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1905 Sarawak Gazette Upper Sarawak News

1905 Sarawak Gazette Upper Sarawak News


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TIlt' .'ol1:iij:!utl1cmt !"l'llt dowu by DI'. Ho~f' 'I'lim H:'j~tIIg riVt'I' iuclUUt!<1l1lt: foJlowillg- SlU-cit.s ;()~tt~lI(:hjllt~ dttlLtUK (h.tnn,'hilujo( 1\1\lwjn IIl'IIHi1'l lillr1HI~, l'pogOll I~II '1'11"IH'uhllloidt.'s 1 Iln d.m.. fllKd"tns
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was cl\lIe(l, (II the end 1\f1'. Dauben,,"s a keenly eonh'btctllllateh hy 2 goals I" ,;ii, ~ hc ilinienlt to singl!' out any of I II" pb,I'~inl mention owing to I.he sO(ld,," IlIIIj of the "rol1l](l, which l1lacl(~ it alllll''': ... to kcpp '~)J]e's footing IIm;id(,s \\'ilich Uk Enropcilll;;. w() fane,\', hiHlIy !:illIf,'it,d

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"01.111'1)\":; ptiracUsI'uIo> ..:.! ',.1:; In\\"Ilk r.J, ...11 hils Sp. ~ I )111Ig-Ha tlH'lIiutl: *( '1'\'ptf.),tenIH hexnplt"'llti '''Cr:\'ptu)lterl1~ mkl'optls {~I .Cl'yptopterll~ Sp. "En~I'allli~ Iru,')nIlOl.hil" ('.II "CYllnf.{lo6sIUI SI', .Pl'istt,I('piN Sl'. ilild IUI 111 .1\11O\\'Il l't~l'c-itl. F. .1. D. Cox l~~cJ.. .If IHlitlll1i ;\ 1111 as I'>t'llllflf"ll~ h )o:'l'lIIln rlll1cullius EIlf,.:"'lIlIliH Iu'e\'it't'p:-; ElIgT+tlllis )\aIllIlH,leusis gl,~rnllli~ COtllllll cmiulllis IJI.lluIIU, J1..isli~~H;tl'ui,ll's ~l'I":II'llrHOt.UR {lruLus Ploto~us cUHius ffrit~llil1ru~ s"valn '.lI!.{>I'j\}iUIi jlu'huu (~ltoI'iIIt'1I1U:. tilllll't.i.tll.tl'i "'1':'JItIlIIl rll!ic:intil "()phiun'pIIllIIlK III.n.lux "11t'llIinllllpllIlH t:lllltol'iK .~JIIg'iI !melialuilli 1'.'1 .('llIpt'u 1iII,,:J, .\. E. l.la\n'c'lIc~ . .\IILc'llIlIIl"iuN Esq., uf ~llIkHh, 1I1"1"11I1I1"1I1n5, Sc'ut It slll'citllC'lI IIf





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~M.silne b.y regular pl'actice, 111111 judging h," '. .I.111'1IIlilnC(~ 1\nl1 till' intercst shown in the ....ks as if foothall \\'0111<1 hal'l. its ilevntees

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for IlllLtchcs. a(, tilt: BHII fOOl-


Lilt! (f)IJowill~!


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the :,LlI iw;tHnl.

" .. nlHtc':h took plill'c 11('1,\\('('n "the 1Iul;1\11 and "till' I\all 1111'isihl., all(l Mighty" IJII;&lCh stan"d at .J.-t:) I'. ~I. and after , ,j ;::anIP, ('llIh~tl in a lll-a\\', JI(.ilhe,rside 'Ire, I~ hotly


'-1, \;sihlu" hacb. allll g',,"d 1\('''I'"r pbyed a :...i"l' )..(;11111', "l't"l1 "",'ing' \\111:>11 nmtters ~... ~croll~. , ,..' .wing l'el'n'''''lltetithlJ two t",UIU;;--if"->\11 III'..incihle, -I.<:--:\h .l'eng, I" .\11 Nell <Cilptain), fell, ,to, Xanl. 1I((II~b((I'l"s:-ml:al)()(,. V, IL ae

The to Ih.' Ilorjlt~all t'ollt,(:tillil il1:-icct fuulIa is (,xl'Ct~di1Ig'I,\' IIIL"I! llN'1I IIHuh.. AlIJulIg~t rich Hli(1 IlIiWY Ittlditi1m."I thl'bC HI'I' :

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if'"..,II1I\'i~ibl" allll \Iight.y tl'illll. "~.$:--SHlle1I, Z, ,J, ?llon\(.in.,' 'I', Ah Seng ~1"~1.in\,C. .\h Heng,.J IIlon;.;. lfa{f-baci.'s:'--~'oall, U. .\njin, V, Chong Vah, Full\b FO()lIg. I11H1 linlpl1ng. Uoa/:--IJ.Egoh, L, :.. KClldie kilHlly acl:ell ;os HefC!I'ee, " ondllsh,n of the 111"1<:11 "lnyil1cihl(~,," till; t.,n.,inccl by tll(! "Invisible" tl'!\ln. ,1Ioerpel'llliltilq:; tlII'S(! teams will ngaill Illeet
f':;UI pl'OX i 1111),

Allthct"~H j Itl III fl1,;(;11 ('hol'odYJ>us haalli :\."laJh'UPI'S Ui(h'oll Pl"isolllt'l"a s1'. .~'Halll'I)}1H~ 8}1. ,\ In!";,.:"('('flllt~ctioll lit'lIf'I'U IIf IIIO;;'lllIilol':i

H. Ii En~rett ENCJ. H, H. A, Day ESII' .J. H. .Brodie, ESIJ. O. JJrucct Escl. eollect~d. is Iwillg' HlllelC'.

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'1'lu'.\ '\I~I'I' (:nllpc:tl.d from tile jUl11-'"h. Hlul fl'Oll1 homws. ~lIlHe h01lse rUl'llts \\,,'1',. lU't'!(('1I1('tl hy HI'. HUl'kt'l\ I\1H1 ..UIIII' II.\' (I. LUIIg' E~f1. who U1MI g"iI\I' nl1"iOlid 1"pidopkrn,

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-[II\'ineibl,!s" I1pheld their Hallie on thi1:! 311el tll1.il' 0ppollents did not !\.ppenl' eno.l)..(h. thollgh heing .. In\'isible". we ;hey (lid 'not appcar at all. It is to be i howen!1' t hnt the\' eOlll.l S!'(' Cl\Ch other holl' (li(l they l;llInage to" paHs ". Vid " set' :~lIytltil1)..( after tlw elitert!\inlllent'? ."'tcr'$ accolillt of the I'l'p!:(,l'clings is very ~A.~. U.'

AIIIIIIIII l:t'11u1'Ll~t~illt'll MltfWtlll1 (it'IIt!I'" hu';Ct.'tI\l'lIllI 4 p'll'h 1,tit.I,1 (~fIIOlllhi"tl ~Jl1KOUIIlChicHRO Zool, Sf!~.it.s' Vol. IV. Parts I 1111I111 : By ,')I;I:hall;':l'j :\0\ itHh's Zt)uIOKicUl', Vol. XI No. a . 1'cI.I .. Vol. XII. 1 PIIJ Allllnl!; uml MaJ:. of NRt. HiKtol'Y Vol. XV !\o~. ~(i 1111(1117 (;eulogy vf N. \\'. Horll~o--C. Schmidt. DI".Harkfn. (PJ MWWIIIII COlllp. /'001. Ih.l'YRrd Uollegt:Bal.l'lld,ia und Hcptilc:s fl'0111]i(Lhanuu)-~1'. Bal'lIout' lPj Gt'olclJ.:,\ l't!flOl't HUl'uwnk nlltl H.,douF c1iMtl'il't.J, H. Scl'i\'eIH1I' 111w Author [P] SpoHn Z",dan;cII, ""I.I.l'n.'t 111. tBy I'''change] AnlHm\ l~eptU't, [!Kl1, Smithsonian IUBtitutn \Va~hil1gtoll [1))


'J'11f'f~olcl IUld Coni iUhU'!" of ~"I'nwlll\.



,I-,,uowing addition!; wem Iliadf! to the Museum IIW:aduring Fchl.tmr,'" March nnel April: Zoeu,()(;«'AI. COI,r.l>("I'Io:\S.

rN 1110 hop" thnt it mny prove o( illterest to, lllUII."of our leaders, we publish in full the following Report' OIJ the Geology of 8lu!1.wak by Mr, J.,B. Scri\'elJor, Geologist, of the Federated Mal:!.y States" who recently visited Sarawak for the pmpose of iJlYestigl~ting illto the occnrrence of golt1 and coal in \':!.dolJ~ Districts,


11.11.tI... Hajah Muda [P]
'l UBU I' [,1>]

(n~o 1.00 U:A I. ,pEP AJt'l:j1IEN'I" ,I". J!I. S., Ku.\LA.LuMl'tJR. 19th January, 1905. A HEPOB.'I', ON 'fHE. GEOJ~OGY OF' 'fUE HESlDENCY OJ<' .SA!U,WAR, AND OJ!" 'PHI': SADONG DIS'I'lUCT, BOHNEO. '\VI'fH SPECIAL l~EFER1~NCF~ '1'0' 'J'IIK OCCUHRENCE OF GOLD AND COAlJ. 8n:,-T h:we the honour to present my report on mv visit tn Sllrawak, whellce I returned on the 4th, o(Decembet' ult. ~. 'l.'he ,primary, object of my mission can be eXpla.inetl in u. few words. 'It has for some time
. ~ig'llit\cK fI~\\' to the eol1e~tion.

a6ctiom; or l'iYl~r uwl SI~1IUsb II!!\'t! III~PII In't~s(lntcd to lhe ~ Dr. Hos~ (1'out lh'jHU";- !"iYc.:rILntl 1\Kpil. hlkc, and by F. h.4iII., from Bintl11u. Amongst t,hem Kl'e H.number of species eollE'ct,ion nnd some npparelltly new to scicnco. t-xpt.d nUtt'IY.IIPW Spt'e:i"N of Borllt'IUI fish hK\'C ;yet to be


~--_.._._... taown to those interested in gold mining 'IIiBated Malay States that certain gold Su-awak are being worked by Messrs. the _pany, Ltd., at a handsome profit, and of tbe fact that the 01'8,a,s far as can be m!\nagers' returns, is lIO richer than nised in the gold mines of Pahang and ilan. '1'he first quarter of last year I f.D preparing a preliminary report on the of the Federated Malay States; and so iy impressed was I with what I had seen .red advisable to ask the Govel'lllnent to ..y visiting Sarawak with a view t.o disThy mines in the one country should be discouraging condition while those in the making big profits out of equally poor che Sarawak mines was that J. had heard ,..logical conditions were vcry similar to ing in the Federated Malay 8tates. .my say at once, is certltinly the case, UIe ore worked differs in impoJ:tr~nt points found here, important in that they admit

MAY ;3, ID05.




A point that made me extremely curions



cheaper method of working rather thltll

mark a type of stone entirely llifferellt a.'!aatmay be expected in our gold Jield. ~ondary object that I had in view was iIlyself as to the n,ode of occurrence of wak, in order to be able to gange more the possibilities of payable coal existing ted Malay States. er, I may say that the geologicrt\ data ill Sarawak, apart frol11those directly con. - the mineral deposIts, are of immense 'Q::ein my work in the Native States. 'I'his, IS a subject with wbich I shall den] more "*'" annual report. [Cmain points, whicb I disregarded as IIOt munediate moment, could not be decidecl .Y stay in Sarawak. As regards the more . - data in search of which I went, I am able t.he results have exceeded my expectaI am hopeful-though by no means f being able to apply the knowledge I to the advantage of tbe milling inclustry A descriptiollof the minero.l deposits ttvawak and my conclusions will bo fonnel ,bs /31 onwards. '\::b is my pleasant duty to reco1'<1mygratitude -mstance and hospitality received at the Inlthe Gove1'llment of Samwak and Messrs. Company, Ltd. I wonid especil\lly mennames of Mr. H. B. Crocker, Acting of Sadong, who conducted me over practiwhole of his district. al1e1of Mr. J. S. .od Bau, whose assifltallcc ill my geological of great value. .£a spite of the enormous SI7.('of the ishmcl, r of BOl'l1eo is by no llleans a closed book, .almost entirely, to the efforls of the Dntch

'.notably R. D. M.

Verbeck and G. A. P.

beyond those a.lreac1yq lIoted are by the late Mr.. A. H. Everett and Herr F. Groder1. 8. In order to give a.s clear o.n idea as possible cf tbe geology of the districts I ha.ve visited it i~ necessary first to rcview the lateHt conclusions that have been arrivecl Itt by the Dutch geologists. For this purpose Prof. Molengraaf's "Geological Explol'lttions in Centml Borneo, 18\)8-04," is IllOst valuable, not only beca.use it embodies the most recent observations, but also beca-use the portion of Borneo described is not far distant from Ulu Sl~ra.wak ancl DIu Sadong, ltl\(1 may therefore be preslimed to be not reillotely connected geologically with the l~reas I have examined ~. An earlier work is Dr. Posewitz' "Geology of Borneo"." As It digest of the views of numerous geologists a.nd mining engineem this volume is extremely useful. U. - In tbe summary of his observations in Centrrtl Bomeo, l\folengra[l,f first mentions certain Archman crystalline scbists.1. A doubt as to their being Archooan is admitted by the :1\1thor, but this view has been a.dopted on his maps. 10. ':I'he sediments cOllsidered by lvIoleng1'attf to be the olde.,t ill Borneo are comprised iu his" old slate fOl'l\latioIl5" characterised by "phyllitic clayslate," altel'lH1.ting with beds of sandstone, greywacke, greyw.wke s]ate and quartzite. It is considered to be the' o]dest formation ill Bomeoll, because it is more elisturhed, and hecause of the petrological char:\cter. '1'he :\ge is unknown; but It is probable that a portion of the same formation in Suma.tnt is Mesozoi0. 11. '1'he'''Danau formatio1l7," f;o-cltllcd because of its development ill the Great JJltke District, is placed next in ItscenCling order. It consists of various igneous rocks, qnart7,ite, chert., ja.sper, homstone, elay-slate, o.nd sandstone. HadioJaria arc ahun(hnt in the ja.sper and homstone, and ltrC occasionally fonnel in the chert anel in tuffs. Dr. Hincle finds tha.t these radioltll ia dfnote, in [1.11 probability, a .Tumssic age8, but addl; that it is possible thl1t they I~re IJower Cretaceous. In the hilly district of BoenglUl It few beds or very fiat lenses of limestoneO appeal' interca.lated bet,ween the folded beds of the Danan formation. 12. '1'0 the Cretaceons10 belong cerLnill ]lIa.rl~, sandstones, greywacke o.nd arkose. Orbitolinil ConcaVil, :Llttn. chamcteristic of the Cenolllo,nialJ, determines the age of these beels. 011 the Hivcr Seberoewang Molengraaf fonnd imperfect remains of echinoderms, mnmonites, anel shells (1\Iollllsca '1). 13. Under the" Eogene fOrIlJationll" Mulengraaf lIJentions certain bonlders of grit containing Nummulites I1nd OrbitoidcR. ~t'hcse i\ll'. H. 13. Newton determines as Oligocene.12 14. Uneler the" 'J'crtiary Sandstone fOl:Juat,ion" is placed It serieR of salJds~one and 'lua.l't7.itic ;;andstolJe with intercala.ted clatstone, coal, and claystone with fossils. In South Borneo (Hiu.lll Kiwa and Kanan) Verbeek bas descl'i bed '1'ertiary beds which he di-:ides into three stages, alpha, bcta, awl gamma, alpha being sltndstone , with coal, beta marl, ~. ---_._-~ Everett, A. H., Notes on the dist.ribl1tion oll1selulll1incml>~ Sal'l\wRk. Jour. Str. Brsuch R.oy. Asilltic Soc.. July, in IBiS, p. lB; and Grodcr, F., DaB Alltin1OD1'orkommen in Distrikte Serll\vak !till Nord Borneo. Qllecksilbcl'\'or]<OlJ1mcn in Sal'l\wak. Verhl\uelJl1ugen del' kaiscrlich.liOniglichcn gen. logischen llcichsanstalt in Wieu, IHi6, Nos. II and ,I.
BOl'l1eo, with an appendix on Fossil Borneo by Dr. G. ,J. Hinde. Londou, 1902.

! ',,1



In Sarawak, the most valuable work been the determination of fossil ren1ltin<; R. B. Newton1; but in the field geology nothing has been done; 0. marked conthe energy with which the zoology of the has been worked out by English scientists. papers on Sarawak that I need mention


· Moleugrnal, G. A. F., GeologicalExplomtiollsin Cen!'r".!
Radiol..."i... 01 Cent",,1 Keg...n P!I1111\ud Co.,

o Poscwit7., '1'., Homeo: its Geology Itnd ]\fineml ReSOIlt'cnB. 'l'l'Itllsll\tion b.y F. H. Hl\teh. Edwl\\'d Stnnford, Lo,,,lon, Jtm~. n. D. and R. Holland; on E:Ol1\e crtiary ForurncniCcrn T ~ 01" cit. p. 407. 5 01'. cit. p. 410 collected. by Prol. Molellf?raal and \.he I"t. Mr. A. H. ~ their compnriRon with sImilar f01'1118 from 8nmf\tl'R. · Optcit. p. 4HJ. 7 Op. cit. p. oil<!. .. )1ag. of Nat. His~. Ser. 7, Vol. iii. p. 245, 18UU. Also 01'. cit. p. 50 Appe!ldixi. · 01" cit. p. 410. &. B..,on (\ Jurassic Lnmellibrn.llch and some other flRsodn.tec1 '0 Op. cit. p. 421' 11 Op. eit. p. 4:!1I. thf' Sarawnk Hive\" IJimestones of J1orJl(~o; ith a sl{etch w ic Fauna of that rsland. Geol. Mag. p. 407, IBU7. 12 n. H. N',wton ,\11<1 . Hollnnd, Ol!. cit. p. 2:;1. R




"-'---'--'-'-~---'." ...--...

MAY H, HI05.
., 4_._ 4...._._ "._.0___'.'. ...~..____..._____


geuerically. 'rhis type may be either pale blue-grey Ol'pale-hrown in colotH'. It is very clearly exposed on the Sarawak Hiver between Bidi Rid Bau, and 11.1sll Will.'the Club at the latter place. A microI Kcopi.. ('xMninu.tion of specimens fr01l1the SRrawak ltin.1.' proves the presence vf fommenifera, some ref...;ahle to the JlfiliolidaJ, others rC'sembling Textularia, and also strllctures referable to conds and sponges. '.L'he other type is characterised by the preponderance of corals l\nd bryozoa over othel' forllls ; ana, as far as I can gather, it was from this limestone that the specimens of Hetel'opol'l/, Stylina, and the sponge Corynella were eollected by Mr. A. ,. all<lmuscovite occur in A. modification H. Everett; specimens which led Mr. Newton to .Ie; and f~nlhdusitH, biotite, actinolite, u.d Illuscovite are fou\lll ill the schists ascribe !L M,esozoic age to the rock.2 :Mr. N ewtoll ~C,'t with sedimentary stmta. Both the rdso Lleseribes in the SI~ll1epaper:! It limellibranch, ,..,.;1 tOlHtiih! IHe sOlnetillJeS gneissic. which, the author thinlo;, probably came fW11I the ~ 3re fOillid ill the 8emitau Hillli ; while Upper 8arawilk limestone likewise. 'J'his is AlecDistrict t\1l,l the Hoellgan Hilb; tourll'IJonia amol', D'Orb, 1\species restricted, in Bumpe, lit£>, tonalite, 1L11gite tona.lite, and tourto the Middle Oolite. On the combined evi(lence of 'te are found. 'l'he agr' of the gmnithis shell and the other fossils Mr. N ewtoll refers the toualites is unknol'. nIL:; a whole, they are certainly youngpr tlmn the all tlw IipecilI1erJsof limestone to the i\1iddle Oolite:! tion. . 'This second type, therefore, will be referred to in he, gabbl'O alld lwrite, aro IIlentioned. tltis report as the Middle Oolite limestone. ".]..:>tile al1(l serpentine were found on the '2iJ. 'J'he distribution of the fossils in the Middle JewnK nnd in the Hlttaug Lupin' district Oolite limestone is by no lIJeans uniform. Locl\lly jn!;t ()\'f~r thH Dutch border. '['hey are "U.II thc DanlUI f,n'lIIation. they are so abundant as to constitute uearly the ,,<:iated with the 1)auau fOl'lllutioli are whole llH1.IiSf the rock. In other places they occur o .'UCh all include(ll1nd(~1 the term diabase. spOl'IH1ieally,or along certain lines only. ,,"111)"1')'I~Ul1 porphyriw In'f~also InentiolieLl. 24. 'l.'his lVJiddle Oolite limestone is abl1JH1antin '..bnic rocl,s are abuudaut ill Ceutml Borfigure largely in the ~'liiller i\Its. where the vicinity of Bltu, Bidi and Jambnsan, :londI1.lsoin '. i 'l'ertiary age, and Ine RITII geLl along a the Samwak Hive\' above Bau penlmlen. n It varies ,fr:s..:ture corresponding to other lines of in colou\', but a deep hlue is common. '['he micro,,'hich govern the pn::;ellt relief of Censcope i:;hews that it is crowded with Illinute org:lon,,}I. '['hey comprise amphibole andesite, file dacite, amphibole porphyrite, hyper- isms, funong which may be recognized calcareolls fontlllenifem. At SlI San Shien I found _,~ite, cllsta,tite andt'site. augite [1,ndehite algae 1111<1 !t Ilulnber of echinoid spines rcs!!lnbling elosely ; rhyolitic pitcbstone, Llltcite obsidian, ",ite, Inica dacite and tuffs. Other vol- those of Cidan:s glalldifel'((. are the north slopes of the Schwanl'r 26. At Hettoo, in Ulu Sadong, I collected lillle,~ _put of the basin of the RRiuba HiveI'. stone specimens of 1\ pale-brown colour, and like Q. :UTiving ill Knehing (Reptember 2Uth) [ most of the Upper Sarawak limestone, veined with ,-~ up the S:m~wak H.ivel: to the gold mines .,ed Ridi, where I obtftine<l a general ideu. of calcite. Rections prepared from one of !'hese speci1'e of the gold field. On the 12th October mens i:;hew that the rock is largely made np of snH\1l '. from Knching for Sadong, where I visited oolitic grains. Obscnre microscopic organisms are ament COltl mines, and ItlSOwent up the present, but, a.lthough in the field I saw fossils that ,;Sadong, Sinltmjan and K1't1ng, with MI'. might be either crinoid sterns 01' echinoid spines, it On November :1th I went to Santubong ~ counect, as far as possible, the geologie:d must be confessed thl~t the palaeontological evidence !)f the eonl and goJ(l districts; Itlld OIl No- for correlating this limestone with that oC Upper ,14&.h went again to the gold mines, wnere I Sarawak might be stronger. -~,.ftinnti1 the'27th, thus cOlllpleting rny work. 2(i. I. have said tha~ provisionally two types of Tile rocks entering into the structure of tbe limestone can be recognize(1. It is possible tht\t Ine limestone, sometimes with chert, nlarl, .uh thin sandstolle bl~llds, and thick salld- the limestone with chert forllls a third disti 1ct type, marldllg a cel'tain horizon; but as )'et I have no ,Ih grit l\IId eonglomerate, which are closely indeed, at Bau, it with the shale. 111tIle coal distriet of proof of it; with the Middle Ooliteseems to be dosely associated limestone. shale, sandstone, grit a11l1 conglomerate '27. '['he ehert, which is almlogol1s to the flint of [;. _hile ill Ulu Sadong, slmle, salH1stono and the English clndk, occurs in two forms: at Didi, I:.e are agttill met witll. In the coa.l field where it is well exposed in the big cave in Mt. 1(1\rocks occur; fwd lip the Sin;unjall and pm, as beds of detached nodules; at Ban as conni,"ers in Sadong they were ,dso met with. tinl10us deposits reaching two inches or more in Limestolle occurs in Upper Sa.rawak as the thickness. '1'be Bidi ehert contains some rf1.diolaria 8\ extremity of It long line of limestone ont- alld foramenifera; that at Bau is a m!\..ss f orgftllo 'Ccstel1l1ingthroughout the whole of Ha.ro.\vak. iSIJJS,amongst which 1\ foramenifer resembling Tex',;ual1y, at allY rate, two well ma.rke<l types of may be recognised in this district. One of tularia is the best preservcd. HRdiolaria and sponge ti chamcterized by the abundance of calcite spicules .ue probl\bly represel1ted by calcite replacements. .. large fusiforlll gasteropoLl, unfortunately -., ~._~ , ".-"to collect, owillg to the compact nature of , 01" cit. p. 441. " Geo\. Mug. p. 4Hi, 1897. "I" 41<1. Ii, and, it is feftred, impossible to identify ,i 01" cit. p. 4]5.
1imestolle. III alpha lerd i1l1prelisiulis I:.od together with some other fOlisils, ,::arena Borneensis; beta is charneterizf!d Pengaronensis; while gam1llll iK rich and also contains corals, echill(ld(~I'IIIS, ~:!:as, nd gRsteropods. a ':e. 1I10st unfortl1llRtely, Molengl'aaf k,s ~I giving any petrological detail ill ili" W'COllllt of the igneous rock of Ceutral :I1<.,t useful a guide as that of the sediso : RIH1moreover, the absence of these '<lIC <loubtful ahout the precise signi~l11e of the terlllS elllploy~d. In the t Jlts. gmni te lIll(l associated tonalite occllr.


.__ " .._

SAltA 'oNAi\. ,GAL::;E'l"l'E, MAY H, HI05.

!\ are elosel)' Itssocin.tec1 wi tlJ 1.110 rpper Rn.rawak, in fa.ct I eoncluded r:asses into the other imperc:eptibly. I\io of argillaceous matter varies COII: I1l1lcss a shaley snucture i>istrongly WIly by the resistance of I.hi;; com,~'gble residnc to weathering thai; tIle cingllished fl'OlII the other in the field. ! exposed in ~everal loc:alities, hut bere at Su San Hhien, IHtrt of the the weathercd roc), sheil's allllll~i)s. At'rai Parit, also 011 the ]hu ~y of marl has been tlLken fmnl n ''''"1!'5t this tlelJl'is Honw I't"naills "I' ;1111£.-Ulltl. '")11 the 'J'lLi PiI.rit lIJ:nl Pl'ores (.f) bc) 'Jrganisllls, sOllie of which, pl'Ohahly 'f! heeu repln.cerl hy I)lULl'tl.. TIll: ~11 ..~k conttLins rccogniy.:\.ble elLlCal'('olls ifem, coml lLlIll sponge structlll'CfL 11near the Han penlm.lall sl)(,\\'s Vi:"/01111 ria. iru..aon1illtHY ruck tlm1. IllUst h.: 111011':. a coarse eale:\J.'colls eOIlI-(JOI\Il'I'ltt(~ ox. :~Oll of an anticlillc UII d)(' ril-(ill h:Lllk

:,14. 011 till! H,tmwH.k HiveI' hd\\"~':11 Bidi :1.\1(1 BlIsall there i1\'e seveml sections or sh:de and slwdstone: and at low tj(1e. all tlll~ \\'ay to Kuching

shales are visi ble at intervals
H5, 'i'he nH)lIntaiu

Oil ei

ther hank.

!\Iat:tn.~. consists, ill great parl at ILI1'yrate, of Hlmle, s:mdst.onc, anll n. little conglonHJratn. At one spot saw IL thill smLIH



of fossil wnoll.
:Hi. Oil

'rhe SCl'1eshigh up dw
froll! I\.lwlling to


has heen ll.lt.pl'cd 1,0 sOllie I'"tl'ut sions. 1I1I~ tmd:

hy igneous


ngaill, Lsaw vngutable remains in shalo. H7. 'J.'h.~isul:tte,l SantubolJg Muuntain, like i\1at.n,lIg, i;; IIlIltIe up of slnde. san,htoill', and eongloI/Icrat.e, with SOIJlO ignl101ls rocks. So also n.re thu
hills 1.111 sOllt,h side of tIll! ](lIal". when~ thel'l~ tn'() the ';(HlIe very g()()(1 :>ectiow; of intcllsely hal'd pllr!,lu Illl(trtr.it,e with s('colllliLI'Y hiotite. "I'pl'es(~nting the: shale anll sandstoue altered by dynaillie IIIeta III01.'phisJU allt! iglleoll~ illt\'1lsions. ltivl'l' sectious,



tweell 8alltuuoug and i\latallg slHm' the cOl1l1try there also to he (',oJuposec1 of siluil.n I'()('ks. At H~LlJill tubollg 1 obt:tilled c\'itlelH:e of fos,.,il \'j'g(:tatioll

the sIIILI(~t Lhe he1Ldof tIll: 1\llIeh Co.':-, wnter supa ply; whiln at two poillts I fOlllltl Inrgl' pi,,':es or
fossil \\'ood ill ':OtLIse l'onglo,onl'lLLt'. :!K. IIJ tlte Sa,long distl'i.:L (.1"'1'1' is all '~IIOI'lUOUK deve)0L>IIWIJt of ,.,h:de alld Hltll,l,.,tOIll<. C"llglollleI'ILI;e, hown\'ur. :O.PI"~;HS to he hilt pood.\' I'I'I"'f~seIlLecl. A lit.tle was f')l111l1 at Ow coal JniIJl'~.
'1'111: hill ill which the ~a,lolll-( ,"'al semll~ is \\'orkl~,l is l'olujiosed of .\'eJlol\' 01' white saudStOIIt~. IOf)sely eeillel:tetl, with the .:oll~lollIl'mte jns!; !,In.lIt reIIlI.'lItio!ll"l. :111,1gJ't.y shale with ahlllld,tlli ;'I\J.

'.\ Hiver hl1tween B:tll alH1 Bicli. It i~ "colour, alld the IIlatrix appc:!.l';, to he us. I SttW one or two IlIa$fWS of corn.]. ,Juhmt pebhles are of dlel't :tllt! SlLIII!me dn.rk pebh)c~ ,.,freI'H~scP wit,h aei,!. of this cOlIl-(lo'1f'I"2Ul\rkahle compollellt ~er, is eOIL!. ill roul1,lerl (>l'hhll's "oat,e,l ~l'1th c:Llcito. ; the linwstollo is intillHLl.ely assoeia.tl',1 d,~. it is also illJp'Js~ihle to dra\o\' :1 lilll' Blarls alld cCl'tain overlyillg slIlLl,' 'Llld 11'11<1 agn.in. it is'ilnpnssibil', .011 the a:,ail"" and II'IH'II dllt\ :tlln\\'''.IH~e hn.s 1.1'1'11 '~-..I :tltel'at,ioll. tn sPp:l.ratc' iIlI' [1Pl'(~I' ~::f" alld sltll(1s10l,C fl'f)nl thai. or :\1:\.l.an).:, . ,,\ :-iadullg. t-,'pel' Sn.l'n.wak tIlt) most stl'ikillg: fe:Ltlll:e tlw pl'cscnee nf nLlliolal'ia, he:LUtifnll.\' .in ..hale incll1sions in the iglleolls rod ILt ~1<->U, B:tll, and in the ill,lnmte,l shale at with tho SILIIW)'t>ek. ~nw. Imd tll"sl' ~ fmglllcnt aml the i/ltlumto,l 1'111I.10 :doll'~ .. w co'ntaill 1'l1l1ioltLI.'ia, should hav,~ bee:! I 'nit tlmt they might possihly he silieificd .le of till! I'esnl t of :L lIIicl'Llseopic COIII. tJ.e two rocks, anrl ill spite of lilY inter. <!! the section exposed elOf;(~ by. Hut at , n there is :Llarge exposure of slmh) ill ;$t1l1dl1. septal'ia,1I nodule, which, 011 Leiug es nlso to he full of mrliflhritL. Fnrther, prepared frolll altered sl!:Lle collected at I Imve fOllnd r1istinct I'elllains of radio'~,p same fOl'II1, and n\llHerO\1S snlwl'ical '-'~:\l't7. which I believe to he casts nf thc



it is 1.0 he regretted.
1'01' i,lelltifieati"lI.

ill a slIl1il<i()lltly


1)1' "l'usl'l'I':Ltion

or the





1'I'IIl:tiIlS. :11'1'1111'\ \\ il,h ill several

IlII'aSIlI',: scd-ioll,.,:

I ip th~. Saclong riv(:I', :Ibo\',. ({(.dollg. the eoal
...hall: alld Siliidstolll: alld

fOllnd a qllalltity l'!:lIln.illi:, ;\t'l'al>':)\:tllg

1I. gravel of f;oft

hanl, 11t':l1' 'I':tI)(~kallg
shall' \'t'I',I'ri,'h s:llld"'\"IH' ill ;IIHI planl Rlm)e


e'\1)(J~e(1. Htill higlwr
and Hettoo, fnrtlwl'

III' stl'l'alii.
I<X \lm;II1't~S


nf shale





vegel;a.liOIl in either. OCClll'; \I'hil,' lil'st. pn.Sf<es It IUIlIJ}wr or islet,., conglollwmte. allcl1'llell, frou) tilt, Dyal, village,

traec,., of fl)SRil IlI'n.I'I:1' I tettoo 0110 rOl'lIlt'd 01 cO:l,rse

stone. Iwir1elltlv an
hill on tll(~ Idf;lmnk. the U.vak exposed. ()l'ganl~lJIs. village III the

ill the >illwll stl'U;LIIJ cOluing eUCOIIlJtl'rs a. IIlass of lime. extellsil.1n of 11)(' hig' IilllCstollr) Between Ihis linll'slolle fl.n,1

shale II.IHl s:lllds!OI\(' are n.gaill shale I SltW SOli 1(' ohselll'(' casts of



41. The igneolls rocks of U 1'1":1' a,IIll Lower S:tl'lLwak lIIay he broadly grolll'od IlIld(:1' two heads, whose IlIutll:d I'ClfLtiolls it lilts b"('11 illlpo:>slhie to :nrin' at with ecnainty. VlIlIel' 1.1,,:lil'~t. hea.d are IllllIlCl'OnS dykes, aud perhai)H sills, lIearly a1ways

ales al'e well exposerl at Hidi, especiall.\' in ,"'I1g Mines, IIcal' one of which, No. tI., J "'\Ce of fossil vegetatioll. At Ball L fOlllld s in the shales beyonll those lIoted, but "ng, where the sal1dstolle is largely IleI fOlllld 0.similal' trace of vugetatiulJ, On between Bl1.un.nd Busan plant l'eIlHI.ins,in sandv and well-ileii.ned seams, can bl'lseen ions: III a pepper gl1.rden Ileal' Bllsall I outcrop of salldstolle very rich in the sanw


porphyritic cl'yst~ls, \"hile 1111(101' the are mllci, larger mass!"s of m'eJl aJld fi IIn

grained holocrystallie rocks seell a.t :->ijnnj'tng (OIl<) fir tl", hill!'; n.t Halltllhong), i\of:LtH.llg.alld I\,t 'I'lL Faw Simko a snmll hill :ullong the !'('PI"'I' gnnlell 11<:1\1' Busau.

111:1..' lava Haws I", igneolls roeh referable to t;hose descn bed by Molengmatr \s!',' a.bove). Personally, howe\'pL'. I have seell no cOII\'in(,ing evi,lenco of tlwil' OCCllrl'IHlce; but, without sl'eilll-( t.he exposures It hetween Pua){ Itlld Ja1l1hl1~l\lI J fOllnd IL ill the 'id.l. 110 olle could distillgllish het.ween the or sH,ndstone o.lso contlLinill~ them. All dyl,e rocks ftlld certaill andesites alill dacites. 'l'hat !'1tremaillS reselllble those Itt Sadollg.1 they were originally cOllnectecl with aurleRitic JaVlt -----fiOWRt,lmt existed a.t a higher ICl'd it/lIl ha YO beell ;till~ thi~ I h.Wf) !leanl fr()I)I Mr. P"wll.\ I.h"t I~hcd pl'obaLII'. ("()nl ha,..; IH-O'!IJ0l1l1(1with tht'. goltl nrl' :l.t,GI'P.Yt~ annulled away, is extl'emely f ItIJlong the Upper Hamwak
- ':ju.,,' ~~('or1.(r-;eu.JJI, higher up tlic'Tilil: 1~ 10 lOW11'-. n.

-12. ft is l)()sRible that there






_._n _ ~ u

MAY H, 1905.

" ._-..---

dyke rocl\8 mry only slightly IIlIwllg I "hypersthene porphyrites" .(the term "porphyrite" !oJJd it lUay ue that their most mill' ked ! having no referellce to nge or alteration) I because that betweell II.glassy and II.CI',\">;t/l,lIille this describes the relations of the rocks ill the field; due to weathering. On the otlll'l" hllllll : 11\11I alii perfectl) relLd)' to admit thn.t 1\[1'. Howo, J dyke rock Illay owe its origin r,lI !lIOn, tlw ~fll1l1lger of Hidi, has quite as goou groullds for lIg 011 the edge of t.he i!ltrnderl \11;1 t('ria i. 'uullillg IhemluJdesites. Authorities of equI\1 weight ILI1dill the "F ofthe most pInt those clyke rocl\s \\"IIii a (:lIlIlcj I": quoted for either nOlllelwlntnre; .\~ hase are so much deCOllJpOsecl that iI j,..; I"i"',i .1£ this fact T think it is hest to leave the rocks . ! that the Ilature of the fcrl'Olllaglicsil~11 t() be called whatever lIIay appeal' 1110<;tsuitable to in(li vidnal opinions. ~n bc recognized with ecrtainty. ;bulgillg, , fnmJ the composition of thu m;sociated !iO. Igneous l'O~liS were found in the Sadong i:. k.e rock, they were i II all probability homdistrict :Lt J'llIlllll anel Propok, un the gimunjall ...",'1 hyperstllClH!. '1'}1Oglassy typc is very Hivm', I\nc1 on Olll1ong Mcrhau. ..Tlll1ging [ro!l1 their ; !l(lntits of an accuratc cletcl'1l1inatillll of COll1positioll gold 111!\)'IICCIll'in any of these localities, ~tllent minerals. Goml exn!llples oc:cur I~t !unl the 1'ropok l'Ouks present other poiuts of interest. Huli; 'raiton; betwean Ban alld .1a.ibol1g; '1'he first of tllO specil1lens c:011ected there is n line gmillccl diabase"~ idclItical with a rock foul1d !Lt ~.t to Ban on the Bnsan path. fll all thes~ Pllnda. Anotll"I' is 1\ cORrseJ'diabase with colollr(hp roek is hillcl, 11l1clhas tlte appmll'!lJlce less augite; whil(~ a t,lIiI'll , unfortllllntely IlOt seeu ill ..s, 'lil', I'orl'hyritic crystals of a c.:!ear felspal' situ, is mfemble to the variolitic <liabases describecl r.1allt. al1l1 freque!ltly a lllll'k Inilleml Cllll be by ~le8srfl. C()It~ IIIIc1Grcgory.l 1 hope to give a 111a h:\l'('\ specimell. Un(ler the microscope _(lm:188 is seen to IJe an isotropic dass, full fllller (ll-'scription of these roclis elsewhere. Ie douhly refmcting I1Jicropiths' u.n~l c(l:mlly iiJ.. Olle I'l'Ublcnl ill Bnmwak of great illlpOl'tallee '-'f)'stals of !lmgl1etite. 'i'he fcbpal' is II [1'0111a }>l\I'ely scielltific poiut of view I Imtl to It~al'e IIlIsoh-ell. IIILllIelv, the l'eln.ti ve horizolls of the il' with high extinction IIlIglcs; while the !\rgillaceous alld ~relll\c~o\1S rocks in Upper Sarawak, .. lesian8 ll1'e hypersthelle ;Ilid hOl'1lblende in d lwiSill s, fll the BUl1kok rock hiotite GCCt11'S !Lt 1\11\tang, lit. Salltllbong' !Llltl ill the Sndollg <listriet. Ro fltl' 8S call be judged from the strike and petl'o.\11 interestillg J'ock OeClirs nel1\' GUl10ng logicnl feltt1l1'es, I couhl see 110reason for seplll'ating the heels expnsed in the Hadonl,( coal miues from L rli. It is Idl1lOst white for the nlUst part, ,;.ajIlS dark strcnks of IIlnterial. lmrclcl' thall those at Snnt\1bollg ILn<1 Matallg, but the only ren.lIy n:linhle (~\'id(;)lce ill the ease of loen.lities sitllatcclltt ~4 ..I' tll!' )'()('k. \\"llieh giv" it II p('clilial' '''oCt' UII \\'(mtheJ'illg, 'l.'It() C'xposllres, ill d(~lIs(~ s\1eh a distanc:e fro!l1 olle another-nhollt fifty IIlilcs t,hnt of IIrgllllic rell tai liS, il:! illsufliciellt. 'rhe . ...n, IlOt v"l'y sntisfactoJ'Y, all(l I call1lot 1m rl'ert.iary liulestoue of V erbcek. funnel nssociated . ..Is exact IIILtl11'e;but judgillg from the slides with the cOld IlIcasures elsewhere, is here ILbsent, as .u t\\'o specimens, which shew ill one a fillc . ~I);;aic, witll .\'ellow gaJ'net, wollastonite, and far as is kUOWII, th~: plaut I'IJlllllillS are uudetcrllliu!~.ite associate(l alollg ('<H-Lainlines, al1d in ahle. alld 110 specimells of Nllmlllulites or Orbitvides a quartz alnl felspaJ' lll",;aie with plagioclase ha\'e heen fouuo in 11I1Y the rocks in question. of sts, wollastol1ite, ILnd perhaps scal'olite, T 011 tbe other lmnd the radioltLril\ founel in the altered that it Illarks tbe junctiml het\\'C!ell all flha1e at S!Lutnhllllg l:il11110t bn distillgnisherl fr01l1 tlh~se il1 the Upper Samwllk rocks, all Df which benr "Hek IUll1 all illlpllrC! limestolle. 1'he igneous rocks at 1IIatiUlg, cOlllprised ill a grcater resemblallce to Cl'l/osl'hvc/'a thal1 to :LIIY 1(1group. IIl'e, judging fr01I1 their petl'ologielll oth~,r gel1ufl; but II correlatiol1 uf mcks so fal' apart, similar, ou tIll' el'idel1cc of 'ristics, ill aJl probltbility bugt'J' IIIIISS!1t althollgh pctt'ologieally ..ted with rne1is such as those just (lcscrih(~ll. olle clnestiOlHlble gelll1s of a dass witll Sl) wide the specimens col1ected it IlIigbt be ItssUlllc(1 a l'al1ge ill tillJe e0l1h1 han11y he helel to he sOlllHl. Ibcl'C llJ'e two distinct types at Matang, The RllIllc bellring pllLllt I'cmllil1s at Salltlloollg aud ..~he1\l~ gabbl'O (l1orite) luu1 (flltlrtz diorite; but il1 Uppet' Samwak is closely Hssociatc(1 with the 1:5reasol1 to believe that both have consolidatec1 shale with 1'Ildiolarin~. It will be rememhere:l that die same JllagllHL, sinee some slides she\\' II l\lolen~nll\f's Dn.nan fOl'1Ilation, which is nch in with cIml'ltcteristics interl1lediatl! betwecn the mdiolarin, including abundant examples of CCIII).~_\t SijelljlLng quartz (liorite, precisely the 1'1/(Jera, is stated by Dr. Hinde to be probably ~ that ILtl\[tLtltl1g,is found; aUf1there arc also ,Jurassic, or possibly Lower Cretaceous. [11 Upper. SILl'lLWllk1\'[1'. Newton hn.s referred the Limestone . liS containing hypersthene. A. (:areful search 'l'he limestone resnlt in the hypel'sthclw gahbro hcinl,( specilllens to the l\lic101e Oolite, ,..erell_ 'i'he specimens from 'l'a I.'a\\" Rlmk Itre beds ullderlie both the marl :l11eltIll! shale Ilnd sanelstolle. diurite slightly weathered. 5'1. ']'he physicltl feMmes of the gola field of 'l'he quartz dioritC' contain" hiotite. green 1.own hOl'llblenclu, II bltlgioclase felHLHlrwith U ppel' Ha\'(lwak heal' a strong reS~l11blance to those extillctjon angles, :~lIela little ()llartz, The of the limestollc districts of the Federated Malay HttttBS, T,iHlestune hills rise abruptly from the hene gabbro cOlltains fL silllilar plagioclase valley of the Sitrawak river, and further, we get Irregular massefl of the rhombic PYJ'Oxelle. As 011 Matang 1 collected spfcimens of It very siJllilar low rolling shnle ILnd sandstone hills. :1fine gmilleu rock <:losely IIs50ciatml with the regards geologicaf features, I am not ill a position diorite anelhypersthene gabbro, which proved to say yet whether we have rocks of .1ul'Ilssic age or ,asemble the dykes of Upper Samwl1.k, Olle \lot, unless the Rhmtie be t,aken as the lowest pa.rt ell, however, has the grullnd III(U;~ cOl11posed of the .Jura.ssic: but it is now ~ert:tin that in part of Ulu Pahang t,he limestone is below the l\lyophoria tdspar lathes shewillg Itow strnctnre. At SlwtuIf due allown.nce is made loi' t.he I found on the beach, on the south siele of the sllndstone. . boulderl:! of coarse grainell ophitic diabase in dift'erence i\l degree of metamorphism. the petroall the pyroxene has IIBell l\ltel'lJd to feLted , Cole, G. A. ,J.,l\nd J. W. Grcgol')', on thc y,U'iolitic Hocks. . amphibole. of Mont Ge,,,,,'l'c, Qnart. JonI'. Geol. Soc., xlvi, limO, p. 2U5, \Vith rcgard to tho llOJIlOnclatlll'c uf the I\nd Grexol',I",.J. W., on the Vilriolitic Diabasc of tho l<'ichLel. .15. Ha.rawa.l< dyke rocks, it entirely uepellds 011 /{obil'ge,QUI\\'t.JOIII'.,Oeo!. Soc., xlvii.. IH91,p.the l'eUlUlUltof · It iHpossible that the mdioll\l'hll'ep,'esf!nt a.nangement of the igneous rocl,8 is followed. the limestone lanna still stru/{gling agt\iust the I\lto'l'ml con. myself, I 11.111 inclined to think of them as ditiOtl~.





'rHE SAHAW AK GA~Err'l'I~, MAY 3, 1905.




:J8. At Mataug and Hautu bong the dips in shale and Randstone :ue nlncb more rcgnlrtr tilltn in Upper ~ as the dykes in thc Upper Hm'awal, Sarawak, ItIJd, but for one well marked !ille ltt H:I,ntllbong, not so greatly inclined. AlolIg this line the shale A.ndsl1nclstolle are cOllvcrted into a compact -::ominating feature of the Upper Sara~,~ is the valley of the 8araWltk Hiver, purple ballele<l (lllA.l't7.itc with biotite, and trend N .K-S.'\V. On the Salltnhong close to the Dutch border, flowR N. E. very regularly ~ \Y. side of the big limestone hills of Monlltaill 1 Sl1W[1 gooll example of a dyke, Rimi]ar whose S. Eo boundary Illay be sE1idto to those in Upper Sara.wlLk, tl'elJding N.-S. Range, composed, I am il1fonned, of 5\). One 1I10re point concerning the Rtrnctnre o[ conglomerate. '1'0 the N. VV. of the the country I Jnust Illclltion hefore leaving the is another long range of hillfl, the subject, namely, the pussibility of their being au , " aiso, I am told, composed of snndstone ullconfol'luity between the limestone 111111 the shale, l1>"'rnte. 'I'hc N .B.-S.vV. trend ofthe How which, J fOIllItI, waRheld to be the case hy gcutleCap southern hnlf of the BUl1go Hange, meu living in Upper Hamwak. rutting asil1e the t t.hese hillR are il1timately cOlJltected n1[1.rIRfor the ]>reRcut. two nmsolls were addnce<l for tion of the \'alley. The 11 r th C)1']1 considel'illg tlmt an uIH:onfoJ:]uity exists. o The lirst Wits tlHtt uuderneath the more or lesR weathereil ,~l1go HH.nge turns eastwan]. shales the Rllrface of tile limestone is carved iuto , ;c tbe excep1.ioll of the '1'egora mercury pinnaeleR. This means t.lmt the pinnacles were ~',e country in Upper Sarawltk that 1 formed before the shalt~R were deposited. Now, the
~.u cloi>ely, EUJd ali>u Lalw LIlt) i>11I1lE:r,',le

'ties ill either country are very RLriking. yet found allY igneous rocks identical of Sarawak, but the "grecnstoneR"

over, two hiBs compaRed of dyke rock have a general trend in that direction.

"i ",.)

,_ bounded by the HivcrR SCH'aWltkand thanks to the assistance ftfforded mc ,'I"awle, Howe, Geikie, and others, 1 wai> vaillable data concerning the st.ructure .;' which, it iR to be regrctted, canlJot ,i e in a simple din.gram. AR it iR I :JUrto explailJ as shortly as pcssible. mncstone 11J:St, alii indehtecl to :r-.rr. I ihewing 111e mallY exposnreR lJear Bidi ~ding conltl be plaillly secn. The 'eel me to distingnisb betwp.en bedding ,..III other lin]estonc sectionR, not .always r. From ~7 exposures, Jargl') alld 'iug the sections 011the Sn.rawak Hi vel', ':tr-t tbe limestone hedR have beell sub,T55-eient ressure to canRC them to he p nndulating ftnticlinefl aud sYllclincR, IjIIttr~tlen dip, but occasionally, as at Bau, i . nclinatioll. 'rhe dip referred to is 80°. d10e Sl1rawl1k Hiver sections it. is IJO°. iuclill:1.tion is between '.'w0am! 80". ],] Hi\'er the ttntielinal folds are hen.uti..tIel it is seen tbere (;IJf1.t gasleropocl the :ii$;\Iways below a coral lilnestone, whieh present be referred to Mr. Newton's '/ie. }<'mther, one of these) river sections ibe calcareous conglomerate mentioued iunnecliatelv Etbove the r.liddle Oolite UMl below we~thercd Rhales whieh may I)' been calcareons. In other sectious marl can be seen apparently eOllformabove the limestone. 'l'he nHLjority of -Dns taken give a stl'i!\e of N.li;.-t>.vV. ,_.howe\'er, Sa.m Tziam, Bau. a general ,'V.-S.E. can be seen over an tHea of t sbale alJd sandstone :Lre luuell nlore ,!:at) the limestone, as shewn by the steep, dips. 'l'he strike, however, iR generally


moverneutfl that


(listurbecl the shales must

have :dTccted t.he older linJestone also, :uIIl all the piunaeles I saw were vtH.ticl1.l. It iR, 1 think, muc:b IUOl'e relLsonable to suppose that the pilll\aclcs were formed not only after tbe clepositiou of the Rlmlc, but after tbey Imd been so den udell aR OIl]Y to Ica\'e tt thill \\'eatbcn:d cap, than Losuppose that having been fonned before the deposItion of t,Ii() sbnle, they bave eRcapell being move(l out of the vertic::tl. '1'0 suppose that they were origin:tlly tiltecl ill every direction and have beell pushed into their present positioll .would lIe illlpossibk. 'rhe utileI' reason WIL;; b.Lt the simleR t IHe nJOrc disturbed j;hall the limestonc. 'l'his I do not deny; bnt I alJl obliged to ra,ise ltn ohjcction 'to the illlplied il1ea that olle causc mni;L I'I'ol1uee the SltJlW I'e!;ult ullder Iliff,'rent conditions. The wost rational expl:tuatioll of the diiTcrencI' in llips ill the liuleHtone alld in tho Rhale appears to Ille to he that the elLJ:th JUOVeJllellLS affectcllroeks that Wl~l'e lIot of tlw saule eOl1sif;t.nUC\', an,l furtlH'l' that the supel'ineulubent maRs of sh;de [111L1 other rocks, IlOw

much of which hILs b()ell denwled aw:w we C[tnllot tell,oxerted IL suflicient vertical I'I'()s~ure on the linle3!<me to partially counteract thn stronger lateral

preRsurc. liO. '1'hero is, !wwever, a possible reason for suspeeting a.l1 lllll,:ollforwity in the fact that I'ecoglIisahlo marls (10 not Edways :tppeal' between the IillJeRt0uc :1.Ild the Rhale, notably ltt Kl'okong, Bidi. Conlclit be provecl that origiually the warl j'ol'lucd a well defined hOl'i7.on over the whole of tlw Upper Sarawal, liu]()stoJle, theu the Rell'WJl<:e f sll1tlo Oll o lillleRtone would Jlecessarily reg uire:1n uncunformity as all explanation. But t.hese orlgilll1.1 conditionR cannot ho !1Sf.Hlllled Oil the evidence to lJn.lId ; aut1 moreover, when olle tltl,es into cOlIsjllenttioll the extl'CWC d ifticulty, if IIOt illlpoRsi bility, of diRti nguishiug between weathered shale and some weltthel'ed llHtl'I, allll the illiprob:tbility of the depoRitioll of , or n.pproaehing that direction. calcareous lIla.tter decreltsiug at an equal mte allrl -ng, however, is not the only disturbance f;illluituneously over so large an 1LJ.'eIL thltt rqwr[1,:,; ob~erva.ble in Upper Sarawak. There sented by the lilncstone ilistriet of Upper Sn.~'aw[1,1\. I evidence of faultiug in the strike of the I think that. tbeir presence pointR nlO)'() to a gradual Taiton, close under till) perpemlicular pa~sage frr,HlIlimestone to shale than tJ all UllCOIlcliffs; and in the Ja.ibong valley, where it fOl'lJlity. But tbe most valuable evidellee in f;Uprort &om the bedding of the limestonc hills of an ullcollfol'lliity is thc extraorclillary calcareolls n.nd sandstone in the valley has been conglomerate in the Hl1rn.wak l{iver. .It conton.ins In both these cases the line of 'Iis- coal, salHlstonc, a.nd ebert, wbieh JJlllst all hiwe ~ut north A.ndsouth. and the (lown- been dori ved fl'om rocks older tllltll the Rhale, bave been over 300 It: sandstone, and conglomerate of Upper Hara,,;ak, igneous dykes cut both the limestone unless a portion of tbe series haR thinllecl Ollt to. a.nd s!1.ndstone. '1.'here are not sum- nothillg in this particular spot, which wotdc1 meali

s to deduce any general direction for :rotUecertainly trend N.R-S.'\\'. l\Iore-


while Micldle Oolite
ill olle pl:1ee,








wcr'e J




__h ..._....____..._

MAY 3, HJ05.


ionned ill another. The chert is idell ti:u I .bat in the limestone. I do not attempt to hcre the significance of this calcareous COIIte; it, together with othcr datil i h.\.I'c
,place me ill 11. osition p Inore dimclI It thllll

. . which Molengrnaf foulld himself ill Clllllle<:- of \1:1ft, from surface. (i7, ,:Iose to the openwork, and trending at ..ith the Bogene boulders of Centrul Bon;"". I ri,:l.i angles to it so as to form the stem of a '1', is ~£INEnAL DEl'OHI'l'S. U rey's Ridge, where a lot of stone has been won COAL. 1'roln the surface. Hen]gar was abullllant. No work Tile coal seam being workecl at Haclong varieK was being ilolle whell I saw it, Imd as far as I coul<l '-rnhh' ill thiclmess; Imt lltlll told tlwt~' !)" is gllthm' only float boulders of the saille black breccia, wcre t.11,en. .\~-Sth~ average. Its genoml strike IS 'I';.-\\'. fiR. At Ham 'rzinlll a horizolltal bed of breccia in ,:''(I is 1 in 4 or 1ao sonthwanl Oil the Ilorth sille bill, bnt it hecolllcs tiattl,)r Oil the south. rt sitn was worked fo!' some time in limestone country; b)' se\'tmd small fanlls, two o!' which were seen and 1 saw mlLsses of black lIlud beillg tllken ant of a , ..~, 11, both trending N.\Y.-S.K and throwillg big crevice with limestone 011 the foot, and dyke ~:111 for a mattcr of t.WO 01' tl,ree fnet. On rock (JlI the hRllging wall. .lIlIe plan the following falllls an, nll\rke,l: GD. :\t Su Sail Hhien there have heell extensive ~.X.W.-S.S.K, Inuie \\'.S.\\'.,' throw ~' !i"; (:J) worl,ings. SOlfle of these l1.ppeared to be similar to "-:00", hadillg'250o, throw 2'; C.))'vV.N.W.-T-;.S.K, the 'J.'ai Parit operations, the saUlc brecciated stone '" R.S.\V., throw:J' (i"; (-I):\.'\V..H,K, IUHling being pre<;ent; but two of them require special notice. . tbrow (\'. The JllawLgcr is ai' Lhe opillioll 'l'he first is dose to the l\hna.ger's how;e ;1,nd cOlJsists . . crc limy be a fold eallsillg tile :;,).LIII to l1ip of It large working fnee 011the side of It small hill. !'" ..l~('pl'y on the east. At the base of the seetion 011the lIoL'th is ~l dark .. 'rhe nlass of the cual \\'orkecl is Ol'liill'lry limestone followerl by the decomposed marls with bitnm;no\1f; coal, light ill weight IIIHI easily easts of orgfLlJisms. Above this marl is a f'Lult tren:,.<1:<1. ] II sOllle pans it cOllbtins a cOllsidemble ding lIeally N .-8. ILlidhading E.. willch appears to Jt of calcite. '],he nssociatt'd shRle cOllttLills cut off the 1l1~l.rl from II dellse black shale, the lower .. C,",ll sllIall (IURlltities locally; hut; I (lid lIot see i part of whieh, howewer, nH1Y possibly represent \t'Jlbilll~rable amount. ill th(~ coa\. [S,l\\' s(~\'el'itl decalcifie(l tmnsition beels from llIari to shale. '!'he d) rr"g\l\ents of a d,!()l' 1>ro\\'n coa\. o\'(~cnts through the centre of this blnck shl1.le. It 'I'he SIL,lollg coal is largely used 011 tho gold is of the usual brecciated type where exposed in the .,.. J{ Upper fhu-awllk Both there 'alld Oil the open. Auove the Sllld~ aud apparently parallel to I1I1(:Sthemselv,~s I ha\'e heal'll ILgood report of the hedding a sill of the typical igneolls rock oceurs, : hmns well alld does not leave Illuch ash. l1.bout; ]5 ft. in thickness. Above this agaill -Illy object,ions to it raised \\'ere that it gives IL weathereli shale is seell extellding upwI1rds to the ". ,.moke and hreaks \1p so Sill all in the tires tlmt surfaee. A level was put into the hill on tIle south

alill soil, in which are float boulders of the breccia al\o the limestone, the latter generally crowded with the Mill.lIe Oolite fossils, Hecent undergl'ound opt-'l'ILLillllSave proved tbe existence of the open. h WOI'k01'1'!\'nd the are rmming parallel to it at a depth


alill sill; and it was here that the speeilllens of shale wi th radiolaria were found. 70. The other 8u San Shien working consists of ILseries of pits fm1l1 which all extraordInary pyritic 'l'llC gold deposits of Upper Hamwal, lllaY IH~ ore has heell tl1.l(Cn. Himilar ore ha:; been found at in three g1"U\1pS, those at Bftll, thm;e~ at anotlwr locality all the Ban ground, 1IIlIHl Bidi, and those at .1nlllbusan. 71. are hilS been found at nnmerous other places The gol(l worl,ings ILtDau are scatterml over 011the Ball area, uut since it call all he plac;ed ullder <t' ;trelL of low-I ing lallel, ovcrlool,ed hy Ban olle of the types describerl there is 110IIf~edto lIotice !"t"ilJ, iL fille eXII.lIlpl(' of a limestone hill. At it further. %. e of nlY visit the nlost illlportant m worl, WILS 7'2. At '.l'aiton SOllie ore IllLsliltely beelJ llisc;over.",:. o1one at 'I,'ai Pari t /llJd iIJ IL big open work ed which, while tl'ltversing limestone countrv itself, Lhe mili, the latter locality giving a very good also contains a hll'g~ percentl1.ge of el1lcltreous. matter ./11 are in situ, of '1'0 ilescribe in detail this ore with ealcite crystals-, and is Hallb!Cl by masses of "~J be both long and t('(lious; allO 1 doubt very larj.!er crystals, 'rhe mass of the (JI'~ is black or : whether the dl!scriptiull wou Id gi \'e a good uf ti,e rmdit.y. 'l'lw deposit. may be s\1lJl1lled grey, Illld the crystals of white calcite set in it pro11'.. few words by saying that it is a dark hreccia duce .L very fine effect. Mud, clrLy, and soil have " l1.,o,enting mass of shale, salldstone, and lillie- been workeli for some time at 'l'aiton ; also, I 11.111 a informed, a black ureccia of the. ordinary type. " all jumbled np to,[(ether in ILn extraordinary 7:-1. Close to 'l'aiton, at Bl1.tu Inche oeman, 11. r, celliented by siliet~'JlIs nlatter, and further :ted by dyke roek which ilia)' be brecci!\,ted 11.lso. bhwk breech, is being worked ill a hll'ge limestone crevice trending N,N.'\V,-S,S,E, are contains The trend of the deposit is N.R-S.'\V. On the S.K IOU1\try is a dellse pale grey limestone; on the N. a cOllsidemble' quantity of rcalgn.l'. Dyke rock ;.be €\'idence is not \"ery clear on account of the oc;cnrs at Tl1iton. Ilposed condition of the ground, hut from WhlLt 74. At Bidi all the workings lie on !\,nalTOWbelt " l think the countr,)' is probably limestone ILiso. of country trending N. K-S. IvV" which, however, the south-west end of the open cut, where most is not necessarily the directiotJ of the Ore bodies themselves. was being dOlle, are Inasses of dark coloured ~ with huge float bonlclers of limestone and of 75. 'fhe solid ore from all the Bidi workings is 11 ~h o!'e. 'l'he limestolle is distinctly w!\,ter worn ll1inemlized dark breccia. 'rhe principal work is ~me elistllnce frolJl the ~lJ1'face. 'J\o the S. E. of heing ca.rried on in the Bunlwk mine, I1nd 11t Kro, opell cut another pamJlel hody of are has been kong, some way to the N. E, of the settlCluent. d. At ,!'ai Parit masses of very tough black 70. At Bunkok It trinch has been cut R-\V. in, with a siliceous Cell\ellt, are worl,ed, ILildalso across the are, giving a good section of the ground. t and -+mottled, and deep red ~-- yellow, surface clltYs On the east ilj II mass of limestone; then black ',. See MOlenl:l'lu.!.op. cit. pp. 423.425,lIne!this report, mineralized shale for 15 ft" aud then the are, On [lh 14, gil"ill!-( erucck's stages, Y I the west is more limestone with clay between the-

" ,r.s have to be specially Il1T:llIgccl. But for the r,;light IIJillcmlizl1.tion by pyrites, ;j;,;otlealld smH1SL)JJ0 Ilssociated with the conI sllt~1\' ~i:.i! of al t.erati 01I. ...;1IS GOLI).

side of the face following



of the




;\trAY 3, 1905.

Aoles. At Bunkok !tlso there is It mass of <lytiC which I~ppen.rsto be part of I~U K-\V. intrusion. 'ii, 1'he "Beyond Bunlwk" deposit is remark. for being extremoly rich iu l~r8euic I~<; realgar . the native metal. "rhe j uUCtiOllof the ore witb timestoue can be very clearly secn here. It is ed by the occurrence of pinl, calcite traversed RDo.lIveim of ore. Mr. Howe informed me that flepth the <lark ore died out Itnd glwe place t,o a I


veiu of the pink calcite


a little


,~ and gold. Mr. Howe ILlso informcd me tlmt ore certainly extend" along the flu1'face in either iou. but is \lot worth working. _ At Krolwng all the bh\Ck hreccil\ appears to brdly mineralized at all; but that this is not case really is shewn by the high assays obtaine<l. , all the workings that I saw It thin cap of weather~ale overlies the limestone. Most of the ore cd has beeu from float boulders an<l elay

-----------H4. Mr../. S. Geilde killdly gave me the following analysis of It s!~ll1pleoC the pyritic ore at Su 81m Shiel], Bau. Antimony happened to hI; !tb~cnt in this sample, but it is known to occm' in thc ore. l~rolll assays it is £oUlHl thn.t gold \'l\rieR frolll 15
dwt.-l tOil.

t O~.


Slt11!pllJ cOlltains

1.2oz. silver pCI:

between the limestone pinnacles.
',~. The most remarkable thing about Kl'Okong


as yet no dyke rock has beeu discovered. .J] it is either hidden in jungle, or is a short "my -uo inr the smCace. I do not hesitate to think is ex!1!UiJ ),U2 Iy probable. It is Curther worth noting that H!i. '.I'he 0111Ilwl'cury JIIine at Tcgorll.. where cill1Ild Chinese workings have been found Itt 1\1'0. this almost certainly being cllle to tllp. fltct lIo.bar WitS wOl'kell 11)' the 1I01'IIeo COIllpn.IIY for several years with good rCfmlts, iR 0.11 ext:rcmcly there is no visible g,)I(1. interesting phee, bllt 1 call not stop here t,) describe ji('. In all the cases so Cl\rquoted tlw blaek brec- it a.t length. '.I.'ho country is highly tilte(] "hale :Llld CIOusistsof fragments of either i>hale or ~ilicitiea sandstolle. ::-.iodvl,e rock is 1\110\\'11. 'rile ore if; I.t and sandstone, sometimes also )ilI\estonc, blo.ck shlLie ILnll ~(I,lIdstone breccia. :\[r. 1'ItIv1eillforll1lJll me that no tmce of gold was evcr I'011 lid ted by silica, and sometimes calcite. there; ItlflOthat It Rill1ilar brccci" was fOIlIH1,tlittle At Jalllbusall a elifferellt type of ore occurs. to tlw south at Glt(ling, but coutainillg rea.lgltl' inCinnabar, howover, was founel country is limestone, but the stone has quite 0. J;teac1 of cinuabar. At .tnother 10ot appearance. Instead of the compact black I~S"eyes" ill a (lyke roe!< hard by. ca.lity in the lIeighbollrhood, every ],Janning of allubreccia there is 110Iln.Sf!of calcite containing I villm gave both gold i~lIel cinnahar. 1tl1n~ also the angular pieces of pale brown lilllestollc, Itnd cinnahar was fonna ill situ in (lykes. CiJlJmbar, the n-ed hy ballel~ of siliceous UHtttCl',prohl\bly dc- same gentlelllan tola lI1e, has ncver heen seen at from solutioll. Visible gold occms splLrsely Bau. hut lilts beeu found llear BURall [Lull at I'lw.l<. these bands. Apl\rt from the limestone c1ILrk Barytes WItSmentioned n.s occlll'ring n.tTeg-ora. An IJlIovingthe appel\rallce of brecciated frn.g- importallt poillt concernillg 'regora iR the fact that the strings of cinnabar in thfl breccia wel'l") Ollsta,lItC also occur. but they are most probably frag- Iy Cound to be Caultec1,while Mr. H. n. Evel'l~tl;inof the siliceous bands broken up after their formed me that in elepth the whole hrcecia had the tioll by subsequent ll10vements in thr. loele a.ppea1'lLnceof heing cut off by ft fault. e(j. 'rhe following list of minerals fOllna iu Upper One body oC ore at Ja,mbusl\lI has beell Hamwak IIIftVbe of interest. I have no Ilollbt tha.t at a depth of 120 ft. ; alld judging Crom Ullwere olle abje to devote sutlicient time to the subject und opero.tions it would appellI' that it has the the number could be increased hy scveml spccies. of a curved sheet.


S. :\1-;. ).'e. CII. Pb. /'/1.

;,11.7f) :!O.:J2 '!.7.H(j .(),l

Co. ~i 0., Oxygell and loss

.:10 .H4


lie. I have collected several notes on the assay ~rI f various types oCore over the Upper Dal'l1.wak o field. but the best idea of the ILIl10untof gold 'buted over the country can be gained Crom the 'ng returns. 1'hus at Ba.u, for the firflt 11I~lf of the average a.ssay was 5. 2 d wt. per ton; while November. 1898, to 31st Jnly. 1904. 448,319 bave been treated at the same mine, giving oz. fine gold, whioh figures give an average of :J.88 dwt. of fine gold extracted pel' ton.! At tIle ore is slightly higher grade. 'l'hrough the courtesy of Mr. \V. H. Hamilton able to give the following analyses of Bidi stone. yield of gold is above the average. 'rhe high utages of a.rsenic give great trouhle in working; i\ is Itlso interesting to note the small amount .phur.

Gold, II'c<)n.nd oL\",rwi"c I Silvo,I




JIIOlIl\tC 01 lCfldl

Cinnn.I>I\L' Cfllolllel " N "ti,'c n.rscnic Heall(Oor Ol'pinu.mt Mispielwl Nnti\'f! !Ultill1on.\,

Itntimou,\' nlullcn.u) Galcnl\ Certlssitc ' Blellllc Pyrites nnd irnn oxidc1-; Co.lcop.\'L'ile and <lecoll1po~ition procluct" A7.l1ritc " Mflll::(l\ncsc oxi,le" Bn.rytes In Vil\molH1, 011 the S. E. of llllllJ.{OBange the illll'nl'l> coal fonnu



Mn.ln.chite ·

SlLr~,wn.kitc' (1111\." 1\11. ue lilllon.y chlori(le; 1111. ecrtl\ill) Sonl\rmouitc Actinlony o('hre~" Vn.lentinite ·

'1'0 thc "uove )jot 111lL.\, now hc "dde,l n.t Grey's Ridge, Ban.

nese figuresare given with the permissiol1 Mr. Po.wle. of


I This percentl\:;:e of As. is low £01'"Dc)'onl] Bnnkok" orc, · :F.h'creU, A. R., op. cit. p. }9. 3 Frenzcl, A.. Mincrn.logische~ ltU~ ,10111 st-itHli"chen Al'O)hi. o pelllIin. Mitth. "on 'l'schcrlltl\.k, lA77. Ill. .1 r. 0 Frenzc), A., op. cil. · E,'erctt. A. H., op. cit. p. 23.

p. 21.
10 Qlloled h~' Mr. Pllwlc.





- -


rfHE SAnA W AK G:\7,ET"J'E. l\TAY 3, 1905.


~I"CY minemllil(e cotton wool if; I:c.asinn:dlv the. fact thnt no dyi(e rock has yet been found at in the gold field, 'l'he only spec nen 1. saw KI'OI«)ng or 'l'egol'll., for failure to find it does not i;:;.the Knching Museum, T am to d it is pl'O- 1l1e,1~1I is not there 01"neal" at hand, and it 18not it ., a "Rriety of stibnite, possi bit- to arrive at IIn accurate estimate of the The easie~t (ncthol! of O!;t"iiii..~ ,. ";';::1-1 cxtl'!:IIW distance at which a breccia may be affected
ive idea of the orp, worked in Upper ~;lm\\':lk hy 1',III:llmtions from igneo:1s masses, Further, ~\Jd helow the mill, eithel' at Jlau 1'1' Hilli, ! SI'pill!.' I,hat goldnp to 1 dwt, per ton is ofteu fonlld t. watch the tJ'ueks cOluilllf ill 1'1'0111 ..;,ti..IIS I ill 1,"(' dyke rock, mill tlmt cinnfJ,h:~r has been foun(l tlll' . and I am incJined to d~ubt whether, apa.1. In the 'dyke rock Rt <Jadillg, I believe, all the lbe evidence of the mill, the fOl'ln of trllclis, strength of evidellce adduced in other countries, ti..JeChillese coolies, ltl1YOIW would COIIII(,I:I r.lw tlw.t the gold alld cinnabar, and may be the other t.s \\'ith gold minin'g. One set of trucks IIlincrals, were derived fro III the dyke rock, with _ ladell with loose yellow soil; IUIOtllc<I'with which they were entu.lIgled at the time of irruptioll. ,j;<"~1CsoillHixcc1 with hllllJ!H of tlJ(~ .lark !)J'()ccia, III fact, the folding, the irruption of the c1ykes, ItlHl ,~. which at I~casual glallce docs IIOt pl'escut ItlJ)' the faultiug, IInd the minemlization of the breccia, . ,r. of partieular iuwrest.. Another string of nmy be ta.ken to be results of the same movements t.. arrives fnJl of mottled elay, sitch as occurs ilt tl)(~ em'th's crust. '1'hat the nction which took nly on the sllrfaee of tIle ;tr,~iJlf1.c(,,,uH rlll:](S place in the faltlts during the minerali::ation of the FCIlemtcd Malay ::itate>:;; all()thl~r Jill::; Inore breccia was of a vigorous uatl1l'tJ is, I thillk, shewn :s ll1ixed with Ilark mllll, which, to lJIl<otc,tIle to he probable by the small veinlets of ore tra\'ersing .,t!;C1' f Bi(li, haH the "collsistellcy o or tmin-oiL" the limestone, and possibly also by the fine state of ~~ fire follo\\'0.1 by nlOl'!) trllcks J'lllIging elivision of the golll, I will not stop to discnss the '~ ill la\'O'c bloeks IlIIIl other::; wlJicll :I.'/pcar to f01'ln in which the minerals anived, 'l'here is l~bnllbeell Hned by the coolies with I~ny rubhish dltnt literfttn\'() on the gellesis of orc c1cposits, but it happelled to hI, hall(ly, l~\'ell if r "'~ takes eaullot he trtJaten satisf1tctnrily cxcept at great 'tiles of thf' ol'e ont of tllP trllck:-; as they pasH lellgth, eX8mil,Ies them with a lmlltl len:=;, signH of !J2, vVith regal'll to the ,;tate of the golll in the. fGlrzatJon wlllr;uely he Ilu.;covered, m:e, Ilowevel', I will mentioll onc interesting inci.. lLwillg hean infol'llled that all till' soft Hllil, el(.~III; 1.1mt occlll'rec1 whil!J [ WI\H f~t BI~lI, One .alld nllld, conmins gold, it does not: semn UIl- mornililf I~Chinaman brouO'ht ill from Slml '['Zjl~11\ a;,able to expect n, cyallitlatio/J phn! ~. It' ,::l:~- some blaek IlIIHl contnil1ing specks of visihle gold, ,"t; but OIlC'S astolJislllnclit at the ImtllJ'U nf the A portion (if the sample WI~~panned in cleftn WI\tcr, .. not allowl~d to ;limillish when It 10;101.\1111 LIHtL bnt, to the surprise of evmyone, uot e\'cn It colour OIJreCCil~ subjecte(l is to tl~c salnl~ I." .,t il'.,'llt. In of gollll'elJ)llillcl1. Anltssay Hhcwcd the llIud to be i.llC best result,s .arc o!JtallJed bv fdlll.''' dH' Yllts I'UlJllillg high, and at first it \vas thonght there Illust "', A Inlxtnre of ni'~ccra l~l~d the S?ft.. nHttel'mls ha,ve been some undetectetl oil 011 tlw water. How1



u1cr with a httle lune.

1 he breccIa IS lIot even

ever, 1t \\'1~S ellscovereel Jf~ter tll1\t each of the specks


-,d dowll to t!w consistenc,\' of sand;, ii, is put waH I'c!dly 1\ spongy llIass of gold. in an extremely tbe \'ats at Bldl as roatlilldld, thl~t IS, ~-Illeh fiue ~hlte of division, so fine that the individlJ(~l s; while at Ihu it is reducell to hldf inch particles had not bE-en J:trge enoug'll to overcomc ~~)Cnts, the snrf:\ce tension of the watl~I', '[ ,~1lIinclined to It is hopell thM tite pyritic ore of :-ill ::-)an think tlmt these spongy n1f~sses werc the skeletons will he \\'orkel1 in the llef\r future by a ';!lwlof slllall but highly alll'ifm'olls pyrit,es I:r,vstrds which process, 'l'lw arsenical ores at Bidi itrC IIO\\' lHtil become oxidizetl, . ~, experimented on, with a "il:w to findil1~ the na, Although ill the l11lLnlll~r of worliing BILIIand method of extraetlJ)g tI,Je gl~ld. Jt IS 11>1,1'(11)' idi I:;tand unique in the I<:ast, yet there I~I'Uother B nry to SI~Y that the IlIgh per('.l)ntage at this glJltl OCCIll'l'enCCS ill the MaI1~'y "\rcl.ipeln.gn which , wseillble those ill Upper Sal.'f\Wllk. "'01' litemture ile poison iH a :ieriolls, c1tuwback. "... Now Itfter SUllllllll1g up !tll the, eVIdence 011 this subject I. fun indebted to ~II', C, G. \Vlun-

, ,I

e: ued in the various workings ill Upper Sr.r"',wak, ford 1,ock,
~e no doubt that the dark hreecm IS


welco!ne cOlllpallic'lI dlll'iug part of
lu\s kinllly lent Ille Mr,


IllY visit to

81\l'!twf1.k, who

"a, ~'esulting fl'Ol11, system of .faults extellc1!ng a a wide arel\, and In all probabIlity of t1.lesanlc
as the ~llU!tS seen at ~'aitol~ Hill .Taibong: 'I'his "breccIa III fact, d,enved fl'!?111the shales IUlcl ably 11.1a1'1s avel'l'y1I1~ the Illne~t()lll\, nlOl'ks a

'l'ruscott's paper 011 the occlll'rence "old in the Dutch East ludies l,

and miuing of

of disturbance ~lllCh lletel'nuned the p,rcsent . ~CI\I ,featmes of Upper Samwak by so Lhl~lI~
raultnlg the rocks as to place, ltt Bau l~nc1BInI, "!It.E-,S,\V, tract of shale. between l,uud lllnestone &, an arl'ftngetl1ellt wlneh detel'1lIUlel! tl-:l<cOllrse ,~ su~'hce dl'ftl11age over ~he softer sbalr.. thereby "ng It to, be Ilenl~lleci q~l1cldy, and leavIng steep lone chffs on eltlil!r side. rhe ore at ,To.l11bllDlay be reren'ed to. the Sal,lle, s.ystelll of t,aults, ,absence of t~le darl( breccia ~)elng expl~,lna.ble tbe assumptIOn that at the tUlle of ~heforlUaof the, faults the shale was at a hl,~l1"'L'level relatIve ' t to the pl'eseut land surface, thlln ' l' e <71 " '" , t' h , ,'II' ele, .l1e f ,\UIts IIIIOt, (1 a t ",,.,'L a Tnllst '0 ' ' 1 ' 1 t tl '''' f I a t er (a e litll tl 1e 11 ,cc '" h Ilt us Iyeab J, v ' I muc I1 I a t'er Call110t I>e Ie t e1'l1lI n e(1 (JI I tIle eVI' ,-


1'hus, for instance, at BedjalJg TJehong, in 8l\1l1atm, the gold, which is enclosed in a rep.£, is very finely divid(.)c1, has a black shale brect:ia associated, and is ill cOllntry called "porphyrite or alterell i1.tltlesite." It is worked by co 111 ined arnldgmnation and cyab nidation. Sinlih\I' ore occurs in silllilar country at 1,eh011O' Roeht, 11el\r Hedjang TJebollg, ana the Sltmc pl'oces; is employed, In south-east Borneo patches of alluvial gohl are mentioned, deriveLl from 1\ rock

which is pJ:Obably altered andesite,

\Vriting of tbe






gola in North Celebes, Mr, '1'mscott says; "Speaking genel'l~lly, then, the whole known OCCU\'l'ence of gold in North Celebes is l~Ssecolldary deposition or impregnation followillg fnwtures which occur chiefly in an altered andesite or porphyrite rock." ( , ,)4, It 18 ulterestll1g to ' lIote also . that :MI', rrlls' cott l1escrl b es t IJe fonna t 1011° f all Iron matte f rom ' , 11.11 , at Soema Iata, C,e Ie b es, w IlIC}1 appl'Oac Jles t h e are , , .
" '.

It may be rcmarked, howevcr, that po,;,;ibly' '. represent the last e/Teets of the Hall1Cearth
mel'lts which ~l.

PYl'ltlCera at Su Sail 8111en,Bl\u,
' 111111 II1Ko 1I.1!1eb~e<1.to MI'. Lock

101' a CII,ttl!lg



:ed wIth the dyke rock

, n , '1'I,le IllInerahzed

"Rve rise to the hrecciu.,
, brecc1[\,

. . , IS l!}t~m,ately

. con-

the mcl'cul'Y lJJlIlC III Utah, whcl'c an ore 8111111111' thnt of to Upper So.mwI\k is wOl'kcd hy .1 similar pmeess-Eng. alld Mill,


I say thlS m spite of

Jour.,2i1rc1 Dec.,189\).


'rIlE ;.. SAHAWAK GAZE'l"rE,



--- -

~L\Y 3, 1905.


for the slight difference the illtruded pected below where the WI\lIs or the I'II,nlt('."me in
together. It is even possible tlmt more shale beds' occur below the limestone. 98. It remains but to mention the quest,ion of the possibility of paYl\hlp con.l occurring in the Feuerated Malay States, and I will confine myself to the followiug generR.l stn,tement. In Bomeo the cO!d occurs in I'Ockswhich, wherever ade<]lH\lchiologicld evidence has beel! found, have been determilled n.s 'fertiary. No 'l'ertiary roc],s lHe yr.t known in the Federn.ted J.\:!I\},\Y Htates, Moreover. at Sltdollg, whew I saw the coal 11l00\RIU'CS, slmle 1\11«salldstone Itrc the I\hi,olutely 11Imlterct1 1\1111n.vl: only 1\slight dip; h while jlH'Iging 1'1'011I alllOunt oCIlyn!\lnicI1JlIWtltthe morphislll that ]m8 been ilJdlw,)t! over mOBt of the Fedemted M!\II\Y StlLtes, I alii inclined to t10nbt whether any considemhle coni deposit could 1!I\Ve survived as 1\ c:01lJmerr.ilt]ItSSI!t,unlm;s I\S grl1phit;e. )!lwe, etc.. .JOHN H. HClaVI';NC>H. (;eoln{Ji,~t,F. M. S.

l'IiIItksand in the degree of metn.morphism, 1 in which the Paha.ng and Negri Sem',_. deposits occur n.gree closely with that of ,,'ak in petrological features. \Ve have both light and dark, in either awa; I1na tbem 0. series of shales and sandstone. however, a difference in age between ricts, the limestone being Carboniferous and Jurassic, in part n.t le!\st, in Upper Tbe only fossils found in the sn.nnstoliB point to SoRhretic age, while those oC tr.nwa.k cannot be older than the Mid(lle , "'itb regard to the age of our gold deposits, !t~hing known so far to pro"e tlH\t their :.;0 be ascribed to a period distinct from orhich the Upper Sarawak fault-breccias )fore th!\1l this I do not wish to say until data concerning the mutual relations RI1imentR.ry rocks or the Archipelago


Ie, however. it is possible to point to .;!arities, there is no doubt that the ore '1'0 : Ic1U now in the :Federn.ted II'Iaiay Stl\tes 'j'lte Uesidfmt-Genel'lll, '81c.siderably from the Sarawak ore, both in of the matrix and in the coarser COIl[t'edel'llleclMalay 8l(/lc,~, ;~ gold. As to the probability of finding working ore as this finely mineralized 6recciR. in the States, I do not cln.im to ",., deny 01' assert it; but T CR.n 1m)' tlmt 1 .co established reasoll militR.til1g against ity of its occurrence. As I said n.t the THE ~tWretflry to the Santwak H,lwes regrets ent of this report, I 1\11I opeful but not to inforlll thm;c gentlemen who subseribed for h and it is lilY intentioll to see whether nlY



:.;.e existence of such vn.luablc StOIlI!. I ao '~ ~~ ~.'.'i!lb8 c1~j~ct~d by S'J!11e d!~~t the -2'"Siamese would imve beoll sme to filld it

Borneo grimn~ for HIO:,) that he is 1IIHtule to procU1'C' the sallie as owing to the prolonge(l Ill'ought in tllA North \Vh(~rA t,llf~pOlliAS fire bred the herds have all been taken into the but I would point out that in t\amwl\k interior in search of past1ll'e, awl that slwh .,qe workings were confine« to those out- pOllies as nrc \\'itbin r('.~\chare 1;0poor from .l1ft visible gold occurred. I~or the rest, tbe sallie eanse that thE:Y wonld he flllit,e c:,,,uiiling ore, they left it I\lone, not being IIseles!:: fOl'mc:ing plll'poses. ~ any gold in it. So, I maintain, there

justified by searching perf-otlally Corel'i-

, a:r.mlerous deposits oCsimi]ar cyaniding ore ulltouched by anyone; n.nd 1 would .. that white miners might easily pass by ising materio.l as unworthy of sl\lllpling. !!ere is oue more point I would mention to the Upper Sarawal, fault-brecciasluuation I\nd the possibility of worl,ing ,jqJt.b. Now, there cn.n be littl!:! doubt tlH\t fault fissures extend far beyond the 120 one I~tleast has been I?roved (J am busan.) t.hl~t similar fOllnatlOns occur high up tone hills (the average height of the perhaps 600 ft.), and we must admit that ',. equal chance of their being encountered t.he valley. \Vhether the fissures will :["\Id ore in depth, however, depends, I ~ t.he distributIOn of the dyke rock; and tbat actually contiguous, the stone in the '8IIIeC1 ot n~ce.~sarily be .~uri.~ero.us, fo!' o!le n
~" l'et'leuuy e\teu lUbI.l11UU,",IUU U1

,TOHN K .-\. (,1,;WH;, lIolI til'ltl'!) 8ccrefctl'!},
, Saramal.: Ba.ce,~.

.t~llJ'iI. ON another page will he found ILIl interesting report on the Geology of 81tl'itWak by Mr. ,r. B. Serivenor 01 the FederatrHl :\1abtV Stn,tes Geological Department. "


ON tlw ~lHl the p. H. ](akfL retlll'lwll fl'()11l 13aml1l. She urought no E11I'opean pa!>snllgers.


ON the arll the s. s. Alice [jr)/'m,il/e sailetl
Tii; Ii ~)(ln;;..

~J.Jt:i fur

in the parent igneous rock or in the ON the 4th the p. s. Xaka was (lespateheu. ';:ADot.berthing to be taken iuto consideration Sarawa.k lodes is that the preseut ore has to Singapore to be docked. Mr. Se1'\'ice went ;ya.ffected by surface enrichment, Rnd that. over to superintend her doeking and waR rove unprofitR.ble to work it below that accompanied hy Mrs. Service. the ditl1culties of deep working in a The sallie (lay the s. s. ]il/chillY sftilcd for ~untry have already beeu experienced I\t Ja.lUbusau. \-Vith regard to the con- Singapore, with passengers-ilIr. O. F. Hicketts, er the sha.le breccia in depth, that depends 1\11'.,J. H. BalJingal, Mr. Chan Kee Soon, and '_ t.be amount of movement, that took pll\ce Mrs. Gregg Il,nd children. fiaa)~. The masses of breccin. must be Mr. Hieketts has gone )WllWon H IlIon\;hs ixopinch out in accoruance with the general hure lodes, hut more shl\le breccia, or a furlough. fl'hel'e was a small crowI1 on hoanl to breccia, nH\Y with equal ren.son he ex- see him ofTana wish him a !;oocl time.




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