je Xo npa> npH6ltHlK Ha speAKOC! Y.1 . OHAa ie y npeceKy C ea oeOM Ox npll 6J1HlKHa speAHoeT KopeHa x. Hoey speAKocT . . .) a 33THM H HCTl1M H3QOOOM H . Koi a i e.095 I < > I (b) (b-a).\0 -0...... HenpeKHAHa <PYHKIlHia y OKOltHHH epeAKoeTH KopeH • . (. apuuoCT .(x... _ .6250 na Je npll npK6I1H)KHl apUHocT kopena %1I11III2+(0.. Kao H ['(xl.1(2. .. 600wo 1(2)=-1. "y .1:.AKO ie I (a) 0. r) KO.a ufiiepa~uje (Gregory).) y' = 6> x/ 1/ h( = _ y( 2 -1 10 2..op.I... p. rop . I (b) 0 noayk" CeQHIlY AB.095.112 nocrynaK nOHOOH TH H3 raq Ke Bi [x.. [x . b) Mefiiol1 a ce . .llpyra anpOKcHMBUHja 6Hbe f(x.) np .. '" f' (x.HC MClOne.. ra\lHHj.23 I Ix.OS 11 ..Xf+ h 1 0. - 3.) f (XiI I . /(a) f(b)-f(a) nocrynaK nOH 08HT .1 0 O.=t(x).0754.'oay ). Clle)lehe ey npH6J1HlKHe apeAHoCTH AKO Je Iy'(x) 1< 1 . I' (x..5)=5.1 0 2.005 2. J.lI HJlH A.T.. = %. y Walll.

a. Ilile Q .1'" llPC. D. _:: L• .'2 TO cy t t1.I .H8l(H Ht .JI -2.l~1. -.:.=q> (") . . AKo jc I y' (X) I> 1 0"'10 ee npe .. x. I lxJ=l. b.d .! 0 .2 o -6 -3 -2 o -6 -3 1 ~ I(r. np_Me p.3.1 . b b..· ~. CUll Je :r ll.fi x" = '2).O H I' P I-Il1. o. I x. + bll - b" _ J b..) H3 ftH J3 ' xo= 1 BpeAHoeT nonKHOM' + b"x. x. Hl ""Oep3HY $y HKUHj y .8 17 1. b.rJ=r2\"" +3 .Pl HjON Ao6MUW O 'P (.8 17 I I=r 6.62~< O . OKO KOPPM:1 ._".1 '1 .2 1..pell MOn .1n.6 x: + 3 . 0.': a . + b:: xo I b..2 o ti:l 3.3 2 -6 3 4 I .5 J='..:lj -2.:. OH.2 u · I) ~ x' · 2 x· ~ 6 r . 0 It "'.HOCTH X" KOHBe p rltPJ I(a Ko pe HY jfD.10 lt _ :: I (x) = x' .l HOCT H I x H3 HHTe pB3 . -! O ::X 1: T" D IX ~ D. Te ItHle. = !( x." ".? JiS . .o pe" '! pII l .I" CHe XJ • ... y p. x..51 ' 0 = 1.:2 I 1.6. nOW TO If ly' ( x) l~ 1 .:1.( 1. +b:. '21 jl'!" i~' 1(l ..r:. TA ll it H)' Je ..4) :(x >.6x: +3x..> 1.8782 Ha PA'I YKABAIbE BPEllHOCTH AnrE&APCKII X no n llHO MA Hajn aK wo ee SPW" no XopHeposoj exe"H xn-1 .5.3·x' + 2 x' . I x' (y) npH J(t p. D"X" + D"' _IX"-I+ a.r -3 :::.1.'(. Klko cy KJlOA M 1' lz }=3.< + ~ . TO jc i x'(y)I< 1.) (x' 3x' t 2 x' ·.113 :. npout c AHl epreKllIl. a..1 /(X ) . j 3.l:1 HH3 Bpen. 1 (2 ):: 1 > 0. jep.. .. 1 . x.

2)'. + A".o.4KHe..(O» p. a.. I:JI C" - p.(x)=O a p. (x) = p.r - %0) f(. OM 01 (.(x. 360r Tora nonp.21 A.lOl) = 0.0 y 0611HKy *0.(I.(') I- I1h. HI npMwep. (0) = _ b.o.("l)+ p. (x -x.Buwe DyWa DOHOlJU/UU AOK ce He . T34H.. rae cy ICae4JtlUlfJuTM A._. (x . p.TK 'lIre60pCK~ jeAH.. 0 A. AKO je x. 3a jeAHKKIlY KK)I(er peAa OA np806KTHor nOllKHo..-x. nOCTynaK Tpe6.xp)z + • .. . rAe cy b. 1 ... --.1 x ._. (x. (x-xaJ".-2 8 2 1 -6 2 - 1 -4 2 I 1 -2 2 3 -12 -9 -8 -17 -4 l -18 12 -20 -10 -8 ~ A. pili lit" nOIl""014 !(x)=-z'-8._.. HHje.. jc x.(Ol). . npsa npK611H)I(R' epeAHOCT nOllKHOMO p. (x. (x -xo)+ A. no noerynaK Tpe6a OOHOBHTK ca 08aKO AooK8eHHM 001lH80 . rIOMohy Xoplepoae c!elle • l.(x. H " noclIcAIbK Koe<l>HIlKjcHTII XopHepOBe eXCMC np~or H ·..ulCI XOPHCPOI nOCTynllC Tpe61 nO"OIKTH OIOAH"O nyu ICon Je peAl x Y' A".BKY y3 ..l 1 +3. KopeHHM 4KHHOlleM eHK)I(OSa' ce peA nOllHHo. .21 (x -2)' ... speAHoeT lber080r "opeHa.. -44 A.o*e ce JllkO ypUHTR . (x.1-2. (x) = O OHAa MOpa 6KTK p.t4 (x-2) -8.06Kje )l(eJbeHa TnHoeT KopeH. (. llcJbelbe.pyror noeTynk •. npH611H)I(Hl speAHoeT KopeK.(O» jep x.naClTH y o6')I&Y no.rJ-A tt+A .114 I (x) ypet)elf no CTt-nUN"..)::.. o6. 0. no"ohy XOpHepOse exeMe Mory ee peWI8.t..x'+8x+12 no CTeneHIlWI . nOllKHO. no Clene""". . rA~ je nOllNKO. f (x!'= (t . 0"1 .1'. a p.

00 4.t il' :::: 6h -0.5)=7 /8 .= 10.4 158 I xl~O.4.176 I 1 0. x.0662.585 0.".I.0466 1 -9 0. 0.()()()02 xa~6.2208 .4934.86 0.6.4158 -8.99 2.EHlJ.6 14.9 1 0.0.44 5. x. -6 5. :rJ ~2.7253.116 11. P(O.4158 18 -3.9.0003 . x.8.170 11 .(0)= O.EH THE JElJ.=7.2 1 x.8. -9 18 -6 0.50 0.68 0.2899 X I X2 xJ-=6'.0. Xl = 4.4158.3906 1 -8.824 .1684 11.26 1.0090 0.9041.2943 . x.415 18 -3.4372 -3. P(0)= .5628 14..19 10. BA)f(HHJE TPAH CU.(n-.0343 .00 3. 1: Xi .08 1. P(I)=4 .9910 -0.3 1 1. - 0.4 -3. x. x.115 P (x)=x' -.415 -8.5893 14.65 0. 2) xtg x=a a X".= 14.0008 -6 6.68 -7.3964 .00 1.4 18. )" 3a n > 5.015 11.01 0.4307 -3.568 . =-22/125. 1: XI=~.43 1.10 0.415 1 0.4 0.= 17.56 -2.4 1 .00 1.HA'IIIHE 1) tgox=x KopeHH: xo=O.10 0.5842 0.0003 0.50 0.00 100 1.00 5.88 .31 1.'j.c'+ 18 x-6=0 npaaop.I'(O.

O. 0) P£)lOBH I} ApMTM e T HQK H o. r 3.J) + n = n(n.9955. II 62 l) Ig % r Th x o ~ (l: 3.= '/..5.352. %.498. q. 32 7) cos x Ch ..'.493 5) Ig % r 6) 1500 X x. = 4.r Cb.9956. . = 10. r I3..00 .I) dJ. o. 38 n > 5.2}1< cos.210: x.1 x..365.I) d S. ) n = ' /: n[2a+(n .: 7.r. a" a.:. ) :< .Ii 6 3) a z r ig a x ~ a cia a It (1 " _ 0 • 30' I . . 1200 ..l .:::: (n .= 4.069 .:. a. & 1.Il = qo.:.r.. .07 2.r. 8548: .36 2. + xlt . 2) aq. )I< 1A z. reo . .8751 .5). = 16. .493 ~ (n .) 2 33 n> 2. -:-:: aqf1 - 1 S . . . :::: (n .(l.. = a (q" . ..7300: r.r.7. ~ 2. . 27: . n > 4..16.1 = (n+ 1.: = 1 . + (n .:. .X") ~--' I. = 10..ro ~ O .5. eTpHCKH D.~ 7 .. . o + d. 0 + 2d. n > 3. . x.r. .x 3) 1 + x + x' + 4) I c 2+ 3 + 4 t .:.. = a + (n .00 4.38 180 2.8532 .. . oq·. .: c. %.6941 .2+ 1) = X' + .498 + (n ..c J. (a + 0.. Th % r .-a q.I (1 .' / . .r.'/.

3·c 5 T 7 ..+ . Ixl<1 '" !-x)m = 1 + m x -t m(m .lf n ..+ .x J ' 11 21 3! x" 41 e' = 1+ . 3n X + "'. 7 3 •5.l)'=n'(2n' .3n .. . (n ·· I)' · n'<' 7) I' + 2' 1 ' (n 3' .c!'l.5 Ixl<oo X~O 33 I 1 xl <J)O .9 .. x' 4! 61 cos X = 1 . X[ (X - . 3! 5) I' .x I 8! + . 2n .-1 +_... 5 . 3: . 3n . ... 15) 16) X X:l . 2n . 1)(3n' +. n) x'- n n .' 3" 1 5'+ . 4' .. '/. ] lox=2 .. 2n .. x + 1 3 x+l 5 x+l 7 x+1 . . 0) 1' ·/ 2' 13' ·4' . 7.+ . T 14) I)r ~.IO n (n d) (2n·.. I)t'"' ~ n ln l 1)(2nfl) . . _ ___ = 1 _ !'!..- x' 3 2x' 3.mlm + n)(m+2n) ..)X' + '" 12) -::-'~ 13) ~(I 1 ±X 05' T '" • (2" .x sm x = - 19) 19x=x+-+--+ 11' . I ' .. ~t .+ .lx l <'/I" 3" .+ .. 31 5! 71 ..2n) .1)' :t/"n(2n . Im(m . .l)(2n + I)=en.)""±(.I-.117 2'. .. 17 x' 62x' + 1 +"' ..(. [n (1I ' 2 II' .x 2 ~. 2n n . .(".x 3 + .. (X (X - 1 -1)' + -1 --'-1)' +-1 1)1 + .I) ~C..)X I.xl x.) -:: I T x. +(2n 10) 1' ~ 3' 11) (I ±X)n ~ I ± (. .. .. n . ~ 8) 9) .2! 18) . 17) x' x' X1 +.I) (211 ·3) H2n .. x + m ( m. (n ·'1)' .. I) ~ n' . . .n)(m .+. .l) 0 1' . 1.n) X"I n .

I .. cosn a 7 COS" a -(.'a+(.' = 2) sin'" = II -IX.1 2 Ig a±tg~= sin '( a±p) .+ .x' Xl . EI'TPHI'OHOMETPHCKE H XHnEP50nH'IKE 4>YHKItHJE I)arc .COl 2 a V 2 ' cos a= 111 'f-cos2..cos a. . 41 -' .2 be cos a.Jl8 Xl . 12) piZl ~ cos x ±Isin x. ~ h : sin II = c : sin y.a lgfl cos 2a=cos 2 a. sin x = ~Sh xl.[' \. Sh ( . ) sin' acos·.sin" a c.p 2 a+1I a-II COl a-cosfl= .a .7'44." 20) Chx=l+ . = 180 I cos a = r. V 2 9) a. 11 1.+ 21 . Cb ( . sin (-a)= -sin a.017453. II) COl (-a)= 'COl a.Sh 0:. 5) Ig (a±p) = tg a ± Ig PI 1=Flg.x) = Ch x. 2 Q' = b' + c' . '2 7) sinn a=(. . 8) Sin a. .. sin a. " '.' + 31 51 7! (i' . cosacos fI a-(.2sin-sin-.. VI+lgla 3) sin {~~)=sin a cos ~ ±cos a sin~. . arc I' 180 ~ =0. )Si~'acOS"-' a.I a +( ~') sin~ a cos"-' a .lg (a ±fI) = ctg a ctg 1I'f l ctg p±clg a cosa + cos~ = 2 cos a+ '.:. )sin'" cos" .) sin acos·.JC)'= .x 7 Sh JC = X + . cos x ~ Ch Ki.8" sin 2 a=2 sin a cos a cos fI=Fsin a sin Il.. ' 4) cos ("±fI) " cos It 1 rad=57°I. .'=:=1':i=" VI+Ig'a tga . . 21) ..' ..

(n*-I) n+l 2) e" dx=e' 4) cos x dx=sin x 6) dx = arc Sin .t cosn - cos(m-n)x .Va'-x' . I SIll ms x sin x n OJ f sm"-Ix dx cos"-' x dx sinm+ 1 xcos. f f.arc sin- sm"xdx = COS" J ~ x dx = sin" -..'1'1 . x cos x n ..cos x -dx .=tgx cost X f_l-dx = arc tg x I +x' f f Chxdx=Shx x arc sin a dx Va' . 1) 3) 5) 7) 9) 11) f I.1U.-l x n-l + -m +n m+n cos IIX dx = - .. Op.1 + -n- f. 2 cos(m i n)x 2(m+n) "':"':-'-'~'--'-- lpe6a Y3en1 f' san'"..Z<o.J_ 1n I ~ I x"-o' 20 x+a 12) fX -. sin'" x cos" x dx. +C'. 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) ~ ~.r dx= . x 2 ~ x 2 a 1/ 0'. f f f f f Z=X +/y = . . . T= Vx'+ y' x" dx = x"·.119 13) e. -11- COS" -. 2(m-n) J X rb (m .x· . =111 ex f f sin x dx = ..on ) JOLU H 0POH3IJOAHY KOKeTI8fY C.1 n .. x V I-x' 8) 10) Shxdx =Chx dx .i=e'.::.dIM II HTtrpUIiM iI n. f .

of- dx (ax'+ bx + c)"-' ' J elx = P("-' )(x) Ifax' + bx .'xdx Cign-I d (/I/ * n) 2( /I/ + n) 2( m -n) Jl gXdX ~ .x sin x J cos· x: = (n .b') 36) I sin x d.I +... --at +b 2 33) J J 34) 35) - cos bx dx.' .Y p<m ) (x) ax l ~ bx . ") .xm sin x . C J .{..1 x .120 20) 2I) ·' .Inlg (n . dx I 2 ax + b (ax'+bx + c)' = (n . .. J 2(2n-3)0 . f f :)an m x sm nx d x - 24) J 29) 30) 31) + _S:. co:-..J J x dx .x=-- .xm cos X + m x dx .V x dx = 25) J J n-.J gn.In cosx. dX n." x ' X "" -I J xm - I dx sin n-Ix ' cos x dx asinbx -bcosbx eO.' x J sin Jx~ cos .:ic:ll.. 27) .\ dx - 22) 26) si'l l m-lI)x _ 2 ("./I/~-~"L) . 2 (m ' n) rclg In sin J-cosx ax .I)cos' .. cos III". ill (/I/ +n) x . ( cQS" S1fl.hx dx =. X 2. 'x - t dx CI x (II- ax: . _+(-I)"n...Inlg .m dx COS".(n-I)(4 ac . c + C • V ' dx . hx t c)" .Jsin" = tg'x dx = ' tg": -. = u cos bx+ h sin bx a' +b" e4 X x'ei dx=e"[x'-nx'-' + n(n-I ) x". ax + bx T ( .IJ .. ") J.-x c g" x x .. 32) e llS" x I j!" . n.J n..+ -X ) 4 2 23) x dx ~ SIO 28) sill( m ..2 J n.l n-.!(::.:m . .2 J COS X I )si nn + n.J)(4ac -b') (ax' . ..

') dz + z' 1+ z 1 · 2 .bx + cdx- ax::!+ bx + c V dx. ~(tg X)dX' R( l 21 . dx- 41 ) J X 2 dz 2 1+ z.. l' 1..- dx == -2"I ~ r x" C.: ' I -z~ 2z COS· X = . dx=-1.. R(Sin X. ) b a' + b-' .(O<n<l) SlDn1l • tI :' ) ... J Va x' l. COSbxdX~ o· ~~ V: "I" 0"+ (a > 0..4 '2 Cb/x~ 16' I 0 II . ) J C-" dx ~ 9) 10) J c . R(~) ±J dz 1 + z' ...' • J t . I' f f. ax:.-'x..121 J 37) . . JR(ctgX)dX. . ctg x ~. 11: 42 Q . 1--. 1+ .COSx)dX-2J 40) J tg" .e'-' .· bx+ C I x ±a = - dx (x t a)Va x'·-bn c· 38) J 39) JR( em' )lfx= ~ JR~l)dl. ~ 2) J~ sin a x dx - rtg " dx . : 0) OIlPB"BBHH HHT1!rPAJlH a) ~ I) J dx a +bx' = 06".0 a <O tI ~) f• -x +d1x - = 1. + bl 0 2 • X"-I 8) a."" 2'(cib . = z.. . . x 3> = · 7) r>o .. l .. x' e-a:Jt sin b:( dx = e".. tg ...tl X.- 51O X= .'" <Ix·.= z.' / 1ft ~ :1) r~ 0' x o • " 0 "HTerpan" .2.1 6 0 "• . I II) • x' f .

31 '+ I x' x' '5 .d l ..2 21 .[1 .7' 71 - +..122 . 51 .I!)) f • f '/."x' -. ( Ixl < oo) 2) HHTerplJl KOCIIIIYC Cl.. . lIeo 6 poj) .lnx +. 2·4·6 . (n' < I) .. • .. 3 · 5 . 1)1 (n >0 • ueo 6poj)' (n '2. 3· 5 ·7 . I' .. + 21 3) H8TerpIJI JlorapHTu • Li(x)- f• 1 Inl -dl. ln x...+ 1xdx == ':.C+.~ sin ~ " "' J .t' 1 . . ( I .COS/ • .{x)-- f . 4 41 6 61 I 2 (in x)' . 3 31 +-.. -I I 1 13) x" or..l ) 2 · 4· 6 . · (2n-l ) " • Sin'" + 1 x fa re sin ( {x ) d" - 14) > O. 17) 18) f • • f f • cos:.s t sin'· xdx f ~ cos" xdx = . 1 . I) ml nl 2 (m +...x)· sin nn f• 'f. -1.. 0 b) Cuel(HjlJlHH HHTel'p lJIH I) HHTerplJl CHHYC x S/(x) = f• sin 1 I . xl_ . n +.. d.-+. . • 1. · 2n dx c ". _ . I (In x)' + . " ] . •. · (2n +. ·2n ... ·2n I ~.r dx = ..... cos'·" x dx = - 2·4·6 . lnllnxl+. • In cos x dx = o f In sin x dx· = . 16) • 1f1:. 1 12) f _ 'i I -x' 1 ·3·5 ···(2n .C +..'3 . ." In 2.d' = x .

123

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y'= h(y) + C, = dy/dx;

q(x ). e) I(x). m#).3:0. 2. K('-). \ ?"+3y"-y'-3y=O. .._. 3±i.C eA. -. . LA.t(X). o .'-"-'+ It Pewelh e Y.y.y"l + .. 1. . ... -tCn' r=1 • " }.-+ +8Mxm-')sin~x) ). . .\ ' (x) = L" o A. ·y=Ey..'-). .x '-" . + A...(co s.x+ + C.. '-+A. q(x).. ). + B. m.y ' -.O.. = .A.e m . .. d) f(x) .=1.. t\ n p:tKTepBCTI-14 Ha je A H3 q H Ha " >"'=O.~n+A.' ).+ CII x+ C.. + C.. s. I= y-=-r.-.. o =C. x + .-"')sin 4x)_ 9) HexoMoreHa ca KOHCTaHTHHM KoeljJHUHjeHTHMa . 2. e' + (C.:. '-•. )..127 8) ·XoMorcHn CJ KOHcrahTHHM KoeIjJHUH]eHTHMa: .+ y. { cosmx. x + c. >. fI'JHH lKer pella Il =AX'e"''''.y(kl. .P.A b) f( x)=P~(x).(x).l.. .+Eq.sin x) +e-"(C.~x+ i sin ~x) + C.y"l=O.+ (-2+4/)'.1.. 2...( A.LC.kY" .'. -3 .. x') e" (-2-4/)' + eO' (C.X +(.y= Cc~ · .e l. q napTHKyJlapHH HHTerpaJl HeXOMoreHe. 0) f(x).. f(x).1sin pxll. 0) npOCT KopeH . + .. + Am-x m-') cos ~ x + (8..c. (cos ~x . cos x + C.x. ..e ). ~) . ~A. q= I1 .). x') cos 4x + (C.. c. • LA. _.'x' + .e m.lIrnx +Bcosmx.a.IA cos ~x + 8 ·sin prj d) Kopel! moor pella eO< [(A. + A. I y.. m+ v .. . +A. Oil H(x). x + A. mi :F A. y = C. .~ IC. y. sin mx.. = OnWTIt HHTcrpan XO'lOreHe.. e c) KOlhyrooaHo KOMnneKCHH (o+ j:J)x .x _ ~ ... I Yr::': C. v 11300D. Y .'+3)..

_H .... -jo -+ . . cosa = a.. j +a. c o~' a . (i j) _ (j k) ... .- """?(x ). .. ~- -)-.k . 'H ' . b...r • -. 5) (0 b) -ab cos (a. -.')/ a> ~ 1..a..+ cos' ~ + cos'. co s p = a. (m z +z')e"" . . s = s.. .. .(a../a...~ 'b=b. )j +(a.j+b.. b. b) = ob cos &= o. " 2) b = Aa.)-. 0 : . fa...) i +(a.i COSa + j cos p + k cos y... . x' (A' si n mx + B co~ mx) y' .k. .' + 0': -j. +b. = Aa.b) -Cba). 0 0. b. " . .. (a. .2.. (z"+2m.. -. . = )"a.12 mx. -3 : rt:=A sin 3.. y = e"" z.. SIn f) I (x) = [ cos mx.. ~' -) -t r ./a. I'}I= P:~ a r: +bx + c . .-. + b... """'t- . i+b.•• -+ (l. = -. y" '+ 3y" -Y-3y = 3i:l+ lOsl n 3. 0 : Ar= l .' . b + c) = (a bJ+(ac).. ~. 6) (a aJ = a'. Il) f (x) . . i +s. -+ a+ b = b+ a = s.)k.. -+ -) . . . y" .t+ Bcos 3x I) BEI(TOPCI{O PA'IYHAIbE a) BeKTopCKa aJlre6pa -+ -+ -~ I) -to '.. -) .) 7. -.'+3).) -~ .+a.i +s... • a. '... . (0 b) . ).r... b.... -) .. -+ .... nu =' A' .. 3) 4) by = M.. .0.a (i cosa+ j cos ~ + k cos r).).....3=. .(kk)-I . -.i + a.. a.:= 1. (ii)=(jiJ .. a.z") = P (x ).. ..I .+ Oy b. + b.. a = a = (a3:r+a2y+aSr)lit . N (x) = '::8. . . . k = (a . ... b) = 1. -(a. ...(k i). cosy .'+ + m' z) e''''. a..

lb..(a b)e 15) ([ab].1 G._x... . 9) ..129 . a" .. . _l -) -+ r. ) •• .+0 .. [>.... ...)'+(z.. (. _+ _)....(r. b.. ::i +yj + :k=(a+Oi I· (b+~)j+(c+~)k . .)'+(YI-Y. -r.. :~ .b]=).* 0. r ~ rA+ p . . by h. d _ [(x. -+-+ (a b)'+ [a b]' =a' b'.). -+ -+ 4-+ .... [edJ]=c(a[bdlJ-d(a[bcj).=. = .. -+-+ : ~ n. 12) -+ -. (a[bcJ)-(b[ea])=(e[ab]) - b.. -+ b.r(icosa+jcosj!+kcosy).i i 4 a. 4-+ 8) -+ [ab]=e= . (i[jk])=l. . -+-+ -+ 0)1 a..t~ -+. by b. -.... -) -+ -. ) -+-+ •• b) AHaJlHTH'IKa reoMeTpHJa I.. 13) ~a b ) =O 0pTOrOH3nHOCT... -4 • -+ • -+ .. 3) TpaHcMl\>lja eMCTe"a .la.. [ikl .. .r . • -+ -+ . 10 1= I...(absin6) · n..~ (a - b]=O -+-+ [b ell = 0 " KOMnJl3I1apllocT'. <4 -+ -+ -+-+ -+-+ -+ -+ .[abj.)']'h .'.' M. n.) . - ."a - -+ -+ .. .. . a. k . ... . -+-+ . -. .). . -t .) -+ 14) [a [b ell ={a e)b -. [iij-k.b+c]a[ab]+[ae]. M. ay ..k . -) ---+ d'.. . [kij=L ' -+-t [abj=-[baj. t. -+-+ . 2) M... i+e y j + e.. Ta.... -] ... ( '1 C...... . [a . [ed])=(iIC) (bd)-(ad) (be) 16) [[ab]. -+ ..(r... . [a.. . = 10) -+-+ ~ [i i]-lijj=[kkl=O.... I) OM=r=xi+yj+zk . . -+-+ KOJlHHeapHocT H oapaJleJlHOCT. c...}' . -+ b.. \1) -+-+-+ b. a... AI(x.. . a.i .M...:)' -......

.) Oil -+ . i c 1.II = .I.... L(u~xi+~j+yk): lui-I .z-ZI t ... + keosy.A.u-ai+bj+ck: -' ... (0...... ~ y z -D -D a'+b"+c=l: ao./D.')'I•. n..... .): 1.C ' -+ 3) Pallu ---to -_ (M M. III. C... + D· (A'+B' ~C!I'I• -+-+-+-+-+ I) M. -+ -t .p-)..11JbHHa nqKe M. .)=(q. I) OM-OP+PM-pn + p=r. -. .r.. j = -i sin 'p+j co~'p. -+ 2) q=qo~A i+Bj+Ck: $~pq= -D=p(JI'+B'+C")'1' -+-+ (rq) -lcJlx.. (r .tA. - ..fr... -+. M -.1-: b. -..y COS ~ + z COS y .+ (..-r.....)=O. . . 8. .. q. Ba+C. ~ (r. ~ ...T ·-D : e. - A. -~D ~ y-y.) . ) (r... . n-icosa+jcoSll+ -+ -+-+ (r 0) -p _r cosa+ . " M..=B. q . --:.+B.... I p'=o'+b'+c'. ~ -+ --+ --+ . -. A... -../C•. 3 Kp03 TpH TnKe A. + By. (. -+ .. Ibl-Ial.'.(q.. i'.x... (rnl-p. . [M..'+B. -+ ~ .2.. .r. (r..q.=C....:.'+C..-r"p)_1).. y paaHH b-acos'P+(ka)sinl'.. ..i cos'P+i sln'P.... -+ . n ~ . (n. (A...).ll - -+ . ' x-x...)...'+B. npa8a paBuH -p . II • -+ -+ -+ ... ..f"By+Cz+D-O.+ 'I C. 2.. d s (. PUGH .... H3Me~y pasHH 4) Yrao M. . a = cos a.'.... [A. A... A. -+ R.'l'~ .. M. . r..(r....130 4) POTaItHja . .]) =0. ..~ . -+ 5) PI3A.. -~ -to II. -t -.. . J... (r.) =..o)=p+d.p = O. +.. [o.n. + ez. . ..0 = . R(o)..... q)-s. .

L. C. +1= f.p. .).. npasa H'paBaH. (s(p. p..) (p.- • B.P.-+ . 4o. Y . p..] =0. .0'.1 (P. ' A.. -.] = (p. ) 4) L... p.8.. = c. -to - ... [....f" . (fq.-+ -+ p=r. sin 'II)' = (f.-)... 5) Pa3A8JbHHa TaqKe M."p... 0. .) 1 ..1.. (P. a. ~)' Hyn'Ta npa~ .p. -". . a. .. -+ -+ (sp. . 3.....).=r. B..131 ~.)" a.. B. p. 0 ./c. p.. .)-S. C...]) =0: -+ -+ s=r. P. D. -t + A.. +~ + (2 )':' .. f. + b. -.. -+ -t (p. Po) -t 8) npeceK P(P) opas.(. . " -+ .. 613= _I A. p = . sin 'II) u. .lb. MoMnasHe) npaBe L.. -+ -to I=f. ( alt il (a' 2... C. .) (p...= A. 6) YKpwTeHe (.. (p.-f."p.ia. 0.)....r -n.(p.f... . .C... 2 -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1=0. -. '" . f.x L. 1= I u. 1 . .M.. P.).r .p..-.I ) R. d t4 .).... c. . A.... -+. . . -+ .. II" (P...) }. -+ [r . Pa]' • p. -. p ]'/p'. (p'. I' to lJ - B. . (p.. "1' <fI = (r.. .. (f.......(.lI = 9: -.=1... 1 "'. A.l~' I b' t ( 2)'I. ... pal . B. ~~ 2) ...]' -+-+ (sp. 2. 1=1.+A.(p.) l' . npase L (p) .) . ' . eos &= = P. -t ..j) = (s(p. (/[p. pI (s p..F" -.-f. .u 6 11 = .• . M.' AI= . 1 ' ' ' '''' + ... p. z =. .j ~ O 3) M. B...f..]).. . -t-+ -t... L.. -+ "7). b.6. (p. . p. . (p. = 1.P. + c." P. = b. • A. p. u]' = (f. l.+>-... "... ~ -to ~) '. .. (.+)...).. l = f .) 0. -. ... 11 = -.. .. npaBa Kao npeceK paSHH 4 Jt·. . ... \f. -t •• .. [p.. 2. IV.'. . -to l' 1 (s'p. = 0.=O.+A. .

. .... (rtq) -s . .:(1). ... -+..r•• p]) = O.. .) H .. -+ .. . • . -t a J......roo PI]= O........ ......(00)=2(0. ... d . cJz [[ = . -t 5) L Xp03 "'... lJy cJz -tcJU -tcJU +j lJx Qy 8) grad U = \J U = i - ~lJU T k-. ~ 3) npoJl... . • • :=. . .. . 5) dl(o[bc]) =(o [bc]) +(a[bc]) + (a[bc] ... .:..grad U (xyz) .p. x ~x (I). . H ....... L (p) ..:............ '!d 7.. .. ... y=y(/)...... + ).... (I' q) . d . LI (Pa) c) ..[ob)=[ob] +[ob] . d' ...... [r.....+). ~ 2) Yrao H3"' ~y L (p) H R (1]) . II A/a=B/b=C/c.. BeKTopcKa aHanHaa . . 3) di"(ob) = (r... 4) R Kp03 M....p =r. 1... -+ • . -+.r.. ..1 6) L Kp03 M... 0) . d ... tOs(qp)=sin 9 = Aa + Bb + Cc. -10 (r ...b) +(ob) ........ .( pq) ~s. Aa +Bb+Cc= O...... . -t' -+ (rq) =s.p.~ .. 1....... 1) "="(I) = xi + yj +zk..132 .. ...... .. ... .. ..) V' = 1 - cJx +"!lJ ) -+ "'cJ k-... ...q) +).~ dl- -+ -+ . -+... ... (PI) [r . r = r...... 10(1) I= consl. [r..... -+ • 2) dv/dl =v= x i+ y j +z k... p = r.. ~-+ : ...... -+ .. (r. qj =0.r..-+ (r.. . . II L.. 4) d..... ..... ... -+ ..... d . 7) L ' KpOS M. -+ .. • "'=x'+ y'+ z' ..op P (p) IIPaBe L (p) KP03 paoa" R (q) -+. R (q) Ka .. '• .. ~ 6) 'd/[a[b c]]=[a[bclJ +[o[bc)]+[a[bcJl .

. - dB . ds = [dx l + dy' + d:>].. ~ I) . -t Id.... .. -+ rot 10) =d U.__ -+ . -+ dB Q' _ K' + ~'_ . ds 4) <l>pcHeo8H 06paCu. d. . ... . ../j)JJ. -+ d.....) . K-KN= dT ... (r...... dT - d ..d'( ..' 3) KpHBHHe -. d"J)..133 -+ 9) div v = (j)v... ds K'd" ds . v-Avo d) nHcjlepe~HjaJlHa reoJteTpHja .± \3:N . ±V1.. v ~ [v vJ = -+ -+ -+ I j) j d j) ~x j)y ~l v.[vvl U =O.. _0 ds' .. . -+ . ..T ds.. .--KT . [d' d"J K ds ds . x i + y j + l k ~ .[T NJ _1.. Q.. cc K-KN./~y) . I= ds...... .(d'Id'. dN -t . .. ..\3:B. \3:.. ds . ... (I) .h + r + zar dl_ [Xl C 2) npHpO.. k rot grad U. -+ . dN .. . ~ i dx + j dy + k dz. . .... 'ds ds' -+ B.-KT..lj):Z)~(vv): div g rad U -.. efT -+ K=-=KN.. . rot rotv = [v[v vIJ Egrad dlv . v..llHH TpHje.. -+ -+ -+ div rot v= (v[vvJl c O o .. -+ . .. d . 5) JCJ1HaQHHe Y TOqKH M.. 1 ~. ..' .~B. ../. ·~ .f-(j)v.H .llap • r- -+ d. -to .. - v. .(j)v.

. aoapwHH e [r-r..lIIHOHC paSHH 6) noapwHHa f(xyz) .. .. . «( .. n-ai.1114 ~ ~ - 1'-'•...." Idr d'rIJaO. • -t .. ..IT Nj)-(.. TI= 0.. ~1a.... s=tl'zltlxtly. = iJ'zlox' ...(... ..lI=O.'t..-'" . TlHrellTe .ldr d'.d..I grad II n' tJx tJz · OZ ..f c' .. df - z='I'{x...f.... . q=iJlliJy.y) ~f d%+~f iJy+~1 iJy~z tJx p c ..... ~) ~ of 1'_ '"..) =O..O. 7) grid I ~ i ~ + I' ...lane I'-c" 6AnopNane .j-ili +yk .. . peKTHcjI"K... '1l1=1....... . T)=(r-" •. .. .. I/o z... Monge·ose 03HaKe p = iJ'/iJx...1. .. ... .. -t <I"lmO.. (r .....(tJ fltJx)/(iJ dz . "'01 ·tJl "~f . Hop.' .d4) .-r....O.. dz=pdx+qdy.. .... gradlleO.. (r-"ITB]) = O. . . t=tl'z/tJy'.. 1I0PKa.0 .. ... -t . :--11..... + k ..

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senU. nOWTO npaa HHje n0311aT8 8 & = _ N =N- n ~ N N-n :.0. 0. .zr. 360r Tora ce npH pa4YHalbY yaOJlH p .zr.01 cm. O.. no ./ " n t =- o .OBHO H3palKaBB Y .Hoelil . q.YIII/M OIlPtP.'1."Ma H3Mehy ce Aoe OpCTt npoM.4 JfJ%ikSOHe .'lUa.aalDaKa oapellulUu rpe/uKy pe3YJllilalila. a KOA CBHX OCTlnHX QeTBOpoI1H· '/.1 mm OH.zr.004 TO 3HaqH ..136 113 OBHX npHMepa H3BO. Ha nplIlICp 1267. AKa npe4H IlK lKHlle H3HoeH 4 mm ca Ta4Howky 0.. alliualla .zr. npH OOOMe KOPHCTHMO ABa oeHOBHa npaBHna paqy"alb.6aQeHe.4 m' 8UaqU Aa cy npse TpH UHcjlpe T04He a 4eTspm je cYMIbHBa.oqmU y carnoclloemu CO lUe'Ho/Uhy Uo.3aqo .a. pe. n. Ha npHMep 145..2:.a oa 5 IDpeoo Y3eIDu apeJlHocaJ '. ie upaa 3alleMa· p" "a quq.nCOIIYTHa rpeWKa 0.lp~jy QHtjiapa Mory ce YTBPllHTH 'H rpaHHue penaTHoHe rpeWKe.zr.tC pO.npoueHT"Ma HIIK npOMHIIKMI _ &' t:S - 100 .zr.aealbe) a aKa i e Upaa SOHeMopella qurjJpa aeha all 5 IDpe6a Y3eIDu f.m' 0.pOM 1.Hoc/llu pe3YJllUalU0 OIlP'J/ulDu KoioM lUa'HaelUu IUpef)a yaeIDa 101lalUlte. Ko. ca npH· 611HlIC811M 6pojeBHMa Koja rnace: I' Ta. n OBa ce rpeWKa pe.Iu'IUllt..1l0CHO npH6nHlKHe BpeAHocTH n. Oll npe4HHKa.s < 3axl1l~lJtl < OA pe3YJlliiali{o.a ce 33. 1.. : 1) H3 rpeUlal(o Uo..Hltll ue peAa CYMIbHBe UH<!>p e.zr.oeID apuillMelUu. H 11) C"paheHu.Mop'ajy .1 mm.0. pe.rosoiyhu U3ptNYllasa'be ollrosapoi yhux spellHacalu caMe ae· .ulilu iJPU6AUJ/CIIY spe/llloeUl peJYJlIDolUa.oia Uoa6aqYle (3aoKpyr.."o/Uhy 1(010 Ct < . na je penaTHoua rpewKa Malba Oll 1'1. 1000 ' / n 00 ' TnRa BpellHocT 6poja MOllie ce "anHCaTH Y OOOM 0611HKY N=n + o=n (1 +e)..zr. T aKo Ha npHMep 2.MepHMO .01 m = I cm na H3HOCH 0..aje npeTCTaoY a eTeneHY Ta 4HOCTH caMor Me· pelba.aOlDU'HUX o6po.zr.zr.p. Jla 6H ce Y04H"e rpaHHue rpewKH npH611HlKHH 6pojeBH nHwy ce TaKa Jl.. KaKo je -.rpeUJI(O Koja npeTCT88Jba KOnH4"~K aneollYTHe rpewKe H TaqRe Bpe. WTO H3HOCH 2.zr. mpo· qurjJpeHor Qenor 6poja ca npBOM UK<!>POM 1.HMO ooaj 3aKJbY4aK : AKa.eIliBopoqu!/JpeHux 6pojeBa ca npoo" UHq./tux paa"'u u IDa.iUlTIIBlla rpewKa je 1'/..99l..HocTH N. .aqlDal(a u l1la. II 06pKyTO 0.zr. AnconYTH a rpeWKa He ..po Ma. .a je .S cy OCTalle UHcjlpe 0. aKa H.. 2" NaAu UpupaUJUlaiu lIeK. j e. COHX OCTL'lHX QellUX TpOUHtPpeuHx '6poJeea penaTHBHa je rpewKa Idalba OA '/.<lIoeal "aio upe6 aqyie (KopeKTypa).'/•• KOA QeIIHX ..peBHx lteJIHX 6pojeoa je npH paqy"alhY ca npH6nHlK8HM 6pojeB. TaKo' KQ:II.c:.UHe JlopoiY ce U3pe'Yllasaalu He · OocpeJ/HO ua6..zr.a je anconYTHa rpeillKa 0.e 2.5'1... Ha npHllep. .75 m OH.:.36'1.plKaBajy Ta4He uHcjlpe H npoa cYMIbHBa aKO anCOIIYTHa rpemKa HMje Beha 0.ylKHHy rpe. ancontrita ' je rpewKa Malba 0. ij.

SAU~U . !16aPI ropMu rpaHuqa aOCOJlymHUX rpewa".PI!1UIBAlbl! rPEWAKA PEaynTATA Ca6Rpalbe.. u YMaMuoq •. Apyror PIA. jep Je "poHsaoA a a " ~ H. cy Ta4He BpeAKOeT" OHAa je (N.) . JlHH PUJlO .-1: n..)-(n.+N.~.. = n. ie aJlr.Hu"..\H .\" .3AD'IlImOr 3M••" nl Y3H . TJ. Tj.a YMOfbeJWKQ U y.)+(5 .137 I. Hule a. 3) MHo)l(elbe.+N..1. ...pUmMemU.. 36upa roplOur rpoHuqa oUcoJf)'li1nur rpeWQKCJ ca6upoliD. OJl. ~(n.w".ueol/ym"e rp.+ ."Or :l6up.a rpaHuqa aOCOAymHe rpew"e apUmM. 'rpew"a pa3AuKt IUHaKa it p. j aKO cy 8. HeK. 2) OAyaHMalbe.99&:::::-1. np Mw ep. rpewKo .!O "aJlK }' nope~eH'Y ' ea I.w ..032·i l OO1 ::::7 1. ..' ' . O. ey <X 0 ~ n09HTOOH" HJlH lIeraTMBMR Ael.npOlO80A 6pojeea 6J1HCKRX jeAHKHI. KaKo je je TO Tj.". -n. BtAU.M. " na je .: fop"..41997.11. uemor 3Kaka OMAa je 6\ IOlbe OA IUljeehe .. Tj. -1: Ii. y OAHOCY HO 1 IICO cy MaAe aellU'UHf UpBor pe"a }' O!lllocy Ha 1.ha 0. YMa"'. -N.~~).ncOJIyne rpewKe.JI.034: 1. 011.')19·0. HajKenoBolbHHjH j~ eAy.. 1±a % IH: a p."Or 36up. - HeKa je N.8 je (I ± <X) (I . " 8.6.MQltuoqa.. ' An je .. ·) ~ a.. pG3Aun IUHalt" I. .99t . jeA". +8. N.' .017.. rpaHuqa ."a ca6upolla.. ··0 '''. UK Bp. AKO ey 5.+a.+n. : AUeOAym".paoM 36up'l aDcoJlytnHfix rpew..+6.+n.+ .UH. I ±" ± p.. '~ _Q.: fop"'.: A DcoAym". 1\ ~ 1: N. H 5. P ..rpl _II}' yAory y nope~elby co npH6J1H lKHO" aptAHOCT. p.+ " .11.mU.OeoAyQlHux rp. - HeK.

VOAUX SeJlUIfUHO p.001 A 3 < ql q. + &. H £0 y uemor 3HDKa..004 .W a e.. l /luollllUlHa rpewI{a...) (n. 1-0.":: . .ajy y 063MP (pa'YHa...' . - Sa " .'+·. .: PUOIIJU. N. I':'a.jtAHUHIlH ' I±a --.AKO je a wa.111 'fUHOM Buwer pella y OJtHOCY HD n . je pellaTMDHoj rpewKM opH61111111HOr 6poja.·...ane "Cn H""He (A) He y 3H!.ooaII. .M. . .. q. 1 :l. 4) AeJbeHoe. npeMl Towe 6Mhe npOM3DOA ADa 6poja N.' .peAHoclIJu HuJe ' /JehD 0'( ~opo ollauylIlHux .penHoeIDu pUDmUBHUX rpewDKa WHUOq!'. ABa npana pa3.. /JO IDa.oC. . pe. '. . rAe cy M q./lPM apOMSBOAY j\!AHor T~qaOr .u lellMqHHo npBor peA8 y oANoey HI . . "" nt nt =e..tAU_UHOM apBor pt/Ja y o/JHoey Ha Be- AU'UHY n aKO ROCT 01" OA"Oe nONKa (Ha np. jeAHBftllY OBAI ie .. '. Olli eTIB BalKH H 3a npQlIlBOJbaK 6poj qKKHOlla• . 1. (1 + £0) '" n. Nn... K. jeANor npH6J1HlKKQr 6. 1. Y DebH . aAOM .~ .024/0..9!I81I.).. • n q.) n.. DpouS.N " • . HajHenOBOJbHMjM CIIyqaj je KaAl ey rpewKe e. & < < q. 1:(I+a)=I-a+4·. ..006 ..026: O. .) = n.lOep: 1.DNn\(I+~). (I +a..0AD ItAHDKa je oAre(fDpeKoM 3(fUPY puoIIwIHUX rpewDKa " UHuoqa (ea TaqHOwhy AO "aIlHX BellHqHKa Apyror peAl oAlloey HI jeAHHHuyl· . 1).HO rpeWKa fipOU3. oHAa je .::.001: 1.a'fp.. +c..HoclDu .. NN. J ±p H• .... cy a H P Kane Be~HqHNe DpBOr peAa y OJJ. =O.998 .HOCY HI )eAHKHIlY TaAI Je ICOJIH~KIIIC 6pojell 6nHcKHX . n. .(N) .' - Tj. ~ (n..uTIIIIU rpewKa npoH3BoAa JUHI".994.OAD ao aDeoiylIJHoi .. .pyror pena). . cny.138 Be~H'MHa 3 Ha3MRa ee .. ".MCp q. BenM"HH a A 33 KOjy DalKH OANoe Ha3 HBU ce -"OA O.... =0 .Oool). (1 +e. 0.002 . + 3. 'N N. ..poja (nJ) . ' " .ajeD' OA e ce ".Na-n.. Da je peAlTMBMa rpew~a npOHlooJlll s- N. .+e.

H.) ~~( I+ e.e:~~A~ je N>=n>+(~)n"-I&+(~. AKO je a . npe/ola TOMe ie N" . (I+ e. & ·~nCOJlYTHa rpeWKa ocHo8. n' Je If N.: P eJra DlUBIW' rpeWKa HOJlU14HUKO " jellHoKa je a...ocUiu Huje Belta 04 36upo aUCOllyWHur BPMHOCWU pelloWUBHUX rptwoKO neJbeltU/<a U nuuoqo.n" :::::ske.nil ::::= k nk KaKO je 1 l>. ABa 6poja -N.+ . == Nit -:.c Nt_n" . · (1 +a» "" 1+ka na ie KalJ.a it DPOUSIIOAY uS. npBor peAa y oAHoey Ha 1. penaTHBlia rpeWKa KOJlHI. .-n>(1 +6)" . awuA~e tptWNi 'OCItOBe.o. TaA' je\> Tj. TJ.lla· I11UBHUX rpewaKO AelbfHllKO. ! ...: PenoillUBlta rpeWKa KOJlU"lHUlta no aDCOJlylIiHoj BpeJ1. PUaWUIJHa· rpewf(a eWellelta /tJ!. 5) CTcncHoaalbe K l(OpCKoBalbc..(I+o. 6Hhe n...nre6apcKoj P03JlUl.{HH}(a & = &J ./U pe. . .) n. N.)nt-.. ana BenHqHHa (1 + a)' "" 1 +3a.139 KOJlH4"HK N·.l/alt.) n. . n> (1 +ke) Ti· e.lOXIWlja U p6' . HajHcnOBOJbHlljH je enyqaj KaAa ey penaTHBlle rpeWKe pa3Hor 3HaKa. U AeJlUOliD. Te ie anconYTHa rpeWKa CTenCHa 0. -e.. ~ AKO je. OHAa je (1 +a)' "" 1 +2 a.' H3JlO)f(HJlau k HHje MHoro BeJlHKH 6poj.

~ • .1 ".00.a .995. < '/.9W "" .0 < 1'/0.'/.cr. ca TpH • AenH"HQKO H ca qeTHpH AeI.11.04.11. . Olla.0004 Te ie A080lb83 n611Hua co .wrapuDlMa Dpu6AuxHor 6poja jeAHaKa je 40'1. . 10g( I + O. • .:.012: 0..Joieaa je y rpaHHt\aof3 < 'Ill. na cy anconyTHt rpewKe. _0. "p".)4.004. dx Or r peWKa ...0 12. rpewKa IbNXOBHX.0.0..01 "" 0.\Hje. H•• PI .. 8ehu OA 6pojo qu¢apo apudJluz. • .O. KaKo je 6) JlorapHTMK.Ht.nl Jf: T) .4 a.002 KIJ. < \'1.01) c log 1.0 0.11. 1.. 0= log N .001'".). 1 ... 30 ljlYKKUHjy U = I (x.' ~ PCna1'l18'ta rpeWKa TpOt\HljlpotlHX f.9"" .: PtAolIi"BHa rp#WKa KOAU 141f l .. . 0. Spoj qu¢apa . 1..1) = log O. - 1..0 \) = log 0. a"IDuce He Mopa . 3a 'bYX ie AOBolbHa n6nHua ca IlIpu AeUHloIaJla. Hor 6poja..002.4 e. 006 ' ~ U3JfOXUOIiO.004. log ( I ± tt) '" ± 0.0. I. pella· IlIUBHt rpeWKt ucillor 6poja (0. 0..wltt DOtDICOpe. ~ 1.tUr/JepeHquja"y ucme tPYHltqU/I..0012: loe 1. logn+ O.::. hc du ~ I (:r" y.IbHXOBHX norapHTu. . 1.pY" 'q llje jeA llaKa jr IilO:ila AHO.985.46).002 .. .00 1. na je anCOIlYT". JlorapHTMap YCTBapH lIpeTCTaBlba n611HIlY lIorapKnlol.4 e TJ. 0. 1.0002 H 0. . log (I .JuDlU . y) 6 .R a du+RQ: du. KOJtUqUH~ U H.. . 1. ' .OJI".apKTIIol . ADcOAylllHO rpew l(a . 7) cl>YHKI.11.~Illupu ACIlHIoI1IIIi.0l c 0.xuoqa Dpu6AUJlCH4 Jt JtIlHa" a ptAOOi U81tl! rpl. PenaTH8Ha rpewKa QeT80pollwljlpeHHx 6pojesa xpehe cc y rpaBHIl3Io1. .f (xo'l) 6u= 0/ M+iJ! 6y -f.99 "" . I..I) ~ lo g TO je log(I -.!/ 1. YoawTe 1oI0lKelol0 peh .004. 1I0r. - Tj.003 ~ 0..C p.oew y KopeHa k· or U3AO.0.0..logn "" 0.04.\H .0.1I . npeMa TOMe ie log N ~ log[n (I +e)].t ~ .. 10g( 1 +0. .

. - a "" a "" 0.~/2.... 1000.. 1±'/.p < 1 n ~ Pe".x!'I~1 10g( 1 +a)cO.0015 (I =(1). - « I -=~1-'/1 +" 2 - til''''' rptwa:a " a+'I.. Hl()I.. cos a ) a..O..(. 100 In (1 + a) "'" a. I± -a '" 100.' VI ±a . .....' ..0...38 a...)-J/.. 10' (1 ±aln 10).217 a' "" 33 a' {Ua)'''' 1±2u ~ 1+(1 log ..' cosa~ l -i/t al ~ " yl ± a. 100 0..a .IM) 10'±"..' {I .... . 130. '" I :!on a.1 "I 1O~ ..01745 a' 0'<10'. 0.ta % rpewu .' .. I fn I ±a ..434a ·..= % . ) a.' til' a ·"" a ..TIIIHI ~o P "YJIII rpeM11 " ." /.. P ·eJ.0. 130....... n .!..""1 .869 a I-a '" 33." a · e·~ l+CI+· /lal~ I l+ct I 3 . I'F . .'fI0pMy.l'· P 100. ~-a I .OPMY ... 17. (I ±..' < 8'._ sin 1 'I. 3a "" 300 log N = 0. sin x ±acosx e-'±a '" " (I ± a) cos (x+ a) '" cos X'F a sin x a" "" I +<1ln a D'±<> '" a' (I ±a In 0) 10" '" I +a In 10 '" 1+ (a. p< 1 I c!Ii a~- __ 20' "".01745 a..4343 In N < 0.." .. 33a' ~ 0. In N ~ 2.303 log N < Om I . I - .-a . p < 33 a' 40.' . a.1 (I ±a) (I ± ~) "" I ± a 1 11 If a --""I± aT I ±~ I P~"a T" 8 H a PeJl a TK BHI rpeWIi ~OPloCY....' < 140.' sin (x±a) .. sina~ 0.' "" I ~.. .'" 0..1/2.

r . I ±a .56 HM' Hyna 3HaKOBa.0* 609.. 0.4 + 0.plKaTH no je.o.eKailHoM jellHHHuoM.neTe.6"paKa ey 0. Ha npHMep. 74.e rpewaKa KOIl apHTMCTHllKH X pa..pa Kcnpell .> I + a+~.1.! T n."ajHHx II.. I ±a±~. '.A HMa 3HaKoB3.o. Iloa 311aKa.Q.. npH6JJH>KHO r 6poja Hajeehe an con YTlle rpewKc.eUHManHor 6poja "a. jep j e KO.o.a I +~ a-p.M jeauHUllu (I + a)(1 . jeAHy UH!jJpy BHwe Hero nH IlpyrH.o. a npH6nHlKHor 6poja no.H 6pojeaH nHwy y ~HIlY . 1-+ (I ±a) (I ±~). 21a5. J. Ha npHMep.6auyjyhH cyaHwll e UH<j>pe. e) K~lla 4"H"OU" HMajy pa3JTH4"T 6poj 3H.o.H!jJapa OHAa Tpe6a npe~~6poJHe 01l6aUHTH TaKO Ila jellaH "HHHnaU HMa 3. anconp"e rpewKe e....43 HM.pa3YMeBa ce 6 poj UH!jJ.4 UH!jJpa 4 cYM .35 ·1 0-' . npeMa TOMe je: 581. Koje cnylKe Ila ce oApellH nono lKaj npae uH!jJpe palnH4"Te Oil Hyne. ~ n. KO... . n.o..8.. HS" H3BOAa N. aa. H TO aKO je npOH3eOil npeHX UH!jJapa cneea 06a qHHHOua jeAHoUH!jJpeH 6poj (BOIlHTN pa"YHa 0 yTHUajy Apyre II.034 HMa .a ." y UHt\Jpy.0235. 6pojeoH 743. 6poja 28.4 +0..4 +28 . 6pojeM J.I npOH 380. 0.".(""Hye) jeAaH auaK. OH. + ~). "HHHOUH H"aj y p H q 3HaKOBa HcnpeA ~e ceTHe 3aneTe OHJt. a 0.::::::.eceTHe 3. 10'.00001 na Tpe 6. I+a . 23.ajy no TpH 3Ha"ajKe UH!jJpe..135 .OBa no.o. 0.a je anconYTHa rpefllK.pa3yMeaajy ce CBe ..IIUM qu</Jpo .o. Ha np""ep. b) no. + 8. Hl pa4YHaBa. Ha np""ep. o..o.. 28. .01. 8 1. 2.. d) AKo ey N.35 HMa j e.. 360r Tora ce npH6n~ lK . .o.HaK 6pojy Hyna Heno· cpellHo AeCHO Oil lleceTHe 3aneTe.743 H"./1 10 nOMHOlKeHH .35.143 II.ai no.o.o. 1. HMil BHwe nero Ko.I ± a7""t" .lb H en npH6J1 H >KtlHM 6poj t'6HMa M O)f(C MO apWHTH cKpahena p"YHa.i:~ • Y(I ±a) "'" I + a k 2) Ca6upaH>e. npoo~nl 8:.. 36"pa 581. e) Ku.o. Hyna.M!jJp<:). la.o. 3Haya. 2. II lpe.00427.o. CKPAnEHO PA~YHAtbE Ha OCHOOY H3U'IlellH X 06pa3aua 3. 0. 3) MHOXtI.o.6aUHTH eBe UH!jJpe KOjHX WTO HX HMil KOD.3 K 0.e. ~ P+ q .aH 3HaK. 1) PO'ly"otoe co 6po/enuMo " 6A UC /i U. KOA npaaor pa3nOMKa OH je HeraTHBaH H je. ea6HpaKa Tpe6a o.er 0.berOBe UH!jJpe...o.

4 :<.. .2.. .03jlOOO)"O. Jep Je 9.09. . 10. npHwep : 2. q = l. 3.X H. . . k ~ 2 6pltca. elbe. q .-2. k ~ 2. Ji3 npHM~p.I.. nonpaBKa je 2 x 8 ~ 16.4h .l B.83 x 1..••.. p-l.I=6. 4.)x2 =6.. na j E"" 1. 9-1. Jep Je 2 x.HO "flHeSTH noeneAlbe UH¢pe 06" 'HHHO'.82 x 3..28 x 2. p~2. na Y3H ' lIalio UIIO .. < 1°/.. Tj 2..2. +'/.. HOlKHnau "HOlKHTH c3 4 Kao H 06H. q= I. I x 2 .O (" H 4).3lx2. 8. anHa MeeTa.It 2 H I.24-= .8 .". 'I..23q .·20.-I. je S ·<31-k = . 0 WTO KOpCKTypC apwHMo OJlM.-2.43 x 6.a..2. . nonpaaKa je 5 x 4 = 20. nOeao y6p3asa . r=1 ('/.03% " AneonyTHa rpewKa je 84 x (1...6=0. 6 113 Ji . 2 300 9. 6 285 4 IIpeoKpcHyTH . - a) KaAa AeJbCHHK H lICnHnal! HMajy pa3nHQHT 6poj 3HnajHHx uHcj>apa Ta.03'. Tj. p = I.)"10 = 'I..93 ~ 3 2 8 39 2 6 5 6 295(k ~ 7 ) 1 0 (k ' I) p=1 q~l.11 IbIlX Tpe6a 33AplKaTH je. nonpaaKa je 8 x 3 = 24. .llHY UHcj>py "we Hero nH y ApyroM. .. ..ana CYMIbHUa. .aJbe MH O)f{HTIt 6pHeaTH 5 H 3.06 9. ~: < 0..lS+2=J7 733 6 k =2 146 k = 2 4 k=2 I k~ I 8 4. . 12. q . je 6 v I = G '" 10. . k = I PennHaHe rpewKe c)' e.6 1 na je Apyra JlCUHlf...5826= . f) MHOlKelbe ce RlBOJlH cKpahcHO ca KOpCKTypaMa. 4) J(e .\lBa JleUH .144 r=p+q aKO je npOH300A npOH X 'IH4>apa oua "HHHOua liDO· Ultcj>peH 6poj H. p-I. nonpa. r c 2 I 8.85. JoP Jo 8 x 6 .lla y jeJlHOMe 0.1. p . JoP Jo 9. npHMep.. 6pHcnTII 8 H 8.0 4 9 I 7 nOTIIHCaTH 7 non.3 h . 1-'4. .

eH>e . P! ~ fP: I . r _ I ..lrynsa.: 1". Ii. - :2 I (8.'li : 1 24 = J! .4.H~P M ..: .KO ::I ~ ll K Q B ~ j P tlJlOj JI! Gp-OJ -~ ~'----..a t~ n l1 )Cl . ~X2~ ltl . 2 "1~ " ---- .. I> '2 n ...lI'lLoeN.CJ1!'lfJ1!l:ll .. .d· IJ ~6 ~ 1 n r . !! : ~.:U je Dro! IlH~PIIn. ~ .. f=? 15. Ii M.l1.I ti) A 'KO '" Y /'1'1 ~' fll'" 8" N#~lIa+~ ott:u" . !tiki) j'l' "p'l l.. -..\'.5) Cmtaefj0\9l1lOt Il xfJpeflll'IJalD't• ....!I.. OOM y3:1~M'1Il1H1~kO~iit~ P'i~Pl...o!2.~ G) 6poja {j H~ItO'CH !]i'Kfiili1llKSO: ... :lI-1:S.I\:e~"-1tJ1a ae":a ":In j li'rtUiJ 01 .''' ~'U < .I.t'-Cenlie l llllill OOO Jle 1i>i!'!Hill!C" ... ~'~ '~'tQ ..-. IiOE!·ek-rVIlI@.... . q-l I. l}) ite.• q :::2" :I > I .~. ?..." ~I. (I.r ... .4$ ...~" I (it 6 iii ~ -...... Nt· ) 'I! ? 'J Mec:rn KCIIII..t"!(~ .. ~~•.. I 1: 2 =- Hoi. j a. ".l!. t p . (fl .:l 1'.~ ~:9Uii ~ ....t4: '.. . . • -.lS 1 2..1l .r..." I ' ' ''' '' ~Il~ . ~ .. . I~ . .1.'ile""l(iI... .· t~·. ~~pa U.6.IINH Ka.. .T-Ia.e-mW Ull. . fI :8 I' 1 OO~ 212' ~Sx 4"' ~ It..2.ti ~iII Ulu. i:pe~Wli1l t -or . 5.ll .c) A.e..i. ....'" o... .l!.:':----.:t. &.- n~BO O. /I .'I.tm u s ·nllliH liI.ll. A:n4'''!:&.. .. lI. H. JMI'Ib:fl L . OlLila ..= ~ . lIlIi''oR.T:j~. ..:> 2. t~= ". -'_jyh.te:" 'i'1 !:O.r ' . ~7'.I ~ .

24 5.) b) AnconyTHa rpewK.JI. f57. 6.7 g7.3 I().8 39.2 84.g 18.2 43...1-1 . 4.56.61 16.6 32.3'=79.~ 60. 0.26 29. Jo 39.7 53.0 31.00 8.6 42.23'=38.4 = -38.2 SO. 3.".29 7.4+0.U:H.' nonplt.7.61 8.2=7.2 13.4 23.2 22.1 166 275 422 ' 614 857 I 0 1. H3nOlKWOUHNa.25 2.8 26.2.8 47.6 1.7=8.3=4.10=O.0 25.86 24. JoP Ie 6.7 SO.84 10.38 15..20 12..0+ - 1.0 42.0 9. o 238+5=243.Pa 10'..6 72.2 24. .4 SV.2 57. apa.91 17. BPWH ce y npaKcH nONohy TpoUHcjJpeHe Ta6nHue ~DeHa KBBAp"Ta • KyOOSB nONohy JlOrapHT.OO 16. a06 .8 SV. 6.0 37.30'=250.0 36.44 4.. o WH01.0 81.4 88.7 ~6.20'=238.2 21.6 =0.8 6'..76 7.6 12.20'-38.0 125 216 343 512 729 1.41 g.06 ' n.8 70.23'=1 .7.9 79.8.. na Jo 6.0 9 6.1 39.8 68.0 13.0 6 7 4.6 41..1 (Il u6.0 38. 6.. 6.1 96.21 4. p= 1. = - k k-.146 n (1. YST..2 92.5.6. HI ap.~'-38. c) CTeneHoBalbe Ha Apyr.4 8M 4 6 7 j 1.6 19.06=7.3XO:03/O..3 85.3 611..00 1.84 11..0 54.65 '593_8. I 2 •a •a 4 7 8 I 2 a 4 5 • 7 8 8 5 2 J 82.2 17.76 6.8 '1 11111 ce .73 10..4 • 6.9 133 227 358 531 754 1. J.0 49.4 51.8 56..96 2..00 4.-.5 33.IO IB 5. OAHOCH O Kop eHoBalbe .2 74.56 2.9 86.4 90.1 141 238 373 551 779 2.- 6. .9 46.3 118 205 3211 493 70s 970 AKO ie nOTpe6Ha Tpeha UHcjJpa OHA3 ce np ..83 22..0 75.ep. elb Yie JlHUeapHa HRTep- DO.H=7. o • Heaocpe.<) V56.4= I).3QI-39.I 176 185 287 301 43~ 457 636 659 885 913 ~.IIaUllja..~ 20.5.00 27..CM .4.2 157 262 405 593 831 3.4 32.6 27.CT.69 5.9 91.1 29.25 6.1 p= 1. n HSHoeH 6..0 84.5 28.0 19. k·or KopeHs 6poj..5 0 I 2 J 4 5 1..8 74.2 31.2 =7.6 44.89 3.2 35.7 14.S 149 250 389 M2 804 2. 115.. V57.7 -38.2 30.33 9.0 64."ep.2 54.8 1. H TpehH CTeneH .29 10.74 13.7 77..41 IS.1 98. p= 12x0..9 III 195 314 475 681 941 9 8.6 62..2 94.4 79.5+0. .

147
d) KopeHoaalbe ce MOlKe H3apwHTH H n o OBO'" 06pacllY

x = Vn =
r.l\e je

(k - l)x,"+(k+1)n
x"
(k + 1) x: + (k'; 1) n

x, npaa npH6nHlKHa Bpe.l\HOCT KopeHa ..

Ha npK wep. Y3HW.JytUt .:co. 2 6Hhe

Y5 _

2'+3·5 2 q 2,2352.
3·2'+ 5

Ysw ewo nH llJ "pey npH6nH )f(HY I!!IPe.AHOCT .xo ~ 2,2 AoOHhewo V~ ~ 2,2360. TuaKJ' Iptl·
Je 2,2361.

HOCT

6. "JloropuUJ.lloBoHle U aHliluJlorapuUJ MOBOlOe,

.. KaKO 6poj IlHcjJapa y

.. aHTHCH He ",opa 6HTH 8ehH 0.1\ 6poja IlHcjJapa "~H6J1HlKHOr 6poja qKj"
ce norapHTaM TpalKH, TO ce y TexHHqKOj "paKCH qeCTO KOPHCTe 1I0rapHTU"
cKe 'Ta6nHue ca TpH H qeTHplf )l.ellHMane, Ka o WTO cy uase)l.eHe
TpOIlBoj>peH& n6nBl\8 norapDT....

I
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9

0
I
2

3
4

5
6

7
8
V

0

I

2

3

4

5

6

000
301
477
602
69Y
778
845
903
954

041
322
491
61 3
708
785
851
908
959

079
312
505
623
716
792
857
914
964

11 4
362
519
633
724
799
863
919
968

146
380
531
643
732
806
8:;9
924
973

176
398

204

5H
653
740
813
875
929
978

SS6
663
748
820
881
934
982

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1,00
1,26
),58
2,00
2,51
3,16
3,98
5,01
7,31
7,94

1,02
1,29
l,ti2
2,04
2,57
3,24
4,07
5.13

1,07
1,35
1,70
2,14
2,69
3,39
-4,27
5,37
6,76
8,51

1,10
1,38
1,74.
2,19

1.05
1.32
1,66
2,09
2,63
3.31
4,17
5.25
~,46 6,61
8,n 8.32

1.12
1,41
1,78
2,24
2,15 2,82
3,47 3,55
4,37 4,47
5,50 5.62
6,92 7,08
~,71
8,91

41.~

1,15
1,45
1,82
2,29
2,88
3.63
4,57
5,75
7.24
9,12

I I I
7

23U
431
568
672
756
826
886
9101
Y87

I

7

1,17
1,48
1,86
2,34
2,95
3,72
4,68
5.89
7 ,41
9,33 ,

8

9

255 1279
417 462
580 591
68 1 690
763 771
833 839
892 898
9014 949
991 996

8

9

1,20 1,23
loSl I,SS
1,91 1,95
2.40 2,45
3.D2 3,09
3,80 3,89
4,79 4,90
6,03 6,17
7,59 7,76
9,SS 9,77

nOpe.l\ OBaKBHX Ta6J1Hua "'Horo ee KopHeTH H JlOrapuUJMap, KOjH yeT8ap"
"peTeTaBJba TOKSY Ta6J1HUY Ca 3, a )l.eJlHMHqKO H ea 4 .. eeTa, Te My je
H TaKsa TaqKOCT.
Ha npHwrp. OpoJy 3,6 04r0B3pa waHTHca 556 ! 6po)y 2.3 ""H"fHCa 362. fbHIOIIOlll
npoHlIIony o.1fo"apa M4HTHea 556+36'2=918. K4kO Je u611HlfHa pnl"'Hkll MaHTHel 919-914=~
31 OpoJelle 83:)--8'20 TO HHTepno.1:1UHJOW Jl OOH ~~"O nOnp!BKy p=8. na Je npOHlBO.ll 8.28.
3. npOIl3S011 7,8 · 3,2 Je MaHTHC! 892+S0~- 1 397. O,!l.HOCIlO 397 k'A ee OA04UIC I.
thoJ OAfOBlP.' C,po] 2494, na Je npOHl80!l "" 24,9".

14R
np ... c.p ... -

I) 0 pt

14TH

ptlltt1'1f81l1 rpc.w ..y no (c npe~I1JUC

opeulIO:

d-~2 ,5 mf1l

W~ P" '

a ) n(. 1t uons W)64"PO ~ TI'IlIOC TM 0,5 mm,

b) IIt,611C'J'lO'"

nf"'ulU"~ W Ul)' ~1t:PO '4 T ~"OClM

dJ

' 1M

rO""l !"'¢"

P~WCft.t. -

1)

c. l'O""YCnw nl,l"O(. ," .D.1 mm;

c}

1,0 '!

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'U lt IlU" M

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2:

< 0,2 Yo;

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' 0

7,63
86 .
3052
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6I
35,7 I

(~,l~11

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4 ,~

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0,983 X 1,002
10 1
983
2

\)

< 0,02% :

< O,001:x. .

X , ,68 - 35,708.",35,71

321,67340 X H,135f>
6 53118

9

257338720

0.~85

6)
',9 I 7 : ~,3 I • = 2,1 25
189 . 23 1
(1 . 4",, 0)
58 : 13
_-,-11:.. : 2

0,01 mnl ;
0.00 1 mm.

(2 ' I '" 01
(5, 3", 31

128 66 936
6H347 (k -II
96502 (k : II
16084 (1" :4)
193 0 (k= II
n 0 96,35 19
7)
126,27 5 : 8,134 =·15,5 24
'4~35

4265
198

=

(5 . 4 ,.. 21

(2,3",2)
(.,1",0)

81

1.01 X 1,01"" 1+0,02+0.01'" 1.03 T".Hje (1.0302)
0,983 X 1,002", 1+0,002-0,017 '" 0,985; 0,992xO,999:::: 1-0,009 '" 0,991;
9,81 X 10,1 2= 10,981 X 1,012110'- 0,993 . 10:.::,,99,3; 102,5 X 101,2=(1,025 X 1,(12), 10' :::: 10370
992 X 0,00988 - (O,991 x O,988)· 10 '" 9,80; 9,99 X 1,012." ,,0,999, 1,012), 10", 10,11 ;
988 X 1006 ~ (0,998 X 1.006) , HI'= 1,004 . H)'.
9)
1 ; 1,02~ I-O.2~O,98;
I: 0,98<:0 1+0,02::::1,02;
0,972 : 1,152:::.0,820
1 : 0,995 ~ J,005;
1,05 : 1,03 '" 1,02
10)
1,024'::::1 + 2 . 0,024 ",>1,018;
0,97' ",>1-2 ,0,03,., 0,94
1,03' "" 1,09;
0,98' '" 0,94;
0,99' "'> 0,96;
9,97'=0,997" IO'~I ,
II)
rT.02"" 1+ 'It . 0,02 '" 1,01 ;
YO,9~ "" 1- '/., 0.D2 ... 0,99;
rl,03"" 1,01 ;

rU,97 '" 0,99;
YlOI,4 "" 10 Vf:UI4"" 10,07.

• "" 0,99 ;
vil.Y6

III JlorapHl'Map
norapUTMap je HajnpocTHjH a iellHOBpeMeHo H HajBHwe KopHlDheHH.
HHCTpYMeHT Ja' paqYHalbe. OH je YCTBapH cKyn .• orapuUJa.KCKux CKaAO
HIHeTHX Ha caMoM HHCTPYMeHTY 011 KojHX cy HeKe lIeiioKpelilHe a HeKe
DaKpelilHe. 360r OBHX CKana OH npeTcraa: "a AOrapulUaJlcl(e lila6,lUqe ca
IUpu a lltnHMIf"HO H ca 'tlilupu 3Ha,aine qu(ppe, Ca IbHMe ce .3BOlle cae

149
P""YHCKC ollcpa'lHic Koie cy y Be3H ca 06u,"u" (BrigS·OB.".) H OpUpOJIHU."
lNC'pcr'OBHM) JlornpUm .(IIIMO.

1l0rap11TaMCKO CKaAa ie CKaAa <jlYHKuHie y ~ log x. rJl~ je log x_
· ,JO!! " .< 06H"aH nor,' pHTaM 6poil x la OCHOBY 10. 6poi log % npeT·
CT.IUJb3 MO Ha CK.lnH .l1YH<HH OM, na ie y = II log X, r.a..e }e U .IIO. IYR CKaJle.
J1.Y>KHHa (I) norapHTaMCKe CKane 06H"HO ce Y'HM' 125 mOl. 250 mm. HTJl.
npUll cc norapHTMap HalHBa .ManH " (uenHH). JlpyrH ie 06H"H" M H3'RBa
ce .nornp"TM"p OJl 25 CM." CTBnpHa JlY >KH Ha norapHTM.pa ic HeWTO Beh.,
KOJl 06HQ 110r Ol1a H]HOeH 27 CM (nulleaplla cKana). nOeehalbeM JlYlKMHe
JlOrapHTa McKc CKane MO)f(e ce .aOHefCJle nonpasHTH l1la"'''Iocm norapHTMapa.
AKO cc apry"e HT Me",. y pa3MaKY 1
x
10 OHJla ie y~25O·logx, na
.1',,,,0. 1=2510g 10=25, Tj. I=u. MOAyn jc jeJlHaK AylKHHH CKa"e H
It:>'<HOa ec AD raplIWaMcKa Iuulluq..
AKO je !.<;;;; x ';;; 100 OHAa je
),=25 10gx. na je p, - O, I=ulog 100 -2 u, na H'HOCH JlllC AOrapHTaMCKe,
je.:\HCIi1Uc. 3a I
x
1000 6Hhe 1= u log 1000 _ 3u TC H3HOCH' alpu nora'
pHT'>I<;Ke jeJlHHHue.
OKO 1850 rOJl. </lPaJIUYCKH apTMJbepHCKh OIjlHUHP Amlidtlt Mannhtim
KOHeTPYHca o je tlPBH norlijlHTM.p KOjM ce M Ha3HBa MaHxajM08 norapMT'
M'p. OH je 6HO npHMHTHB'U. jep cy ce IhHMe, MornC BPWHTH OCHOBHe
p.QYHcKe onepaul(je nOBCl8He ea .• 0rapHTMHMa (MHOlKelbe. JleAelbe, CTe·
neHOBalbe l,enHI< eKcnOHeHTHMa). Ha MOJlCPHHM nor,pHTMapHMo 1I0ry ce
BPWIlTH H cnolKeHMje paQYHCKC onep'UHje aJlH je CYWTHHa MaRxajMoBor
norapHTMapa ocrana HCTa. 1l0rapHTMap ce cacTojH Hl TpW Aena: HeDoltpe·
WHor JlelbUpa (YSJlQKe) , llOl(peffiHOr .lell,upa (UJu.'rah:e) H CiiiOICJUHor KAU ·

< <

re-

<<

3a~a

upn HnH ICOlfiIOHU'I0.
CBaKH Aor'pHT"~p 'HMO "mUp" DellORlle CKa.!e A, 8, C H D. eKa"e .A H 8
ca

j eJlHOM

linH BHWC BH3HpllHX ( HHAeKCHHX)

<

cy nOTnYHo jeJlH3Ke. H HMajy no ABC AorapHTa .. CKe jliAHHHlle (I';;; x
100);
TaKo~e ' cy Me~yco6Ho jeJlHaKC . H CKane
H D caMO H... jy no jeJllly no·
rapHTaMeKY jCJlKHHUY. CKane A H D ey Ha yanaUH • B H
Ha H3anlUK
(CA. la). Ha npel\lboj 60"Hoj cTpaHM lIa ..,3H ce I\HHeapH8 CK.na (L) pa3MepHIl" 'JlYlKHHe 27 COl. JlorapHTM8p ce Ha.'33H Y .• HopManHo" nOJlo·
lKajy" KaJll ce 6poieBH 1 CBHX CKana A. 8. C H D nOKnanajy Ha ne8011
Kpajy.

e

e

0) MHO)l(elhe H Aellelhe. - npOH3BOA ilea 6poj. je p - ab, na je
log p~logl!+logb. KaKo · jc p - u logp c uloga+ulogp 6Khep-a+b.
naKAe, MHOlKelbe ce CBeno H. ca6Hpaibe nOrapHTlMa ~HlIH"!II. npeMa
TOMe Tpe6a "HHHnau a (Tj. 0) YleTH Ha CHa"H D YBnaKe HcnOA HH)lexC8
1 CKane H'BnaKe H KOHq.HKllY (06HqHO cpeAlby) nOCTIallTH HI qMHKMIl
b (Tj. b) II. CKanH C MlMaKe na HCnOJl Ibe Ha CKanH D yanaKe npOqRTITH

e

pe3YATaT -

npOH3aOJl -

p (Tj. pl.

Ii. cn. 10 nOKala H ie npOH3BOJl p=2.5 · 3=7,5.
MHO >Kelbe ce MOlKe HllipWHTH H H8 CKana .. a A H B. Ha CJlHIlH 1 b
ie npHK3:'OH npoH3BoA p=6 ·2.45=14.7. Tp~6a 1 CKMe B CraBBTH .COOA
QUHHOua

6

CKane

A

ysnaKe

H KOHQaHHuy H3 QHHHnau

2.45 cone B nt

H'Hail Ibe H' CKanH A YBn.Ke npOqHTaTH npOH380Jl P ~ 14,7.
Meli YTHM npO" 3BOJl 7.5·4.8 He MOlKeMO H3BPWHTH no"ohy CKa"a
H D a MOlK~MO "ouohy CKana A H B, na HlHOCM p s 36. MH je y

e

150
npailCH y06RqaieHo Aa ce npOH3aOA apWH Ha AO"'"" CKaJlaMa C H D na
ce 1I0llCe OCTaapHTH Ha oaai Ka'lHK (eJl. ) c): Tpe6a U"ljJpy )0 CKaJle C
CTaBHTM HSHaA 'I"HHou.a

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.yCTB.IpH JleceW ayWa Bellu, p=IO·3,6=36. : OBAe CliO YCTBapH y"ecTo
DpoHSBo,Aa.p=ab yaellH npOK3BOA p/IO=a.b/iO, na ie iog(p/IO)= loga-~og 10-logb)' Te CliO" pea,yIlTOT IIYOlKHJlH ea 10. 360r oBora ee YBOAH
DOJIII 6poja ,i.,cfiJa KIIH 6poja SHa"osa (m). nOll 6pojeM MeclUa (3noKoaa)
I/UUJC 6poje8a ' U HeDpo8ux lleliUMlUnux P03AOMOKO DOllilo3YMeBo ce 6poj
Ijurpapa .Wora 6poJa Ha MecWy qeAux (IUJ. 6paj qucpapa JleBa all lleceIDno
S.aD,We); "all .apa8ux ,llequMaJlHUX paaJlOAIOKa oaaj je 6poj neralUuaon u
/el{Halt 6po/y HyAa lleeHO qll oecewlle sod.fiJe' ao Upae qucppe p03Au.uIDe
01{ HyJle.

H. up.wep: 345 (m=ai: :H.5 (m=2): 3.45 (m= I): 0,345 (m=O) : 0,0345 (m= -I) :
0,00345 (m= -2): 0,0003 (m= -3): 0,00003 (nr = - 4).

-m.

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15 .l0g q = u log a .. c J/eCHa (10 C.58= (3.1= 2). 0.' • 1"1 .O(lop I .. m ~ 12+2+1)-(1+2)+0 .+ 1 SKO je npH HaMeWTaIbY H3BnaKe 3a Aenelbe KopHwheH HRAeKC 1 CKane C.1 (m =0+2=2).:I"r l-H . Ha npHwep x = a bIt. KOJlH4HHK ABa 6poja je q.8=1. q.728 • 460 ·0. OHa H3HOCH k. ' .: 1-1-+1=1).00255· 5.. H.' m-(m .2·3. ' I. KOA cnolKeHHier cnyqaja.1= 1). Yon WTe.I + I = I). 27.S.O.! ti~ '"I'! " ' it~I~-III .S:3=2.31 . . Tpe6a ce PYKOBOAHTH HO"l(!JlOM p'G ie pe3YllIDaID mawtUju YKOIIUKO ce MQlbe OyIDo nOMepu U38/1QKQ.' .00153.0.xUlft Ie KonH''(RMK 6poJcaaq=7.BKa 360r nOMHllalba H3BlloKe. • : J .H Aenelbe ce pe~e BPWH Ha CKanaMa A H B.58). OA' HOCHO k= -1 aKa je KopHwheH 33 MHOlKelbe HHAeKc 1 CKane C. . Ha npHwc'p x=98. ~=+I-I+I-I .24. (m = I . . ." lc ICOIlHQHHK 9=36:04.. nl I. rAe je k nonpa. I 360r Mane TaqHOCT. .2\115.).08 !1 .82~ 84.• Ir . " h U .989·31 =30.'dog b 6Hlle h.. Tpe6a AeJbeHHK 0 (Ti· oj YleTH HS eKaJlH 0 a H3HaA Ibera eraBHTH AeJlHJlall b (rj.. .. I1 .3) .c 'lIesa (I C)' m-(m. 5poj 3Ha4ajHHx Mcera 6Hhr . .5.. Ha cnHI.(m. c. 3.. nOCTynaK je 06pHYT roplbeM. I "j .97=17. Te ce AeJlelbe CBOAH HO OJ/Y3UMUlbe JlOrapHTaMa. CKanH 0 HenOA HHAeKeHe IlHljlpe I C HnK 10 C. ' a• . 6poj Meera 6Hhe m=}.6. m-(0+2-2+1)-(1 +3-1) +(1-1 + I': 1)= 1-3+0 _ -2.UI la n~H.021 _ 2. ) .95) . . b. np. :! ' . BP.p 1(1) (!) (3) '(5) (2) (4) (5) x_O.01·6. "'I' . na re eB3KO" Gpojy " CKane 0 ollroBJpa 6poj a' CKane A .563.31 14 . 3a x .=3.11/4.)-:E (m.6.81/7.6. 124·0..1.151 11.6· 0.J+ I.3 . ..95.316=0. b.I +l.)-(II'.0 (m =2+ 1.I<4IC)." r. '" L' A j "I 1 • I • " . na je log q = Jog a . He npHwep .04. 0..aI • a. 1 '1 .178 (m=O+O = O). (m=2-1=1)... 17.' all'.09125 .a- IHI 5poj PleCra T~6a Y3HMa!'" ca CBOjHM 3HaKOM.1 .j I I' j j "'~ ' I 'I " 'T I D • ' I • i " .2 .44..)+:E k. I. • I .'o) CKane C na pe3yn· TaT np04HTaTH HS . I 'I '.601 (m =3. KaKo je q = = u.0. b .pBT. je s = 2u a. (m.3/7.2 AKa ie s = a' OHlla je log s .i"~i.• .w. (m./ b.3~ I ((98. 0.2 Jog a. ! ..437. h) AHaafbe H& KBajl. b.I' ~ "~'f~··H+::: .-log b.

na ie s .365.3 u Il. .04/10)' .16 (m . n.705: .05. u ll. 2.963. (m=2·1-1=1) : (m=2-0=2).~.36. V U.0. (m = 1-3 .604'= (6.91'1100'= 3.V49.1. jrA.a' Ky6He CKaJle K.15' . 06paTHO.1611000 .0365. Ha norapHTMapy ". 6.105'-(1 .\'2 m Ha_ 33 jellHHHUY CKane A (oll ' l llO 10) llpyry nOr. VU. CKaJle K tn.8 17. Ha npRwep 0. 0.224 : V . 5pojy a CKaJle D ollrooapa 6poj s .=3 . AKO je k=\'a=<>'JO.65.91 . ie Ii = 'I.27' = 11. K { 3m • Tpehy .2= I) .91'=3. Bapa 6poj ra K CAro · Ha npHwep ell.224j1O =0.0.5 Ko)! npSBI1X AeUI1ManHHX pa3J10MaKa Tpe6a ce KOPHCTI1TI1 AeKaAHOM j eAHHHUOM.10" )' ~ 1.9HIIOO _2 .8= 7.7 (3 .1= 21.04'=36.2224.16. OH)!a je log k='/.• or.: 6. 2 npHJCa3allH cy npHwt:p" ( . 3 r6 ' = 1.0498 = V4. npKwep JI 4.49~ .152 _1 5poj MeCTa H3HOC~: 2m I 3a npay nr' m.~8 = 2. .. Ha npHwep 1.65/100 .8/100.=3 ). K.4. KOA npssHx AeUHMammx pa3J10MaKa Tpe6a KOPHCTHTH AeKallHY jellHHHUV. KOll npaBHX Ilell. Ha npHwep: 0.Darmsladt asa ce CK3na n3Jl33H H3113A A CKaJl e (CII .00116. 0. logo. nocTynaK je HHBep3aH npeTxOAHoM. c) HOBna'lelbe KBBllpaTHOI' KopeHa.05/10)' = 1. r26-2. r77 .233 (m . iellliHflUY CKane A (Oll I llO 100). 1:1 • .0. Olla HMa TpH JlOrapHTaMcKe jellHHHu e : ol na je 6poj MeCTa Tpeher CTeneHa : 3m-2 3a npay .191'=(1.HMaJlHHX pa 311 0MaJ<a Tpe6a ce KOPHCTHTH AeKaIlHOM jeIlHHHUOM. 1.5/ 100 . d) AHaalbe lIa KY(\ H Ba~elbe KY(\1I0r KopeHB.~ 2). = 3 m·· I • A p y r y . 3).AKO je s-a' OHlla je log s= 3Iog·a. Te csaKOM 6pojy a CKaJle A oAfosapa 6poj Va cKane D.05'= 1. csaKOM 6pojy a CKaJle CKaJle D.

¥l Ha aplNtp .979.. - Ha OBOMe ce JlOraplfTMapy HcnOA CKane · D Hana3H T3S. H Ha np .rapHTMapa Hi npeJllbOj 60<1HOj CTpaHH Hana3H ce Lg CKana ca KOH4aHHUOM Ij:oja je np0.1\YlKeJbe cpe. npKwep oln 2G'_O.'20.1\se CKane: roplbll SIO CKalla ca nOAuoM Oil.(m)+ 1.14e~ · ctg 35°_ 1..7.1\0 ~O' H .2.. tg 2()O=O.l\HOCT sin a Ha P CKanll H tg a H3 R CKanH.. x . 0 .lI42. Ha HCTOj 60QHOj CTpaHH sin CKana CIIylKH H 38 OApe~HB8lbe spe. 5.te Lg oJlrooapa aHTHnorapHTaM Ka CKanH D. clg 200 .2.24.1\eClIO ca COS H clg qpB. . Oae Cj CKallC 03Ha"eHe .428.HoCTH yrna a Ha OBOj CKIIJIH (sin HnH tg) oArosapa speAHocT sin a O. P. = KaKO je COS a = VI . 3a ose Spl'.1' 6'. O.1\lboj 60qHOj cTpaHH HaJIlIJe ce . H 06paTHo CsaKOM 6pojy CKa.0.2 . eCHa Ha .0.AKO je r ~ I/o OH. "nuworopelCKO CKOJlO" (1') cn nO..35' . tg 0.Ko..1\lbe KOHQaHHUC.OS' 35 0 _ 0. CsaKoM 6pojy a CKane D OJlrooap. 1/11.36~.sin. CsaKoj spe)J._ . na je r = . na je 6poj MeCTa m. . ep 1/2 z 0.810. CBaKH nO. .S (-1+1 _ 0).IIeso. = H. BpeAHOCTH ce OAMax 4HTOjy Ha D CKBnH a jeAKospeMeKO ce A06HBa H ape.. npH oSOMe TPe6a SO. apB"ep log 3 .IIeBO .()armstadt' no.1\COK HCHOCH 0. OKa je jeAHaKa 6pojy l(enHX YMalbeHoM 3a I. sin 35'-O. 0.2. p . 11'2075 .0.1\Olba tg CKana cli nO. Spe. log 6. o /) norapHTMoBalbe.1\ 5.1\lbe Kon4aHHue.0). g) TPHI'OHoMeTpH'CKe «jIYHKl\Hje.0..866' .995 .35.5H. CsaKOM 6pojy x CKane D OArosapa 6poj p= (x/lO)' . e. 03HaKe cy 03Ha4eHe qpaeno.8' ·.. 0.097.792.MO.no H HM8jy qpBt lle UOIl .1\HTH paqYHa 0 KapaKTepHCTHUH.1\ .. HoeHe cy uHcI>pe qpsene H HYMepHcaHe C .1\enoM 0.1\0 45' . H. x .1\· HOCT" cos ex a tg CKana 38 OApe~Hsalbe.1\0 A CKane.940. Y3eTa "cnOA cpe.. 10 (l / o). log 125 .0.1\HOCTlI efg a.!'pe. log 0 . H ctg a 1/tg a TO ce SpeAKOCTH COS a clg aMory npOQHTaTH OAMax Ha P H R CKanH. CsaKOM 6pojy U CKane D O.1\rOBapa Ha CKanH RIO-TO CTpYKa BpeAHocT.1\a ~ log y~ = -log a.1\enaMa oJllO.U (1 ~ .u. ep cos 200 .1\HOCTH nocTojH CKana R Koja je H3Me~y CKana B H C "3SnaKe.1\0 0 AeCHO.O.BHOCTH.1\HOCHO tg a Ha D CKallH. Ha CK3JIH 41 6poj log a. Ha aa.153 ej PeUH'!£O'tHe ..471.0893 (-2+1 _ _ 1~ AKO HeMl CKane R MO)!{C ce KOPHCTHTH npeoKpeHyTa C CKana Koja Tpe6a Aa Ao~e .364 (-1+1 .2/1O. HI npH y.8' .

0. I cKalla LL I e'·" .2).tg 200 . =I.718.364.I~'.e I(S Y kW ' H' 06pUHO.011-+-0.g 70" _ 2. t5pojy a CKalle LL I oMoaapa tSpoj 0'0 CKaIlC LL 2 H t5poj alOO CKane L L 06paTHo. np ..1 =7313'7 7. i) Hapa'lYHaBalbe UOBpWHHe Kpyra." /) DpeTBapa". 'peA.y ·A.Q1 -+-11.~ KS=S.a.3.6~ cm2.11. apa nocToje TpM CKane "'YHKuHje roplbY ca LLI (ca nOAenOM 0.36 PS TO . d .eaa -HOCH OaltaKY 'kW..Y ·H ABe "fUJi.OBC CKaJlt A8jy MoryhHocr npeTBapalb8 jeAHHx BellH'!HH. 3aTHM AOrapUm. ..5'2. 3. I KS&I PS=O. elg 70..0 1.01 .45kW. sa 0. KaKO je aanpeMHH" aaJbHa V = qL.116. .KaKo je q ='d'n/4 TO csa-· KOY t5pojy d CKane yaeroM Hcno'A AeCHe KOH'IaHMQt oAroBlpa HI CKaIlH A (\poj II yaeT HcnOA cpe.lb< KOH~aHHue.. npeJla3 ca jeAHe Na Apyry cKallY YBeK je npaheH eKcnOHeHTOM 10. Ha npHMtp 5kW~6. ..11. 38 1.80cn. I'bHX 03Ha~aBaMO OBaKO : Ha pHT .2 CKana LL3 e l .105.154 HI nplwtp cos 40' • •ln 50"-0.359PS~I. e'" Ha LL 2 CKanK H c' Ha LL'3 CHanH . . sa e". It 06paTHo. sin 400 . ell. - UOAe~u~u u38Aake' ODor "oray = e'.KJlKaa'! HM.11.&. npeMa TOMe ce .8.736kW " I kW=I. 6pojy x (kW).3 TpH KOH· 9&IIMllt.( TO CaaKO .. .6poj x nOCT8~HTH Ha HHAeKC I D (HnM 10 D). HI npliMep KaKo je el=[c . CpeAtbY ca U2 (ca nOAeIlO" 1.3..970. cpeAIba q a AteHa KS (f'S) H d.OI =2. H" CKaJlII 0 HcnOA neBe KOH'IlIHHue OArOBapa 6poj YIPS) H8 Hcroj CKaJlH HcnOA Aeclle KOHqaHHlle. n H.. 1.0. Y Apyre. q=19.01 . Jla ce OApeAH opeAllocr "'YHKUHje c' TpetSa ..1 AI! . .766. KalCo je ' .746. .643.2) H AOIbY ca LL3 (ca nOAe. H 06patHO. n8 HcnoA KOH ~aHMQe JleBOr (AecHor) Hce~Ka YBllaKe npo'!HTaTH H TO BpeAHOCTK e' 0' Ha LL I CKanH.8U Ksi 7.10M 0. COl 500 _ 0.11.0 10'). TO ce npK n03HaTOM q MOlKe no yohy CKalla A H 8 AOOHTH H 33npeMHHa.peAHocT "'YHKuHje y ~' e' Aot5HH3 0..-~. ep d-5 em. h) EKCDOHeH~HJanHe CKane. 2.11 -+-1 CKana I. Jl..5 . ~ 'XlJ~=alt H e'=[t'·OU]loo=a lOO .1.Y-*.MOp IipeOKpeHymu.'l em. sin 7611 _cos 149 .c Kpalle..·.LZ c··. 10'.75.. '1 .

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