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The Principle of Hope

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Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought (partial list) Thomas McCarthy, General Editor Theodor W. Adorno, Hegel: Three Studies Theodor W. Adorno, Prisms Seyla Benhabib, Wolfgang Bonß, and John McCole, editors, On Max Horkheimer: New Perspectives Ernst Bloch, Natural Law and Human Dignity Ernst Bloch, The Principle of Hope Ernst Bloch, The Utopian Function of Art and Literature: Selected Essays Hans Blumenberg, The Genesis of the Copernican World Hans Blumenberg, The Legitimacy of the Modern Age Hans Blumenberg, Work on Myth Susan Buck-Morss, The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project Jürgen Habermas, On the Logic of the Social Sciences Jürgen Habermas, The New Conservatism: Cultural Criticism and the Historians' Debate Jürgen Habermas, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures Jürgen Habermas, Philosophical-Political Profiles Jürgen Habermas, Postmetaphysical Thinking: Philosophical Essays Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society Axel Honneth, The Critique of Power: Reflective Stages in a Critical Social Theory Max Horkheimer, Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings Pierre Missac, Walter Benjamin's Passages Guy Oakes, Weber and Rickert: Concept Formation in the Cultural Sciences William E. Scheuerman, Between the Norm and the Exception: The Frankfurt School and the Rule of Law Dennis Schmidt, The Ubiquity of the Finite: Hegel, Heidegger, and the Entitlements of Philosophy Georgia Warnke, Justice and Interpretation Mark Warren, Nietzsche and Political Thought

Albrecht Wellmer, The Persistence of Modernity: Essays on Aesthetics, Ethics and Postmodernism Joel Whitebook, Perversion and Utopia: A Study in Psychoanalysis and Critical Theory Rolf Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance Lambert Zuidervaart, Adorno's Aesthetic Theory: The Redemption of Illusion

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The Principle of Hope
Volume One Ernst Bloch Translated by Neville Plaice, Stephen Plaice and Paul Knight

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Third printing, 1996 First MIT Press paperback edition, 1995 Written in the USA 1938–1947 revised 1953 and 1959; first American edition published by The MIT Press, 1986 English translation © 1986 by Basil Blackwell, Ltd. Originally published as Das Prinzip Hoffnung, © 1959 by Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, Federal Republic of Germany. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduccd in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bloch, Ernst, 1885–1977 The principle of hope. (Studies in contemporary German social thought) Translation of Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Includes index. 1. Hope. 2. Imagination. 3. Utopias. 4. Creation (Literary, artistic, etc.) I. Title. II. Series. B3209.B753P7513 1986 193 85-23081 ISBN 0-262-52199-7 (volume 1) 0-262-52200-4 (volume 2) 0-262-52201-2 (volume 3) 0-262-52204-7 (3-volume set) Printed and bound in the United States of America

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CONTENTS
Translators' Preface Translators' Introduction Introduction Volume One Part One (Report) Little Daydreams 1. We Start Out Empty 2. Much Tastes of More 3. Daily into the Blue 4. Hiding-Place and Beautiful Foreign Lands By Ourselves At Home Already on Our Way 5. Escape and the Return of the Victor Putting to Sea The Glittering Bowl 6. More Mature Wishes and their Images The Lame Nags Night of the Long Knives Shortly before the Closing of the Gate Invention of a New Pleasure Opportunity to be Friendly 21 21 21 22 22 23 24 24 26 29 29 30 31 33 35 xvii xix 3

7. What is Left to Wish for in Old Age Wine and Purse Evocations of Youth; Counter-Wish: Harvest Evening and House 8. The Sign that Changes

35 36 36 39 41

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Part Two (Foundation) Anticipatory Consciousness 9. What Goes Ahead as Urging 10. Naked Striving and Wishing, Unsatisfied 11. Man as a Quite Extensive Complex of Drives The Individual Body No Drive Without Body Behind It The Changing Passion 12. Various Interpretations of the Basic Human Drive The Sexual Drive Ego-Drive and Repression Repression, Complex, Unconscious Material and Sublimation Power-Drive, Frenzy-Drive, Collective Unconscious 'Eros' and the Archetypes 13. The Historical Limitation of All Basic Drives; Various Locations of Self-Interest; Filled and Expectant Emotions The Urgent Need Most Reliable Basic Drive: Self-Preservation Historical Change of the Drives, Even of the Self-Preservation Drive Mental Feelings and State of Self, Appetite of the Expectant Emotions, Especially of Hope Self-Extension Drive Forwards, Active Expectation 14. Fundamental Distinction of Daydreams from Night-Dreams. Concealed and Old Wish-Fulfilment in Night-Dreams, Fabulously Inventive and Anticipatory Wish-Fulfilment in Daylight Fantasies 45 45 47 47 48 49 51 51 52 54 57 61 65

65 65 67 70

75 77

Inclination to Dream Dreams as Wish-Fulfilment Anxiety Dreams and Wish-Fulfilment A Crucial Point: The Daydream is not a Stepping-Stone to the Nocturnal Dream First and Second Characteristics of the Daydream: Clear Road, Preserved Ego Third Characteristic of the Daydream: World-Improving Fourth Characteristic of the Daydream: Journey to the End Merging of Nocturnal and Daytime Dream-Games, Its Dissolution More on Inclination to Dream: The 'Mood' as Medium of Daydreams More on the Expectant Emotions (Anxiety, Fear, Terror, Despair, Hope, Confidence) and the Waking Dream

77 78 82 86

88

91 95 99 103 108

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15. Discovery of the Not-Yet-Conscious or of Forward Dawning. NotYet-Conscious as a New Class of Consciousness and as the Class of Consciousness of the New: Youth, Time of Change, Productivity. Concept of the Utopian Function, Its Encounter with Interest, Ideology, Archetypes, Ideals, Allegory-Symbols The Two Edges Double Meaning of the Preconscious Not-Yet-Conscious in Youth, Time of Change, Productivity Further Thoughts on Productivity: Its Three Stages Different Kinds of Resistance Which the Forgotten and the Not-YetConscious Offer to Illumination Epilogue on the Block which has Prevented the Concept of the NotYet-Conscious for so Long Conscious and Known Activity in the Not-Yet-Conscious, Utopian Function More on the Utopian Function: The Subject in it and the CounterMove to the Badly Existing Contact of the Utopian Function with Interest Encounter of the Utopian Function with Ideology Encounter of the Utopian Function with Archetypes Encounter of the Utopian Function with Ideals Encounter of the Utopian Function with Allegory-Symbols 16. Utopian Image-Trace in Realization; Egyptian and Trojan Helen Dreams Want to Drift Non-Satisfaction and What Can Lie Within It First Reason for Disappointment: Happiness is There Where You are Not; Second Reason: Dream Rendered Independent and the Legend of the Double Helen

114

114 115 117 122 128

132

142

147

150 153 158 165 174 178 178 179 180

Novum. The World in Which Utopian Imagination has a Correlate. Ultimum 'What-Is According to Possibility' and 'What-Is in Possibility'. Everything Real has a Horizon 18.Objection to the First and Second Reason: Odyssey of Aquiescence Third Reason for Utopian Trace-Images: The Aporias of Realization 17. The Layers of the Category Possibility The Formally Possible The Factually-Objectively Possible 186 189 195 195 196 198 205 210 217 222 223 224 225 . the Categories Front. the Categories Front. Ultimum and the Horizon Man is not Solid Much in the World is Still Unclosed Militant Optimism. Pre-Appearance as Real Fragment It is a Question of Realism. Cold and Warm Stream in Marxism Artistic Appearance as Visible Pre-Appearance False Autarky. Novum. Real Possibility.

9. Melancholy of Fulfilment. 1. Self-Mediation More on Astonishment as Absolute Question. But Essentially to What is Coming Up 20. Knowledge Related not Only to What is Past. 3) Anthropological-Historical Group: Self-Alienation and True Materialism (Theses 4. 10) Theory-Practice-Group: Proof and Probation (Theses 2. 7.Page viii The Fact-Based Object-Suited Possible The Objectively-Real Possible Memory: Logical-Static Struggle Against the Possible Realizing Possibility 19. Continuation: Foreground. Changing the World or Marx's Eleven Theses on Feuerbach Time of Drafting Question of Grouping Epistemological Group: Perception and Activity (Theses 5. Dead Space. the Directly Utopian Archetype: Highest Good 229 235 241 246 249 250 254 255 262 267 274 282 287 287 287 288 290 295 300 . Summary/Anticipatory Composition and Its Poles: Dark Moment — Open Adequacy Pulse and Lived Darkness Room for Possible Advance Source and Outflow: Astonishment as Absolute Question Once More: Darkness of the Lived Moment. Carpe Diem Darkness of the Lived Moment. 6. in the Shape of Anxiety and of Happiness. 8) The Password and its Meaning (Thesis 11) The Archimedean Point.

Fairytale. Rescue from It. Daydream in Symbolic form: Pandora's Box. But a Genuine One in Genuine Present 21. Betrothal Too much Image. Daydream in Delightful form: Pamina or the Picture as Erotic Promise The Tender Morning Effect Through the Portrait Nimbus Around Encounter. Therefore After All: Carpe Diem. Corpus Christi or Previous Cosmic and Christ-Like Utopia of Marriage After-Image of Love 22.The Not in Origin. Making Ourselves More Beautiful than We are 306 313 316 316 317 320 323 327 331 333 339 . the Good Thing that Remains Part Three (Transition) Wishful Images in the Mirror (Display. Travel. Nimbus Around Marriage High Pair. Theatre) 23. the Not-Yet in History. the Nothing or Conversely the All at the End Utopia no Lasting State. Film.

in Fairytale and Colportage Courage of the Clever Magic Table. New Clothes. Happiness of the Gothic Novel Beautiful Foreign Lands Distance-Wish and Historicizing Room in the Nineteenth Century Aura of Antique Furniture. What the Mirror Tells Us Today Being Slim Good at Cringing 25. Museum 340 340 340 341 342 343 345 345 347 349 352 354 355 357 360 363 367 369 370 375 381 . Beautiful Mask. Ku Klux Klan. Syrupy Stories 27. Better Castles in the Air in Fair and Circus. the Illuminated Display Well Laid Out Light of Advertising 26.Page ix 24. Magic of Ruins. the Glossy Magazines The Crooked Paths Success Through Terror Bestsellers. I will Carry You Away' 'Let Us Go to the Meadows of the Ganges. Antiquity. There I Know the Loveliest Place' South Seas in Fair and Circus The Wild Fairytale: As Colportage 28. My Darling. Genie of the Lamp 'On Wings of Song. Lure of Travel.

Voluntarily Humorous Ones The Little Word If 'None of These New-Fangled Things Are Any 387 391 393 394 397 399 402 406 409 412 412 413 416 418 422 426 429 431 431 . Exoticism Ritual Dance. Sincere Appearance. But Defiance and Hope 31. Apollo By Night 29. Wishful Image in the Dance.Castle Garden and the Buildings of Arcadia Wild Weather. and the Decision in It The Curtain Rises Rehearsal on the Model More on the Rehearsal on the Model to be Sought Reading. Moral Institution False and Genuine Topicalization Further Genuine Topicalization: Not Fear and Pity. Regarded as Paradigmatic Institution. The Theatre. Spoken Mime and Scene Illusion. Blessed Circles The Deaf and Dumb and the Significant Pantomime New Mime Through the Camera Dream-Factory in the Rotten and in the Transparent Sense 30. Mocked and Hated Wishful Images. Pantomime and Filmland New Dance and Old New Dance as Formerly Expressionist Dance. Dervishes.

Medical Utopias A Warm Bed Lunatics and Fairytales Medicines and Planning Hesitation and Goal in Actual Bodily Rebuilding Malthus. Social Systems. Happy End. Introduction/A Frugal Meal The Roast Pigeons Lunacy and Colportage Even Here 432 433 435 436 438 441 451 451 454 454 455 456 462 467 469 471 472 472 473 . Perspective in Art and Wisdom) 33. Geography.Page x Good' Le Néant. A Dreamer Always Wants Even More 34. Tout Va Bien 35. Seen Through and Yet Still Defended Volume Two Part Four (Construction) Outlines of a Better World (Medicine. Another World The 'Birds' of Aristophanes and Cloud-Cuckoo-Land Merry Outdoing: Lucian's 'Vera Historia' Voluntary-Humorous Wishful Images 32. Struggle for Health. Technology. Nourishment The Doctor's Care 36. Survey of Social Utopias I. Birth-Rate. Architecture. Physical Exercise. Freedom and Order.

with Regard to 'Utopia' and 'Civitas Solis' Continuation: Social Utopias and Classic Natural Right Enlightened Natural Right in Place of Social Utopias Fichte's Closed Commercial State or Production and Exchange in Accordance with Rational Law Federative Utopias in the Nineteenth Century: Owen.New Moral Worlds on the Horizon Utopias Have Their Timetable II. the Third Gospel and Its Kingdom Thomas More or the Utopia of Social Freedom Counterpart to More: Campanella's City of the Sun or the Utopia of Social Order Socratic Inquiry into Freedom and Order. Saint-Simon Individual Utopians and Anarchy. Social Wishful Images of the Past/Solon and the Contented Medium Diogenes and the Exemplary Beggars Aristippus and the Exemplary Scroungers Plato's Dream of the Doric State Hellenistic Fairytales of an Ideal State. Iamboulos' Island of the Sun The Stoics and the International World-State The Bible and the Kingdom of Neighbourly Love Augustine's City of God from Rebirth Joachim of Fiore. Stirner. Fourier Centralist Utopias in the Nineteenth Century: Cabet. Proudhon. Bakunin Proletarian Castle in the 475 479 481 482 483 484 488 491 496 502 509 515 523 528 534 541 548 555 561 568 .

.

the Utopian Laboratory II. William Morris.Page xi the Air from the Vormärz: Weitling A Conclusion: Weakness and Status of the Rational Utopias III. the Problem of Technological Contact/Plans Must also be Spurred on Late Bourgeois Curbing of Technology. Programme of the Women's Movement Old New Land. Magic Past/Plunged into Misery Fire and New Armament Lunacy and Aladdin's Fairytale 'Professor Mystos' and Invention Andreae's 'Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz Anno 1459' Alchemy Again: Mutatio Specierum (Transmutation of Inorganic Species) and its Incubator Unregulated Inventions and 'Propositiones' in the Baroque Period Bacon's Ars Inveniendi. Henry George Marxism and Concrete Anticipation 37. Survival of the Lullian Art New Atlantis. Programme of the Youth Movement Struggle for the New Woman. Apart from the Military 575 578 583 585 589 598 611 619 625 626 626 627 629 634 639 646 649 654 658 658 . Carlyle. the Technological Utopias I. Will and Nature. Projects and Progress Towards Science/Topical Remnants: Bourgeois Group Utopias Beginning. Non-Euclidean Present and Future. Programme of Zionism Novels Set in the Future and Full-Scale Utopias After Marx: Bellamy.

Atomic Energy. Ideal Towns and Real Clarity Again: Permeation of Crystal with Profusion 661 666 674 686 691 696 699 699 700 701 706 709 714 721 726 733 738 . Architectural Utopias I. Veiled Sphinx. Non-Euclidean Technology Subject.Kind De-Organization of the Machine. Building on Hollow Space/New Houses and Real Clarity Town Plans. Raw Materials. Gothic or the Tree of Life Utopia Further and Individual Examples of Guiding Space in Ancient Architecture II. Laws and Contact in De-Organization Electron of the Human Subject. Figures of Ancient Architecture/Glance through the Window Dreams on the Pompeian Wall Festive Decorations and Baroque Stage Sets Wishful Architecture in the Fairytale Wishful Architecture in Painting The Church Masons' Guilds or Architectural Utopia in Actual Construction Egypt or the Crystal of Death Utopia. Technological Freedom 38. Buildings Which Depict a Better World. Economic Crisis and Technological Accident Chained Giant. of Technology of the will Co-Productivity of a Possible Natural Subject or Concrete Technology of Alliance Technology Without Violation.

Cézanne. Baader's 'Central Earth' Geographical Line of Extension in Sobriety. the Fund of the Earth. Cythera and Broad Perspective in Literature: Heinse. Wishful Landscape Portrayed in Painting. Location of the Earthly Paradise Voyage of St Brendan. Gauguin. Opera. Dome of the Earth South Land and the Utopia of Thule Better Abodes on Other Stars. Eldorado and Eden. Hic Rhodus The Copernican Connection. Roman de la Rose. American. the Kingdom of Prester John. the Bad Atlantic. the Golden Fleece and the Grail Island of the Phaeacians.Page xii 39. Literature The Moved Hand Flower and Carpet Still Life Composed of Human Beings Embarkation for Cythera Perspective and Large Horizon in Van Eyck. the Geographical Utopias The First Lights Inventing and Discovering. Jean Paul The Wishful Landscape of Perspective in Aesthetics. Asiatic Paradise Columbus at the Orinoco Delta. Seurat. Giotto's 746 746 747 752 756 762 772 777 782 785 790 794 794 795 796 797 799 802 807 813 . Status of the Matter of Art According to its Dimension of Depth and Hope Painters of the Residual Sunday. Mediated with Work 40. Characteristic of Geographical Hope Fairytales Again. Rembrandt Still Life. Leonardo.

Eros and the Pyramid of Value Bruno and the Infinite Work of Art. Eight-Hour Day. World in Peace. Joyfulness of the Phenomenon of Light 42. Free Time and Leisure The Whip of Hunger From the Casemates of the Bourgeoisie All Kinds of Alleviation Through Benefaction Bourgeois 820 827 834 838 838 840 842 847 853 862 866 874 879 885 886 886 890 . Wishful Landscape and Wisdom Sub Specie Aeternitatis and of Process The Search for Proportion The 'Authentic' in Primary Matter and Law Kant and the Intelligible Kingdom. Leibniz and the World as Process of Illumination The Watchful Concept or the 'Authentic' as a Task Two Wishful Propositions: Teachable Virtue. Spinoza and the World as Crystal Augustine and Goal-History. as Transcendental High Mountains in the Faustian Heaven Splendour. Elysium in Opera and Oratorio Contact of the Interior and the Boundless in the Spirit of Music: Kleist's Ideal Landscape. Sistine Madonna 41. the Categorical Imperative The Proposition of Anaximander or World which Turns into Likeness Lightness in the Depths.Land of Legend Land of Legend in Literature: As Celestial Rose in Dante's 'Paradiso'. Plato.

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Not Straight with Oneself 44. Highest Good) 43. Religion. of Solitude and Friendship. Only Half Explored Goal Volume Three Part Five (Identity) Wishful Images of the Fulfilled Moment (Morality. Spoiled. of Individual and Community A Decent Person Fabius or the Hesitant Man of Action 893 897 904 907 914 920 927 928 930 934 934 934 935 937 938 939 939 940 . Guiding Panels of will Tempi and of Contemplation. Amphi-Theatre The Surroundings of Free Time: Utopian Buen Retiro and Pastoral Leisure as Imperative. Images of Death. October Revolution Delusions of Free Time: Toughening up for Business Residual Older Forms of Free Time. State Capitalism and State Socialism. But not Hopeless: Hobby. Bold Hunt French Happiness and Joy Adventures of Happiness 47. Music. Home and School Guide the Way 45. Morning-Land of Nature. Public Festival. Guiding Images Themselves.Page xiii Pacifism and Peace Technological Maturity. Guiding Panels of Dangerous and Happy Life Much Still Open Too Warmly Dressed Wild. to Become Like Proper Human Beings 46.

Sorel, Machiavelli or Energy and the Wheel of Fortune Problem of Breaking, Hercules at the Crossroads, Dionysus-Apollo Vita Activa, Vita Contemplativa or the World of the Chosen Good Part Double Light of Solitude and Friendship Double Light of Individual and Collective Salvation of the Individual Through Community 48. Young Goethe, Non-renunciation, Ariel The Wish to Smash Things Wertherian Happiness and Suffering The Demand, Prometheus, Ur-Tasso Intention of Sublimity, Faust Gothic and Metamorphosis Ariel and Poetic Imagination The Demonic, and the Allegorical-Symbolic

942 948 953

958 965 969 973 973 974 975 980 985

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Sealedness which Expresses Itself Just Those Who Know Such Longing: Mignon Wishes as Presentiments of Our Capacities 49. Guiding Figures of Venturing Beyond the Limits; Faust and the Wager of the Fulfilled Moment No Wet Straw Play the Lute and Drain the Glasses Don Giovanni, All Women and the Wedding Faust, Macrocosm, Stay a While You are So Fair Faust, Hegel's Phenomenology and the Event Odysseus did not Die in Ithaca, He Journeyed to the Unpeopled World Hamlet, Sealed will; Prospero, Groundless Joy 50. Guiding Panels of Abstract and Mediated Venturing Beyond the Limits, Illustrated by the Cases of Don Quixote and Faust The Fermenting will Don Quixote's Rueful Countenance and Golden Illusion A Related Question: The Wrongs and Rights of Tasso Versus Antonio The Luciferian-Promethean and the Layer of Sound 51. Venturing Beyond and Most Intense World of Man in Music Happiness of the Blind The Nymph Syrinx Bizarre Hero and Nymph: Symphonie Fantastique

989 993 997 1000

1000 1001 1004 1011 1016 1023

1027 1034

1034 1035 1051

1053 1057 1058 1058 1060

Human Expression as Inseparable from Music Music as Canon and World of Laws; Harmony of the Spheres, More Humane Lode-Stars Tone-Painting, Work of Nature Once Again, the Intensity and Morality of Music The Hollow Space; Subject of the Sonata and Fugue Funeral March, Requiem, Cortège Behind Death Marseillaise and the Moment in Fidelio 52. Self and Grave-Lamp or Images of Hope Against the Power of the Strongest Non-Utopia: Death I. Introduction/No Talk of Dying Utopias of the Night With No Morning Any More in this World II. Religious Counterpoints from Death and Victory/Only Good of the Dead Shades and Greek Twilight Affirmation of Recurrence; Orphic Wheel Elixirs of the Soul and the Gnostic Journey to Heaven Egyptian Heaven in the Tomb Biblical Resurrection and Apocalypse Mohammedan Heaven, Strength of the Flesh, Magic Garden Sheer Repose Seeks Deliverance Even from Heaven, the Wishful Image of Nirvana

1062 1070

1081

1089 1097 1101 1103

1104 1105 1109

1111 1112 1116 1121 1125 1133 1136

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III. Enlightened and Romantic Euthanasias/The Freethinker as Strong Thinker Youth with the Reversed Torch and with the Newly Lighted Torch Dissolution in the Universe, Lethal Return to Nature Glacier, Earth-Mother and World-Spirit IV. Further Secularized Counter-Moves, Nihilism, House of Humanity/Still the Dyeing of Nothingness Four Signs of a Borrowed Faith Metaphorical Immortality: in the Work Death as the Chisel in Tragedy Disappearance of Lethal Nothingness in Socialist Consciousness V. Joy of Life and Fragment in All Things/Journey of Discovery into Death The Moment as Not-Being-Here; Extra-Territoriality to Death 53. Growing Human Commitment to Religious Mystery, to Astral Myth, Exodus, Kingdom; Atheism and the Utopia of the Kingdom I. Introduction/In Good Hands Lunatics Again, Occult Path Chiefs and Magicians; Every Religion has Founders A Numinous Element, Even in the Religious Humanum II. Founders, Glad Tidings and Cur Deus Homo/The Stranger as Teacher: Cadmus Singer of ecstatic salvation: Orpheus Poets of Apollonian Gods and Their Attendance: Homer and Hesiod; Roman State Gods

1142

1143 1148 1152 1156

1157 1161 1167 1172 1176

1178 1183

1183 1184 1189 1193 1203

1204 1205

The Unblossomed Belief in Prometheus and the Tragic Liturgy: Aeschylus Fish-Man and Moon-Scribe of Astral Myth: Oannes, Hermes Trismegistus-Thoth Glad Tidings of Earthly-Heavenly Balance and of the Inconspicuous World-Rhythm (Tao): Confucius, Lao Tzu A Founder Who is Himself Part of the Glad Tidings: Moses, His God of Exodus Moses or Consciousness of Utopia in Religion, of Religion in Utopia Warlike Self-Commitment, Mingled with Astral Light: Zoroaster, Mani Redemptive Self-Commitment, Limited to Acosmos, Related to Nirvana: Buddha Founder from the Spirit of Moses and the Exodus, Completely Identical with his Glad Tidings: Jesus, Apocalypse, Kingdom Jesus and the Father; The Serpent of Paradise as Saviour; the Three Wishful Mysteries: Resurrection, Ascension, Return Fanaticism and Submission to Allah's will: Mohammed III. The Core of the Earth as Real Extra-Territoriality/The Road of the Non-Existent What For Inavertible and Avertible Fate, or Cassandra and Isaiah God as Utopian Hypostatized Ideal of

1212

1216

1220

1230

1235 1241

1249

1256

1265

1274 1278

1280

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the Unknown Man; Feuerbach, Cur Deus Homo Again Recourse to Atheism; Problem of the Space into Which God Was Imagined and Utopianized Stay Awhile in the Religious Layer: The Unity of the Instant in Mysticism Miracles and the Miraculous; Moment as the Foot of Nike 54. The Last Wishful Content and the Highest Good Drive and food Three Wishes and the Best Value-Images as Variations of the Highest Good; Cicero and the Philosophers Stay Awhile and Highest Good; Problem of a Guiding Image in the World Process Drive and Food Once Again or Subjectivity, Objectivity of Goods, of Values and of the Highest Good Hovering and Severity with Reference to the Highest Good (Evening Wind, Statue of Buddha, Figure of the Kingdom) Number and Cipher of Qualities; Meaning of the Highest Good in Nature 55. Karl Marx and Humanity; Stuff of Hope The True Architect 'To Overturn All Circumstances in Which Man is a Degraded, a Subjugated, a Forsaken, a Contemptible Being' Secularization and the Power of Setting Things on Their Feet Forward Dream, Sobriety, Enthusiasm and Their Unity Certainty, Unfinished World, Homeland

1283 1290

1298

1303 1312 1312 1313 1315

1321

1325

1334

1347

1354 1354 1355

1359 1365 1370

Glossary of Foreign Terms Name and Title Index

G-1 I-1

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TRANSLATORS' PREFACE
The English text of the Principle of Hope is based on Bloch's revised version of the work, first published by Suhrkamp in 1959. As far as possible the format of this edition conforms to the German text which Bloch himself authorized. There are no footnotes in the original German but we have included explanations and references where we felt these would be helpful or especially interesting for the English reader. Wherever possible, we have also annotated the numerous implicit and explicit allusions to the Bible and to Goethe's Faust, the central spiritual and poetic legacies inherited by The Principle of Hope. All translations are our own, with the exception of biblical quotations for which we have used the Authorized Version. Bloch's own references are included in the body of the text. Where a specific page reference is given to a German work, we have left the original title and supplied a translation in the bilingual index. Otherwise book titles have been translated in the text and retained in the bilingual index, with the exception of Latin titles, which have been left in the original throughout. To preserve the structure and fabric of Bloch's text, it has been necessary to override certain English publishing conventions. Except for epigraphs, quoted extracts have not been displayed, but are run on in text within quotation marks. To avoid confusion with Bloch's own emphatic italics, classical and foreign expressions have not been italicized. These expressions have been left in the original, as they are also very much a feature of Bloch's style. We have included a glossary of foreign terms not directly explained in the text. It precedes the index at the end of the third volume. The project of translating The Principle of Hope was first suggested to Paul Knight by Basil Blackwell Ltd to whom the book had been recommended by Bryan Magee. The translators would like to thank the following people for their assistance and encouragement. At Basil Blackwell: René Olivieri, Ray Addicott, Julia Mosse and Sue Banfield, all of whom demonstrated the principle of hope in setting up and realizing this project. Our thanks to George Steiner for his advice at important stages of its development. Margot Levy undertook the task of copy-editing the work. She also supplied us with some valuable references. Isabel Raphael interpreted Bloch's Latin devices

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and allusions cum ira et studio, and likewise helped us to reference them. Our special thanks to them both. Thanks also to Kevin Mulligan and to Martin Shovel. The translators would like to acknowledge the financial assistance of Inter Nationes and of South East Arts.

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TRANSLATORS' INTRODUCTION

Bloch's Early Life
Ernst Bloch was born in Ludwigshafen on 8th July 1885, the son of a Jewish railway official. A stark contrast was presented to him as a child between the new industrial, proletarian city where he grew up and the fading nineteenth-century opulence of Mannheim, the other city just across the Rhine, with its Gründerzeit architecture and its old Residenz, one of the most elaborate palaces in Germany. Though Bloch by no means dismisses the achievements of the nineteenth-century bourgeoisie and describes them with a certain affection, this early landscape of class contradiction must have been decisive in his formation as a socialist. The local aniline and soda factory, Bloch points out in his early impressionistic and autobiographical work 'Spuren' (Traces), was moved to Ludwigshafen 'so that the smoke and proletariat did not drift over Mannheim'. But though he lived on the wrong side of the bridge, his childhood was an imaginative and rewarding one which he looked back on fondly in his later books. The visions and longings of the child are for Bloch the emotional inklings of the spirit of 'venturing beyond' which he esteemed so highly in thinkers and innovators, and without which the New is inconceivable. The games he played with his childhood friends transformed the dismal, flat industrial hinterland of Ludwigshafen into an almost numinous, hallucinatory landscape, populated with characters out of the adventure stories of Karl May. As a boy Bloch immersed himself in these stories, a love of which he retained for the whole of his life. Even in the core work of his mature system 'The Principle of Hope', a section is devoted to fairytale and to colportage, the term he employed to describe the genre of the adventure story. 'There is only Karl May and Hegel', he once said, 'everything in between is an impure mixture'. Bloch was an indifferent pupil, but a precocious intellect. As a schoolboy he was composing speculative tracts with ambitious titles like 'The Universe in the Light of Atheism', 'Renaissance of Sensuality'. By the age of seventeen he was already corresponding with prominent German philosophers

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of the day. Even as an old man he was to reach back into these early writings for a motto to suit a volume of his complete works: ' . . .but the essence of the world is cheerful spirit and the urge to creative shaping; the Thing In Itself is objective imagination'. This pre-appearance and its re-appearance across seven decades demonstrates the homogeneous development of Bloch's work and thought. It is also entirely consistent with his idea that only at the end of a process does its beginning reveal itself and finally begin. Yet his school report for 1904/5, two years after the above was written, informs us that 'his achievements are so minimal that, considering the profound gaps in his knowledge, he will only be able to pass his final exams by the most strenuous application'. After studying philosophy in Munich and in Würzburg, in both cases pursuing the idea of bohemia and a particular girl-student rather than seeking out a particular professor, Bloch moved to Berlin, where he was befriended and encouraged by Georg Simmel, a fashionable professor whose interests ranged, as Bloch's were later to do, over the whole spectrum of philosophy, sociology and metaphysics. Simmel was also one of the 'Georgekreis', the intimate circle around the lyric poet Stefan George. But Bloch was dismissive of the aesthetic posturing of the 'Georgekreis' and soon disillusioned by Simmel's inability to commit himself to any of the positions he was so adept at expounding. During these years in Berlin Bloch also forged an important friendship with the philosopher and critic Georg Lukács. Bloch travelled widely at this time, both with Lukács and with Simmel, particularly in Italy. His work reflects an interest not only in travel and travellers, but in the psychological attraction of distance and foreignness in the daydreams and wishful images of the little man confined to the everyday. It is with these dreams that 'The Principle of Hope' opens. In 1911 Bloch went to Garmisch and began work on his own philosophy in earnest, developing the key-concept of the Not-Yet-Conscious which he had formulated as early as 1907. For the next few years, Bloch moved between Garmisch and Heidelberg where Lukács was living. Later he wrote of this time and of his friendship with Lukács: 'We had become so close that we functioned like speaking-tubes. I was always away from Heidelberg, actually had my writing-desk in Garmisch, I alternated between Garmisch and Heidelberg; the beginnings of my philosophy were written in Garmisch – a Bavarian birth then, with the will to be worthy of the Alps which I had outside my window. If we were separated, I in Garmisch and Lukács in Heidelberg or somewhere else, and then we saw each other again after a month or two – then it might happen that I or he began to speak

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or to think where the other had just left off.' In Heidelberg Bloch became part of the circle around the sociologist Max Weber. Marianne Weber gives us a picture of him at that time: 'A new Jewish philosopher has recently arrived – a boy with an enormous quiff and just as enormous self-importance, he obviously regards himself as the forerunner of a new Messiah and wants people to regard him as such.' Weber shared his wife's opinion and distanced himself from Bloch, suspicious of his mystical ideas. In 1913 Bloch married Elsa von Stritzky, a sculptress from Riga. Unfit for military service, he lived in Grünewald in the Isar valley for most of the First World War before moving to Berne in 1917. He was emphatic in his opposition to the war, which he saw as a fundamentally imperialist conflict. When Simmel lent his support to the wave of patriotism sweeping Germany, Bloch finally severed their friendship. In Zurich Bloch became acquainted with Walter Benjamin, seven years his junior, the essayist and critic. Benjamin described him in a letter as 'the only person of significance I have met in Switzerland so far', and later as the writer who alongside Kafka and Brecht had perfected the German essay, a compliment he might justifiably have paid himself.

The Spirit of Utopia
During this central decade of Expressionism, Bloch continued to develop the concept of the Not-Yet-Conscious, and in 1918 published 'Geist der Utopie' (The Spirit of Utopia), a mystical and prophetic work written in a highly Expressionist style. The book, his first major work, is dedicated to his wife. Bloch's interest in religion which first becomes manifest in 'The Spirit of Utopia', unusual in a Marxist, may to some extent be attributed to the influence of Elsa's almost gnostic Christian mysticism. This essayistic work is a blend of messianism, socialism and ideas of unrevealed spiritual truth, but the book also reflects Bloch's early interest in what was to become the principal field of his future study – utopia. Bloch's great friend Margarete Susman seems to have anticipated the importance of the ideas contained in the book, seeing in it elements of a new German metaphysics. Bloch's first wife, to whom he was devoted, died in 1921 after several years of illness. Her death had a devastating effect on him, and continued to affect him throughout his life, as we may see from the end of the very moving section on marriage in 'The Principle of Hope', begun almost twenty years later: 'Just as the pain of love is a thousand times better than

but as with Lukács. a religion which significantly contributes to the 'wishful images of the fulfilled moment' in volume three of 'The Principle of Hope' alongside the Christian and Jewish traditions. not even with the death of one partner. the news reached him through the poet Else Lasker-Schüler. Mirjam. In 1923 he issued a second re-written edition of 'The Spirit of Utopia' giving a more systematic introduction to his utopian philosophy and attempting to fuse it with Marxism. after their relationship had ended. There seems to be some evidence that he attempted to align himself in a more orthodox way with the mainstream of Marxist thinking. even though by the twenties Bloch was politically a hard-line communist. His visit to Tunisia in 1926 brought him into contact with the world of Islam for the first time. The relationship was obviously an embarrassment to Bloch who was by this time involved with Karola Piotrkowska. Adorno later speaks of 'the great Blochian music'. Bloch continued to travel throughout the twenties after the death of his first wife.Page xxii unhappy marriage. Frida Abeles did not inform Bloch of the pregnancy or of the birth. and they experimented with hashish together. which does not end with old age. so too the landlocked adventures of love are diffuse compared with the great sea voyage which marriage can be. an attempt perhaps to replace the intimacy of the first. as elsewhere in the section. Another major friendship began here in the twenties. Theodor Adorno. with one of the philosophers who was later to be a major figure in the Frankfurt School. particularly the Cabbala. with whom he was in close contact in Berlin. and retained a great admiration for Bloch. Bloch seems to have had a closer affinity with Walter Benjamin. another productive source of the creative daydream for Bloch. Elements of Benjamin's theory of tragedy may be detected in Bloch's analysis of the . he was mainly based in Berlin. Benjamin shared Bloch's interest in mystical traditions. fruitless pain. and perhaps too of his second abortive marriage to a painter from Frankfurt which lasted less than a year. as 'The Principle of Hope' elaborates. there is a sense of his relationship with Elsa. a young student of architecture from Lodz in Poland whom he subsequently married in 1934. the friendship was strained by the alleged unorthodoxy of Bloch's subjectivist approach to socialism. A portrait of their felicitous life together may be read in Frau Karola Bloch's book 'Aus meinem Leben' (From My Life). When in Germany. In 1928 a former girlfriend of Bloch's from the days when he was living in Positano gave birth to a daughter. in which there only remains pain.' Here still.

Bloch remained loyal throughout his life to his concept of Expressionism as a progressive artistic movement. Bloch also looked back on their early dialogue together with affection. a critical analysis of the twenties and the rise of fascism. Towards the end of the decade there were also friendships with Kurt Weill. During this period his friendship with Lukács gradually developed into public disagreement. During these Berlin years Bloch began work on 'Erbschaft dieser Zeit' (Legacy of this Time). But as 'The Principle of Hope' illustrates at several points. Even though as young men they had both developed a socialist perspective. 'Spuren' (Traces). He was drawn to Brecht by his undogmatic approach to Marxism. Lukács distanced himself more and more from Bloch's mystical approach to the revelation of socialism. By this tame Bloch's literary reputation was established and he was writing regularly for the major newspapers in Berlin. Bloch published his first reply in an essay written as a result of the Nazis' exhibition of 'degenerate art' in which many Expressionist works were included. still with obvious respect for Lukács. Lukács pointed to the decisive difference in position between his own 'Geschichte und Klassenbewußtsein' (History and Class Consciousness) and the utopian philosophy of 'The Spirit of Utopia' or Bloch's book on the millenarian Christian Thomas Münzer. then Paris and Prague where . Exile in America After Zurich. a collection of prose pieces which set the tone for the cryptic passages that introduce each section of 'The Principle of Hope'. 'Thomas Münzer als Theologe der Revolution' (Thomas Münzer as Theologian of the Revolution). and Brecht's work forms the backbone of Bloch's view of the theatre as a socially instructive 'paradigmatic institution'. saw as a direct cultural antecedent of National Socialist ideology. Bloch emigrated to Zurich at the beginning of March 1933.Page xxiii social function of theatre at the end of the first volume of this work. He had met Bertolt Brecht as early as 1921 and their friendship endured until the latter's death. In 1930 Bloch's major literary work was published. now a leading communist critic. This culminated in the notorious debate concerning Expressionism which by 1935 Lukács. Bloch moved on to Vienna. but this work was interrupted by Hitler's accession to power. Lukács did not consider Bloch to be a 'genuine Marxist'. and in 1972. Hanns Eisler and Otto Klemperer. he dedicated 'Das Materialismusproblem' (The Problem of Materialism) to the friend of his youth.

outlining the deprivation in which Bloch was living at the time and requesting donations. It was during this period that 'The Principle of Hope' was largely written (it was revised in the 1950s). Karola reports in her biography. Like Benjamin. 'The Principle of Hope' bristles with anti-American sentiments. Bloch was repeatedly forced to appear in the Immigration Office in Boston to establish whether he was fit for American citizenship.Page xxiv his son Jan was born in 1937. he was considered 'a premature anti-fascist'. more than a decade before McCarthyism. he emigrated to the United States in 1938 and remained there for over a decade. In 1938. Neither were the Blochs entirely free of the anti-Semitism which had forced them to leave Germany. Many places of recreation. Bloch never fully mastered English. the archetype of the little man. grouped around Thomas Mann. Though he had never been a member of the KPD. The comprehensive 'Triptych of the German Emigration' painted by Arthur Kaufmann during those years shows Bloch withdrawn. though Adorno's influence must have carried great weight there. as may be seen from some of his rather bizarre uses of American colloquialisms. has an American frame of reference. in the very back row. Originally Bloch hoped to publish it in America under the title 'Dreams of a Better Life'. Karola Bloch supported Ernst and Jan by working first as a waitress and then in an architect's office. were 'restricted' and inaccessible for Jews. the Communist Party in Germany. In 1942 Adorno did make a public appeal on behalf of Bloch in a New York journal. Finally he was forced to undergo an oral examination on the American Constitution. The book shows a clear antipathy to a culture which he saw as the inevitable heir of the fascism he had left Europe to escape. someone who had been opposed to the fascists before Pearl Harbour. This perhaps shows the extent to which their friendship had atrophied in the thirties. a committee against 'un-American activities' had been founded to counteract communism. living on the East Coast. since Adorno incorrectly stated that Bloch had been earning his living by washing dishes and that he had been dismissed for his slowness. . But this must have been very double-edged loyalty for Bloch. In fact. Keeping one step ahead of the Nazis. Bloch was not given employment in Horkheimer's Institute for Social Research when it moved from France to the USA. and a good deal of its ideological analysis of the psychology of the Babbitt (a term he borrowed from the American author Sinclair Lewis). Karola Bloch relates that the astonished examiner called in his colleagues to listen to Bloch's riveting analysis of the American War of Independence. and in fact he lived rather remote from the other exiled German intellectuals in the United States. that is. who died during exile.

he did not consider that the war was over. forbidden to teach. Bloch was no longer able to participate in academic life in the East. laid too much emphasis on the subjective. His books continued to appear fitfully . and recognized as its leading philosopher. In 1957. and Lukács himself was forced into temporary exile in Rumania. Branded as a revisionist. His and Harich's contributions were expunged from its index. He lived in isolation. leader of the SED. accused of conspiracy with the West. with official sanction. suggested that Bloch's teaching adopted non-Marxist principles. and Bloch was awarded the National Prize of the GDR. who had become the Minister of Culture in Hungary in the Nagy regime. two years later than his wife. Harich was sentenced to ten years imprisonment. he was implicated in counter-revolutionary activity and was fortunate to escape arrest. A number of his students were arrested in 1957. and that his utopian philosophy was ignoring the concrete class-struggle and idealistically pursuing a 'distant goal'. But gradually his philosophical and political position became irreconcilable with that of the leadership of the Stalinist SED (the ruling state party in the GDR). because of his closeness to the 'Yugoslavian' line.Page xxv In this way he finally secured citizenship. Walter Ulbricht. he seems to have firmly believed in the possibility of creating a new anti-fascist society in the German Democratic Republic which would restore German culture to greatness. a pamphlet criticizing Bloch appeared in Berlin entitled 'Ernst Bloch's Revision of Marxism'. among them Wolfgang Harich. merely that the seat of fascist power had removed itself from Berlin to Washington. As 'The Principle of Hope' tells us. East and West Bloch returned to Germany in 1949 to take up the chair of philosophy at the university of Leipzig at the age of sixty-four. and was obliged to give up the editorship of the politically influential 'Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie'. In 1954/5 the first two volumes of 'The Principle of Hope' appeared. Bloch was forced to retire. having contact only with personal friends. even as a mystic pantheist. but it is worth considering that in 1956 Soviet troops were already suppressing 'counterrevolutionary' tendencies in Hungary. Though Bloch rejected Harich's democratic humanist ideas of reform for the GDR. These sentiments seem to echo those of Bloch's old friend Lukács. a supporter of Tito's non-Stalinist regime in Yugoslavia. To begin with.

but already we may detect a good deal of implicit criticism. supporting the Prague Spring and vehemently denouncing America's part in the Vietnam War. was still in a transitional stage. His voice was . though with characteristic anticipatory consciousness. But he considered the artistic developments in dance and film in the Soviet Union to be extremely progressive tendencies. of the ideology of the comrade for example. In later life he was opposed both to Soviet domination and to American imperialism. contained elements of State Socialism and fell far short of the 'final state' which corresponded to his own utopian vision of international socialism. His attitude to it in 'The Principle of Hope' is still positive. most untypically for a German professor. He shared Marcuse's suspicion of the ideologies into the service of which the new technologies were being pressed in East and West. In 1961 he was coincidentally in West Berlin when the Berlin Wall was first erected and spontaneously took the decision to remain in the West. perhaps indeed because his works were not available to readers of English. advocating a diversification of socialism away from the Soviet model. after Hungary. Bloch warned against the separation of 'bread' and 'violin' in the communist world. Ultimately he was condemned for not subordinating the latter to the former in a decade of ideological entrenchment in the East. after Khrushchev's in 1956.Page xxvi in the East. and praised the elements of folk-culture which the revolution had preserved. expressing surprise that the radical movement against capitalism in the West should emerge from the children of the middle class. Bloch began to travel more frequently to the West to deliver lectures and attend congresses. the one representing its undeceived critical rigour. though he was well aware that the USSR had not reached political maturity. Bloch never visited the Soviet Union. Later in the sixties he befriended Rudi Dutschke and lent his support to the student movement. He spoke publicly against the voting of emergency powers in October 1966. accepting a guest professorship at Tübingen university where he continued to be an active advocate of socialism and. In 1959 the third volume of 'The Principle of Hope' was published. Bloch saw Marxism as a necessary synthesis of 'cold' and 'warm' streams. Bloch was not exposed to the international acclaim accorded to the Frankfurt School in the English-speaking world in the sixties and seventies. His own reappraisal of Stalinism came late. of the nonintervention pact. however. the other its idealistic and imaginative receptivity. devoted much of his time to his students. and only after his own experiences in East Berlin. As early as the 1930s. and of State Socialism in general.

though firmly rooted in the German tradition. But claiming this inheritance in no way makes Bloch a secondary thinker. like his great literary guiding-image Goethe. contains an eclectic mixture of progressive elements drawn from classical. Bloch's philosophy. It is entirely consistent with his wholly original concept of the Not-Yet-Conscious. and is to be discovered and inherited by each succeeding age. He takes Aristotle's concept of 'entelechy' and builds it into his own theory of possibility. is not a legacy of fixed tradition. oriental and Western philosophies. whether reactionary or progressive. Though he became blind in later years. But from all progressive thinking a utopian surplus is carried over into the future. He died in the summer of 1977 at the age of ninety-two. Bloch and Tradition Consistent with his view that the past contains a cultural inheritance and utopian content still to be extracted. He takes Bacon's 'New Atlantis' and includes it in the historical programme for socialism. but of undischarged hope-content and utopian content in the works of the past. Bloch's conception of old age. precisely because this thinking is not yet finished. It may lie dormant for centuries before new social conditions recall it and extract its new . he lived to supervise and to revise the seventeen volumes of his collected works. and the counselling role of the elder. New meaning and fresh synthetic combinations can be extracted from the thinking of the past. The inheritance that is to be claimed from the past.Page xxvii not heard outside Germany. The works of the past contain the premonitory and pre-figurative images of the next stage of society. the climate of Southern Germany where his philosophy had begun. Thus Bloch takes the utopian aspirations and energy of the subjective factor in German Idealism first systematized by Kant and combines it with the objective factor in the materialist philosophy of Marx and Engels. In open process. however. an astonishing achievement for a philosopher in his own life-time and consistent with his wishful image and archetype of harvest. succeeding ages 're-function' the material of the past to suit their ideological requirements. He takes the concept of process from Hegel and develops it into his own concept of open process at work in dialectical materialism. the preconscious dimension in both past and future. was certainly one which he realized in his own life. ultimately preferring. But at Tübingen he became the pipe-smoking father figure of philosophy in his own country.

Bloch considers that the object itself contains layers of possibility. of the In-Vain remains.Page xxviii meaning. Hegel's 'Thing in Itself' must also become Engels' 'Thing For Us'. the philosophical inspiration behind German Romanticism. Whereas Bloch insists on the bilateral development of both the subjective and the objective factor and on their dialectical interaction. but as a real and concrete final state which can be achieved politically. the ultimate synthesis of subjective and objective realization of the world. the goal towards which the process of history is impelled by utopian thinking. culminating in the objectively real Possible. where. But history is by no means mechanical or fully determined for Bloch. we may say 'Here I am human. in objective process in the world. as if he were continuing the utopian search for the 'blue flower' of German Romanticism where imagination and world finally meet. It advances at all stages through possibility. it may be transformed into 'Heimat' – homeland. Yet Bloch understands that this ultimately real perception of the world implies the political task of humanizing the world. But the subjective idealism of Schelling and Fichte. His discussion of this relationship (which forms part of volume two of 'The Principle of Hope') was the first of his writings to appear after the war. 'The Principle of Hope' is an encyclopaedia of hope that attempts to catalogue the surplus of utopian thought from the early Greek philosophers to the present day. It is not an inevitable march towards socialism. Faust. Possibility is itself an open process. Bloch has often been placed squarely in the Romantic tradition because of this attempted synthesis. of a real state of the world that has not yet become manifest and will only become so through socialism. sought this synthesis without considering possible development in the object. but the political implications did not endear him to his post-war sponsors in the stabilizing regimes of the Eastern Bloc. present and future. Bloch understands utopia not as an impossible ideal. Bloch takes as his model for this final state of subjective and objective cognition the idea mentioned in a letter from Marx to Ruge in 1843 of the world possessing 'a dream of the matter'. and not merely in the subject. Its dynamic is not a Hegelian world-spirit. . The Not-Yet-Conscious can be contained in past. He sees the development of socialism as the modern expression of the utopian function which effects this change. in the words of Bloch's literary guiding-image. The possibility of Nothing. The problematic dialectic of freedom and order is a central question in his work. here I am entitled to be!' At all points in Bloch there is the sense of this human freedom. By theoretically and practically realizing the real possibility of the world.

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Unrealized meaning can be trapped in the works of the past. The 'darkness of the just lived moment' which prevents us from experiencing and enjoying the world in a Carpe diem sense indicates the presence of the Not-Yet-Conscious in the present. The future aspect of the NotYet-Conscious is principally revealed in what Bloch calls 'forward dawning' and 'preappearance' ('Vor-Schein', which also has the connotation of 'shining ahead'). Every age contains its horizon, its Front over which this Not-Yet-Conscious flows when the block of static and regressive thinking is lifted. It may actually be observed in social and political events, as in the storming of the Bastille, for example, but art is the major repository of the images, archetypes and symbols of the Not-Yet-Conscious, supplying us with the guidingimages that 'venture beyond' the statics of the known world. In his historical survey of the Not-Yet-Conscious, Bloch concentrates on the thinkers and project-makers who have extended this Front by venturing beyond, by inventing, visualizing the possibilities of the world that is coming over the threshold. 'The Principle of Hope' is thus an encyclopaedia of these figures and their appearance in reality and in art. The Not-Yet-Conscious contains an individual psychological dimension as well as social and political expression. In characteristically polemical style, Bloch attacks Freud and particularly Jung (whom he regarded as a thinker complicit with fascism) for confining the unconscious to the past, in Jung's case to an ahistorical dimension of primal experience. Bloch illustrates how this theory was appropriated to serve the bogus notions of Aryan purity and native soil by German Nazism. His criticism of Freud largely centred on the latter's understanding of repression. Freud's analysis solely attempted to lead his patients back into the past to confront the origins of their neurosis, the repressed material that was inhibiting them. There was no concern with future, not yet conscious development. Analogously, in Bloch's view, Freud avoided analysis of the social causes of repression and entertained no idea of the future development of the society which might improve the psychological conditions of his patients. He only addressed himself to the symptoms and not the fundamental causes of their neuroses. Furthermore, he ignored the most basic human drive, the closest drive to the unrevealed 'That' which drives on within us, namely – hunger. It is significant that Freud never uses the German term 'Instinkt' for his theory of the drives, but rather the word 'Trieb'. It may well be that Strachey's English translation of Freud has committed a major error in referring to the drives as 'instincts'. Bloch's analysis of Freud makes this distinction unequivocal. He extends the theory of the drives by demonstrating

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that they are socialized rather than innate, and thus wholly distinct from instincts. It is perhaps no coincidence that Bloch's philosophy was ultimately considered heretical in the East. Bloch's attention always seems to wander in the direction of heretical rather than orthodox figures. His earlier book on Thomas Münzer is a pre-appearance of his preoccupation with thinkers who are challenging orthodox beliefs. Münzer and millenarians like Joachim of Fiore feature largely in 'The Principle of Hope', whereas Luther, the father of the orthodox Reformation in Germany, only merits a handful of references. Bloch's commitment to the Hermetic tradition and to heretical figures in general reflects his preference for those thinkers who regard the world as an unrevealed mystery rather than a body of received laws and commandments. In 'The Principle of Hope' he chooses to investigate the Cabbala rather than the Torah, prospective alchemy rather than determined astrology, systems of thought that are processive and open rather than already manifest and absolute. Bloch's 'Principle of Hope' is of course such a system itself, and owes almost as much to the Hermetic tradition as it does to the tradition of dialectical materialism. Sections of the work have a mystical quality as they approach the That-riddle of consciousness that appears behind the drives, but Bloch would not see this as metaphysical speculation incompatible with a materialist approach to the world. He seeks to relocate man's metaphysical aspirations and apotheoses in worldly experience itself, and to reveal the world precisely as the mystery towards which Hermetic thinking has been groping. This mystical aspect of Bloch's work, often lifting his thought out of culturally specific historical and philosophical argument on to a different level of elliptical conceptual and linguistic connection, may well have contributed to the notion that Bloch is a difficult thinker. But these passages, cryptically opening each section of 'The Principle of Hope', transcendentally and climactically closing each section with a sweeping gesture of optimism or hope, perhaps hold the key to Bloch's literary style. The notion of 'intensification' (Steigerung), already present in Goethe, permeates Bloch's work. Bloch's cadences do not fall, they are always going up. It is therefore no coincidence that many sections of the work end on the 'heights', on the metaphor of the high mountains, as indeed does 'Faust', a fact of which Bloch was well aware. The book is full of explicit and implicit references to 'Faust', and the structure of Goethe's major work is unmistakably present behind Bloch's own, as it moves towards 'identity'. The symphonic structure of the work is also clearly evident. Bloch considered music to

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be the most important of the arts, in which the Not-Yet and the utopian could be most perfectly realized. Reprises, refrains, codas, the musical gestures are unmistakable. Bloch was not only anxious to include the ontological and utopian gestures of music in his catalogue of hope (a section is devoted to it in volume three), but also to incorporate these gestures in the structure of his major work itself.

The Style of 'The Principle of Hope'
'The Principle of Hope' is thus certainly a literary work in its own right, and this may also account for the suspicion with which it has been received in Marxist circles. Alongside the metaphor of the high mountains is that of the ship venturing beyond the Pillars of Hercules, an image inherited from Francis Bacon, whom Bloch greatly admired. These images become sunken metaphors, often just below the text, apparently lost, then surfacing again with new significance, perfectly mirroring in metaphorical terms Bloch's theory of the continuing legacy of utopian content. Forward dawning is also an aspect of Bloch's style. An image will be filtered into the argument before it emerges in its full metaphorical plumage, as real cipher. But Bloch's philosophy, of course, acknowledges the residual traces of past consciousness in advancing process, and this is also reflected in the fabric of the text, which reveals a great deal of after-ripening of ideas and images, reintroductions of motifs and metaphors, charged with renewed significance. A repeated idea, as Bloch states in his own introduction, may have learnt something in the meantime. Bloch's eclectic choice of register is in itself a further reflection of his theory of the mutual presence of the past and future in each other. He blends archaisms, Latin and Greek terms, obsolescent usages, 'Volksweisheiten' (popular sayings and proverbs) with the language of Marxism, science and dialectical materialism to produce a kind of cultural lexicon of the German language. As a poet, Bloch is perhaps a poet of light. The quality of light, morning red, distant blue, the blue hour of twilight, are metaphorical expressions of states of consciousness, both individual and social, and of states of hope and realization. New and unexpired ideas appear as premonitory glimmerings and extended after-glowings, shining ahead or continuing to bathe history in their unextinguished light. Bloch holds up a light-meter to history to test its utopian content. Light, and all its nuances, becomes the most fundamental 'real cipher' in the book. The theory of the 'real cipher' is

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crucial to an understanding of Bloch's literary style and of his use of metaphor. He develops Goethe's conclusion in 'Faust' that 'Everything transitory is only a metaphor', and sees the very objects of the phenomenal world as 'real ciphers' of the world-riddle, that is, he believes the world contains in metaphorical form the secret signatures of the world mystery that is to be revealed. Bloch had conceived this idea of traces which the world-secret leaves behind it in the physical details of the world much earlier in 'Traces', begun in 1917 though completed in 1930, but it is in 'The Principle of Hope' that this aspect of his theory is developed into a fully fledged aesthetics, synthesized with the concept of the possible utopian All that, if progressive forces prevail, may finally be attained. Art is thus fundamentally concerned not with the imitation but with the revelation of the world, the process by which the images of the Not-Yet-Conscious are brought into consciousness. But for Bloch the successful achievement of this utopian final state is by no means an inevitability. He is equally aware of the opposite cipher circulating in the world, the Nothing which expressed itself and may express itself again in the darkness of fascism.

Venturing Beyond
This is the first full translation of any of Bloch's works in English. It is ironic to think that 'The Principle of Hope' might first have been published in England before it had even appeared in Germany. Paul Tillich, among others, was instrumental in trying to get the book published in Oxford in the 1940s. But no contract was ultimately signed. The work seems to have been hovering on English consciousness for many years, its arrival inhibited by the resistance to heterodox socialist thought in British academic philosophy. This delay is itself a true example of the Blochian Not-Yet-Conscious. But there is no sense in which the book now appears, forty years later, as an anachronism. Always when reading Bloch there is the impression of a mind not confined to a specific decade but spanning the century, forwards and backwards. This year, 1985, is his centenary. There could be no more fitting time to present 'The Principle of Hope' in an English translation. In a time of cultural reentrenchment and social pessimism, it presents a radical reappraisal of utopian socialist thinking. But it is not merely an academic catalogue of socialist and utopian thinkers. In fact, though Bloch was himself suspicious of the idea of 'Lebensphilosophie', programmatic philosophies of life, he provides in this book a moral and

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intellectual agenda for socialism, a philosophical and historical counter-argument to the popular ideology that radical change in itself presents a danger and a threat to humanity and to 'order'. By providing a panoramic view of history, Bloch demonstrates that it is precisely radical thinkers 'venturing beyond' available existence who have extended and humanized the world through intellectual, scientific and artistic innovation. He may now certainly take his place amongst the great innovators and utopians who have espoused the principle of hope. Fittingly, his own epitaph, taken from this book, reads: 'Thinking means venturing beyond'. Bloch was no utopist, he considered his philosophy to be concretely utopian, mediated with real possibility, and his philosophy advocates engagement with, rather than contemplation of, the world. There is certainly no sense of detachment, in his life or in his work, from political reality and practice. From the beginning, he was a tireless opponent of imperialism, fascism and war. From very early on, he was aware of the potential of nuclear weapons, of the negative Ultimum, of the destruction to which man's scientific innovations could be turned. And he never wavered in the belief that socialism was ultimately the only alternative to the annihilation capitalism would inevitably bring if man did not venture beyond it politically and embrace radical change. 'The Principle of Hope', Bloch's central work, is a historical and collective statement of hope against this annihilation, but also a practical guide to living in late capitalist society, in cultural decline, where the possibility of a truly human society seems remote and the dominant emotion is fear. As an alternative, it offers a socialist theory of the emotions based instead on the strongest of the expectant emotions – hope. It envisages a new society where men and women can at last become like proper human beings, living and working and above all enjoying themselves in a world which has become Thing For Us, or in Bloch's own phrase, where man is walking upright. NEVILLE PLAICE STEPHEN PLAICE PAUL KNIGHT BRIGHTON, 1985

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To my son Jan Robert Bloch

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INTRODUCTION
Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going? What are we waiting for? What awaits us? Many only feel confused. The ground shakes, they do not know why and with what. Theirs is a state of anxiety; if it becomes more definite, then it is fear. Once a man travelled far and wide to learn fear. In the time that has just passed, it came easier and closer, the art was mastered in a terrible fashion. But now that the creators of fear have been dealt with, a feeling that suits us better is overdue. It is a question of learning hope. Its work does not renounce, it is in love with success rather than failure. Hope, superior to fear, is neither passive like the latter, nor locked into nothingness. The emotion of hope goes out of itself, makes people broad instead of confining them, cannot know nearly enough of what it is that makes them inwardly aimed, of what may be allied to them outwardly. The work of this emotion requires people who throw themselves actively into what is becoming, to which they themselves belong. It will not tolerate a dog's life which feels itself only passively thrown into What Is, which is not seen through, even wretchedly recognized. The work against anxiety about life and the machinations of fear is that against its creators, who are for the most part easy to identify, and it looks in the world itself for what can help the world; this can be found. How richly people have always dreamed of this, dreamed of the better life that might be possible. Everybody's life is pervaded by daydreams: one part of this is just stale, even enervating escapism, even booty for swindlers, but another part is provocative, is not content just to accept the bad which exists, does not accept renunciation. This other part has hoping at its core, and is teachable. It can be extricated from the unregulated daydream and from its sly misuse, can be activated undimmed. Nobody has ever lived without daydreams, but it is a question of knowing them deeper and deeper and in this way keeping them trained unerringly, usefully, on what is right. Let the daydreams grow even fuller, since this means they are enriching themselves around the sober glance; not in the

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sense of clogging, but of becoming clear. Not in the sense of merely contemplative reason which takes things as they are and as they stand, but of participating reason which takes them as they go, and therefore also as they could go better. Then let the daydreams grow really fuller, that is, clearer, less random, more familiar, more clearly understood and more mediated with the course of things. So that the wheat which is trying to ripen can be encouraged to grow and be harvested. Thinking means venturing beyond. But in such a way that what already exists is not kept under or skated over. Not in its deprivation, let alone in moving out of it. Not in the causes of deprivation, let alone in the first signs of the change which is ripening within it. That is why real venturing beyond never goes into the mere vacuum of an In-Front-of-Us, merely fanatically, merely visualizing abstractions. Instead, it grasps the New as something that is mediated in what exists and is in motion, although to be revealed the New demands the most extreme effort of will. Real venturing beyond knows and activates the tendency which is inherent in history and which proceeds dialectically. Primarily, everybody lives in the future, because they strive, past things only come later, and as yet genuine present is almost never there at all. The future dimension contains what is feared or what is hoped for; as regards human intention, that is, when it is not thwarted, it contains only what is hoped for. Function and content of hope are experienced continuously, and in times of rising societies they have been continuously activated and extended. Only in times of a declining old society, like modern Western society, does a certain partial and transitory intention run exclusively downwards. Then those who cannot find their way out of the decline are confronted with fear of hope and against it. Then fear presents itself as the subjectivist, nihilism as the objectivist mask of the crisis phenomenon: which is tolerated but not seen through, which is lamented but not changed. On bourgeois ground, especially in the abyss which has opened and into which the bourgeoisie has moved, change is impossible anyway even if it were desired, which is by no means the case. In fact, bourgeois interest would like to draw every other interest opposed to it into its own failure; so, in order to drain the new life, it makes its own agony apparently fundamental, apparently ontological. The futility of bourgeois existence is extended to be that of the human situation in general, of existence per se. Without success in the long run, of course: the bourgeois emptiness that has developed is as ephemeral as the class which alone still expresses itself within it, and as spineless as the illusory existence of its own bad immediacy with which it is in league. Hopelessness

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is itself, in a temporal and factual sense, the most insupportable thing, downright intolerable to human needs. Which is why even deception, if it is to be effective, must work with flatteringly and corruptly aroused hope. Which is also why hope is preached from every pulpit, but is confined to mere inwardness or to empty promises of the other world. Which is why even the latest miseries of Western philosophy are no longer able to present their philosophy of misery without loaning the idea of transcendence, venturing beyond, from the bank. All this means is that man is essentially determined by the future, but with the cynically self-interested inference, hypostasized from its own class position, that the future is the sign outside the No Future night club, and the destiny of man nothingness. Well: let the dead bury their dead; even in the hesitation which the outstaying night draws over it, the beginning day is listening to something other than the putridly stifling, hollowly nihilistic death-knell. As long as man is in a bad way, both private and public existence are pervaded by daydreams; dreams of a better life than that which has so far been given him. In what is false, and all the more so in what is genuine, every human intention is applied on to this ground. And even where the ground, as so often before, may deceive us, full of sandbanks one moment, full of chimeras the next, it can only be condemned and possibly cleared up through combined research into objective tendency and subjective intention. Corruptio optimi pessima: fraudulent hope is one of the greatest malefactors, even enervators, of the human race, concretely genuine hope its most dedicated benefactor. Thus, knowing-concrete hope subjectively breaks most powerfully into fear, objectively leads most efficiently towards the radical termination of the contents of fear. Together with informed discontent which belongs to hope, because they both arise out of the No to deprivation. Thinking means venturing beyond. Admittedly, venturing beyond has not been all that adept at finding its thinking until now. Or even if it was found, there were too many bad eyes around which did not see the matter clearly. Lazy substitution, current copying representation, the pig's bladder of a reactionary, but also schematizing Zeitgeist, these repressed what had been discovered. Marx's work marks the turning-point in the process of concrete venturing beyond becoming conscious. But around this point deeply ingrained habits of thinking cling to a world without Front. Not only man is in a bad way here, but so is the insight into his hope. Intending is not heard in its characteristic anticipating tone, objective tendency is not recognized in its characteristic anticipatory powerfulness. The desiderium, the only honest attribute of all men, is unexplored. The

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Not-Yet-Conscious, Not-Yet-Become, although it fulfils the meaning of all men and the horizon of all being, has not even broken through as a word, let alone as a concept. This blossoming field of questions lies almost speechless in previous philosophy. Forward dreaming, as Lenin says, was not reflected on, was only touched on sporadically, did not attain the concept appropriate to it. Until Marx, expectation and what is expected, the former in the subject, the latter in the object, the oncoming as a whole did not take on a global dimension, in which it could find a place, let alone a central one. The huge occurrence of utopia in the world is almost unilluminated explicitly. Of all the strange features of ignorance, this is one of the most conspicuous. In his first attempt at a Latin grammar, M. Terentius Varro is said to have forgotten the future tense; philosophically, it has still not been adequately considered to this day. This means: an overwhelmingly static thinking did not name or even understand this condition, and it repeatedly closes off as something finished what has become its lot. As contemplative knowledge it is by definition solely knowledge of what can be contemplated, namely of the past, and it bends an arch of closed form-contents out of Becomeness over the Unbecome. Consequently, even where it is grasped historically, this world is a world of repetition or of the great Time-and-Again; it is a palace of fateful events, as Leibniz called it without breaking out of it. Occurrence becomes history, knowledge re-remembering, celebration the observance of something that has been. This is how all previous philosophers went about it, with their form, idea or substance posited as being finished, even postulating Kant, even dialectical Hegel. In this way physical and metaphysical need spoiled its appetite, in particular its paths to outstanding satisfaction, certainly not just that achieved in books, were blocked. Hope, with its positive correlate: the still unclosed determinateness of existence, superior to any res finita, does not therefore occur in the history of the sciences, either as psychological or as cosmic entity and least of all as functionary of what has never been, of the possible New. Therefore: a particularly extensive attempt is made in this book to bring philosophy to hope, as to a place in the world which is as inhabited as the best civilized land and as unexplored as the Antarctic. In critical and further elaborated connection with the contents of the author's previous books, 'Traces', especially 'The Spirit of Utopia', 'Thomas Münzer', 'Legacy of this Time', 'Subject-Object'. Longing, expectation, hope therefore need their hermeneutics, the dawning of the In-Frontof-Us demands its specific concept, the Novum demands its concept of the Front. And all this so that ultimately the royal road through the mediated

Its concern. is an absolutely central one here. hope. to which all its energies must be devoted. commitment to the future. . Expectation. The good New is never that completely new.Page 7 realm of possibility to the necessarily Intended can be critically laid. what is designated by this concept lies in the horizon of the consciousness that is becoming adequate of any given thing. along the path of the Object* itself. no research into truth and no realistic judgement is possible at all which will be able to avoid the subjective and objective hope-contents of the world without paying the penalty of triviality or reaching a dead-end. It acts far beyond the daydreams by which life is pervaded and of which the figurative arts are full. Its space is the objectively real possibility within process. knowledge of hope. Philosophy will have conscience of tomorrow. has in any case been burrowing in great philosophy. without being broken off. but. truly hoped for in the object: our task is to research the function and content of this central Thing For Us. that of hope and its contents worthy of human beings. and all Christians know them after their own fashion too. a basic determination within objective reality as a whole. the merging of have and have-not constituted by longing and hope. in the risen horizon that is rising even higher. is the same thing as the philosophy of the New. remains what is truly hoping in the subject. but philosophically excluded for so long. in which what is radically intended by man is not delivered anywhere but not thwarted anywhere either. and * For a distinction between 'Objekt' (object) and 'Gegenstand' (Object) see footnote on p. a concept which will no longer leave it. and by the drive to reach home again. but also in the far-reaching Aristotelian concept of matter as that of possibility towards essence. Since there is absolutely no conscious production of history along whose path of informed tendency the goal would not likewise be all. intention towards possibility that has still not become: this is not only a basic feature of human consciousness. thus illuminates the concept of a principle in the world. the concept of the utopian (in the positive sense of the word) principle. as it was initiated by Marx. 166. And the new philosophy. and can remain orientated. or it will have no more knowledge. with sleeping conscience or with consternation. this entity which expects. Since Marx. from the exodus and messianic parts of the Bible. All freedom movements are guided by utopian aspirations. Docta spes. For the very reason that this principle has always been in the process of the world. In addition. Indeed. Not only in Plato's Eros. Its consciousness is the openness of danger and of the victory which is to be brought about in those conditions. destroys or fulfils us all. concretely corrected and grasped. comprehended hope.

Re-remembering of the ideas perceived before birth. including the projected over-world in which What Has Become is reflected. it acts in a world-based. the fixed dome arching over all occurrence. or the doctrine that all knowledge is simply re-remembering.Page 8 in Leibniz's concept of tendency. being merely passive-contemplative. is the urge towards the immemorial. Most obviously perhaps in Hegel. Hope acts unmediatedly in the Kantian postulates of moral consciousness. Hence the crucial point is: only knowledge as conscious theory-practice confronts Becoming and what can be decided within it. Marx was the first to posit the pathos of change instead of this. processively open kind is therefore sealed off from and alien to any mere contemplation. as the beginning of a theory which does not resign itself to contemplation and interpretation. The rigid divisions between future . mediated way in Hegel's historical dialectic. the collection of things that have become totally obstructs the categories Future. Future of the genuine. Thus the utopian principle could not achieve a breakthrough. contemplative knowledge can only refer by definition to What Has Become. in its ultimate 'circle of circles'. the ideas or ideals in the latter are in their illusory being just as much res finitae as the so-called facts of this world in their empirical being. Whereby Beingness simply coincides with Been-ness. broken off by contemplation. In myth. namely astral-mythic. despite explosive dialectics. The methodical expression of the same connection to the past. this relation to What Has Become is self-absorption. Novum. who ventured out furthest: What Has Been overwhelms what is approaching. estrangement from the future in rationalism is Plato's anamnesis. consequently. there is something broken off about them all. the direct expression of this pull towards What Has Been. The reason for this is invariably that both the archaic-mythical and the urbane-rationalistic cast of mind are contemplative-idealistic. is similarly inhibited by the phantom of anamnesis and banished into the antiquarium. conversely. of totally primal past or what is ahistorically eternal. when a form of life has already become old. either in the archaic-mythical world. Even Hegel's dialectic. However. and the owl of Minerva always begins its flight only after dusk has fallen. despite exodus from this. also the continual predominance of what is truly pagan. they presuppose a closed world that has already become. despite all these Enlightenment patrols and even expeditions into terram utopicam. or in the urbane-rationalistic one. Front. The gods of perfection in the former. Only thinking directed towards changing the world and informing the desire to change it does not confront the future (the unclosed space for new development in front of us) as embarrassment and the past as spell.

as that which at last adequately addresses what is becoming and what is approaching. because it knows no past other than the still living. The Ratio of the bourgeois epoch which remained progressive is the next inheritance for this (minus ideology which is tied to its location and the increasing emptying of contents). the instrument of the mediated. in whose appearance the processiveunclosed Totum is depicted and promoted. What For) in precapitalist world-pictures or even the meaning of quality in their non-. thus. a reified Factum without consciousness of its Fieri and of its continuing process. on the contrary. dialectical-materialistically comprehended hope. materialistic dialectics becomes the instrument to control this process. avenged and inherited. But true action in the present itself occurs solely in the totality of this process which is unclosed both backwards and forwards. Consider the myth of Prometheus. Marxist philosophy. familiar with occurrence. in this collected consciousness of Front. also knows the whole of the past in creative breadth. that is. not yet discharged past. still unachieved homeland. Consider the myth of the Golden Age and its transposition into the future in the messianic consciousness of so many oppressed classes and peoples. but not so eagerly taken to heart: . Marxist philosophy is that of the future. even though. as is obvious. Its meaning is Not-Yet.mechanical concept of nature. in league with the Novum. But this Ratio is not the sole inheritance. In line with what Lenin meant in a passage which has come to be very much praised over the years. critical acquisition. as it develops outwards and upwards in the dialectical-materialistic struggle of the New with the old. functional change. and the task is to grasp it thoroughly. therefore also of the future in the past. preceding societies and even many myths in them (again minus mere ideology and particularly minus prescientifically preserved superstition) may also provide a philosophy which has surmounted the bourgeois barrier of knowledge with possibly progressive inherited material. in that it becomes. The basic theme of philosophy which remains and is. unbecome future becomes visible in the past. Past that is grasped in isolation and clung to in this way is a mere commodity category. Furthermore a signal is set for this. this material particularly requires elucidation. not to trot behind. it is living theory-practice of comprehended tendency. And the crucial point remains: the light. mediated and fulfilled past in the future. is the still unbecome. whom Marx calls the most distinguished saint in the philosophical calendar. is called docta spes. A forward signal which enables us to overtake.Page 9 and past thus themselves collapse. controlled Novum. Consider for example the role of purpose (Where To.

"My dreams can overtake the natural course of events. "One gulf is different to another". If a person were completely devoid of all capability of dreaming in this way. quite the contrary. or they can go off at complete tangents. I imagine I am sitting in a 'coordination conference' and opposite me are sitting the editors and staff of the 'Rabocheye Dyelo'. There only has to be some point of contact between dream and life for everything to be in the best order. and those are the representatives of legitimate criticism and the illegitimate politics of trotting behind' (Lenin. if he were not able to hasten ahead now and again to view in his imagination as a unified and completed picture the work which is only now beginning to take shape in his hands. science. it can even encourage and strengthen the working man's power to act . and I wonder where I can hide. . and that tactics are a process of growth of these tasks. which grow together with the Party?" I shudder at the mere thought of these menacing questions. What is to be Done?). . The . And then Comrade Martinov stands up and turns to me menacingly: "May I be permitted to ask if an autonomous editorial staff still has the right to dream without previously consulting the Party committee?" And after him Comrade Kritschevski stands up and (philosophically expanding the ideas of Comrade Martinov who has long been expanding those of Comrade Plekhanov) continues even more menacingly: "I'll go further than that. In the first case dreaming is totally harmless. unless he forgets that according to Marx humanity only sets itself tasks that it can solve. . I'm asking whether a Marxist has the right to dream at all. The gulf between dream and reality is not harmful if only the dreamer seriously believes in his dream. if he observes life attentively." In our movement there are unfortunately precious few dreams of this kind. So let a further signal be set for forward dreaming. I will try and hide behind Pissarev. wrote Pissarev concerning the gulf between dream and reality. This book deals with nothing other than hoping beyond the day which has become. There is nothing about such dreams which impairs or cripples creativity. compares his observations with his castles in the air and generally works towards the realization of his dream-construct conscientiously. then I find it absolutely impossible to imagine what would motivate the person to tackle and to complete extensive and strenuous pieces of work in the fields of art. . down paths that the natural course of events can never tread. and practical life .Page 10 ' ''What must we dream of?" I have written these words down and am shocked. And those people are chiefly responsible for this who boast how sober they are and how "close" they stand to the "concrete". In fact.

just as the light above is part of climbing a mountain. A central task in this part is the discovery and unmistakable notation of the 'Not-Yet-Conscious'. by the second and fundamental part: the examination of anticipatory consciousness. 42. This is immediately followed. explored and tested. Their unmediated. indeed in what is remembered itself. something that has sunk into the subconscious in repressed or archaic fashion. So it is a question here of the psychological processes of approaching. via the shifting castles in the air to the One Thing that is outstanding and needful. an impetus and a sense of being broken off. and climbing a mountain is part of the inspiring view at the top. and the way it proceeds to the rejection of deprivation. but principally their mediatable features and contents are broadly taken up. The interesting nature of the subject also relieves the effort of assimilating it. Luke 10. They fill the first part: report. People thought they had discovered that everything present is loaded with memory. but on its Front. . must be worked out here. that is. * So the book begins with daydreams of an average kind. something forgotten. From Leibniz's discovery of the subconscious via the Romantic psychology of night and primeval past to the psychoanalysis of Freud.Page 11 theme of the five parts of this work (written between 1938 and 1947. What they had not discovered was that there is in present material. Towards the side of something new that is dawning up. to the most important expectant emotion: hope. but of gradually increasing difficulty. the foundation makes many sections of this part no easy reading. and this broken-off and broached material does not take place in the cellar of consciousness. For reasons founded in the subject itself. revised in 1953 and 1959) is the dreams of a better life. concerning the man in the street and unregulated wishes. the main drive. not. a brooding quality and an anticipation of Not-Yet-Become. for example. But. for times of change. That is: a relatively still Unconscious disposed towards its other side. that has never been conscious before. Hunger. for the adventures * Cf. it equally becomes of decreasing difficulty. via the wavering dreams that can be abused to the rigorous ones. And the path leads via the little waking dreams to the strong ones. with past in the cellar of the No-Longer-Conscious. lightly and freely selected from youth to old age. essentially only 'backward dawning' has previously been described and investigated. to the reader who is being informed by it and being led deeper into it. founding and supporting everything else. which are so characteristic above all for youth. forwards rather than backwards. something rememberable that has been.

Utopian consciousness wants to look far into the distance. the theme of the second part is the utopian function and its contents.Page 12 of productivity. in contrast to the annihilating circulation of a Nothing. it must be borne in mind: even the Nothing is a utopian category. but memory). as threatening or fulfilling result-definitions in the world. much more centrally turned towards the world: of overtaking the natural course of events. in no way necessarily abstract or unworldly sense. world-riddle. And so the category of the Utopian. this again not in a narrow sense of the word which only defines what is bad (emotively reckless picturing. against all stale and static nihilism. for all phenomena therefore in which Unbecome is located and seeks to articulate itself. is a utopian category. that of polished utopian consciousness. but more essentially as a directing act of a cognitive kind (and here the opposite is then not fear. to the categories Front and Novum. to symbols. it has not yet even entered time and space. both: Nothing and All – are still in no way decided as utopian characters. playful form of an abstract kind). In other words: we need the most powerful telescope. but does not ride on it. to archetypes. to the fundamental problem of the Here and Now. but ultimately only in order to penetrate the darkness so near it of the just lived moment. Nothing and Homeland. The exposition examines the relationship of this function to ideology. in order to penetrate precisely the nearest nearness. in which the core of self-location and being-here still lies. so this hope is not taken only as emotion. the contents of this most immediate nearness still ferment entirely in the darkness of the lived moment as the real world-knot. Far from forming a nullifying basis or being a background of this kind (so that the day of being lies between two absolute nights). in fact the most central one. what is repeatedly beginning in nearness. The anticipatory thus operates in the field of hope. The imagination and the thoughts of future intention described in this way are utopian. but rather in fact in the newly tenable sense of the forward dream. the most immediate immediacy. even though. in which at the same time the whole knot of the world-secret is to be found. as the opposite of fear (because fear too can of course anticipate). Namely. of anticipation in general. Thus understood. And likewise the Here and Now. though an extremely anti-utopian one. beside the usual. This is no secret which exists only for . It circulates in the process of the world. justifiably pejorative sense. Instead. possesses the other. the Nothing is – exactly like the positive Utopicum: Homeland or the All – simply 'existing' as objective possibility. Here. to the illuminating circulation of an All. to ideals. in which everything that is both drives and is hidden from itself.

as in the entertainment industry. . They comprise the fourth part: construction. in fact depictions of the wished-for. and for the subject-based and object-based function analysis of hope begun within it. with historically rich content which does not merely remain historical. planned or outlined utopias. the anticipated better life. but then the world of fairytale. architectural and geographical utopias. The appeal of dressing-up. representing what is supposedly or genuinely better. We have translated this as 'the matter'. therefore. Going back now to individual wishes. Thus the Not-Yet-Conscious in man belongs completely to the Not-Yet-Become. brightened distance in travel. The third part: transition shows wishful images in the mirror. Manifested-Out in the world. or sketch out in real terms a life shown to be essential. But the picture clears completely as soon as the mirror comes from the people. Such things either present a better life. The mirrored. as occurs quite visibly and wonderfully in fairytales. coloured pink and with blood. in the wishful landscapes of painting and literature. From the anticipatory. However. then we find ourselves for the first time among the actual. And the examination of anticipatory consciousness must fundamentally serve to make comprehensible the actual reflections which now follow. the first to surface again are the dubious ones. So much for the second part here. the fundamental ones * Bloch uses the term 'Sache' here and elsewhere to mean the true state of affairs which has not yet been revealed. common to all of them is a drive towards the colourful. while the matter* itself is content which is totally clear or reposing in itself. Not-Yet-Conscious interacts and reciprocates with Not-Yet-Become. the dance. for example. in psychological and material terms. Not-Yet-Brought-Out. that is. It develops in the medical and social. so often standardized wishes comprise this part of the book. in a beautifying mirror which often only reflects how the ruling class wishes the wishes of the weak to be. those harnessed and manipulated by the bourgeoisie now become visible. illuminated display belong here. these images can be held down and misused. Thus manipulated. Thus the wishful images of health emerge. the dream-factory of film.Page 13 insufficient intellect. Instead of the unregulated little wishful images of the report. the example of theatre. if this sketching out turns into a free and considered blueprint. more specifically with what is approaching in history and in the world. but it is that real secret which the world-matter is to itself and towards the solution of which it is in fact in process and on the way. knowledge is to be gained on the basis of an ontology of the Not-Yet. the technological.

though not the philosophically far more comprehensive concept of utopia. the concept utopia has been both unduly restricted. Of course. the word utopia emerged here coined by Thomas More. And in this way the whole of art shows itself to be full of appearances which are driven to become symbols of perfection. and secondly.Page 14 of society without deprivation. with the crystal of death as intended perfection. The glance towards prefigured. the landscapes of an environment formed more adequately for us in painting and poetry. to a utopianly essential end. the perspectives of an Absolute in wisdom. The glance towards this is concrete in various ways depending on the respective class barrier. re-form or pre-form . namely confined to novels of an ideal state. these 'excesses' over and above ideology. All this is full of overhauling. in buildings which form. On the other hand. Egyptian architecture is the aspiration to become like stone. builds implicitly or explicitly on to the road and the goal-image of a more perfect world. aesthetically and religiously experimental being is variable within them. on to more thoroughly formed and more essential appearances than have empirically already become. despite all these dubious aspects. technological wishful images and plans. but great works of art essentially show a realistically related pre-appearance of their completely developed subject-matter. and not only with the abstract ones among them. but the basic utopian goals of the respective so-called artistic aspiration in so-called styles. because the word cloud-cuckoo-land has mostly been used in association with them. but every attempt of this kind is experimenting with something that overhauls. Gothic architecture is the aspiration to become like the vine of Christ. something perfect which the world has not yet seen. Nevertheless. the marvels of technology and the castles in the air in so many of the existing wishful images of architecture. There is also a lot of random and abstract escapism here. Eldorado-Eden appears in the geographical voyages of discovery. This was seen even less in architecture. for example. little utopian material worthy of consideration was noticed in other. do not always perish with their society. Despite Francis Bacon's 'New Atlantis ' no frontier-land with its own pioneer status and its own hope-contents introduced into nature was distinguished in technology. through the predominant abstractness of these novels of an ideal state. because that is what they are called. Because of which. it has preserved that abstract playful form which only the progress of socialism from these utopias towards science has moved out of the way and removed. until now it has only been self-evident in the case of the social utopias that they are – utopian: firstly. as noted. and also above all. with the tree of life as intended perfection.

At all points here prospective acts and imaginations aim. Thus the concept of the Not-Yet and of the intention towards it that is thoroughly forming itself out no longer has its only. cannot possibly be explored and inventoried other than through utopian function. important though the social utopias. in their extravagances and especially in their deeply inward— and outward-looking realisms of possibility.— the almost continually intended direction: appearance – essence nevertheless clearly shows a utopian pole. characteristic end. technological. leaving all others aside. to an abysmal or a blissful end. architectural. hope-contents collected in the part called: construction. together with its correlate in the world (once imagination becomes informed and concrete). in all these spheres. literature. subjective. geographical utopias. . wishful images. have become for the critical awareness of elaborated anticipating. would be like trying to reduce electricity to the amber from which it gets its Greek name and in which it was first noticed. utopian material astonishingly remained undiscovered in the situations and landscapes of painting and poetry. the utopian coincides so little with the novel of an ideal state that the whole totality of philosophy becomes necessary (a sometimes almost forgotten totality) to do justice to the content of that designated by utopia. figures and characters are driven to their typical. Hence. inscribed in every work of art. opera. this essential vision of characters and situations. Indeed. socially. presupposes possibility beyond already existing reality. finally. any more than it can be tested without dialectical materialism. fanatical in the lesser creations. indeed exhaustive example in the social utopias. also of the actual wishful landscapes in painting. in its most terminalized form Dantean. which in its most striking form we may call Shakespearean. aesthetically. Hence – in front of as well as behind the fairytales of an ideal state – the aforementioned notation and interpretation of medical. And yet. towards symbolically encircled achievement. The specific pre-appearance which art shows is like a laboratory where events. this is the place for the portrayal of the multifarious hope-landscape and the specific perspectives on it in the collective thinking of philosophical wisdom. Hence the breadth of the anticipations. utopian function is at work. The sequence of all these formations. And similarly. But to limit the utopian to the Thomas More variety. with modified content. or simply to orientate it in that direction. precise and realistic sui generis in the great ones. The very profusion of human imagination.Page 15 a more beautiful space. Despite the predominant pathos of What Has Been in previous philosophies. but possibly even objective dream-roads run out of the Become towards the Achieved.

accordingly ends. coming down to always decisive earth. always remains the central point here. wants to enter his full life without postponement and distance. The moment for which Faust will gladly sell his soul. of the utopian Humanum in the world. precisely concerning this-worldly intention towards this becoming homeland. the last precisely on the way to the perfect moment. There follows. It is especially a circulation of that Nothing which is devoured into being by the utopian pull. fulfilled happily and adequately. death is therefore its unforgettable awakener. illuminated and fulfilled. . Part 1. music emerges.e. This is the utopian frontier-content which is implied in the 'Stay awhile. The final will is that to be truly present. Odysseus. The fictional figures of human venturing beyond the limits then appear: Don Giovanni. there is no becoming and no victory into which the annihilation of what is bad is not actively devoured. towards homeland. All the glad tidings which constitute the imagination of religion culminate mythically. dream-depth. Don Quixote warns and demands. The objective hope-images of the construction thus press inevitably towards those of fulfilled human beings themselves and their environment fully mediated with these images. very far-striking lines of expression. both the completely illusory tidings and those with a humane core. that is. Its utopia * Cf. As call and pull of very immediate. the art of strongest intensity distilled into song and sound. The fifth and final part: identity attempts to take up these intentions. As attempts to become like proper human beings. The genuine utopian will is definitely not endless striving. in utopia which thoroughly experiences the world. encompassing space of homeland: of nature. i. the future problem in the bearing. but also of a life beyond work.Page 16 philosophically relevant to culture of 'true being'. in the wishful problem of leisure. And then: the images of hope against death are gathered. you are so fair' of the Faust scheme. Man wants at last to enter into the Here and Now as himself. in dream-monomania. against this hardest counterblow to utopia. The problem of what is worth wishing for in general. or of the highest good. against death and fate. Faust. and the so often antithetical guiding panels of the right life. in questions of a life of fulfilling work free of exploitation. rather: it wants to see the merely immediate and thus so unpossessed nature of self-location and being-here finally mediated. to freedom towards the 'kingdom'. So that the lived moment belongs to us and we to it and 'Stay awhile'* could be said to it. Goethe's 'Faust'. 1700. ultimately related to deliverance from evil. the various moral guiding images appear.

The statement is even more valid since the repetitions of the book ideally always occur on a new level. the Essential? Let alone materialistically great philosophy with the capability for the real depiction of what is coherently essential? With the basic pull towards explaining the world in terms of itself (and with the certain confidence of being able to explain it in these terms).Page 17 of the One Thing Necessary. ceaselessly and totally related to the Authentic. This is ultimately a great simplicity or the One Thing Needful. real-possible about the hope-images leads to Marx. it is the practice of concrete utopia. like the being-in-the-present of men themselves. towards this-worldly happiness (and with the certain confidence of finding it)? But. even the materialist * Matthew 6. The direction towards the One Thing Needful was also alive in previous philosophies. On a small and large scale. but never overlappings. rationed according to the situation – as part of socialist changing of the world. works – as always. On the road which first leads to the treasures where moth and rust doth corrupt. until Marx. 19. on the road to the abolition of base deprivation. what is really still outstanding (everything else is chaff of mere opinionizing and fools' paradise) achieves positive being. and only Marxism can initiate it.* and only then to those which stay awhile. the previous lovers of wisdom. and so far as the former is concerned. If only the less high goods were attained and accessible of course. . and from new premises. with the will to set free what is real within it. This road is and remains that of socialism. even pedagogically and in terms of content. who had previously only seen it as dream and as high. that is. have therefore both learnt something in the meantime and may allow the identical thing they are aiming at to be learned anew. So that by the yardstick of real possibility. in different ways. tested if possible. Voltaire's statement is valid here that he would repeat himself as often as was necessary until he was understood. how else could they have been a love of wisdom? And how else could there have been great philosophy. governs all the rest. An encyclopaedia of hopes often contains repetitions. The architecture of hope thus really becomes one on to man. This provides fresh access to creative Marxism. Becoming happy was always what was sought after in the dreams of a better life. Everything that is non-illusory. What is thus intended needs to be broadly delineated here. although it in fact still stands completely in premonition. What Is in real possibility. of a subjective and objective kind. and one on to the new earth. all too high preappearance.

Thus remembering did not arise in hope either (in concrete utopia which is historically mediated. But the forming-depicting aspect of the true. as if the process pending in the world were already decided. The being that conditions consciousness.Page 18 ones. is never so easily broken off. of the real. Essential being is not Been-ness. in a contemplative antiquarian fashion. anxiety. . and it appeals to man who is the arms of the Novum. then it is so only as an equally tendential. is understood ultimately only out of that and in that from which and towards which it tends. self-alienation. it was ultimately the ceiling of Plato's anamnesis above dialectically open Eros which kept out and. and the consciousness that processes being. Time and again. Marxist knowledge means: the difficult processes of what is approaching enter into concept and practice. to have arrived and to have been brought to a standstill. the earliest of the Greek scientists. but which pours forth history). latency of something. closed off previous philosophy. to have arrived behind it. 624–565 B. Thus the real process of the world appeared to have got behind itself. posited the Authentic as already ontically* existing. Thus hope did not in fact arise in remembering either (in the future in the past). Thus the perspective was broken off. that is. this tendency is in flux. including Hegel. * Bloch makes a distinction between ontological and ontical. and this intended something means fulfilment of the intending. nothingness. still unclosed Where To. Thus we appeared to have already got behind the tendency of being. The former broadly refers to 'being'. in fact statically closed: from the water of the simple Thales** to the In-and-For-Itself of the absolute Hegel. However. on the contrary: the essential being of the world lies itself on the Front.C. saw water as the basic material of all being. It means a world which is more adequate for us. thus remembering defused hope. In the problem area of the Novum inherently lies the profusion of even whiter fields of knowledge where worldly wisdom becomes young and original again. from the seriousness of the Front and the Novum. ** Thales of Miletus (c. If being is understood out of its Where From.). the world is full of propensity towards something. the latter to 'entities' and facts concerning them. tendency towards something. static concept of being does the real dimension of hope open. Instead. Only with the farewell to the closed. without degrading suffering. as one that has precisely the Novum in front of it. The Where To of the real only shows in the Novum its most basic Objective determinateness.

Page 19 PART ONE— (REPORT): LITTLE DAYDREAMS .

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From early on we are searching. 3— Daily into the Blue Later we reach out more confidently. 2— Much Tastes of More But we also learn to wait. in a strangely filled outdoors. Wish ourselves where things are named more clearly. Green and blue runs the lizard. 'I want . The child wants to be a bus-conductor or a confectioner. something elusively colourful flies as a butterfly. The confectioner turns into a hunter. With small ones especially. Seeks long journeys. they run into our hands. With animals too we dream we are big. is restlessly curious and does not know what about. distant wishing becomes active in this way. they join in. Tosses everything aside again. we can play with them. they search for more. cry out. Boys destroy what they are given. Or can be caught in nets. We even wait for wishing itself. All we do is crave. But already here the freshness. is not yet here. Even the stones are alive. Because what a child wishes seldom comes in time. but do not run away.Page 21 1— We Start Out Empty I move. the otherness lives. Do not have what we want. of which we dream. far away. cake every day. A child grasps at everything to find out what it means. unpack the box. until it becomes clearer. Nobody could name it or has ever received it. they are less frightening. So what is ours slips away. That seems like real living.

From here what we like doing best is playing and collecting window-views. but it had stayed that way too long. When he is gazing at a coloured stone many of those things germinate which he later wishes for himself. The colourful animal is itself a colourful window. We seek out a corner.' Our own room is prefigured here. As he wishes. This may also bear witness to the things the boy must go to bed too early to see. 'As boys we built ourselves a platform between the branches which could not be seen from below. Soon it is no different than a stamp. It had become no more than this child had wished it to be. When we were sitting up there. the butterfly not yet threatened. It is like the shell in which the sea roars when we hold it close enough to our ears. the free life that is coming. A woman relates. it protects and conceals. . but we know we can do what we want there. deep and brief glimpses into otherness. collects from everywhere what is sent his way. screamed a child in play and then would not touch the button even later on. the button is a witch'. his friends. It must remain a place the lizard has not yet violated. the floor of the playroom itself becomes a forest full of wild animals or a lake on which every chair is a boat. It feels good in a narrow space. behind which the wished-for distance lies. meaning the marble which rolled away but then waited for the child. which tells of foreign countries. all his things into strangely familiar stock. when we pulled up the ladder and cut ourselves off completely from the ground. Play is transformation. 'Look. The boy sallies forth. play changes the child himself.Page 22 everything to be like that' said a child.' A man relates. 'I wished I could be under the cupboard. I wanted to live there and play with the dog. 4— Hiding-Place and Beautiful Foreign Lands By Ourselves Here too the fun of being invisible ourselves. But fear breaks out if what we are used to runs too far away or if it does not smoothly slip back into its former aspect. The homely den must never venture too far into the dream. then we felt perfectly happy. though within what is safe and returns.

inland there are three rings of forts. that is. with eyes that seem to slumber. In other words. of outlawed or strange people with whom we go along. amongst whom we are not suspected. they deter the enemy from sea attack. even though he shuts himself in. inaccessible. the boy inside it only breaks free invisibly with his friends. shared by the prisoner. A spiky security is committed to paper. I wanted to show them everything. men like trees.' A man relates. it becomes a place of wonder. and in the end I became this myself. and it is mined. But it is really only the hiding-place which seeks to be transposed here. Schoolboys do not always drop everything in an effort to please their parents and teachers. . as I usually did when other curiosities came along the street. the whistling spirit enticed me which I believed lived in the bagpipes. in each one there are furs. along the country road into the villages that I knew. even me. the only one which leads to the dream fortress. except that of the prisoner. They guard the road. radiant. with a fluttering feather into the security of the adventure. It wasn't only the fantastic man who drew me away. the Salvation Army and so on. the knifegrinder. cash. it is just that in breaking free he has girded himself round and round with walls. Suffering at school can be nastier than any other later form of suffering. if it consists of living material. Carries himself off on his snorting steed. roaring fires. 'When I heard the bagpipes for the first time. no clocks. but also as being powerful. they could take anything they wanted. Thus the coastal town lies. A woman relates. The night is full of taverns and castles. a house. Hence the wish to break out.' Thus at seven or eight the narrow space expands. instead I followed out of the city. a town. a coastal fortress bristling with cannon. And yet: the fortress was not simply drawn as being impregnable.Page 23 At Home Already on Our Way The hidden boy is also breaking out. He is searching for what is far away. for their trouble. linen. but parents and teachers can be relied upon to put a damper on things. silver. the strangest things take place inside it (when the ladder is pulled up). into the villages that I did not know. I ran after them as I did after everything peculiar. But I did not turn back after a little while. in a shy way. out of sight of school and home. 'As a girl I always wished that burglars would come. Drawings on blotting-paper in exercise books also seem characteristic of the sprinkled pleasure in hiding-places at this time. weapons. There are islands offshore. because outside is still indistinct. All the better if the hiding-place is mobile.

to tremendous deeds. into the unknown. at least not in an obvious way. Are outriders of our escape and establish the first quarters for our clarifying wishes. even if they have not strayed too far from the nest themselves. Our own life was protected and rimmed by battlements high above. but these could be climbed at any time to look out. and the narrator is always in the middle as in a posed picture. The silly young goose wants to improve herself. they never remain rooted to the spot. the young lout sneers at his stuffy home. They move almost at will away from the place or the state in which they find themselves. They stir the fermenting day. it tastes forbidden and makes everything new. simple fables in which things go better. just like they do with their hairstyles. Often arrogance and self-love prevent them from giving love a special place in their dreams. Girls play around with their first name.Page 24 its effect carries beyond the edge of the paper. They try their luck. take with them what is good for and dear to us. the fellow-travelling ego is discovered. That is the reason why dreams of a better life grow so luxuriantly around this time. In other words: from this time the wishful land is an island. Even an average mind tells itself stories at this time. they make it more piquant than it is. Girls retain an acquired shyness for a long time. and in doing so they reach the beginning of a dreamed existence that is different. 5— Escape and the Return of the Victor When someone dreams. We practise the art of talking about what we have not yet experienced. The right boy or the right girl do not seem to be around or only among their own sex. often they . It spins out the stories on the way home from school or when walking with friends. Even later on this combination of narrowness and beautiful foreign lands does not disappear. boys pride themselves on a certain dry coolness. Almost everyone is filled with a hatred for the average at this time. fly beyond school and home. Around the thirteenth year. Putting to Sea Sexual attraction is not always part of this process. Young boys aspire to a nobler life than their father might lead.

A woman relates of this time.Page 25 are not even present in wishing. re-established my beloved Turkey once more within her old borders. where the song to the evening star is sung and the half-moon shines. But even if here the contents have ceased to be so fantastic. From booths at the fair where chains rattle and are broken. even the raw or rough colour of adventure with which these figments glow. and I knew how to operate it so that we could see all the lost empires of the past. Argo. Turkey and the like come from there. ruled over all emperors and kings. Argo (and the equivalent images that almost every individual can replace this with from their own experience) is a kind of Ark for the principal wishes of this time: for the trumping wishes. This ray shines shortly after sunset on the Pacific Ocean. The will destroys the house in which it is bored and in which the best things are forbidden. such fantasies do not only emanate from the depths of the mind. asked about his fantasies at fifteen. living alone there with my illegitimate child which I had had by a very distinguished man. . re-drew the map of the world with the help of my electric cannons. I dreamed myself into an oriental castle on a mountain. in proletarian adolescents of this age they are much more muted. the dream of itinerant revenge and exotic victory. Clearly. landed on the highest mountain on earth. their attraction still remains like that of a fairytale. the harem and the dream-woman only come later. Jason had a ship made for him called the Argo in which Athene fitted an oracular beam. * This dream is not completely original. The elemental ship image characterizes the will to depart. related the following: 'I wanted to go to sea and imagined a unique battleship. Once a year came the night of flight. let them see into the future through a specially placed window.'* These are still excessive bourgeois notions of a juvenile kind. the theme of escape fulfils their loneliness. more grown-up even. So in timeless history it builds its mountain stronghold in the clouds or the knight's castle in the form of a ship. It was called the Argo. sharply transcending the given world. Infantile structures are also preserved for quite a long time in this dry fantasy. I was master of the Argo. with the title and rank of Prince Admiral. 'I wanted to become a painter. did so many knots per hour that it was present on all the coasts of the earth almost simultaneously. and more realistic. but just as often from newspapers. from adventure books with their wonderfully glossy pictures. Thus the castle in the air seldom becomes a castle of pleasure at this stage. There I entertained my friends.' A man. the ship left the water. worked the mysterious green ray.

slates and railings. but rather vexatious. He wants to be the first to reach the goal. Embarrassment and impudence are bound up together here. appears anywhere. or victory. while being spurned is never felt so bitterly. So the young man is mostly pulled to and fro between extreme dejection (to the point of asking himself if he even deserves to be in the world at all) and compensating arrogance. Youth itself becomes a scourge or a laurel here. to be fixed. foam immediately. the goal can be a completely external one. It clothes the girl in its dream. being chosen (room at the top) never so rapturously as in puberty. The name of the loved one shines upon the stones. especially the life-light. wants to outdo the others. Feelings of uncertainty. which is so strenuously avoided. and the young adolescent believes that one of these descended to earth on the very evening he missed. turns into a party. there is only defeat which refutes claims to validity. the girl whom we think up. the adolescent who is not part of the average world or who hates it. Loneliness is no longer sought after and spun out in fantasies. feels he is a little God. even if she were to be found. Now it is too late to meet her. would be no match for the brilliance of the image he has painted. because the girl. it stands for an unknown goal. claims to the future. the . think out. of being unsure of oneself go deeper. taunting to itself. Thus everything wavers and wishes to be placed. Immaturity per se is an invitation to go one better. which proves them.Page 26 The Glittering Bowl Only then do pleasures which have grown sweet announce themselves. it is the most intolerable aspect of the life that begins at seventeen. there is no middle ground. beyond loneliness. We are unsure of our own powers because there are too many of them and they disturb each other. Love lets no one alone into the dreamed castle or out on the sea. The torment of having missed out then becomes monstrous: every party which we did not go to leaves space for us to picture wishful images. But erotic enchantment plays a part even in felicitous encounters. but is intolerable. and since the others do not take the trouble to prove his existence. her house always lies beneath invisible palm-trees. in young boys the vanity of being seen with the prettiest girl in town or in the area. he does it himself. The street or the town in which the loved one lives turns to gold. or the good fortune to have long legs or hard muscles meant to children becomes in young girls pride in so-called gentlemen friends. So if the right girl eludes us for too long. What smooth skin. this is not empty as in later years.

this unites us as matter-of-factly as working together does in later years. like the grown-ups of the past. Talking at this time is common and easy. it becomes dry. of course. suffering. But this mountain air too is full of squalls. But this enormous shock does make us realize how much headiness and Rütli oath. then the living spirit of the youthful friendship (if that is all it was) disappears. this explains why nothing is flatter and more forced than seeing old schoolfriends again after many years. real life that has so far not yet become. with children now themselves having his own courtship and his own – apparently unsurpassable – spring. They have become like the teachers. music or writing. All we know for certain is that it should not contain any trivialities and that no other season except spring should count in it. Adolescents of this kind know the feeling of a fire burning inside them. During this period of youth it also becomes apparent that the only thing that actually binds us and establishes friendship is the common expectation of a common future. and * The legendary oath of allegiance of the first three Swiss confederates on the Rütli at the Vierwaldstättesee in 1291. even with storms.Page 27 future image of the life which youth expects. fortunately they are not pursued for long.* how much mountain air swirled and still swirls above real seventeen-yearolds. these are more general wishes and directions. and nothing more awkward than imagining himself in age. it is swept up in the changing winds racing here and there in the most uncertain of all ages of life. So many young girls. like everything against which we had conspired. as long as it is just life. Such reunions make it seem as if the youthful faces and dreams have not only disappeared. towards painting. And the world begins with our own youth: nothing is stranger for an adolescent than to imagine the courtship of his parents. as is obvious. almost every young man has great ideas which cannot be sold in the normal job-market. it shrinks so much that they cannot even fill a page. wish to go into films. it comes as a surprise that everything shrinks in the execution. However. . but when they try to grasp its being. since only very few young people enjoy one of those inescapable talents which make a job into a vocation and so spare us the choice. In fact even where there is the urge – more common these days – towards productive expression. If the common future falls away. of art being so close. Uncertain even intellectually. thunder and lightning. he wants to induce it all at once. writing hard. The young person torments himself with the enjoyable prospect of this future. they lack the detail of talent. but as if they have been betrayed.

One of the strongest wishes in human nature. Bettina von Arnim. Because our own life still lies a long way ahead. the stages seem bathed in a utopian light. breadth. But the lifelight. In the café. Many an adult uses jottings like these. Even the distance which the evening express train brings into the smallest town can suffice as a symbol. the student enters the big city. So this time seems to be unhappy and blissful at the same time: the feeling of spring later contains both. miles away from them. without relatives. for colour. carelessly beautiful wishful image develops. not without reason. seen from the provinces. and if he has kept them with faithful vanity. Thrilled. tauntingly to itself. is the wish to be important. fame taps at the window. the squares. In this way a dissolutely daring. as a gauge to measure how low his waterlevel has sunk. that of trumping also returns or is included in the erotic sheen. Hence the dream of adventures which are to be undergone. and this is further combined especially strongly with the wish for a significant environment. height is general. Inside is the expanded soul in which longing is at work. everything is fished for here and remains in its initial stages. the fruit appears precisely to the overflowing writer himself 'like a shrivelled plum. of greatness begging to be won. containing nothing stale. shines vexatiously. Gifted girls wish to run away there. the real adolescent develops from a will which in these years is always still a chivalric will. the houses. Here he believes he has at last found the ground and background for an existence which finally suits him. it is populated with sheer impatient hopes. embryonic images and thought-masks. but now it propels itself into it without a hiding-place. Another form is the diary which. besides the bright lights. is called secret or is imparted secretly. all distance is made more beautiful. But the desire for courage. thus mostly chose letters to express herself. and who all her life could not get beyond this adolescent feeling. the distance of the capital. and one which is most frequently violated. of beauty begging to be discovered. . outside the dreamed image of a city which could fulfil it. Love. then the pictured homecoming of the victor is a particularly popular and widespread dream. who says this. If the parents' home was not only narrow but also bad. Paris for much longer. the chosen few are gathered who write verses. heavenly strings await the boy who plays the double bass. black and wizened'. if he has made them. all the more strongly the narrower our situation.Page 28 if it is produced. melancholy. The wish not only impels us towards this distance. at a proud little table. It is not surprising that with the wishful image of triumph. Munich had this attraction around 1900.

the flight often dips. full. The famous actress goes back. But not as if it were thereby accepting the life that had simply come to it. An element of vulgarity emerges which no longer has healthy red cheeks. graceful. proud and gentle. her parents and neighbours stand timidly aside. Since wishing does not decrease later on. These are particularly immature wishful dreams. or the prospect of a kind of stormy dignity. with the perfume of high above. it makes something good again. At this time. returning as a general or as a great artist. His is the princess. only what is wished for diminishes. precisely what has already become petit bourgeois is half-baked and flat. The often invoked streak of blue in the bourgeois sky became of course a streak of blood. all this is the splendour their darling has won. either love fills it up. An element of defeat probably also settles in. and around her swirls the silver travel-veil. it sets itself up in this world. in control. it knows its way around. But the greyness of a young mediocrity has never shone without capricious figures. The Lame Nags First his wish goes backwards. The dream . returning at least with a magnificence that puts them to shame. between the March and June of life. The downtrodden boy of days gone by comes back in a coachand-four. graciously she forgives what they did to her. he is now no longer misunderstood. Desirous. But the dreamer believes he has at last found out what life ought to be offering him. these words govern the genitive and the wishes of bourgeois youth. mindful. there is no break. 6— More Mature Wishes and Their Images These do not have to be any less turbulent. but they are still to be found today in the western glossy image of these years. but is hard-boiled. all this is like Nice brought home. The drive that has grown older aims closer. Something important is missing now just as it was then. so the dream does not stop inserting itself into the gaps. by his side the beautiful rich girl whom he has captured as his wife. aware. the wish itself puts them on his arm. the stupid or stupefied had their very own strong man called Hitler.Page 29 a form of satisfaction so overwhelming that it welcomes the previous misery almost as a foil. possessed.

with which we not only fool other people. since it prefers to lash out in the direction of least resistance. this fist characteristically thumps the wrong man. The wishful dream of wit on the stairs makes losses good by going back to that point in time where it was still possible to avoid them. too weak to do good. The petit bourgeoisie in particular has traditionally been fond of the fist clenched in the pocket. It torments because it has missed the opportunity. they enjoy in advance in the dream of revenge. all stupid pride follows this course. the one they did not strike at the right time. The Nazi dream of revenge is also subjectively . as if everything were as good as could be. Regret is a feeling that persists in the bourgeois world. The dream plays out what is wished for as it could have been. the evil that they cannot. But amidst these dreams there is still room among the petit bourgeois for the heroic pose. but now almost exclusively in business life. Night of the Long Knives Not so far from here are the various dreams that are fond of getting their own back. if a clever move had not been missed. This imagination contains both regret and longing together. Or the source of the fiver down which all our hopes were dashed is imagined as a tap. and what has been missed is thus retrospectively activated and articulated in the imagination. and the memory that the reality was different gives way to suit the vanity of our wishes. They are particularly delicious. he was called by the masters out of the dream of this night when he became useful to them. We drank the wrong brand – how wisely we choose the right one in the dream or in the subsequent account. we turn it off retrospectively. and the thundering phrase that just did not flash out at the time. this is wit on the stairs. or cannot yet do. revenge is sweet when merely imagined. All boasting is part of this.Page 30 pictures what would have happened if a silly move had been avoided. In the wishful dream of wit on the stairs. Most men are too cowardly to do evil. blows are landed which the dreamer did not have the courage to land at the time they were due. With bitter enjoyment it savours profits which would certainly have been made if we had gone into the business at the right time. but also shabby. the regret makes it into a wishful dream which improves on the past. so regretful dreams mostly revolve around money that has been lost. what is right as it should have been. Lame nags and good ideas come last. Hitler rose out of the Night of the Long Knives.

as always in such cases. This mob can be bought. This is what the headlines have always aimed at in those papers which love to see red. the quiet everyday kind. not revolutionary rage. big business. 'The truth. in the supposedly detested fraud. God help us. the essence of the Nights of the Knives was. the hatred of the immoral life of the hooknoses and those at the top. Fortunately though. but only the fact that it has not become its own and its alone. was here merely betraying its dearest dream. the repulsiveness of this kind of wish. * sensational revelations. of course. Just as. His wishes for revenge are rotten and blind. merely replaces the subject which is practising it. and consequently it can be blinded and used by those who have the means and who have a real vested interest in the fascist pogroms. the gutter-press. both regarding Wertheim raking in the shekels and regarding Jewish lechery.' But they are only revelations concerning the outrage of the bourgeois conformist himself. The malicious and brutal aspect of this.Page 31 bottled up. the little man who is not class-conscious is content just to rearrange his * A residential district of Berlin. is absurdly dangerous. the horribly seducible manifestation of this essence. it does not hate exploitation but only the fact that it is not itself an exploiter. harmlessly foolish and colourful dreams. when they are stirred up. as the petit bourgeois is now called in American. it is blind. there are besides them also warm. Hence the immediate impulse to set oneself up in place of the eliminated Wertheim. As for the so-called iron broom. so virtue does not hate the slothful bed of the rich. a poison which has nowhere near been fully excreted. not rebellious. has always characterized the mob. after an act of retribution which. The instigator. the mob is equally faithless. Shortly Before the Closing of the Gate But how is the most ordinary kind of life. with its revenge. but the raving petit bourgeois was the astonishing. which is the poison in the 'average man on the street'. . middle-class virtue. From it emerged the terror. as pervasive as the smell of urine. In general. it is also quite happy to put its clenched fist back into its pocket when crime is no longer allowed a free night on the town by those at the top. latest news: Broilers at Wertheim's store – The harem in the Tiergarten villa. transformed through dreams? Let us leave the vengeful wishes.

The reticent man or the man in a mediocre marriage enjoys the pleasures of an accomplished lover. kindled imagination serves up double or treble portions. They are no longer young. full of trained women. so the waking dream of the bourgeois conformist also becomes practical. dream-ship. and experienced as well. the hunting lodge in the forest. In this forest there is a different ending for him than in the forest of youth. brought it up to date. But they are sufficiently adventurous to garnish his usual fried egg and chips beyond all recognition. But the private dreams of a more mature kind evidently * The typical little man. Normally the imagined harem is stocked with those women whom the well-behaved. a mixture of free love and harem. 1922. but he temporarily pours out the dishwater of his previous existence which has seemed so unsatisfactory. to be used for any purpose. novels of his own composition begin to be woven. thus the Calypso of the deprived Babbitt* is hallucinated as unresisting in a higher sense. Usually there are several images. to his ever alert but now sedate longing a group of purchasable comforts present themselves. a man to whom many who now scarcely give him the time of day doff their hats. Prince Admiral. followed by business dreams. His waking dreams remain private. his own yacht. but unpossessed. Because a man is not made for love alone. often also impotent lecher has failed to secure in life. imagined in detail. expanded it. Everything almost as it was in puberty.Page 32 lot slightly. both are effervescent. . beyond the tropical sea through which the yacht is ploughing stands the beach casino where people are gambling. some of them being defiled. others looking on: a dream forest of randy eyes and spread legs. Long ago in his dream he bought the thriving shop on the corner. the castle by the sea. There is still room for improvement in blossoming communities. the central character in the Sinclair Lewis novel 'Babbitt'. There are so-called joke-cards on which a naked woman appears as a balloon: weightless. inexhaustible powers are at his command. Solitary walks give these images room. sexual dreams are particular favourites. He does not change anything. totally flexible. long ago he became a town councillor. In interchangeable positions and groups. Younger powers must be given their head. and so in his wishes he is himself these powers. even that of the so luxuriantly matured wishes. involving his ego. only now furnished with money instead of ideals. so the dreaming walker plucks up speculative courage. the great world takes him on board. as it is shown in the films. no longer full of superman. But of course excess alone does not satisfy him. Long ago the shop was sold again.

wherever it goes. of course. but increasingly regularized social stratum. especially as: 'Make way for efficiency'* is at an end anyway. . that it merely wishes to break out of the world somewhat. both sexually and in terms of business achievements. finds only traces around him and kicks over them. more that is familiar and which simply has not been allotted to the dreamer than defiant premonition. The latter in his thoughts tends to swim along with the current of what has already been achieved. looking at lizard-skin shoes trimmed with chamois leather. or as long as he does not see through the conditions of his disgruntlement. looks at the woman. proletarianized. but without proletarian consciousness. Although they develop more past material than future. this in no way regular. There is enough happiness in the world. A woman stands in front of the shop-window. but also what it could be changed into. not just the more rural walk or the hustle and bustle of the suburbs. Even if only in the silence of his imagination. only not for me: the wish tells itself this. The something else is predominantly money. plays its part. the petit bourgeois. the little man. on the other hand. The little man. Otherwise it would not be so easy to lure with jewellery.Page 33 do not cease to be foolish one moment. The imminent closing of the gate. thus dreams considerably more castles in Spain than the bourgeois man of property who knows what he has. the capitalist world. In this way the shopping street is also steeped in dreams. nor everyone's persistent inclination to turn themselves into one. This unites all bourgeois * 'Freie Bahn dem Tüchtigen'. of whom we are talking here. as long as there is no Pied Piper on hand. the petit bourgeois. contents itself with the needs which are awoken by the window-displays dressed for it. not that it wants to change it. a man goes past. at least in the world which coined this slogan. exotic the next. He exercises this imagination through images which shimmer towards him out of the solarium of life which he has never entered. Invention of a New Pleasure Most people in the street look as if they are thinking about something else entirely. and so both of them have a share of the wishful land. The employee. The flâneur would not exist. 28th September 1916. to attract with a beautiful figure. And it thus also demonstrates. Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg used a similar slogan to the Reichstag.

and the peak. in the case of the rich these wishes necessarily end bizarrely. who otherwise is nothing and can do nothing. increasingly boosted into increasing triviality. but on the whole without that element which. sees to it that boredom is at least made interesting. If this is true of the employee. the right-hand side where the price is given. in middle age and with the until now so cloudy consciousness of the middle class. he has. usually with contempt. so that there is a turnover (which is not yet ensured by shoddy production alone). Of course. provided they are not too gaudy. as in the case of the employee. He finds it easiest to give up youthful ideals. The rich man. precisely this affluence causes a quite specific producer of more mature. are solely those of the urgently longed-for thrill. which nevertheless do rise above it. Or even towards eccentricity: a rich Englishman travelled through all the countries where pointed arches occur to photograph them. no coast however blue. no definite. of fashion and its changes. To pull his weight efficiently. to apply his will solely to what is attainable. but never beyond the generally existing means.Page 34 dreams and yet it still rations them. Xerxes was already offering a prize for the invention of a new pleasure. for ordinary people so that they also want to cut their slice of the available cake. can indulge his every wish. standing right in the middle of gainful employment. in contrast to the salary earner. of the snobbish butterfly. even the excitements of gambling go stale eventually. no luxury. full of plans promising profit. that is. helps to escape it. although it is only the left-hand side which is studied here on menus of every kind. he calls utopian. the rich man. And yet. even in more distant excursions to the over-blue coast of the travel agent's and beyond: so that they do not explode the given world. Since the rich man. which really is that. fresh styles are also continually produced for the masses. People with wishes of this kind live beyond their own means. This fog of boredom swirls in the abyss of possession. that is. as Brecht puts it in his 'Threepenny Opera'. in the rarer and rarer guise of a gentleman of leisure. now sedate wishes to appear: instead of deprivation – boredom. does not rise above it. without changing baker's. so to speak. at least those of private life. The wishes. . in its more modern form this escape attempt turns away from mere fat capital towards snobbery. This is how bourgeois wishes end. because it is not one. longcherished and thus fully developed wishes at all. No speed. then the upper middle-class citizen whose means are sufficient certainly does not have any reason even in his wildest dreams to explode the existing world. and not. but the incentive came first from those at the top and is older than the pleasure in turnover.

if only because happiness no longer arises out of the unhappiness of others and measures itself against it. that is also a revolutionary dream. Exciting wishes recede. an opportunity for the sake of which the struggle moves in the distant goal. It is not that comfort itself is dubious or limited to its bourgeois form. but rather the means by which this freedom is truly achieved. there shines freedom from acquisition. both in actions and in dreams. Instead they are characterized not only by an incomparably higher status. no Babbitt has any place in it or stretches himself out comfortably into the rotten laziness. To each his chicken in the pot and two cars in the garage. the lazy rottenness that he is. And even higher above this shines the distant peace. But essentially he imagines a life without exploitation. 7— What Is Left to Wish for in Old Age In old age we learn to forget. the distant opportunity of being in solidarity and being friendly with all men. having to wait for what chance brings to it. there is no patron who realizes these dreams from above.Page 35 Opportunity to be Friendly Even the non-bourgeois dreamer likes many things that the others have. but also by an expectation of the unknown. although their images remain. he overhauls the given world. They picture escape. Instead of freedom of acquisition. The happy existence which he anticipates lies behind smoke. there shines the imagined victory in the proletarian class struggle. not just a French or American or 'general human' dream. as they once did in March: the young girl . He is not the limpet stuck fast. a blueprint of the unrealized which the bourgeois wishful image of more mature years no longer possesses at all. But the values of comfortable happiness shift in the prospects of the revolutionary wishful dream. behind the smoke of a powerful change. The turmoil in which all this still lies admittedly makes the individual non-bourgeois dreams considerably less distinct than those which need only reach into the existing window-display. this must be attained. No department store sends a list out to them. The world which then appears is likewise changed. Because our fellow man is no longer the barrier to our own freedom. instead of imagined pleasures of cheating in the economic struggle.

Even if the wish does not wane. Wine and Purse Instead the realistic fears increase. Counter-Wish: Harvest Even young people. old boy. moaning and cantankerous. but stands in danger of becoming peevish towards it. and of course also on account of the mortal fear of an infirm being. But this seldom includes the wish to be an old man. The body does not recover so quickly as it did. then the disappointed gift of picturing ahead does. Nevertheless. even what he is used to. everything is twice the effort. Wine. both on account of the neurotic drive to cling on to things with wizened hands. Cheers. the flashy teenager and the old fop can share a turbulent desire for new life. of his previously better consciousness. To this extent. but even more so what is new. often resulting in the loss of his dreams. and often only to this extent. but whose absence causes pain. women and song. At least in those areas where the old personality turns sour. and not always only for petty old age. but hardly as an . In bourgeois old age money seems more desirable than ever. those whose satisfaction does not bring pleasure. indeed especially young people. Work does not go so smoothly. the grown man applies his strength to it.Page 36 and dangerous old age. do in fact decrease. Wine and purse remain for petty old age what remains to be wished for. Even if the strength does not wane. that is why an old drinker seems nicer than an old lover. where it simply shrinks back into miserliness and selfishness. wish to live for a long time. unrest decreases. the bottle lasts longer. but the elderly man. we no longer yield so willingly to temptation. Evocations of Youth. Yet instead the demand for comfort increases and to a grumpy old man everything can become uncomfortable. the old man. The adolescent is at odds with his ordinary environment and declares war on it. they want to be avoided. the strength which thinks itself capable of fulfilling the wish does. This is rarely indulged. economic uncertainty weighs heavier than before. Needs in the form of addictions. An adolescent can imagine himself as a man. this association dissolves. for which a means has entirely become an end. does not fight against it like the adolescent. when he gets annoyed with the world.

when the green shoot turns to wood? Does the child not already die in the sexually mature girl and boy. is surprised by the realization of how short life is. And even the old fop who usually tries to deceive himself by being superficial. no longer gives the ebb any prospect of experiencing a flow. that is with death at the sharp end. for all the brutal negative aspects which can be associated with it and ultimately are associated with it. whether rightly or wrongly. and that makes the change called old age so decisive. the summer ends. sometimes even earlier. where the good old student days vanish. Virility decreases. The reason lies in the unclear nature or in the unclarified nature of the benefits which old age brings. this politeness certainly does not act as a plus which age has brought. Something long since past can seem as close in old age as distant mountains shortly before the rain. it seems only yesterday that he was the same age as the young people around him. fertility ceases entirely. in the ego and its responsibility which now emerges? The mother feels this when the shadow of her son's first beard tickles and pricks. the morning points to midday. Thus the handshake of old age is predominantly only felt to be one of farewell. But the caesura of old age is clearer than any earlier caesura and more brutally negative. then the others notice it. The latter. It makes it so unmistakable in contrast to the earlier stages concealed beneath new foliage. the easiest gift of youth. in so far as it relates to the loss of an earlier state which. Does the adolescent feel no loss at leaving his childhood behind? Does the man feel none when he quits the bloom of youth. It is remarkable in itself that getting old. And melancholy is in fact customary during the transition into the first stage of manhood. The realization is received almost with disbelief even by the dignified old man. Doubtless therefore. just as if the pain of farewell which the adolescent. it has a fatal effect. is little prepared for by the previously experienced and yet never so sharply experienced changing stages of life. the man may . is felt to be better. the specific feeling of age which sets in around fifty. when small things and hiding-places become inaccessible to his growing body. is not really felt until around fifty. the adolescent himself feels it when life ceases to be a game. but inevitable in greater age. loss itself seems to become concentrated. he sees the cause by the effect. no matter how young he is urged to feel.Page 37 old man. possible at any stage of life. the lustre disappears. not to evening. embourgeoisement begins. is seen with some justification as something unfamiliar. And if the ageing man does not notice himself that he is growing old. It is very instructive for most old men when a girl stands up to make room for them for the first time.

It nevertheless remains strange that an oppressive sense of ageing can emerge so strongly. Precisely an old man who works. nor in all periods of history. as noted above.Page 38 have felt. He will wish back the magic of the long backgrounds which life possessed for him then and which. but greets there its watchmen. as the future decreases (as the years are 'numbered'). namely as intangible blossom and not yet as tangible. And characteristically. on leaving childhood and youth. for a thriving society does not fear like a declining one its reflected image in old age. but farewell to long life itself. or at least. completely possible. certainly decreases too. a psychological vacuum must also accompany the organic ebb. even in the new dimension of socialist experience. possessed and saw in old age a blossoming fruit. the unclear or unclarified nature of the benefits which old age brings. Thus resignation. in the Senate in still Republican Rome. And societies which unlike today's declining bourgeois society did not shy away from every glimpse of the end. 32. Thus to sum up we may say: to make old age pure suffering. There is a proverb – When the candle's out. you can tell whether it was wax or tallow: so old age is not itself at fault if the figure which it raises out of illusion and appearance is still just an ugly one. Thus growing old not only describes a desirable stretch of time in which as much as possible has been experienced and in which as much as * Cf. Thus an old age which is not petty also manifests wishes to return to a youth which there and then. were retrieved here and added to one's own autumn. A different destiny to that of declining is still always to be heard here. Leviticus 19. who is therefore not sucking at the paws of memory in his winter cave. like every earlier stage of life. with dispersing dreams. a very desirable and welcome one. Instead. will at least wish back all the time he had before him at the age of twenty. which is only half-genuine and temporary in youth. specific benefits which also compensate for the farewell to the previous stage of life. . may well have been felt as something that was still deficient. or equally may not have felt. thwarted fulfilments. provided it is relatively healthy and based on an efficient life. all that is necessary is a simpleton to experience it and a late bourgeois society which desperately dolls itself up to look young. clearly defined fruit ripe for weighing. it does not emerge with equal force. On the whole. nor so uninhibitedly in all men. exists as genuine and collected in normal old age. No mere farewell to a phase of life is marked here. So it was in the Spartan Council of Elders. has remained considerably more than 'honour and the hoary head'*. old age shows. years ago.

a person's later years will thus contain all the more youth. and particularly work unfinished. but in memory the latter at least. In more important cases. still rankle. Happiness refused. where things are not very busy. almost takes shape. Voltaire says in the same vein. for the ignorant old age is like the winter. it compensates. the more collection there already was to start with in his youth. which he himself gave in his seventy-fifth year. fulfils itself with the footing it has gained. or possibly of harvest. needs freedom from disturbance more than before (or even more freedom from disturbance). even as hungry as the earlier pursuit of diversion. even if he is caught up in the hurly-burly of the world. the wish for rest subdues even the regret over previous omissions and mistakes. Evening and House To be able to be so collected means there must be no noise. where they had not turned out well. but includes it in the afterripening. Even the possibly productive nature. The image of this silence is wonderfully embellished precisely in the nonembourgeoisement of old age. And every old man wishes to be allowed to be exhausted by life. in the unimitated sense. for the educated it is gathering and pressing the grapes. in his old age failures in his life seemed to Goethe almost unimportant in the long run. Vanity is the last garment that man removes. the wish to return to youth loses precisely its element of suffering thanks to this matured empathy with what is coming. it feels more at home giving than taking. throws light on all these friendly late wishes and late feelings.Page 39 possible can be learnt on the way out. which especially in women is often reminiscent of early puberty. The sexual flaring up. the elapsion where the wet clothes are drying. with simplicity and meaning. so familiar with it. A final wish permeates all the wishes of old age. This does not exclude youth. Jacob Grimm's speech about old age. the phases of life. but only a very strange old man will give this garment a lot of hard wear at the expense of silence. In general. a part of him behaves as if he were not caught up in it. related so closely to youth. for rest. The healthy wishful image of old age and in old age is that of thoroughly formed maturity. Growing old can also describe a wishful image according to the situation: the wishful image of commanding view. is sustained by the grateful . and therefore also old age. is also dampened by it. definitely more 'nolens' than 'volens'. an often not unquestionable one. rightly or wrongly. It can be just as tormenting. the image of the country instead of the city. then lose their isolated sharpness. This speech.

repaired to its own breast and was served at the long table d'hôte of memories. Life at the moment is much more sharply delineated politically. Even possible deafness. is simply reactionary. of course. the last drop of life is dedicated to contemplation. does not always coincide with the wish of old age to remain forever in the inertia of yesterday. yet even here this leisure. Grimm recalls the blind seer. Nevertheless. in a positive sense of course. since the difference between the generations is no longer so sharply divisive. past happiness is becalmed. is different in different periods. emphasized by the wish for rest and a kind of strolling standstill. the chisel-blows of life have worked an essential shape. Even the winter rest of the middle class is seriously disturbed by the dwindling or the precariousness of the savings account. the chattering conversation of nutrient plants dies down. The Biedermeier period* is long past where the old soul. The late capitalist world is certainly not a Bank of Good Hope for old people. Also an elaborate style of domestic art in this period. Man is alone with himself in nature. namely with courage and experience together. Past deprivation is no longer felt. Often it is the other way round. and what is essential can be seen by it better than ever before. sitting in the cool of evening on the bench outside his front door. despite its reflectiveness. in a time where. is different to before. and the wish of old age for rest. turns over the pages of his spent life and nothing more – this feature of Grimm's wishful image has gone out of circulation economically and in terms of * Period of bourgeois culture in nineteenth-century Germany from 1815 to 1848. to isolate one symptom.Page 40 awareness that growing old is a blessing. with new consciousness and with that of the known inheritance. there are still fascist youth leagues with their heads thrown back. It has become easier than ever for old age to burn at both ends. according to Grimm. Failing eye-sight causes many disturbing details to disappear. And he describes the enjoyment which the solitary walk affords the old man. but the water grows bright. youth. even this kind of separation from other stages of life. renewed through memory. has the advantage that superfluous talk. how feeling for nature is heightened in general. and it can no longer be said that old age. despite its freshness. . Only socialist society can fulfil the wishes of old age for leisure. the world grows dark in the evening. useless chatter can no longer interrupt us. they even supplement its content. even in much less pure forms than that of Jacob Grimm. simply progressive. The man who has grown old and who. Physical debilities of the senses are mitigated here in the general wish for rest.

heel-clicking wolves. and so undeservedly so. it often deceives us. and above all in which this bustle will cease again. however. sharp. Something new must come to take us with it. but at the same time set something higher in motion. Nothing is therefore more uninteresting.e. the sting of surprise has been pulled out. the latest news is its appeal. with a new age. Wish and ability to be without vulgar haste. to see what is important. gossip seduces us. the age without the cocky. is the vigorous wish. regardless for the moment what its contents are. yesterday's underrated. liberating piece of news. Today's paper is overrated. so commensurate with the wish for silence. In the lowest instance. provided he has grown wise. Precisely love of silence can be more remote from the capitalist scramble than a youth which mistakes the scramble for life. Still in circulation. 8— The Sign That Changes It is a flat feeling to be disturbed. To be genteel. But we let ourselves be interrupted by new things remarkably easily. As if no part of life were so good that it could not be abandoned at any time. But even the newspaper lives largely from the need for the unusual. All these vulgar or mediocre needs presuppose boredom which is to be driven out. but they make what is new into what is expected. Here old age (for which the bourgeois world no longer has any use) has the right – to be old-fashioned. i. this something ultimately moves towards a wished-for.Page 41 content. than a paper that is one or even several days old. giving a lead. Here it already brings enjoyment that something is happening. This makes a striking and yet understandable connection possible for many an old man today. Most are attracted merely by the empty difference from what has previously been. by unexpected things. news of other people's quarrels. finally . by freshness. Pleasure in being different abducts us. using words and casting commanding glances which are not of that day nor for that day. to forget what is unimportant: all this is authentic life in old age. Embodying times in which as yet not everything was the bustle of commerce. But it always drives us out of what we are used to. Its contents are definitely not uninteresting. the socialist age. that the empty whirl of life round about should stop. only it must not contain any misfortune for ourselves.

The sensational wish is in malleable. not always in fear. Thus as children we jumped up. dull souls itself dull and gullible. that is. The ringing of this bell remains in every ear. because the socialist New is brought about by power and not by gossip. by the hard work of proving ourselves and not through back-sliding excuses. strain to see. of course expectation alone does not bring it. the expectation does not let us ignore the sound. The will which is at work here stems from deprivation and does not disappear until the deprivation is eradicated. Its gift transforms and improves everything. The obsession with what is better remains. Perhaps now something darkly intended is coming. The New is greeted as a brother who has travelled from the region where the sun rises. That this work does not fob him off with alms. But if it is well attuned to the sound and what it means. but rather that the same old story of doing without finally comes to an end. when the bell rang outside. that which is looking for us again. With the great awakening that is there and is coming. it brings a new age. Its ringing cuts through the silent. that he is in tune with his place and his work. the almost more cunning lie which whines and slanders pharisaically can deceive us in the long run. achieved. Any more than the more refined. . it surprises us anyway. gloomy room. especially towards evening. that which we are looking for. We listen in that direction. When what is wished for arrives. It will not be deceived in the long run. It wants to make sure that man is not lying crooked.Page 42 attained. even when what is better has been prevented for so long. in strong souls capable of vision it is thorough. it is associated with every good cry from outside. because the lie does not last.

Page 43 PART TWO— (FOUNDATION): ANTICIPATORY CONSCIOUSNESS .

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That we are alive cannot be felt. it becomes goal-directed driving. The urging expresses itself first as 'striving'. in order to do so it must first go out of itself. It does not burrow like urging does. but roves around. it has been with us ever since we have existed and in that we exist. and stimulates us. the longing remains mere general addiction. Everything living is aroused. the only honest state in all men. And if it becomes obsessed with itself. It lies deep down. as long as it exists. As something definite.Page 45 9— What Goes Ahead As Urging Who drives on within us? We move. It breathes. craving to go anywhere. where we begin to be corporeal. Roving around blind and empty. and first of all by itself. though quite as utterly restless. striving and hence restless. The That which posits us as living does not itself emerge. But all of this does not feel itself. When the striving is felt. No living thing can ever escape from the That of urging. Nobody has sought out this state of urging. The nature of our immediate being is empty and hence greedy. This push within us is what we mean when we say. but 'because' he lives. as a quite vague and indefinite urge. no matter how tired it may have become of this. the latter can never go to the place where it would be stilled. it becomes 'longing'. it ceases to strike out in all directions at once. addicted. man does not live in order to live. but at least it is clearly directed outwards. To achieve this the longing must first clearly drive towards something. It becomes a 'searching'. are warm and keen. The longing itself is no less vague and general than the urge. Its driving-towards is divided up . Unsatisfied From the bare inside something reaches forth. Then it senses itself as 'urge'. To keep on bringing us to the boil. 10— Naked Striving and Wishing. from below. This thirst constantly announces itself but does not give its name. that has and does not have what it is searching for.

although there is not the slightest thing we can do about it. in fact divides up the driving towards a goal into its several respective drives. should be understood as meaning the same as 'need'. in fact as a better something. not of course of craving. adds more colour than craving. . For 'wishing' eagerly looks forward to an imagined idea in which the desire causes what is its own to be pictured. We can wish for the weather to be fine tomorrow. This something enables the drive to decrease when it is satisfied. But since the word 'need' does not also have the resonance of goal-directed driving. thus becomes the or that individually nameable 'drive'. is distinguished from actual 'wanting' by its passive nature which is still related to longing. The demand of the wish rises precisely with the idea of the better. But here wishing. to fill something lacking with an external something. This concept. then only together with them. no matter how strong it is. The mere imagined idea thus becomes a wishful image. Thus man is not only capable of craving. So that it may be said. ultimately perhaps perfect. if not actually out of imagined ideas. pictured ahead. stamped with the cachet: this is how it should be. Thus where there is the imagined idea of something better. So the goal towards which the drive moves is at the same time that by which (as long as and in so far as it is to hand) it is stilled. Craving is certainly much older than the imagining of the something which is craved. but of the demand of the wish: wishing arises. This various something. possibly impatient. it acquires the more or less definite idea of its something. understood in an undull way. whereas all wanting is wanting to do. But precisely because this craving passes over into wishing.Page 46 according to the something at which it is directed. promises fulfilment. wishing takes place. 'emotions'. may be allowed to stand. but also of wishing. it is possibly meaningful to wish this. man also pictures the goal to himself. demanding wishing. even to stop temporarily. then the felt drive is the particular element of the respective individual 'passions'. Thus also. At the same time it is further stimulated by them to the same degree that what is pictured. when the striving we feel is only general longing. The relation of animals to this goal is that of their respective desires. undoubtedly often dulled and reified in a reactionary way. In wishing there is not yet any element of work or activity. Wishes can even be entirely irrational. the word 'drive' and the concept. The drive is always searching to fill a hollow space. a missing space in the striving and longing. in contrast to the insatiably continuing addiction. The latter is more extensive. even perfect aspect of its fulfilling something. above all as bread or as woman or as power and so on. we can wish that X or Y were still alive.

Furthermore. there can be no wanting that is not preceded by wishing. wear poverty or ordinariness as a temporary skin. But who is the the searcher open to stimuli? Who moves in the living movement. can itself be unwished for. . has to measure itself exclusively against things given as real. remains alive. but only one of them can be wanted. conversely. but it does make people grow into it less easily. even especially strong wishes. Bare desire and its drive principally hold on to what they have. often disappointed. Wishes do nothing. different things can be wished. weak-willed men have wishes. 'drive-method'. he knows what he would rather do. The remorseful man wishes that he had not carried out a certain action.Page 47 but meaningless to want it. rough or bitter. This does not cause the skin to be shed. wishing augmented and hardened by wanting. whereas the man who wants has already shown preference. Even despondent. Hence though there may be wishing without wanting. but the wishing in them that pictures intends more. but they depict and retain with particular fidelity what must be done. who drives in the animal. that is. which releases wanting. despite the definite imagined goal to which it eagerly looks forward. nothing that exists gives it proper satisfaction. The girl who would like to feel radiant and sought after. It remains unsatisfiable. but he cannot actually want this. inactive wishing which exhausts itself in the imagination or is impossible. And wanting will be all the stronger. dithering. 11— Man As a Quite Extensive Complex of Drives The Individual Body The drive must have someone behind it. And yet ultimately nothing else can be wanted except what is wished: the interested wish is the 'driving method'. Wishing can be undecided. the choice lies behind him. wanting is necessarily active progress towards this goal. And the path the wishing takes. drive as definite striving. In all of this. namely feeble. without these wishes making them want to do something. one is spoilt for choice here. demonstrates to it what is to be wanted. the more vividly the imagined goal which it has in common with wishing has been shaped into a wishful image. as a desire for something. the man who dreams of future deeds. it goes outwards. that is. Therefore the wish remains even where the will can no longer change anything.

on a pre-determined path.Page 48 who wishes in man? Everything certainly does not revolve around the ego here. No Drive without Body Behind It Certainly. because a drive 'overcomes' us. particularly women. But nevertheless. green with envy. but the grief which went into the water with the love-sick girl. but these are not very clear findings. then as caring mothers. which appears almost self-sufficient. it contains the drives. however. It merely 'finds' itself. like a piece of cloth. Then we may say: it was not the love-sick girl who went into the water out of grief. particularly among the higher animals. Whereas every drive certainly seems to appear as a Who and as if it were pulling the body behind it. in which they attain what is their own in the most effective manner. When the bird builds . moved by stimuli. But so-called instinct works falsely as if it were a self-guiding drive. where an isolated drive-direction. but the drive contained the body and determined it. As if the body did not contain the drive. dyed it respectively. Here it really does appear as if drives existed independently and controlled the body. despite this in many ways subjectless appearance: nothing in the body allows drives to become their own vehicles. overcrowded with stimuli. it can be steered in changing directions by the cerebral cortex and the environment which is experienced through the latter as changed. as if the emotion were a master in itself. and people experience it too. The chicks which have just crawled out of the egg peck immediately for grains of corn. But even less efficient drives occasionally pretend to be independent. The path is steered by the cerebellum. This is so in the case of neurotics. though subsequently of course. its own body is satisfied. nothing else. In addition there is also the long duration and apparently subjectless appearance which the drives possess in so-called instinct. This is also true in healthy people at the moment when they are 'overpowered' by a drive-feeling. according to Pavlov's discoveries. black with rage. make people into their prey. red with anger. that which feels itself to be body is itself very general. overwhelms not only the body but also the conscious ego and confronts it as something alien. And when the animal eats. if not in love. not to mention the soul. which carries and feels the drives and takes away unpleasant feelings by satisfying them. that no individual self-enclosed being is present at all. in a good or bad state of health. This does not mean. they are not floating generally. But this being is first and foremost the living individual body.

there is still of course no ego at work in such mysterious processes. get by without a body. drinks. but an unknown drive. especially the empty technological addiction to ever greater speed. has grown to an extent which was quite alien to pre-capitalist times. hardly one kind of drive has remained the same. but also no independent drive which could. Even the drive-instinct belongs to the economy of the individual body and is only employed in so far as it belongs to it. not only boredom was behind this. however varied they may be and however transformed by the appearing ego and its relationships. in so far as the body does its own business. even the sexual libido is in many ways thwarted by it. for example. not only his body. In fact. With the new objects. The rich and the sated (but not only them) possibly suffer from the strange itch of the I-Don't-Know-What-It-Is. he feels the lack like no other creature: hunger-visions surface. at least the clamour for it which also wanted to be stilled. The Changing Passion Man. when the swallow finds the previous year's nest. and not one presents itself as finished. in particular. This is why there are also several motivating forces. of which nobody had the slightest inkling yesterday. but no less intensely than the previous naked privation. overwhelms and thus drives alone in its drives. luxury above all (which does appear to fulfil everything) is an insatiable driver. The acquisitive drive. If he lacks what is necessary for life. he also produces new ones. as it were. Xerxes offered a prize for the invention of a new pleasure.Page 49 its nest. always carries several drives with him. searching for what preserves it. the increasing extent to which needs are satisfied. fleeing from what damages it. For he retains not only most of the animal ones. in the course of history with its changing forms. according to the circumstances. Rather new also is the record-drive in late capitalist society. but also his ego is emotional. he is – in the gratification of his wishes – the animal which makes detours. not only a single one that drives everything along. that is. Present throughout is only the body which wants to preserve itself and therefore eats. Conscious man is the most difficult of all animals to satisfy. If he has what is necessary. this latter addiction was first created by motorized . differently orientated addictions and passions awake. which is itself only acquired anyway. then with its enjoyment new desires surface which torment him differently. makes love.

It receives a bonus partly for the slaughter in imperialist war. The principal motivating force does not even become visible in men of the same time and class. however. now another emerges more strongly. is hardly conceivable. the fascist death-drive has a novelty which is almost furious. the religious drive. it is fired and orientated by a very different social mandate. heavily laden as it is with superstructure. into Blood and Soil. already complete. where new imagined goals of striving repeatedly surfaced. a heap of changing. It would also be too remarkable if in class history. but when we ask: which fortune and for what.Page 50 vehicles. if one can call this phenomenon such. the erotic urge towards the changeless. now one. now they work together. ** 'Blood and Soil' – a Nazi propaganda slogan calling for racial purity and re-occupation of allegedly German territory. then immediately the questions and refinements always begin. we realize that man is an equally changeable and extensive complex of drives. . And where it was stimulated in a depraved or deceived way. * Goethe's novel 'Die Leiden des jungen Werthers'. the goal-directed striving of the drives in fact proceeded in one direction. for otherwise the maximum profit could not be so quickly squeezed from the workers. say. And furthermore. in so far as it does not become independent and thus hang in the air. the sentimental death-drive of the Wertherzeit. caused a spate of suicides in imitation of its hero. receded. published in 1774. Above all. and they do not even remain similar to themselves. And a permanent motivating force. for example. like opposing winds around a ship. it sank into the soil. by psychoanalytically dismantling their apparently purely inner clockwork. Man wants to make his fortune. monopoly capitalism needs to intensify an abstract recorddrive for the purpose of whipping people on. the previous upward drive hardly remained one. as in various fascist seductions. On the other hand. firmly. a single basic drive.* or even the Romantic nocturnal kind. ** In short. this saying certainly does sound really old and it is also undoubtedly reliable in quite a different way from the calumny about the eternal predatory drive. the drive upward. partly for the pointlessness of late bourgeois existence as a whole. compared to. There are certainly several basic drives. and mostly badly ordered wishes.

thus appears to be always primarily sexual. Even hunger is supposedly subject to the sex-drive. Just as multicellular creatures drive towards death from the outset. The wish for destruction expresses itself with respect to our own body in the pleasure taken in bare discipline. But libido did not remain the sole impulse in Freud. It is the destructive and aggressive drive. The desire to preserve the perfection of Romantic love through death. what is the principal motivating force of our mind and energies. this is what motivates Freud's man. of growing cold. is supposedly indicated by the universal connection between cruelty and sexual pleasure. there is also a separate drive towards the process of dying. it is fundamental both in terms of time and content. The relationship to our own body and thereafter to external objects. The animal will is then also assigned to the death in store for it. libido governs life.* In any case the core is and remains sexual here. . in the various ascetic tendencies. not only to mating.Page 51 12— Various Interpretations of the Basic Human Drive The Sexual Drive But the body must first and foremost strive towards something. in vascular contraction for example. its satisfaction becomes sexual relaxation. Already the sucking of the suckling is supposedly connected with sexual pleasure and takes place largely for the sake of this pleasure. however. and mortal decomposition already sets in in youth. and all the more so to people around us. Accordingly. as they stand in the present? As we know. After all. though always libidinally coloured drive in sadistic desires. at least not libido in the sense of positive pleasure. Freud posits the sexual drive as the first and most powerful. With respect to other bodies and objects the death-drive expresses itself as cruelty. That the death-drive is also libidinal. as the undeniable frenzy of destruction now raining down on others. namely the deathdrive. Freud sought to identify it as a separate. as in Wagner's interpretation of the story of Tristan and Isolde. above all also by the emotion of Liebestod. for example. * 'Love-death'. The later Freud stressed alongside it a tendency towards negative pleasure. The din of life which emanates from love is supposed to be silenced or destroyed by this same libido.

This material removed by repression confronts the ego in analysis. but pleasure .'The thus educated ego has become ''reasonable". says Freud. in spite of the libido. Thus our mental life is dualistic. which basically also wants to achieve pleasure. the whole of psychoanalysis. one between the ego-drives and the sexual drives. that. Of course. the adult. Precisely this tension leads. indeed. Freud indicates time and again. moralizing way and above all with respect to what can be achieved. hence of the pleasure principle which otherwise determines all drive-processes. it is the power which makes our mental life coherent. and the analysis is given the task of eliminating the resistances to dealing with the repressed material expressed by the ego. narrower power. stands the ego. in a censoring.' The ego sees to the removal of unpleasant feelings through the fulfilment of drives. according to Freud. but it sees to this fulfilment in its own way. Next to the 'dark id' of the body and its drives. it moves 'between the coherent ego and the repressed material that is split off from it'. is according to Freud the acquired line of the ego-drive. even sharpness in man is important. to 'reality'. i. denies and censors the drives. then neither conflicts nor neuroses could arise in us. as Freud calls his bourgeois environment (the commodity world and its ideology). to pathogenic conflict. For if there were only libido and nothing else. which began everything here. not without retreating occasionally.e. This moralizing element. he has distinguished a purely human drive. if it leads to contradiction. 'has been built up upon the sharp division of the sexual drives from the ego-drives'. consciousness depends on it. The egodrive represses what does not fall into line with it in the sexual drives and their contents (of which more later). apart from the sex-drive and the death-drive related to it. wears down his Dionysian horns on 'reality'. From the ego emanate 'the repressions through which certain mental tendencies are excluded not only from consciousness but also from the other kinds of validity and application. or better: the bourgeois individual seen by Freud in a bourgeois way. since it is his ego. The ego affirms.Page 52 Ego-Drive and Repression Only later is this joined by another. The ego-drives stand opposite the sexual powers. Thus there even occurs a penetration of the libido. however. what has adapted to the practices of Freud's bourgeois environment. It is the power 'which goes to sleep at night and then still operates dream censorship'. this narrowness. it no longer allows itself to be controlled by the pleasure principle but follows the reality principle.

next to and above them. the 'reality' itself or the bourgeois outside world would not yet be sufficient to censor and also to sublimate the libidinal drives. which finds its advocate in the super-ego. The id of this libido is and remains according to Freud the unconscious realm of drives that fills the body and surrounds us. a threatening element can easily exist in the super-ego. The inner world itself. seen from its animal side as well as from that of the super-ego. is 'a tool which should make the progressive conquest of the id by the ego possible'. to reduce the hypocritical and neurosis-creating . even if this is postponed and diminished pleasure. to the common dark. The super-ego is the other content of the ego. With the result 'that we are "lived" by unknown. By representing father and mother. for example. This merely has the effect of freeing the basic libidinal drive again. that is. the 'origin of conscience and of guilt feelings' (understood as the tensions between the claims of conscience and the achievements of the ego). thus an extraordinary superstructure of drives exists. All this is added to the original libido. of the 'unconscious id' in man. supposedly consists exclusively of 'illusions' with regard to the outside world. it creates all the surrogate formations of piety. at least in the later Freud. The ego represents the rights of the outside world. however. from its parental side. Freud does indeed want to bring the repressed and unconscious material in it rationally to light.Page 53 ensured by consideration of reality. the super-ego is however 'the advocate of the inner world'. it is neither diminished in acts of repression nor eclipsed in ties of the ego-ideal. But precisely because of the continuing effect of parental authority. thus it gives the ego a guiding image and is the source of the formation of ideals. as far as the contents of the super-ego are concerned (to which not only religion but. and also the super-ego very often retains.' And yet the ego. uncontrollable forces' (in other words: by the alien domination of the capitalist mode of production which Freud has made into the libido-id). threatens and controls the ego as the parents had previously observed. Nevertheless it skirts round the wakeful ego to get to the libido. threatened and controlled the child. Psychoanalysis. Admittedly one which is supposed to be largely dismantled again through analysis and which. the super-ego observes. in the final analysis always remains that of the libido or the repressed drives. the 'super-ego' or the 'ego-ideal'. according to Freud it represents our relations to our parents. to the id of the inner world united in the dark. on the other hand. that is. the traditions and ideals of the past. it is the 'seed from which all religions have developed'. also the postulates of changing the world belong). the conscience is strict. the sense of duty sombre. if there was not also.

The decent girl simply refuses to admit it. they have disappeared from the consciousness of the ego. in slips** of the seemingly most coincidental.Page 54 mustiness. incomplete experiences. as Freud found them. Drives which have not been worked off. 1930. There they fester. but not from the psyche. . if not the be all and end all. form neurotic tensions and complexes without the sufferer becoming aware of the cause. bungled actions. not just in the cant of society. if necessary to 'sublimate' itself into intellectual material. still remains fundamental here. when it represses. as noted. it cannot work itself off in the existing or permitted life. in a thick web of secrecy. The libido here remains for Freud both the single basic drive and the essential content of human existence. as soon as the repression is not totally successful. Unconscious Material and Sublimation Thus the sexual drive. Strachey's English translation gives the elaborate 'parapraxes' for this simple German compound. only a checking authority. in slips of the tongue. it blocks itself off against knowledge of it. For in fact: the libido in the individual himself. Repression. for the ego is. it represses the sexual impulse. even hushed-up wishes simply sink down in the process of repression into the more or less unconscious. Of course. but the ego itself is unproductive. But what should follow is solely daylight within the private libido and within the 'discontent' of a civilization* where apparently nothing more than a breath of psychoanalytical air is lacking. it slanders it. Sexuality and its wishes are wrapped up by bourgeois people. Freud was already looking to demonstrate the prompting of the libido in the psychopathology of everyday life. of hypocrisy and lies. not vanished sexual affective processing continues to work in all manner of disguises. is subject to a moralizing censorship which does not allow our true being to step over the threshold of consciousness. The merely forgotten. the demure ego represses sexuality. But consequently the latter now begins to ferment and to urge all the more. most insignificant kind. * Bloch is alluding to Freud's 'Civilization and its Discontents'. From them derive seemingly unfounded oversensitivity. Complex. It inspects the baggage brought in by the libido. The unfulfilled. the moralizing censorship only removes the repressed material on the surface. over-reaction. This censorship debars. it forces the libido to disguise itself. ** 'Fehlleistungen'. forgotten wounds and disappointments continue to smart.

According to Freud. in fact the interpretation of nocturnal dreams as such. was his father. paying attention to seemingly incidental authorities. somehow disturbed processes which had to remain unconscious'. and the harsh external world can no longer be perceived. i. have entirely 'resulted from interrupted. For Freud. i. not. Laborious probing into the depths. the task is to decipher analytically the wishfully announced material from the symbolism in which it cloaks itself in the dream. that unconscious which Freud himself establishes and which – apart from the grotesque quality of its essentially merely libidinal contents – is essentially a product or at least a refuge of repression. particularly to authorities made to seem incidental. was the only man who certainly had no Oedipus complex. they are fixated on an infantile.Page 55 compulsively neurotic activity.e. every dream is the fulfilment of an unconscious wish-fantasy. is supposed to be the interpretation of dreams. At all stages the neurotic puts up a characteristic resistance to this deciphering: the forgotten wants to remain forgotten and its symptoms to remain disguised. being those where the censoring ego is asleep. as is well-known. that is. and Jocasta. for example. All ghosts or perhaps merely Freudian ghosts appear here: penis envy. Supposedly. to make the unconscious preconditions of the neurotic symptoms conscious. via regia. whom he married. whom he killed. in the material of the unconscious itself. Repression itself is in this sense a process 'through which an act capable of consciousness. even more strange because they are thundered up from below. then the neurotic would be cured. since he did not know until the end that Laertes. a sexual irritation is at the bottom of all complexes. From the experiences of childhood derives the castration complex. but also to mistrust of ideologies which sound much too nice (like 'sanctity' of motherhood and the like) – all this detective skill is necessary to recognize the content of the neurotic symptom and to call it into the patient's consciousness. and finally the group of emotions which has become senselessly independent and devoid of content: the complex. one which belongs . his ego would have his id under its thumb.e. The main road there. all these strangely named phenomena. forgotten trauma. as Chesterton says. the so-called Oedipus complex of father hatred (although Oedipus himself. But it is nevertheless important to note here: the resistance to them becoming conscious lies according to Freud solely in the will of the patient. though only psychoanalysis can help him to this knowledge. If it were then possible to go down with consciousness into the cellar of the repressed. was his mother). the castration and Oedipus complexes and more besides. The person who knows the cause of his complexes cures himself.

into devotion to the well-being of one's neighbour. Acherontic. in such a way that they cannot be affected by the failure of the external world. Or which at best. an element of progressions. Psychoanalysis seeks to be ab ovo subcortical memory. but one which is itself surrounded by the ring of the id. i. Accordingly.' The sex-drive can be refined into caritas. The latter does after all provide pure wish-fulfilment of a shaped yet uninhibited kind: women. is made unconscious. and all wishful images also go back into this night. the river of woe in Hades. exclusively phylogenetic primeval memories or primeval fantasies exist in the unconscious. only suggest prehistory. never a Not-Yet-Conscious. it consists rather of regressions. In contrast. as id.' The unconscious of psychoanalysis is therefore. they are simply sublimations of the self-enclosed libido: imagination is a substitute for the fulfilment of drives. encapsulated. wedding. when the unconscious mental act is not permitted to enter the next pre-conscious system at all.* The unconscious in Freud is therefore one into which something can only be pushed back. Jung. 'The problem to be solved then'. surrounds consciousness as if this were a closed ring: a phylogenetic inheritance all around conscious man. Jung even considers the night to be so colourful that consciousness pales beside it. in a way that is still obscure to us. .e. 'is to displace the drive-goals. According to him. 'With the help of the super-ego.Page 56 to the system of pre-consciousness. Even highly productive artistic creations do not lead out of this Fixum. by the fixed unconsciousness of a fixed libido. This became even clearer when C. even the process of making this unconscious conscious only clarifies What Has Been. on the experiences of prehistory stored up in the id. falsely designated 'archetypes'. And likewise we call it repression. but is turned away on the threshold by censorship. heroes and even the beautiful tragic corpse. pushed back into the system of unconsciousness. but also the enjoyment and the (vicarious) satisfaction the non-artist derives from a work of art. he devalues consciousness. It provides the man * Acheron. and. ultimately of humanity. solitary. says Freud. the ego draws.e.' The libido which has been made conscious thus reveals no other door than that through which we re-enter the reeled-up Long Ago. reduced the libido and its unconscious contents entirely to the primeval. More highly sublimated libido constitutes the pleasure the artist derives from his creation. G. the psychoanalytic fascist. as a spurner of the light. as it itself states. i. Freud does of course uphold illuminating consciousness. there is nothing new in the Freudian unconscious. subterranean. as we can see.

that they are in no way merely dependent. also line up behind this guiding principle' (Adler. provides cloth of gold like a beautiful dream in the night does. was therefore contradicted by several of his pupils. nor inherently hollow modes of substitution. The viewer or the spectator works off his wishes in this way so that they no longer cause him pain. At any rate. After he had taken this road. for which Freud criticizes them both. in fact illusory: art. In Freud. He wants to get from the bottom to the top. feel himself individually confirmed as the victor. the originator of so-called individual psychology. the will to power as the basic human drive: primarily man wants to rule and overpower. there remain only sexual libido. its conflict with the egodrives. Wounded vanity. it seemed it could be eliminated. How mechanistically far away Freud is here from Pavlov's realization that precisely the higher psychological processes work. The feeling of insecurity and inferiority stands threateningly at the beginning of the development of neurosis. and the cellar of consciousness as a whole. On a bi-sexual foundation.Page 57 in the stalls with what he lacks in life. Der nervöse Charakter. works exclusively with the illusions with which the unsatisfied libido allows itself to be fooled. Power-Drive. 1922. Jung the second (with a mythical patina). 5). according to Freud. attempted to do the first. as we know. it is not the complete be all and end all. Frenzy-Drive. Freud. Collective Unconscious No matter how dully grasped the body is. on the emotional and organic processes. G. These pupils were quick either to distinguish a quite different driving force or to bronze the libido. wants to lie on top. Sexuality is itself only a means to the final goal. sex-drive and tendency to perversion. ambition. Alfred Adler. But as skin hardens over a wound. But every 'catharsis' of this kind remains temporary. In systems based on different motivating forces. as a protective measure. to pass from the female line in him to the male. wherever they may have derived from. p. the sexual drive does not live in it all the time. Adler posits. however. failed ambition are the source of most neuroses. Vanity. nor alone. unfulfilled power-drive produces the inferiority complex. in supreme capitalist fashion. C. 'male protest' are accordingly the emotions in which this basic drive appears most visibly. with the constant influence of the changes in the environment which they have grasped. the attainment of power: 'Libido. as it . Thus 'the problem of sexuality which weighs upon us all' was 'eliminated at a stroke'. from which the illusions then rise.

from the Freudian sexual libido. precisely in accordance with the desire to be out in front. into its contradiction which as a fictional goal is made into the guiding point of all wishes. for the will to power. the imperialist elbow has triumphed over the gentlemanly pleasure-displeasure body in psychoanalysis. The individual person builds himself up by means of a guiding image or even just by means of play-acting and fiction: 'The insecurity which is felt to be embarrassing is reduced to its smallest proportions and then reversed into its extreme opposite. mental inferiorities are likewise overcompensated by the ego. Adler's 'will to power' conversely coincides verbally. and as the failure of one kidney strengthens the functioning of the other. goalsetting remains essential in this will. fantasies and endeavours. the hectic day of the businessman thus eclipses the hectic night of the rake and his libido.' Fundamentally. against future damage. however. fundamentally. The competitive struggle which hardly leaves any time for sexual worries stresses industriousness rather than randiness. his definition of drives takes the ever steeper capitalist path from Schopenhauer to Nietzsche and reflects this path ideologically and psychoanalytically. the causa finalis rules. Though we do not see where it takes its material from here.Page 58 were. Thus. possibly in a beautiful fantasy world. cannot of course be sublimated as regards content. everything personal is thus made and cultivated from the outset in Adler through a largely unconscious but no longer in any way naive purposive will. that is to say. Freud's concept of libido bordered on the 'will to life' in Schopenhauer's philosophy. in itself necessarily bare. Because Adler therefore drives sex out of the libido and inserts individual power. the biological factor is subjugated to the capitalistically interested goal which is geared to the safeguarding of the personality.e. in this respect Nietzsche has triumphed over Schopenhauer here. for fewer and fewer people were attracted by the day which had become inhospitable. partly also. The petit bourgeois' wish grew . But even that did not last.' In this way the person forms – nothing other than the individual person appears in this individual psychology – his character: 'So as not to miss the path to the summit. and partly also in terms of content with Nietzsche's definition of the basic drive from his last period. Partly through masks and fictions: will to power then becomes will to appearance. i. to raising the feeling of personality. it takes the place of mere innate drivenness from below. to make it perfectly safe. Nevertheless. through higher achievements: will to power then recoups its losses. he draws constantly effective guidelines in the form of character traits in the broad chaotic fields of his soul. Schopenhauer in fact described the sexual organs as 'the focal points of the will'.

Here Jung borders not only on the fascist version of Dionysus. from coitus to unio mystica. as in sentimental penis-poets like D.Page 59 ever stronger to allow himself to lapse back into irresponsible. but he triumphs as the affirmation of a mescalin Dionysus over the negation of the will to life. he seeks the nocturnal moon in the flesh. But far more so than with Bergson's 'élan vital'. played off intuition against reason. . As a result. Above all the path to the so-called heights lost some of its interest and prospects. C. the fascist Jung borders on the Romantic reactionary distortions which Bergson's vitalism underwent. the unconscious sun in the blood. Nietzsche triumphs over Schopenhauer. it contained watchwords of freedom. even the berserker. which to his misfortune man has emerged from. Bergson's élan vital was still directed forwards. therefore. so also is the will to power. in fact the latter is completely transformed into battle-frenzy. in which the eyes roll instead of aiming at a goal. G. none of regressive enslavement. as a result of monopoly capitalism. Even here. on the other hand. Bergson had already. H. sings the wildernesses of the elemental age of love. Lawrence. into a stupor which in no way strives towards individual goals. creative unrest against closed order and rigid geometry. he does not only hark back * Bloch has in mind here the artistic secessions in the last decade of the nineteenth century in Munich (1892). but also more or less wild obscurity. the unconscious aspect of this mystified libido is also not contested and there is no attempt to resolve it into current consciousness. or 'Eros' per se: consequently it extends from eating to the Last Supper. Jung. consequently posited the frenzy-drive in place of the power-drive. to the rapture of Fra Angelico. Lawrence. particularly that of modem. And Klages blows in a more abstract way on the same bull-horn. the fascistically frothing psychoanalyst. but also partly on the vitalistic philosophy of Bergson. H. Just as sexuality is only part of this Dionysian general libido. though still in a secessionist-liberal* way. Vienna (1897) and Berlin (1899). in complete Tarzan philosophers like Ludwig Klages. derives according to Jung precisely from the fact that men have emerged too far out of what is unconsciously growing. outside the world of 'elemental feel-thinking'. Rather the neurosis. The path became more attractive which led into the so-called depths. all too civilized and conscious man. and Jung along with him. from the frothing mouth of the shaman. In Jung. in exact proportion to the decline of free enterprise. D. libido thus becomes an archaically undivided primeval unity of all drives. as in Freud. it corresponded to the 'Art Nouveau' or 'Secessionism' of the Nineties.

in fact hostile to value. it purports to be 'the five-hundred-thousand-year-old shaft beneath the few thousand years of civilization'. but into a more intensive and more general collective context' (Jung. There are of course egos and individuals. i. that is. but also assumes collective relationships to his existence. primal memories are supposed to be active from the time of our animal forefathers. 637). but what it contains is decidedly primeval.e. filled with individually acquired repressions and with repressions from the recent past of a modem individual. p. a long way behind every individual experience. They are incorporated in libido as a primal animal plan. for example. but 'reflects' and takes the neurotically or otherwise given symbol back into its ancestral night: 'Just as analysis (the causal reductive process) divides the symbol into its components. particularly beneath the few years of individual life.Page 60 like the earlier Romantics to the Middle Ages. if not behind the archaic traces of the mere memory of humanity. . Thus psychosynthesis does not disperse into day and into external pieces. the process of individuation therefore also leads not into isolation. Jung's unconscious on the other hand is entirely general. which Semon introduced into biology. to precisely where Jung's impersonal. the synthetic process condenses the symbol into a general and comprehensible expression. Contest and free competition. but they do not go deep in the soul. Psychologische Typen. are submerged here into the 'folk community' and into 'psychosynthesis'. Impersonally. a long way behind the diluvium. What works in the personality and as such is instead supposed to be vital pressure. Jung teaches. primeval and collective. Jung appropriates the concept of the 'engram' for this. much older layers. the concept of a memory of the whole of organic matter and its memory traces. in fact inhumanly unconscious material opens up. and leads back to it again: 'Since the individual is not only a single being. Accordingly. everything new is ipso facto without value. The individual person is collective on this ground. from much deeper. despite phylogenetic archaic elements which he no doubt believed he saw and which in his school have been 'excavated' down to the primal memories of the first land animals – Freud's unconscious was therefore largely individual.' Freud's unconscious. 1921. In this basic ground there is not only nothing new. but they also keep the unconscious per se in the archaic primal dimension of What Has Been. but to the diluvium. this means in fact: into archaic collective regression. the personality itself is only a mask or a socially played role. from the magical collective layers of the race. pandemonic libido lives. which in Adler still spurred people on to outstrip each other and to keener and keener individual psychology. according to Jung and Klages.

rather what is necessary is guidance back to the collective unconscious. the shaman is better. searching for primeval time – thus becomes the same as 'religion' in the etymological sense of the word: namely re-ligio. however. blood and soil. hating the future. the sun in their blood. at the same time he grasped these beginnings so nebulously and generally that the whole Irratio of those times. tired of the onslaught of the pre-lunar stock. to the 'age-old forces of life'. can be accommodated interchangeably. the disciple of Jung and Klages. gave this an equally psychosynthetic and lyrical expression: 'We carry the early peoples in our souls. among other things. he is reminded of it so that he plunges headlong into the unconscious. Jung's collective unconscious flows thicker in witch-crazes than in pure reason. Gottfried Benn.' Jung drove the libido harder and harder towards these archaic connections. Neanderthal man and Tertiary period leap out simultaneously to confront us. quite regardless of what it says. connecting back. in dream and intoxication. Then the most rampant superstition ranks more than ever above enlightenment. in the earlier experience of being everywhere and eternal. the unconscious appears in the magic ego-transformation and identification. In C. Psychosynthesis – fleeing the present. of course. when the conscious ego is taken away from the body. In Freud the sick person was only reminded of the unconscious so that he could free himself from it. it is then that the old. since. into layers lying deeper and deeper. the undermining of the ancient basic ground of the imagination by the intellect. G. Libido becomes archaic. their pre-logical way of thinking. Thus the neurotic must not be completely removed from the unconscious material which he still has. or as Lawrence said: men have lost the moon in their flesh. Even neurotic conflict is the suffering caused by intellect to this basic ground of the drives and of the imagination. lying deeper and deeper in the past. When the libido is driven completely into the dark. And in fact there appears to be no difference between the frothing mouth of the shaman and Meister Eckhart. and when the late Ratio loses its hold. they rise up with their rites. into the unconscious as a goal. indeed. . 'Eros' and the Archetypes It comes to this. in true night-tolerance. opens the eternally contested border of consciousness. Jung. and dispense an hour of mystical participation. When the logical superstructure dissolves and the cortex.Page 61 the only thing that is new today is the destruction of instinct.

all too enlightened. which is also supposed to be behind Astarte. collectivized in the idea of the bosom of nature. away from consciousness. it becomes the saviour serpent of the mystery' (Über die Archetypen des kollektiven Bewußtseins. Thereafter. . Lévy-Bruhl's 'représentation collective'. p. Plato. Mother Earth. is according to Jung not to the individual mother. alchemical and astrological imagery. with that archaic beingness (Been-ness). Plotinus or what C. swirl around each other. but to an ancient general mother image. deep waters. 1925. diluvium remains the closest thing to Eros. along pre-logical lines. the night of that immeasurably extended libido. the old wise man. 1983. see Bruno Bettelheim's 'Freud and Man's Soul'. because it sounds so cosmic. fire. is the cue with which Jung's libido brings on its collective unconscious. The occupation* of libido thus subsequently becomes 'prototypal' per se here. kitchen. Isis. which is now also called world soul. Jung imagines by this. The mother bond. are a few examples of it. speaks * 'Besetzung'. Indian theosophy. is universally populated by archetypes: snake. already itself semi-insufficient. the first to come into being. . the love-god who is also a cosmogonic principle' (Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. the 'archetypes of the Earth Mother' shine and triumph through every individual mother. Archetype in general. drags 'an invisible dinosaur tail behind it. G. 1935. The anatomical location of this libido is the ancient sympathetic nerve. its organon. not the cerebro-spinal system. it were the same thing: 'In the neoplatonist Plotinus the world soul is the energy of the intellect. or rather abracadabras. Eros. the unconscious. for example. The orphic significance of Phanes matches that of the Indian Karma. I remind the reader here of the cosmogonic significance of Eros in Plato and in Hesiod. one who is a mixture of myths: he who speaks in archetypes. . This prototypical material is supposed to be highly inflammable.' In this way the libido in Jung opens up like a sack of undigested. all united in the 'pre-lunar' libido: 'As far as the psychological aspect of this concept is concerned. and only this. and Eros strives to get back to it. the father of Eros . in Jung's own words. carefully separated. across huge gulfs. 227). remains mythology. p. For a discussion of the misrepresentation of Freud in English translation. In Strachey's English translation of Freud this has been translated by the overcomplicated 'cathexis'. as well as the orphic figure of Phanes. that is. Jung adds. and Mary. pot on the fire. as if. the ''revealer".Page 62 This really is the night in which all cows are grey. It is the bond with Gaia or Cybele. who began everything. atavistic secrets. in fact this sack. For accordingly. especially for a man of today. 127).

as we said. It is only possible to run capitalist business if the consciousness of its victims is stupefied in their free time. Given all this. Fascism too needs the death-cult of a dolled-up primeval age to obstruct the future. No sublimation takes place here either (which. it is not supposed to be resolved rationally. a ground from which everything human has again become estranged. . however. Thus Freud. with the enormous resonance of blood and soil. to push it back ever deeper into the unconscious. G. Consequently. present extensive contradictions in their common 'depth psychology' (as it modestly calls itself): the liberal wants to make repressed material conscious. as Jung actually says 'the only means of compensating for the damages of today's society'. Thus the mandate to strive from the light into the darkness was followed here in such stupefying fashion. Collective unconscious is. this force is already in good order. kept in the orbit of the individual. To fascism also. Jung did stumble upon a not unimportant (as we shall see) imaginative stock here. The rapport of this Panic libido with German fascism is obvious. Jung generalized and archaized Freud's unconscious right down the line. A basic ground of regressio is praised as medicine and morality. archetypal time. replaces sublimation. according to Jung it also contains all the basic forms of human imagination: all better or more beautiful worlds that have ever been dreamt of are racial soul. upon that of archetypes. it is in fact the only thing that lives in good order. complete with bloody visions and a veritable orgy of images. Freud's pupil Jung dissociated himself also on this point from 'Jewish psychology' when the stars were propitious.Page 63 with a thousand tongues. does at least lead to culture). Prototyping is only suitable for so-called psychosynthesis lock. Jung somnambulist is in no way suspended here. according to Jung. and the fascistic mystifier Jung. the consciousness of the C. to establish barbarism and to block revolution. simply because the creature of intellect is mediated with the drive-image life of the primeval man-animal. and magical wishy-washyness (commanded by monopoly capitalism) is useful for its purposes. the reactionary wants to connect conscious material back with the repressed. he also failed to extricate it from unstructured Romantic dilettantism. as far as it is individually acquired. But just as he took his concept of them from Romanticism. and this. who did at least want to bring liberal enlightenment. In Freud the unconscious is combated and. not only the location of this kind of health. according to Freud. stock and barrel. the basic drive becomes a drive towards that basic ground where Dionysus only wants to be called Moloch. hatred of intelligence is. The 'sacred dark primeval night'.

and moreover lifts them in a conceptually mythical way out of the living body. numen or taboo. they will vary widely in material terms in men according to individual classes and epochs. And. they are too partial. even if the regression has an extremely different nature and extension. This drive is the self-preservation drive. Just as that which has been made absolute is lifted out of the living body. the whole psychoanalytical school is connected in that it emphasizes solely spicy drives. only an unconscious that moves backwards or underneath the already existing consciousness. they are not such final authorities as the simple drive to keep oneself alive. they in fact recognize no pre-consciousness of a New. They do not break through so unequivocally as say – hunger. so too in Freud and Adler. . the drive that is always left out of psychoanalytical theory. and more significantly these idols are made absolute. so far as the drive-theory under discussion here is concerned. In this way an idolized libido arises. But if basic drives are to be distinguished at all. as something that has sunk down into the cellar and only exists there. But neither must we forget: Freud the teacher is on the same plane as his perverted pupil on the crucial point: both understand the unconscious solely as something past in historical development. and consequently in terms of intention or as drive-direction. it is never discussed as a variable of socioeconomic conditions. They both recognize. it alone might be so fundamental – no matter what changes occur – as to set all the other drives in motion in the first place. and especially in Jung. or will to power or primeval Dionysus. which after all only wants to preserve itself and that is all.Page 64 In Jung the unconscious is welcomed and completely settled in the archaic-collective. And most importantly: the respective psychoanalytical basic drives that are emphasized are not basic drives at all in the strict sense. and is also contemplated with limitless tolerance towards everything that swirls around in it as fog.

We believe the particular misfortune of the starving man. who is longing for love. The girl. It is all the more possible to live without satisfying our power-drive. not to mention the love-sick. whereas we can live a little while longer without the pleasures of love-making. This omission shows that it is always only the better class of sufferers who have been and are treated psychoanalytically. who has not eaten for days. has really been led to the oldest needy place of our existence and makes it visible. or especially the man. The psychoanalytical doctor and above all his patient come from a middle class which until recently had to worry little about its . Because a man dies without nourishment. all too little has been said so far about hunger. Even the most hard-hearted housewife will possibly forget her vexed stinginess when the beggar eats the soup she offers. seem to be in luxury by comparison.Page 65 13— The Historical Limitation of all Basic Drives Various Locations of SelfInterest Filled and Expectant Emotions The Urgent Need Very little. sympathy with the starving is the only widespread sympathy there is. even the freezing. even the sick. The problem of finding nourishment was the most groundless of worries for Freud and his visitors. But the unemployed person on the verge of collapse. it is seldom mentioned by the doctors here. in fact the only one that is widely possible. The stomach is the first lamp into which oil must be poured. Although this goad also looks very primal or primeval. its drive is so unavoidable that it cannot even be repressed for long. Already in this ordinary sympathy. whereas the cry of hunger is probably the strongest single cry that can be directly presented. Its longing is precise. these do not arouse sympathy. In any case. deprivation and its wishes are undoubtedly clear here. all the more possible without returning into the unconscious of our five-hundred-thousand-year-old forefathers. Most Reliable Basic Drive: Self-Preservation But no matter how loud hunger bellows.

A characteristic difference exists here between the middle classes of different countries. but certainly concerning moral ego-censorship and consequently repression. Because over ninety per cent of all suicides occur out of economic deprivation and only the rest out of love-sickness (which is incidentally unrepressed). Thus it looks like a late arrival. likewise of the interest in selfpreservation. and the fear of losing one's job is hardly a castration complex. strangely. consequently he shows less sexual stuffiness. let alone the average Englishman. little could be thus discovered about the inner life of the attempted suicide. and they have a more tangible cause with a less sophisticated name. there was a psychoanalytical advice bureau for attempted suicides. Obviously. The French bourgeois thus has a smaller reserve of cant than the average German. And in the proletariat neither cant. there are fewer noble sufferings here. there is . psychoanalysis cannot help but take notice of hunger and thirst occasionally. but to the group of late ego-drives. especially between France and Germany. This is the class-based limitation of psychoanalytical research into basic drives. When Freud's Vienna became less carefree though. and just as little was done to remove the commonest complex of all. of which nothing is said in the advice bureau. the notice hung on the wall of the psychological advice bureau: 'Economic and social questions cannot be treated here. However. and so it may be assumed that he may not pay the rent either. in which it is deeply anchored. however.Page 66 stomach. the self-preservation drive is not assigned by Freud to the stomach and the body-system in general. fewer libidinal repression complexes. there is also a national limitation. where there was also the opportunity to get to know the drives beneath the libido. the one which Franziska Reventlov so unmedically called the money complex. nor above all the libido take up so much room as Viennese psychoanalysis assumed ab origine. but. like an acte accessoire compared to all-driving Eros. The neurotic conflicts of the proletariat do not unfortunately consist of such well-heeled material as Freud's 'fixation of the libido on particular erogenous zones' or Adler's 'badly fitting character mask' or Jung's 'imperfect regression to primeval times'. Hunger and troubles constrict libido in the lower class. Perhaps not as regards libido. even in bourgeois déclassé Vienna. the same group also responsible for moral censorship. or if he does not stop out one night. the manager begins to get worried about the bill: the tenant does not seem to be normal sexually. Of course. The goad of hunger is just as excluded from psychoanalysis as the libido was from the cant of the salons.' Understandably. If a bachelor in Paris does not take a girl to his hotel room at least once a week.

has been cross-bred and broken up hundreds of times in . Such a precedence was still possible at that time. class-based modifications which it is also subject to. Since the passions are subject to historical change. despite all reservations and the stated aversion to making things absolute: self-preservation – with hunger as its most obvious expression – is the only basic drive among the several which consistently deserves this name. self-preservation does not occur as an original drive at all. according to Spinoza's unerring definition. Therefore it can be said. though without any real consequences. however modified. that is and remains however. no explanation of the world in terms of libido and its distortions. it still runs. in the rising bourgeoisie. Nothing at all is fixed once and for all here. to which Freud's psychoanalysis also belongs.Page 67 no erotic conception of history to replace the economic one. neither does what bears it. and furthermore he puts hunger in first place and love in second. despite all temporal. and new ones arise with newly set goals. hunger was deleted. surely the most universal. but the fundamental interest. as it were. The supposed 'nature of man'. the subjective hearth on which they are all cooking also changes. nor a 'primal man' or even an 'old Adam' either. remorselessly through all societies. Here too then we should ultimately stick with the real expression of the matter: with economic interest. but rather precisely our self is not given to us in advance. Even of the Self-Preservation Drive Just as no drive remains rigid. Nor is there an 'original' drive. in the late bourgeoisie. The self-preservation which manifests itself within this interest is the soundest among the many basic drives and. Or it became a subspecies of the libido. at the beginning for instance. its 'oral phase'. Historical Change of the Drives. Even the idealist Schiller had to teach that the world maintained its push and shove 'through hunger and through love'. subsequently. to preserve one's being. in the sense rigid research into basic drives understands it. Even if capitalist competitive economy has made it individual beyond all measure. rather than in terms of the economy and its superstructure. not the only. 'Suum esse conservare'. it is the last instance of the drive and the one most concretely related to the bearer. the 'appetitus' of all beings.

and consequently the excitability of the libido is always variant in every society and in every layer of that society. He becomes a decadent barbarian with a well-known. even if he becomes wild. he becomes a bit of Bluebeard or Nero or Caligula or Hitler. Rousseau's 'natural man' was Arcadian and rational. and the wood-pigeon from which all our tame pigeons stem. they represent the waste products of great cultures. by virtue of inheriting historically acquired qualities. the other the wishes of Imperialism (and simultaneously of the 'anti-capitalist longing' smouldering amongst the bourgeois). The way of perceiving sex. scientifically speaking. The 'heathen' whom a missionary baptizes. as characterized by Freud. does not exist. on the other hand. distorted and buried under the cant of the Victorian century. that is. of an earlier radical change of the human creature. they are not old physis. Even for hunger there is no 'natural' drive structure. or he is even (in Jung) a fascist phantasmagoria. Rather. Certainly.Page 68 the course of history. Correspondingly. and. Research into basic drives more than any other kind reflects the characteristic drive of its times. to which they could possibly revert. Among cultivated plants and breeding animals an original variety may have been preserved because they are brought together in an external and artificial way in the breeding process. for the simple reason that the kind .e. was Dionysian and irrational. as we know. nothing of the sort. they are not the oldest human creatures. but not a Neanderthal man from the 'healthy diluvium'. Whereas historical man. which is why its findings have always turned out to be so different. the one fulfilled the wishes of the Enlightenment. the so-called man of primal drives is not to be discovered beneath historical and modern man. Even a great number of so-called primitives today are. corked up in mythological bottles. is himself again the 'Christ' of an earlier practice and religion. but this does not happen among men. but have long since become new physis. the 'old Adam' whom the Christian casts off. i. among cultivated plants and breeding animals there is still the simple dog-rose which was ennobled into the luxury roses. Nietzsche's 'natural man'. Therefore. the historical location of 'the human creature'. never again becomes primal man from whom the various historical domesticated varieties emanated. historically ordered psychopathology of drives. What we call by this name is either (in Freud) the bourgeois man of drives. can also be precisely determined: this libidoman lives – together with his dreamed wish-fulfilments – in the bourgeois world a few decades before and a few decades after 1900 (the key year of the secessionist 'liberation of the flesh from the spirit').

and the more sophisticatedly. Thus self-preservation ultimately means the appetite to hold ready more appropriate and more authentic states for our unfolding self. so that through work it is and becomes. For this simple reason they cannot be made absolute. and therefore historically varying needs which it underlies and with which. . and all the more so after it. human preservation in no way seeks the conservation of that which has already been drawn and allotted to the self. History is. further and further layers are added to the appetite. powerdrive (which sets in at the earliest with the division into classes) appear secondary in contrast. Libido (which is confined in animals to the mating season).Page 69 of perception assigned to it. as possible gaining of man. Indeed. for this very reason. and selfencountering begins. the changes in the mode of production and exchange. it interacts as socially developed and guided need with the other social. of the self which is only developing. Not confined to the selfish system. still open. but even this. Economic interest forms the final instance in the historically existing framework of drives. If these states approach. which is co-produced by the respective form of economy and relation to nature. all definitions of basic drives only flourish in the soil of their own time and are limited to that time. not to this capitalist phase of egotism. in all phenomena and works broaching a final state. even man's self. extending itself. which reproduces itself through the intake of nourishment. as we know. Namely one that – despite its most reliable basic drive: hunger. it is transformed and causes transformation – the more. which wants to preserve itself. self-preservation. Rather. The latter's need to be satisfied is the oil in the lamp of history. no longer one which remains rooted in the fixed instinct of searching for nourishment down firmly established paths. highly disconcerted. But our self always remains. precisely this once again. which relatively remains the most general – must continually run throughout history. then self-encountering prepares itself in them. but even this primary need looks different according to the changing ways in which needs are satisfied. unfolding only in and as solidarity. the metamorphosis of man precisely also in view of our core. even less separated from the economic being of mankind in each age. appetite within them. but incidentally all have hunger. but existing before it. and consequently the stimulus-world. has its changing historical forms. is also historically variable. moved. with its hunger and the variable extensions of this hunger. Even this is no longer a biologically maintained basic direction in man. In short. is itself the historically most variable entity.

Mephistopheles in Goethe's 'Faust'. Thus there is in young people and in erotic personalities throughout their lives a kind of intransitive mental feeling of being-in-love. Appetite of the Expectant Emotions. in that they become closely aware of their process as a still semi-immediate feeling of self. Of course. not least because they proceed. Thus emotions are distinguished from sensations and imaginations. Especially of Hope Taking hunger as our starting point again. imaginative contents. but also in the more decided state. if the whole man throws himself into a single emotion. Thus we speak or used to speak of a sanguine (or conversely. of a melancholic) 'temperament'. not merely the immediate drives come from here. it comes from the heart. which its objects only enter retrospectively. . then this becomes a passion. This happens not only in the diffuse and undecided state called 'state-of-being'. * And just as in every emotion. a blood which is also psychological. the more clearly these intransitive processes will also become related to objects and transitive: just as vague craving passes over into wishes with wishful contents by imagining its something. 'mood'. Rather they also originate from it as 'felt' drives. this temperature also senses itself. before a distinct external object even appears to which the feeling mind relates. in those mental feelings at least which belong from early on to organic 'dispositions'. it certainly does not only appear when it knows clearly what it is hoping for. and moreover. Part I.Page 70 Mental Feelings and State of Self. These drives which drive not only directly but also as feeling are the mental feelings or emotions. the more sensation contents and imaginative contents are added to this. * Cf. or very weakly 'founding'. (of which more later). as the drive-feelings in which craving or loathing become intensely aware of themselves. This temperament can extend far beyond the mere state of mind into intransitive mental feelings. 1740: 'Blood is a very special juice'. with absolutely no. that is. in their own body. there is an inner temperature. in contrast to sensation and imagination. so the emotional world is now all the more governed by love of something. they were not given narcissistically in advance to this being-inlove either. less immediately. However. raising the whole organic 'disposition' to a state of mind. They can in fact proceed in vaguely objective terms in this 'state-based' self-awareness. a quite special juice flows through all mental feelings. Thus there is – not as a mental feeling. but rather as a state of mind – a light-heartedness of character. even hope.

intensively. though here in an impossibly exaggerated idealistic way. and precisely as these states of self. a kind of existere. But the emotions do not remain confined to the mere experiencing of their experience. not without reason. so-called existential thinking. pleasure in something. it was separated by Franz Brentano. only in fact: this external something must not be clear from the very beginning. began in Augustine with his highly emotional 'Confessions'. Like the basic emotion of hunger. not without reason. which has become blood-curdling and also hesitant. as the essence of the mental feelings. they are the most active intentions. which is still occurring especially within itself and is still semi-immediately bent back upon itself. the life of the emotions is not only a most closely intensive. eminently intending into itself. not the theoreticalobjective 'intellect'. The difference is characterized by the nature of the emotional intending. the intending. even the becoming conscious of consciousness emerged here in the self-reflection of a man of intensive will-power. And finally. it is also the mode of being of what Kierkegaard once called existential. a liberation of the 'act psychology' from the 'content psychology'. not without reason. But. there is an act of intending. has become an 'existential' concept. And they are given to themselves in the form of states. rather it must first be laboriously made accessible to 'inner perception'. because they are chiefly moved by the striving. But the difference to imaginative ideas and thoughts is nevertheless also indelible within the process of the emotions becoming transitive. . a retrospective analysis in Brentano's sense. which has putrefied into nothingness today. because they are concerned with themselves. Thus. which underlies all intentional acts.Page 71 hope for something. all emotions are therefore primarily states of self. even the imagining and thinking-judging kind. then by Husserl from the 'intended object'. And. one of 'affectedness'. Whereas with the emotions. 'Interest' ultimately underlies them and is the thing which really touches man most closely. which primarily burrows into itself. Kierkegaard played off his 'UnderstandingOneself-In-Existence' as an experiential phenomenon of moral and religious emotions against Hegel's objective 'abstractions'. the drive. In any case there would be no loathings or cravings at all without the external something that evokes them. Even in imagining and thinking. But this act is not in fact imagined or thought to itself in imagining and thinking. even with the idealistic interpretation that their content concretely emerges only as 'substance' and not also as a clearly stimulative external object. In other words: only the 'feeling mind'. is not necessary first at all: the emotions are given to themselves as intentional acts in the form of states.

says Descartes in the 'Meditations'. but essentially with regard to their imagined goals or 'ideas'. . but where philosophizing clings purely to cogitatio. as far as his 'basic state of mind': anxiety. Bloch is reversing the idea. Therefore we may say: where philosophy merely clings to the emotions. And the reverse check might be that the whole of object-based thinking necessarily turns away from the emotions as an organ of knowledge. therefore as 'asylum of ignorance'. instead of this conscious obscurantism. in Spinoza's sense. Descartes and Spinoza therefore. with relationships which are not given in any inner perception' in their theory of the emotions. 'sine ira et studio'. they both necessarily include 'observations from outside. thus in Descartes. 1 declares he will write history impartially. * 'With passion and partiality'.Page 72 descends from here as far as Heidegger's animal. Tacitus in Annals I. and wherever self-knowledge was comprehensively attempted. this contact presented itself. when he introduced a definition of the emotions into his marble hall (Ethics. 'consists in the fact that it thinks'. who was so inclined towards the extensively object-based. also had to eliminate the emotions methodically. everything that aims in the emotional sphere cum ira et studio. But intellectual contact (although nothing further) with the emotions is necessary for every piece of self-knowledge. everything that comes out of this is only to be regarded as 'world of idle chatter'. as Dilthey notes. even from his theory of the emotions. So unswervingly is every 'Understanding-Oneself-In-Existence' connected with emotional closeness. and every pure observation of objects with turning away from the emotions.* is to be regarded as 'perturbatio animi' even methodically. but they themselves are only determined according to the form of their objects. Spinoza does of course emphasize that only emotions determine human wanting. as rational objective thinkers. defined them not in the form of states. no theory emerges. but even petitbourgeois. Even in Hegel. Book 3). concerning existing itself in fact. reactionary existentialism at least casts an affinitive disreputable glance at the emotions of dying out. this time not wholly inaccurately. 'The whole nature of the intellect'. And Spinoza. However. which does not have the merely thinking intellect as its author. Chap. All this is ultimately putrefied subjectivism. and these 'existential modi' are even supposed to provide especially 'fundamental' revelations. the nevertheless basically honest Kierkegaard with his playing off of emotionalized subject-thinking against the merely object-based kind. the only thing that is relevant here. is the original. petit-bourgeois experiential phenomenology. in Kierkegaard's sense. and the care that is attached to it.

And the emotions of rejection : fear. The abrupt ones were differentiated from the slowly maturing ones. those which paralyse or strengthen heart innervation and also the tonus of the external muscles. can also be sthenic. nothing great has been achieved without passion. breaks out most obviously in the grouping of libido and aggression. anger. according to Hegel. the dissatisfaction or satisfaction with themselves and with their object. Externally the division is also according to asthenic and sthenic emotions. the quickly disappearing ones from the self-entrenching ones: as for example anger from hatred. despite its pleasurable character. terror. rising gradually. already somewhat more from psychological experience. so too undoubtedly nothing great concerning the self can be comprehended without emotional insight. inclining-pleasurable equation does not work out perfectly either. admiration. the drive-feelings were always only insufficiently ordered and divided up. comes the division of the emotions into those of rejection or inclination. There are also emotions here with contradictory feeling-content which are sometimes pleasurably united: revenge. but also excessive joy. there is no book which is more pervaded in its conceptual procedure by both emotional machinations and emotional insights than 'The Phenomenology of Mind'. Likewise . largely coincide with the old displeasure-pleasure duality. They were differentiated according to the strength which the individual drive-feelings could take on. i. Hunger. almost like the moment of ecstasy in which. consequently into the two basic groups of hatred and love.Page 73 despite Kierkegaard. then according to the expression of the mental feelings in men and animals. are always asthenic. This precisely because it disposes of the worldless pectoral dimension. even opposite feeling-content fall into the same sthenic or asthenic class. And nearly all the emotions can be assigned to the poles of will: negation or affirmation. in the world. trust. when it breaks out suddenly. a disposal which wanted to grasp the 'pulse of vitality' first and foremost in the external. Nearer to the real state of things. love discharges itself. which must be able to accompany all emotions. envy. And just as. like sorrow and worry. whereas in fact joy. emotions that suddenly break in. appears asthenically. as are unpleasurable emotions of lesser degree. Weak and moderately strong pleasurable emotions are however always sthenic. like fear. According to this. contempt. generosity. This division is thus still so external that emotions with different. However. love on the other hand. tastes sweet. Seen from outside. the rejecting-unpleasurable. hate on the one hand. the emotions of inclination : contentment. in which hatred discharges itself. accompanied by surprise.e. but anger.

pax capitalistica) stand in the light. since the class struggle also belongs here. Whereby justice is also done to the relatively legitimate aspects of the rejection-inclination series: this series extends at least as far as the group of expectant emotions. admiration) are those whose driveintention is short-term. so rich in elisions. so that it does not give rise to the unpleasant feeling of envy. their substance. or at least psychological experience. This order must be discovered from the experienced appetite itself. All emotions refer to the horizon of time. incidentally. from the filled emotions by the incomparably greater anticipatory character in their intention. not just in respective individual attainability. the attempt has therefore been made to transform the mere pole relation of both into a value relation. whose drive-object lies ready. hope. but also in the already available world. only then does the correct order of the drive-feelings emerge. the division of the emotions into the following two series: into filled and expectant emotions. on the other hand. that may lie in the rejection-inclination series despite its confusion. Expectant emotions (like anxiety. whose driveobject does not yet lie ready. of the emotional modes of self.Page 74 there are emotions. The emotions of rejection are thus consigned to a lower region which is itself to be negated (and this. which. Or there are mixed emotions. cosmopolitanism. in which the rejecting intention of envy and the inclining intention of admiration get along in a complex way. both in their unwish and in their wish. All emotions refer to the actually temporal aspect in . namely as unwish or as wish. even though they lie on the side of inclination. because they are highly intentioned emotions. do not have the least in common with pleasure. the emotions of inclination on the other hand (with truce. in so far as envy in fact transforms the admiration which is present into slander. like resentment. It follows that even rejection and inclination. the poles of hate and love do not fully cover the curious area. and the result is then the only satisfying one. In retaining love and hate as basic groups. Thus. Thus the expectant emotions are distinguished. fear. but the expectant emotions open out entirely into this horizon. The series in the real table of the emotions are now definable as follows: filled emotions (like envy. appealed to reactionary pyschology. and their object. belief). if not in respective individual attainability. greed. then in the already available world. are those whose drive-intention is long-term. and therefore still occurs in the doubt about exit or entrance. like greed. to sum up: what has been imported from outside into the theory of the emotions must be completely removed. But condemning one lot to hell or praising one lot to the skies does least justice to the amount of truth. in Scheler).

For the negative expectant emotions of anxiety and fear are still completely suffering. This interest always begins with hunger. as wish. the still utopian undecided faces. the expectant emotions essentially imply a real future. Moreover. but secretly or deep down even then a more total fulfilment has entered the banal fulfilment. and something of the nothingness into which ultimately the merely passive passion streams. as unfulfilled subject. this expectant counter-emotion against anxiety and fear. no matter how strongly they reject. but whereas the filled emotions only have an unreal future. then it suddenly changes. one in which objectively nothing new happens. it . fear and hope also intend unreal future. satisfied by no certain bread. In the images of fear and hope in the daydream. as will be seen. i. so that. in fact that of the Not-Yet. and it also refers to the furthest and brightest horizon. is incorporated by the deprived into revolutionary interest.e. unfree.e. The No to the bad situation which exists. is therefore the most human of all mental feelings and only accessible to men.Page 75 time. i. something of the extinction of self announces itself in them. always remains in all of this – hope. the Yes to the better life that hovers ahead. It seeks to change the situation which has caused its empty stomach. It suits that appetite in the mind which the subject not only has. but of which. Thus the urge. it still essentially consists. quite unlike the case of the filled emotions. oppressed. even in anxiety dreams wish-fulfilment still takes place. Self-Extension Drive Forwards. there would be no unwish. to the mode of the future. into an explosive force against the prison of deprivation. for where there was no urge. its hanging head. there is always a countersense of the negative and positive emotions at work here. the appetite and its wish usually break out frontally in the expectant emotions. The body-ego then becomes rebellious. hunger transforms itself. having been taught. When they are banal. But the most important expectant emotion. But if it increases uninterrupted. which is only the reverse side of a wish. Thus the self seeks not only to preserve itself. the faces may often change all the more between fear and hope. between the negative and positive expectant emotion. the most authentic emotion of longing and thus of self. lies beyond the available given world. one which. Hope. As urge. those of anxiety and fear. Indeed. does not go out in search of food merely within the old framework. it even breaks out in the purely negative expectant emotions. Active Expectation Hunger cannot help continually renewing itself. of what has objectively not yet been there.

but. Not that he only effects a formal change in the real. which determines as a law his way of doing things. And this overthrows what stands in the way of the rising class. A spider carries out operations which resemble those of a weaver. or which possibly also activates and galvanizes us towards the goal of a better life: daydreams are formed. How many have reaffirmed . as is revealed most strongly in the empty promises of a better hereafter. looking ahead. undertaken for the purpose of satisfying needs. transforming raw materials into richer and richer utility values. 186). by looking into its progress. And precisely at this point there is formed that which stimulates the wishful element in the expectant emotions always arising from hunger. dismal. ultimately of the classless man. might be at that moment. self-preservation becomes self-extension. dubious. Dietz. 1947. And in human work. to which he must subordinate his will' (Das Kapital I.e. he must have planned the plan himself. This kind of escape from reality has often been combined with approval and support of the status quo. Long before this decision.Page 76 becomes explosive. the drive towards satisfaction becomes a drive which survives the available world in the imagination. they are all dreams of a better life. i. In ideal terms. Out of economically enlightened hunger comes today the decision to abolish all conditions in which man is an oppressed and long-lost being. already existed ideally. in contrast to the spider or the bee. No doubt there are among them base. which has received nowhere near enough attention: 'We are assuming work in a form in which it belongs exclusively to man. towards which a man. a purpose he knows. the bolder. merely enervating escapist dreams full of substitution. not by looking away from the real. is that he has built the cell in his head before he builds it in wax. into its horizon. They always come from a feeling of something lacking and they want to stop it. he also realizes his purpose in the natural world. But what distinguishes the worst builder from the best bee from the outset. as is well-known. on the contrary. and for a long time during it. Marx has the following to say about this. even decisively spurring forward dream. that which possibly diverts and fatigues us. But how many other wishful daydreams have sustained men with courage and hope. all the more necessarily. p. Therefore it follows: before a builder – in all areas of life – knows his plan. at the end of the work process there is a result which already existed in the imagination of the worker at the beginning of that process. above all the more arduous the plan. and a bee puts many human builders to shame with the building of its wax cells. is looking. consciousness runs as a consciousness which overhauls the available world in the imagination. and must have anticipated its realization as a brilliant.

G. There are daydreams enough. It is the dawning that can surround even the simplest daydreams. Fabulously Inventive and Anticipatory Wish-Fulfilment in Daylight Fantasies Inclination to Dream We never tire of wanting things to improve.Page 77 their refusal to renounce. or only in moments of delusion. nothing that has simply sunk down out of consciousness that already existed. as in C. What hovers ahead of the selfextension drive forwards is rather. things can be colourful . as will have to be shown. or worse still: without wishes we would be the dead bodies over which the wicked would stride on to victory. and hence of hope. a Not-Yet-Conscious. in the course of anticipation. It would be more comfortable to forget this longing rather than to fulfil it. The amount of venturing beyond that takes place in daydreams thus indicates nothing repressed. and the deprived certainly do not intend to be. The venturer beyond does not occupy a shaft in the ground beneath existing consciousness. but what would this lead to today? These wishes certainly would not stop. since deprivation and wishing are still very much with us during the day. or into a romanticized diluvium. Jung and Klages. That would indeed be strange. as in Freud. one that has never been conscious and has never existed in the past. We are never free of wishes. or they would disguise themselves as new ones. nor any atavistic state which was simply left over from or breaks out of primeval man. from there it extends into further areas of negated deprivation. 14— Fundamental Distinction of Daydreams from Night-Dreams: Concealed and Old Wish-Fulfilment in Night-Dreams. They dream about it night and day. with a single exit either into the familiar daylight world of today. This is not a time to be without wishes. Even with our eyes open. as the saying goes. into the New. even psychologically. we just have not taken sufficient notice of them. therefore itself a forward dawning. They dream that their wishes will be fulfilled one day. not only at night then. of venturing beyond and its images.

and physical unrest. the cerebrum is at rest. but displeasure with an increase of the same'. since Freud. gets led astray. then it is itself a wish.* and naturally not prophetic oracles either. or a world of poppies.Page 78 enough or dreamy inside our heads. so dreams protect sleep by assimilating knocks. is 'linked with the diminution. but – as regards both their motor and their content – wish-fulfilment too. that in fact the sleeper often only dreams in order not to wake up. micturition. Dreams can only assimilate these disturbances at all by breaking off their insistent prodding. And the general theme of dreams of a better life also partly includes. hunger. The word dream has nocturnal origins. then he would be woken by the clamour of these stimuli. then we wish it was not there. especially when their senses start to clear a bit. intrusive light. but that they lie half-way between the two as it were: precisely as hallucinated wish-fulfilments. The external senses are blinded. * A German saying: 'Träume sind Schäume': 'Dreams are just foam'. reduction or extinction of the set of stimuli present in the psychic system. In order that he is not raised above the threshold of consciousness by external or internal stimuli. Freud's real discovery is this: that dreams are not just foam. says Freud. If the inclination to improve our lot does not sleep even in our sleep – how should it do so when we are awake? Few wishes are not burdened with dreams of some sort. If it is an internal one (thirst. however. it is generally agreed (and this will be his lasting contribution) that dreams are not merely a means of protecting sleep. And then: the dreamy person during the day is clearly a different person from the one who dreams at night. If the sleeper did not dream. sexual excitement). Dreams as Wish-Fulfilment As of course the nocturnal dreamer does and must do. The latter may as well be treated first. we want its stimulus to disappear. Or as Freud says: 'Dreams are the elimination of (psychic) stimuli which disturb our sleep on the road to hallucinated gratification. the dreamer presupposes the sleeper. So important is this general black-out here. For all stimulation is unpleasant: pleasure. Not by this means alone. . The daydreamer often follows will-o'-the-wisps. the muscles relax.' As everyone knows. since after all the colourful performance does begin in sleep. If the stimulus is an external one (say knocking or light or a shift of position in bed). as fictitious fulfilments of an unconscious wishful fantasy. But he is not asleep and does not sink back down with the mist.

appears in 'symbolic' disguise. The conversion of latent (deeply subconscious) into manifest . Freud thus stresses: 'Every dream-wish is of infantile origin. not completely switched off. it suffices here that the restlessness of the libido activates and satiates itself in a symbolically distorting dream-image. They are namely the component in which very early wishes circulate. It goes on censoring in a drunken way as it were. or more accurately: as in our childhood. to which the dream fantasy adapts itself. take a direct course. with childish psychic impulses and mechanisms. the manifest and actual dream-contents also more or less coincide here. The ego reverts to the ego of childhood. that is to say ideas with greatly loosened associations. Thus almost no night-dream is wish-fulfilment pure and simple. and forces the hallucinated wish-fulfilments to disguise themselves from its gaze. nocturnal dreams as wishful dreams.Page 79 with all due caution and relevance. with no appreciable dreamdistortion. the outside world with its realities and practical functional content is blocked off. Thirdly. in so far as the opposing tendency of material reality is cancelled by this blockade of the outside world. in order to conceal themselves from the – even though weakened – censorship of the dreamego. aesthetically and also in accordance with reality is only weakened in dreams. but almost every one is distorted and masked. from the waking state and its contents only the so-called dregs of the day remain. But all the other 'improper wishes': the incest-wishes.' Moreover. it cannot censor that which seems indecent any more. in connection with the weakened ego. since the child knows no censoring ego whatsoever. long-vanished images beneath the ego and the cerebrum is still reflected. Firstly. they too are a component (though a dislocated and not entirely homogeneous one) in the vast field of utopian consciousness. The nightdream has three characteristic qualities which enable it to hallucinate wishful ideas. all dreams work with infantile material. And the person who is dreaming does not understand the symbolic element at all. the death-wishes directed towards people we love and other elements of infantile evil inside us resort to disguise in order to gratify themselves. Even very voluptuous night-dreams of a physiologically normal and as it were permissible kind. in the wake of involuntary seminal emissions for example. thus there first appears the complete uncensored drive-world straight out of our childhood. But the ego which censors morally. the wishful ideas receive sufficient psychic energy and psychic space to intensify into hallucinations. Secondly. Only the dreams of children lack this dream-distortion. in which his wishfulfilment disguises itself. the adult ego is weakened in sleep. In which the light of very old.

because Joseph did not see through him. Jean Paul remarks on this: 'Dreams shine terribly deep into the Epicurean and Augean Stables we have constructed for ourselves. the strange question was even asked. . from the standpoint of intact bourgeois propriety and its daytime ego. (A reluctance which significantly did not apply to the old. Hence the resistance to the psychoanalytical interpretation of dreams. as far as this is possible by his own free will. Versuch über die Leidenschaften I. 1805. whether a person should be held morally responsible for the good and evil which he thinks and does in his dreams. According to this. the main part for the Freud of the libido is of course merely sexual symbolization. which is analogous in an intensified form to the neurotic's resistance to the interpretation of the symptoms of his neurosis. 175). and we see in the night all the wild beasts of the grave and wolves of the evening roaming around alive. the prophetic interpretation of dreams left the internal affairs of the subject untouched.Page 80 (symbolized) dream-content. the moment a single sensual echo remains behind from the jumble of symbols. in symbolic disguise. hence the reluctance to allow these dream-images to be turned into crime stories of one's private self. towards concealment and disguise of the dream-content. So if the relatively harmless aberrations in the dreams of an ordinary human being are disagreeable to a morally correct ego – how much more so the wild infantile variety. he has sensed in it all along much which would embarrass him when awake. In this way the daytime ego can even feel responsible for the so very much weakened nocturnal one. most comically. it is the resistance of the reinforced daytime ego to the revelation of its other side. which reason held in chains during the day. namely in so far as his dream is created or modified by his desires and these desires are dependent on his own free will' (Maaß. to the analytical interpretation of dreams. in the person who has woken up.' In fact. the analytical interpretation of dreams takes the opposite route. but instructively as far as this resistance is concerned: 'We can therefore assert that it is a man's moral duty to preserve the purity of his imagination even in his dreams. the route back to desymbolized wish-fulfilment. and that the good and evil which he says or does in his dreams can also be attributed to him.) From this moralizing reluctance chiefly springs the nocturnal egodrive towards masquerade. A moralist and psychologist from the final period of the Enlightenment answered in the affirmative and concluded. Freud calls the dream-work. There is a resistance. This other side usually tends to be very oppressive in the morally upright and correct man. p. so-called prophetic interpretation of dreams: Pharaoh was delighted by Joseph.

one of Freud's oldest colleagues. in allegorical innocence. The well is an old mother-image. the dagger into the moon standing unnaturally close to the window. For Freud the manifest dreamcontent is simply just disguised or in fancy dress. in a thoroughly phylogenetic 'excavation'. into the light of this lamp. the day after the carnival. and then. table. is attained if not surpassed by dreams. Balzac speaks of the joiner who thought of keeping the front door of his house permanently locked in future. not to mention C. all these metaphors are also dreamlike. for sexual intercourse (the primary model is climbing stairs). hardly a dream is dreamed by adults that is not involved and enveloped. just like a mother-hen. which expresses itself in such colourfully convoluted clauses. the reedy pond an even older. the Freudian interpretation of dreams is intent on revealing the naked text again. even if it only emerges contorted by the narrow and false notion of bare libido. into the ceiling-lamp in the compartment. The casket can turn into a compartment. to the primitive geological oceans in which life first arose. without losing itself in them. as we have noted. They seem to reach back into the depths of racial history. The censorship of the ego only let the truth. above which the spirit of God broods. The water symbol is traced back to the mother's amniotic fluid by Ferenczi. The whole variety of sexual allusions and metaphors. which is libido and its wish-fulfilment. G. and water for woman. It proceeds via the symbols. as far as consciousness is concerned. This embodies a true perception. In the history of mythology a very differently preserved legend has grown up concerning this. with a mild yellow like smashed egg-yolk. archaic hetairan one. nevertheless. it also suggests living wood. Be that as it may. a very old mother-image. Jung. depths which. Freud comments on this with a striking paradox: the dreamer does not know what he knows. that of the stork which brings babies from a pond. and so on. and this. The table clearly stands for a room or house. to the more or less conscious wish-fulfilment. it was unearthed by Bachofen. as displayed in Rabelais or Balzac's 'Amusing tales'. are also familiar to Freud and his more immediate school.Page 81 there are hundreds of symbols for the male and female genitals (dagger and casket are the primary models). . pass through the night in the mask of a jester or a thin veil of sanctity. but the waters of the deep appear too. namely those that have been lost. like the symbols of wood. They are joined by images which are not even to be found in the vast literature of pornography. the interpretation becomes Ash Wednesday. the symbol of wood leads back to the family tree. the tree of life. of the page who had already planted his standard in the royal domain.

He was on the run from grimacing bogies which only emerge at night.Page 82 In any case. soon they are firmly rooted to the spot. angry rejection and physical excitement. a dream can suddenly break off. Freud overcomes the problem almost involuntarily in dialectical terms. the wish-fulfilment has failed. Freud naturally finds it hard to interpret even this nocturnal Fury as a fairy godmother. which have become the standard reaction to any mortal danger and have been repeated by us ever since as an anxiety state'. however. he jumps down and runs for his life. The ultimate source of anxiety is here seen as the act of birth. The phobia is then merely the so-called moral thick end of the wedge or the attention-seeking hangover. uncensored dreams. the anxiety is then not that of the physical creature itself but that of the dream-ego. a compensating element satiated with a wealth of images. are by no means in the majority. Even among our vivid dreams the happy ones. a dream can turn into an anxiety dream precisely because the wish-fulfilment has occurred within it. for example the perpetual fear of losing one's parents. and the development of anxiety takes the place of censorship. can also be accompanied by the wish for such a thing. something recouped is at work in the nocturnal dream. it brought 'that constellation of feelings of aversion. this absurdity appears chiefly in undistorted. from the usual examination dreams to downright horrible ones. Neuroses of this sort. that is the wish-fulfilling ones. but his car changes into a snail-shell. The very term anxiety (angustia = narrowness) emphasizes the constriction in breathing which occurred at that time in consequence of the interruption in our internal breathing. Firstly. Alongside them there are the anxiety dreams. But the most important thing of all is that . the sleeper wakes from these with a yell. whether this satiation occurs simply by means of these images or within them. Secondly. namely by not simply grasping anxieties and wishes as strict opposites. a particularly depraved wish unacceptable to the dream-ego is gratified in a particularly blatant way. then the distressing stimulus which has caused it persists. Thirdly. Anxiety Dreams and Wish-Fulfilment But is someone who dreams at night really having wishes fulfilled all the time? These are mixed with enough insignificant dross after all. In this sort of anxiety dream. which evaporates and does not seem to fill any kind of gap. but his feet stick in the ground. yet he still incorporates anxiety dreams into his theory of wish-fulfilment in three different ways.

namely that of separation from the protective mother' (Das Ich und das Es. So it turns inward and is discharged as anxiety even in adulthood. the libidinal object has become one's own ego. and later providence or fate. was missing. as Freud conjectures. the ego surrenders because it does not think it is able to overcome the danger by itself. especially in the neurotic. because it feels hated and persecuted instead of loved by the super-ego . A similar reversal of unoccupied libidinal urges which have lost their object occurs. and hence signals loneliness. where the fear of death is concerned.Page 83 this first anxiety state stemmed from separation from our mother. which psychologically prefigures all the later ones. 1923. that the ego surrenders. which became the ego-ideal. the mother it loved. and thus surrenders itself. . melancholic variety: 'The melancholic fear of death admits of only one explanation. And it is the same reversal of the libido into its dialectical opposite which was already evident in the anxiety of the child when the libidinal emotion had to be repressed because its object. in the fear of death (countering the death-drive). the pavor nocturnus without a so-called castration complex. it is this very (narcissistic) occupation which has now ceased. 'It is moreover'. hence too the real anxiety of the child. 'The mechanism of the fear of death could only be that the ego relinquishes its narcissistic occupation of the libido to a large extent. This first anxiety state is linked in Freud's view with the so-called fear of castration. the consequence is as follows: all repressed wishful emotions turn into phobias in this realm of the unconscious. which cannot find its object. the fear of an immense concrete danger is increased by the fear of death which arises from desertion. there was once the threat of castration. and this has moral consequences which pervade the whole of one's life: 'From the higher being. defencelessness. Libido again . but in the act of reversal it merely releases a feeling of immense horror. abandonment. instead of another object as in other cases of anxiety'. The longing and love of the child for its mother is frustrated by strange faces. the fear of strange faces. p. 76). The super-ego performs the same protective and rescuing function as the father at an earlier stage. it is this which continues as anxiety of conscience. adds Freud as a reminder. it is unable to channel its 'libido'. Only.' More plausible though is the explanation of anxiety from the very first act of desertion. or more precisely: the ego loved by the superego. darkness and the like. 'still the same situation which lay at the heart of the first great anxiety-state of birth and the infant's anxious longing. from the act of being torn from our mother by our birth.' And even in a state of health. and the fear of castration is probably the nucleus for later anxiety of conscience. .

exclusively from the 'libidinal emotion which has lost its object'? And are there not also Objects. unoccupied by libido. Bourgeois society was actually founded on free competition until recently. circumstances. Instead of which. here too we find hunger. 123). and existential anxiety. in fact we can say even now: that did not endure). p. And with the anxiety caused by fascism as well. but sufficiently occupied by other things instead? The later Freud expressed this himself when he stated that it was not repression which caused anxiety. a pure psychologism once again. economic despair. It is precisely this anxiety which cannot be explained chiefly in narcissistic regressive . Sources which relate to naked self-preservation and its shattered. the daytime and the objective apprehension of what is coming furnishes causes and sources enough as far as anxiety is concerned. it therefore precedes the blocked libido and forms the blockage. of the transposed mother. Freud even declares 'that a feared drive-situation basically originates in a situation of external danger' (Neue Folge der Vorlesungen. But even in dreams. waking anxiety culminating in the fear of death does not go right back to the beginning to find its explanation in the vanishing libidinal object of its own ego. however. which are positive and objective enough. subsistence worries. is it necessary to it at all? Does this negative wish-fulfilment or anxiety stem exclusively from the subject. In particular. that is. and is inclined towards it even today. without regard to the social environment. hence it is founded on an antagonistic relationship. Towards the end of his life. The feeling of abandonment would not have any content at all if the strange faces. Thus many a tranquil night-dream may indeed be backward-looking. the darkness and so on were solely – non-mother and otherwise neutral. It is sufficiently posited with the outside world as it is. The hostile tension thus posited and even demanded between individuals produces incessant anxiety. moving far beyond the internal and initial biological experience of the act of birth. not merely unoccupied wishes. Is sexual libido sufficient to produce this anxiety. and hence of anxiety. nothing but libido the whole time (and this is the part of Freud that will not endure. especially one with two world wars to its credit. and together with the libido. which hardly needed the pretext of infantile trauma in order to be delivered into the world.Page 84 of course. of amorous wishes unoccupied in object-based terms. perhaps also many attacks of pavor nocturnus among sheltered children. and this does not need the pretexts of libido and the act of birth in order to deposit itself on it. which are menacing enough in an object-based way. but anxiety which caused repression. even within the same class and stratum of society. 1933. They may consist of repressed libido.

it is simply the annihilated content of the wish. An element of blackness is introduced. which emerged at the same time. just as they have their final biological content at the moment of death. so that 'anxiety and wish coincide in the unconscious'. In fact. on feeling at home at the crossroads. And did not the same eighteenth century in which the hypochondriac flourished apply a thick coat of sentimentality on to this mixed feeling. rather eerie wish-fulfilment which even in higher realms prevents. then neither animals without an ego nor very matter-of-fact people who are not infatuated with their ego would know the fear of death. and reveals . even positive content of that hope. an exchange of faces between the wish and that quality of anxiety which has itself become spine-chilling by virtue of the hope that has been fixed on it. but around the objective content of the wishful emotions. which causes anxiety and ultimate despair. a content actually transformed into its very opposite. If the ego merely relinquished itself in the fear of death and merely relinquished its narcissistic occupation of the libido. even a dash of shock. if his wishes are variously sprinkled? If he needs salt and pepper on his wishes. It is this devious. with its painful delight in mortality? The Gothic novel in particular. but rather in terms of the axe which will cut life short in the future. as in the case of the hypochondriac and the general pessimist. in the horrors of the night. Things of this sort already exhibit the wish-fulfilment fantasies of anxiety. or at least impedes. with its weeping willows and pitchers of tears. But they also undoubtedly coincide in consciousness to a large extent. If therefore the Freudian libido-subjectivisms of anxiety are untenable. the correlation he established between phobias and repressed wishful emotions still remains important and true. and as the perverse. but in a way which is only to be found in human beings. discovered the strangely homely aspect of the uncanny. and not just honey all the time? Freud himself refers to a merging of opposite drive-feelings. it heightens the colours. And how does the waking dreamer fare in all this. nor is it orientated around narcissistic fantasies. He refers to a simultaneous 'countersense of primal words'.Page 85 terms. it thrived on a wishful home among shadows. Anxiety and its dreams may have their initial origin in parturition. in terms of the pain and horror of an objectively expected night. who are both hoping to see their non-hope fulfilled. a mere rosy red. creates dissonance in far too predictable and hence insipid happiness. not merely a transition from one to the other. But where anxiety arises not merely in a biological sense. especially in the form of an anxiety dream: then it is essentially founded on social blockages of the self-preservation drive.

A Crucial Point: The Daydream Is Not a Stepping-Stone to the Nocturnal Dream But clearly. scientific thoughts. very powerful consequences: those of hope in general in the subjective factor. political. specifically in order to gain an understanding of these.Page 86 the peak of our wishes to be equally an abyss. but working out. Freud remarks on this: 'We know such daydreams are the essential models * This meadow appears in Grimm's fairytale 'Frau Holle'. It gives free play to its thoughts in an indolent fashion (which can. The account of little daydreams with which this book began gave a brief survey of slighter. and merely sees them as incipient night-dreams. the daydreamer is presented in a different light than the dreamer: he is then Johnnie Head-in-the-air. artistic. however. as well as its consequences. that of the daytime sketches freely chosen and repeatable figures in the air. Bloch is using the English term here in the original and continues to do so throughout the text. Lonely walks or enthusiastic youthful discussion with a friend or the socalled blue hour between daylight and darkness are particularly conducive to waking dreams. Even in caricature. people do not dream only at night. and thus by no means the sleeper at night with his eyes closed. And so the same is true even of the nightmare as of the meadow at the bottom of the well* and its symbols: every dream is wish-fulfilment. where wishes are also gratified. in the exhibition of this neurasthenic-colossal work of art. Yet astonishingly. Psychoanalysis. but also brood and plan. the daylight fantasy has hardly been acknowledged as an original state by psychology up till now. The day too has twilight edges. The daydream can furnish inspirations which do not require interpreting.** but which does not exclude acuteness and even responsibility precisely of 'thinking'. Many emotional statements driven to the extreme have caught very well this merging full of consternation. it is now necessary to investigate the structure of the whole. it can rant and rave. even the so-called sweet horror in Wagner's 'Ring of the Nibelungen'. not at all. barely inward images of this kind. not even as a special kind of wish-fulfilment. be closely related to the Muse and to Minerva). with a lot of sheer wishful thinking. ** . it builds castles in the air as blueprints too. however. puts daydreams completely on a par with night-dreams. and not always just fictitious ones. as we shall see. In contrast to the nocturnal dream.

which judges all dreams only as roads to what has been repressed. 417). But if this touchstone is challenged even for the world of consciousness. they feed on past if not archaic image-material. and only knows reality as that of bourgeois society and its existing world. imagined gratifications of ambitious. and nothing new happens under their bare moon. if even the nocturnal wishful dream is only seen as a dislocated and not entirely homogeneous component in the vast field of a still open world and its consciousness. and the shaped kind . to the responsible kind. let alone its artistic. And earlier on. In any case.Page 87 for nocturnal dreams.' Psychoanalysis of course. Not even with respect to its clinical content. and erotic wishes. devious and paralysing kind. since it enters and unlocks a very different region altogether. the restoration of the independence of pleasure-gaining from the consent of reality. the nocturnal labyrinths lie like cellars beneath the daytime castle in the air. So it would be absurd to take daydreams: as those presentiments of the imagination which from time immemorial have of course been called dreams but also forerunners and anticipations. And what of the equality of imaginary happiness which both are said to share. whereas Morpheus only has the arms in which we rest. pre-appearing. It ranges from the waking dream of a comfortable. if anything. in the same place: 'The most well-known products of the imagination are the so-called daydreams. consistently prefers to label daydreams as a mere stepping-stone to nocturnal ones. the kind actively and acutely deployed in the matter-in-hand. The castle in the air is not a stepping-stone to the nocturnal labyrinth. escapist. as a 'restoration of the independence of pleasure-gaining from the consent of reality'? More than one daydream before now has. The essence of imaginary happiness. and distorted by the nocturnal form of mental activity' (Vorlesungen. and to subsume them under or even subordinate them to the night-dreams. crude. frontlike anticipatory content. silly. For night-dreams mostly cannibalize the former life of the drives. megalomaniac. with sufficient vigour and experience. the poet equipped with daydreams is for the bourgeois only the hare who sleeps with his eyes open. p. Thus the daydream requires specific evaluation of its own. is unmistakably revealed in them. and this in bourgeois everyday life which sees and employs itself as the touchstone of all reality. remodelled reality to make it give this consent. which thrive all the more profusely the more reality calls for resignation or for patience. then the daydream is not a stepping-stone to the night-dream and is not disposed of by the latter. 1935. The night-dream is basically nothing other than a daydream which has become serviceable through the nocturnal freedom of the impulses.

it experiences the green light of release which appears to have come on for all other wishful ideas.Page 88 in art. even pharmacologically. often like mush. however dubious. he is not abducted or overpowered by his images. but they never completely vanish in the face of the wished-for images. whereas in the daydream it is a rising with the general rising swarm. instead of the idleness or even the self-enervation which certainly are to be found here. it is clear that 'reverie'. unlike the usual nocturnal 'dream'. However relaxed the dreamer might be. Indeed the difference between the being of the ego in night-and daydreams is so great that the very relaxation in which the daydream ego also participates can subjectively burgeon into a feeling of elevation. whereas the sleeper never knows what is awaiting him beyond the threshold of the subconscious. they are not independent enough for this. and which he could not revoke. the ego in the daydream is nowhere near so weakened as it is in the night-dream. There is no spell in this condition. is distinct . Preserved Ego The first property of the waking dream is that it is not oppressive. The waking dream-house is also furnished exclusively with ideas chosen by the daydreamer himself. It remains within our power. one freed of censorship. can possibly contain marrow and. The relaxation of the ego in night-dreams is merely a sinking. And daydream images are not normally hallucinated. where the ego merely looks on or allows itself to be carried along by its reveries. Even in its most passive form. remains in the context of its life and its waking world. it feels no pain. Because the ego itself then becomes a wishful idea for itself. they are often distorted. with its benighted ego. a tireless incentive towards the actual attainment of what it visualizes. Secondly. however subjective. In contrast the night-dream ego is divisible. despite the relaxation that also takes place in the former. at least none which the daydreamer has not voluntarily imposed on himself. it looks on completely intact. it does not die when it suffers death. so they return from the most remote flight of fancy at a moment's notice. Thus there is even a difference between the drugs which artificially induce the two types of dream. but ends it whenever it wants. Real things do appear muted. within the artificially stimulating phantastica. Above all. the imagination of the sleeping cerebrum. First and Second Characteristics of the Daydream: Clear Road. the ego starts out on a journey into the blue.

disentangled before him and well on the way to being accomplished' (Lewin. cave. pitifully stupid. particularly undisentangled subconsciousness: woman. Namely: opium appears to belong to the night-dream. anticipated achievements. the religious murder-sect of the Arabian Middle Ages. Admittedly. midnight. here there is nothing but night-dream. almost as in paranoia. to the talented hashish dreamer the world becomes a request concert of wishes. neither the individual temperament nor its reasoning are withdrawn. not light. padded air. but only to the extent that it is not compatible with the images that appear. it is Night who proffers the opium poppies to Morpheus . in fact they exaggerated it beyond all earthly measure. right to the very bottom. the external world is rather blocked off. castles. usually in heavy. an external world which reaches into the realms of the imagination and appears to be on a plane with Parnassus or even with a fool's paradise. led the young boys who had been chosen to commit murder into the dazzling gardens of the Sheik. so that they were prepared to risk their lives for the Sheik in order to gain the real paradise. not completely as it is in sleep. the asphalt of the street is transformed into yards of blue silk. And a sole dimension opens up of veiled. Phantastica. such as gardens. especially opium sleep. Instead of imagined elevation of the ego. crowd in upon one another. 159ff. into a world of unlimited sensual pleasure with their eyes wide open even though they were under the influence of hashish. And the hashish images fitted in perfectly with this external world comparable to a waking dream. the clarification of which previously seemed impossible. so that the boys with the utopian poison in their veins believed they were enjoying a foretaste of paradise. Even delusions of grandeur set in temporarily.). p. The hashish dreams of the subjects in more recent experiments are reported to be of an enchanting levity. with the Sheik of the Mountain at their head. and its babbling interference merely appears stupid. beautiful old streets.Page 89 from daytime imagination. in short. Even under the influence of hashish. Oblivion. the ego alters very little. is particularly suited to the stimulation of the hashish dream. and utopistically conducted alleviation of the environment. everything in the opium-trance is sunken. they have a kind of elfin spirit about them. ecstasy. random passers-by turn into Dante and Petrarch anachronistically deep in conversation. Whereas in contrast. rapturous daydream. is primarily at work in opium. hashish to the freewheeling. 1927. the total sleep of ego and external world. The Shiite sect of the hassasins or Assassins. The opiumtrance is quite different. torch. Another kind of levity is available under the influence of hashish: 'The individual imagines he can see tangled plans.

Far from the ego regressing on this occasion. deposed ego of the opium dream.Page 90 in ancient cameos. in daydreams there is no censorship whatsoever by a . even if it is patchy. enduringly conscious. and the hero of daydreams is always our own adult personality. The bearer of daydreams is filled with the conscious. Lethe was poured in the mysteries of Ceres as the opium water of oblivion. it is possible to say that it was not until this dream of immortality that the Caesar we know first came into being. It differs precisely on this point from the night-dream ego. The chthonic priestesses carried poppy seeds in their hands to deaden pain. among these disreputable delights. In contrast to night-dreams therefore. It ceases precisely because of the wishful idea which seizes the daydream ego and in fact strengthens or at least dresses it up. The ego is always preserved here with its adult power. So much for the illustration of a difference even between the enervations of Morpheus on the one hand. thus it practises moral censorship. as unified adult experience of conscious mental processes. the ego in the waking-dream is found to be very animated. furthermore: the guiding image is present of what a man would like to be and become in utopian terms. but rather of the future Caesar he was to become. even striving. Whereas the ego of the waking dream is neither deposed. even if variable will for the better life. as are infantile inferiority complexes. all the more so from the completely altered. of Phantasus on the other. No doubt in some cases memories of a mistreated childhood ego are also at work within them. indeed because of it. those induced by hashish are and remain in fact the only ones which are pathologically assigned to the waking dream. rather it completely ceases despite the entirely undiminished strength of the daydream ego. Consequently. the ego which reacted in this way was not that of the childish. Isis-Ceres herself is portrayed in late antiquity with poppy-heads in her hand. nor does it practise censorship against the often unconventional content of its wishes. When Caesar stood in Gades in front of the statue of Alexander deep in a daydream and shouted: 'Forty years and nothing yet done for immortality!'. On the contrary: the censorship here is not merely weakened and patchy as in the night-dream. but these do not constitute the core. Even though Baudelaire calls both the realms of intoxication of opium and hashish equally 'paradis artificiels'. It is particularly narrow and fundamentally wrong of Freud to observe on the subject of daydreams that they are all the dreams of children. in Freud the night-dream ego only remains sufficiently present to compel the hallucinated wish-fulfilments to disguise themselves from its gaze. As we remember. that they are only equipped with an unadult ego.

or even on private excesses. Circe who turns men into swine. rather. The sleeper is alone * The villainous blackguard in Schiller's play 'The Robbers'. What is needed for this is least of all the altered ego as in the night-trance. he flies with outspread wings up to the Temple of Posterity. however. as in most cases. however average. He does not atone for any pleasure. and. feels no pangs of conscience.Page 91 moral ego. live unrestrained – always with remarkable exemption from the rules of behaviour. Third Characteristic of the Daydream: World-Improving The ego of the waking dream may become so extensive that it represents others along with it. The little man who satisfies his wishes for revenge or who wishes his otherwise more or less beloved wife dead to the extent that in his wishful dream he is openly honeymooning with a younger woman. not even the censorship of the comic. This is especially evident in crude private reveries. All this overhauling. And an ambitious dreamer really does allow his wishes free rein. but attains the commonly binding progression: to painting a better world. In fact it must supplement this whenever the daydream is not expended on chimeras like Circe and Midas. which knows how to be circumspect. all the more remarkable since the relationship to the outside world is in no way screened as it is in the night-dream. In waking dreams. whether he is a Caesar or. held up high. let alone that of the anxiety of an Icarus or a Prometheus. Thus we reach the third point where daydreams and night-dreams differ: human breadth makes them different. their utopistically intensified ego builds itself and what belongs to it into a castle in the air in an often amazingly carefree blue. is only possible because of the unaltered ego of the waking dream and more precisely because of the already mentioned utopianizing strengthening with which the daydream ego supplements itself and what is commensurate with it. but rather an ego with taut muscles and a concrete head. a Spiegelberg. apart from the hindrance of external circumstances. A head with the will to extend itself. . he experiences no anxiety as a substitute for the censorship. in the imaginary fulfilment of such depraved wishes. 1781.* He too feels no censorship. Particularly when a daydream of this kind takes on its proper seriousness and becomes a cleverly informed plan. In any case it is much more obvious here than in those of a considered plan or a definite future-path. King Midas who turns the world into gold.

shapes emerge which draw the ego into their orbit. the ego of the enthuser can refer to others. because they take the material for this above all from an outside which has been dreamed to perfection. At this point the separate classification of night. into a better. with a submerged road back. and by picturing in vivid colours the images of happiness for which I could then long. stutters * Cf. there is an unmistakable difference in direction between the two illnesses. you millions. the two ideals of my heart.and daydream which appeared above with opium and hashish recurs. as projective delusion. but in fact world-improving. If the ego is no longer introverted in such a way or does not only refer to its immediate environment. Schiller's 'An die Freude': 'Be embraced. Of course the two illnesses to which these names are given are not to be strictly separated.* World-improving dreams in general seek the outwardness of their inwardness. If psychosis in general is an involuntary giving way of consciousness to an invasion by the unconscious.' . they emerge like the extrovert rainbow. schizophrenia is of course literal splitting off from it. but the paranoiac takes from this state many of his delusions. at least manifests utopistic edges. in the most delightful forms and decorated them with all the charms of woman. Thus it is instructive to read in Rousseau. even out of the swirling fog of the phantasm. I imagined love and friendship. goes back to the autistic-archaic state of childhood. unlike the schizophrenic unconscious. rhymes. even so. paranoia ends in schizophrenia. the hashish-like aspect in paranoia. Even still privately rooted dreams of this kind apply themselves to what is inside only because they want to improve it in collaboration with other egos. which certainly are not turned away from the world. The schizophrenic succumbs defencelessly to traditional powers. then its daydream wants to improve publicly. of course. stands with the regressions of his madness in archaic primeval time and paints. as a regression. The poppy-like aspect of the night-dream manifests itself correspondingly in schizophrenia. I created a golden age for myself to my own taste. their characteristics sometimes flow into each other. external orbit in which millions are embraced. like a vault across the sky. is thoroughly spellbound. then the paranoiac unconscious. The schizophrenic lets the world go.' Thus. by recalling the experiences of earlier days with which sweet memories were associated. Both are examples of extreme turning away from the current or available reality. Often. and this time it recurs in psychoses. in the fourth book of his confessions: 'I filled nature with being after my own heart.Page 92 with his treasures. which the utopian aspect now enables us to denote.

rather rapture is a turning to the good. fiery owls of a crazy Minerva who nevertheless wants to glimmer with red dawn. unreal. reacts to the traditional powers with querulousness and persecution mania. the paranoiac. whether medical.Page 93 out of its long-lost dream. These are chaotic and mythological interpretations. of darkening or over-brightness also seem to be at work where the downwards or upwards of neurotic consciousness pass over into raving. but instead new combinations. heavenly roads and more besides. As madness it makes fiery owls. Where. If one could fish out the mad ideas which are swimming around in the aura of lunatic asylums. a crucifixion fountain or any other painted or fictional antiquities derived from schizophrenia. has paranoiac caricatures. social or technological. Almost every utopia in fact. and at least some among the great utopians. projection to the being-aboveoneself of rapture. whereas the . for the tendency of the waking dream towards worldimprovement. Iamblichus. It is capable of doing this. but what underlies them repeats precisely in the religious-parapsychological field the different directions of significance of schizophrenia and paranoia. but breaks them at the same time with adventurous inventions. And no brooding night-symbols will be found among them. Jung. of the heart in the pond variety. Even in such great illness the waking dream shows what it is capable of in terms of specific world-improvement. project-making forwards. alongside the archaic theory of schizophrenia made all too famous by C. for every real innovator there are hundreds of fantastic. who knew his way around in the false consciousness of the possessed. G. in short. changes to the world. reports the following about this kind of upwards and downwards in his account of the mysteries: 'It has quite wrongly been assumed that even rapture can be attained by the influence of the demons. regression boils up to the being-beside-oneself of ecstasy. So rapture is definitely not ecstasy. the Syrian neo-Platonist. In short. It is further important for the waking dream. Which explains why there have been so many of these madmen among project-makers. as fairytale it paints Arabian fairy palaces into the world. we would find the most astonishing prefigurations created by paranoia. mad ones. whereas ecstasy is a falling towards evil' (De mysteriis II. but rapture (enthusiasm) is the work of the gods. if schizophrenia denotes the illness (screened exaggeration) of archaically regressing acts. as an extensive dream. especially. that is. however. to communicate itself outwards. The latter only bring about ecstasies. 3). paranoia does the same thing for the utopian progressive acts. Related differences of upwards or downwards. social recipes. on the other hand. of gold and jasper.

Conversely. but as one which also contains renunciation and which. extends both into the broad and into the deep expanse. but the merely diluting concept of 'sublimation' which follows immediately in Freud made the psychology of the New once more unrecognizable. a figure in a dream': thus. can only be related with difficulty. one without disappointment. In realistic writers such objective . communicable on account of their generally interesting wishful images.Page 94 night-dream. from the aurora in oil to the symbolic circles of the Paradiso. from the noble robber to Faust. all the wishful situations and wishful landscapes. together with imagination and its wit. banality. the situations which he inserts into his short stories. not as a frivolously gilding character. has this as its robustly real character: 'Ahead. but embraced by joy as the figure that is approaching. is not forgotten within it either. novels. with distant prospects. of consciousness directed into the good New. full of light. 1922. the objectively possible becomes visible. 102). rawness. The wishful images immediately posit external form here. hardness. The daydream as a stepping-stone to art so very obviously intends world-improvement. by certain reshapings. People and situations are themselves driven to their end by virtue of the daydream riding to its end in great art: the consistent. but in fact concentrated expanse. in the sense of completed images. a stepping-stone to art: 'They are the raw material of poetic production. into the non-sublimated. On this point Freud himself gives daydreams their own slant. windows are hewn in deprivation. plays' (Vorlesungen. Yet the daydream. the earthly pain/Entwined with joy. into that of the utopian dimensions. in a better planned world or even in an aesthetically heightened world. It posits all the figures of venturing beyond. Freud has touched on the truth of utopian creativity at this point. the like of which have not yet been seen on earth. alongside the stepping-stone of the nightdream. against the grain. disguises and omissions. in 'Death of the Poet' Gottfried Keller characterizes the companions of the poet. though the latter is certainly not conquered by art alone. daydreams are comprehensible on account of their openness. Through planning or forming. because it is common property. And this automatically posits the better world also as the more beautiful. The daydream goes into music and echoes in its house which is invisible but nevertheless as much a part of world-extension. related in such a way that the particular feeling of the subject-matter is communicated to the listener too. like every all too private experience. Art contains this utopianizing character by virtue of the daydream. with lowered gaze. since the writer makes out of his daydreams. now it is dynamic and expressive in music. they now become after all. p.

in its sinking back and archaism. as the most exact imaginative experiment of perfection possible. through one. of a specific kind. that is. only prelogical images. waking dream with world-extension is always presupposed for the accomplished work of art. wholly realistic way in both its theory and practice. the waking. a perfect waking dream of harmonious connection with nature may also come first: Kepler intended such world-perfection. However. needs the waking dream of world-improvement. Where extrovert imagination is completely lacking. Fourth Characteristic of the Daydream: Journey to the End Fourthly. a fantasy which is concretely related and hurries on ahead. Consequently. and he discovered the laws of planetary motion. but purely in outline. The reality of these laws certainly did not correspond to the dream of perfection of the harmony of the spheres. This sort of thing is as remote as can be from the regression of the night-dream: for the latter shows. was the estimate of a totally harmoniously ordered world. nevertheless: the dream went on ahead. keeps hold of it in a wholly unheuristic. but carries them radically to their conclusion. with acknowledgement of how good it could be if it were otherwise. . still not in detail. with knowledge of how bad the world is. are really only at home in the daydream. that dream of a matter in nature and history which the matter has of itself and which belongs both to its tendency and to the settlement of its Totum and essence. not those of a rational cosmos. as in Naturalists and in those people Engels called 'induction asses'. open dream knows how not to forgo. it goes without saying. The day-fantasy begins like the night-dream with wishes. not by making nature fantastic for example. This may simply consist in the so-called heuristic 'assumptions'. social utopian ones and those of beauty. in fact not only for the work of art. even of transfiguration. Ultimately. wants to get to the place of their fulfilment. This however. even science only gets beyond the superficial connection through an act of anticipation. Above all revolutionary interest. but rather by making known through fantasy. then of course only matters of fact and superficial connections are apparent. Anticipations and intensifications which refer to men. as categories of a society which has long since passed. which present a picture of the whole matter.Page 95 possibilities in the world they portray become quite distinct. It refuses to be fictitiously full or even simply to spiritualize wishes.

truly golden as it was. . can't take it away from you . In a thinker like Freud. religion as .Page 96 Two typical daydreams of writers are relevant here. nothing at all corresponds to these contents in the outside world either (which must in fact appear to the late bourgeoisie as leaden sobriety and nothingness). Your kingdom is in the clouds and not of this earth. would not at least begrudge me a serene pleasure. vivid. One comes from the childhood of Clemens Brentano. I wish you a blessed rainbow. The two daydreams. and Mörike's Orplid transported so far away. we spent our free time together and soon created our own sphere of poetry . and every time it touches the earth it will rain tears. . All the shapes of our imagination still stand before me. earnest. . We invented for our poetry a territory which lay outside the known world. a secluded island on which a powerful heroic people was supposed to live. The mere assignment of the daydream to the chimeras of the night or even to art seen as a kind of game does least justice to such or similar imaginative landings. the other comes from the youth of Mörike and already contains all the seeds of a poetic ideal landscape. despite all weakness and escapism. they posit this place in a really prototypical way. true. are all the more relevant here because they intend an arrival.' So much for Brentano's Vaduz founded in the children's attic. and anyone into whose soul I could play just one ray of the poetic sun which warmed us then. it was. he would even forgive the mature man for taking another idle walk in the redolent landscape of this poetry and even for bringing back a piece of old stone from the beloved ruin. even the household cavalry with the Antichrist at their head.' Mörike's account concerning the direct transition from day-fantasy into poetry is to be found in his novel 'Maler Nolten'. as transposed autobiography: 'When I was still at school I had a friend whose way of thinking and aesthetic endeavour went hand in hand with mine. not merely a world-improving roaming. believe me. with his sister Bettina and other children. After Brentano. . For this sees only sublimations in them or even archaic return. and all the soldiers of Frankfurt. like being driven out of paradise when he later learnt that there was a real Vaduz and that it was the capital of the principality of Liechtenstein. This island was called Orplid. and it records the following. for. as Brentano says. had established a kingdom called Vaduz in a Frankfurt attic. and we imagined it was situated in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and South America. both incidentally of quiet writers. instead of attempted articulation of a utopian hope-content. art as a whole is false appearance. your Vaduz is yours and is not marked on any map. But Goethe's old mother consoled him: 'Don't let it upset you.

psychologically speaking. that is. illusion. even what is useless or harmful. 1795. In Freud. like enjoyment of art that merely conserves. But even the bourgeoisie was not always committed solely to the stalls of contemplation. and of a morning gate of the beautiful. for anywhere from the night-club to the National Gallery. then the nature reserve theory would perhaps be all right. By this process. man thus continues to enjoy the freedom from external compulsion which he has long since renounced in reality. nature reserves in those places where the demands of agriculture. is made reflexive. The spiritual realm of imagination is also such a conservation area. and what is intended by these radical conceptions. Everything may thrive and grow as it wants. . and a kind of jester's licence for the purpose of producing pleasure would follow. G. this is almost more definitely blocked off for it here than for the night-dream which is in any case symptom-like. particularly in the journey to the end. 1922. particularly as journey to the end. What is essential for the daydream. In C. Precisely by this process. . This is decisively contradicted by the fact that Vaduz and Orplid. If art was everywhere and always the same as mere formal or non-committal armchair observation. and it appears as mechanical reality consistent with the world-picture of the last century. in fact attacks. purely introverted. withdrawn from the reality principle' (Freud. it did once dream of the aesthetic education of man. is: the seriousness of a pre-appearance of the possibly Real. Jung this introverted material only had to be excavated vertically in order to transfer Orplid into the archaic realm.Page 97 a whole. have never sought their place of fulfilment * A reference to Schiller's essay 'On the Aesthetic Education of Man'. reality always appears as immutable. i. . The usual simple bourgeois illusion-theory of the daydream leaves within it and around it only the playing space for the pretty games of infantilisms and archaisms: 'In the exercise of his imagination. . from the nature reserve into the Tertiary period. let alone with 'a conservation area withdrawn from the reality principle'. of traffic and of industry threaten to change quickly the original face of the earth beyond recognition. in Jung. imaginative landing was only possible as an archetype. The nature reserve preserves this old state which we have elsewhere regretfully sacrificed to necessity. How little Socialist Realism has in common with philistine enjoyment of art. The creation of the spiritual realm of the imagination finds its complete counterpart in the laying-out of conservation areas. only in the long since sunken land of myth. 416).e. as is the night-dream.* and consequently of art which grasps. utopian daydream. or. Vorlesungen. p.

in fact ultimately towards the contents of an as yet unknown final state. utopian destination in its distance. the 'far radiating' quality of these great imaginative creations. Rather. but more realistic. and outside them is the daydream world of a possibility which can at any rate be given form. plays throughout this consciousness with a never to be forgotten spirit of fairytale. i. There are enough differences * Novels in which life in an imaginary state is described. great works of every age have something to say. and indeed something new that the previous age had not yet noticed in them. no matter how variably the contents of this perfect something have been pictured in accordance with previous classes and societies. they open windows. And the great. The Orplidic thus hangs with hundreds of small and great pearls on the little-explored red thread** of dream-utopia and is continually held together by it. Even the transferral of such fairytale images into Once-upon-atime always allows the One Day as something coming to shimmer through the One Day as something past. possibly a window on to something Absolute.e. Significant daydream imaginative creations do not blow soap-bubbles. every great work of art. 'The red thread' also means 'the central theme' in German. the fairytale Magic Flute. as something expected – in the Some Day of time. for this reason alone. The will to journey to the end where everything turns out well thus always pervades utopian consciousness. suo modo in works of art. ** . realistic works of art do not become less realistic through the notation of latency. Even the transferral to secluded valleys or South Sea islands. but also the historically rigidly fixed Divine Comedy have their 'eternal youth'.* involves future in its remoteness. It is held together by the intention towards something perfect. through the space – however blank – of the Absolute. through which they at least hold open the exit in given reality. as Goethe says. Paradise – stands likewise. but also. that is: towards the contents of a future which had not yet appeared in its time.Page 98 anywhere but in the future. For this reason alone. as in Thomas More's 'Utopia'. besides its manifest essence. is also carried towards a latency of its coming side. Even the really archaic basic ground of memory to which so many images of hope refer back: the archetype Golden Age. What is important is. and this must finally be understood. since everything real mingles with the Not-Yet within that space. as was the case in older novels of an ideal state. works in the dreams of a better life. The world-improving imagination lands in them not just so that all men and things are driven to the limits of their possibility and all their situations are used up and their forms fully fashioned.

Friedrich Huch published a hundred accounts of 'Dreams'. . changed. in contrast to that of the night. Day writings. They are all reproachful wish-fulfilments. but rectification and. thus a particularly tangled strangeness. In short. The content of the night-dream is concealed and disguised. a crazy aerial picture on the ground. also certainly incorporate dreams. into which there is no entry. it is indiscriminately drawn into its images. but controllable even given the most impetuous imagination and mediatable with the objectively Possible.* shortly before his sad return home. it does not have a measure from the outset any more than the night-dream but. It comes itself out of self. for it is. Merging of Nocturnal and Daytime Dream-Games. They are reported like other events. however. often simply wanting to know better. can also be the subject not only the object of its science.Page 99 between the two kinds of dream even at this end. succumbs to a real orgy of dreams. in so far as it is capable of it. 1854–5. transfigured. anticipating. which looks like something exceptional and doubtless can be portrayed as such. This always means: the night-dream lives in regression. the only honest quality of all men. Longing is common to both kinds of dream. Der grüne Heinrich. it is wanting to have better.and world-extension forwards. but the desiderium of the day. the content of the day-fantasy is open. the novel 'The Other Side' (by the illustrator Alfred Kubin) stems mainly from moon and sleep. Among them belongs the vision of his home town. most strikingly and most beautifully even in the realist Keller. The daytime wishful dream requires no excavation and interpretation. Remarkable collections of this kind exist. as noted. the daydream projects its images into the future. by no means indiscriminately. and its latency lies ahead. Valleys * The hero of Keller's most famous novel of the same name. concretion. its Dissolution Being different from one another does not of course mean being unrelated. Between the level of the dreamer and that of the daydreamer there is sometimes an exchange. unlike the spooks of the night. it has a goal and makes progress towards it. There is a play of colours in the night which can also exist during the day. the mode as well as the content of wishfulfilment diverge in them insuppressibly. fabulously inventive. but they also blend effortlessly with the solid yet fairytale-like lavishness in which all Keller's observations are steeped.

' This sort of thing does of course show the traffic between the antipodes of night and daylight.Page 100 and streams appear with unheard-of. rose-gardens float away into the distance. actually the parlour at dusk turned inside out. porcelain jars and little marble images. here neither the high mountains are protected by their greatness. H. beside their exchange. except the steadiness and quiet which the latter has. Every dream was for Novalis 'a significant tear in the mysterious curtain which falls in a thousand folds in our inner being'. Night-dream as novel grown wild was discovered by Romantic nature philosophy: 'These creations then are not without voice and speech. It was predominantly also the metamorphosis of dream-images which recommended itself to Romantic antistatics and to its waking dream. pretends to be the last remaining hope. meet and mutually suppress each other. 549). spreading out a reddish hue on the horizon: – 'the alpine glow streams out and surrounds the fatherland'. the light now comes from Hades. in contrast to the outer. uncannily and peculiarly full of foreboding. yet well-known names. re-shaping . romantically-objectively united. in an almost scholarly fashion. and a half-nocturnal sun was reflected in the dark splendour of the walnut. 1830. only the night-dream provides the raw material and image for this: 'On the ledges and in the recesses stood rows of antique silver pots and beakers. Die Geschichte der Seele. in the silver of the jugs and in the window-panes. Thus the appearance arose as if night-dreams and daydreams underwent. Above this strange façade the sky arched dark-blue. sounds and words. and thus nothing seems to be lost from that inner nature. Schubert. With what elective affinity Romanticism in particular was able to use this mixed light. nor the tree by the power of its roots from passing quickly away. as if made of fleeting clouds. p. even a merging of their images. His mother's house appears. coming as if from all different directions. they seem completely immersed in each other. Window-panes of glass-crystal sparkled with mysterious brilliance in front of a dark background between the grainy doors of rooms and cupboards with shining steel keys in them. It is a different red to that of reddening dawn. The pure Romantic simply no longer wants to know whether subconscious chaos or consciously shaping. unforgettable. as a dream-game and not only as a game. on the same ground. For such inner figments. the waking dawn of former times when der grüne Heinrich left his home town and turned back to the mountains: 'now the morning star glimmered only over the last ice-altar'. there suddenly now appears a plain or a room enclosed by walls' (G. comprehensible and incomprehensible. come and disappear. and where one moment there was cliff and forest.

But in the midst of the monkey-chatter (from one day and a thousand subconscious human reactions strictly mixed up) there appears something clearly viewed. not odours. the future of the day. . Though now with the important difference from Romanticism that the utopian did not so much want to turn towards the past. with babbling and speaking in tongues inside them. cutting straight through time and space. For him the night-dream is in any case removed from all concepts of time and space of current sobriety. are thus conjured up in day-fantasies and these are then lowered down again. to a new land. moon flakes silvering through the window'. This is a legacy which Romanticism brought from the night into the day layer. mere superficial connection. Even stammering nonsense of the night in the attempt to travel. Lot's wife and The Old Ireland Tavern near the salt water down by the docks. The crack in the previous surface then tore open cave and distant blue together. the gift of tongues rendering visible not the lay sense but the first entelechy. Expressionist poet. highly post-Romantic. would be a universal language. ultimately in Expressionism. and many more Däubler phrases besides:* night-lines were incorporated into utopian ones in this strained way. Primeval caves. to better shores. 1876–1934. not music. the night-dream is constructed pre-logically and is thus an archaic element against the expanse. particularly in Surrealism. willows which steal the light from the moonfond pond. 'So that'. says Stephen Dedalus. the structural rhythm' (Ulysses. An object-lesson in these transitions was given by James Joyce in 'Ulysses'. highly un-Romantic. celebrate their meeting. as the past towards something utopian. from all causal and identity-forms of the grey cortex of civilization. applied montage shows quite rational cross-connections or analogiae entis. the author does not interrupt with a single comma the decoction that surges over the levelled threshold of consciousness for eighty pages. provides a mixture of prehistoric stammering.Page 101 imagination predominates in his poetry. The cellar of the unconscious discharges itself in Joyce into a transitory Now. smut and church music. even to rationally ordered shores. Accordingly the overlap of the black and the blue hours happened again every time both were proud not to be day in the sense of superficial clarity. No matter how lunar the atmosphere in the Expressionist poem: 'pale evening trees. their everyday beyond space and time. a continual merging * Theodor Däubler. the morning. 'so that gesture. Part II (Circe)). though there was continually an element of new connection at work between the two layers. on the basis of such dissolutions of the former day connections.

i. it can circulate in the notions of clear road. one which then unmasks the design merely to épater le bourgeois. This is in fact a difference from Romanticism understood as the age of Restoration. gives the explanation and dissolution of a partially possible merging of the dream-games. And above all: from the example of Gottfried Keller's dream-house. it also becomes apparent why conversely the waking dream is no less able to communicate with archaic material. At any rate. a night-piece of the house of the mother and of youth. undeveloped. not only psychologically. Only as something brooding in an undischarged.* at that time the daydream was fundamentally incorporated into night-lines without becoming phosphorescent. The labyrinth of the night-dream even aesthetically is not a stepping-stone to the castle in the air. which flashes like the Styx. future still exists in the past. a contemptible humour sometimes. or even a humour of pettily contrived jokes. journey to the end. corresponding to the very time of collapse to which Surrealism belongs. world-improvement. or the journey to the end makes use of the regressio. forward-intention. by an imagination that is directed towards what is becoming. in itself the archaic is dumb. does it attain the power not to hold itself sealed against the latter. not as something brooding that has primally been. archaic material can communicate with waking imagination. in short. that has never really become known anywhere. But more essential in Surrealism remains the fundamental coupling of Hecate and Minerva. it is a protracted mixed world of subconsciousness and red dawn. preserved-retained ego.e. a contact-world in which the regressio makes use of the journey to the end. But it can only say something in so far as it is exposed by waking imagination. a montage of mere shreds and collapses. and yet: in so far as it forms its dungeons. but also objectively. but as such. It can do so because. even though only as such. And even * Bloch is referring to the reactionary period of the restoration of the French monarchy after 1814. The insight therefore that archaic brooding can be utopian in reality finally explains the possibility of a merging of night-dreams and daydreams. as always in the sudden combination of incompatibles. And in Surrealism. and after that things become quite cosy in the dream-house at the sign of the Double Strangeness. remains the visionary face. This night still has something to say. which is encapsulated in parts within it. . because many night-pieces are also undischarged or unfinished and therefore demand daydream. there is no lack of humour.Page 102 of grotesque night-faces and outlines develops. but as something that has not become. utopian way does it have the power to open up in the daydream.

for example. but archaism which capitulates. is immediately excluded from the above. only awake do we sense it. contains human concerns instead of Medusas in the labyrinth. since it is not a mixture. though with so much variation of capability and quality. More on Inclination to Dream: the 'Mood' as Medium of Daydreams Asleep. Rübezahl – a legendary Silesian mountain spirit. every other merging and every other explanation of it is illusion. so they all advance together. And: the state-of-being is not. transposed in a utopian way. feeling well and feeling ill. Otherwise. imagination in Jung and Klages' sense would revert completely to prehistory. it only contains the cooking * ** Psalm 127. into the field of anticipatory consciousness. sick and healthy states-of-being. moreover a romanticized. But the daydream. that Apollo who may well be familiar with vapours and oracles. possibly to the utopian. not yet referring to a particular part of the body or to a particular kind of physical pain or enjoyment. Otherwise the treasures which can be seen on the floor of night become chaff and withered pine-cones. It senses itself first in the feeling of its state-of-being. Regression therefore occurs artistically only with profit when something that has not become. Therefore. of actual drive-feelings or emotions. the suspect god who gives to his beloved in sleep* needs Apollo to speak for him. There are middling. only the daylight opens up the wonderfully relevant material of night-dreams. . the body is in the dark. Daydreams have chosen the better part. on the tongue or localized in erogenous zones. like the latter. like Rübezahl's** gifts when day comes. but they are all merely quite general. and what it grasps. of the archaic in general. a clear stomach-ache. a future possible. In fact. The elaboration of it is in any case the business of the day. a specific sensation of pleasure. but has conquered them and has them serving in his temple. therein only physical states become aware of themselves. like the mood. counterfeit prehistory. and it is this material only because and in so far as it is still itself utopian. on account of its undischarged components. 2. is also still encapsulated in the archetype.Page 103 with the continuing primacy of the waking imagination: it is not the utopian that capitulates here to archaism. And even they then only become aware in a blurred and diffuse way. being in good or bad 'spirits'.

Simple. and at the same time diffuse collective phenomenon. arises out of a confusion of many naturally given sounds in an irregular sequence. German philosopher and education theorist. So bright midday is little suited for this. from which the changing perceptions are raised with particular colouring. particularly the gut-sensations and more or less subconscious sensations of the circulation of the blood. which is reminiscent of the spreading of perfumes. 2 (1788). 1903. 41). gloomy as death'). composing ego behind them. however. Th. great objects like the sea are worse suited for it. Or in a more recent description (which at any rate is not crawling with the fashionable existentialist moodobsession à la Bollnov):** 'The spiritual mood is the relatively persistent atmospheric basis of our feeling of life. not natural sounds. our ideas and our behaviour are also permeated' (Lersch. The state-of-being is like a roaring which. Der Aufbau des Charakters. but its own 'ground tone' is undulating. 1903. the stormy mood is wellknown (which the first bolt of lightning disperses). p. Lipps emphasized precisely this expanse which is foreign to the state-of-being of the body. 'the perceptible spreading of the pleasure of an experience into a more or less expansive mood embracing the whole of psychological experience' (Leitfaden der Psychologie. This distinguishes the more organic feeling of condition in the 'state-of-being' from the far more ego-based feeling of 'mood'. the early morning is better.e. he notes in the case of 'cheerfulness'. i. A room. The mood is like the confusion of sounds from an orchestra which plays bits of individual passages simultaneously before the beginning of a piece of music. as the state-of-being does. b. like weather. the more indistinct. but sounds which have a musical. atmospheric. to which it is primarily attached. like every other noise. with an ego behind them. by which. ** . p. it can move between extremes (like 'exulting to the heavens. when in unsettled spirits. thus there is the diffuse sense which announces the feelings of organs on the one hand. subterranean 'ground tone' either. and even here the more distinctly. and the diffuse sense that conveys emotional feelings on the other. a landscape appear to have a 'mood'.* which the state-of-being does not know so close together.Page 104 of the bodily processes. And furthermore. the feeling of mood spreads out even beyond the ego. Otto Friedrich Bollnov. more diffuse the transmitted emotional state looks. 271). The mood does not have such a muffled. On account of this atmospherically wide. but as yet no emotional feelings. 1948. for example. every mood shows a peculiar expanse. it is most at home in the evening. those which cannot be surveyed are * Klärchen in Goethe's play 'Egmont' 3. which a person always first gets into.

Heidegger also hails from this impressionistic thereabouts. shallowness prevents any intimation of the darkness of the real immediate existere which in no way brings its being before it as There (darkness of the lived moment.c. which should not be confused with a bad mood. 1927. in this undifferentiated animal surge. This boredom reveals That-Which-Is in the whole' (Was . And there again an elevated mood can relieve the manifest burden of existence. draws all things. Jacobsen). This in fact makes it into a phenomenon which so easily becomes iridescent. Being has become manifest as a burden. in the sense of an original explanation of how one is and one feels. depressingly stagnant. like the forest. concerning the 'abysses' of this kind of stateof-mind: 'The deep boredom. we must never forget that the breadth of mood. Heidegger has the so to speak tautological advantage of having noticed 'that existence always already has a mood'. the possibility of mood also reveals. . even though relieving it. even shallow dimension that he has uncovered. and also completely without intensive density – to spin out and deform so easily as merely impressionistic experience-reality (Debussy. the burdensome character of existence' (l. within this dull dimension. this at the same time causes it – still on the other side of the confusion of sounds before the beginning of a piece of music. in so far as he describes it and at the same time succumbs to it. It is an essential feature of the mood that it appears total only when it is diffuse. p. State-of-being and mood remain unseparated here. it never consists of a dominant. which itself moves outwards so strongly. 134). however. . even as an extroverted feeling for nature never appears divided up. .. But Heidegger has not got beyond the dull. 134). is so far from being nothing that precisely within it existence becomes wearisome to itself. of which more later) even in the mood. Not the misery of all mankind. but solely that of the unilluminated hopeless petit bourgeoisie strikes us when we come to this sentence in Heidegger. Thus the interested depressing element obstructs all brightening tendencies of the mood. mood-ladenness' (Sein und Zeit. swirling to and fro in the abysses of existence like a silent fog. to reproduce instead only the dejection: 'The often enduring. but of an itself wide mixture of many emotional feelings which have not yet been settled. but remains in an undulating generality. evenly proportioned and pale moodlessness. Here. The original aspect is according to this idea not a perceiving Finding-Oneself-in-a-State but rather a mood-laden Being-in-a-State: 'What we indicate ontologically by the term state-of-mind is ontically the most familiar and everyday thing: mood. thus. p. overwhelming emotion. But here.Page 105 better. people and oneself together in a remarkable indifference.

without which even this diffuseness of emotions. What is missing is precisely the colour for waking dreams. but on the strength and the content of the emotions of inclination which arise out of it. Escape and inclination. It also demands relaxation. one to waking dreams. emotions of rejection and devotion are simultaneously mixed in this bright-dark mood. a nervous or a considered departure. whether it is for next to nothing or not for all the world: this of course depends not on the mood. i. as one of emotions. but rather an excursion. And this is even more true of the mood. is not light enough as a medium to allow daydreams to develop straight away. only now finds its medium. and in this way form the aura in which each embarkation for Cythera takes place. The pale moodlessness itself may not yet be dreamy. And precisely at this point of transition. belongs to the mechanized capitalist enterprise. certainly. as Heidegger must himself say.e. with which the mood can picture its blue hour. Whether it is minor or grand. 16). whether Cythera consists in a mere improvement of situation or in something unheard-of till now. even the dejected mood. on the status and concreteness of the imagination . rather. not to the black one. this everyday mood essentially. if not solely. the confusion of unpleasurable emotions. between gloom and cheerfulness. the wishful character is completely missing. is endowed with 'pale moodlessness'. Not every possible everyday. has previously been disregarded in relation to the daydream. that confusion of sounds of living drive-feelings which actually first pictures 'mood' and in which the inclination to dream. particularly inclined to the blue. it is 'moodlessness'. though of a kind which is not seeking slumber. the continual propensity towards the better in the ground tone of all expectant emotions is all the more inclined to relieve this dejected mood and to escape into an elevated one. apart from the moodlessness. Because the sleeper's body is in the dark. its state-of-being is also missing. without it of course becoming uninteresting in existential-ontical terms and sinking down in existentialistontological terms into nihilism.Page 106 ist Metaphysik? 1929. Here then from the mood. which presupposes the ego. This state of mood. not even every one which has already appeared historically. And even within this enterprise there exists. the medium exists in which waking dream images develop most comfortably. p. because it announces itself solely as a mood of expiring life. unless. even alongside the undoubted burden of such an existence. cannot exist. let alone with the boredom which the 'That-Which-Is in the whole' supposedly reveals. it belongs to the blue hour. we must now make up for this. here: of a declining class. However.

in fact. . Otherwise there would not be the lyricism which also accompanies rigidly shaped daydream images. it leaves this water. It also fills such sustained and martellato emotional picture music as that of Brahms (fourth symphony. Byzantine mosaic or even merely Alfieri's classicism. particularly the last movement). because of the atmospheric quality of the imagination. Not merely the impressionistic and the older sentimental mood then recedes. in that it pacifies it. In daydream-works. refuses the situational itself. distant light of this kind clings for a long time to the waking dream. in all art that has been striven for and which is without unrest. So mood still lies at the feet even of the intended anti-mood of a work of art. Otherwise there would not be in them that weather-like quality which is not just confined to Impressionism. This is also the case. Around a Cythera like Egyptian relief. Mood only recedes in a decisive situation and in a representation which can accordingly make itself appear free of atmosphere. rather than softness it causes the rough and sharp quality here. to this phenomenon of mood which is relatively of the most comfortable kind. even if. and especially those with arousing blue (azure). bright-dark mood is therefore not only confined to softness à la Debussy or Jacobsen. together with the whole romanticism of this medium clears. Baroque or even merely around Byron's stormy world. in that art which seeks to be hard and crystalline. mood as pathos still underlies these too. But bright-dark mood remains in every blue light. even Egyptian art contains unrest. by seeking to be a single stone requiem. there is no longer so much mood as around Gothic. of a weakly shaped and weakly committing kind. wherever they are still situational. negatively as well as positively. without the pathos of movement and time. opens a view on to what is decisive and no longer so situational. that is. qua its wishful dream. Nevertheless. even those with hardness. or at least a situation which has been brought to a standstill by taking a stance. the kind whose iridescence never goes beyond a mixture of broken-off emotions and blurred outlines. in its ultimately achieved dryness. This always happens where a situation driven to its conclusion in the artistic waking dream. This daydream water belongs to every daydream. in a strikingly weatherless way.Page 107 which visualizes the fulfilment of their intention for these emotions. Thus it is confirmed: the bright-dark mood provides the medium in which all daydreams begin. that is. but also the atmosphere of sharpness. imaginative dream. and thus also extends a long way into the actually shaped waking dreams.

Despair. like anxiety and fear.Page 108 More on the Expectant Emotions (Anxiety. the temporal environment of its content is future. which are always only 'founded' by known material and at most intend an 'unreal' future of their Object. the expectant content shows a greater 'depth' than the given idea-content in each case. At the . even when the mood-based medium disperses.e. But even then the expectant emotion extends beyond its 'founding' idea-content. as those which are differentiated from the filled emotions by their strongly anticipating intentional direction (cf. have been promoting the waking dream in the mood-medium anyway. the stronger. This ultimately distinguishes expectant emotions from the filled ones (like envy. but now as one which has predominantly been driving in the medium of expectant emotions. They then seem 'exaggerated' to the unengaged observer. Vol. p. so they appear here again. as a fulfilment correlate. but also out of the relatively unrelated. can likewise become passions. Therefore. Fear. Hope. for example. simply lack of awareness of the real situation causes them to appear 'exaggerated'. The more imminent this future is. is a mood. greed. Even expectant intentions with a negative content as regards self-preservation. total destruction such as there has not yet been before. Confidence) and the Waking Dream The drive-feelings themselves are of course no longer so mood-based. and the 'deeper' it becomes a passion. i. hell let loose. and are so in pathological cases. one that can be imagined exactly. 'more burning' the expectant intention as such. occasionally. the waking dream continues to resound. as Husserl wrongly says of all emotions. real imagination. the forward-reaching. 'complete' trust. do not remain so. 'open' hatred. 'enlarging' their object. but keenly flashing pleasure is an emotion. a quite special type of emotions. the more totally the person throws himself into it. The intentional contents of the filled emotions lie. I. admiration). Every fear implies. as opposed to that of hope idea. Terror. the horizon of memory idea. And the emotions do not only emerge out of the diffuse. of course. objectively containing nothing new. every hope implies the highest good. this general carefree feeling of life. no less so than hope. 74). the more extensively the content of an expectant intention affects the intending self. The intention in all expectant emotions is one that points ahead. These. in a 'set horizon'. that is. bliss let loose such as there has not yet been before. They soon clearly raise themselves from this general way of feeling in the shape of 'sheer' envy. and the possible 'real' future of its Object. Cheerfulness.

1928. Accordingly.e. undifferentiated 'Thusness' in everything. every expectant emotion. an expectation at work. without which anxiety could not constitute itself at all. they only have a 'horizon directed towards the future of what is re-remembered'. on the other hand. the negative content in this relation is completely omitted here. 410). to the first constriction (angustia) in breathing. that is. back to the act of birth. Every later feeling of anxiety accordingly brings this primal experience of trepidation and abandonment alive. But with the existing social conditions which may by themselves copiously stimulate fear of life and death. which. does not make his anxiety regressive. but neither does he process beyond it to equally original positive expectant emotions without which anxiety as such could not exist. quite unexpectedly: 'Every originally constituting process is animated by protentions which emptily constitute and collect what is coming as such' (Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins. and Husserl himself states. even if it should only intend unreal future in the foreground. Instead. with the unweakened temporal material in time that is called real future. these 'protentions' have in memory and in the emotions 'founded' by it already received what is theirs. reacting to all situations of danger. This is the life which the expectant emotion implicitly communicates to the thus anticipatory waking dreams. that which objectively arouses anxiety. not only in its physical expression. Whereas the expectant emotions. just as a valley could not exist without a mountain. i. However. begins as the most mood-based and undefined. becomes capable of a rapport with the objectively New.Page 109 same time there is always of course. at the same time possess this space as decided temporal space. qua intention. is thus supposed to be merely subjective and therein regressive. p. and the real imaginative idea which shows them their Object in space. and to the first separation from the mother. even fear of death. even in the remembering idea. The first and fundamental negative expectant emotion. this feeling is tremulous. as we have seen. anxiety. and in a way which really does subjectively individuate each man. Heidegger makes anxiety into the simple. leading him back to himself as . But the inner surge is of course abandoned in this process with varying speed or force. Heidegger. but also in its Object. with its unreal future. the existential 'basic state-of-mind'. Freud primarily traced anxiety. is in fact 'set horizon'. or even produce them. Every drive-feeling that is not merely mood-based refers to a something that is external to it. An anxious person never sees defined in front of him or around him the something from which the feeling drifts towards him.

with much intentional immediacy of experience (mere experiencing). in fact it is from the outset expectation of something negatively undefined. everywhere and irrevocably thrown. namely nothingness.c. according to Heidegger. 1927. the gigantic alienated enterprise into which they are placed. What was for primitive man still the 'Not-at-home' in impenetrable nature. terror. 187). with which philosophy feels ashamed in front of philology and gains nothing in the process beyond metaphysical dilettantism – Heidegger thus reflects and. clearly only makes absolute the 'basic state-of-mind' of a declining society.. of the Being-Subject-to-Death of all Being-in-the-World. he reflects the society of monopoly capitalism. the only alternatives to permanent crisis are war and war production. with his ontology of anxiety. p. Heidegger. characterizes the About Which of anxiety' (l. its most revealing manifestations were fear of ghosts and nocturnal horror. although mostly concealed trembling of everything existing' per se. with permanent crisis as its normal condition. p. Thus anxiety here confronts us most immediately and par excellence with nothingness as the basic fund of the Being-Uncanny. And this About Which is basically the same thing into which anxiety dissolves itself. in contrast to the second negative expectant emotion. has become for the unsuspecting victims of monopoly capitalism their society. together with an inordinate amount of mere interpretation of the meaning of words. with anxiety as unsuspectingness. Because what causes and establishes anxiety can come from all sides. and its intensified concentrated mode. or even: . fear: with its sudden concentrated mode. 'The fact that the threatening is nowhere. And both have been replaced by those monsters and nightmares walking in the flesh today. the 'It was nothing'. 'about which anxiety is anxious. From the standpoint of the petit bourgeoisie. acute in the petit bourgeoisie. including the nothingness into which he is supposedly always. Heidegger however – with a sociological ignorance which matches his metaphysical dilettantism – makes this anxiety into the basic state-of-mind of man in general. The threat here at least comes out of a weather-corner which is known from previous experience.Page 110 solus ipse. is Being-in-the-world itself' (Sein und Zeit. but working in the darkness. So naturally anxiety does not yet clearly refer to its external something. fright. being itself 'hangs over into nothingness'. it can be said: much cheap emotion-seeking. but also with. Anxiety thus accordingly reveals to man 'his most characteristic Being-in-theworld'. All that remains of Heidegger's anxiety-'hermeneutics' is at best a kind of familiarity. 186). The 'basic state-of-mind' of anxiety reveals precisely this abyss. but the About Which. hence also 'the constant.

as the ineffably sweet blooming of the reddening dawn with . The activated expectation of the terrible is of course brief. There are only two of them: hope. nothing could instil terror. then the most extreme. Of course their number is much smaller. as a gathering emotion. hovering. like a sniper's bullet. has something absolutely defined about it in its Object. Without expectation. really refers to nothingness. All their waking dreams (only terror has no time to form one) ultimately revolve around something negatively unconditional: the infernal. and besides this definitive element. And only this. still has a mood-based element in common with anxiety: not as the homeless element of the nocturnal. whereas despair itself has a definitive quality in its frame of mind. does not appear at all without being prepared for by an expectation. up till now there has not been so much cause for them. which corresponds to despair. bodily sensations which are also appropriate to fright. if not actually for its arrival.Page 111 that which stimulates fear is spatially so visible that we can be prepared for the way it strikes. both of the negatively and positively surprising ('miraculous') feature. that is. then the suddenness of these emotions must not blind us to the fact that they too are also those of expectation. the series of negative expectant emotions ends. although possibly (by no means always) of an expectation that is itself first born in statu nascendi of its Object. expectation of something negative about which there is no longer any doubt. familiarity of content) of its Object. It is expectation as eliminated expectation. hardest borderline mode of fear appears. and terror arises. with the weaker degrees of fright. which wrecks fear. if it is prolonged. Hope. but it does not cause the actual mental feeling of terror or fright which always presupposes expectant intention of what has happened. this expectation itself so little excludes the surprising feature of its Object that the emotional character of the surprising feature. unresolved element of its Object. This is described with particular accuracy in the echo or reflection of the landscape in Thomas Mann's 'Death in Venice'. not anxiety. still determined by mood and by the undetermined. that is. as to a shock. In complete contrast there now appear in and behind all this the positive expectant emotions. but with the complete certainty (temporal inevitability. It does cause numbness. nothing make us numb with fright. blindness (as long as the event is survived). but rather as the dawning-decanted element of the auroral. like fear. with despair. If the About Which of fear emerges completely and moreover suddenly. anxiety is still questioning. After all. an event which is completely disparate to the expectant intentions arouses no emotion at all. the absolutely negative expectant emotion: despair. and confidence.

just as with fear. eliminated expectation of an outcome about which there is no longer any doubt. in confidence it gives and yields itself up like a wise virgin. confidence is still expectation. as one towards light and life. it unfurls banners. the opposite pole to despair. hope is not only the opposite concept to anxiety. and above all – something which befits neither the mood nor even the negative expectant emotions – capable of logical and concrete correction and sharpening. this line of Hölderlin's* indicates simply the positive dialectical turning point for which fear of the place of death disappears. on bearing a burden of care. has in its horizon almost that All to which the weakest hope. who. on the other hand. thus it definitely has the intentional content: there is still rescue – in the horizon. faith no lazy quietism. on the night where nothingness is. Hope is thus ultimately a practical. Despair touches almost completely that Nothing which all the negative expectant emotions are approaching. that is. Danger and faith are the truth of hope. regardless of its emotional character. offers up as well as gives up her intention. a relation to a purely cognitive process and system of ideas which befits no other emotion. Despair transcends. Consequently. a militant emotion. In such a way that the uncertainty of the outcome remains. because it is not very changeable. in going into the chamber of the bridegroom. but an uncertainty that. but very characteristic in its intention. in that its Nothing defeats the intention in the certainty of extinction. to memory. and danger contains no fear. And its relation to anxiety. does not border on passive care. provided that the analysis really is one of existere and not corrumpere. Like the latter. in that its All allows the intention to enter into the certainty * From Hölderlin's 'Patmos'. confidence. even that transposed by unreal future. 'Where there is danger. in such a way that both are gathered in it. . then the expectant emotion which has become absolutely positive is present or as good as present. is of such determined power that it can be said: hope drowns anxiety. but also. rescue also grows'. If confidence emerges from hope as well. even to the nothingness of despair. but on the day which is the friend of man. unlike fear. No 'existential analysis' of hope will ever be able to reveal the latter as a 'forerunning determination to die'. confidence. hope has projected itself precisely at the place of death. Instead. 1802. that is. as one which does not allow failure the last word. essentially refers. But whereas the expectant intention in the emotion of despair only appears as a corpse. But hope stands also as one of the most exact emotions above every mood.Page 112 all its arpeggio ante lucem shining from afar.

that is. which is in the first instance psychological. certainly cum ira et studio. that of expectant emotions and that of expectant ideas. accordingly extend into a Not-Yet-Conscious. Thus: if the mood is the general medium of daydreaming. then the expectant emotions (including the extension which they can build on the filled emotions. The waking dreams advance. but as anticipatory.Page 113 of salvation. attain its proper status: the status of a utopian function. but noticeably more lovely and more lively than the unwishful road. The wishful road with the landscape it aims for is no richer as a road of hope. or even (in the case of negative expectant emotions) its unwishful road. Whereas therefore the negative expectant emotions and their utopian images ultimately intend the infernal as their unconditional element. . at least among peoples who are striving from the darkness into the light. For only in the discovery of the NotYet-Conscious does expectation. must now be investigated. for the object-based Possible in psychological approaches to it. into the unbecome-unfilled or utopian field. the positive expectant emotions likewise inevitably have the paradisial in the unconditional element of their ultimate intentional object. on envy or respect for example) give the direction of daydreaming. provided they contain real future. Both future-orientated intentions. They give the line along which the imagination of anticipatory ideas moves. Its composition. into a class of consciousness which is itself to be designated not as filled. with partiality for the already understood forward imagination. in emotions as well as in ideas and in thoughts. and along which this imagination then builds its wishful road. collectively into this Not-Yet-Conscious. above all positive expectation. or road of fear.

Time of Change. Not-YetConscious as a New Class of Consciousness and as the Class of Consciousness of the New: Youth. its Encounter with Interest. A pain may remain unfelt. much in it is not conscious. —William Blake 7KH O L QNHG L DJ H FDQQRW GL D\ HG 7KH ILH P D\ KDYH EHHQ P RYHG U P EH VSO O HQDP HG RU GHO HG 9HUI\ W W O SRL V W W FRU HFW HW L KDW KH L QN QW R KH U ILH DQG O L O RFDW RQ Peculiar to the soul is the common spirit that grows. Ideology. It is sparing. in fact even without it being forgotten. which is merely weakened. either because the stimulus is too weak to be perceived. They are rather to be found where the conscious fades. We are partly conscious of what is only struck obliquely. Productivity. So even in the conscious field. Ideals. Even before a mental event is forgotten. The actual edges of consciousness do not of course lie in present experiencing. Concept of the Utopian Function. Archetypes. although they are definitely present psychologically.Page 114 15— Discovery of the Not-Yet-Conscious or of Forward Dawning. and hence distracted. or because our attention is occupied with other things. in forgetting and . They lie below the threshold. The conscious field is so narrow. Allegory-Symbols The cistern contains. —Heraclitus The Two Edges The inward glance never sheds equal light. according to the degree of attention. to a decreasing or increasing extent. there are already various darker patches which are not conscious or only weakly so. We are not conscious of what is not struck at all by the ray of attention. the fountain overflows. an external impression unexperienced. or because repetition deadens even powerful stimuli. and on all sides it shades off into darker edges and dissolves. quite apart from forgetting. only ever illuminating a few parts of us.

Double Meaning of the Preconscious Mental life is always framed both by evening and morning. it begins backwards from an increasingly diminished consciousness. For roughly two hundred years. in this case an upper one. and to a greater or lesser extent elucidated. often a painful effort to focus on it. there is relatively unconscious material. where something not previously conscious dawns. below the threshold. wherever thought of as capable of consciousness. a threshold in consciousness. they are also to be found in a different form on the opposite side to forgetting. The unconscious lies – according to this interpretation – in the sediment. Beneath the threshold of fading. Here too there is an edge. And what is more. merely as something that lies beneath consciousness and has dropped out of it. even when psychoanalysis calls it preconscious. Accordingly. the attentive glance must first make an effort. the 'not merely descriptively but also dynamically unconscious'. as such it populates solely the moonshine landscape of cerebral loss. But this is how the psychologically unconscious has been understood and is still understood today. where what has been experienced sinks below the edge. It was a great discovery that mental life does not coincide with consciousness. of course. which is normally capable of easily returning to consciousness) or the repressed (for him the unconscious proper. The unconscious here is therefore exclusively No-Longer-Conscious. pushed forward a greater or lesser distance.Page 115 in the forgotten. both in the depths of the no longer perceptible and especially where new material rises which has never occurred to anyone. like a stone for example. does not mean completely unconscious of itself. yet also above the threshold of dawning. the daydream in what has never been experienced at all as present. which is not capable of easily . The night-dream moves in the forgotten and repressed. Unconscious. Both can be fetched from beyond their edges. Thus the unconscious for Freud is solely the forgotten (for him the preconscious proper. It is certainly capable of being preconscious. beyond which what is happening psychologically is not very lucid. but rather preconscious. it is not a newly dawning consciousness with new content but an old one with old content that has merely sunk below the threshold and may cross it again by a more or less straightforward process of being remembered. what lies outside the conscious field has generally been called the unconscious.

but rather to a future consciousness which is only just beginning to come up. in which no repressed material. The night-dream may refer to the No-Longer-Conscious. the preconscious in its other meaning. 1923. Freud immediately continues: 'If we find ourselves thus compelled to posit a third non-repressed unconscious. there is as yet no psychology of the unconscious of the other side. . as the mode of consciousness of something coming closer. and it is a question of clarifying it. Admittedly the later Freud does stress that apart from the forgotten and repressed unconscious there is a third kind. In its way it is even an unconscious which is just as difficult and resistant as that of repressedness. of forward dawning. namely an unconscious 'in the ego itself'. and probably even on to something in itself new. This unconscious has remained unnoticed. in its objective content. Possibly even content that is only just objectively emerging in the world. p. here the subject scents no musty cellar. is charged with it. then we must concede that the character of unconsciousness loses some of its meaning for us' (Das Ich und das Es. The Not-Yet-Conscious is thus solely the preconscious of what is to come. A final psychological definite feature of the daydream arises here.Page 116 returning to consciousness). however. 17). But the daydream is carried on to something which is new at least for the dreamer. as in all productive states which are giving birth to what has never been there. as the class to which this daydream belongs. is to be clarified. over on the other side. The Not-Yet-Conscious is admittedly just as much a preconscious as is the unconscious of repressedness and forgottenness. It loses some of its meaning because this third unconscious (Freud surprisingly cites even significant intellectual production as a manifestation of this) does not fit into his scheme of repression. Yet it is by no means subordinated to the manifest consciousness of today. and Not-Yet-Conscious. The forward dream is disposed towards this. Thus in the daydream the crucial definition of a Not-YetConscious reveals itself. although it represents the actual space of receptivity of the New and production of the New. certainly is unconscious'. and is still dawning from the future. God knows how important a part of the ego. 'Even a part of the ego. but morning air. But this touches on that preconscious which does not suit Freud's system at all. can be unconscious. the psychological birthplace of the New. but rather something coming up. And it keeps itself preconscious above all because in fact there is within it a content of consciousness which has not yet become wholly manifest. Up till now it has remained completely beyond conceptual reach. it regresses towards it.

but also out of the prison of its own immaturity. the expected. The voice which calls for things to be different. And later in the big cities. Productivity All fresh strength necessarily contains this New. The broadest example of this was once provided by the Russian Narodniki. to be better. the adult world. the world 'room for us'. Here the conversations of young unmatriculated women and of male students utopianized on the dusty boulevards of Russian provincial towns. mainly private premonition to a more or less socially sharpened. He feels called to something that is going on inside him. during a time of change. between the ages of twenty-five and thirty. socially mandated premonition. times which are on the point of changing. to be more beautiful. united with the workers. with increasing socialist clarity. they consist chiefly of not yet conscious states. as so often happens today in the West. creative expression. and moves towards it. bright and at least comforting kept in view. that is. then it really does know what the forward dream is all about. or at least set free by youth. With puberty begins the mystery of women. Time of Change. but this life is to be completely transformed. If youth occurs in revolutionary times. and if it is not duped into screwing its head back. the dawning. Bold youth always pursues the melodies from its dreams and books. hopes to find them. Its best places are: youth. how many unexplored shelves the young reader sees shining in front of him. Bold youth imagines it has wings and that all that is right awaits its swooping arrival. knows the hot dark roaming through field and town. that is moving in his own freshness and overhauling what has previously become. is as loud in these years as it is unspoilt. These are certainly threatened in young people. who went among the Russian people to fight with them for the overthrow of Tsarism. in fact can only be established. But what has survived of youth till then will always survive in people who are not infected by and in league with the putrefaction of yesterday – as something warm. life means 'tomorrow'.Page 117 Not-Yet-Conscious in Youth. Longing for life as an adult drives us on. The green years are filled with forward dawning. Any young person who feels some hidden power within him knows what this means. the red dawn which lay in consciousness and above . with sentimental or angry red dawn. It is a longing out of and a looking out of the prison of external compulsion which has become stifling or appears stifling. The dream then passes from vague. the mystery of knowledge. waits for the freedom which lies before it. the mystery of life. the voice of tomorrow.

** A period of political ferment in Germany leading up to the revolutions of March 1848. i. but eloquently enough. not the Federal Republic. departure and expectation. just as youth feels subjectively that it stands on the threshold of a hitherto unopened day in life. especially on the ideological and cultural side. rather late. the fascists in Italy and Germany. the consciousness of the nation appeared over the horizon. All the testimonies from the period of change in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries proclaim a very powerful preconscious here. Not-Yet-Consciousness as conscious premonition.e. during the second half of the eighteenth century. but more than this: changing times are sultry.** and it has them today. life and science began. A total renewal of art. leaving a clear view of infinity. Incipit vita nova. a thundercloud seems to be pent up within them.* in the Vormärz. or seemed to begin. were only able to continue to deceive by masquerading as revolutionaries. one which created space and went beyond the previously posited Pillars of Hercules. with the goal in their sights.Page 118 the time made solid headway. Hence categories of weather or birth have always been applied to them: calm before the storm or March in history or. For more than half a century before the October Revolution. Times like ours understand the state of change well. in Bacon's 'Novum Organum': * A period of revolutionary literary activity. objectively they stand at the gates of a new society which is coming up. Germany had its revolutionary students in the Sturm und Drang. and with him the feeling of individuality. in the first shift of feudal society towards the modern bourgeois one. the ceiling of the heavens cracked. During these times and whenever they are topical. in the new Republic. Here more clearly than almost anywhere else there is. individuation and perspective entered into the feeling for nature and the picture of the landscape. even the Russian popular novel was continually portraying youth which had time of change in mind. Bloch means the German Democratic Republic here of course. in its strongest and most concrete form: a society pregnant with a new one. The times of change are themselves the youthful times in history. So far the Renaissance has been the most easily surveyable example of such a change. *** . the distant earth itself opened up and revealed new continents. even its enemies. principally in drama. at the time this also designated psychologically the aurora quality of the age: the still progressive entrepreneur emerged. marasmus in the guise of spring sunshine. there is not merely a physiological feeling of spring in the air. youth and movement forwards are synonymous. this threequarters-of-an-hour-before-day still appears.*** in all these.

constitutes a task and an enormous receptacle full of future. and with thoughts in the stage of incubation. . .Page 119 'Then let others consider what may be hoped for from men who enjoy abundant leisure. * Bacon. just as later the genius period** in Germany. if we should not show a dastard spirit. ** . Novum Organum. All times of change are thus filled with Not-Yet-Conscious. the feeling for what is coming closer never more irresistible. Prospective acts are never more frequent or more common than they are here. In such periods man distinctly feels that he is not an established being.'* The air of such historical springs is buzzing with plans which are seeking to be realized. Intellectual productivity. yet we consider it necessary to make the experiment. And likewise such periods are working on problems which have barely emerged in embryonic form in existing reality. as in the whispering reeds in Lenau: At the water's edge I think I can hear your soft voice call me From across the pool. a Not-Yet-Conscious which is carried by a rising class. that is. and the succession of ages. after these suggestions on our part . Thus the Renaissance. waking dream. here too satiety. and how peculiarly it stands within it. from united labours. Gifted youth has a beginning which easily gets lost. and sink With your lovely melody. dawn-red are the ingredients of the onward. youth is presupposed and constantly active. places them in early morning light. excavates the developing tendencies of the epoch. the anticipatory element in them is never more contentladen. but one which. here too. though a much more faint and uncertain breeze of Hope were to spring up from our new Continent. creation proves to be particularly full of Not-YetConscious material. Aphorisms 113 and 114. together with his environment. Lastly. even overfilled. The expression of this state which recaptures the experience of the Renaissance is the monologue in Goethe's Faust. The cult of genius in the Sturm und Drang period. of youth that potentiates itself in creative work. new daylight. How much more so creative work itself is preceded by dawning.

and I dreamed Of the bold voyage on the ocean of the future! Thank you once again. youth acquires the gratitude of becoming. though Klopstock in his dotage. absorbed myself In the purpose. in a letter to Herder in 1799. When mist concealed my world from view. and even after the work is complete it feels unguaranteed boldness or bold anticipation. as in Goethe's 'Prologue in the Theatre':* Then give me once again the time. When welling springs of bubbling rhyme Supplied a constant stream of song. in the hero's dignity.Page 120 As it progresses... Your golden rod pointed the way! Tall-masted. Youth remains in the same place during production. fell into melancholy. thirty three years after he had begun the 'Messias':** The hot soul of the youth was thirsting After immortality! I woke. my early mentor. even after this production has finished. To fathom: what might the poem's beauty be? I flew and hovered among the monuments of the fatherland. The 'Messias' was probably begun sometime between 1745–8. claimed it went back sixty years. my guiding spirit. full-rigged works of poetry And yet sunken wrecks frightened me! . the stride. for showing me How terrible it is there. The bud still promised wondrous hours And I could pluck the thousand flowers That richly in each valley grew. strove. I became serious. . 184–91. The restraint. Searched for the hero. led by my knowledge of the soul. When I was still becoming strong. did not find him. in the basic tone. as in Klopstock's ode 'To Friend and Foe'. until at last * ** In Goethe's 'Faust'. and the birthgiving wondrous image of this which is to be formed.

that would have to be formed. and the moral of productivity proves itself by completing everything that has been kindled. because it so urgently craves for him. as if they were not ancient at all. 1801. awakening. whispering. so the word Came to us out of the East.* to the new and vocal day: Then. All the more so when youth. waking. . and hurtling down from the Alps She comes to us. by bringing to light in pure and concise form the contours of the content hovering ahead. When work perhaps flees from its doer before the breakthrough of a new assault. says Leonardo. Filling the house with excitement Right into the cold shadows. now ascending. Pouring in from the inexhaustible pipes. does not turn back. which can even find affinities in ancient events. And on the cliffs of Parnassus and on Cythera I hear. when it even seems to be flirting with the idea of retreat. The refreshing. This compulsion really takes hold when the vision hovering ahead. conceals itself. of the morning begins. keeps the morning in the world awake even in times of darkness in Hölderlin's great hymn to Ex oriente lux. The choir of the parish answers The sabbath sun. The voice that shapes humanity. melodic stream runs. suddenly Saw it blaze around me as if with lightning-flame! And the light of youth. then as if awoken from slumber. when the theme of work is reified into a wavering. the echo from you. And all around. A stranger. as if from the superbly tuned organ In the sacred hall. But anyone whose destiny is bound to a star. O Asia. and it breaks On the Capitol. but new proclamations. productive light.Page 121 I sank weary. productivity simultaneously * Hölderlin's 'Am Quell der Donau'. Productivity thus does not cease to awake as it is awoken by the spur of the compulsion to speak. But now awakened. time of change. from chamber to chamber. The prelude. itself hesitant entity and seems to reproach the compulsion to speak for its dilatoriness.

there is even a stage of darkness. productivity extends threefold into the unarrived. as fearful as it is happy.Page 122 coincide in talents which get off to a felicitous start.' Then the prospective acts work and succeed through the powerful expectation which has gained power over itself. More specifically. with its new origin opposed to rigidity. what has to occur. but with an intensive propensity to clear. it combines with imagination. This state of propensity is in itself already a contradiction which seeks to resolve itself. All three belong to the ability to travel forward beyond the previous edges of consciousness. ** . this premonition is the feeling for what is on its way. it aims at what is sought. This last motto is ultimately the one which best unites youth. Even in the unusual form in which it appears. 1772–5. but with a description of what occurs in the process of creation. which prompts Dante to say: 'L'acqua che io prendo giammai non si corse'** (the water that I hold has never been crossed before). on the advance. in his Prometheus fragment. time of change and productivity at a single stroke. When it becomes creative. and of being precisely what it not yet is. growing in three directions: as incubation. as explication. In incubation there is a powerful intending. developing full of premonition. it is the untenable state. Paradiso ii. only things must not just rest there. even psychologically. As was the case in the young Goethe. understood here as work-forming. particularly with that of the objectively Possible. what is dawning. through the affinity to the star which still lies below the horizon. Mists are the best times for sowing.* but also – still from the same source – in the most confident of all statements (from 'Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship'): 'Wishes are presentiments of the abilities which lie within us. as so-called inspiration. Also caught in this contradiction is the more developed propensity * The early draft of Goethe's 'Faust'. An active unrest. through the strength to explore the untrodden. of not being what our nature most genuinely strives to be. 7. precursors of what we will be capable of achieving. This premonition with its potential for work is intellectual productivity. not with arrogance. in the vast intention-dimension in 'Faust' and even in the 'Urfaust'. Further Thoughts on Productivity: Its Three Stages So much for the great unrest when it covers itself with forward dreaming.

it indicates the abruptness. really is without substance. and which can sometimes produce from sheer profusion a kind of emptiness of consciousness. and which in the print of Dürer's 'Melencolia' is a stone sphere lying in the room. and does not distort this creation into a sinking down. into a language of the night. a mouthpiece of higher powers. nor is he a psychological relic from primeval times. as if from above. The productive creator is no shaman. i. as if no problem had existed at all during the incubation and the process of brooding. The incubation which had a speechless quality about it. along with the elation of release. the illuminating and inspiring stroke. or rather has brought with it.e. as if it descended from above. this sealed character now dissolves. the marvellous feeling of a magical gift. easily brings with it. with the greatest buoyancy. the sudden insight. This transcendental mythicization of inspiration. This incubation is usually further followed by abrupt clarification in a flash. The fact that no archaic regression takes place here in the act of productivity precisely demonstrates the constant experience of light that is associated with inspiration. no matter with how large or small a charge the three-quarters-of-an-hour before-day appears. no matter what Nietzsche may coquettishly have wished to remind us. sometimes they also follow after the central thought has appeared. At any rate. that the inspiration. That is why the expression inspiration came to be used to describe this. without consciousness of the long-fermenting incubation period. most notably in the case of Descartes when he discovered the principle of cogito ergo . it comes as if from outside or. But the vision which comes with it is in every case combined with euphoria. expectation is always present here. This experience is wholly lucid in most cases and discernible at the peak of consciousness. that is. but nor is he. it is superior to the magic-archaic version only in so far as it does at least attempt to do justice to the transcendere. The solution springs up in a process seemingly so unmediated. he is neither a sooty flame from this abyss. falsely interpreted. that is: the surpassing expanding element in intellectual creation. Its very appearance comes in an overpowering way and seems to be so clearly the solution of the problem. In simpler cases the solution can come about through an invasion of ideas which merely surround or proclaim the central thought.Page 123 or fermentation in which the already more contoured expression and form is prepared and concocted. as just so much musty consecration. although both the magic-archaic and the transcendental interpretations have to be discarded. the condensed intellectual symbol of the brooding mind. Even the most intense concentration dissolves which had marked the sealed character of the last stage.

creative propensity with the propensity of a time to provide the specific content which has become ripe for expression. nor enthusiastic notions from above. of course. as so often. . even when. And as . the sudden powerful burst of light that often occurs in the individual of genius. but not yet powerful enough to trigger off the shot of each possible. its continuing tendencies and latencies. have provided anything more than superstitious explanations? The kindling place of inspiration lies in the meeting of a specific genius. . And these conditions are always socio-economic and of a progressive kind: without the capitalist mandate. 1887. without a concrete relationship to time.Page 124 sum: 'On the loth of November 1619 when the light of a wonderful discovery broke in on me. describes at one point as follows: 'I know from my own experience this mood of the mind or rather of reason. the receptivity of a time does not itself stand at the peak of that time.' But where does the kindling of this light take place. once it has plunged with interest and with its premonitions into a chaos of appearances and . the nocturnal point of the concentration of his being' (Briefe von und an Hegel I. i. must be ripe. Likewise. The mystery of the world which advances as our task in time and is advanced in front of great talent is powerful enough to keep those called upon to articulate it charged with incubation. the breakthrough. the discovery of the materialist dialectic would have been impossible or would have remained merely a brewing aperçu. Every man probably has one such turningpoint in his life. inwardly certain of its goal has not yet reached the clarity and detail of the whole . and neither would it have struck like lightning into the no longer naive popular soil. so that this Novum can break through out of mere incubation and suddenly gain insight into itself. Even then the inspiration comes from the mandate of the time which perceives itself in the individual of genius and reveals itself in harmony with his propensity.e. even in the greatest talents only that narrow pass of incubation is formed which Hegel. This is the case. socially imminent mode of illumination. When this world mystery is merely seen in isolation. but also the objective conditions for the expression of a Novum must therefore be ready. 264). . Not only the subjective. let alone of its further ramifications. the subjective mandate towards cogito ergo sum would never have found its inspiration. without an incipient proletarian mandate. looking back at a slack period in his early days. p. obtains both the material which sparks it off and the material which it throws light on solely from the Novum of the time content itself which is forcing its way into thought. potentiates itself with his potential. . forming and execution. when neither shamanistic notions from below.

whenever it is work-forming. the right time. the Hegelian Rosenkranz remarked most pertinently with his master in mind: 'Unlike talent. began to accomplish the objectively necessary in a particular sphere as his individual destiny. That which was revealed by the initial unrest and its premonition is finally carried out here. as few others could. a young genius who. beyond them it is powerless. has to enter into the topography of that landscape. and. emerges from the meeting of subject and object. in the agonizing. opportunity. This happens in the final act of productivity. and as before in incubation. but instead drives on ahead. blissful work of explication. genius is not great through formal versatility. . And how splendidly this definition would have applied to Marx. but of a kind which never wants to allow the elaboration to grow stale or to be anything less than a constant obsession. must itself have begun to share in the act of painting. and who experienced the inspirational breakthrough of his work as no other could in fully grasped concurrence with the socio-historical tendency of his time. because it must be directly above and beyond everything given and must elaborate for its own private satisfaction those elements for which. although it can possess this. Thus inspiration as a whole. 1843. but through the fact that it accomplishes what is objectively necessary in a particular sphere as its individual destiny. from the meeting of its tendency with the objective tendency of the time. 54f. Within the confines of this task it rules with demonic power. either between vision and work or between work and vision: 'The first light'.). and while it can develop in various ways. p. it cannot create the new' (Psychologie. from the flash which revealed the new landscape.Page 125 for the necessary concurrence with the historical kairos* as a constitutive property of genius as a whole. That is precisely why it has its true measure only in historical development. There must be no break here. in the present state of inspiration it is by no means complacent. The clear idea of the work now surfaces in the author. and is the flash with which this concordance begins. the time has come. 'in which the kindling impression lay. according to the objective course of things. Then the kindling which is thoroughly immanent occurs. Genius is hard work. so that the mastered material adds not only strength but also depth to * Kairos – transliterated from the Greek: occasion. in each case produced by its strongest consciousness. inspiration is thus the explosion of light in each tendency-latency being itself.' Genius is thus the specific hard work of leading the visionary moment of light towards its expression. at that time in 1843. says Van Gogh.

It is not yet necessary at this point to distinguish between artistic and scientific genius. What he says. since the motto in Dante 'L'acqua che io prendo giammai non si corse' is psychologically true both of artistic and scientific works of note. but a pioneer on the borders of an advancing world. . The explications in art and science. is the same in art (the figurative depiction of a real preappearance) and in science (the conceptual depiction of the tendency-latencystructure of the real).e. still have the fact in common that they each find themselves in the process of objectivity itself and. Psychologically.Page 126 what was planned. as from painful enchanted sleep. of course. The Thoughts of all start up. answering to it. what has previously been explicated and finally formed in the world. all men were not far from saying. hits a distant target. The degree of gifted genius is determined by the wealth of its Not-Yet-Conscious material. Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History'. were longing to say. In accordance with the true observation in Schopenhauer's statement: 'Talent resembles a marksman who hits a target which the others cannot reach. Genius. this criterion for works of genius. genius resembles one who hits a target so far away they are not even able to see it. But precisely because genius looks beyond each existing horizon. It is the power and ability to stand at the peak of this time and to inform it knowingly about the landscape and the horizon of this process-epoch. genius is the appearance of a particularly high degree of Not-YetConscious and of consciousness capability. i. ultimately then the power of explication of this Not-Yet-Conscious in the subject. and hence can by no means be hastening ahead. as the most advanced consciousness and tutor of this consciousness. the powder * Carlyle. according to which genius is a purely static world-eye. Therefore it is not completely unjust of Carlyle to celebrate the word of the genius as nothing less than the password to the premonition of the age: 'It is ever the way with the Thinker. they stand at its Front. the spiritual Hero. in so far as they contain sufficient genius. Forming of the previously not yet formed.' It is this very truth that also cancels out the fundamentally false definition that Schopenhauer expressed elsewhere. round his Thought. 'Heroes. Yes. even at these contrasting levels of objectivity. for this very reason is also the highest sensitivity to the crucial moments of change in time and its material process. even so!'* Even if this yes often only comes in the next generation or even later. it is not a contemplative-static world-eye. in the world. of its mediated being-beyond what has previously been consciously given. and even a most important part of the world which is only now being formed.

only for this reason does a fairytale opera like 'The Magic Flute'. a mountain. For this reason alone great works have something to say to all ages. possess so-called eternal youth. Thus productivity. on the Front of the world. And what is most clearly demonstrated in the explication of a previously Not-Yet-Conscious is: the Not-Yet-Conscious as a whole is the psychological representation of the Not-Yet-Become in an age and its world. . ultimately refer. the opposite colour to Orcus. and the publicity of the time simply did not hear the shot. It is fitting that there is blue above this peak. the dark and yet transparent nimbus around all real explication This blue. Every great work of art thus still remains. Therefore: explications which have become works of genius have not only completely expressed their own day. the Not-Yet-Become in reality. except for its manifest character. a spring sacred to the Muses. namely one at the peak of consciousness. it is still only now in the process of beginning with the beginning. i. is also comprehensible only as a phenomenon of the Novum. already experienced and appeared material has simply submerged. although it comes from the depths. a mastery which is foreign to what has normally become. impelled towards the latency of the other side. Mastery in the work of genius. which the previous age had not yet noticed. where genesis continues. is in its expression also assigned to that brightest consciousness in which the day has not given up the reddening dawn but is precisely growing dawn. to which significant expressions. and where. exists only in this space. Its place. is here least of all to be found in the territory of the subconscious. likewise designates in a graphically symbolic way the future-laden aspect. the place of the Not-Yet-Conscious. is working for the very first time in the light and is continually positing a new source.e. but also a historically localized epic like the 'Iliad'. a Novum pointing onward in fact. The waters of oblivion flow in the underworld. as a colour of distance. The darkness forwards. because it is clearing. The making conscious of the Not-Yet-Conscious.Page 127 for the shot still lay ready prepared. if not towards the contents of an as yet unknown final state. the forming of the Not-Yet-Become. a space of concrete anticipation. precisely because it went off on the horizon of that time. only here is the volcano of productivity to be found pouring out its fire. being the proper genesis. but the Castalian spring* of productivity rises on Parnassus. * In Greek mythology. Its place is on the Front. but the permanent implication of the plus ultra also circulates in them. precisely because they are advancing. the region into which what has already been conscious. towards the contents of a future which had not yet appeared in its own time.

a resistance asserts itself against the displacement of the threshold.' The same motives which allowed the old trauma to become embedded place themselves in the way of the attempt to make it conscious. And above all: if the repressed material comes to light all the same. The repressed material itself is here supposed to have resulted from the fact that a struggle had arisen against the underlying mental process or event becoming conscious. this is precisely the resistance of the No-Longer-Conscious to its becoming conscious. In short. as in premonition which has a potential for work. though. as is . Thus the process remained or became unconscious. It displays them only when a discrepancy between power and will arises in the willingness to produce. But this resistance is still different in character. which is why Freud also says: 'Repression is the early infantile stage of condemnation. And the same struggle which has made a person ill again opposes the effort to raise repressed-subconscious material into consciousness during analytical treatment. then the forgotten material supposedly emerges without further ado. that it has been broken off. And this will is regarded as a purely negating will. the threshold of consciousness is moved. Certainly too. in the other case a border is shifted upwards. that the patient has not come to terms with something in himself. if this will is broken. then it is redundant débris which is only now properly forgotten. Psychoanalysis has long been trying to identify such resistance in its subconscious region: as one of reluctance to unpack repressed material again. in remembering. Certainly. The resistance to material becoming conscious in the area of the Not-YetConscious rarely or never displays neurotic features.Page 128 Different Kinds of Resistance Which the Forgotten and the Not-Yet-Conscious Offer to Illumination The problems of penetrating the backward or forward disposed darkness are always of a different order. where the journey is forwards into the darkness. But in the one case it is a matter of lowering it so that forgotten or repressed material can cross it. overcome. however. The unwillingness is of a completely different kind. according to whether repressed material is to be remembered or intuitive material to be formed. that is to say. merely sending a neurotic symptom of itself into consciousness. in both cases. but this symptom is always regarded as a sign that a process has not been lived through to the end. a clearly manifest will founds the resistance here. something blocks itself off against becoming conscious.

to that which used to be called the resistance of the uncomprehending world. instead. the resistance which belongs to production and is endemic to it is not present in the human subject at all. Not-Yet-Become which causes productivity trouble. It is therefore for this reason alone that the new truths. to the so often blocking receptivity.Page 129 well-known. Even where sufficient ability is present and precisely when it is. that is. in spite of the added resentment which belongs to the realm of psychoanalysis. all the more difficult in fact because the newness into which the productive pioneering effort goes is essentially also a newness of the matter in and for itself which is coming up. which appears in the subject during the mere recovery of something repressed. in the study. the countless battlefields without victory or where victory is postponed. yet even here the resistance inherent in the illumination of the Not-Yet-Conscious is finally identified as that of the still unchannelled material. or even to the success of the journey into the Not-Yet-Conscious and to its treasures: unwillingness of this kind does not occur at all in the producer. not repressed material at all. of the kind. A resistance in the subject of the production-will to this will and its contents. that is. . Thoughts only happily coexist as long as they are plans or sketches. But the psychology of producing itself reveals no sign of inner resistance to the acts of illumination under discussion here. completely fails to understand them or is simply irritated by them. It is to be found instead in the matter treated by the subject and is only mirrored by the specific difficulties of explication. however. It is to be found in the hazardous straits of the Novum. this discrepancy does create one of the acutest forms of suffering. utterly habit-free character of the new material. from a disinclination towards the difficulty of the factually New. those of the objectively New. a self-blocking is definitely lacking in the will towards illumination itself. itself a terrain which * A German proverb. but one step further and the concrete difficulty of the work begins. ultimately derives. the difficulty is after all responsible for the many repulsed expeditions in the studio. In fact. The reasons for this lie exclusively in the terrain of the matter. All beginnings are difficult* in an area like this.e. but rather the difficulty of the path is the thing in the Not-Yet-Conscious. when it forms a block against works of genius. in the laboratory. in the still inchoate. emerge so hesitantly in their articulation and always only as astra per aspera. even the mere receptivity-resistance. Even then. on the march into the No-Longer-Conscious. i. Thus. He leaves that instead to the receivers of his work.

history has its timetable. i. the whole matter – bourgeois society – still lies under the horizon. Front and fragments. remains the sealedness. The tasks which transcend their time are concretely insoluble even where. in short. often did not appropriate even half the wisdom of Minerva (as the ancients themselves called this resistant material). More precisely as a social one. close though he came to it. of what is only now factually coming up. even in epistemological terms and especially in those terms. but rather historically temporary . with their 'subjective factor'. by way of exception. and they lie in the material. only capitalism caused what was previously fixed and finite to enter such a state of flux that rest could be conceived as infinitesimal movement. Many anticipations. of the Novum in the overall process. Thus. even when that which is to be expressed or to be known is actually by no means new itself. the works that transcend their time often cannot even be intended. The block that operates in this way first and always appears as a historical one. above all in its own processive. it cannot be scaled by even the most daring mind.Page 130 is not yet enclosed. When therefore only a new piece of knowledge is to be acquired and not also knowledge of the factually New. previsions entered existing consciousness and were emphasized.e. the variable quantity. The by no means fundamental. for example. Not all insights and works are possible at all times. easily though it could have suggested itself to the Stoics. It constantly stressed knowing merely as a receptive looking. and all the more true where. Here too. the upper threshold has its own guardians. This is true even where only new knowledge but not yet knowledge of anything factually new is fragmenting. clearing only sparingly. unfinished state. because of their social and historical standpoint. as in the case of the concept of work. itself existing in difficulty. Marx stressed this with the statement that humanity always only sets itself tasks which it can solve. first-rate researchers. The infinitesimal. let alone rounded off. But even this barrier is ultimately founded solely in the historical state of the material. It is also relevant here that the notion of work was alien to Greek slave-owning society. No Greek mathematician would have understood differential calculus. There is thus in history a socio-economic barrier to vision. which proceeds as world. never as an activity. and non-static notions of quantity conceived at all. the social barrier prevented their being carried out. however. let alone carried out. lay totally beneath the horizon of Greek society. not even Zeno. illuminated by that consciousness itself in the Not-Yet-Conscious. the thing which ultimately determines the productivity-resistance remains the hazardous straits of the matter itself. they may be set in abstract terms.

As in the marvellously anti-agnostic vision of Hegel's: 'The sealed nature of the universe contains no power which could offer resistance to the courage of knowing. The socalled character of the . can least of all be mirrored or declared as something already complete. it is clearly of a completely different type to that of repressedness or of concealed availability. xl). The resistance of object-basedness to the subject-object relationship of knowledge is all the greater where there is no universe which is panlogical and thereby at the same time closed. but the resistance here is that of fullness which is still itself actually in process. whereas Marx. Instead the sealedness of an entire universe is cited. precisely as matter. Where an unfinished process is pending. still not been achieved. as there is in Hegel. guarded by dogs with malicious eyes. In complete contrast. It is noticeable that the word resistance is also present here. but superior to it in its unarrived possibilities. already speaks of the 'realm of freedom' almost only privatively in a negative sense. still lies in an unfinished process of its objectifications. associated with every idealistic professor. even spiritualism. generally undertook to define its essence behind appearance by virtue of the false equation: Thinking = Being. and this precisely in proportion to the unrestrained courage of knowing. That which has still not become. still completely hovering meaning of a 'naturalization of man. comparable in danger to the untrodden wilderness. it must open up before the latter and reveal to it its riches and its depths and allow them to be enjoyed' (Werke VI. except in the wake of hard work sharpened by the very difficulty of the resistance. and the resistance which it offers to its being opened is not that of a sealed chest. as if it were only geographically in a different place. and is an entity that in no way actually compounds the subject with the object. The still sealed nature of the universe which. let alone extravagantly clear as daylight. This Not-Yet-Become. humanization of nature'. who certainly could not be suspected of 'agnosticism'. namely through courage. this means that objective idealism. although it is very far from dealing with Objects of a subconscious. Not-Yet-Achieved in the object thus founds the last resistance.Page 131 resistance in this is still noted even where it is claimed that it has been overcome. p. like the so-called World Idea. The world-mystery itself does not lie in a kind of cosmo-analytic rubbish pit. Significantly. the vehicle of the process is matter. and not yet manifest. is a wilderness of its own. or at most in the deeply remote. as in demonic treasure-myths. 1840. but in the horizon of the future to be attained. namely as the mere nonexistence of the characteristics of the class society. which is furthermore not signed with such a familiar name as Spirit.

this lex continui tolerates no interruption. unconscious processes in general were first identified in psychological terms by Leibniz. but knowledge in the sense of a planning of what is becoming. differential calculus . not only knowledge is necessary in the sense of an excavation of what was. Because it is not first excavated by the act of memory. And subconscious mental processes have only been named as such for little more than two hundred years. There is a separate resistance in the general factual resistance here. is a conscious life. i. Epilogue on the Block which has Prevented the Concept of the Not-Yet-Conscious for So Long With particular difficulty the inward glance sheds light on itself. But it seems more difficult to understand. however. Revolution and genius inspire confidence in the fact that this difficult heliotropic business was not in vain or will not have been in vain. There may possibly be some excuse for this in the fact that the subconscious processes are not automatically submitted to our notice. observed material to some extent served as an example later to illustrate the theory. If there does seem to be one. then in reality it is occupied by the imperceptibly smallest something. visualizing aspect of these events was portrayed. no empty space. something beginning and growing. but also theory effected the discovery. that they contain forgotten content. Not just observation. apart from the content that occurs within it. open. anywhere. In order to remove what is difficult. by a very roundabout route. but is a separate act which is immediately given to itself. despite the resistance in itself or in the sour dough which the world is. intuitively. knowledge is therefore necessary which itself decisively contributes to this becoming. and in fact: it has remained hidden in this darkness until the present day. As is well-known. the fact that this is its own task-nature makes it difficult.Page 132 universe is therefore still inherently sealed in the sense of: Not-Yet-Appearance of itself. i. that they are only deduced from symbols. as if it too was merely subconscious. shadowy. becoming which changes for the good. One of Leibniz's basic principles was that of the unbroken coherence of the world. mental life seems fleeting. Nevertheless. the floating.e. How long it took for people even to begin to notice that this life takes notice of itself. after the conscious and the subconscious have finally been noted. as we have seen.e. that the NotYet-Conscious has been disregarded for so long.

but in adequate numbers. hence they must be forgotten ideas which enter into consciousness when sufficiently amplified. At the same time. As soon as it is noted. Undergoing curious pseudo-morphoses. such as in the sound of waves or the buzz of voices. definitely become conscious. even if only as moonlight in the ancestral hall of consciousness. The petites perceptions are always outbidden. as its counterpart in the mind.Page 133 expresses this infinitesimal something mathematically as a moment of motion. only now discernible as such. however. by the consciousness that has already been achieved in man. But just as there are the smallest impulses of motion. more importantly.* Sheer consciousness was now no longer regarded as the essential feature of the human intellect. And as examples of these. consequently. not giving birth again. this key notion of the petites perceptions echoed in the early throes * Bloch is punning here on the double meaning of 'Ahnen'. and it is equally unreasonable to reject either one of them on the pretext that they fall outside the realm of our senses. these imperceptible perceptions are of just as great importance in the theory of the intellect as the imperceptible bodies are in physics. the subordination of the Not-Yet-Conscious to a past. Nevertheless. the notion of the unconscious which has thus been acquired is totally subordinated to that of existing consciousness. after attaining clarification. The petites perceptions are immediately singled out by Leibniz as a great discovery in the preface to the 'New Essays': 'In a word. as it were. the previously so paradoxical notion of unconscious mental activity began. something other than existing consciousness had been demonstrated in the mind by the hero of the Enlightenment himself. indeed it can be said cum grano salis: out of differential calculus. first in the Sturm und Drang.' Thus the notion of the unconscious is born out of the lex continui. . with the posthumous appearance of his 'New Essays'. unconscious material is branded subconscious. they occur as elements of creation. the peculiar hiding-place of the Not-Yet-Conscious in this darkness began. Fifty years after the death of Leibniz. So they must also have been present beforehand in the mind. to anything beyond themselves. And. which because of their weakness remain imperceptible or unconscious. then in Romanticism. brooding moonshine-world: this mask of the Not-Yet-Conscious now emerged. even dispersed. Leibniz cites the smallest perceptions. which means both 'premonition' and 'ancestors'. so too there are those of the intensity of conception in consciousness graded according to its clarity and lucidity: these are the 'petites perceptions insensibles'.

both The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry and Strasbourg cathedral seemed to find a place in it. fervour. it still appeared welling and bubbling up within it. Herder and Goethe believed the verses to be authentic and translated from them. the wild. both Fingal's cave and Macbeth's heath. and extraordinary things seemed to be under way. For all its dull fugginess. While for the Sturm und Drang the unconscious remained something completely submerged.' And also. this pride of rationalistic consciousness. This force was supplied by the reactionary mandate.* with moss-covered monuments and heroes' graves. but the feeling of a lost yesterday opposed it with a force which the Sturm und Drang would not and could not recognize. just as the intention determines the nature and use of the means. were composed by James Macpherson (1736–96). Thus the unconscious no longer remained infinitesimal like the smallest impulses. the unconscious had the primal voice. a legendary warrior. . Nobody except a prophet can prophesy upon these bones that sinews and flesh will grow on them and skin will cover them. 1–6: 'The field of history has thus always appeared to me like that wide field full of bones. it was above all the extinguished element. exclaims Hamann. when it came to the rule. directed against the bourgeois revolution. and also to be aware of the fact in the night-wind of prehistory: 'Who can expect'. which increasingly determined German * The verses of Ossian. 'who can expect to take proper ideas from the present. youth. lay at the mere beginning of the history of the mind. that which has become and is dead. but all the mists of the north and of prehistory swirled around in it. The welling of the spring was certainly lively here. magus of this whispering Enlightenment. which of course largely belongs to the Enlightenment. to be endowed with future for the first time. that was rejected.' And Hamann goes on to say. This sort of thing intensified in the really strange complexities of Romanticism. as opposed to bursting forth or nature always forcing its way to the surface like a spring. without knowing the future? The future determines the present and the latter the past. and 10! they were very dry. with reference to Ezekiel 37. even this still remained mixed to numbing effect with regressio. nor meagre like the petites perceptions.Page 134 of that bourgeois revolution which then never came in Germany. with the moonshine of Ossian. Dawning therefore also appeared in the Sturm und Drang. Germany's unreadiness for a bourgeois revolution and the resulting opaque thwartings of progressive revolutionary reason thus ultimately made original genius more into a messenger from primeval times than from the future. impetuous spirit of creative genius. Nevertheless.

and whenever the murky depths of time clear. and the future is nowhere to be seen at all. p. expressed this pathos of the past most passionately: 'That past world was so rich. as a stance against the future. we see its treasures on the sea-bed. the teacher of matriliny. in the immemorial. wind. All productivity. with atavistic clairvoyance and the whispering of the abyss. Görres. the waters have passed over it. This enshrined feeling.Page 135 Romanticism and thwarted the undeniably progressive tendencies which were nevertheless present. culminates late. but have we succeeded in fathoming the root of things which lies hidden in God? Our gaze penetrates the depths. 1810. apart from productivity: the grasped time of change. Nor is it surprising if the nevertheless powerfully vague mood of expectation in the Restoration world of Romanticism was never elevated beyond the level of an Advent in which Vineta bells* ring out. Even psychologically. and this in turn with the chthonic. so that the core of history soon came to look like the core of the earth itself. the Romantic was enslaved by the past. the bells of a sunken city. in Bachofen. The historical was increasingly associated with the archaic. We look down from a great distance into the wondrous abyss. 599f. everything good and premonitory is drawn to the nocturnal pole of consciousness: creation has a native affinity with drive and instinct. it is sunk. It is therefore not surprising if youth and productivity here reversed all consciousness of their Not-Yet-Conscious even to the point of ancestor worship: the other explosive force. was missing. or even on the form and fulfilment side. where all the secrets of the world and life lie hidden. possibly located on the Baltic Sea island of Wollin. in keeping with this nocturnal vision. here and there the ruins still tower. which increasingly comes to be regarded merely as chaff. often referred to in sagas and legend. Significantly. In a way which can hardly be recaptured any more. but with grave-love for chthonic Demeter herself. especially the expectation which paradoxically characterizes so much of Romanticism. mysteries beckon us from afar. There are of course mysteries of * Vineta: a tenth-century Viking city. but the current surges upwards and throws the diver out into the present' (Mythengeschichte. for the Romantic.). the renegade with the Phrygian cap. supposedly engulfed by a flood or an earthquake. and was so with a lex continui which – true to the reactionary mandate – preferred to raise nothing but knights' castles in the magic moonlit night. . this incestuous phenomenon of the desire to return to the womb of night and the past. in myth. lost itself here in antiquarian images. nothing half as familiar dwelt on the day side. emptiness. in the past. this upward surge leads only with regret into the present.

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distance, they are the most compelling for the Romantic, but they lie almost exclusively in the abyss, the distance is and remains primal Beenness. Undoubtedly, German Romanticism – this cannot be stressed often enough in view of the antiquated, abstract way it has been underestimated – also had a progressive character; precisely its instinct for what is bubbling up, becoming, growing, is relevant here, the famous 'historical sense' which first created whole disciplines like legal history and German studies; especially the patriotic element must not be forgotten, and corresponding to it the feeling for all great national achievement in world literature. As the Wartburgfest of 1817 alone shows,* there is definitely also a revolutionary Romantic component in German Romanticism: while even the most passionately utopianized red dawn is shot through here time and again with the abovementioned night-thoughts of an antiquarium, with the projection of an overprized past even into the newness of the future. And it is almost solely outside Germany, in English and Russian Romanticism, neither of which stood beneath such a reactionary star, but beneath the wildly remembered star of the French Revolution, in Byron, in Shelley, in Pushkin, that the true feeling of homeland commensurate with man becomes explosive and future-laden, and is not sought by sinking back into the past. But this was anomalous in Germany; a revolutionary Romanticism was not yet distinctive enough to be a match for Romantic reaction. Even Jean Paul, who cannot really be classed as a Romantic anyway, the most exuberant and uninhibited creator of waking dreams, whose liberalism was beyond question, and whose dawn-red language, if it is steeped in night, then in Midsummer night, even he subordinated hope, which is constantly present in his work, to memory, or ultimately settled it there. So even Jean Paul, the creator of the most beautiful wishful landscapes shimmering ahead, finally sought the light, as soon as he was not creating it but rather reflecting on it, only in the past, not in the future. 'For this very reason every remembered life gleams in the distance like an earth in the heavens, that is, the imagination condenses the parts into a closed serene whole. Of course, it could equally well form a gloomy whole; but it places Spanish castles in the air full of torture chambers only in the future, and only Belvederes in the past. Unlike Orpheus, we gain our Eurydice by looking back, and lose her by looking forwards' (Vorschule der Ästhetik, §7). Thus Romanticism, with its promise of a land beneath the well** in the petites perceptions, seduced the Not-Yet*

Wartburgfest: a student festival on the Wartburg on the 18th October 1817 in memory of the Reformation and of Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig, 1814.
**

Cf. Grimm's fairytale 'Frau Holle'.

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Conscious time and again. The vision of the utopian condition, the yield of its content, thus encountered the most powerful block, for all the expectation which pervaded Romantic feeling, in anamnesis, a re-remembering which is virtually an invocation. And this did not remain the only block, as Freud later demonstrated with his exclusively subconscious dream. Probably few ages have felt so inescapably the transition to a becoming different, to something coming up, as the present one has. But the bourgeoisie reacts all the more sheepishly and blindly to this, shows no interest at all or only a hostile interest in the reflection of tomorrow. For this bourgeoisie, coming events merely cast their shadow, nothing but shadow; capitalist society senses itself negated by the future. More than ever the bourgeoisie lacks the material incentive to separate the Not-Yet-Conscious from the NoLonger-Conscious. All psychoanalysis, with repression as its central notion, sublimation as a mere subsidiary notion (for substitution, for hopeful illusions), is therefore necessarily retrospective. Admittedly, it developed in an earlier age than the present one, around the turn of the century it took part in a so-called struggle against the conventional lies of a civilized mankind. Nevertheless, psychoanalysis developed in a class which was superannuated even then, in a society without future. So Freud exaggerated the dimensions of the libido of these parasites and recognized no other onward, let alone upward drive. Nor any other dreams than those which the Lord, now called Eros, gives his beloved in sleep. And the longer time went on, the more readily the thoroughly self-interested mistrust of the future was intensified by the bourgeoisie's new supply of anxiety and old supply of resignation. And it is precisely this which characterizes the barrier which, as we have seen, even in Freud's case, obstructs the notion of a Not-Yet-Conscious, and obstructs forward dawning. Hence the totally inevitable, totally regressive proposition: 'The repressed is for us the model of the unconscious' (Das Ich und das Es, 1923, p. 12). The barrier finally became absolute in so-called depth psychology; where in other words psychoanalytical regression became ideologically useful for the Blood and Soil humbug. C. G. Jung's notion of the unconscious consigned itself all the more completely to the cellar of consciousness, since it is only there that the opium with which Fascism stupefies utopia can be smoked. Jung also interprets what is beginning to dawn in an utterly archaic and occult fashion, analogous to the prophetic – sleep in the temple. Even the 'inconscient supérieur', even the so turgidly expressed 'prospective tendency of subliminal combinations' is thus, in the manner understood above, wholly subordinated to regression. The passage in Jung in which 'an idea prefiguring

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the future is and remains archaized thus, is revealing enough for the history of obstructed Novum-psychology to warrant quoting at length: 'Psychoanalysis works backwards like the study of history. Just as a large part of the past is so remote that our knowledge of history no longer reaches it, so a large part of unconscious determination is also inaccessible. But there are two kinds of things history does not know, namely what is hidden in the past and what is hidden in the future. Both could perhaps be reached with a certain probability, the former as a postulate, the latter as a historical prognosis. In so far as tomorrow is already contained in today, and all the threads of the future are already in place, a more profound knowledge of the present could make possible a more or less far-reaching and certain prognosis of the future. If we apply this line of reasoning . . . to the psychological sphere, the same thing must necessarily follow; just as memory traces which have long since sunk below the threshold are still demonstrably accessible to the unconscious, so are also very fine subliminal forward combinations, which are of the very greatest significance for future events in so far as these are determined by our psychology. But just as the study of history scarcely concerns itself with future combinations, which are rather the object of politics, so psychological future combinations are also scarcely material for analysis. They would have to be objects of an infinitely sophisticated psychological synthesis, capable of following the natural currents of the libido. We cannot do this, but the unconscious can because that is where it occurs, and it seems as if from time to time in certain cases significant fragments of this work are revealed, at least in dreams, which would explain the prophetic significance of dreams long claimed by superstition. The aversion of exact scientists today to these trains of thought, which can hardly be termed fantastic, is merely an overcompensation for man's millennial, all too great inclination to believe in soothsaying.' (Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido, 1925, p. 54f.). This is all that Jung can find to say on the subject of the mental representation of what is coming up. Utopian consciousness is presented as an Egyptian book of dreams. Only the archaic unconscious, in deepest darkness, carries out here the so-called future combinations; but if the slightest area of this darkness comes to light, then it is to the light which ultimately displays regressio. Precisely in the historical context of the petites perceptions, the archaizing of the unconscious recalled again here sounds another warning. The barrier in front of the Novum in the great progressive work of Leibniz becomes a guillotine for the Novum in the final bourgeois psychology of the unconscious. As now becomes completely clear, even in the times

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when bourgeois psychology flourished, they did not note, or at least not unmistakably, the New as a class of consciousness. Leibniz placed the accent on the advance of consciousness, but the petites perceptions in which the seeds lay were exclusively underneath already acquired consciousness, show therefore the precise historical topology to which the preconscious was confined until Freud. Even the construction of wishful dreams which the modern age has developed: the social utopias and those of a technologically controlled world, even these anticipations were unable to develop, in the philosophical consideration they were given from More, Campanella, Bacon to Fichte and beyond, either a psychology of their expanding daydreams, or an epistemology of their possible-real place in the world. The reason in this case certainly does not lie in a self-interested mistrust of the future, but, as it were, in a uninterested mistrust, under the continuing spell of static living and thinking. In addition, the consciousness of the rising bourgeoisie had not yet sufficiently escaped from the concept of a pre-ordained, ultimately finished world (ordo sempiternus rerum); continuing feudal statics inhibited the concept of newness. It inhibited it in the work of Leibniz, it inhibited and perverted it even in the most decisive of all previous expositions of becoming and philosophies of process such as Hegel's. Even the famous passage on process from the 'Phenomenology of Mind' must be seen as similarly constricted: 'But just as a baby's first breath, after a long period of silent nutrition, breaks the gradualness of merely continuing growth – a qualitative leap – and the baby is now born, so the developing mind matures slowly and silently towards a new form, dissolves one particle after another of the construction of its previous world, its shakiness is only suggested by isolated symptoms; the frivolity and the boredom which make inroads into the existing mentality, together with the vague premonition of something unknown, herald the fact that something else is in the offing. This gradual crumbling, which did not change the physiognomy of the whole, is interrupted by the opening up, a flash which all at once erects the structure of the new world' (Werke II, 1832, p. 10). The reflex of the French Revolution is unmistakable here, as in the leaping character of the Hegelian dialectic in general; yet the whole thing is equally conceived as finished simultaneity, as – memory. The flash of the new beginning is here also merely opening up, where the closedness of what is opening up has long since been decided. It is therefore trapped in a circle without an opening out on to the as yet unarrived. The enormous enterprise has already entered perpetual retirement, the rest of finished achievement: 'The phenomenon is the arising and passing away which does not itself arise

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and pass away but is in itself and constitutes the reality and movement of the life of truth . . . Stored up in this movement as a whole, conceived as rest, is that which distinguishes itself within it and gives particular existence, one which remembers, and this existence is the knowledge of itself' (Werke II, p. 36f.). The utopian hiddenness which certainly exists in embryo or In-itself, and which bursts through again at every stage of the Hegelian process, is accordingly revealed by the totality of comprehended manifestations to date. Plato's theory, according to which all knowing is merely anamnesis, a re-remembering of something seen before, this knowledge, solely geared to Been-ness, was thus reproduced over and over again; – this ideologized once and for all the block against the being sui generis of a Not-Yet-Being. Precisely the continuing statics of what is reactionary and in need of rest, this finally settled, enclosed anamnesis-world here accomplished what in periods of decline is accomplished by the horror of the unknown that is in the offing. No new tone-composer of the old kind, however new he appears, is free of this block. Not even where, as in Bergson, there is an attempt to single out exclusively, all too exclusively, this very newness. Bergson says at one point, in his 'Introduction to Metaphysics', that the great insights had previously been regarded as if they illuminated point for point a logic which had long been preformed in things, 'just as at an evening celebration one gradually lights the circle of gas-lamps which already outline the contours of a ornament'. But what then claims to be Novum in Bergson: anti-repetition, anti-geometry, élan vital and intuition flowing with the stream of life – all this vitality is impressionistic, and liberal-anarchistic, not anticipatory. Bergson's élan vital is a 'continually modifying change of direction, as in a curve for example'; the so-called intuition enters into this continuously surprising mode, but without ever meeting the actual Novum for sheer aimless infinity and incessant changeability; – where everything ought to be constantly new, everything remains just as it was. Therefore everything is in fact pre-arranged even in Bergson's stream of surprise, and is frozen into a formula, into that equally dead antithesis to repetition which reduces the New to a merely endless, contentless zigzag, to that coincidence made absolute, in which neither birth nor explosion, nor a venturing beyond, fruitful in terms of content, the previously Become occur. Bergson opposes the process-idea directed towards a goal, but he does not oppose it because the goal has already been agreed, so that the said process – at the highest level – almost looks as if it has been rigged, instead he eliminates any and every trace of the onward, the

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Where To and any openly pursuable goal whatsoever. So that the alleged Novum does not look any different than it does in anamnesis, that is, having always been, always phoenix, always spellbound return to the unchangeable which is here called changeability. Overall, therefore, the astonishing fact remains almost everywhere that the dawning sticks fast in the Fixum, ultimately unnoted or clogged with What Has Been. A vast mental realm of the NotYet-Conscious, one that is constantly travelled, has so far remained undiscovered, or its discoveries have remained unnoticed. Similarly, a vast physical realm of the Not-YetBecome, which forms the correlate of the Not-Yet-Conscious, remained stationary, and the closely related real categories: Front, Novum, Objective Possibility, which are inaccessible to anamnesis, remained without a theory of categories in the world before Marx. The epigone is always only found on the passable roads which productivity has built and embellished before him, but in the notation of the New, previous productivity also behaved as if it only recognized epigonism. The decline of the bourgeois class sealed this aversion to the concept of aurora far beyond Romanticism, which had itself been so reactionary. And – as we are now in a position to say – only experience of the modern age, as a positive age, that is to say: as the affirmation of its oncoming content, allows us to describe a state of consciousness which, just as it was always hidden, fulfils the potential of youth, of times of change, of cultural production. Only our present age possesses the socioeconomic prerequisites for a theory of the Not-Yet-Conscious and whatever is related to it in the Not-Yet-Become of the world. Marxism, above all, was first to bring a concept of knowledge into the world which no longer essentially refers to Becomeness, but to the tendency of what is coming up; thus for the first time it brings future within our theoretical and practical grasp. Such recognition of tendency is necessary to remember, to interpret and to open up even the No-LongerConscious and the Become according to its possible continuing significance, i.e. its undischargedness. Marxism thus rescued the rational core of utopia and made it concrete as well as the core of the still idealistic tendency-dialectics. Romanticism does not understand utopia, not even its own, but utopia that has become concrete understands Romanticism and makes inroads into it, in so far as archaic and historical material, in its archetypes and works, contains a not yet voiced, undischarged element. The most advanced consciousness thus operates even in memory and oblivion not as in a sunken and hence closed space, but in an open space, that of process and its Front. But this space is exclusively filled up with forward dawning, even in its examples from

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continuingly significant past; it is filled with the vitality, capable of being both conscious and known, of a Not-Yet-Being. Where Romanticism, in its archaic, historical aspect, was drawn down into solely antiquarian welling, into false depths, utopian consciousness lays bare even what is coming up in the old, and all the more so in the imminent itself. It discovers the real depths – on the heights, that is on those of its brightest consciousness, where something still brighter is dawning. Conscious and Known Activity in the Not-Yet-Conscious, Utopian Function The forward glance in question here is discriminating, not gloomy. It requires from the outset that premonition is sound, and not dim like something kept in the cellar. Something which is not at all disposed to make itself conscious in its half-light, even though it may be directed towards morning. As there was no science, hysterical and superstitious elements also accumulated here. Nervous states like clairvoyance, second sight and so forth, were described as premonition, in fact, as dim premonition. But these are aberrations, into which genuine premonition, as goes without saying, neither can nor will descend. Even assuming that so-called second sight does occur, a poky atmosphere clings to it, even a proximity to convulsions and other not exactly hopeful gifts. Such things belong to that morbid sensitivity (the sensitivity of a wound) which in legitimate cases only senses in advance a sudden change in the weather, but here supposedly senses major fires or deaths. And it is in keeping with the very subconscious, sunken, atavistic, exhausted nature of this kind of premonition that it always only refers to something that has already happened a thousand times before, and that will happen tomorrow or the day after tomorrow, again and again. Somnambulary presentiment in general may at best be a decayed remnant of animal instinct, but the instinct is utterly stereotyped; its actions, though appropriate down to the finest detail, immediately become absurd as soon as the animal, confronted with a new situation, has to sniff out in advance what has never been there before. Egg-laying, nest-building, migration are performed by instinct, as if precise 'knowledge' of the future existed, but this very future is one in which only the million-year-old destinies of the species occur. It is an automatic future with old contents, and consequently, since nothing new occurs in it, the false one mentioned above. Many aspects of bodily instinct still seem obscure, research

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into signal systems is not yet complete, the life of the driving images in instinct, if there is one, is undeciphered, together with the sense of bearings which it provides for the drives. But however far the threshold of human premonition is lowered, it will scarcely be able to recapture the activity which in the animal instinct of pre-caution seems to possess past, present and future still completely ravelled up together, and which relatively controls them according to the business of the species. Nevertheless, it is absolutely certain here, as also in the prophesying found in folklore, that the future is a totally false one, a repetition, a preordered piece in a circle that is always the same. Instinct-future and the related future of atavistic premonition always starts and picks up the same thing on the same level, over and over again, whenever it begins. Productive premonition, even in the form of so-called intuition, is thus something completely different from instinct that has become conscious of itself. It does not remain dim and poky, not in the least fuggy, it exists from the beginning in strength and health. It is openly conscious of itself, precisely as a Not-Yet-Conscious, demonstrates in its alertness the desire to learn, shows the capacity to be circumspect in its foreseeing, to have circumspection, even foresight in its fore-sight. Since genuine premonition begins with youth, time of change and production, it is automatically at home in human dealings of the most upright kind, not in animal, let alone parapsychological ones. The German peasants of 1525, the masses of the French and Russian Revolutions, certainly also had, alongside their slogans, driving images, as it were, of revolution; there was a sense of bearings in 'Ça ira'.* But these driving images were attracted and illuminated by a real future place: by the realm of freedom. The so-called power to foresee deaths or even winning lottery-numbers is obviously of a less productive order. One of the greatest somnambulists, the seer of Prévost, says in the account Justinus Kerner published of her at the time (Reclam, p. 274): 'For me the world is a circle, I was able to move back and forth around this circle and see what had been and what was coming.' The Romantics, and even Hegel, knew and valued premonition solely in this atavistic, superstitious sense, which has become totally trivial today. The only sense they have is for an old world in which the only novelty is the cockcrow which summons back to the graveyard and itself belongs to the realm of ghosts. There is understandably not a single
*

'Ça ira!': a song of the French Revolution. 'Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira, Les aristocrates à la lanterne!'

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word in any of these wheezing diaphragm-prophets from the sibyl to Nostradamus, when they proclaim 'the future', which transcends available knowledge and which does not merely rearrange it. Whereas Bacon, for example, no prophet, but a discerning utopian, saw in his 'New Atlantis' amazingly genuine future. And this solely by virtue of his sense, which makes itself thoroughly conscious, for the objective tendency, objectively real possibility of his age. After all, the forward glance becomes all the stronger, the more lucidly it makes itself conscious. The dream in this glance seeks to be absolutely clear, and the premonition, the correct one, seeks to be quite plain. Only when reason starts to speak, does hope, in which there is no guile, begin to blossom again. The Not-Yet-Conscious itself must become conscious in its act, known in its content, as the process of dawning on the one hand, as what is dawning on the other. And so the point is reached where hope itself, this authentic expectant emotion in the forward dream, no longer just appears as a merely self-based mental feeling, as described in chapter 13, but in a conscious-known way as utopian function. Its contents are first represented in ideas, and essentially in those of the imagination. In imaginative ideas, as opposed to those remembered ones which merely reproduce past perceptions and thereby shade off more and more into the past. And even these imaginative ideas are not ones which are merely composed of existing material, in arbitrary fashion (stony sea, golden mountain and so on), but extend, in an anticipating way, existing material into the future possibilities of being different and better. So that the thus determined imagination of the utopian function is distinguished from mere fantasizing precisely by the fact that only the former has in its favour a Not-Yet-Being of an expectable kind, i.e. does not play around and get lost in an Empty-Possible, but psychologically anticipates a RealPossible. At the same time, this lends a new clarity to the so often stressed distinction of the waking dream as really possible anticipation: utopian function is not present at all in mere wishful thinking or only flickers up. In the figure of Ulrich Brendel in 'Rosmersholm', Ibsen has movingly portrayed a mere and hence fruitless planner. On a very much lower level, not at all movingly, Spiegelberg in 'The Robbers'* belongs to the utopian-swaggering brigade to which Marquis Posa also belongs on an incomparably higher level, by virtue of an all too great, solely abstract-postulative purity.**
* **

Schiller's play 'Die Räuber', 1781. In Schiller's play 'Don Carlos', 1787.

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Pure wishful thinking has discredited utopias for centuries, both in pragmatic political terms and in all other expressions of what is desirable; just as if every utopia were an abstract one. And undoubtedly the utopian function is only immaturely present in abstract utopianizing, i.e. still predominantly without solid subject behind it and without relation to the RealPossible. Consequently, it is easily led astray, without contact with the real forward tendency into what is better. But at least as suspicious as the immaturity (fanaticism) of the undeveloped utopian function is the widespread and ripe old platitude of the way-of-theworld philistine, of the blinkered empiricist whose world is far from being a stage, in short, the confederacy in which the fat bourgeois and the shallow practicist have always not only rejected outright the anticipatory, but despised it. Indeed this confederacy – from an aversion to all modes of what is desirable, primarily to those which drive forward – finally, as was only logical, even added – nihilism to its repertoire. So that this very nihilism was able to come up with anti-utopian statements like the following: 'In wishes existence projects its being into possibilities which not only remain unseized when provided, but whose fulfilment is not even considered or expected(!). On the contrary: the predominance of being-inadvance-of-oneself in the mode of mere wishing entails a failure to understand factual possibilities . . . Wishing is an existential modification of comprehending self-projection which, addicted to thrownness, merely continues to indulge in possibilities' (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 1927, p. 195). This sort of thing, purely applied to immature anticipating, unquestionably sounds like a eunuch accusing the infant Hercules of impotence. We do not need to emphasize that the genuine struggle against immaturity and abstraction, in so far as they adhered to the utopian function or potentially still adhere to it, has nothing in common with bourgeois 'realism', and is also on its guard against practicism. But what is important is the fact that the hope-charged imaginative glance of the utopian function is not corrected from a worm's-eye view, but solely by the real elements in the anticipation itself. That is, from the perspective of that solely real realism which only is so because it is fully attuned to the tendency of what is actually real, to the objectively real possibility to which this tendency is assigned, and consequently to the properties of reality which are themselves utopian, i.e. contain future. And the thus denoted maturity of the utopian function – never led astray – denotes not least the sense for tendency in philosophical socialism, in contrast to the bad 'sense for fact' in empirically side-tracked socialism. The point of contact between dreams and life, without which dreams only

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yield abstract utopia, life only triviality, is given in the utopian capacity which is set on its feet and connected to the Real-Possible. And which in fact tendentially transcends what exists in each respective case, not only in our nature, but in that of the entire external world of process. Thus the only seemingly paradoxical concept of a concrete utopia would be appropriate here, that is, of an anticipatory kind which by no means coincides with abstract utopian dreaminess, nor is directed by the immaturity of merely abstract utopian socialism. The very power and truth of Marxism consists in the fact that it has driven the cloud in our dreams further forward, but has not extinguished the pillar of fire in those dreams, rather strengthened it with concreteness. In similar fashion, therefore, the consciousness-knownness of the expectant intention must prove itself as the intelligence of hope – in the midst of the immanently ascending, materially-dialectically transcending light. Thus the utopian function is also the only transcendent one which has remained, and the only one which deserves to remain: one which is transcendent without transcendence. Its support and correlate is process, which has not yet surrendered its most immanent What-content, but which is still under way. Which consequently is itself in a state of hope and of object-based premonition of the NotYet-Become, in the shape of a Not-Yet-Become-Good. Consciousness of the Front provides the best light for this, utopian function as the comprehended activity of the expectant emotion, of the hope-premonition, maintains the alliance with all that is still morning-like in the world. Utopian function thus understands what is exploding, because it is this itself in a very condensed way: its Ratio is the unweakened Ratio of a militant optimism. Therefore: the act-content of hope is, as a consciously illuminated, knowingly elucidated content, the positive utopian function; the historical content of hope, first represented in ideas, encyclopaedically explored in real judgements, is human culture referred to its concreteutopian horizon. The docta spes combine* operates on this knowledge as expectant emotion in the Ratio, as Ratio in the expectant emotion. And predominant in this combine is no longer contemplation, which for centuries has only been related to What Has Become, but the participating, co-operative process-attitude, to which consequently, since Marx, the open becoming is no longer sealed methodically and the Novum no longer alien in material terms. Subsequently, the theme of philosophy has stood solely in the topos of an unfinished lawgoverned field of becoming in depicting-intervening consciousness and in the world
*

Bloch is using the word 'combine' in the economic sense here.

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of knownness. This topos has only been discovered by Marxism through science – precisely with the development of socialism from utopia to science. More On the Utopian Function: The Subject in It and the Counter-Move to the Badly Existing But without the strength of an I and we behind it, even hoping becomes insipid. There is never anything soft about conscious-known hope, but a will within it insists: it should be so, it must become so. The wishful and volitional streak vigorously bursts out within it, the intensive element in venturing beyond, in acts of overhauling. Walking upright is presupposed, a will which refuses to be outvoted by anything that has already become; it has its preserve in this upright posture. This characteristic point on which the subject can stand and from where it reacts is abstractly described by stoic self-confidence as follows: if the world caves in, I will stand firm amidst the falling rubble. The point is abstractly described in a different way in the transcendental ego of German Idealism, from the perspective of assumptions no longer proud of virtue, but proud of intellect. Here self-confidence has changed into an act of cognitive production; and even as early as Descartes, cognition appears in places as manufacture, namely of its Object. The assumptions proud of intellect were of course incurably inflated, with the illusion of their absolute power of making; intellect definitely does not dictate the laws of nature. Nor is the world of this epistemological idealism by any means a utopian one; on the contrary: the ambition of the transcendental ego was predominantly to produce the existing world of laws itself, the world of mathematical-scientific experience. Nevertheless, the transcendental ego of Kant and Fichte knew how to postulate morally beyond a bad existent, even if only, corresponding to the German misery,* in an abstract way, lacking content. Kant, who on almost every point is not to be confused with neo-Kantianism, constructed, as a postulate at least, a more beautiful world, in Goethe's phrase, one of spontaneity of the will, which was neither satisfied by mechanistic experience based on the existent, nor destroyed by it. Thus – though thoroughly impaired by abstractness – there is in stoic self-confidence, and much more immediately in German Idealism itself, the indication of the
*

Bloch uses Heine's expression to describe the political and historical experience of Germany, often contrasted with the progressive, revolutionary history of France. There are also echoes of 'The Poverty of Philosophy' (1847), Marx's reply to Proudhon's 'The Philosophy of Poverty'.

whether and to what extent the anticipating counter-move coincides with a merely embellishing one. must rather be understood in their constant dialectical interaction. The question is now. its 'dream of the matter'. Otherwise the ultimately defeatist heresy of an objectivist automatism develops. The objective factor alone is not sufficient for this. and whose excessively subjective factor thinks it can skip over the objective economic laws. namely as proletarian class-consciousness. because the latter is not only negative but equally contains within it the forward surge of an achievement which can be anticipated and represents this forward surge in the utopian function. But that is precisely why the deep dimension of the subjective factor is in its counter-move. as Marx puts it. and it is just as impossible to suppress the deep dimension of this factor. guides and humanizes the path on which the world has set out. for the purpose of undermining it completely. at that time it stood philosophically for the citoyen. the latter was nevertheless clearly identified. from the Sturm und Drang to the so-called People's Spring of 1848. of the Real-Possible. superstitious belief in a world which becomes good of its own accord. The proletariat grasped itself as the actively contradictory contradiction in capitalism. and therefore as the one which causes the most trouble for what has become bad. one which cannot be divided or isolated. instead. While the element of human action must certainly also be preserved from isolation. In spite of the still abstractly formal indication of such a subjective factor. is still connected with the ego of idealism. which just charges out. Especially when . Whereas in real terms. Thus every bourgeois-revolutionary call in Germany.Page 148 characteristic point from which the subject reserves for itself the freedom of a counter-move contradicting the badly existing. the subjective factor – against all abstractness and the corresponding boundless spontaneity of consciousness – has mediated itself with the objective factor of the social tendency. In equally real terms. from the evil of putschistic activism as such. Both factors. the objective contradictions are constantly provoking interaction with subjective contradiction. Thus the activity of knowingbest turned into that something more which consciously continues. and also totally free of incurably idealistic inflatedness. according to which the objective contradictions are alone sufficient to revolutionize the world permeated by them. not merely in the mind. It is therefore impossible to get by without the subjective factor. a subjective factor was only grasped through socialism. the mobilization of contradictions which occur in the badly existing. bringing about its collapse. precisely that of the counter-move to the badly existing. But no less harmful is social-democratic automatism as such. the subjective and the objective.

there are in ideology certain figures which condense. and it must be possible to confront the not wholly irredeemable distortions and abstractnesses. But then the original and sustained concrete utopian function must also be discoverable in these inauthentic improvements. And with a by no means revolutionary mandate behind it. at best premature harmonization. perfecting or signifying exaggeration. however. what exists is completed here. perfect and give significance to what exists which are known as archetypes when mainly referring to condensing. although it definitely does highlight things. and it is surrounded by nothing but smoke or incense of false consciousness. at least in places. Rather. Since in ideology. and again in allegories and symbols. deceitfully. and therefore deception. has for the most part no counter-move in it at all. is nevertheless not an embellishment of the badly existing. (The rotten ideology in the declining periods of a class society. but with an apologetic one. but rather a transcending of what exists through its embellishing. because they still further the development of the forces of production.e.Page 149 the merely embellishing element. The respective conditions of production explain how the respective ideologies and other inauthentic improvements came about. And now the question has become more concrete: whether and to what extent the anticipatory counter-move coincides with a merely embellishing one. especially that of the late bourgeoisie of today. The highlighting of what exists then occurs as an illusory. though in a largely idealistic-abstract way and never in a dialectically explosive and real way. although still rising. condensing. one which is supposed to reconcile the subject with what exists. but merely dubious polishing of what exists. different again in ideals. This purpose is fulfilled above all by ideology in periods of a class society which are no longer revolutionary. since it is already known false consciousness. yet so that a characteristic. and it is not consciously. as allegories and symbols when mainly referring to significance. not or only inauthentically in future and time. which is intended in so many different ways in all this. i. just as it is not possible without an irregularly perceived 'dream of a matter' on the leading edge of what exists. And this again is not possible without a distorted or displaced utopian function. as ideals when mainly referring to perfection.) Furthermore. but the respective confusions in the Humanum of the respective conditions of production made a borrowing from the . The embellishment of what exists. an inauthentic anticipation of a better world is not lacking: an anticipation in space so to speak. there is of course no counter-move. trying to divert attention from the latter. does not of course belong here at all. in a different way in archetypes.

It dispels the deceptive feelings and words. Certainly. apart from the interest in presenting the well-being of one's own class as that of humanity as a whole. striving. the economic impulse in the totally crooked business-life of today has descended to a purely despicable level. the whole capitalist machinery would have ground to a halt. does not want to lose its own sense of proportion. and unlike the desire to kill. in archetypes which are still encapsulated.Page 150 utopian function necessary in order to be able at all to make the completions mentioned above together with their cultural surplus. comparatively more honest ages of capital. but since even the latter is self-alienated. And yet. and that showed the utopian function at work partly also in that class which otherwise felt happy in its alienation. Even. no spiritual surplus at all is explicable over and above what has been attained and thus exists. Without the utopian function. in Marx's striking phrase. Contact of the Utopian Function with Interest A cool glance does not prove its worth by understating. Therefore. if altruistic motives had taken its place. that above all passes for culture in the bourgeoisie. if the egotistical impulse had presented itself so nakedly? If it had not . then. and the latter seizes on all possible substance in the surplus of the former. On pain of being ruined. wants to see ego. ideologies also incorporated. impulse naked. If this stimulus had let up. It is obvious that this function truly. among a considerable majority of employers at that time. however full this surplus may be of appearance instead of pre-appearance. as Mandeville's Fable of the Bees so cynically and truthfully demonstrated. Rather it wants to correct things and can do so. the ideas of the ruling class. in ideals which are still abstract. indeed almost entirely. but not of course cut up and divided. profit interest was not exactly composed of the noblest human impulses. as will be shown. that yearning and overhauling image of a world without alienation. Ideologies as the ruling ideas of an age are. a powerful selfishness was always at work in the economic struggle. animated the still revolutionary ideologies of such classes. And likewise it is true that even in earlier. and all that remains intact is ruthless nastiness. The greed for profit here overshadows all other human inclinations. every act of anticipating identifies itself to the utopian function. does not even pause occasionally. would it not often at least have been slowed down. in allegories and symbols which are still static. in ideologies which have not completely passed away with their society. on that contained in previously progressive interest.

discovered at last. the capitalist economy appeared the only natural one. They were features of conviction. would undoubtedly have continued as before. And when it came to the last fight of all against feudal restraints. in a manner as ponderous as it was – utopian. ostensibly philanthropic way. With all this. the gentlemen of the East India Company had no place for a utopian function in their business. of clear conscience. But their clear conscience bolstered itself up with the fact that capitalist interest was continually supposed to address itself to the interest of the customer. that is. it would only have damaged it. . crafty and twisted. showing how he actually believed in honest profit. of course. as they so often are in Calvinism. something more noble. to those wealthy consumers through whom the surplus value extorted from the workers can be made into money by selling the product of their labour. how he above all felt himself to be a kind of benefactor to consumers. But the average businessman in manufacturing industry. Whereas the rising bourgeois citizen needed 'virtue' in order to earn money all the more zealously from others. totally unencumbered by bourgeois morals. whose evident selfinterest balanced itself out in the overall benefit thus produced. not a very heroic class. All the more so as cynical selfishness was ascribed to nobility. on a purely inward level. dreamed-up impulses specifically noted by Smith as being benevolent. still needed and cultivated a belief in the greatest possible happiness of the greatest number. distinct from conscious brutality. Thus Adam Smith's selfish system distinctly incorporated features of an even inwardly false consciousness. a nature which even had to make altruistic excuses and protestations to itself in order to make so-called honest profit in an honourable. but subjectively honest and polished. he needed it as a link between his egotistical impulses and those pretended. and these were not. The interest itself was therefore influenced in a utopian way. or rather the false consciousness of it. That is. the bourgeoisie. which was in fact extremely active. even in the incipient industrial revolution. to its satisfaction. The clear conscience of mutual advantage was further enhanced by the fact that all human beings were regarded as free traders with increasing powers of exchange. chiefly to the lechers in its ranks (cf. in the game of supply and demand. as if he were earning it for those others. more communal. of which Smith expressed his total approval. of the respectable businessman and employer. and dreamed it up in a subjective way that was not entirely false? These fictional bees must therefore not blind us to the nature of the real egoists. the contemporary novels of Richardson). Without this embellishment the exploitation among the great sharks.Page 151 pretended even to itself.

this mentality. so there was at that time a surplus. contributed in a utopian fashion. sustainable trend. were not seen through. must first be united with their own energies. Yet this kind of selfdeception also contained an anticipatory element.C. And in fact not everything about its interest was deception.C. which are no longer bourgeois individualistic ones. 121 B. which was actually partly the case. can be culturally inherited. Otherwise they would not have felt a credulous affinity with the Gracchi* and with Brutus. the abstract idea of the citoyen as a moral person. could operate even in the impulse. but also as a surplus. how else could someone like Jefferson be revered. which was economically due. called 'virtue' in those days. in order. Therefore the rising class. it even showed particularly humanitarian features. 'to hide from themselves the content of their struggles with its bourgeois limitations'. in bourgeois striving itself. but would have let the men from the suburbs do all their fighting for them. 133 B.) made use of the concilium plebis to oppose the power of the Senate in Republican Rome. otherwise one could not refer in socialist terms to the businessman who supported human rights and was not only orientated towards the private sector. Utopian function * Tiberius Gracchus (d.) and his younger brother Gaius (d. in this case therefore with capitalist society. which had become divorced from real individual people. Good things. let alone to the citoyen. . But precisely because this desire was one which never reached its goal. it existed in this case as one which not only acted as a boost. employed in an abstract and utopian way. and mostly it remained at that. did still exist. i. let alone the genuine Jacobins? So another. it carries on along the path of liberation. which was actually again partly the case. although they were abstractly expressed. This was blatant self-deception.Page 152 had to boost itself in a particularly strong utopian fashion. in the same way as the shaped surplus in actual ideological consciousness. one going beyond the progress which was to be directly encouraged. it can be kept. have been desired repeatedly in the past. on those points where it does not coincide with the attainable that is now due. The social mentality which is morally abstracted in the citoyen. indeed the best. needed even inwardly a far-reaching passion in the confused feelings of that time. It can be morally inherited. All the same. All the same. Otherwise they would not have done any fighting themselves.e. as Marx says. a surplus which has been turned into works. if it was a progressive one for its time. the private businessman who supported human rights. What the citoyen promised is a promise which can certainly only be kept in socialism. could not yet be seen through at that time. during the courtship leading up to the bourgeois freedom of 1789.

fixing it politically and legally. ideology itself stems from the division of labour. The class which then itself comes to power instigates the second ideological phase. This unclosed aspect appears in its broadest and most hybrid form in ideology. in fact there is sometimes a process of fermenting.Page 153 tears this part away from deception. classical or decadent. day as night. with a different mandate to the mental. the victorious. . into ascent. Thus the economic substructure in class society is certainly shrouded in the mist of an interested false consciousness. Securing and embellishment are supported by an achieved. it thus enables everything philanthropic to feel a growing mutual affinity. Only after that could a group which had the leisure to develop ideas deceive themselves and especially others by means of these ideas. all too mental superstructure: the preparatory. in so far as this ideology is not exhausted merely by the connection to its time. of previous revolutionary impulses) – its own substructure which has meanwhile come into existence. Encounter of the Utopian Function with Ideology A keen glance does not simply prove its worth by seeing through things. not yet secured substructure by opposing its fresh progressive superstructure to the rotten superstructure of the previous ruling class. Since not everything is as perfectly clear as that. partly also through the more or less classical 'equilibration'. Here there are admittedly three phases in the ideological formation of these societies with very different status. Certainly. and dressing it up politically. This is the picture in all class societies. blossoming. most clearly in that of the bourgeoisie. they justify existing social conditions by denying their economic roots and disguising exploitation. the declining. and the deception is almost completely conscious – and even by phosphorescently renaming night as day. from the separation of physical and mental work which occurred after primitive communes. legally and culturally. by securing – (through the omission. Nor by the mere false consciousness about its time which has accompanied all previous cultures. although only temporary harmony between forces and conditions of production. to which precisely the keen glance does justice. The declining class then instigates the third ideological phase by sweetening the rotten stench of the substructure – while the credulity of the false consciousness almost totally disappears. since ideologies are always originally those of the ruling class. The preparatory phase of an ideology helps its own. But also in the way it does not see everything as if it were as clear as crystal. So. of self-forming at work. no matter whether its illusion subdivides in terms of content into fiery.

Page 154 or cosmetic application. and with this remark he takes up the self-examination of bourgeois society that had begun in French materialism. Epistles. it is easy to understand that every massive. because this illusion possibly also contains. dwelling on the other side.' . Seen from the critical side. ideology seen from this side is thus the sum of the ideas in which a society has justified and transfigured itself with the help of false consciousness. paries cum proximus ardet'. beyond what exists. in the work of La Bruyère. apart from the enthusiastic flowers with which a society garlanded its cradle. citing the Greeks. In short. that evident personal interest was the basis of all this morality. not even when the continuing tua res agitur* is by no means confined to the rising revolutionary epoch of one of the previous class societies. since no exploitation can afford to be seen naked. of the three phases? This is precisely the side which does not fully coincide with merely false consciousness and with the apologetics of a mere. those artistic creations which. historically successful "interest". 84. In fact. For this phenomenon. is stronger. confronts us much more abundantly in the classical epoch of a society than in its revolutionary epoch. 'are regarded in certain respects as norms and unattainable models'. I. Marx says strikingly in 'The Holy Family': 'The ''idea" always blundered whenever it differed from "interest"'. But then again: whenever we think of culture. Horace. when it first enters on the world stage. goes far beyond its real thoughts in its "idea" or "conception" and becomes confused with human interest per se. 18. science and philosophy. But Marx goes on to say in the same passage: 'On the other hand. where of course the directly utopian impetus against what exists. that of developed and also future-orientated art.' This results in illusion or 'what Fourier calls the tone of every historical epoch'. The very difference in content of the three phases cannot be suppressed here. becomes all the more apparent. which first demonstrated. 'It is your concern when your neighbour's house is on fire. And the * 'Nam tua res agitur. does not another side of ideology appear which is already recognizable in the composition. in the 'Introduction to the Critique of Political Economy'. La Rochefoucauld. historically discarded class society. it is precisely then that the actual phenomenon: cultural surplus under discussion here. and particularly of Helvétius. as Marx reminds us. so different morally and as regards content. Yet. of the problem as to how works of the superstructure progressively reproduce themselves in cultural consciousness even after the disappearance of their social bases. the problem of ideology is broached from the side of the problem of cultural inheritance.

In the case of the 'Symposium'. as we know. But rather. in fact a final one to which they can intend. are not bound to it. nor glorious as on the first day: but instead they shed their deficiency and their first glory while being capable of a later glory. though here not merely false consciousness of the earlier ideology: 'Our motto must therefore be: reform of consciousness not through dogmas. in which no false consciousness at all participates. is only the case because ideologies seen from this side are not exhausted with the false consciousness of their base. however progressive they may have been. in essence. due to the respective social barriers to cognition. only the illusory problems and the ideology of particular place and time have sunk away and been discarded. speaks. had of itself and used for its own embellishment. and thus transitory material. yet. they did not disappear with their social base. essential material. calls us on. the following statement by Marx (to Ruge.Page 155 blossoms of art. itself still full of future. i. these blossoms definitely can be removed from their first sociohistorical soil. But this. with constantly new perspectives in it. nor with the active work for their respective bases. not from the past. because of the height of consciousness which distinguishes them and which permits a glance far into future. bound to its position. since they themselves. these great works are not deficient as on their first day. Socialism. the 'Ethics' and even 'The Phenomenology of Mind'. the substance as subject stand in the midst of all changes as variations of the one goal. the substance. as the ideology of the revolutionary proletariat. as carried by the ideology of class societies. Rather. these works too. together with more modest things. but through analysis of mystical .e. The Acropolis of course belongs to slave-owning society. science. No search for the surplus is possible in false consciousness itself. as a task that points the way forward and as a solution that approaches from the future. in contrast to the conditions of production at the time. However. The classical element in every classicism equally stands before each age as revolutionary Romanticism. is only true consciousness at all with reference to the comprehended movement and the apprehended tendency of reality. none is necessary in the ideology of socialist revolution. 1843) holds good for the relation of this true ideology to the anticipatory element in the false. philosophy. In short. especially these. whereas the Eros. and. and they carry with them nothing deplorable. demonstrate that genuine classicism which does not consist in rounding off. The great works of philosophy do of course contain more time-bound. addresses. always denote something more than the false consciousness which each society. in contrast to the base. but in eternal youth. Strasbourg cathedral to feudal society.

but of the carrying through of the thoughts of the past. and thus not only in and for its time. Therefore. and is therefore a substratum of the claimable cultural inheritance. Or. And now it becomes clear that this very surplus is produced by nothing other than the effect of the utopian function in the ideological creations of the cultural side. the dream of a better life stretched far beyond its social-utopian parent company. It will become apparent that it is not a question of a great thought-dash between past and future. It will then become apparent that the world has long possessed the dream of a matter. false consciousness alone would not even be sufficient to gild the ideological wrapping. Alone it would be incapable of creating one of the most important characteristics of ideology. Correspondingly. Indeed. class ideologies would only have managed to create transitory deception. the dream of a better life is very broadly perceived through all of this. of which it must only possess the consciousness in order to possess it in reality. And ideology is even less conceivable as the medium of continuing cultural substratum without its encounter with the utopian function. the surplus which is called continuing culture. which comes to the same thing. not the models in art. Every plan and every creation that was pushed to the limits of its perfection had touched on utopia and gave. apart from the usual purely pejorative sense. science and philosophy. even in a historical respect. lead precisely to that surplus over and above the false consciousness bound to its position. namely premature harmonization of social contradictions. Without doubt. a surplus over and above their mere ideology . All previous great culture is pre-appearance of something achieved. within which the great works of the past lie. even mere apologetics of the respective social substructures. not confined to its most popular manifestation – the utopia of an ideal state. without the utopian function.Page 156 consciousness which is still unclear to itself. in so far as it could still be built up in images and thoughts on the panoramic heights of time. is used not only in the above anticipatory sense. namely into every kind of cultural anticipation. which is what in fact happened. All this obviously ventures beyond both false consciousness and the strengthening. precisely the great cultural works. as that morning which is not only contained in the early day.' Even the class ideologies. It thus emerges that the breadth and depth to which the utopian extends is at first. which had a more and more progressive influence. but on a higher level also in the midday of a society and partly even in the twilight of its decline. as mentioned above. but – as function – also in a comprehensive sense. utopian. And it is this very surplus which forms and preserves the substratum of the cultural inheritance.

this expression then means the same as: a methodical organ for the New. Although. of socialism from utopia to science. and consequently nothing less than the substratum of cultural inheritance. moreover. with knowledge and removal of the finished utopistic element. and. on the basis of this differentiation. with witnesses. whether and how far the expression utopia and its attack can or should also be applied. with its open space and its object which is to be realized and which realizes itself forwards. and the ideological underwent in 'socialist ideology'. Thus all great cultural works also have implicitly. in 1918. which we called concrete utopia above (as distinct from the utopistic and from merely abstract utopianizing). an objective aggregate state of what is coming up. the 'authentic' core of our wanting. above all in the areas of technological. But which lie completely current and new within the development which has occurred. the history of terminology contained several such examples of the broadening of a previous meaning of a word. although they belong to this and are occupied with its articulation. the category: utopian function is dominant factually and therefore in a conceptually apposite way. of course. underwent in 'revolutionary Romanticism'. of course. architectural or geographical utopias. in its brevity and new clarity. though not always (as in Goethe's 'Faust') explicitly. Lenin was able to call socialism the ideology of the revolutionary proletariat. The question now remains. But what then remains: the unfinished forward dream.Page 157 there and then. with knowledge and removal of abstract utopia. ornaments and figures which had previously been dealt with totally outside a Not-Yet-Arrived in reality. a utopian . with the partial removal of the negative meanings which adhered to it. And yet in general. but also of all those which ultimately revolved and are revolving around the 'Absolute'. The parasitic enjoyment of culture reaches an end through insight into the more and more adequate trend towards our becoming identical and through commitment to this. The broadening of a previously so narrowly conceived power of anticipation was begun in Ernst Bloch's 'The Spirit of Utopia'. A still greater differentiation was undertaken between the meanings of the concept of ideology itself. the word romantic is a relevant example here. the docta spes which can only be discredited by the bourgeoisie. cultural works open up strategically. without superfluous misunderstanding. for example. the power of anticipation. Naturally. has still remained completely untouched by the terminological correction and broadening which the romantic. to intentions and interest which are by no means those of the past. Of course. – this seriously deserves the name utopia in carefully considered and carefully applied contrast to utopianism.

** 'Faust'. There is a spirit of utopia in the final predicate of every great statement. Used to separate gold and silver in gold-silver alloy. It is in the despair which still contains an unum necessarium even as something lost. from the point of view of the philosophical concept of utopia. Real depth always occurs in double-edged movement: 'Sink then! I could also say rise! It's all the same'. precisely then. Kyrie and Credo rise in the concept of utopia as that of comprehended hope in a completely different way. but gold does not. by revealing the gold that was not affected by aqua fortis. in the expectant music of Beethoven and in the latencies of the Mass in B minor. They are now. and in the Hymn to Joy. but the attempted path and content of known hope. Utopian function tears the concerns of human culture away from such an idle bed of mere contemplation: it thus opens up. indeed rises when class illusion. Thus beyond the end of class ideologies. 6275. of falsely concluding harmonization. culture has no other loss than the business of decoration itself. is to begin. Part II. Mephisto shouts to Faust. class ideology have been destroyed. in Strasbourg cathedral and in the Divine Comedy. And not only Mephisto shouts * Nitric acid. the ideologically unobstructed view of the content of human hope. The exact imagination of the Not-Yet-Conscious thus completes the critical enlightenment itself. on truly attained summits. which simultaneously dips and scoops. Backwards and forwards are then as in the movement of a wheel. . Encounter of the Utopian Function with Archetypes A deep glance proves its worth by becoming doubly profound. Hence – pure gold.** He even shouts it where a delight in something that has long since ceased to exist. for which it could only be mere decoration up till then. not an ideological prank of a higher kind. Only thus does utopia fetch what is its own from the ideologies and explain the progressive element which continues to be historically effective in the great works of ideology itself. in Helen of Troy.Page 158 background understood in this way. which is the easier.* and the good content which remains most valid. even when the reflection of mere time-bound ideology has been shed. But rather there is also a depth upwards and forwards which takes up into itself profound material from below. Not only downwards. more literal way of getting to the bottom of things. since silver dissolves in it.

with the magic potion of youth. is found by Orpheus alone.* Helen the archetype of beauty is moving wholly out of the archaic here. sees Helen in every woman. When Faust. this forwards and above can never be resolved into the already Known and Become. and only from the overall perspective of climbing.' . Only this utopian aspect of some archetypes makes their fruitful quotation possible.Page 159 this. Thus utopian function very often has a double profundity. mutatis mutandis. Because we find repeatedly: that which is exclusively repressed downwards and to be found in the subconscious is in reality only the soil from which night-dreams emerge and occasionally the poison which causes neurotic symptoms: this below can largely be resolved into the known. this archetype is moving upwards even in the archaic. Whereas that which is hoped for and imagined contains the possible treasure from which the great daylight fantasies are derived. All such rationalisms * Mephisto in Goethe's 'Faust'. is not ascending forward dawning. consequently with a nonmythical surplus that has not been worked up. those which do not become obsolete for a long time. It is clear here that this can be achieved not only from below. glancing forwards not backwards. a double meaning itself shouts through Mephisto: that of the equally archaic and utopian relations between images. the intriguer. Which can only mean that the groundwork for hope is partly done in the archaic frame here. 2603–4: 'When you have drunk this magic potion Soon you'll see Helen in every woman. It therefore has to forge them into utopia. by sinking. More precisely. Hope consequently has to make utopian provision not only for ideologies which continue to have significance. but also for those archetypes which contain material which has still not been worked out. but essentially from above. just as. Part I. as has already been seen in the apparent merging of dream-games and in the dissolution of this appearance. in the Orcus of What Has Been. That which is still Eurydice. significantly progressive ideology is forged into it. and therefore has at bottom an inexhaustible latency. But: it can only be invoked from the utopian standpoint. therefore has at bottom only a tedious latency. that of submersion in the midst of that of hope. the dangerous master of double-edged meanings. from the overall perspective of climbing. not in pure submersion. in the witches' kitchen. can affinitive utopian material possibly become visible in archetypes. not yet lived out herself. and it is Eurydice for him alone. in those archetypes which still arouse consternation and which have possibly been left over from the age of a mythical consciousness as categories of the imagination.

of every generic form. . merely invoked the whole phenomenon falsely. do indeed contain a wealth of archetypes through their attempt to categorize 'motifs'. The expression archetypos itself is first found in the work of Augustine. purely as gloom. shows their unfinished nature. a nimbus like that around landscapes with successful architecture of the situation and its significance. moreover. The archetypes themselves have already been mentioned above. Jung. but the warmth produced by the maturing process is not located in regressio. Creuzer in particular already unmistakably separates their archetypicality into four aspects: into 'the momentary. the archaic appeared like Timbuktu in Zurich. still as an explanatory paraphrase of Plato's Eidos. in recurring 'motifs'. a wild exaggeration wholly in accordance with a reactionary element in Romantic archaism. more interesting love. Part II. in connection with C. particularly this element. The attention that was beginning to be paid to similarities in the material of fairytales. the total. Romeo and Juliet become the archetype of young love. of course. but the studies of the history of myths by Karl Philipp Moritz. Thus in the work of Novalis. Anthony and Cleopatra that of more mature. and * The archetypes of creation in Goethe's 'Faust'.and underworld-lamp. Above all. compressed events. for example. Philemon and Baucis. The peculiarly brooding element in archetypes. in rescue-types. and especially Friedrich Creuzer. What is decisive. is the extraordinary harmonization of all elements in these archetypes. elapsed marriage. according to Novalis. as it were. Thus it is the extremely impressive motif of recognition (anagnorisis). But far more decisive was the peculiar nimbus that was added to the agreement of these elements. this is. even in Romanticism with its nostalgic grave. together with their hut. comparative literary history revealed a wealth of such elements.Page 160 based on the Mothers. in conflict-types.* seen as still giving birth. did much to point to the existence of archetypes. in whose work. are visualized as the tableau of age-old. in the case of Philemon and Baucis it extends 'to the ham which hangs well-smoked in the chimney'. but in fact it was only Romanticism that applied the classical expression to a categorial stock of a pictorially objective kind. breaking through and illuminating by means of certain. show a light falling in from utopia. that is. which archetypally unites such diverse material as Joseph and his Brothers in the Bible and the meeting of Electra and Orestes in Sophoclean tragedy. These archetypes appear here as symbols. but this archreactionary. G. mythology seemed to contain all basic situations and their possible combinations. the unfathomable aspect of their origin.

it would have taken only a little less hypostasis of an already eternally translucent idea to see the archetypes also in the form of an allegory. It is like a suddenly appearing ghost or like a flash of lightning which abruptly illuminates the dark night. and not. patrilinear series: in the hetairan ornaments of reeds and swamp. either in their allegorical form and relation. It is precisely in the allegory that the wealth of poetically working archetypes first opens up. matrilinear. before the classicism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. namely those of transitoriness and its multiple guises. are by no means concepts dressed up in sensory form. they also contain – in the Baroque period. in the matrilinear ones of ear of corn and earth cave. 118. Though this does not mean that – apart from the hypothetical division of the three series – they were catalogued in a more comprehensive way. And he explains the momentary and also pictorially laconic aspect beforehand. that is. essentially situational condensing categories. religiously forms the archetypes. especially in the realm of poetically depictive imagination. since they were manifestations of an idea.Page 161 the necessary'. with brevity. a moment which claims our whole being' (Creuzer. 1819. ultimately even transcendental idealism. whereas the symbol is consistently assigned to the Unitas of a meaning. or in their religious-symbolic one. an equally socio-historical and natural mythical order was thus supposed to emerge in the archetypes as a whole. Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker I. like Platonic Ideas. 59). in their true form. in the patrilinear ones of laurel and the circle of the sun. in fact the majority of archetypes. precisely from the work of Romanticism. allegories. Thus Bachofen. crucial in terms of utopia: despite their original Augustinian consonance with prototypes in the sense of Platonic Ideas. as already emerges from the above examples. The archetypes of Romanticism or rather: as interpreted by Romanticism. Nevertheless. the following became clear. of those which still lie in the Alteritas of worldly life. p. were connected with the Platonic Ideas only . or rather. by means of an archetype: 'That arousing and at the same time startling element is connected with another quality. not just in that of a symbol. Creuzer called such laconicisms symbols in the Romantic sense. They are. and therefore also essentially forms the religious archetypes. archetypes have little or nothing in common with these and their pure. a greater Creuzer and accomplished mythologist. Rather. After all. It appeared in hetairan. both discovered and first attempted to arrange the system of archetypes among ancient peoples completely inside the sphere of religion. and therefore what we so readily call frosty and abstract. and in a different way in the Middle Ages – archetypes. generically hypostasized.

even if this is genuine. . for while the latter merely diverts attention from recognition of the present and its real driving force. it was precisely expired feudal archetypes that were most popular in the regression which corresponded to political reaction. even though in a way which also indicates their differences from unchangeable ideas. Those archetypes merely held back in regression transform utopia into a backwardlooking. moves historically. in genuine utopian function. they have escaped it and are at least extraterritorial to it. By no means all archetypes are capable of utopian treatment anyway. they belong. Re-remembering. it has an important office to perform here. anamnesis. existing archetypes of the situation of freedom or of luminous happiness are not bound to this sort of past material. to the categorial table of the imagination. as Romanticism said. Significantly. however. as we will later have to demonstrate. They are then more dangerous than the usual smoke-screen of ideology. luminously powerful. But clearly. The rotten archetypes must first be separated from those which are really undischarged in utopian terms. by which. the token. Though the fact that this was possible. additionally prevents openness to the future. even if it shows no proximity whatsoever to the Platonism of heavenly ideas. Only the utopian glance can find this material which has an elective affinity with it. relatively unexpired and undischarged still circulates are capable of utopian treatment. Through the pathos of the merely archaic the whole sphere is missed which is often so actively. goes back into primal periods within time itself. Therefore another separation begins here so that true friends recognize each other and stay together. does show a misunderstandability – particularly exploited by Romanticism – of archetypes in their relation to the utopian function. namely by assigning the former to totally obsolete What Has Been.Page 162 through so-called re-remembering. As noted above. This is not the place to survey the archetypes. was in Plato that of the pre-worldly state where the soul found itself in a prototypal heaven. all things poetical always recognize themselves in life that has grown older. the archetype. reactionary. as we have seen. on a grand scale. only those archetypes in which something not worked out. and. in all great literary works. just as if the archetype. in poetry and also philosophy. They are to be found. instead of the bare capitalist murder of ornaments even in thought. was solely surrender to the past and not also (like the storming of the Bastille) an emblem of the future. re-remembering in Romanticism. ultimately even diluvial one. and not reactionary utopianism as it often is in Romanticism. to a new part of logic. becomes archaic regression. spell-binding backwards and held in a backward spell.

which heralds the rescue: the arrival of the Minister (he stands for the Messiah) embodies the archetype of the vengeful. is the fight with the dragon (St George. it now seems to lack any trace of the archaic. many of them appeared aborigine only in the course of history. that the utopian dimension of archetypes ultimately cannot be fixed at all in terms of the archaic. An archetype of the highest utopian order is the trumpet signal in the last act of 'Fidelio'. Canaan. An archetype with undischarged tendency-latency beneath the cloak of fantasy is the Land of Cockaigne. time and again a shoot has sprouted from them that augments the existing contents of the archetypes. to a cloaking depiction of utopian tendency-contents in the real. Thus. Herod. when it appears as the necessary space which precedes the final triumph (Egypt. nor with orgiastic festivals of spring and Dionysus. first acquired a completely new origin: it stepped out of astral myth into revolutionary history. above all. Siegfried. St Michael). is the winter demon who tries to kill the young sun (Fenriswolf. the kingdom of Antichrist before the beginning of the New Jerusalem). such as the dance on the ruins of the Bastille – a new arresting prototype. but rather it wanders highly suitable through history. purely immanent in these examples. the old thunderstorm and rainbow archetype. not all archetypes are merely condensed images of archaic experience. although an archetype. Apollo. All the more so when the utopian incursion occurs into both the age-old and the . and therefore not one which would have been in tune with fields of asphodel. but here quite concretely related kind even in Marx's statement: 'When all internal conditions have been fulfilled. and in fact: they belong by virtue of their undischarged part alone to a truth. And. concentrated in the Leonora overture. Even archetypes of clearly archaic origin have repeatedly derived refreshment and variation from historical transformations: even the trumpet signal in 'Fidelio' would hardly have its piercingly genuine effect without the storming of the Bastille. Indeed. religions. these are not all archetypes of archaic origin. Gessler). A related archetype is the liberation of the virgin (innocence in general) whom the dragon holds captive (Perseus and Andromeda). in the end. there is an archetype of an age-old. redeeming apocalypse.Page 163 myths. which forms the model and the continual background for the music of 'Fidelio'. is the time of dragons. Through it the thunderstorm and rainbow archetype. the day of German resurrection will be heralded by the crowing of the Gallic cockerel. the dragon-land itself. Its music is Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. Pharaoh. separated from the archaic circles of the Blessed by entirely new contents. to which the signal and the rescue refer.' We notice.

among them some in whose sacred halls no philanthropy had ever previously been sung. the kingdom of light. even allegories and symbols. the ordeal by water and fire. Nevertheless. Not-Yet-Achieved material. nor out of later history. of sunrise. that which is capable of utopia. if there were no archetypes which themselves reach for utopia. it's lonely at the top).Page 164 historically fresh archetypes. the kingdom of night. neither out of the archaic. it also fetches back from the double-edged archetypal depths an element of itself. This is so in numerous condensed sayings (still waters run deep. ultimately shows itself and proves its worth whenever archetypes clearly turn into object-based ciphers. the magic of the flute. in the thunderstorm-rainbow archetype. in each case it would only have technical school intellect in its favour. an archaically stored anticipation of still Not-Yet-Conscious. But the Magic Flute – to take a fantasy-piece that is unquestionably humanizing – uses almost nothing but archaic allegories and symbols: the guide and priest-king. To use a dialectical archetype itself: the anchor which sinks down to the bottom here is simultaneously the anchor of hope. can contain it. Progressively determined it would have to guard against all images. Thus productive utopian function also draws images from the What Has Been which is not obsolete. the transformation into a sun. which they have in any case copied from nature. against it. Archetypes of this type are not at all formed merely out of human material. and it makes them suitable for the expression of What Has Still Not Yet Been. all these allegories and symbols. with ancient symbols. If archetypal material was totally regressive. in an undemonic temple. a kind of real cipher or real symbol. It is therefore an expression for that which has not yet become . what is sinking down contains what is rising up. Thus the utopian function discovers not only the cultural surplus belonging to it. have shown they can be used in the service of enlightenment. while utopia reaches back to them. as the latter is dreamless. they found their true home in Mozart's fairytale music. then there would be no pioneering literature. which stem from the old mythical ground of imagination. in a double-edged sense. imagination would be exclusively regressio. in fact. committed to light. but rather they demonstrate a bit of the double inscription of nature itself. in so far as they are capable of future. And the same double nature designated by all this. for example. and therefore. the refunctioning which is expert at liberating archetypally encapsulated hope. despite all the spell in them. in the real object. and also in the light and sun imagery of the Magic Flute. and not just for the human apprehension of that thing. A real symbol is one where the thing signified is still disguised from itself.

it acts as a task or as a target. sound-figure and so on). Utopian function tears away this part from the past. Egyptian crystal style. forms of well-defined objects (palm shape. and nearer at hand in the formed works of man. on this path. But the ideal as imagined goal is distinguished from an ordinary imagined goal precisely by its emphasis on perfection. from reaction. of a renewed qualitative philosophy of nature.Page 165 manifest in the object itself. Here. or they are empirically and shrewdly diverted. a decision of the will directed towards . they are figures of tension. namely in so far as archetypes are what they can be: concise ornaments of a utopian substance. must first be imagined in the mind. it is already clear that even object-based archetypes. and also from myth. A goal hovers before it which has rarely been lost sight of since youth. because real ciphers are not static. of course. but something absolutely perfect. turned into real ciphers which are to be found in the enormous antiquarium of nature. Since it is not to hand. whether crackpot or objectively meaningful. Gothic forest style and so on). A sharply delineated part of the world thus appears as a symbol group of an objectbased kind whose mathematics and philosophy are still both equally undeveloped. Things like this border on the problem of an object-based utopian theory of figures. the human picture of the symbol is only a representative depiction of this. if the imagining of empirically compelling counter-reasons penetrates the imagined goal. symbolic ones. but rather is signified in the object and through the object. then it is called an ideal. they are tendentious process forms and. Lines of movement (fire. Archetypes. are only elucidated by utopian function. however. Encounter of the Utopian Function with Ideals An open glance proves its worth by turning towards itself. and therefore ultimately on the forgotten (Pythagorean) problem of a qualitative mathematics. always have their nearest existence in human history. Every goal. lightning. every refunctioning occurring in this way demonstrates the undischarged aspect of archetypes changed to the point of recognition. human face. On the other hand. it cannot be made to settle for anything less. above all in fact. cat shape. If the goal seems to contain not just something desirable or worth striving for. Active striving and desiring are otherwise abandoned. but demands or shines. whether attainable or unattainable. the ideal as imagined goal acts as such unremittingly. indicate these real ciphers. So-called morphology is only an abstract caricature of this.

So that formation of ideals. and this ideal is wholly confined to the moral sphere. and now. which is decreed to man as obligation. There is the misfortune of an idolatry of love which continues to cast its spell even on the object which has been seen through. at the same time it is directed towards the past. the ideal Object. – concerning the over-compensatory formation of the guiding ideal. This sort of thing has already appeared in connection with repression in the Freudian sense. is accompanied by guilty conscience. and. and even then this is not always a cure. but we have indicated the difference by capitalizing the former. Adler's theory of over-compensation seeks to explain these truly shining features. in every ideal command in general. is able to contain a tremendous amount of false consciousness. But whereas this illusion can be empirically corrected in ordinary imagined goals. is supposed to be the father continuing to exert an influence. The ordinary imagined goal and that of the ideal display the character of a value. their commands have remained effective in the ideal ego. with sufficient excavation. and mere illusion of value is to be found in both cases. It is so even when it is not implemented. . the super-ego is the source of the formation of ideals. thus acts as a demanding one. This theory of ideals therefore led exclusively backwards to the father. with all the threat. seemingly as if it had its own desire. Both can only be translated by the English 'object'. The ego stands in the same relation to the super-ego as that of a child to its parents. as conscience. because the non-implementation. then the only way of breaking its demanding. archaic subconsciousness. Accordingly. If an Object appears as one which is ideal. precisely because of its factual irrevocability. A peculiar power thus emanates from the formation of ideals. and the super-ego itself. as it were.Page 166 it is irrevocable. all shining features of the ideal are left out in Freud. alongside the more philosophical 'Objekt'. illusionary political ideals occasionally continue to have an effect even after an empirical catastrophe. one which intersperses the. exercise moral censorship. In Freud. seen from its unfree and illusionary side. all non-threatening. at least by the feeling of renunciation. * Bloch begins to use the more concrete 'Gegenstand' here. The Object* of the imagined ideal. the obligation that radiates from it. and differently in connection with Adler's psychology of power. sometimes enchantingly demanding spell is through catastrophe. as if they were – genuine. precisely because of their reified demands. this is considerably more difficult in the case of ideals. back into the patriarchal-despotic age as a whole. bright and fully-fledged conviction of the ideal as perfection with very much darker impulses.

these are certainly not connected with the dark or sinister elements of the formation of ideals. ideal Bach baritone and the . The free characters of the daydream reveal themselves on this brighter side. floating high above our heads. in order to achieve the feeling of superiority. and also climbs them. Once again. and at least the spell of inferiority in Adler. The formation of ideals is by no means restricted to obligation and spells. Thus Freud and Adler identified only the oppressive spell which can underlie the formation of ideals: the father-spell in Freud. which were joined in the nineteenth century by the mendacity of the ideal. Up to now there has been no classification and table of archetypes. brighter side as well. an end is always intended. ideal situations and ideal landscapes. are totally missing. The guiding or personal character-ideal is not supposed to be a remembered. particularly the journey to the end. Neither is the march-route open which leads from here both to the surplus qualities and to the surplus images. when limited to purely personal guiding images. only with regard to what the guiding-ideal may overcome. a moreover purely erotic ideal. Thus the ideal was much more clearly conceptualized than ideologies (which goes without saying because of the interested cloaking character of ideology). but one which is chosen relatively freely: people finalize themselves by changing from the character-mask to the ideal-mask. artistic ones for example. and they go right down to terms like: ideal housewife. but also more clearly than archetypes.Page 167 towards the previous 'Tom Thumb situation'. all ideal images are confined to moral and ultimately to personally vain ones. with spells. remain uncomprehended and homeless. have no place in this pure psychology of competition. Even if this brighter side also displays strong negative aspects: those of substitution. pressure of the superego. abstractness. overblownness. according to this theory. more objective ideals. But the will which gazes up at towers. enforced goal here. such as vita activa or vita contemplativa. as embarkation for Cythera. it is also more inviting to think about than middling cultural categories. Perfection then is not merely easier to feel. Even alternative ideals of the correct life-style which extend from pre-capitalist times. Even if a real journey to the ideal is not undertaken at all or only remains in its picture. Everything remains in the sphere of obligation. turning against the human creature as such. of course. the goal-image imagined by wanting-to-become is mostly endured rather than hoped for. where things really do go on forever. Not with obligation from above. what is seductive here is rather perfection itself. and always as Perfectum. it has its freer. such as loneliness or friendship. is never exhausted by this. but there have been several of the ideal. Likewise.

which shows what ought . passes. which does not perfectly reveal itself because of impeding secondary causes in individual things. they go right up to the ideal of the highest good. as a hope for the future. the formal. and also by literature. the ideal appears from all sides in fact. God. those of spell and those of starlight above all. a theory of criteria for the ideal. even attack. this is then supposed to be the combining of virtue and bliss. His aesthetic version. richly nuanced from the Sophists and Socrates right down to Epicurus and the Stoics. perfection bursts out in so many different forms. which was taken by Aristotle from Plato's generic form above the phenomenon into goal-form or entelechy within the phenomenon. genius is an 'intelligence which acts just like nature'. On the contrary. and in the postulating trinity of the Unconditional: freedom. there is a value estimation theory. is made visible for Aristotle by sculpture. Thus precisely in Kant. which demands respect in this law. But then the ideal appears in Kant as the final directing force in such a way that the latter does not itself demand. just as in art moral Being Obliged in general always becomes silly: there is a thundering ethics. conflicts with all natural impulses. And all embellishments in accordance with the aesthetic ideal are defined as 'the perfect embodiment of an idea in an individual phenomenon'. moreover. but thereby particularly abstract-radical teacher of the ideal. but with the most instructive contrast to the moral pressure-ideal. who calls the philosopher himself a teacher of the ideal. and philosophy a course of instruction in the ideal. immortality. Then the ideal appears again in Kantian aesthetics: as that of a natural perfection. those of pressure and of final directing unity and of hope. but – corresponding to it – only a schoolmasterish aesthetics. Kant does not want this. The ideal equally appears as hope. In Kant. Thus this concept of the ideal ultimately comes close to the Idea. Kant turns away from this in art. Aesthetic ideal representation thus becomes one which both captures imitatively and embellishes in accordance with entelechy. therefore without the highest good. corresponding to its various faces. i. in the categorical imperative of moral law: the dignity of man. genius 'gives the rule' precisely 'as nature'. but on the contrary is itself demanded. as the moral man is. There are guiding ideals of the right life. the (admittedly always only approximative) realization of a kingdom of God on earth. from a formal idealism straight into an objective one. namely as the truly highest good of practical reason. sharply contrasting ones.e. This entelechy. the 'perfect embodiment of an idea in an individual phenomenon'.Page 168 like. This ideal appears again as pressure. the artistic genius for him is not at odds with his natural motivating force.

). For Hegel. of entelechy: 'The truth of art must therefore be no mere correctness to which the mere imitation of nature confines itself. 199f. 207. western-romantic (honour. With a large Aristotelian component in Schopenhauer: 'Now according to whether the organism more or less succeeds in overcoming those deeper levels of natural forces expressing objectivity of the will. It is ultimately this character of perfection. p. least of all in political and social reality. ultimately between culture and civilization). precisely by means of this. in that this idea approaches in a complementary way what is given a posteriori by nature' (Werke. loyalty. Whereas art as a contemplative structure has absolutely nothing but ideals as its substratum. can reveal itself as itself in the exterior. Grisebach. 297). only by means of an anticipation of this sort is it possible for us all to portray the beautiful where nature has really succeeded in individual instances. This anticipation is the ideal. oriental-symbolic. driving to an end. as sculpture. And their aesthetic manifestation is most definitely reminiscent of Aristotle. the ideal is definitely not regarded here as indifferent towards reality in general. nor as cheap gloss (which asserted the fraudulent contrast between poetry and prose. art casts everything aside which does not correspond to that concept in the phenomenon. of the aesthetically ideal which in Schopenhauer and Hegel can be linked with Kant's 'perfect embodiment of an idea in an individual phenomenon'. and brings forth the ideal only through this purification' (Werke XI. stands closer to or further from the ideal to which in its particular genre beauty is appropriate. Clearly. adventure. . it becomes the more perfect or more imperfect expression of its idea. By now leading back what has been stained by contingency and externality in the rest of existence to this harmony with its true concept.' And further. clearly touching on the idea of a utopian function (in the static limited character of the genre): 'Only thus could the Greek genius find the prototype of the human form and set it up as a canon of the school. in so far as he is a Restoration philosopher. faith). ideals in general can only occur in art and not in the rest of reality. that is. I.* solely chimeras of an imaginary perfection. and also. here they are for Hegel. p.Page 169 to happen according to the nature of the matter. love. but the exterior must harmonize with an interior that harmonizes with itself and. it is the idea in so far as at least half of it is known a priori and becomes of practical use to art. classical Greek. hence the famous Aristotelian statement that drama is more philosophical than the recording of history. But a stronger * Restoration: again Bloch means the period of the restoration of the French monarchy after 1814.

are nothing but variations on the theme of cliché ideals. when they have to lay their cards on the table. known by heart. he is simply calling the Sunday swindle of the late-bourgeois ideal by its proper name.* Fontane portrayed a bourgeois woman with ideals who is a cut above all her own kind. then the call is: gold is trumps – and that's that. And the utopian function in the ideal thus becomes not so much the blasting open as the correction of this ideal: by means of a mediation with concrete movements towards perfection in the world.' In most of his dramas. There was no new world either in Fontane or in Ibsen.Page 170 degree of reality itself is meant. instead the old one was immanently * Commercial councillor was an honorary title formerly conferred on German financiers and industrialists. 'Frau Jenny Treibel' appeared in 1892. even if this layering in Hegel is never permitted to be that of a Not-YetBecome in real terms. In the commercial councillor's wife Jenny Treibel. Gregers Werle in 'The Wild Duck' is precisely the Don Quixote of bourgeois ideals. . but as noted above: overblownness. the ideal manifests much more genuine anticipation than most archetypes. of the respective perfection which is in real terms intended in phenomenal process. née Bürstenbinder. 'The Wild Duck'. Ibsen is passionately keen to show how professed bourgeois ideals and bourgeois practice no longer have anything in common with one another at all. Theodor Fontane (1819–98) implies the class aspirations of his central character in her names. the beautiful as bourgeois clichés. Nevertheless. Obligation. but that is all farce. and tries to portray them in his dramas after 'The Wild Duck' in such a way that they are immune to Relling's criticism. In his novel 'Frau Jenny Treibel'. wherever no super-ego. her married name 'Treibel' suggests 'treiben'. non-binding abstractness. Beyond this. of course. Even above her whole environment: 'They liberalize and sentimentalize constantly. but life-lies necessary to the average person. is by no means merely cynical. 'Ghosts'. pressure are part of the ideal as spell. demand. with material ideal tendency. 'to do business'. the good. in the midst of a degenerate bourgeois world. inwardly and all the more so outwardly. And on top of this came the sheer lie added by the nineteenth century – the true. wherever no backward fatherspell or even fixed images of a merely imitative over-compensation are about their business. With the limitation that Ibsen himself still believes and wants to believe in bourgeois ideals. as in 'Handel treiben'. 'The Doll's House'. and the cynicism of Relling when he calls these ideals not merely lies. Her maiden name means 'brushmaker'. only grand words remain. and it would not have taken much to work up these deeply serious. almost tragic plays into comedies. unhistorical statics threaten it in its freedom and intended perfection.

it does not want to do so because of its languid inertia. that is. But now all this is trapped in inert air. let alone utopian function is necessary. grand words. justice. This kind of formality flourishes chiefly in England and. still seen from the standpoint of the citoyen (not of course forgetting the less Bengal-lit principle of property. it is now supported by an attitude which places the ideals in the silver cupboard for our eternally unchanging edification. hypocrisy develops as a tribute of vice to virtue. the content has stolen out of real life. permits any opportunism of content. A critical realism is sufficient to see through this. their principles of liberty. Both increase the illusion of value. from abstractness. it cannot do so because of its misleading formal generality. as targets for words. moral ideals hung in the heavenly distance. as the basic principle). Abstractness and statics together then constitute the so-called ideal principles. morality and law. Such an ideal neither can nor wants to stand out theoretically against this opportunism of its content.Page 171 denounced. so that the ideal is not seen to be at one with its overblown bourgeois existence. aesthetic ideals were not even sought . The world thus remained in a bad way. no research into ideology. deteriorating into a religion of dead slogans. not of action. In Calvinistic countries the ideal at least remained a verbal and formaldemocratic target for modes of action which were soon abandoned. the economic one. feebly hovering kind. from statics. with apprehended material tendency. Out of this arose the phantom of mere endless approach to the ideal or. This target became stars which were too far away to be reached. with its deeply ingrained hypocrisy. which comes to the same thing. stars of velleity. because of the formal abstract-statics of the other principles. But the latter is necessary. not for actions. what is ideal stood so high above the world that it did not come into any contact with it at all. It is essentially formal. however. Since the ideals were thus not mediated with any tendency. apart from that of eternal distance. above all in the case of liberty. And how great this powerlessness was in Germany especially. of its transposition into eternal striving towards the ideal. with its discrepancy between theory and practice. so that it really may be rescued from its whole previous mode of existence. and the only real basic principle. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. in Luther's Germany of double-entry book-keeping or the dualism of works and faith. poorly general. the detached. abstractness was joined by undialectical statics. in North America. The American Declaration of Independence and then the American Constitution contained their rights of life. First from abstractness. which can go as far as total inversion. In Germany. or stands directly opposed to it in the empty.

The renewal of most archetypes is supported by Mörike's quiet line about Orplid: 'Ancient waters rise rejuvenated around your waist. namely total peace in the world. In both. but were merely enjoyed for their splendour. ultimately even. its wholly admitted anticipation. Archetypes have encapsulated the anticipating element. whereas the appearance of an ideal is supported by the distinct daylight cry from Browning's 'Pippa Passes': 'Thy long blue solemn hours serenely flowing. are essentially filled with ideals and considerably less with archetypes. which makes the ideal accessible to utopian treatment. statics of the ideal predominates with an in itself already finished perfection. on its upwardly curving dome. Here the endless aspect of the approach to the ideal does admittedly disappear.Page 172 after. though it also contains much more fraternal strife. All shall be mine!' There are certainly also archetypes which do not dwell in the profound depths. as far as its realization was concerned it was certainly only the reverse side of endless non-realization. it is much more related to the material. rather than too sunken. dancing on the ruins of the Bastille provided the strongest example of this. and conversely an archetype like the mother-image in Isis-Mary is at the same time a deeply rooted ideal. All this therefore keeps the ideal impotent. by acting for the sake of acting. The world-process as such becomes the self-realization of the ideal aims posited within it. only disturbed by the constant illusion of action. It is no accident that the abstract utopias. But this probation is different from that through archetypes. Even if a concrete sense of the ideal did emerge in Germany. a mere spectator of ideals which are supposedly realized in any case. as abstract. whereas ideals reveal their hope from the beginning in the daylight. and man is a mere accessory. they are then like the sunken treasures in myth itself which rise up and sun themselves on a midsummer's day. but equally as utopias. and it has to be blasted out. no matter whether in endless approach or in far too much overlapping with the world as a supposed ideal world. as a philosopher. ut aliquid fieri videatur. and it is precisely against this finished aspect that utopian function has to prove its worth here. even . But on the whole. So easy is the leap from endless desire to mere contemplation: for even the eternally approximative is contemplation. as in Hegel. . whereas ideals reveal it abstractly or statically. so much so that its image of fulfilment appeared too distant./Whence earth. It is precisely this intended perfection. we feel. but so does every approach through the works of man to the ideal in general. the ideal lives purely on the Front. . gets steady help and good —/ . Archetypes very often reveal hope in the profound depths and these depths in the archaic. child!'. and it only has to be corrected.

this anathema certainly does not apply to the realization of tendentially concrete goals. For example. of which so-called facts are reified-fixed abstractions. but more strongly at work within it are the ideal forms of perfection which is striven for. possible world-content. And yet that which is ideal. if it is worth anything. of ideals which have no contact with history . corrected and aligned by utopian function. Thus when Marx says the working-class has no ideals to realize. are then collectively those of a selfand world-content developed in terms adequate to man. there is therefore a hierarchy of ideals. as either free or ordered development of the content of life. as means to an end. this correlate makes possible ethical ideals as models. there resounds in the ideal the answer of the subject to bad Becomeness. It has in its anticipations. a correlate in the objective hopecontents of the tendency-latency. and derive their value-content (one which in the case of freedom has been particularly ambiguous) from the highest good in socio-political terms.Page 173 with those which have straightforward revolutionary meaning. And more audibly than in the case of archetypes. the supreme variation of the highest good in the aesthetic sphere is immanent pre-appearance of a humanely perfect world: consequently. Equally. it is part of its nature to exist in a state of tension with mere factual Becomeness. for what is humanely appropriate. but only to that of abstractly introduced goals. has contact with the process of the world. aesthetic ones as pre-appearances which point to something that is possibly becoming real. thus they are – which may finally summarize and simplify the whole nature of ideals here – all variations of the basic content: highest good. and where necessary temporarily justifies the deviations. all aesthetic categories bear relation to this goal and are its variations – as l'art pour l'espoir. The lonely island where Utopia supposedly lies may be an archetype. if they are concrete. but also varies them according to the requirements of the supreme end-content. In such a way that it does not merely determine the content of the ideals as means. and a lower one can be sacrificed to a higher one. consequently. because it is resurrected anyway in the realization of the higher one. ideals like freedom and also equality act as means to this end. the tendential answer against what is insufficient. as noted above. That which is ideal can by no means be instructed and corrected by mere facts. on the contrary. Such ideals. Utopian function therefore has to prove itself through the ideal basically along the same lines as through utopias themselves: along the lines of concrete mediation with material ideal-tendency in the world. Ideals relate to this supreme hope-content. the supreme variation of the highest good in the socio-political sphere is the classless society.

in the transparency-relation. So no allegory is perfect. the words can certainly be sensuous and immediate. the Object from which it takes its illuminating metaphor (here: the painted windowpanes) is itself by no means unequivocal. or there is. there is either death without hinterland despite human work. is so little alien to consciously manufactured history that.Page 174 and process. between darkness and light. this great metaphorical phrase of Goethe's splendidly conveys the dark-brightness of signifying its own matter and at the same time another within it. but exit to chaos. this is thus already an allegorical statement. on the Front of the process-world. Encounter of the Utopian Function with Allegory-Symbols There still remains the engaged glance which clearly proves its worth even through what is not yet clear. And precisely the highest political ideal: the realm of freedom. It contains several meanings within it. For it is equivocal by definition. in fact prefers to be so. . The latter is here that not yet clear element which not only signifies its own matter. through its systematically mediated solidity. 'Poems are painted windowpanes'. an ideal which. But the activity and the separate ideal of the freedom of the utopian function consists in objectively signifying and setting free the not yet become 'Being as Ideal' (highest good) which develops with real possibility in dawnings. even those which do not relate to poems as comparisons. in so far as it is capable of becoming metaphorical. and it is heightened in great literary metaphors. Through Marx and Lenin. as political summum bonum. but they echo as in a great hall. and not finality. When this element appears in literary language. spurs us on not less but more than the ideal which was abstract. would not be the last chapter of this history. In process. realism of the ideal in its operation – tertium non datur. even in the poem-relation. Such a phrase is a perfect allegory. which again is why no allegory can be perfect. i. the equally possible alternative. but also at the same time another matter within it. 'Still waters run deep'. it constitutes the finality of that history.e. and above all it points further beyond itself. though as such itself again tainted with the not yet clear element of itself. by virtue of human work. as a concrete realm. Because an anti-summum-bonum or In-Vain. but rather its deletion. Even the proverb offers itself as multi-layered and significant. socialism has itself become a concrete ideal in each further stage to be pursued. or the last chapter of the history of the world.

though the binding and central one. whereas the older Goethe had only been able to convey his so-called mere 'formative experiences' allegorically. this must not be confused with the other value-distinction between the allegorical and the symbolic. it also follows the whole conventional fallacy concerning allegories which has been committed since Romanticism. compared with the symbolic. but also along the same lines. that of the Middle Ages. but of a strict Absolute or final sense. which in the Rococo and Louis Seize period (as figures of virtue. with its orgy of emblems. this last-mentioned value-distinction between allegory and symbol. In this sense. but in fact the attempt to convey a thing-meaning through other thing-meanings. Clearly therefore. to other things. indeed mere abstract illustrations. which unite the respective metaphorical components in their meaningcontent. in the symbol-metaphor: not as archetypes of On The Way and transitoriness. if its extended relation was not one which repeatedly sends us shooting off in all directions. the allegorical merely consisted of concepts which are dressed up or decorated in sensory form. * After the manner of the poet Stefan George. on the subject of Goethe whom he had Georgianized:* the young Goethe had expressed his 'original experiences' symbolically. This value distinction is not only pointless in Goethe's case. was simply always based on so-called immediacy. the only legitimate one. . Of course. namely one of the cloaked in the apparent. in fact. whereas the symbolic – in fact. Or as Gundolf subsequently put it so foolishly. thus. yet at the same time still hovering type of the symbol and of its unified point of reference. of friendship and so on) were the only aspect of the phenomenon of allegory that remained in consciousness. And likewise it is archetypes which found the resonance of meaning. According to this. a decoration of abstractions. of truth. that of early Christian patristics. It would be so even though the then attained perfection still remains one of what is factually not yet clear. and furthermore on the basis of the opposite of abstractions: namely on the basis of archetypes.Page 175 if it was. then this kind of statement would not be allegorical but symbolic. Allegory in its heyday was by no means a dressing up of concepts in sensory form. By virtue of the semi-allegories defused by reason. which has been drawn in a fundamentally false way for little more than a hundred years. of the apparent as something still cloaked. allegory possesses a kind of wealth of vagueness. The Romantic devaluation of allegories which related to this lacked the experienced knowledge of real allegory: that of the Baroque. its type of metaphor is inferior to the unwavering.

Accordingly.Page 176 cannot be confused with that between decorated abstractions. 1771. This is simultaneously something sealed that reveals itself and something revealing. Alteritas). no longer on temporariness. allegory through respective detail provides a cipher on to a sense which is likewise still spread out in detail (multiplicity. of the allegorical or symbolic dimensions combined in the archetype. . it is the objective signification itself in which the utopian function here encounters itself. occurring even in real terms in objects. their difference of status is rather one within the same field of archetypes itself. whereas the symbol remains consistently assigned to the Unitas of one sense. Anticipation has something to announce in both. To repeat: every metaphor that remains in multiplicity. of utopian functions with allegory and symbol. as the formed meaning. . the process has not yet been won. Alteritas) and is to be found in transitoriness and fragmentation. The distinction has already been made above (cf. represents an allegory. the category of the cipher must be stressed in both. in contrast to allegories. which shift as they flourish and are at the mercy of the continuing uncertainty of the path. . even of the most fixed kind. '. 161) that allegory contains the archetypes of transitoriness. And in the problem that now arises of an encounter of utopian function with allegory and symbol. Whereas the symbol through respective detail provides a cipher on to a unity of sense transparently appearing in detail (multiplicity.and monotheistic religions. if it converges towards these with an unquestionable certainty which is beginning to appear. central things in general. it is thus focused on the unum necessarium of an arrival (landing. and incarnate theophanies. because in both it announces itself.'* If however the metaphor expresses unity. gathering). opening. the matter pending within it (the sense) has not yet been produced and decided. even though it is still * From Goethe's poem 'Willkommen und Abschied' a later version of 'Es schlug mein Herz . equivocalness sent hither and thither. that still seals itself up. Which ultimately means that allegory is essentially at home in art which is rich in figures and in polytheistic religions. Alteritas. because – especially in the symbol – the time is not yet ripe. founded in the substance itself. This intention towards an arrival thus makes the symbol binding. which is why its meaning is always directed towards Alteritas. Thus there is an encounter. as it does in the following: 'The oak stood in its misty shroud/a giant towering to the skies/where darkness from the bushes glowered/with hundred black and gloomy eyes. whereas the symbol essentially belongs to great simplicity in art and to heno. p.

and is full of real-cipher in the form of its meaning. ** . i. anticipation.'* And the form of both is that dialectical form which Goethe called. process-forms still occur and are located. in a phrase which itself has a dialectical tension.e. most active outpost of the aurora-function circulating in the world: of the nocturnal day in which all realciphers. Part II.e.Page 177 cloaked. especially symbols – the 'public mystery' is not only one for human interpretation. It is also instructive to compare this really public element of a mystery with Goethe's so realistic world-opening: the entelechies developing in the shape of life in the world are all so many living. precisely as a still continuing merging of what is opened and what is cloaked. Longing. also objectively accurate allegories. But in such a way that – in all genuine. The allegorical formation of figures. in final contrast to the allegory. to the same extent as it is full of objective utopian function in the direction of its meaning. to the attempted identity of inwardness and outwardness. not merely in allegorical and symbolic designations of this reality: and such real-ciphers exist precisely because the world-process itself is a utopian function. 'a public mystery'. and not yet with that adequate predication. hence the tendencyforms of the characteristically typical which signifies itself in its respective appearances. then symbolism is achieved unequivocally. 'Wanderers Nachtlied'. with the matter of the objectively Possible as its substance. The utopian function of humanly conscious planning and change here represents only the most advanced. owing to inadequate powers of comprehension for example. the symbolic formation of goals. object-based successfulness. hence the whole dialectical experiment of the world with forms of existence (with figures) on its still latent central figure. object-based existing allegories and symbols.** but as one which is a separate real path of meaning. Every apt metaphor is therefore at the same time one depicting reality. i. Cf. what has not yet been removed from the cloak. as it is in the following: 'Above all summits there is peace. Thus this cipher also exists in reality. And it is in fact part of the honesty of the statement itself that the unum necessarium (highest good) of such an identity-content has always first appeared in the voice of a Chorus Mysticus. And the symbol. proves its worth from this standpoint as an attempted transition from metaphor to equation. 1780.e. Lines from the Chorus Mysticus at the end of Goethe's 'Faust'. thus in fact show everything transitory as a metaphor. * From Goethe's poem. but equally constitutes real qualities of meaning in the outside world independent of human beings. 12104–5. which is the frontier-goal and the final task of world enlightenment. i.

often a trace remains. as from the grove's Dark leaf. with the conscience of latency within it. the girl he is hoping for crosses the threshold and everything is all right. which has to do justice to what is termed a public mystery. windy even.Page 178 distance. If. does the drive which is working within it arrive? The drive perhaps can surprisingly be gratified for a time. the room is full of tender unrest. They are determinations of a by no means permanent kind. Behind this. they themselves live on. beginning with hunger. is nevertheless noticeable. And the images which even a self-gratifying wish has visualized occasionally hang in the air. as if they could not condense and fall. the last light of evening is in it. It is airy. then hoping itself is no longer there. only rarely torments empty. From the thought perhaps. as the sun comes from the clouds. but is stronger than flesh. there are. everything is there. but tasks directed towards the growing illumination of what is still indeterminate within it. as any craving can to begin with. nothing is more out-of-date to the curious man than the newspaper he has just read. is not just anyhow. towards the growing resolution of the symbolic. heightens the tension. Not even everything in fulfillable dreams always arrives when they land on level ground. in short. If it hurries to land however. still continuing cloakedness. But it is precisely realistic tendencyknowledge. however. everything rises again. 16— Utopian Image-Trace in Realization Egyptian and Trojan Helen But does the deed come. Nothing is of more indifference to the sated man than a piece of bread. wishes that are never cooled. it has vanished. the silent script? —Hölderlin Dreams Want to Drift How long does it keep on pointing only forwards in us? Wishing does want something. however. A man awaits a girl. The wish and will towards them lives on. spiritual and ripe? Does the fruit follow. It no longer has . these are determinations in the subject and the object of the allegorical-symbolic.

Then the imagination has used up the material of the imminent experience for itself.' And further.' We may compare with this the reluctance of Romantic poets to allow their heavenly images of femininity to fall into experience. The Romantic hatred of marriage derives not least from a stock of dreams which becomes inexhaustible and reified: 'The magic is destroyed'. Certain happiness in love is then only guaranteed 'if a lover has not yet had time to long for the woman and to work on her in his imagination'. . even in a good situation. Non-Satisfaction and What Can Lie within It It is not always possible even to pluck a Now that has come. Stendhal's essay 'On Love' achieves its famous diagnosis of the fiasco from this premise. Stendhal does not even need the full play of the imagination to explain a remaining behind reality. to see them fall. Hoffmann. . The same tragi-comedy is suggested in a conversation of the conductor Kreisler with the princess in Hoffmann's 'Kater Murr'. The flesh can be weak. probably never. too many overhauling dreams. He imagines he will anger a being which appears to him as something divine. According to Stendhal. the more he must force himself before he dares to touch his loved one intimately. that is: in the moment of desiring her. especially in E. A. T. Kreisler praises the 'real musicians' who do not want to make love like the good people who desecrate dreams in their marriage-bed. he ventures the proposition: 'As soon as a single grain of passion comes into the heart. a possibility of fiasco. 'and the inner melody. entered. All the more dubiously in fact. which inspires in him both boundless love and boundless respect . in order that the artists do not appear . However. Complete congruence has rarely. things were better or appeared to be so. in love as in every kind of debut. In the dream of something. In fact.Page 179 anything to say and yet it still carried something with it which does not make itself known in the existing pleasure. Thus the soul is filled with shame and preoccupied with overcoming this shame. if too many dreams are added beforehand. with dangerous. but there is often a more sophisticated reason. there is also a grain. before the heart refreshes itself. which otherwise announces marvellous things. exclaims an artist in Hoffmann's 'Fermate' with over-sexual fiasco in mind. immediate happiness occurs only where a man possesses a woman without delay. unnerving creation of stage-fright: 'The higher a man's love is. the road to bliss is blocked. becomes a row over a smashed soup-dish'.

in exactly the way Kreisler envisaged. P. In fact. to write. However. Ophelia. 'Des Fremdlings Abendlied'. and the latter became exaggeratedly disappointing. Fearing that the desperate lover might take his life. they are comparable to the gallant knights. quite out of his mind. Madame was no match for the dream-image which she had infused into a young man from the stage. from the outset. even if they were no Kreislers. to paint in her honour. and moreover one of the most Romantic. Kreisler compares them to minnesingers. Schmidt von Lümbeck. The moment just lived dims as such. this happened to a real composer. when the now famous composer succeeded in winning his beloved. the previously so violent love collapsed with its realization (which may have brought more than just 'smashed soup-dishes' with it). . Hector Berlioz. courtliness. some years later. several husbands have experienced the end that comes with realization. in short. Thus. and in Schubert's 'Wanderer'. Experience was not forbearing with hope. The Here and Now lacks the distance which does indeed alienate us. the cult of the Virgin and continues on the subject of the 'real musicians': 'They bear their chosen lady in their hearts and want nothing more than to sing. in their most exquisite Courtoisie. but makes things distinct and surveyable. This Juliet. the immediate * G. and its nearness makes things formless. Desdemona enhanced her brilliance by rebuffing all approaches and consequently became all the more destructively radiant for Berlioz. it has too dark a warmth. his friends Chopin and Liszt spent a whole night searching the plain of St Quentin in the direction of which Berlioz. had been seen rushing off.Page 180 either as eccentric or even as incapable of love. There was even a stage available here on which the idol shone with double radiance: Berlioz fell in love with a young English actress who portrayed Shakespeare's maidens and noble women. but this hope was not forbearing with experience either.* Second Reason: Dream Rendered Independent and the Legend of the Double Helen The first underlying factor here is that the Here and Now stands too close to us. when his idol became his wife. First Reason for Disappointment: Happiness is There Where You Are Not. Raw experience transposes us from the drifting dream into another state: into that of immediate nearness.

Yet. whether the feeling expressed in Tamino's nostalgic song 'This likeness is enchanting'. and occasionally barren and empty.Page 181 dimension within which realization occurs seems darker than the dream-image. jubilant I sprang at last upon the beach. We may compare with this image-blue two tests which. Lenau travelled to America. the distant blue of the mountains vanishes completely when we reach them. like the evergreen dreams of younger days home's familiar trees greeted my gaze. his desire for the original reinforced. gladly. You instead I found. I'd have taken every stone there to my heart. and in fact to such diverse personalities as the distraught lyric poet Lenau on the one hand. supposedly sees Pamina in the courtyard of Sarastro's castle exactly as she looks in her picture. Welcomed by the land I longed to reach. the vain and strict Christologian Kierkegaard on the other. Even if boundless imagination has not washed away the soil on which the realization stands. have taken place. even then the paradox can occur that the dream appeared firmer or at any rate brighter than its realization. Purer than ever rang the bird-song here. but then he wrote the following poem entitled 'Change of Longing': Yet how long that journey seemed to me. if the meeting with reality also takes place. a fairytale opera. and — on a dying beat all my joy sank down there at your feet. after the pains of being apart. despite his happy cry: 'It's her!'. Tamino in the 'Magic Flute'. as in the case of Berlioz. has found and could find its fulfilment in such a perfect original. sweet and intimate upon my ear. the question arises whether it really is her. . how I longed to return so fearfully from the wide and foreign wastes of foam to the dear and distant coast of home. desiring not least to have the image of his bride more intensely present through separation than if he had her beside him. he returned home dissatisfied with the mere image. with its imago. whether this utopian imagination. but it was the same catastrophe with the mirage. The shining cloud settles around us as a grey mist when it comes nearer. have happened in life.

' And he continued. For exactly the same reason. in the adopted mask of the lecher and equally that of the ascetic: 'She has grasped the point well that she has to marry. i.' There is the craziest criss-crossing of Platonisms here: there is the love-ideal of the troubadour and the ascetic love of the Virgin. This kind of love has the solemn vanity of being in love with itself. it suits the reactionary mandate in Romanticism to represent the probation precisely before high ideals. O and how I long again in fear to ride out upon your murky swirling tide! How I wish I were forever on the wild sea with your image alone for company! So much for Lenau and his incapacity for real reunion: Pamina crumbled immediately here at close quarters. even the homo religiosus Kierkegaard does not always deny himself the present. those that are sometimes uncomfortable for existing society. In relation to the society of his time. Kierkegaard broke off his engagement with his fiancée Regine Olsen. but he confines himself to the absolute. according to Kierkegaard. also remained on the high seas with the image alone for company. No husband can be more faithful to his wife than I am to her. just as the absolute reserves the present for itself: 'For with regard to the absolute. Kierkegaard's ideals were certainly only paradoxical and anything but revolutionary: nevertheless. and. this probation scruple made absolute does suit very well – not . nothing more than horizonless inwardness appeared: this deep loss does not dispel the power of Kierkegaard's aporia concerning realization. but also. it is a feast that can never experience a Monday. and Kierkegaard wrote in his diary: 'Today I saw a pretty girl and was not interested. Christian love: 'There have been no Christians since the days of the Apostles. Present means probation here.' Consequently. there is only one time: the present. wholly in keeping. both in the relationship to the so-called absolute and especially to our neighbour. the all too absolute lover. as being as difficult as possible. The Platonist. in Kierkegaard. that of Christian imitation. but there is also the removal of Pamina to an image-horizon as her idea-based home. Regine took one of her previous admirers as a husband.' The fact that here. the absolute does not even exist at all for anyone who is not contemporary with it. Kierkegaard.e. not only is the unconditional present of love very difficult to attain.Page 182 in my heart all there was to be found was the hopelessness of love unbound.

would already have had to act like angels previously. Leonora's aria of hope has none of the depth which subsequently appears at the moment of realized hope. often still appears easier. And yet there is also real seriousness concealed in the continuing brilliance of the great image confronted with the Here and Now of its content. even in Lenau's so eccentric. Even such a perfect music of fulfilment as that which resounds in Beethoven's 'Fidelio' when Leonora takes the chains off Florestan. apotheoses are also always flat and decorative to a consciousness that does not esteem Kierkegaard's abstract radicalisms. but in this way social democracy. even this unearthly happy music does not mediatize the previous music of hope. Hence hope makes us mistrustful – justly and with precision. Thus the bourgeois 'resigned' himself to paying lip-service to liberty. even though it comes out of the middle of the night. with flesh and bones. whom no absolute demand makes bankrupt. no matter how far. 'Come. Secondly. 'A brilliant rainbow shines before me which brightly rests upon dark clouds above' – this earlier song of Leonora's has a special kind of happiness about it. even more filling than this nearness. but it does nevertheless retain an unsunken rainbow. fraternity. at least the presentiment of the imminent entrance of what has been hoped for. Of course. Thus nearness makes things difficult. hope. in fact with the highest kind of conscience: that of the goal – of every realization that offers itself all too plumply. with a space which seems open. That which is realized immediately. love will not fail' – the music of this pure prayer to hope does not completely pale before the fulfilled jubilation with which the opera 'Fidelio' closes and releases us. – a trace which elsewhere precisely caution notices in hope. of our sphere of being which has still developed so little towards complete Being-Here. This is in fact the unromantic trace and core in Kierkegaard. illuminate my goal. equality. more significantly. in fact defeatist and impotent scrupulousness. otherwise this seriousness could not be misused. with skin and hair. perfectly. o hope. at the moment when the chains are taken off. by 'idealizing' its supposed socialism to the extreme. is also hardly likely to appear as the right thing immediately to the scheming realist. that which leaves no trace in the midst of our prehistory. do not let the last star of the weary pale. also avoided the realization of a society in which people – again with absolute idealization – would supposedly have to become angels and. the all too distantly drifting and resonating flight makes things .Page 183 even in a paradoxical way – the reactionary defeatism concerning the (abandoned) ideals of the formerly revolutionary bourgeoisie itself. in the almost stationary mysticism of this moment.

but a different one. and then the fulfilment itself acts as a phantom. an oracle which will instruct him how to find the way home. carried across the sea by Hermes. not the beautiful. not the prize of victory. He has left behind Helen. But meanwhile she. a phantom. The myth itself is one of the most true-to-life. even then something which has become an idol does not withdraw as a matter of course. continually driven away from home. has been living here in this royal castle. is conceived in the legend of the Egyptian Helen. for help. Ten years of war have been waged for the sake of this phantom.' So she has lived purely. Richard Strauss' opera 'Die ägyptische Helena'. the withdrawal of the idol too extensive for Menelaus to be able to believe * Freidrich Hebbel. 1813–63. And she claims to be his wife – the other one left behind on the ship is nobody. His ship has been drifting for months. Hofmannsthal tells us the following about it: 'We are in Egypt or on the island of Pharos which belongs to Egypt. which is of little significance without Strauss's music. even most important. but did not even find a Hebbel. Hofmannsthal did base an opera libretto on it. It is the life in the dream that has become independent. a delusion. all too notorious one whom he has left behind on the ship. tens of thousands of the best men have fallen. the most beautiful woman. the most flourishing city in Asia has been reduced to ashes.* Eventually. the only real one. alone on the return journey from Troy. blown from shore to shore. Then from the colonnade of the castle – Helen approaches him. German dramatist. faithfully. which is not normal and yet threatens every wishful-image. The change is too abrupt. The motif of this rendered independence. the Helen without Trojan war.** and an essay as well. A drama by Euripides deals with this peculiar. In fact. This life will not die of fulfilment. not the monstrous cocotte. secluded. Menelaus appears. not the idol who was present during all the fighting. does not want to quit its long-familiar stage without leaving a trace. he is looking for advice. put into Paris' arms at the time by Hera (the protectress of marriage) to fool the Greeks. in a concealed bay with his warriors. the wife he has won back. before a king's castle. a life that longingly augments itself. which is to be found on the utopia-reality road. Not even when dream-content and fulfilment appear to be as congruent as is humanly possible. in fact essentially fragmentary material. but one who knows nothing of Paris. means nothing. the material subsequently deserved a Shakespeare. the anomaly is possible that the idol posits itself as solely real.Page 184 difficult here. and yet the same. Helen. ** .

with whom a world of guilt. Thus far everything appears to be all right. the later real fulfilment can match this only with difficulty. in contrast to the dream-object. has absorbed the longing of ten utopian years. just as if she had been the Egyptian Helen all along. but then a messenger comes from the ship and reports that the being that had been taken for Helen had dissolved into fiery air on the ship. solely real. Menelaus is envied his great goddess of love. in fact to want to believe it. 251–64) – quite distantly. After which as little doubt about the mere phantomexistence of the Trojan cocotte remains as about the reality of the Egyptian woman of virtue: the former a streak of fiery air (but still glowing as it vanishes. Precisely because of this the balance easily shifts: the airy siren in Troy. he is congratulated on having a wife who has remained virtuous. the mirage becomes independent. in fact has fulfilled the dream as a – dream figure. 145): Menelaus' wife mentions that the Acheans had to besiege Troy because of her enticing doggaze ( ) (the bitch is an old allegory for the hetairan). in Euripides. but as an aristocratic lady of the manor reigning in peace. or at least not completely: the luminous trace of the dream remains. not only on the ship but also in Sparta. Not greatly admired or admonished. In fact. reality almost becomes a phantom. remains almost the real object in this curious aporia. Menelaus has to accept this explanation and takes the Egyptian and not the Trojan Helen home with him. While at the real heart of the matter the following has taken place: the Trojan or dream-Helen has the advantage over the Egyptian one that she has been inhabiting a dream for ten years. whose mind is hardly troubled by any memory of Troy. Elsewhere she pretends to have wept over the misery that she has caused and lays all the blame on Aphrodite who abducted her (ll. perishes). even Euripides has Menelaus say in similar vein: 'I trust the weight of sufferings endured more than I trust you!' Menelaus turns to go. a streak of fiery air remains. Ten years' fixation on the Trojan Helen stand in the way of the Egyptian one. IV. to the royal court at Sparta where she is also depicted by Homer in the fourth canto of the Odyssey. . the latter a corporeal entity. the many nights far from home. the realized represents a very late acquaintance. not the Egyptian Helen followed the colours. the bitterness and the love-hatred of the cuckold.Page 185 it immediately. the rough field-camp and the sweet foretaste of victory. Because the object of the real fulfilment was itself not present during the adventures. l. by a memory which is not so much expressed with flippancy as with detachment (Od. but above all hope is associated. suffering. Only the Trojan. In fact. Except by a brief and smiling memory.

In each fulfilment. is consequently representative. and which is consequently left over together with its content. never quite outside the objectively possible in reality. In waking dreams people enjoy instead the imagination of how it would be if there were something like what is dreamed. is also not in the air. the adventures of the campaign. however. Objection to the First and Second Reason: Odyssey of Quiescence But dreaming in no way wants to point forwards continually. instead this Trojan Helen-like element is also provisionally dotted in outline in Helen. that is. the Egyptian one does not have the utopian glamour of the Trojan one in her favour. The Egyptian Helen can have many names – her Euripides problem. as reification of the goaldream. consequently the Egyptian reality as such appears to be of lesser dimensions. if it is not abstract but runs along the concrete line of extension of what it has overhauled.Page 186 Quite apart from the cocottish glamour of the Trojan Helen. Only there can the full congruence of intentioncontent and content of attainedness be latent. Otherwise it would not have found any space in her at all. However. in so far and in as much as this is even possible totaliter. as one which continues to hover towards attainment. It is to a great extent threatening. where they do not in fact make this relative itself. the wishful image of conquest. Rest. or at least as the continuation of this goal-dream which has become like reality. The drive behind it is definitely not sated by purely pictured material. And furthermore: the imago which can be kindled on an object. as hope-distance). of course: it is. but possibly in the real-utopian possibility of the object itself which points even further. she did not go along with the longing of the voyage. that is. if it . Even dreaming itself does not aim at dream in such a way that it only takes pleasure in images. there remains a peculiar element of hope whose mode of being is not that of the existing or currently existing reality. the goal of the struggle. At least the destruction of the imagination by realization (even if by its own realization which fulfils it) creates deficiency symptoms in the latter case which reduce consciousness of the realization itself. and no credibility for the universally desired object. the identity of the identical and of the non-identical (the latter understood here as intention-distance. which does not only appear in literary and antiquarian contexts. is the day when the Egyptian Helen also contains the glamour around the Trojan one.

that is a compensating plus. after the completion of the Messias: I have reached the goal. time of greatness. on our arrival in Heaven! . Such splendour never dawned in Greece so clear. in the existing aggregate state of being real. the feeling of thrilling encounter. Thus even subjectively there is a counterweight to the reification of the dream and to the hoping which does not arrive itself in arrival. remains behind. when it appears. The counterweight is posited in the That of the intending. in the spirit of the producer. to a work-based super-Greece of his time.Page 187 were to become real. so henceforth I might not fancy that I saw the sun rise from Mycenae. Hope then apparently no longer needs to be disappointed by privation. and the previous dream-road can appear shorter than the real road which is now being trodden. by Isolde it was taken. as if neither were present. but flesh and bones are added to it. There are also well-known cases where what is wished for. but then the fruitful as such was not in the blossom either. in the double sense of the word. on the day of completion. it first dawns here! We may take the liberty of applying this consciousness of Gottfried's also to his other Greece. in the wish and will to become real itself. Now. i. its realization. when all buds burst. Pride in works in general is capable of great presence. its quiescence. but even by a certain surplus of content which was not dreamed. In this context the testimony of Gottfried yon Strassburg concerning Isolde is still noteworthy. The dream as such does not realize itself. The blossom as such may no longer be in the fruit. the goal! and feel where I am My whole soul is alive! It will be thus (I speak humanly Of divine things) for us one day. you brothers of the Man Who died and rose again. Thus the darkness of the Here and. enthusiastically experienced time of change. endlessly anticipated and yet succeeding in the end. that is a minus. but rather. are sometimes overemphasized. As if there were already fulfilment toto coelo. present. experienced as present.e. The feeling of first love is relevant here. even the loss of the dream-colour itself. the most beautiful of women: This madness I have now forsaken. may not only surprise us by the force of its landing. when the sun for which a vigil is so often kept rises like a crown. in Klopstock. for example to Strasbourg cathedrah: its inscription in the mind of the contemporary onlooker. in fact reminding us of Helen. any more than experience needs to lack forbearance with hope. This moment appears most clearly.

which nevertheless seems to contain the whole of the previous odyssey. that is. But again only. and most humanely the immense moments of the happily begun. of the waking dream and its anticipatory perfection. It remains the journeying odyssey. This genuine presentiment. and here precisely only in such a way that it does not rest on the laurels of the present. since corresponding to it is the That-tendency. In no way does the so-called endless approach to the ideal smuggle itself in again here. even the glance at them is still merely preview. aimed at realization and positing realization. Since all these contacts are not yet such. in the still so pressing achievement of victory. even the feeling that they arouse. However. this victory is properly grasped as task and thus the happy present is simultaneously grasped as pledge for the future. and thus an odyssey of quiescence cannot yet succeed. Only if a being like utopia itself (consequently the still completely outstanding kind of reality: successfulness) were to seize the driving-content of the Here and Now. one that has never disappeared. would be the basic state of mind of this driving: hope. most democratically. the opposite to the endless approach is not in fact sheer presence. is of course extremely important. also be totally included in the successfulness of reality. not even that of the sursum corda. which is thoroughly related to attainability and arrival. Even in such culminations. but that instead. no intention persists. with identity of its arrival and its journey-content. The presentiment itself.Page 188 All this seems like historical presence of mind per se. demand the ever more precise concretion of what is intended as the realm of freedom and of the unfinished journey towards it. And yet even here a trace emerges again in the long run. then victoriously celebrating revolution. undoubtedly fills most broadly. and definitely no distance. Little more repose is achieved through this than the darkness of the Here and Now together with the loss of the dream-colour being briefly over-emphasized in what is reached. Klopstock's comparison itself points to that strongest example of landing which was mythically described in the unio mystica: no expectation remains behind in the face of it. like quiescence. Revolutions realize the oldest hopes of mankind: for this very reason they imply. one which implies an attainable final state. not the claimed total successfulness of the arrival in the goal. however Klopstockian. merely presentiment. that kind of scruple which is not really serious about realization. but rather the opposite is the finiteness of the process and of the consequently at least surveyable anticipation distance to the goal. all that remains objectively justified is after all only Faust's presentiment of a supreme moment. Until this possible fulfilment .

even without contrasting accents towards a socalled exile of existence. ** From the qualitative weakness derives the decision to begin even a finished work from the very beginning again. The highest conscientiousness of this mindfulness is set down in the words of the psalm: 'If I forget thee. The doer and the doing of the work of realization are not completely carried out. No making absolute of a mere presentiment may allow us to forget the mindfulness in this intention. And in every fulfilment. the quantitative as well as the qualitative weakness. let my right hand forget her cunning. there lies an unfinished piece of work of the active element which becomes a burden on the weakness of the realization. From the quantitative weakness derives the compulsive will to continue work endlessly. so to speak. O Jerusalem. against this will the Roman counsel is issued: manum de tabula. for precisely this reason. They remain absent from the deed which frees itself from them. Third Reason for Utopian Trace-Images: The Aporias of Realization Even in the entrance of something there is still a something which remains behind itself. still lies in utopia. no part payment allows it to be forgotten. 'Hands from the writing tablet'. which. 5. as the tool remains absent from the finished machine or the poet from his poem. similar to the point of confusion to the goal-image. in accordance with an image of perfection which has grown up alongside the growing work itself and thus seems to be doubly unrealized. A new peak appears behind the previously attained one: this plus ultra consequently does not let the realization weaken. they live on to themselves. the non-renunciation of the image of hope. a realization has never yet been made absolute without a final part of its waking dream being left over. a content which has not yet entered into our consciousness at all.Page 189 the intention waking-dream-world is in progress. . have their origin in the enduring problem: realization and in the reasons for this problem itself.'* Even without religious accents. even in the one which seems. Hoffmann's fantasy-piece 'Ritter Gluck' allows the composer of the 'Armida' (or the madman who wants to embody him) to go around even after his death * ** Psalms 137. but makes it sharper towards its purpose. Therein lies the cause of a fiasco and of an Egyptian Helen problem in this sphere too. Anyway the duration. and therefore moved on further beyond the attained to its possible Being-even-better. For it is the mindfulness of the basic content in our driving. let alone into successfulness.

Then generation became experimental in terms of content. it simply appears as an automatically unfolding logos. as it were'. if not panlogical ideology supplied a further motive as regards the non-reflection of the realization. as in Kant. the work merely traces over it. in that here all the form-contents of the world were supposed to arise dialectically out of 'sound. the entrepreneur. world-formation itself ultimately developed out of the idea of generation. since the act of generation was exclusively rationalized. let alone thought. i. thought took only brief notice of its completion. Because even here realization does not appear as a separate act. was understood as a purely logical action. in rationalism. At that time. because the realground is itself only a logical- . the maker. orientated towards mathematics. This is therefore in nuce the classical-idealistic notion of generation.Page 190 'somewhat diminished' so that he can play 'Armida' again. where reason makes the world of experience. and evidently it does not do much more justice to the problem of realization. understood initially purely in mathematical terms. One reason for this lies in the fact that human activity as such only became conscious of itself at a late stage. Thus there is here neither a defiance of what has been morally demonstrated nor a will towards it. 'to a higher degree. i. passive looking is dominant. It is still a predominantly formal world-formation.e. the realizing is so passive and therein so apparently self-evident that it is not even named. orientated towards history and its genesis. producer were thoroughly reconsidered philosophically. continually governing reason'. In fact. Even in the ethical sphere: according to Socrates no-one can do wrong voluntarily. orientated towards artistic production. of reality-formation. although this was seen. i. Work was the business of slaves and manual workers. the rationalistic. than antiquity did. The quantitative and most definitely the qualitative deficit in the act of realization itself has hardly been thought through philosophically until now: and this in spite of the overwhelming internal. The cognition-ground remains the same as the real-ground. of origin.e.e. Creating and knowing were considered in antiquity as pure depicting of something given. animates it to become free and sends it into its separate development. This minimal regard for the separate. as in Schelling. in that spontaneity here not only dictates nature's laws. active act of realization did not change fundamentally either when in more recent times the homo faber. can play it as if it came 'out of the kingdom of dreams'. which only posits and defines formal objects. realization. external experience of it. but – as nature productive with consciousness – creates nature. knowledge of the good inevitably posits the doing of it. And generation finally became completely experimental in terms of content in Hegel. after many re-qualifications of this 'construction'.

perhaps even aporias of realization. it comes out of this even in the only thinker who. despite all its confinement of non-panlogicality to nature: 'This contingency is greatest in the realm of concrete structures which. We have indicated the latter and its compounds by capitalizing it./By strange and stranger matter are besieged. * Bloch uses two terms for 'to realize' here. The realization comes out of the logical consistency of the matter itself here. did at least make realization into a category. §230). An idea which does at least confront the problem. realization is solely self-realization of the form-idea or entelechy which is inherent in things. what is contingent in nature arises. of history. in Hegel. . And yet even here the problem of realization proves not to be posed in terms of and within itself. 634–5. even though it is an idealistic idea. as the 'unresolved contradiction'. an automatically existing and a finished one. which is simply clothed with flesh by the doer or creator. . and how close Goethe's notion in Faust is to it: 'The finest things the spirit could receive. are only directly concrete as natural things . even if not into a problem: in Aristotle. . This means: to contemplative thinking as a whole (and all idealistic thinking is contemplative) realization remains mere 'embodiment' of a goal-idea. in so far as this despatches 'disrupting subsidiary causes' into the entelechetic purpose-causes. as its most characteristic concern. rather it is shifted on to a scapegoat: on to mechanical matter or.* and yet despite this he entrusted it. Aristotle lays the existing unfinished piece of work of realization which remains behind the entelechy to the charge of – mechanical matter. in fact in a particularly wholehearted way. And above all: the ancient passivity of realizing is not abandoned despite the homo faber and his philosophy: the pan-logos repeatedly ties generating into a mere process of revelation.Page 191 panlogical one. so to speak. together with capricious fate in the sphere of intentional occurrence. According to Aristotle. on to the Being-besideitself of the whole of nature itself. one inside the world-thought of which the whole world ultimately consists in Hegel. ** 'Faust'. Nature is powerless to keep conceptual definitions merely abstract and to expose the elaboration of the particular to external definability' (Enzyklopädie. 'verwirklichen' and 'realisieren'. the entelechy is thus itself the energy (or the actus) towards its Realization. although he lived in antiquity. Part 1. a not so logical element manifests itself in the first thinker of realization as well: in fact a not so logical element which attempts to do justice from afar to the disruptions. However. however. to the idea which had become 'entelechy'. He saw the various disruptions of Realization.' ** How close to it even Hegel's notion is. In this way what is not defined.

who was the only philosopher who did in fact wish to tear the problem of Realization away from total rationalism. by means of a leap' (Werke VI. nothing but discord and irregularity. That is why. but also every individual realization in the world generates. And neither did Schelling dissolve the traditional connection of Realizing with a finished. a 'falling away from the idea'. To which must be added: not only the irrational first impetus given to the world. according to Schelling. Obviously. illness and death. So this is how far Schelling tore the realizing element and the idea apart. The connection was only expressed as a negative one: the evil particular will realizes what is opposed to the good universal will. the origin of the world of the senses is only conceivable as complete breaking-away from absoluteness. finally. we cannot leave memories from the history of philosophy concerning Realization and its weakness without a gesture in the direction of the later Schelling. 38). any more than it is in the optimists of the incarnation. in its immemorial origin. Schelling's work 'Philosophy and Religion' thus combines the logos as creator and places a kind of original crime. the dark-evil particular will. particular will. since it runs on from that irrational impetus. at the source of being: 'In a word. According to the later Schelling. its quod or its That-existence and entry-origin do not at all follow from the quid or the rationally graspable essence of a matter.Page 192 But do not the doer and the doing besiege each other in a strange and stranger way? This is a thought which would like to get to the still dark heart of the process of realization as such. merely to be manifested idea. there is no constant transition from the absolute to the real. abortion. and indeed a will which already occurs in God himself. its aporias – from the unfinished piece of work to the still present non-congruence . and how senselessly and totally he made the aporias of realization itself absolute to the point of insolubility. though instead he consigned it to incurable mythology: the mythology of the Fall of Man and of the fall of Lucifer. p. Instead: the becoming real of the idea is. The price that was paid for this reference of the logical to something volitional and That-intensive was of course that the realization was both housed in mythology and literally sent to the devil inside this mythology. it ceases to be a mere manifestation-function of the objectively logical. These then are the reasons why the quantitative and qualitative weakness of realization is still really uninvestigated. Open horizon is not granted here either to the Realization factor or to its goal-image. Thus Schelling in fact transferred realization on to a separate sheet from that written on by the idea. in the fathomless ground or non-ground of the divine ground.

with its utopianly anticipated substance. and thus. because in the realizing element itself there is something that has not yet realized itself. nearness makes things difficult. All the less so since such varied utopian elements are left over in realized material and re-emerge afterwards. however. also why a fulfilment which appears to be sufficiently perfect rebus sic stantibus still equally brings a melancholy of fulfilment along with it. as Goethe says. After all. We said that even in the entrance of something there was still something that remains behind itself. definitely without romanticisms: what is realized is brilliant and slightly in shadow at the same time. We have already identified above the dimming of the just lived moment. And this realizing element still stands squarely in the Not-Having of its act and content. consequently the intensive aspect of the realizing element itself. The unrealized Realizing element brings its own most peculiar minus into the plus of the Realization as soon as the latter occurs. it also simultaneously moves up into the shadow of that most central immediacy which. Therein therefore lies the ultimate. the whole twilight follows in which the process of realization also still lies and must lie. the principal solution of the Not-. And why the preceding goal-image. this Notthere in the midst of the immediate nearness of occurrence. often even driving on into senselessness. and precisely this dimness makes it difficult. which is the process of history. the That-factor. Something about it darkens and cannot completely free itself from this Not. is itself not yet cleared. may not enter completely into the fulfilment. the wishor goal-content itself did not lie in the nearness which belongs to the attainment of the goal. however.Page 193 of even the best realization with the goal-image – cannot be investigated at all outside the context of the utopia problem. Not-Yet-Carpe diem. on account of its being kept away from the Here and Now. what has been utopianly anticipated moves into what is realized. precisely the far goal-content was still outside the darkness of the just lived moment on account of its distance. is left over. At the same time. pursuing new goals. to experience something that has entered wholly as such. being that of the realizing element. driving on further. on account . in the most immediate way. Since it is still an undecided process. the darkness of the just lived moment illustrates precisely this Not-Having-Itself of the realizing element. And it is in fact this still unattained aspect in the realizing element which primarily also overshadows the Here and Now of something realized. at the same time in a wider context. From this primary reason. When. This is the primary reason why. this most immediate thing in itself is nothing other than the driving force.

realized Absolute and Essence. that is. there is a sudden flash of the possible All in this so dark-bright dappled world. positively manifested. The Essence – most highly qualified matter – has not yet appeared. even without automatic negation of negation. threateningly. so too. these are the elements in the aporias of realization. The content of what has been realized would then be the content of the realizing element itself. the What-Essence (quidditas) of the solution would be precisely the opened That-ground (quodditas) of the world. there is still a hint of negation circulating in the air. But the world makes space even for this missing. on the Front of its process the goal-content itself is in fermentation and real possibility. What Schelling even wished to displace as old Satan from reason and to place in the primal ground of the world. a world already statically defined to an end. this threatening circulation of In-Vain and Nothing already generates the disruption. darkenings of the possible Nothing loom. cheeringly. previously successful appearance. Every mortal danger belongs to it and every individual death. Though far from being the case that Being is centred in death. also. therefore missing represents its not yet manifested Absolute in every. Both were looking for a scapegoat for imperfection in their completed world. Conversely. either with regard to the existing unfinished piece of work or to the not wholly redeemed goal-image in its best conceivable fulfilment. without any joking. otherwise expressed as the resistance in the material. Instead: not yet emerged realizedness of the realizing element and – closely associated with it – not yet discovered. would the basic stock of this driving: hope be wholly included as such in the realized reality. otherwise expressed as the gigantic sleep of stupidity or disparateness in the so hazardous straits of our process-world. And just as. and ultimately Realization-content. since the Not in the Not-Having-Itself of the realizing element can equally lead to the non-realization of the essential tendency-content. Concretely anticipatory consciousness is directed . insight into process as something undecided – with Nothing or All in its real end-possibility – needs no scapegoat. These are the delays or frustrations which interrupt the conditions of positive realization. This circulation of Nothing is what Aristotle wrongly laid to the charge of mechanical matter.and origin-content.Page 194 of its not yet realized driving. the millions of young people who fell in the World Wars belong to it and the pervasive imbecility which has learnt nothing from them. just as easily total In-Vain as total success. its outflow can just as easily be Nothing as All. if consequently the still completely outstanding kind of reality of successfulness had made the driving-content of the Here and Now itself radically present. Only if a Being were like utopia.

Ultimum and the Horizon The critic can therefore latch on to any form of theoretical and practical consciousness and develop true reality out of the separate forms of existing reality as their obligation and their final purpose . Even disappointed hope wanders around agonizing. the Categories Front. even if it is not always of . often of a completely uncovered kind. he expects rest. countless light troops are flanked around it. of which it must only possess the consciousness in order to possess it in reality. a ghost that has lost its way back to the cemetery and clings to refuted images. but only through a new form of itself. It indicates how much youth there is in man. Man spins out wishes. such a command is obeyed. however many times it has been buried. . Even the suicide still flees into negation as into a womb. It will then become apparent that the world has long possessed the dream of a matter. it has its openness and positiveness within it. this proceeds at first only inwardly. for and against. that daydreams. —Marx. 1816 Man Is Not Solid To think oneself into what is better. finds a wealth of material for them. is to keep a close eye on the advancing giant. most of them have no idea what it is about and are run through the head. as if by an unseen hand. 17— The World in Which Utopian Imagination Has a Correlate Real Possibility. through thick and thin. 1843 I am convinced that the world-spirit gave the age the command to advance. however. . letter to Niethammer. It does not perish through itself. —Hegel. Novum. The best bet. This waiting will not go to sleep. how much lies in him that is waiting. this entity moves irresistibly forward like an armoured. indicates the great space of the still open. letter to Ruge. still uncertain life in man. tightly-closed phalanx with the same undiscernible movement with which the sun moves.Page 195 towards this state of the goal-content. The fact that we can thus sail into dreams. even in a desperate man it does not stare into complete nothingness. are possible. is in a position to do so.

This fermenting and effervescing above the consciousness that has become is the first correlate of the imagination. No thing could be altered in accordance with wishes if the world were closed. although. is scientifically to be expected. Whereas really possible is everything whose conditions in the sphere of the object itself are not yet fully assembled. and possible is everything that is only partially conditioned. everything real passes over into the Possible at its processual Front. Indeed. even perfected facts. a correlate which to begin with is merely inward. changing. Dreams drift in it. most durable quality. Human existence has nevertheless more fermenting Being. Something has as it were remained hollow here. . however. only man. although he is much more awake. or at least cannot be discounted. Even the silliest dreams nevertheless exist as foam. unfinished past. and possible things circulate inwardly which can perhaps never become outward. Outside. in himself. and above all: possible future. whether because they are still maturing. dynamic relationships in which the Become has not completely triumphed.* daydreams even contain a foam from which a Venus has sometimes risen. more dawning material on its upper edge and hem. full of fixed.e. presenting itself as dialectical-material. compared with plants and animals. that has not yet been fully or conclusively determined. Mobile. wells up utopianly. His existence is less solid as it were. in fact only located within itself. The Real is process. nothing would circulate inwardly either if the outward were completely solid. The animal knows nothing of this kind. i. or above all because new conditions – though mediated with the existing ones – arise for the entry of a new Real. Here we must of course distinguish between the merely cognitively or objectively Possible and the Real-Possible. the only one that matters in the given context. life is just as little finished as in the ego which is working on this outside. changeable Being. on the basis of a mere partial-cognition of its existing conditions.Page 196 the best. he is much more intensely present. in fact a new hollow space has only just developed. has this unclosed capability of becoming. the latter is the widely ramified mediation between present. Much in the World Is Still Unclosed Of course. this Not-Yet-Closedness both in its ground and in its horizon * Bloch is alluding to the German saying 'Träume sind Schäume' (Dreams are just foam). Instead of these there are simply processes. Objectively possible is everything whose entry.

Man today is thoroughly acquainted with the frontier-existence outside the previous expectation-context of Becomeness. A narrowing and diminishing of reality threatens here. and that is not Marxism. devastatingly. A different concept of reality to the narrow and ossified one of the second half of the nineteenth century is thus overdue. dialectically. but precisely concrete utopia has in process-reality a corresponding element: that of the mediated Novum. And as long as the reality has not become a completely determined one. its concrete correlate: one outside a mere fermenting. then no absolute objection to utopia can be raised by merely factual reality. and no longer considers these as the only Real.Page 197 So that we may deduce from this: the really Possible of sufficiently mediated. Rather: the concrete imagination and the imagery of its mediated anticipations are fermenting in the process of the real itself and are depicted in the concrete forward dream. If we give every mere factuality in the external world this critical right. It is not sufficient to speak of dialectical process and then to treat history as a series of sequential Fixa or even closed 'totalities'. and above all. that it has something advancing and breaking out at its edge. Sometimes the ossified concept of reality even penetrated Marxism and consequently made it schematic. Objections to bad utopias can be raised. effervescing in the inner circle of consciousness. that the restriction to the Factum was hardly a realistic one. a turning away from 'efficacity and seed'* in reality. however. It becomes clear. then we make what is fixedly existing and what has fixedly become into absolute reality per se. and of its counterpart: the noncommittal ideal world of pure appearance. Part I. that reality itself is not worked up. finally feasible and overdue. badly mediated ones. possible fascist Nothing has opened up in this Real. i. 384: 'All efficacity and seed explore and rummage round in words no more. and not a fact-basedness torn out of it which is reified and made absolute. materialistically mediated newness gives utopian imagination its second. to abstractly extravagant. a different one to that of the positivism to which the idea of process is alien. in the shape of new shoots and new spaces for development.e. anticipating elements are a component of reality itself. Only this process-reality. i.' . can therefore pass judgement on utopian dreams or relegate them to mere illusions. Thus the will towards utopia is entirely * From Goethe's 'Faust'.e. socialism. even merely within the vastly altered reality of today. He no longer sees himself surrounded by ostensibly completed facts. as long as it possesses still unclosed possibilities.

In similar fashion. the further back its objects lie in what is past and closed. Confronted with the future-state which stands like an agreed consequence in the so-called iron logic of history. Novum. it is helpless against what is present and blind to the future. It goes without saying that this mode of knowledge is also the only objective one. the subject can just as easily lay his hands in his lap as he once folded them when confronted with God's will. All this is fundamentally false. the knowledge needed by courage and above all decision cannot have the most common mode of previous knowledge: namely a contemplative mode.Page 198 compatible with object-based tendency. even in relation to discovered tendency. the Categories Front. The knowledge necessary for decision accordingly has a different mode: one which is not merely contemplative. because it regards the future as something which has long since been decided and thus concluded. Because merely contemplative knowledge necessarily refers to what is closed and thus to what is past. Ultimum Precisely the defeated man must try the outside world again. i. And knowledge of this kind. the only one which reflects the Real in history: namely the events produced by working people together with the abundant interweaving process-connections between past. precisely because it is not merely contemplative. a history that occurs in tendency. . by leaving capitalism to function to its conclusion. to be autarkical. for example. present and future. Since it is not quietism. Militant Optimism. what is humanly worthy in process. Through a combination of courage and knowledge. thoroughly mobilizes the subjects of conscious production itself. in fact is confirmed and at home within it. the less therefore it contributes to the process of something being learnt for the present and future from history. but rather one which goes with process. but man overcomes the future and enters it with what is his. that which is swamp can be dried out through work. and even its dialectic appeared to be self-sufficient.e. which is actively and partisanly in league with the good which is working its way through. automatic progressoptimism per se which is only a reprise of contemplative quietism. it was appointed as its own grave-digger. however. it appears to itself all the more as knowledge. That which is coming up is not yet decided. In fact. The optimism is this reprise because it also disguises the future as past. it does not revere that banal. However. the future does not come over man as fate.

. that is. a decision of the subjective factor in alliance with the objective factors of economic-material tendency. the only thing that is assigned – in order to foster true optimism – to the knowledge of decision. automatic belief in progress as such. it thus constitutes the critical coldness precisely in Marxism.Page 199 in fact so patently just new opium for the people that. it has certainly been developed primarily from idealism and not from (mechanical) materialism. that of realization and of changing the world. Through this. productivity. but rather the repressed elements of the new. cum grano salis. if the latter quite openly serves shameless reaction.e.* The attitude towards this undecided material. i. then the former helps shamefaced reaction with the aim of fostering winking connivance and passivity. spontaneity of consciousness). with the aim of discouraging. as Marx says. to the decision of attained knowledge. could really intervene or bring about lasting change without being allied with real. then it simply becomes a factor * Bloch is playing on a German saying 'It is not yet the night to end all days'. Because at least pessimism with a realistic perspective is not so helplessly surprised by mistakes and catastrophes. it is such. humanized society. is once again the concretely and utopianly comprehended correlate in real possibility: comprehended as one in which of course it is by no means already the night to end all days. And once again it is not as if even for one moment the activity which is part of changing the world. even if. were any other than a material activity. rather than false optimism. because if the subjective factor remains isolated. of the concrete ideal. which calls itself by its own name. is a better travelling companion than cheap credulity. since. which can however be decided through work and concretely mediated action. no abstract ideals are realized. an English equivalent of which would be 'We are not yet out of the wood'. as the active side (generation. for every analysis which does not make it absolute again. as Marx stresses in the first thesis on Feuerbach. by the horrifying possibilities which have been concealed and will continue to be concealed precisely in capitalist progress. automatic optimism is not much less of a poison than pessimism made absolute. even a dash of pessimism would be preferable to the banal. are set free. Thinking ad pessimum. but just as little – in the sense of non-utopian optimism – already the day to end all nights. of militant optimism. It is the revolutionary decision of the proletariat which today commits itself to the final struggle of liberation. is called militant optimism. Thus. present tendencies. And it is not as if this subjective factor. For every changing decision.

yet precisely because it is not putschism. Concrete decision in favour of the victory of light in real possibility is the same as countermove against failure in process. Man and process. Thus along with the concept of the Front the so closely related concept of newness is also in a parlous state. of Spiegelbergian forays. advent of barbarism). even ancient oriental future * Spiegelberg: the unscrupulous marauder in Schiller's 'The Robbers'. . the negation of the negation may also find space here and the dialectic actively triumph. And there is no other place for militant optimism than the place which the category of Front opens up. as the trenchant knowledge of non-contemplation. of materially comprehended hope.e. it founds. by redirecting this destruction on to itself. but rather.Page 200 of putschism. the other alternative to real possibility itself. not of revolution. in the promised Novum of happiness. being armed. being militant. the eve of great events. it lives in peace with process which brushes death-statics itself the wrong way. utopianly open matter. also in the feeling of spring. that is.* not of the work. Not everything that is well-known is also known. consequently both stand equally on the Front. Is the same as the countermove against all these deadly manifestations from the family of Nothing and against the circulation of Nothing. there is insight into the consequences of the decision – and it is precisely the knowledge in the decision which guarantees this insight – then the power of the subjective factor cannot be estimated highly or even deeply enough. The philosophy of this optimism. Philosophy of comprehended hope thus stands per definitionem on the Front of the world process. namely with the still undischarged future in the past. the latter has nevertheless hardly found a single philosopher. It permeates. Concrete decision is always in conflict with statics here. i. or rather: subject and object in dialectically materialist process. however. is itself. If. Is thus ultimately the countermove against the pervasive ruin of pure negation (war. least of all when freshness is present. though it is forgotten time and again. Is the same as the countermove of freedom against so-called destiny which has been removed from process and which counteracts it through stagnation and reification. on the so little thought-out. is equally founded optimism. so that. It runs through the expectations of almost all religions. advent consciousness. foremost segment of Being of animated. in so far as primitive. and is so even when it concerns itself with the past. confidence. The New: it circulates in the mind in first love. concerned with the foremost segment of history. precisely as the militant function in militant optimism. together with a highly characteristic mixed reaction of fear.

the Incipit vita nova. p. great inclination towards openness leaps to the eye. in such a way that the dawning. and found no place in any pre-Marxist world-picture. . its dialectic. by the contentless declaration of an élan vital in and for itself. the durée which is imagined as being fluid. would objectively coincide. 1907.Page 201 consciousness can be properly understood at all. French philosopher of science. but rather a zig-zag in which – from sheer opposition to uniformity – there is only the figure of chaos. and was consequently devalued. supposedly because in truly unchanged persistence the beginning and end of this state would be indistinguishable. Even the duration of a thing. is based by Bergson on continual difference. Nevertheless. its images of hope and genuine products. And the Novum as a whole in Bergson is not elucidated by its path. Consequently. Or if it did seem to find it. This kind of thing has already been made clear in the case of the block which has obstructed the concept of the Not-Yet-Conscious for so long. its explosions. also repeatedly remains a Fixum in the so-called Philosophy of Life. from Jacob's blessing to the Son of Man who makes everything new. the new earth. at the same time it was attributed to every moment of life without exception. but in fact repeatedly by the contrast to mechanism. élan vital and * Émile Boutroux. and to the new heaven. precisely because of the constantly required change of direction. so it is not the curve praised by Bergson that develops with this change. the eternal metaphysical vitality theory ultimately achieves a mere frenzy instead of the Novum. In fact. it pervades the whole of the Bible. 1845–1921. Here too we must emphasize: there is absolutely no genuine Novum in Bergson. Thus the concept of the New in Bergson simply appears as abstract contrast to repetition. but the process remains empty and repeatedly produces nothing but process. 270). then the New was simply considered from the point of view of senselessly changing fashions and celebrated as such. in fact often as merely the reverse side of mechanical uniformity. all that resulted from this was the different rigidity of a surprise that is always the same. Great love for the Novum is active. and consequently the thing would not have duration at all. required for its own sake. the category Novum has not been described anything like adequately enough. he has in fact only developed his concept from sheer excess into capitalistic fashion-novelty and thus stabilized it. as in Boutroux* or above all in the Art Nouveau or secession philosophy of Bergson. the abstractly understood Futurum also ends in a l'art pour l'art of vitality which Bergson himself compares to the rocket or 'to an immense firework which continually shoots out new bursts of fire' (L'Evolution créatrice.

The mighty realm of possibility thus becomes for him an illusion of – retrospection: there is no Possible in Bergson whatsoever. Thus moreover: the dialectical emergence of this total content is no longer described by the category Novum. boundlessness. In both. for him it is a projection which is sketched back into the past by what is newly developing. p. however. has not only ignored creative anticipation. the horizon of utopia. . 133). And the continually stressed changeableness. not predesignated in any possible. Or rather: as the goal-determination of a work. not a possible that becomes real (La Pensée et le Mouvant. with nevertheless unmistakable finality. Bergson. is however a real which makes itself possible. which has stressed its Where To and What For and goes about achieving it. The real welling-up of unforeseeable newness. the just arising Novum is only to be conceived as 'having been possible': 'The possible is nothing other than the real plus a mental act which reflects the image of this real into the past. this reddening dawn in the human will. laboriously reproduced elimination of two of the most essential qualities of the Novum in general: possibility and finality. In the Possible. the teachers of an absolute rest. which is suggested and tended. mechanism. tested and processed out in the progressive newnesses of history. To sum up: appropriate to the Novum. Bergson sees the same schematics of deadening reason hostile to change which he sees at work elsewhere as spatialization. but the genuine Novum as a whole. The social reason for Bergson's pseudo-Novum lies in the late bourgeoisie. hardly made Bergson's newness-universe into what. rather than as the goal-determination of the human will. which first seeks precisely its Where To and What For. in the open possibilities of the future. but rather by the category Ultimum. as soon as the real has developed . but actually also a kind of specific repetition: namely of the still unbecome total goal-content itself. which has within it absolutely nothing new in terms of content. Bergson thus characteristically almost reproduces the antipossibility proof of the Megarian philosopher Diodoros Kronos. causality. . The corresponding ideological reason ultimately lies in the old. is not only abstract opposition to mechanical repetition. according to Bergson. and with this of course the repetition ends. he fantasized it to be: into 'the machine to produce gods'. in equating all foreseeability with static prediction. who was in fact himself close to the Eleatic philosophers. And similarly. so that it really is one. But it only ends by virtue .Page 202 nothing more is and remains itself a Fixum of contemplation. above all of a planning. Bergson closes his mind to the concept of the Novum by regarding finality simply as the establishing of a rigid final goal.

i. from Philo and Augustine to Hegel. this is also true where mechanically and materialistically the Alpha-Omega has been secularized into a ball of vapour out of which the world emerges and into which it disperses again. . which is its Ultimum and in which process dies away as in an amen. completely free of the Novum. but it is a leap towards the newness that is ending or identity. the Ultimum was also invariably defused here. The original and the archetype of all this remains the Alpha-Omega in the embracing ring of a primal being to which process . releases it again. this categorial treatment precisely indicated that the one which properly ought to precede it. in that its Omega coils back into the Alpha again without the power of the Novum. a circle which closes in upon itself. it incorporates the Heraclitean and Stoic doctrine of world-conflagration. Likewise. rather than the unmediated immediacy in the beginning of the mere Being-in-itself. the idea of the Last Thing has always been a subject of those religions which also set a time-limit to time. that of the Novum. according to which the Zeus-fire takes the world back into itself and similarly. in periodic cycles. However. the highest newness. to the same extent that the Ultimum represents the last. Because in the whole of Judaeo-Christian philosophy. highest. the whole thus presents itself as a circle of circles' (Enzyklopäidie. and thus above all of Judaeo-Christian philosophy of religion.Page 203 of the fact that. the Primum of the Being-in-itself of the idea not only reproduced but fulfilled: the 'mediated immediacy' is attained in the Being-for-itself. was as good as absent. Hegel saw in the Being-for-itself of the idea. the repetition (the unremitting representedness of the tendency-goal in all progressively New) intensifies to the last.e. The form of this return incorporates the pre-Christian form of the self-combusting and self-renewing Phoenix. consequently the Last Thing appears simply as the attained return of an already completed First Thing which has been lost or relinquished. as in every individual formepoch of the world process. of the restitutio in integrum: 'Every part of philosophy is a philosophical whole. and consequently also in its totality. And the newness in the Ultimum really triumphs by means of its total leap out of everything that previously existed. §15). But. it is the cycle. . despite having been thought out more thoroughly. And in fact we may say: the cycle is the figure which the Ultimum attaches so firmly to the Primum that it misfires logically and metaphysically within it. In the final analysis. this result nevertheless remained a cyclical one here. Of course. The category Ultimum has not been left as unconsidered as that of the Novum. . most fundamental repetition: of identity. the Ultimum relates exclusively to a Primum and not to a Novum.

These are all in fact prison-formations against real possibility or a disavowal of it which seeks to visualize even the most progressive historical product solely as the re-remembering or restoration of something once possessed. so the realization of the realizing. working man: in nature it is the realization of that which has been hypothetically called natura naturans or subject of material motion. of the Where From. to which. supposedly most real of all. The dialectic which has its motor in unrest and its goal-content. anti-Hegel is philosophically appropriate. in unappeared essence does away with the dogged cycle. with a kind of ancestor cult in philosophy. anti-circle and denial of the ring-principle. do away with the fundamentally sterile cycle through their especially high percentage of utopia. of the realizing element itself is always only just starting to begin. of the origin. still without the problem of the Ultimum. only antireremembering. The site for both kinds of selfapprehension and their Novum. a problem which has hardly been touched on. is however located solely on the Front of the process of history and is predominantly confronted with only mediated-real possibility. Yet hope. the real-ciphers in the world. but also in that of all previous Novum. in fact as far as Nietzsche. anti-Augustine. And the end is not the bringing back. which in no way exists ante rem. as is evident precisely in the Ultimum. even these rehearsals on an as yet unsuccessful model. their Ultimum. a horde of real possibilities emerge which were not predicted of the beginning at birth. Consequently. The tension-figures and tendency-forms. it first enters reality with this Ultimum. as an origin still essentially unrealized in itself. The humanization of nature has no parental home at the beginning from which it runs away. does away with the sharp cycle. This remains that which . which does not want to be just as far at any end as it was at the beginning. In history it is the self-apprehension of the historical doer. that intended from Hegel and Eduard von Hartmann. even though it is clearly connected with the self-apprehension of working man and lies along the line of extension of Marx's 'humanization of nature'. rather it is – precisely as the impact of the Whatessence on the That-ground – the blasting open of the primum agens materiale. indeed. primally lost. In other words: the Omega of the Where To explains itself not with reference to a primally been Alpha. The origin is certainly the realizing element itself. but on the contrary: this origin explains itself first with reference to the Novum of the end. it returns. in the case of this Novum. In fact in process itself.Page 204 returns almost as a prodigal son and undoes the substance of its Novum. and yet: just as there is still something immature and not yet realized in the realizing.

the thus designated realm of freedom develops not as return. Of course. obviously. the movement towards it then collapses. in so far as they had already been developed in other countries and could be taken over from there. in the bourgeois ideal dream of human rights.Page 205 corresponds to exact anticipation. if it makes headway. – as Not-Yet-Being of the 'naturalization of man. More rapid progress is of course allowed. as a consequence of the prevailing and determining socio-economic conditions. if they had not collapsed but had reached the goal according to the measure of the Possible at that time. though not always. the simply chiliastic utopias. 'What-Is According to Possibility' and 'What-Is in Possibility'. And nothing much more than a Philadelphia of that kind would have been the fruit of the pure. particularly far removed from the real Philadelphia which was on the agenda of economic history and consequently saw the light of day. Even the complete technological conditions for the construction of socialism could be made good in the Soviet Union. abstract sense. promised by process. a Philadelphia. The goal-image then proves to be subjectively and objectively an illusion. Not everything is possible or can be implemented at any time. Thus Russia did not first need to become fully capitalist before it could pursue the socialist goal successfully. but this is precisely why everything is still factually impossible for which the conditions do not yet exist at all. Cold and Warm Stream in Marxism On the path to the New we must usually. where the stretch ahead shows no other dangers than over-anxiously or pedantically imagined ones. Because of course everything is possible for which the conditions exist in a sufficiently partial form. at best. a path which has never been travelled before can only be skipped or jumped over with some failures. proceed step by step. On the other hand. they also block. humanization of nature'. even demanded. from the outset the tendencies were already active which subsequently ushered in the purest capitalism. concrete utopia as objective-real correlate. a totally different goal is achieved from the one intended in this skipping over. But even here a city of brotherly love hovered ahead anyway. absent conditions not only hinder. The economic conditions which the radical will towards the millennium from Joachim . Correspondingly. but as exodus – though into the always intended promised land. In the same sense that the concretely utopian is an objective-real degree of reality on the Front of the occurring world.

in the previous chapter (cf. p. are determined through insight into the correlate of possibility. And in such a way that this correlate.Page 206 of Fiore to the English millenarians skipped over. Both the critical caution which determines the speed of the path. on which the measures of the respectively Possible are written. would have announced themselves anyway. again by virtue of the still imminent capitalist agenda. and even this. fundamentally prevents partial attainments on this path from being taken for the whole goal and from obscuring it. itself again has two sides. from which stems. but rather determining meaning for the concept of inhibiting matter: is supplemented and extended through . This is how Aristotle seeks to explain the many inhibitions. as it is now becoming possible to say. this definition of matter was designated as that of a scapegoat. This assignment now also opens up a new. But of course there is no mention in Aristotle of any such In General. even in what was attained itself: and. teaches conduct on the path to the goal. All this has become completely comprehensible through the Marxist discovery which shows that concrete theory-practice is most closely connected to the explored mode of objective-real possibility. they would certainly not have been those which predestine for the kingdom of love. a reverse side as it were. on the subject of the 'disrupting subsidiary causes' during realization. rather for him matter is in no way limited to the mechanical. in so far as it is made absolute and in so far as it supposedly serves to send matter to the devil for the purpose of unburdening entelechy in general. and the founded expectation which guarantees a militant optimism as regards the goal. the first side. Despite all this it must be stressed: even this double-sided correlate: real possibility is nothing other than dialectical matter. even the innumerable progress-torsos of which the world is full. that of the utopian Totum. and a front side on which the Totum of the finally Possible indicates that it is still open. for material openness (unexhaustedness of the womb of matter) on the other. and in fact had to skip over. whereas the second side. We mentioned that according to Aristotle mechanical matter ( ) represents a resistance. any such Making Absolute. Already above. In the quoted passage. In fact. Real possibility is only the logical expression for material conditionality of a sufficient kind on the one hand. and consequently the entelechetic tendencyform cannot reveal itself purely. not thwarting. and so it is. that of the existing decisively conditions. 191). a part of the Aristotelian definitions of matter was enlisted. is in fact assigned for the first time to the extremely extensive concept of or objective-real possibility in Aristotle. . chance thwartings.

of the Hegelian world-idea. since the no longer appeared as undefined wax on which the form-entelechies imprint themselves. transposes them. this idea which moves away . And only from this What-Is-according-topossibility does the inhibition ultimately originate which the entelechetic tendency-form experiences on its path. the utopian Totum is implied in the . thus does not only mean mechanics. In fact even the substratum. But all this would not have been possible if Aristotle – and this is of central importance – had not already also distinguished the other side. Averroës and his natura naturans. The consequence also originates from here that the sculptor. the potential of matter ultimately became birth and grave and new place of hope for the world-forms in general.: through What-Is according to possibility. matter is the site of the conditions according to whose stipulations entelechies reveal themselves.e. working under 'more favourable conditions'. What-Is-inpossibility in matter precedes the founded expectation of attainability itself. right down to the world-creating matter of Giordano Bruno (cf. the first great Aristotelian commentator Alexander of Aphrodisias. To repeat and sum up. here Ernst Bloch. can create more beautiful bodies than the physical ones that are born. in fact recognized it as the side completely free of inhibitions. Seen from this side. as Aristotle says in his 'Poetics'. from the or each individual thing into the or the richer possibilities of a whole. the oriental Aristotelians Avicenna. therefore the – in Aristotle admittedly still passive – womb of fertility from which all world-forms inexhaustibly emerge. but it is . What-Is-in-possibility. This development of the Aristotelian concept of matter runs through the peripatetic physicist Strato. With this last definition precisely the friendly.Page 207 i. if not the hope-side of objective-real possibility opened up. according to possibility. What-Is-according-to-possibility in matter precedes the critical consideration of what is respectively to be attained. 1952. however long it took for it to be comprehended. giving birth to itself. And since the passive was deleted from the latter definition in the pantheistic school of the Aristotelians. according to the measures of possibility. p. but much more extensively: continuous conditional connection. and that a poet removes contingency and narrowness from the path of his creations. and therefore the respectively conditioning element according to the given measure of the Possible. 30ff. through the Christian heretical philosophers of the thirteenth century Amalrich of Bena and David of Dinant. Avicenna und die Aristotelische Linke.). the neo-Platonizing Aristotelian Avicebron. matter is not only . the front side of possibility-matter.

concerning the Aristotelian concept of development. its strict determinations which cannot be skipped over demand cool analysis. Marx would not have been able to set much of the Hegelian world-idea on its feet in such a natural way. each in its place and each employed towards the same goal. but with its horizon as a limiting one.' There are several such statements in Hegel. which has become potent. that of the limited Possible. process. Nor would the dialectic of process have been rescuable from the so-called world-spirit in materialistic terms and become ascertainable in matter as a law of motion. So much here for the correlates to critical consideration of the attainable. also in his History of Philosophy (Werke XIII. nevertheless contains a large part of matter-potentiality. Research which analyses conditions does equally show prospect. in the totality of the subject-matter treated. where he at least equates his idea of Being-in-itself with the Aristotelian . Thus. . the former warm red. It has been recognized as one between the respective conditionexploration according to the stipulations of the Possible. skipping over. let alone tacked on. to founded expectation of attainability itself within the overall correlate: real possibility or matter. And the supposition is justified that without this legacy of Aristotle and Bruno. Its unexhausted fullness of expectation shines upon revolutionary theorypractice as enthusiasm. On this point Lenin. in his 'Philosophical Notebooks'. a very different matter from the mechanical clod appeared. In Marxism. particularly notes the statement from Hegel's Logic: 'That which appears as the activity of form is furthermore also the separate motion of matter itself.Page 208 so soon from matter. Thus lead is here poured into the shoes of overhauling. because experience shows that the real itself has a heavy gait and seldom consists of wings. the matter of dialectical materialism. like acerbity and belief. the act of analysing the situation is entwined with the enthusiastically prospective act. 33). Without such a cooling down Jacobinism or even totally extravagant. yet they are distinct from each other. one in which dialectic. yet the difference of view and situation is plain to see. humanization of nature are in no way just external epithets. These two ways of being red always go together of course. expropriation of expropriation. Both acts are united in the dialectical method. most abstractly utopian fanaticism would emerge. are related to these two sides of the real Possible. cautiously precise strategy. They are related to one another like that which cannot be deceived and that which cannot be disappointed. the latter indicates cold. however. flying over. Coldness and warmth of concrete anticipation are pre-figured in this. in the pathos of the goal. p. and the prospect-exploration of What-Is-in-possibility.

Only coldness and warmth of concrete anticipation together therefore ensure that neither the path in itself nor the goal in itself are held apart from one another undialectically and so become reified and isolated. signifies the utopian Totum. the latter is subject to the danger of economism and of goal-forgetting opportunism. And which. enslaved. in fact that freedom. and finally of betrayal. unmeasured expanse. inside this sphere. but overall historical. in which neither man behaves towards the world. To the warm stream of Marxism. abandoned. the Front of matter. hence of forward matter. The goal remains the naturalization of man. however. prospect of the authentic. of compromise. primarily in the human sphere. in the sense of unobstructed.Page 209 But the prospect-exploration of What-Is-in-possibility goes towards the horizon. of the Totum of what is occurring and what is to be pursued. This is the doctrine of warmth in the sense of the front side. which embraces the growing realization of the realizing element. But it is also beyond doubt that this content lies within the historical process. but at the same time the science of struggle and opposition against all ideological inhibitions and concealments of the ultimately decisive conditions. in the sense of the Possible which is still unexhausted and unrealized. from here the appeal to the proletariat as the turntable towards emancipation. precisely this belongs to the most useful cold stream of Marxism. From here the strong appeal to the debased. utopian Totum. Without such a warming up of the historical and especially of the currently practical conditional analysis. towards whose goal all these disenchantments are undertaken. has never before been present. and that Marxism represents its strongest consciousness. Through it Marxist materialism becomes not only the science of conditions. the latter avoids the mists of fanaticism only in as far as it gets bogged down in the swamp of philistinism. humanely materialistic real tendency. that is beyond doubt. Marxism as a doctrine of warmth is thus solely related to that positive Being-in-possibility. its highest practical mindfulness. nor the world behaves towards man. The path then opens up . belong liberating intention and materialistically humane. its only space. And the conditional analysis on the whole historical-situational stretch emerges both as an unmasking of ideologies and as a disenchantment of metaphysical illusion. of a not only respectively prevailing. Only then of course does prospect in the authentic sense result. This final matter or the content of the realm of freedom first approaches in the construction of communism. as if towards a stranger. humanization of nature which is inherent in developing matter. that is. that homeland of identity. which are always economic. not subject to any disenchantment. belittled human being.

in contrast to most political wishful dreams. since paint only stands in sensory certainty and is otherwise more weakly burdened with the claim to truth than the word. in the path explored towards its conditions. the basis of the second stage is the classless society. hence towards freedom. Forward materialism or the warmth-doctrine of Marxism is thus theory-practice of reaching home or of departure from inappropriate objectification. the most important. which is called process and is accelerated on earth so forcefully by human work. as matter of Things For Us.Page 210 within it as function of the goal. Undoubtedly only from the vantage point of a classless society does the goal of freedom itself come clearly into our sights as definite Being-in-possibility. it has already become work-like. visualized towards its opennesses. but also with so many kinds of pre-appearance. in doing so. For it remains even after it has been enjoyed. . Since the word not only serves literature. and the goal opens up as substance in the path. Artistic Appearance As Visible Pre-Appearance We say of the beautiful that it gives pleasure. Matter is latent in these opennesses according to the direction of their objective-real hope-contents: as the end of selfalienation and objectivity encumbered with alien material. its framework is a culture whose horizon is surrounded purely by the contents of founded hope. in contrast to the childlike. Nevertheless it is no great distance from that self-encounter which has been sought in images under the name of culture. with so many ideologies. In aesthetic ringing or even jingling* is there any hard cash. The wishful dream goes out here into what is indisputably better. Only: is there anything more in what has been shaped in this way than a game of appearance? Which may be extremely ingenious but. that it is even enjoyed. anticipations in the horizon. any statement which can be signed? Paintings prompt us less often to this question. even in the sweetest cases it hangs over into a land which is 'pictured ahead'. the objective surpassing of what currently exists in history and world occurs: this transcending without transcendence. does not prepare for anything serious. But its reward does not end there. On the path towards this. The means by which man first became human was work. art is not food. nor signifies it. * Here Bloch is playing on the old German expression 'in klingender Münze': 'in coin of the realm'. a shaped beauty. through it the world is developed towards the No-Longer-Alienation of its subjects-objects. the positive Being-in-possibility.

of course. all artists are from beginning to end in league with appearance. All good art. These are the empirical objections to the insidious gloom. they have no inclination towards truth. Even where the specific hostility to art. He compares the truth to the naked bright daylight in which the masks. of capitalism in the nineteenth century (with l'art pour l'art as the counterblow and with the Goncourts' declaration of war on 'the public') could not yet make its presence felt. equal to that of the empirical school. to the golden mist of art.Page 211 but also truthful communication. language makes us more sensitive to the latter than paint. especially radical hostility to art. and they are not the only ones which derive from the Enlightenment. that beauty is the sensory manifestation of the idea? Nietzsche. In the whole of the Enlightenment there are premises for this antithesis between art and truth. conflicts in beautiful appearance. but which made themselves fashionable again as objections to art in the trend towards calculating reason in the new bourgeois age. For alongside them stand the rational objections which of course originally belong to the Platonic conceptual logos and to its especially celebrated. how do things stand with Schiller's nevertheless prophetic statement that what we experience here as beauty will one day approach us as truth? How do things stand with Plotinus' statement. finishes its materials in shaped beauty. According to this. renders things. people. even than drawing. described by Marx. Or: art makes the aspect of life tolerable by throwing the veil of impure thought over it. sets against this assertion the much more massive one that all poets lie. Francis Bacon sees the golden apples in silver bowls as really not that far from being an illusion. but just the opposite inclination. in his positivist period. The aesthetic dimension is conspicuously absent in all the great systems of reason of * 'What does that prove?' . and then Hegel's. Even the droll inquiry of that French mathematician is relevant here who asked after listening to Racine's 'Iphigénie': 'Qu'est-ce que cela prouve?'* Droll and fetishistically pedantic though this question looks. they belong to the idola theatri that have been handed down to us. and they have made artistic imagination an object of suspicion from the factual standpoint. it still stands as a purely rational question in a separate and great school of alienation from art. But what is the honest status of this finish. mummeries and resplendent features of the world do not appear half so beautiful and magnificent as in the candlelight of art. of a ripeness in which only invented material ripens? How do things stand with a richness which communicates itself in a merely illusionary fashion. as mere appearance to the eye or to the ear? Conversely.

albeit of a significant kind. indeed with apologies for its existence. because such examples were serviceable for something much more important: for the proof of the best of all possible worlds. seduces us to the superficial.** in fact it began with a decidedly low opinion of its Object.Page 212 the new rationalist age. at least from the positing of something spiritually true. Predominantly only technical aesthetic theories. Consequently the aesthetics of rationalism began in a very strange way when it was finally made into a philosophical discipline very late by Baumgarten. Exodus 20. or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above. from belief. as was usual in the empirical and ultimately also in the rationalist approach. ** *** . the verdict reads here. i. Indeed. falls for the hollow exterior and thus diverts from the essential nature of things. it was not comparable in terms of value with the complete clarity of conceptual cognition. hatred of art only becomes totally glaring when it derives not from reason but. 'What good is there in imitating the shadows of shadows?' asks Plato. 4. Then a storm of iconoclasm breaks out – in this case not against the golden mist of art. In Leibniz the harmoniously beautiful is in fact a kind of hint of a scientifically recognizable world-harmony. and the truth can thus dispense with it. chiefly concerning poetics. or that is in the water under the earth'. already making his conceptual logos almost clerically curt. And though beauty also represented perfection in this area. often conversely.e. 1679–1754. 1714–62. – but the list of enemies is still not complete. The aesthetic Object was solely the so-called lower cognitive faculty at work in sensory perception and its ideas. the ideas which inhabit it are not considered worthy of the least scientific discussion. but it is only a confused hint.* the follower of Wolff. but against the mainland of art. or that is in the earth beneath. Beauty. Even the universal philosopher Leibniz at best only cited a few examples from art. Otherwise we do not know either in Descartes or even in Spinoza that there is an art in the ordered connection of ideas and things. such as those concerning the harmony-enhancing effect of shadows and dissonances. of the banning of all idolatry. The rationalist debasement of art thus lines up with the empirical positivist kind after all. On the other hand: 'Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. against the over-accentuated appearance within it. philosopher of the German Enlightenment. and only the mathematical side of music was of interest to Descartes. blossomed in French classical rationalism.*** commands the fourth commandment in the Bible and gives the cue for the iconoclasm of the invisibility of Yahweh. * Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Christian Wolff.

Tolstoy. but not to solve satisfactorily' (Kosmos II. Chapter 37: 'The meteorological processes which take place in the cloud cover. either immured or decadent ones. they are nevertheless united in the will towards a seriousness opposed to the game of appearance. what corresponds to it in morality is. tells us of the Book of Job. Not only in terms of sensory certainty. empirical and rationalist. Shakespeare. Puritanism in this extensive sense (reaching back as far as Bernard of Clairvaux) finally culminated in Tolstoy's monstrous hatred of Shakespeare. And admittedly not a French mathematician. the naturalist. ultimately luciferian fulfilment which stands in the way of the true undissembling kind. And the demand of significant realism to which all surface. Goethe. but Alexander von Humboldt. How legitimate Homer's realism is. of the lascivious work of beauty in general. This is hostility to art in its religious and spiritual form. not without reason. Such precision and reality is undoubtedly peculiar and essential to all great literature.Page 213 Art in general thus becomes gleaming. p. spiritual and religious. precisely because they themselves were serious. the turning towards the invisible. under Pope Marcellus. and this horror. gave to Protestantism the bare God who wishes to be worshipped in moral belief. is so greatly recognized in art (at least in the novel in recent times). many questions are also raised which our modern physics is able to formulate in more scientific terms. their kaleidoscope of colours. Thus the claim to truth comes out against beauty in so many different forms. Keller. applied to what is visible. genuine dimension of 'convictions'. to the planning of a ban on elaborate church music. 35). This has always affected artists too. this glory in Homer. if not actually . And however much these different claims to truth (for subjectively the spiritual was one as well) were at variance with themselves and in extreme conflict with one another. often also in decidedly spiritualreligious literature. How amply the beautiful seeks also to be pictorially true in the descriptions and stories of great realistic writers. the generation of hail and of rolling thunder are described with individual graphicness. Even in Catholicism a horror pulchri led. They themselves felt committed to the question of truth. but also all extravagance is alien. as in the imagery of the Psalms. Cotta. a realism of such exact fullness that almost the whole of Mycenean culture can be visualized from it. the turning away from the all too great visibility of 'works'. in the word that is the truth. because they did not want to be gameplayers. indeed which denies it. the formation and dispersal of the vapours during various wind changes. but also in terms of broadly revealed social contexts and natural processes.

although on a completely different level. in a legitimate. Utopia as object-determination. or even insights. cloaked in images and which can only be described in images. is in any case unmistakable even in the most realistic artistic creations. or because. but then what does the enormous wonderment at the after all inseparable form-content of these works mean. it is characterized above all by fantasizing. which bustles around between characters and events with a degree of licence highly alien to science. Heaven in the final part of Faust: how do these stand – beyond all detailed realism – in relation to the philosophers' inquiry after truth? They are undoubtedly not true in the sense that the knowledge we have acquired of the world is true. Fantasizing and in addition. art-fullness. as to the location of its object-correlate. For precisely in the realistic work of art we see that as a work of art it is still nevertheless something other than a source of historical and natural historical knowledge. in both senses of the word. astonishingly. of material that has been driven further. as to its degree of reality in the by no means single-layered reality of the world. even without mathematics and completely without drollery. over-rounding. however concrete they are. which is the oldest sustenance of art anyway. either because they consciously romanticize alongside or beyond available existence. It is characterized by exquisite words which do after all also exaggerate what is so tellingly described by them beyond its given station. have not settled the aesthetic question of truth. far beyond a mere 'subject'. And yet artists. with the degree of existence of the Real Possible. but a meaning. And great appearance has a quite 'surpassing' effect in those works of art which do not offer themselves primarily as realistic. at best they have extended it in a desirable and significant way and made it more precise. particularly in artistic novels. wherever the exaggeration and fantasizing represent a significant pre-appearance. world-related manner? Thus. And the answer to the aesthetic question of truth is: artistic appearance is not only mere appearance. the 'Qu'est-ce que cela prouve?' of that French mathematician becomes irrefutable. In other words: the question as to the truth of art becomes philosophically the question as to the possibly available depictability of beautiful appearance. as if there had never been a mistrust born of the love of truth towards the Magister Ludi and his box of tricks. Giotto's 'Raising of Lazarus'. circulating . they fructify – myth. Dante's 'Paradiso'.Page 214 fulfilled at high points. An appearance of rounding. thus encounters in the shimmering phenomenon of art a particularly fruitful problem of probation. by means of which invented material fills up the gaps in what has been concretely observed and rounds the plot into well-curved arches.

. in the: 'I make all things new'. society transformed into Civitas Dei. it has something balanced. as Schiller in fact defined aesthetic realism using Goethe as an example. in characters. i. Art. when 'classical' it loves the coastal trip around the given. more thoroughly formed. nature transfigured into the celestial. of course. unrenderedness. but which is most definitely inherent in the subjects. even sublimity are thus representative of an existence for Objects which has not yet become. Geist der Utopie. everything that appears in the artistic image is sharpened or condensed to a decisiveness which the reality of experience in fact only seldom shows. more essential than in the immediate-sensory or immediatehistorical occurrence of this Object. Art clearly indicates this with founded appearance. p. 141). with its formations which are always individual and concrete. What habitual or unblunted sense can hardly still see is illuminated here. of thoroughly formed world without external chance. with the Total as penetratingly viewed Particular. Aesthetically represented. without. as in Christian-religious pre-appearance (cf. Pre-appearance is this attainable thing itself because the métier of driving-to-the-end occurs in dialectically open space.e. in the theatre regarded as paradigmatic institution. even when it is Gothic. 5: 'Behold. seeks utopian perfection in totality and places the salvation of the individual matter completely in the Totum. The motto of aesthetically attempted pre-appearance runs along these lines: how could the world be perfected without this world being exploded and apocalyptically vanishing. I make all things new'. and brings them to a stated resolution in suffering. homogenized in * Rev. reproduces an Object outside itself with all its dimensions of depth on the reflecting surface. plots. of what is real. seeks this perfection only in these formations. It remains virtual. without unessentiality. 21. landscapes. And the preappearance. going beyond it'. in which any Object can be aesthetically represented. Beauty. situations. instead. a pre-appearance which can specifically be represented in aesthetically immanent terms. This thorough formation remains appearance even as pre-appearance. Whereas art remains rounded. despite all venturing beyond. also: Ernst Bloch. This pre-appearance becomes attainable precisely because art drives its material to an end. in contrast to religious pre-appearance. remains immanent despite all transcendence: it expands.Page 215 in turbulent existence itself.* Man is supposed to be born again here. happiness and meaning. in individual processes as well as social and natural ones. this means: immanently more achieved. it expands 'nature. but in the same sense as a reflection is virtual. whereas religion. 1923. but it does not remain illusion.

decisively developed through exemplary instances. calls the storm 'poetica tempestas'. but in society. All other arts pursue the representation of the pure carat in individual figures. not as destruction of artistic images. as Hegel teaches. in its formed.' This humanized nature is however at the same time one that is more perfected in itself. the essential image of the matter. situations. not of course in the manner of sensory appearance of an idea which is finished anyway. Whereby the typical in Engels' definition obviously does not mean the average. In fact. Thus art is nonillusion. therefore. occurring in open space. hence the perfect visibility of this pre-appearance. This goes so deep that Goethe. with active promotion of tendency.Page 216 it. as Aristotle states. posits concentration as realism. just as if it were only transposed on to the level of the beautiful or the sublime. but the significantly characteristic. precisely this entelechetically or. In great art. Along this line. Only music works explosively. but one that is felt and thought and humanly perfected. exaggeration and fantasizing are most visibly applied to tendential consistency and concrete utopia. not only typically. This goes so far that a writer from antiquity. in his commentary on Diderot's 'Essay on Painting'. can help essential material in the distance of art to become increasingly also appearance in the dealings of life. with an incisive counter-move against inhibitions. grateful to nature. without exploding this world. as Aristotle also says. namely of worldly perfected pre-appearance. This is then of course the same as – iconoclasm that has become correct. Juvenal. Only controlled history. but as a breaking into them – for the purpose of fructifying what is possibly contained in them. plots from the world. together with the thoroughly experienced alternatives therein. gives her a second nature in return. lies the solution of the aesthetic question of truth: Art is a laboratory and also a feast of implemented possibilities. since it works along a line of extension from the Become. more commensurate expression. against merely reproductive naturalism: 'And thus the artist. which also produced him. in short. in order to express all the possible horrors of a storm. Though whether the call for perfection – we can call it the godless prayer of poetry – becomes practical even only to a small extent and does not merely remain in aesthetic preappearance is something which is not decided in poetry. whereby the implementation and the result occur in the manner of founded appearance. typically resolving force is powerfully remembered afresh in Engels' statement that realistic art is representation of typical characters in typical situations. for which reason this art always carries something eccentric in it compared with the other arts. . but rather in the direction of increasingly entelechetic expression.

beauty and even sublimity is that which mediates a premonition of future freedom. does not belong to it. is enough to satisfy mere appearance. the imaginary or what has become imaginary can lend mere appearance a particularly decorative roundedness. and the artist who has not finished what he had to do is unhappy about it. it guarantees that pleasing superficial coherence which shows no interest and presence whatever of a subject-matter beyond sheer illusion. in so far as and as long as it is merely a matter of sufficient strength of form.e. in exemplary fashion. Camões in the 'Lusiads' has his goddess Themis say quite ironically and yet in the most luxuriant verse that she herself and Saturn. The lack of belief in the represented subject-matter can even be a help to the smooth illusion. but by means of that finished fullness especially invited . one in which the seriousness of the subject-matter hardly disturbs. i. even more so than scepticism. so unreally. The source of artfulness is the ability which understands and thus totally wants to acquire its subject-matter. the same thing showed itself a little later in mythologically rounded poetry. never closed: this life-maxim of Goethe's is also that of art – with the accent of conscience and substance ultimately on the unclosed. only serving to lend charm to the song'. Jupiter and all the other gods that appear are 'vain creatures of fantasy born to mortals out of blind madness. in fact introduced into the possible allegories of a pre-appearance. This showed itself in Renaissance painting with regard to the gods of antiquity. Often rounded. What is unfinished is external to it. the beautifully coherent game. False Autarky. however imaginary what is represented may possibly be. Pre-Appearance As Real Fragment Often rounded: it does not suit a beautiful image to present itself as incomplete. precisely for the sake of non-isolated acquisition. This is quite correct and obvious. the threat of that artfulness must also repeatedly be noted which arises not out of ability but out of the share of mere appearance which even preappearance has. in depicting whom the painter did not need to fear he had not behaved sufficiently discreetly towards the sacred. Indeed. But of course. Through the use of beautiful appearance mythological substance was indeed held in memory here. let alone interrupts. The appeal of pleasing perception and its representation. And wherever art does not play itself out into illusion. Precisely because mere appearance lets images live alongside each other so easily.Page 217 but paradigmatically.

Gothic art contains this conscience. a further invitation to this comes from the side of immanence without an exploding crack. but there was equally a curious harmony in it which derived from classical Greek balance. if somewhat exaggeratedly: 'So a new polis arose from the church . conversely. Precisely the art of the Middle Ages provides many examples of a rounded-off satisfaction of an aesthetic kind. this hypostasis of the aesthetic confronts us in an even more closed fashion. p. this primal image of all rounding.e. a system formulated in a finished way appears pleasantly beautiful even in extra-artistic occurrence. . certainly contributes to this pantheistic trait. which remained determined by the Mediterranean. However. i. though by no means in classical strength. .Page 218 by appearance which is never interrupted. evenly beautiful. in Wolfram* and Pisano. a sphere and not a process-fragment. the greatest German romance of the Middle Ages. And in Giotto and Dante. 1200–20. And there is within it an equilibrium and a finished coherence which is not only idealistic. German secessions of Gothic art like that of Grünewald are of course unaffected by this kind of perfection. from the Middle Ages. The early Lukács observed quite acutely.). 1920. And finally. the ladder of the earthly and heavenly hierarchies from the crack. Thus it is not without reason that art is very often pantheistically disposed in this all too rounding form. and not without reason that. the cry for redemption became dissonance in the perfect rhythmical system of the world and made a new balance possible. but the seductive pull towards it is * Wolfram von Eschenbach. the abyss lost the danger of its actual depth: but without losing any of its blackly shining strength. but no less colourful and perfect than that of the Greeks: that of inadequate. which surrounds all art.e. In this myth the cosmos really was 'decoration'. despite its religious-transcendental conscience.c. in the living mantle of divinity. Hence the ultimate seduction to nothing but rounding. i. wrote 'Parzival'. surveyable. it was something ceaselessly circling within itself and hen kai pan a circle itself and not an open parabola. fl. not just the art of classical antiquity or that imitating classical antiquity. crackless world-picture: the astral myth. but ultimately derives from – great Pan. . 20f. Pan is the one and all of the world which had also been revered as that whole which lacks nothing. but hence also Greek balance as secularized form of the totally pagan. heterogeneous intensities' (Die Theorie des Romans. The pleasure in sensory appearance. in Thomas Aquinas and St Francis the world became round again. all its darkness became pure surface and thus fitted smoothly into a closed unity of colours. .

thus becomes a belated fragment. Only what is broken into pieces in the all too stilled work of art. even the sublime make their presence felt. Here – completely incomparable with the mere contingency of the fragmentary in the avoidable sense – another hollow space of a factual. and this is precisely the crucial difference and the crucial truth. this acquisition contains. one which has become a mere objet d'art or. but not necessarily the intensification of the cipher which is what matters here. instead of ruin or torso. all great art shows the pleasant and homogeneous aspects of its work-based coherence broken. a belated fragment arises. at first masks the pre-appearance. as in the evening when the light falls obliquely and the mountains emerge. even one as inherently so completely closed as that of Egypt. wherever immanence is not driven to closedness of form and content. Every great art. mixed with the atmosphere of the gallery. Although the acquisition of the cultural heritage always has to be critical. because the utopian ground opens up in which the work of art had been registered. but also of the false enclosedness which the work of art sought to have there and then and which further intensifies . an autarky of apparent enclosedness can also exist in a work of art. Never closed: thus precisely the all too beautiful breaks into life when the varnish cracks. And it is precisely in this space that the aestheticutopian meanings of the beautiful. the self-dispersal of what has been made into the museum-bound objet d'art. leafed open by its own iconoclasm. holds the figure together more tightly and produces greater block unity and plastic rigour. wherever it still poses as fragment-like. as a particularly important factor. as so often with Greek statues. The shattering of the surface and furthermore of the merely culturalideological context in which the works have stood exposes depth wherever it exists. When the surface pales or darkens. with unrounded immanence. because it is excessive and immanent. But equally. What is meant here is not the sentimental ruin nor that kind of torso which. broken up. highly factual kind opens up. one which can do better justice to the depth contents of art than the completedness which the work sought to manifest there and then. in the quite specific sense which disintegration possesses concerning the objet d'art and as transformation of the objet d'art. which. This sort of thing can of course be improvement of form.Page 219 even stronger from the harmoniously undisturbed coherence. by disintegrating into essentiation. the 'cosmos' even without 'universe'. All these are therefore the various reasons why a veritable art-fullness. This only occurs through the fissures of disintegration. to put it a much better way: the itself already shaped openness in great artistic creations gives the material and the form for a cipher of the authentic. In this way.

and yet in the unusual. experimental symbolic formations opens up. This is the case in great Gothic art. whereas with statues and also in architecture he set a disproportionately large amount of half-completed work on one side.* in Beethoven's last quartets. though solely legitimate sense of an appearing Ultimum only hinted at. All the more so when the phenomenon of the belated fragment combines with that created in the work of art itself: not in fact in the usual. a series of figures full of open. artistic completion here was precisely the corresponding element to enormity in Michelangelo himself. The depth of aesthetic completion brings the very dimension of the uncompleted into play: to this extent even the nonfragmentary. But what offered resistance to artistic rounding. The insular quality cracks. This kind of fragment is then nothing less than an ingredient of the un-temple-like. who left more fragments behind than any other great master. is the conscience: Gothic even post festum. so that in fact completion itself. which despite all the power of the work. in all works of this ultimative kind. flat sense of the fragmentary as that which could not be done or that which remained by chance unfinished. namely materially fragmentary quality. * A cycle of later Goethe poems inspired by intensive reading of Persian poetry in 1814 when the poet was already sixty-five. and in fact remarkably in his most characteristic concern. . in Michelangelo. This is so in the work of Michelangelo. Vasari gave art history the signal to wonder at the meagre amount of totally finished material in Michelangelo's work and to wonder all the more since the enormity in the intended goal nevertheless corresponded so completely to the power and nature of this genius. despite Pan's presence here too. but in the concrete sense of that which. of the unharmonized cathedralic. driven so deeply into the Absolute. sometimes also in the Baroque. Peculiar. never turned to it again and left it behind. had a hollow space and behind it a fertile darkness. in the West-östlicher Divan. was the agreement between an overpowerful nature and the overpowering character of a task in such a way that no work executed could satisfy this adequation. stretches into that excessive measure which is the measure of the Ultimum in art. Since in the latter he finished everything he began.Page 220 in museum-bound contemplation. at the highest level of mastery. Hence finally the legitimately. in his sculpture and not in his painting. of that which is transformed through utopian pressure. the figures on the Medici tomb as much as the dome of St Peter's Basilica. in the usual sense. becomes a fragment. is unclosed. executes a fragment composed of central un-finish-ability. Thus precisely fullyexecuted Gothic. indeed because of it. if then fragments arise even in the usual sense of brokenness.

is written above this and influences all great art with the spirit after which Dürer named his Gothic creation Apocalypsis Cum Figuris. Totality in the religion of the Exodus and the Kingdom is solely of a totally transforming and exploding kind. then it lies in the pathos of path and process. The real symbol itself is in fact only one because. in the sense of apocalyptic explosion. let alone resignation. is utopian. And therefore every artistic. rebus sic imperfectis et fluentibus. but to the unum necessarium within it. aesthetic imagination would of course have sufficient perception in the world. but precisely because of this reference and because of the fact that it is only a reference and not an arrival. even though certainly as an ultimately revocable fragment. allegories and symbols in which it is so rich. to which our conscience refers. the ciphers. for such internal iconoclasm in greatly completed art and precisely in this. And if we look for the reason. The 'Behold. and especially every religious pre-appearance is only concrete on the basis and to the extent that the fragmentary in . just as it is in a mess.Page 221 in Faust. Without such potency for the fragment. are all themselves still fragments. the course of the world is still undecided. through which process streams unclosed and advances dialectically to further fragmentary forms. Man is still not solid. but it would ultimately have no correlate. wherever unfinishability lends greatness in finishing. and. not only our knowledge. As unfinished work or objective fragment precisely also in the most productive sense. the symbol also contains fragment. it is precisely not yet inherently manifest. is also in a state of unfinishedness and in experimental process out of that mess. in short. not only in that of creatural limitation. in the eschatological conscience that came into the world through the Bible. The fragmentary holds good for the symbol too. For the world itself. The shapes which this process throws up. I make all things new'. to the subjectmatter of the world. and not only from that of art. the fragment lies in the subject-matter itself. real fragments. instead of being disguised merely to the observer and inherently clear. Concrete utopia as object-determination presupposes concrete fragment as object-determination and involves it. then appears as unfinished work. confronted with this totality. although the symbol does not refer to process. This therefore constitutes the meaning of the fragment. and so also is the depth in all aesthetic information: this utopian factor is the paradox in aesthetic immanence. it still belongs. seen from the perspective of art. the most fundamentally immanent paradox in this immanence itself. more than any other human apperception. unclosed. which in ideological terms most definitely continues to operate. but also the whole of what has previously become.

empiricist. both are wrong. Both remain external. Whereas imagination. Everything Real Has a Horizon To stick to things. remains obstinate. Art becomes knowledge with the help of imagination of this kind. The flat empiricist and the effusive enthusiast are constantly surprised by the flow of the real. it pursues the 'significant aspect' of appearances and executes it. sailing over has it in its own unruly inner dimension as well as in the other. images. which never advances from the establishment of what is factual to the exploration of what is essentially happening. to sail over them.Page 222 the world ultimately presents the layer and the material for it to constitute itself as preappearance. the relation of appearances to the whole of their epoch and to the utopian Totum located in process now emerges. namely through telling individual images and overall pictures of a characteristically typical kind. knows how to visualize not only sensory abundance. which neither of them grasp. can most definitely stop being bottomless. and being immediate. much dubious escape to a downright intentionally untrue dream-appearance. superficial. insights.e. albeit with much appearance. i. tendencies which occur simultaneously in man and in the object assigned to him. which keeps a firm hold on individual moments of process and anchors them as facts. as a fetishist of so-called facts. in an attitude which need not fundamentally remain unmediable with real motion. whereas the fantast is possibly teachable. and he stands and falls by it. In the world only reification. And above all: sticking to these things remains flat even when it is considered. It Is a Question of Realism. but also the mediation-relations in and behind the immediacy of real experience. that is. but the former. In creation. abstract. sailing over belongs to a higher human type than taking things as they are. But the concrete correction of sailing over opens up in art. as soon as it appears concretely. of course. Sticking keeps to it anyway. Whereas sailing over is itself at least in motion. cannot get away from the surface. Instead of the isolated fact and the superfcial context of abstract immediacy which is likewise isolated from the whole. Science. Precisely this concrete dimension does not rise from the perspective of grovelling empiricism and the naturalism that corresponds to it in aesthetic terms. merely evaporated dimension of immediacy to which it escapes. with the help of imagination of . Nevertheless. when it is considered. whereas enthusiasm. sailing over has art on its side. and not only in art. suits the empiricist.

extending vertically as it were. Or even in such a way that it can be different than it was before. the respective characteristically typical figure of the Totum. which never remain abstract. real possibility surrounds the open dialectical tendencies and latencies to the very last. which considers its uniform. in the world-light. the world without future-laden properties does not deserve a glance. reality only appears as become. Everything living. hence still tendential and latent. in the self-dark. An inner horizon. are consequently identical in the Ultimum. By these the unconcluded motion of unconcluded matter – and motion is. and can be a correlate of objective imagination. in fact even formalistic. stencil to be reality. this dimension in which even the epochally grasped whole of all epochal moments is itself again a moment. has an atmosphere around it. in a world which would not be in the least changeable without the enormous future: real possibility in that world. as dead. 'uncompleted entelechy' – is arch-realistically pervaded. This alone is realism. and the regions behind both horizons are filled with the same utopia. and it is the dead. in that profound phrase of Aristotle. And the actual Toturn. an art. has a horizon. never allow the phenomenon to fade. let alone be lost. the real appears as what it is in concreto: as the path-network of dialectical processes which occur in an unfinished world. Concrete utopia stands on the horizon of every reality. shows itself precisely in broadly mediated great works only on the horizon. Where the prospective horizon is omitted. namely naturalists and empiricists. And the 'significant aspect' is in art and science the particular aspect of the general. a science any more than that of the bourgeois conformist.Page 223 this kind. says Goethe. Reality without real possibility is not complete. process. not in an already thoroughly formed reality. grasps the 'significant aspect' of appearances through concepts. the respective instance for the dialectically open context. 18— The Layers of the Category Possibility How often something presents itself in such a way that it can be. because it is life. Where the prospective horizon is continuously included in the reckoning. it is of course inaccessible to that schematism which knows everything in advance. which is . who are burying their dead here. everything real in general. Together with that Toturn which does not represent the isolated whole of a respective section of process. but the whole of the subjectmatter pending in process overall. an external one of great breadth.

a formal Can-Be. changed in moderation.' . can be rearranged. as in the concept 'round square' or in the judgement: 'He is boarding a ship that had sailed. In fact even * Cf. There is still something open here. there is nothing possible in them at all. much too much can just be said without thinking. not only what is fluid or that which keeps things fluid.' A meaning like this which directly contradicts itself in its characteristics or its predicate is absurd. Where nothing more can be done or is possible. everything must change. Otherwise above all the different layers of the Can-Be do not become visible. 1812: 'The gentle breezes have woken. But this itself would not be possible without Possible within and in front of it. everything must change'. of course.Page 224 why something can be done about it. because everything is conceptually possible which can in any way be conceived as standing in relation. that precisely his open character is definitely nothing arbitrary. even in the mere play of words and especially in the seriousness that soon enters. rather in fact countersense. they are meaningless nonsense. where the listener at least shakes his head in disbelief. definitely something conceptually possible. The latter is. life stands still. The Formally Possible First. Everything can be spoken in theory. there is much that is vague in the merely Possible. Now everything. he also knows that this does not coincide with vagueness. much that is slippery too. Can-Be also has laws. Constructions are possible such as: 'something round or'. words can be senselessly strung together. Uhland's 'Frühlingsglauben'. The case is different however with statements which are not nonsensical. in contrast to merely sayable nonsense. But just as man is mainly a creature who enters into the Possible and has it in front of him. it can be meant differently than it was before. And the available substance which has so much airiness in it is at the same time one of the heaviest and demands to be treated strictly. but run counter to sense. but definitely not nonsense. connected differently.* how else would this decidedly youthful exclamation itself be possible? Certainly. There is a wide field here and it must be investigated more than ever before. 'a person and is'. Apart from the fact that they are sayable. Namely when the statement directly contradicts itself. 'Now everything. Already the fact that a Can-Be can be said and thought is by no means self-evident.

That is why the Can-Be. Just as there can be fullness in thinking due to imprecision. even though they are disparate. i. 'fact-suited'. and belong to what is conceptually possible. fact-suited one. but a respectively nameable one and one that can be indicated by degrees in proportion to the known conditions. The Factually-Objectively Possible* Much too much can therefore still not only be said. a cognitive. the condition existing according to cognition for an affirmative. . then as one of grounded opinion. namely in fact a disparate one. And this alongside the good kind. in short as factually-objectively grounded possibility. But since such namings and degrees initially only express degrees of knowing and cognition. in such a way however that the grounding. Uniform with these are the concepts for possible attitudes to 'das Objekt'. a formally describable relation. Such exaggeration shows at the same time how boundless the merely conceptually possible can be. 'sachhaft' and 'sachgemäß' for possible attitudes to 'die Sache'. the Possible is still not a strictly factbased one here. of grounded assumption of its capability-of-being. bad fullness in other words. looks much more definite. the object – 'objektiv'. the real matter. 'objectbased' and 'object-suited'. factually valid statement itself does not exist in a complete form.e. not degrees of the inner conditional maturity of the fact-based Object* itself. that is. which can be encountered not only in thinking but also in cognition. 'objekthaft'. Such as the statements 'irascible triangle' or 'well-read chain-bridge' or 'the horse that is thunder' and other incompatible things besides. Everything is conceptually possible where * In this section Bloch uses the concepts – 'sachlich'. but also thought.Page 225 relations whose parts are related not only absurdly. This Possible is not boundless. ** Bloch once again distinguishes between the more philosophical 'Objekt' and the more concrete 'Gegenstand' here. 'factbased'. For even the relation in the statement that there is no relation whatsoever between things had an unfruitful place in what is conceptually possible. but totally disparately to one another still represent. It is the grounding which stands here for the condition or the real ground. which we have translated consistently as 'objective'. which reveals itself above all in the formal Can-Be of the Self-Contradicting. i. We have indicated 'Gegenstand' and its compounds with a capital. there is also bad openness in what is conceptually possible. We have translated these as 'factual'. the real state of affairs. Thus it presents itself as statement of caution. but a factual one.e. 'objektgemäß'.

and hence more or less insufficiently existing conditional ground. thus with such knowledge in one's pocket it is cowardly or stupid still to play Fabius Cunctator. . In other words: every Possible beyond the merely conceptually possible signifies an openness in consequence of a not yet completely sufficient. Thus it is unfair. We must keep to the thus given definition from here on. which in its form conceals the initial propositions: 'it could rain today'. avoiding direct confrontation in battle. and it is possible only as such. whereas the problematic judgement.Page 226 anything at all can be conceived as standing in relation. the Real cannot yet be indicated from the thus Possible. i. This conditionality is partial and must be so because a total mustering of the conditions would make the occurrence of an event no longer merely supposable. in cases of even less certainty. 'Leukippos did perhaps exist'.e. in a problematic judgement. solely factually-partial knowledge-cognition of conditionality. Previously. The problematic judgement is therefore the authentically developed judgement of possibility as a factually modal determination: P is assigned to S in the mode of the Can-Be. this false factual Can-Be has hardly been separated from the genuine kind. The hypothetical judgement is distinguished in this relation from the problematic one in that it presupposes not yet confirmed initial propositions. A special case that is relevant here is further represented by the inauthentic. and * There is no necessary development from potential to being. Because only a few but not all conditional grounds exist. as it contains the criterion for the Possible in all its variations. in fact false judgements of possibility.C.). of which more later) is stated in a hypothetical judgement or. so the old scholastic principle holds: a posse ad esse non valet consequentia. ** Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) (d. but. the Roman Consul and Dictator who saved Rome from being conquered by Hannibal by evasive tactics. but over and above this it is true of all further kinds of the Can-Be: the Possible is partially conditioned material. more or less probable. Hence the term 'Fabian Policy' which Bloch is referring to here. in more precise terms.** The factually-objective Possible (and incidentally also the fact-based object-based Possible and the really Possible. still to bet on the occurrence of an event. factually possible. they are those of knowledge which is insufficient not in terms of research but only of reception. 'cosmic rays possibly emanate from a star-cluster in the Milky Way' – presupposes other unknown initial propositions apart from the not yet confirmed ones. in full knowledge of the fully available conditions. It is likewise partial conditionality.* But now back to the factually Possible itself which is in question here. 203 B. but unconditionally certain.

' In reality.e.e. Thus the judgement is left in the balance here. The only thing that is not so unquestionable is the state of knowledge of the consciousness which receives the proposition. is the cited judgement modally formed. A false modal judgement is this for example: 'Water can be broken down by electric current. Such a principle is at work for example in hypothetical simplification or in a hypothetical analogy to what is already better known. modally disguised. i. however. external to logic. only research-statements in which a non liquet of the knowledge-conditions for the categorical or assertive form exists are genuine factually-modal statements. but it also provides the peculiar estimate. in that it was flogged to death by the late-bourgeois relativists. so let us use the older and more solid expression: heuristic principle. it is a categorical or assertive judgement through and through. The supposition anticipates in a problematic judgement the principal condition or a group context of conditions on the basis of which the Object of examination can be clarified in its real ground and accordingly understood in the course it takes. what has been called the temporary.Page 227 yet the difference. it begins to exist in it before it goes on to become depictive. Factual possibility is thus already in the assumption or the suppositions which lead to the formulation of questions concerning scientific or socio-historical given facts. i. with which the exploration of confused or complicated phenomena of a socio-historical . possibly disturbing conditions exist). not a hypothetical or problematic one. And only in this judgement of a judgement does the factually Possible exist. Which is why therefore only non-pedagogical statements. water is always broken down by electric current (as long as no new. which is so important for the status of the possible. consequently the above-mentioned content of the judgement is unquestionable. leaps to the eye. This methodological supposition guides the formulation of questions and the variations of the conditions of scientific experiments. and most decidedly in this of course. Factually. all conditions for it exist. Factuallyobjective possibility thus always designates the degree of scientific-objective groundedness according to the incomplete scientific knownness of the factually existing conditions. Likewise the knowledge of this process is completely grounded. and only in this psychological-pedagogical respect. The expression working hypothesis of course contains a dubious element within it. Or rather the affirmation and denial of the judgement remains in the balance. is only more or less distanced from the question. the bare judging or the qualitative judgement of a judgement. the working hypothetical image of a particular matter.

the thus asserted impossibility of the capability-of-being-other. as – with incurable randomness – much airily idealistic. However. that is in fact: a conclusion of necessity. a knowledge of all conditional elements as the same in all regions of space. The axioms (mathematical. in a traditionally extreme claim. to derive the cognition of these particulars with necessity. Instead. Prior Analytics. in copied form even the earlier ones of Natural Right) are of course not posited arbitrarily. and hence mere game-rules. in order for its necessity to be clear. or even remaining the same in time. an induction can never express its result other than in a judgement of factually-objective possibility once again. logical. of course. the axioms definitely contain a depiction of factual relations external to thought. consequently not with partial but total conditionality. and even there only when limited to what can be derived from axioms or to that which is dominantly contained in theorems. For even the most complete induction cannot be a total one. the supposedly always settled large form of an exhaustively sufficient.Page 228 kind may first be approached. of a not totally Certain. supposedly fact-free 'pure research' into mathematics asserts. is only to be found in areas of the highest abstraction which have been made artificially pure. they are limited to particular areas of their purely constructive dominance. let alone of the capability-ofbeing-opposite. The middle term of being a man produces here the completely sufficient 'essential ground' of being mortal. Chapter 1): – factual capability-of-being thus gives way to factual inevitability-of-being. essentialgeneral conditional ground? It is true that it not only reveals the particulars of inductive empirical knowledge as moments of a total context. and these limits are above all fluid (we only need to think of the mere 'limited case' of our Euclidean space and its axioms or of the changes in the proposition of contradiction in . And what of deduction. which – in graduated stages up to 'astronomic certainty' – is called comparative probability.e. However. although in the most abstractly abbreviated and general form. however comprehensive it is. i. The formulation of the question of this factually Possible in methodological use is confirmed or not confirmed by inductions which are made in the direction of the supposed conditional context. Thus in inductive confirmation of a methodological supposition there is also still that trace of a factually Possible. This quite clearly in the first mode of the first conclusion figure: Caius is necessarily mortal by virtue of his being a man. needs no further definition beyond the premises' (Aristotle. Though. thus there arises what Aristotle calls a perfect conclusion. from this generality of the particular. 'Perfect I call a conclusion which. it also seeks.

in the strict sense. all these axioms still far from coincide with the 'essential ground' designated by Aristotle (the active Totum of the matter. however. even in deduction. judgement. It therefore does not designate a more or less sufficient knowledge of conditions. but on the insufficiently emerged conditional grounds.Page 229 elementary. they are kept much too abstract for that. as the Objects of cognition. But then. to the life of research. The fact-based Possible does not live on the insufficiently known. factually Necessary only proves to be factually Possible. Consequently. Differently constituted. then of standing in Objective relationships. to the factual relation belong first the kinds of having of Objective qualities and relationships. This kind of Can-Be thus reflects factual caution in judgements. Factual relation. in which Aristotle wanted to perceive both the perfect logical cognitive ground and also the inevitable real ground of being mortal. Even in the Factually-objective the area of the possible is. which the Factual has to depict after its fashion. as it were Euclidean logic. namely in so far as it does not concern our knowledge of something. In general: the conditional initial propositions of concluding cognition. without falling into a closed schematism estranged from the world. lend logical necessity even to such an exceptionless phenomenon as mortality. conclusion. the 'entelechy'). and then in dialectically developed logic). that is so because it is not or not rigidly settled. of a factual reservation. and cannot therefore. in the sense of strict deductive proof. as something that could become this or that. And the 'essential ground' itself. Since even being human (like every other 'essential ground') stands in process. even though this is possibly of the smallest degree. that is the 'relating of matters-of-fact' as Objects of cognition. sui generis. produces no necessity settled once and for all. but this something itself. . The Fact-Based Object-Suited Possible So much for what remains open. cannot be more complete than the unenclosed Fact-based itself. opposed to bed of ease and fixed derivation. mostly in the manner of a question still resonating along with it. but it designates what is more or less sufficiently conditioning in Objects themselves and in their factual relations. in concept. very large. Modal factual relations. to this factually Possible is the fact-based Possible which now emerges. it can belong here. for example the cited fact of Caius being a man as the middle term in the first mode of the first conclusion figure: even the middle term of this being a man. therefore never coincide with modal statements.

but it was here purely related a priori to the supposedly existence-free quality of an essence which was supposed to ghost around independently of the existence or non-existence of Objects. conceptual characteristics.Page 230 as the mere procedures of cognition. because it is a result of cognition. fact-basedness concerns the Object of cognition. in the sense of a purely a priori 'description' of its acts. But in fact: a still openly Possible arises even when there is otherwise sufficiently enclosed knowledge of the existing conditions. objectivity. and it is such a result in that and in so far as it is related. suppositions. a purely a priori 'semantic analysis' of its categories – with 'bracketed existence'. but of Objective-constitutive properties. and incurably reified in its abstractness. Whereas factuality only concerns cognition and therefore the concern of its objectivity is an epistemological one. And the precedence noted here of an Object theory over object theory thus contains no idealism. is at work only in the face of the object-based Real and not in it. . And logic was well and truly reified here. The concept of Object theory first appeared clearly in Meinong. being characteristically 'concise' and not spread out. the real concern of this object-suitedness is consequently a categorically Object-theoretical one. of the kind represented by assumptions. as the statement not merely of linguistic features. consequently. even if it was of course: a mathematics artificially removed from all its depictive real reference. This also makes a distinction necessary in the discipline in which the fact-based Possible is to be treated. and does not coincide with it. the anticipating estimate. precisely to the real object. and inductively probable or even deductive conclusions. the Possible appears here as Objectivestructural thus-relating itself. being object-suited. The form of the result of cognition is the real definition. and especially in the later phenomenology of Husserl. Whereas Object theory that applies to reality is one in which the a priori represents even less of a temptation than in epistemology. of object-suitedness. because the researching-materialistic depiction itself belongs to the Object theory. Here we enter upon the depictive layer of fact-basedness. and precisely this real definition. Further: the depiction of the structural factual relations no longer belongs to the methodological cognition-process. as distinct from mere factuality. Mathematics was regarded as a model of this 'existence-free knowledge' here. but also from the actual objects and their real relations. they function precisely as the most faithful possible forms of realistic depiction. cognition itself. which is not. For although the Objects and their factual relations must still be distinguished not only from the factual aspect of the process of cognition. according to the neo-Kantians.

social context and legislative context of the matter. then the fruit is still merely possible. should almost be fulfilled. The fact-based Possible is the fact-based partially Conditional according to the structural genus. of structural object-suitedness. but if the great moment for solution is met by a fainthearted generation. The fact-based object-suited Possible. from Goethe and Schiller's 'Xenien'. levellings of today. epigrams written mainly in 1796. hotel sauces.* * 'The great moment is met by a faint-hearted generation'. this means in fact: it makes the constitutive-real structure in the object clear. The theory of Objects is thus the site of categories as the most general and then characteristically typical modes and forms of existence. within the thus constituted layer of fact-basedness. They interweave in interaction. the internal or the external. an even more reductive effect than the missing external condition is produced by the weakness of internal conditions when there is a simultaneous abundance of external ones. without all the far-fetched foreign nationalistic moustaches or even cosmopolitan great Chicagos. internal and external ones. inhibited. (If it were not this specific site and on it. Of course. Thus a blossom can of course let the fruit ripen within it with complete internal conditionality.Page 231 represents the object considered from its structural Object-side. . Conversely. an openness of a more or less structurally determined kind. Two kinds of conditions appear here in all cases. precisely the concise Object-side of the real. type. grasped and defined in terms of Object theory. in such a way however that the individual character of both is thoroughly preserved.) So now. as the disposition in all the richly interwoven. Partially Conditional appears here therefore as an openness strictly founded in the Object and thus only communicated to hypothetical or problematic cognition. But the fact-based merely Possible remains even if one of the two conditions. the possibility in this layer must also be distinguished separately and as separately determined. humanity always sets itself tasks it can solve. To give an example: the socialist real definition of the nation depicts. for instance. therefore definitely constitutes a separate differentiation in the category of possibility and is not. Important for this is the abovementioned distinction between Object and real object: the purely structural possibility of the propensity to something is not yet the same as this real propensity itself. but if the complete external condition of good weather is missing. and again victorious metamorphoses of reality. a superfluous doubling of the object-based real Possible. the theory of categories would coincide with the whole philosophy of the real and the latter likewise with the theory of categories. even richly disturbed.

with great foresight. that which does not cancel but rather redetermines in all determinations. After 1848. As soon as these two meanings have been concretely distinguished. environment. as potentiality. without potentiality of the capability-of-becoming-other. And the latter always with such interweaving that. with the removal of that equivocation which has persisted for ages precisely in the Object-category of possibility.Page 232 then more than ever this solution is merely possible.e. The political form of active possibility is the ability of the subjective factor. however much the circle of ideology and patronage was that of a small state.e. i. but rather can be directed and re-determined in all determinations. On the contrary: if possibility as capacity is the capabilityof-doing-other. active capability and external. i. i. without the usable ripeness of these external conditions. without interaction with the objective factors of possibility. neither the capability-of-doing-other of potency would * Bloch is referring to 'Kleinstaaterei'. The lack of revolutionary consequences that followed from the 9th November 1918 in Germany provides an example of this. then possibility as objective potentiality is the capability-of-becoming-other. the unripened fruit of great German painting after Dürer. By 1871 Bismarck had done so. otherwise over-compensation by the other kind of condition is itself impossible. i. that which cannot be cancelled. Marx wrote: 'Unless radical elements unite Germany by revolutionary means.* The partial conditionality must not therefore sink below a certain fraction in either of the two kinds of condition. or. and the external partial condition as possibility in the passive sense. Bismarck will unite it by reactionary Junker ones'. in another sphere. as capacity. as becomes especially clear when the structure of the internal as well as the external condition is more firmly grasped. But not as if the external conditions themselves here fell out of possibility in its most significant sense. the internal partial condition emerges as active possibility. according to the ripeness of the external conditions. capability-of-being. therefore. . society. and the latter least of all can act without interweaving. Both are in fact interwoven: there is no working capability of capacity and its active 'propensity' without potentiality in a time. even though the external conditions still existed for it. passive capability-of-being-done. the political division of Germany into small states which pertained until the nineteenth century. namely out of openness here in a fatalizing way. But the interweaving remains of course. Possibility here in fact means both internal. only remains weakly possible.e.e.other falls into capability-of-doing-other and capability-ofbecoming-other. This was the outcome of the Thirty Years War and the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. with the potentialities of that which can really happen or can at least be arranged. potency.

There is the merely singular and immediate aspect of an accident or a stroke of luck. positive revocability. would the capability-ofbecoming-other of the world have a sense which could be mediated with human beings. but again in a different way. which lies no less powerfully in the changeability of a situation. Consequently even the Object category of possibility predominantly reveals itself as that which it is not by virtue of itself. a possibility that was and still is concealed in the final stage of capitalism. Consequently contingency is seen by Hegel solely in the immediately concrete and not in the mediatedly concrete. but rather by virtue of the supporting intervention of human beings in what is still changeable: as a possible concept of salvation. Everything which is thus capable of change (fortuna vertit) admittedly always contains an element of chance. he did this by limiting external contingency to merely external necessity. Hegel distinguished with great vividness external contingency from dialectically mediated change of process. or in fact only on the edge of process: 'The immediately concrete is namely a host of properties which are outside each other and more or less indifferent towards each other. But there is also a capability-of-being-other which does not occur on the surface in this way. of course. as negative stock of fact-based possibility. without the capability-of-doing-other of potency.* precisely on account of the capability-ofdoing-other. This precarious material. but beneficial element.Page 233 have space. §250). and here therefore uncertainty of a situation. The disaster character of the Possible thus militates against the above-mentioned salvation character. here however not in its uncertainty. but also on account of the capability-of-becoming-other within it. as the so highly positive other stock of fact-based possibility. commensurate with the precarious material which can lie precisely in the changeability. This non-precarious. that no less provides room for a change for the worse. in fact by declaring that they are identical. Along these lines. as a possible concept of disaster. but in its redeemability. It also revealed itself partly. . hope character of the Possible. and towards which for this very reason simple subjectivity that exists for itself' (the incipient centring aspect of process) 'is equally indifferent and leaves them to external and therefore contingent determination' (Enzyklopädie. This is contingency in the not at all * Bloch is punning on the German 'Heil' – salvation. extends from the accident that can happen to us to the eruption of fascist hell. extends from the stroke of luck which can happen to people to the realm of freedom which develops as socialist possibility in history and finally begins to become real. and 'Unheil' – disaster. nor.

but coincide. as its existence does its essence. so that it would in fact be structurally necessary. Though as yet no Objectivity has got to the bottom of the matter in this necessity to such an extent that the Objectivity itself coincides with its total foundation. but not in the sense of the precarious. yet precisely one of unthwarted change of direction.Page 234 trustworthy sense. more or less concretely anticipatable value-ideals of the perfect coincidence of reason and manifestation. means creative wealth of variability which is open to formations and creations. This coincidence was considered by Spinoza in his definition of Godnature as the causa sui and – with much greater hypostasis of logical identity – by Anselm of Canterbury in the self-foundation. According to which the most perfect being necessarily exists because it exists out of its own intrinsicality. Only this structurally enclosed necessity would be the fully Conditional per se. This kind of contingency.other in process does not yet possess this opposite and still has neither the calm nor even a legal title to possess it. with the character of permanent. as the possibility structure of lasting process. there is at work in this capability-of-being-other of possibility once again precisely that which we may call contingency at its highest level.being-other of the process is now the strict opposite of every kind of chance and contingency. has nothing at all in common with poorly-mediated randomness. This is a variability which is not external but mediated in a law-governed and factbased way. but in fact partial mediation. the ordered fullness of development of the open world. in the finally trustworthy sense of the matter. unless in mere. Though once again not as if that which is circulating in the capability-of. that which externally disperses and disturbs normal and typical development more in previous history than in nature. The enormous experiment of mediated capability-of-being. It is not necessary to affirm that such object-based notions do not exist beyond their definition. characteristic aspect. above all of unexhausted new formation. The framework . and consequently its essence also necessarily includes its existence. the 'aseitas' (a se esse) of God. precisely the blooming. it fulfils rather the mundus situalis of the process which is giving birth to the New. but not in need of it either. But dialectically-mediated unenclosedness. Contingency of this kind is of course equally still situationbased. but it forms. in which the internal and above all the external conditions are not merely completely ripe. as a contingency which is dialectically mediated with the material of law-based necessity. Here even a so-called contingency no longer coincides with merely external necessity. The strict opposite of every contingency would only be enclosed necessity no longer capable of variability. Instead.

above all. in the worldstock itself. since everything that is becoming is capable (dynaton) of being and not being. From this point Real Possible becomes conceivable as substratum: 'Everything that becomes in nature and art has matter. which can still become of him if his progress is not blocked. The Objectively-Real Possible The Can-Be would mean almost nothing if it remained without consequences. Aristotle was the first to recognize possibility in real terms. And it is instructive that that which reveals itself actively in this potentiality: the self-realizing form (entelechy) which is still dualistically separated from matter in Aristotle. Since the ideal point where essential being and appearance coincide is always simultaneously the absolute target point for the structural line of the humanely positively Possible. but this (what can and cannot be) is in every case matter' (Aristotle. since rebus sic imperfectis even what is designated thus is still by no means real. There is thus real-partial conditionality of the object which represents in the latter itself its real possibility. in that it does not occur merely as formally permissible or even as objectively supposable or even as open in an object-suited way. however. but at best in process. The Possible only has consequences. For just as Heraclitus was the first to see the contradiction in things themselves. even this type of structural necessity exists once again only in – structural possibility. with the horizon of the causa sui or achieved identity of existence and essence. And in the unexhausted whole of the world itself: matter is the real possibility for all the forms which are latent in its womb and are delivered of it through process. but which has not yet ripened the whole of its internal and external conditions. which Aristotle himself defined as matter. and therefore that which has traditionally been designated as the 'highest good'. the dynamei on (Being-In-Possibility) is located. Thus man is the real possibility of everything which has become of him in his history and. but in that it is a future-laden definiteness in the real itself. Though the latter now proves. recedes and itself becomes matter to the same extent that the . 7). However. Metaphysics VII.Page 235 of such a value-ideal is – even outside and opposed to all theology – the 'one thing which is necessary'. In this most comprehensive concept of real possibility. condition-determinants. to be the most decisive category of salvation. He is a possibility therefore which is not merely exhausted like an acorn in the enclosed realization of the oak-tree.

eternal. from real possibility. always remains fertile. maternal matter'. real possibility becomes matter for the whole ground of the world. . life and spirit. this matter contains the potentiality and simultaneously that potency immanent in it which makes an extra-worldly mover superfluous. These are therefore the first consequences when real possibility is taken as being so real that it simultaneously embraces the womb and generation. . which . at the same time the source. That is also why some of them. and the divine creative will is always a moment of matter. instead of the dynamei on. God and matter become identical. in fact. for example in Avicenna. mechanistic materialism. Development in Averroës is 'eductio formarum ex materia'. And this semi-materialism of real possibility increases in line with the Renaissance in Giordano Bruno. To keep the omnipotence of the highest form (of the divine actus purus) absolute. Thus creation appears – with the omission of all dualism – solely as self-movement. And the womb also continues to remain fertile. Averroës. the so-called Motakhalim (that is. not only the vessel of forms: 'Hence matter. with the 'dator formarum' in the universe itself. in pantheistic-materialistic philosophers of the Middle Ages. In his work the world becomes totally the realization of the possibilities which are contained in uniform matter and as this. Conversely. teachers of the word. must have the significant prerogative of being recognized as the sole substantial principle and as that which is and remains . Matter as fullness first rightly had to shrink here. did not evoke it from matter. Natura naturans and natura naturata now coincide above and below 'in permanent. The substratum real possibility thus becomes. generating. This definition of the dynamei on is of course one which perished in merely mechanical. united in matter. they had to spread the wholly null void into a Primum before the world: God created the world out of the void. self-fertilization of the matter of God. finally concluded that the forms were only accidents and determinations in matter and that therefore the prerogative of being considered as actus and entelechy must also belong to matter' (Bruno. . the tendencylatency of that which can become in real terms is not enclosed in the material substratum.Page 236 concept of active potency accedes to that of passive potentiality. as far as it could be discerned from Aristotle and others of a similar school of thought. The ex contrario proof of this is the struggle of strict Arab theists. because quantitative science showed no . because they had perhaps considered the relationship of forms in nature. . Amalrich of Bena and David of Dinant. in bold extrapolation from Aristotle. of revealed faith) against the equation: real possibility = matter. Principle and Unity'). 'Cause.

Subjective factor. Which is also why the words of the English naturalist John Tyndall may also apply to the mechanical = all too mechanical concept of matter. but in the ontology. However. Without matter no basis of (real) anticipation. How else could we explain the future-laden properties of matter? – there is no true realism without the true dimension of this openness. But this shrinking was no less possible because Christian scholasticism had itself removed the Aristotelian concept of matter and even the variously pre-Socratic one (to which Bruno likewise refers) from the fecund region of the natura naturans. Its new space thus emphasizes itself in the old space in the most momentous manner: real possibility is the categorical In-Front-of-Itself of material movement considered as a process. . it is because the Jacobs of theology have robbed it of its birthright. without (real) anticipation no horizon of matter is ascertainable. of the being of ThatWhich-Is-Not-Yet.'* In any case. transition from the realm of necessity into that of freedom only finds land in unenclosed process-matter. Aristotle's definition which continues to have an effect. for which all of its real possibility has already become static reality. The Real Possible begins with the seed in which what is coming * The physicist John Tyndall (1820–93) was actually Irish. matter which is only understood mechanically subsequently became a clod estranged from history. as a quantum which is of course moved mechanically but also immediately mechanized. that of the dynamei on. or remains an epitheton ornans attached to it. above all to its deadening aftereffect in the previous century: 'If matter comes into the world as a beggar. a definition which has become capable of mutation. on the Front of its occurrence. Real possibility thus does not reside in any ready-made ontology of the being of That-Which-Is up to now. anticipation and matter – chime together in the overdue groundedness of historical-dialectical materialism. it is the specific regional character of reality itself. in the sense of a beginning frozen to death from birth as it were. The dialectical element falls away from it. which must constantly be grounded anew. ripeness of conditions. even changeability: all these dialectically-materialist moments of development are without substratum in a clod-matter.Page 237 trace of it and because total mechanics was the best crowbar against otherworldliness. enters – itself mutatis mutandis – into historical-dialectical materialism. which discovers future even in the past and in the whole of nature. shift of quantity into quality. Precisely the extremes which have previously been held as far apart as possible: future and nature.

who in general represents the ultimately intended propensity-possibility of history up to now. they are therefore. but also. in their guiding images and guiding panels. Thus the worker. first existing in miniature. presents itself psychologically as wishful image forwards. as the ever further developing ultimate Totum of this propensity. simply has to grow out. hence symbols are engaged and profound. In the main. this root of becoming human. Instead it proves its openness as really developing unfolding. of an unalienated identicality of existence with essence in nature as a whole. Hence the real Possible not only keeps the latter driving onwards. not as mere spilling out or folding out. The 'seed' itself still awaits many leaps. the Possible.Page 238 is inherent. this alpha of ours in which lies the propensity towards being completely unbowed and hence towards the realm of freedom. has an essential relation to the reality which has already become.e. the ideals have as their content the more or less realized Possible of an attempted perfect humanity. They are. morally as human ideal. The real Possible in seed and inherent propensity is consequently never an encapsulated finished entity which. beautiful human type and the classless relationship in which there is room for him belong here. most definitely in the main matter. a pre-appearing light on the horizon. Finally. itself moves repeatedly transformed and more precisely qualified throughout the history of ever more concrete revolutions. in contrast to ideals. Right up to classless man. galvanizing and exemplary. and do so because they do not . but not of course as if it already existed beforehand. which is always only realized in passing. they are therefore cheerful and prelusive. In fact we can say that even man walking upright. What is prefigured in it drives on to unfold itself. they mean their Own with particularly strong pathos of 'meaning'. of perfect social conditions. and aesthetically as natural object-based symbol. which has also been reflected in almost all social utopias in a more or less abstract way. This illumination. is transformed throughout the whole of his further history and develops more and more precisely within it. The undistorted and unreified. i. cloaked. The wishful images forwards have as their content the more or less grasped Possible of a better life in general. the symbols have as their content. as propensity towards its Real. boxed into the narrowest space. with newly latent content. the 'inherent propensity' unfolds itself in the unfolding itself to ever new and more precise beginnings of its potentia-possibilitas. Potentia-possibilitas repeatedly makes the initial root and Origo of processively continuing appearance original on a new level. Thus the previously Real is both pervaded by the constant plus-ultra of essential possibility and illuminated by it at its leading edge.

above all: this content therefore stands so much in the 'meaning' or as we may say more specifically of symbols: in the 'cipher'. which is always ambiguous. The respective carriers. existences of a symbolic meaning are of course far more numerous. precisely towards a uniformity of meaning. The socially conditioned respective direction-line towards the central aspect has varied in the history of the symbol – which led for long stretches through religion – but what has not varied is the respectively and repeatedly intended basic relation of the symbol-simile to an 'Unum Verum Bonum' of essence. and it is therefore also in objectively-real terms a cipher. also in its content itself. whose variously situated content of cloakedness. And furthermore. genuine symbols ultimately converge in their meaning. Since the genuine symbolic content itself is still at a distance from its full appearance. but in fact have as their content a Possible which is only realized in themselves in passing. as we have seen. namely in the central aspect of their meaning. differentiates the individual symbols from the perspective of the objectively real material. the truth is this: the symbolic communicates itself to its expression solely from the perspective of its object-content. because this very essence only lies in the Possible which is realized in passing and cannot lie anywhere else. content of factual identity they respectively depict as this cloaked and . indeed almost more random than those of the ideal. because it is more central and consequently for the time being less manifestable than the content of ideals. And they are centrally related to it. in all genuine symbols. radiant in transcendentally existing statics. while the content was considered to be completely settled – without any distance from itself. the simile of a thing with any number of other things without the region of sheer diversity ever being left. and therefore of a concept which had previously been understood almost exclusively in subjective-idealistic terms. in contrast to the diverse reference of allegories. In subjective-idealistic terms. However. the symbolic – and this is now of crucial importance – is still cloaked not only in its expression but. however.Page 239 have as their content a more or less realized Possible like ideals. which is also why. On the contrary. is directed. It is precisely in the light of the real Possible that there thus occurs the overdue notation of a real core in the concept of the symbolic. because in fact all symbol-content was portrayed only as content that was cloaked for limited human reason. however. The reference of the symbol. apart from one or two objective-idealistic versions in Hegel's Aesthetics. which on the other hand constitutes the difference of the symbol from the allegory. yet they are in return always related far more extensively in the whole of nature to what is essential.

then abstractinfamous optimism arises. the evening breezes in Mozart's 'Figaro'. Such a perspective of absolute truth. And it is solely this depictiveness of a real cipher. That is the abolition of alienation in man and nature. full of 'signatura rerum' in the sense of things which contain a central meaning. then the opposite of infamy arises: militant optimism. So much here for the real Possible and the essence within it in the propensity-state of that perfectible element which receives man – with a premonition of his future freedom. . of a sense which might one day possibly completely receive man and his concerns. of a real symbol. never as a result. To this category belong symbols like the tower. with that distance which so variously presents only wishful images. i. with all the components of danger. between man and nature or the harmony of the unreified object with the manifested subject. According to the most concrete of all Marx's anticipations. Literature has understood the symbolic region of the real Possible more clearly than previous philosophy owing to its figurative nature. the high mountains at the end of 'Faust'. and hence possibility of the ripening of this propensity goes through all examples which test humane sense in which the world is so rich. not yet the real-essential necessity which is only inherent in that possibility itself. as well as the snowstorm in Tolstoy's 'Death of Ivan Illyich'. If the distance is played down. that means here. The partial conditionality.Page 240 factually identical aspect. the starry sky above the fatally wounded Andrei Bolkonsky in Tolstoy's 'War and Peace'. the essence of the perfectible is 'the naturalization of man. on penalty of relativism without outflow – opens up once again only real-essential possibility. In this meaning-fulness they point in quite real terms towards their tendency and latency of 'sense'. of the unreified subject with the manifested object. and all symbols of sublimity in general. But in fact with greater or lesser distance from the example. of complete real being in the Real itself – and its breadth and depth is unavoidable. the spring.e. with greater or lesser Not-Yet of the full appearance. And which shows the essential Totum of the world in the heavy process of its being raised. which finally lends symbols their genuineness. but philosophy incorporates this region with strictness of concept and seriousness of connections. the humanization of nature'. The genuineness of a convergence of meaning which combines with the reality of this meaning in particular objects in the outside world containing an especially high degree of latency. but if the distance is understood as the mediated perfectibility which it is. But both realistic literature and philosophy reveal that the world itself is full of real ciphers and real symbols. ideals and symbols rather than successful achievement.

inescapable conditions for the existence of essence. that is. nothing real about it. Kries.e. The problematic judgement: 'It is possible that Louise is at home' thus covers the assertive judgement: 'It is clear that in the foreseeable future . it is predominantly designated only as cognitive definition. they have written as good as nothing. logicians like Joh. Even so. profound symbol. But both kinds of Not-Yet would not exist if it could not move in the Possible and turn towards its openness. active hope-image of a better world. In every case here. i. lesser and greater epigones of the usual like Verweyen.Page 241 For this would be a necessity with totally sufficient. themselves anticipatory. in fact a possibility with conditions which in reality hardly even partially exist. who even calls himself an ontologist. Certainly. Lasting process. so much is not yet conscious in man. Memory: Logical-Static Struggle against the Possible Easy to see how still many a new leaf can be turned over. for the essence of existence. whom we will consider shortly. But since in these latter epigones the Possible is only recognized as conceptual relationship. has been a logical problem. although so well-known and used every hour. Even when the theory of categories deals with the Possible.e. This category has so far remained perhaps the most uncertain of the concepts which have been worked out philosophically in the course of the centuries and honed to sharpness. mediated with tendency. and ultimately N. of real possibility – the epitome of the Front-dimensions. of the objectively existing possibility. so much in the world has not yet become. The category of the Possible. it is the one which has been least followed through in ontological terms. Thus the problematically wavering judgement of an objectively decisive factual relation is repeatedly equated with the assertively decisive judgement of an objectively wavering factual relation. i. but no less in original philosophers too. On this side of this extreme noncontingency or situationlessness. the conspicuous emptying of the Possible occurs primarily through the failure to distinguish between still partial knowledge of the conditions and partially existing conditions themselves. real-essential necessity is also only – possibility. galvanizing ideal. these remain the real perspectives. the Can-Be has still been astonishingly little thought through and come to grips with. v. have written diverse separate books on possibility. Of course. not as object-definition. A Not-Yet exists everywhere. hence it conventionally occurs almost exclusively in formal logic. Hartmann.

however. The Possible is then demonstrated away.' The difference between the first and the second judgement clearly indicates. 'in so far as it contains the partial ground of that which will be' (Logik I. The block here is the same as the one which has also left the sister category of the Possible: the New as yet not thought through. p. conditional clause. 1904. avoided or fallen prey to it. of a universe in which all Possible is real (Nicholas of Cusa calls God 'possest'. The positing of a finished One and All. is the aversion of static thinking to the world-concept of active openness and blue. then objective possibility must of course evaporate subjectively and idealistically in the external world. conditioned according to class. as if no man had ever exposed himself to the modal element of danger. even Sigwart. as if not all organisms. The Possible is then made into mere 'anthropomorphous introjection'. what is coming. Nevertheless.Page 242 it will be possible for a rocket to travel to the moon. the not only logically. were geared to an objectively real world of possibility. The block is the coastal trip. to the circumspection of homo sapiens. even psychologically immanent character. although he correctly defines mere possibility as something befitting the individual. around the given. perfected 'Could-Be'. impossibilium nulla obligatio. Excess of problematic judgement-modality. that is not supposed . If the category of possibility is exclusively reduced to the mere knowledge-level of a supposition. sees in the Possible only an expression of subjective indecision or even the resignation of our limited knowledge. as if the concept objective possibility did not fulfil the civil as much as the criminal law (liability. and even Giordano Bruno leaves no unrealized Possible in the totality of the world): this static Positing has above all obstructed the space of the Open Possible. in spite of the enormous conception of a real dynamei on in the former and of the real dialectic in the latter. as if he had never really escaped. This aversion is even to be found in such processive philosophers as Aristotle and Hegel. and it is also to be found in great thinkers. 274). moreover in those who are at no point subjective and idealistic. negligence and so on). from the sea-anemone to the scenting deer. underestimation of Objectand object-modality consequently provide the first motive for the idealistic denial of real possibility. It always appears to be what is fresh. it is the Benjamin among the great concepts. but in fact the external worldly character of a large part of modality. with their reflex and reaction apparatus. Thus the categorial concept of possibility as a whole lies in almost pure virgin land. The Possible is de-realized to the status of 'fiction'. But this is joined by a second motive for the denial of real possibility. indeed the past.

nothing possible any more. and amor fati join hands in great affinity in Spinoza: to see sub specie aeternitatis (Ethik II. but more central was the denial of the Possible in the Megarian school. in whom everything firm began intellectually to totter. anything not contained in the whole of the previous world. i.e. this Possible is itself impossible and the Real proven as the only Possible. 151ff. No more radical. namely another Is than the Is that is. characteristically extending Zeno's demonstration of the non-existence of motion. Denial of the Possible. because it coincides with the unconditional reason-consequence relationship (as the mathematical Fatum of the world). as Gorgias says. And even if Leibniz. neoStoicism. Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie. that is. in Epictetus and in Marcus Aurelius it plays a significant role in the satisfaction with the world-order free from possibility and full of necessity. where it clearly also combined with the Eleatic theory of immobile being.). Zeller. Diodoros formed a syllogism: nothing Impossible can proceed from the Possible. there is nothing at all. even though as one which cannot develop anything that is in reality new either. Proposition 44. The Megarian philosopher Diodoros Kronos. which a Leibniz of course still left spread out before his God (as realizer). Weak though this syllogism is. Leibniz still recognizes possibility as propensity. the only great philosopher of the Possible since Aristotle. as one which is realized by its creator out of infinitely many possible ones. drew nothing but derision from the Possible. and above all in fact on account of the interest which static thinking took in it (cf. 7).Page 243 to be considered here. Even the Sophists. Addition 2) means by definition to see everything possible already as necessarily real. i. So that everything and nothing is equally possible. Since from the point of view of Spinozistic eternity. that can pass away or become. both as supposed dialectical masterpiece. since. p. that could relate as possible to one or the other. there is nothing partially conditional. these 'primae possibilitates' once again only live in the reason of the creator and not as possibilities still capable of realization projecting into this world . and was transmitted to the later amor fati by Cicero (De fato 6. invented his supposed proof of the nonexistence of the Possible. Even inside the existing world.e. even the Roman Stoics took it over. 1882. This supposed proof remained famous (under the name of Kyrieuon) for centuries afterwards. but since a Possible that did not become real would allow Impossible to proceed from it. also gives space to an infinite number of other possible world-contexts. Which excludes for Spinoza's God the choice between the infinitely numerous logical possibilities. neither That-Which-Is-Nothing nor That-Which-Is nor even anything in between.

This is therefore. objectively-real Real is also only added to the modally Real through intuition and not in the least through connection with an assertive judgement. Kant flaunted the ideal. And in fact it is by no means separately distinguished even as possibility of obligation. constitute experience here. of postulate. Kant must make room for possibility. Nevertheless. of ideal. Kant does not recognize objectively-real Possible at all. this distaste also inhabited philosophies which could quite openly pay homage to the Possible. which belongs to moral 'reason' and not to cognitive 'understanding'. Spinoza. The ideal which in Kant is consistently dominant. there are no paths to it in the world of experience of transcendental idealism. approach to this ideal in history. Hegel's 'Logic' and 'Encyclopaedia'. which is therefore inhabited by the 'postulate' and by the 'ideal'. against the possibilities in God: 'Things could not be created in any other way or in any other order by God than they are created' (Ethik I. The postulate that was later so powerfully mobilized by Fichte: 'You can since you ought to' means possibility as capacity. mutatis mutandis. Consequently. on the other hand. possibility as potentiality of an. all pure forms of thought or categories. Hartenstein. even decides. Thus Kant brings possibility (both that 'a priori to things through concepts' and that 'which can only be taken from reality in experience') over on to the side of pure forms of thought. Hence the statement: 'The categories of modality have the special property that they do not in the least enlarge. but as for the categories of modality (possibility. And once again it was not as if the distaste for the Possible ended here. reality. But possibility understood in this way is not objectbased real possibility. even if at the cost of dualism. and abstractly even given precedence to politics: 'Extension of the domination of moral freedom' – means.Page 244 now realized for once. the 'Critique of Pure Reason' stresses the Possible just as little as. in the ahistorical field of vision of a 'consciousness . the concept to which they are ascribed as predicate. with all the fundamental force of amor fati. however. or more concretely in Hegel. p. necessity) Kant urges decided caution precisely with regard to experience. Of course. Hegel progress in the consciousness of freedom. unfortunately endless. hence even the modal ones. III. as potency. Diodoros Kronos on a grand scale in metaphysics. 193). with regard to the Possible. but only express the relationship to the cognitive capacity' (Werke. as the 'system of appearances' which has been established through the categories. as determination of the object. namely in the peculiar area of thinking above recognizable experience. as in Kant. and hence with a reality-judgement of modality. nevertheless. Proposition 33).

merely posited external Inner. an approval of Kant which is in fact rare in Hegel. p. so astonishing in the powerful dialectician. Concerning the Kant quotation he adds: 'In fact possibility is the empty abstraction of the reflection-in-itself. in short. and thus in fact also posited as a mere modality. that which he calls real possibility here is wholly surrounded by the circle of reality that has already become: 'Hence that which is really possible can no longer be any different. that which was previously called the Inner. And what is the ultimate status of possibility in Hegel. closing up . according to the preface to the 'Philosophy of Right'. as Kant said in the 'Dreams of a Spirit-Seer' (Werke II. in more concrete terms belonging only to subjective thinking . under these conditions and circumstances nothing different can follow' (Logik. p. the pronounced philosopher of (concrete) reason rather than (abstract) understanding? Hegel. is conceivable' (Enzyklopädie. §143). or that something. . except that now it is defined as the resolved. but no constitutive place for the future.Page 245 in general' there was of course inclination. but also 'reason' as the 'mother of ideas' restricted space for the Possible. this time as celebration of the past. Hegel is evidently also speaking here as an enemy of empty speculation. but also as an In-itselfmoment of reality. in any case only appears in the time 'after reality has completed its formation process and has finished itself'. for the 'hope of the future'. eternally returning in cycles. The following proposition of Hegel's. which amounts to the same thing. 357). as cycle-dialectician of the past or. of 'the way the State should be' and so on. of the abstract ideal of 'the way a girl should be'. In particular. of that which is eternally occurring. Precisely this pathos of statics. Werke IV. There is also an element of Diodoros Kronos in this statement. who is otherwise so objectively idealistic. or that something else is also possible. thus caused Hegel to neglect possibility or to transpose it into that which is subordinately over and done with. surprisingly quotes with approval the passage from Kant given above which keeps modality apart from the real object. as insufficient abstraction. . Thus not only 'understanding' of the categories of experience. that reactionary element in Hegel is speaking here for which in any case philosophy always comes too late to change. But he is also speaking as non-philosopher of the future. of the idle rearrangement of history in accordance with what could have happened. the past which supposedly encompasses the whole world. philosophy must not be concerned with showing that something is possible. For which the thought. on a scale that has become grand. And even when Hegel understands possibility not only as empty abstraction of the reflection-in-itself. 211). however one expresses it.

as that which is not fully conditional. as an unenclosed world. He repeatedly stands ahead on frontiers which are no longer such because he perceives them. lives in hope of succeeding. . contrasting with all previous philosophy. or as chesspieces after the game is finished. The truth is however the Marxist one. if man does not intervene. which Hegel simply did not draw. that is. Likewise. is also relevant here: 'That which is internal is also externally available and viceversa. which is homeless in every contemplative-static philosophy. not difficult to see that our time is a time of birth and transition to a new period. is the real problem of the world itself: as the still unidentical character of appearance and real essential being. appearance shows nothing that is not in essential being. Against this we could admittedly set the earlier statement from the preface to the 'Phenomenology': 'It is . both fear and hope are equally . . That consequently it is as unimportant as the ear from which the corn has emerged. Changing the changeable world is the theory-practice of the realizably real Possible on the Front of the world. and where there is 'work of reshaping'. lives in fear of being frustrated. of the world process. Thus the conclusion from this statement. he ventures beyond them. Because what is possible can equally well turn into Nothing as into Being: the Possible. and is about the work of reshaping it' (Werke II. The mind has broken with the previous world of its existence and imagination and is on the point of sinking it into the past. from the outset. and there is nothing in essential being which is not manifested' (Enzyklopädie. waiting. the potency of the reshaping and the potentiality of what can be re-shaped must be more than merely empty abstraction of the reflection-in-itself. Hence. there is also the womb of a real Possible from which it springs. that the point is to change the world as a correctly interpreted world. §139). And at this end the real Possible. would then of course be this: where there is a time of 'birth'. precisely as a dialectically-materialistically processive world. The Authentic in man and in the world is outstanding. 10). ultimately of existence and essence within it. the logic and ontology of the wide realm of the Possible has been stifled by the static delusion that everything possible in the Real has already been thoroughly formed. p. Realizing Possibility Man is that which still has much before it. He is repeatedly transformed in his work and by it. is that which is not settled.Page 246 process.

as soon as and in so far as it takes place. But since in man active capacity particularly belongs to possibility. its most highly developed blossom. its laws which are however also legally variable under new conditions. towards which nature is in possibility which has hardly even been entered upon. And. where the decisions are made. That is: mediates itself with the ripeness of these conditions and with their content which is on the social agenda. in presumptuous. Both factors are always interwoven with . but only temporarily exaggerated fashion. but it is full of historically tendential mediation which can be pursued precisely. But it is only a counter-move in that. by means of which what we call. in this way man and world are connected best. world history was opened up. with the Thing For Us. it is rough and open. hope in fear. And the process into this future is solely that of matter which is concentrated and formed through to the end in man. tips the balance in favour of hope. Bravery in this sense is the counter-move to the negative possibility of the wrong path into nothingness. and it invariably lies on the horizon of the respective tendency of world occurrence. the objective factor is the unenclosed potentiality of the turnability. according to Marx. A future land. abstract heroic deed. theoretically and practically: on the Front of the world process. the world as mediated homeland. Only practice of this kind can lead the matter pending in the historical process: the naturalization of man. Only this is practice according to the respectively Possible in the field of the general possibility-being of unenclosed history and world.Page 247 appropriate when confronted with this real suspension. fear in hope. let alone exploded open. out of real possibility into reality. the display of this activity and bravery. Just as time. the humanization of nature. is the space of history. the decisive blow was delivered by men. The subjective factor is the unenclosed potency to turn things here. unlike the rash. new horizons open up. That is. Man and his work has thus become a decisive factor in the historical world process. so too the future mode of time is the space of the real possibilities of history. This is why the Stoics – wise or all too passively wise men – advised that man should not settle in the vicinity of circumstances over which he has no power. Men and things are united in this track. with revolutions as the midwives of the future society with which the current one is pregnant. with work as a means of becoming human itself. it secures for itself the most precise mediation with the given conditions. not more than a few thousand years ago. What is ours and also what is not yet ours has this path ahead of it. changeability of the world within the framework of its laws. like every Totum of the Possible.

of the unreified subject with the manifested object. the more the external world independent of man is also one which is increasingly mediated with him. . as the core of real possibility. Part I. in the pre-human and extra-human world. extended causa sui in society and nature. constitutes the both remotest and yet positively deepest real possibility. to become the ultimate Fatum) tears subject and object apart. from the same intensive root from which the humanly subjective potency then also sprang. but also with what is realizing in history. Nevertheless. although with no or with weak consciousness. presents itself in exemplary form as: harmony of the unreified object with the manifested subject.* even great breadth. but also with what is realizable in history. and it coincides with this all the more. * Cf. this final real possibility. Objective potentiality coincides not only with what is changeable. These are – turned towards a near and distant future – the basic proportions of human development. with hardly even partially existing conditions. the more men become conscious producers of their history. 384. However transfinite all alignments of this kind may be.e. the world of causa sui. So that in fact the realization itself of what is realizing. Whereby the realization of what is realizing. However. and indeed of making itself manifestly identical with it. meeting up with the driving core-interest of all occurrence. achieved. the whole of the conscious production of history is visible here: grasped. Subjective potency coincides not only with what is turning. of identifying it. i. There is certainly also a realizing element. which can at least be anticipated in terms of definition.Page 248 one another in dialectical interaction and only the isolating overemphasis of the one (causing the subject to become the ultimate fetish) or of the other (causing the object. This central potency thus stands increasingly in the possibility of itself increasingly meeting. stimulating process. is the same as the final real problem: to lift society and nature on to their hinges. But man as a realizing element – above all in so far as and after it is no longer endowed with false consciousness – concentrates even more certainly the central potency in the potencypotentiality of processive matter. in apparent selfmotivation. they nevertheless lie along the rigorous and consistent line of extension of what has been designated as the conscious production of history – contrary to unfathomed fate. this origin and content of final real possibility. And precisely the world of this final real possibility. with wild efficacity and seed. Goethe's 'Faust'. and it coincides with this all the more. the adequate manifestation of what is forming history. It is here.

of this possible mediation. However. never plays itself out into what is futile. which can however be made concretely accessible the moment the working man. highly conscious part of the universal material agent. This type wants to get to the heart of the matter from the outset. of men with themselves and their normal happiness. subjugated for the profit of his exploiters. this most powerful. hitting home and scoring . in contrast to his own history. even the nineteen-yearold Marx was perfectly successful in formulating sharp central propositions in the surviving letter to his father. with all broadly perceived. it is capable of being on the ball again at any time. discards it as soon as it recognizes it as such. grasped thus in a total way. even when and especially when the matter is still dawning on our vision. is that agent of extra-human occurrence. Only they conceal themselves in baggy or crazy garments. Thus. Marx is the realized teacher of this resolution of the proletariat.Page 249 the hinge in human history is its producer – working man. which. transformation of the supposed Thing In Itself into the Thing For Us to the extent of a possible humanization of nature. which is abstractly called natural force and was once called in untenably pantheistic terms natura naturans. who is finally no longer dispossessed. begins to emerge from the semiincognito of his previous alienation. this is the final symbol of the realization of what is realizing and hence of the most radical frontier-content in the objectively real Possible as a whole. and liars remain general. Marx is the essential teacher of this approaching mediation with the production-centre of world occurrence in general. man of course influences but does not make. reified. carefully considered material that ensues. indeed still hypothetical. 19— Changing the World or Marx's Eleven Theses on Feuerbach Thinking ahead has long since been announced and there to be heard. Only cowards talk their way out of everything. still hardly mediated with us. as Engels puts it. alienated. which is becoming real. always try to be somewhere other than where we can catch them out. Through this early feel for what is essential. Free people on free ground. the hinge in the history of nature. But what is true can never be defined enough. by no means separated from the rest of nature. of the.

together with nature as his basis. that is why it is the least quick to put itself into words. How enthusiastically Marx greeted the new interpretation. but invaluable as the first document in which the seed of genius of the new view of the world is set down. we can read in 'The Holy Family' (Ludwig Feuerbach. in fact did not go beyond a merely internal Hegelian critique of the master of idealism. looking back at it around fifty years later. With and through these the pull forwards now sharpens itself so that even possible sidetracks may still serve it. 1843. definitely not intended for publication. jotted down quickly. Feuerbach's 'The Essence of Christianity'. Engels writes in the foreword to his 'Ludwig Feuerbach': 'They are notes for later elaboration. This nowhere more freshly than in the terse collection of the most terse directions which are known as the Eleven Theses on Feuerbach. human. Concerning the theses. 1841. this both 'humanistic' and 'naturalistic' rejection of Hegel (with man as the main idea. and how greatly – despite all critical reservations – he was influenced by it. Dietz. his 'Provisional Theses for a Reform of Philosophy'. most probably in the burst of preparatory work for 'The German Ideology'. p. in its brevity. and even his 'Principles of the Philosophy of the Future'. 1842. Meanwhile Marx very soon detached himself from this all too vague . Here Engels slightly edited Marx's occasionally sketchy text for style. naturally without the slightest change of content. The theses were not published until 1888 by Engels.Page 250 points. Marx wrote them down in April 1845 in Brussels. nature rather than mind as primary) had a strong influence on the young Marx. 'was general: we were all momentarily Feuerbachians.' Feuerbach had recalled us from pure thought to sensory perception. seemed all the more liberating since even the left-wing school of Hegelians could not detach itself from Hegel. Time of Drafting Thus the understanding must repeatedly prove itself anew in such propositions. 14). as an appendix to his 'Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy'. The grasped element that knows how to grasp itself in this fashion thus shows the points along the way. from mind to man. The German youth of that time believed it could at last see land instead of heaven. As we know. Of course this directing quality is subsequently not always as easy to survey as it is to quote. 'The enthusiasm'. For significant brevity is coherent. says Engels in 'Ludwig Feuerbach'. 1946. of this world.

P. His activity on the 'Rheinische Zeitung' had brought him into far closer contact with political and economic questions than the left-wing Hegelians. whereby nothing more of Feuerbachian humanness remains here than its negation in capitalism. This very contact increasingly led Marx from the critique of religion. In Hegel's distinction between bourgeois society and state. more economic consciousness was in fact already concealed than in his epigones. and Hegel's work interpreted in the light of it. recognizes – determines the form of the state. 1841–3. The 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts'. is accomplished in the first work undertaken in collaboration with Engels. p. 152). he refers too much to nature and too little to politics. likewise in 1844. even in the Feuerbachians. emphasized by Marx. The relationship between 'man and man' in them does not remain an abstract anthropological one at all. contain another significant celebration of Feuerbach. This is however the only alliance through which current philosophy can become truth' (MEGA I. to the critique of the state. they praise above all among Feuerbach's achievements the 'foundation of true materialism and of real science. not as material. or even the Feuerbachians enjoyed. in which the historically formative role of work is identified. 3. indeed already of the social organization which – as the 'Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of State'.Page 251 humanness of this world. but the totally different. social viewpoint is clear from the beginning. At the same time. 1/2. the 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts' criticize this work because it interprets human work-activity only as mental. i. in 'The Holy Family'.. 'The Holy Family' noted capitalism itself as the source of this strongest and final alienation. instead the critique of human self-alienation (transferred from religion to the state) already penetrates to the economic heart of the alienation process. 308). in that Feuerbach likewise makes the relationship between ''man and man" into the fundamental principle of his theory' (MEGA I. p. On 13th March 1843 Marx thus writes to Ruge: 'For me Feuerbach's aphorisms are only incorrect on one point. away from Feuerbach's general idea of man.e. The separation from Feuerbach occurred with respect and in the first place as a correction or even as a mere amendment. The breakthrough to political economy. admittedly as a contrast to the woolgathering of Bruno Bauer. But the 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts' are already a lot further beyond Feuerbach than they declare. 103). as it does in Feuerbach. however. The 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts' already contained the sentence: 'Workers themselves are capital. .c. to which Feuerbach restricted himself. This not least in the splendid passages on Hegelian phenomenology. 1844. a commodity (1.

Which in fact showed the respective class-based methods of production and exchange based on the division of labour. but above all against the left-wing Hegelians. the strongest form of this relinquishing of self. nom de plume of the German individualist philosopher Johann Kaspar Schmidt. the second class feels itself destroyed in alienation. particularly the capitalist ones. 206). 'The Holy Family' gave birth to the materialist interpretation of history in 1844. states 'The Holy Family'. Many critical approaches of the theses return in it. if only for chronological reasons. truly (fundamentally) humanistic. Alienation. As is self-evident. 'But'. Consequently. knows that the alienation is its own power and possesses in it the appearance of a human existence. And the 'Eleven Theses'. although of course the critique of Feuerbach and the murderous demolition of second-rate Hegelian epigones are vastly different here. so the analysis of its pseudo-radical manifestations of decay. above all in capitalism. stands 'The German Ideology' which directly followed the theses. the departure here is not a complete break. false objectification of self. 3. Closest to the abandoned land. References to Feuerbach run through large parts of Marx's work. . produced between 'The Holy Family' of 1844/45 and 'The German Ideology' of 1845/46. Politically empirical experience from the Rhineland period plus Feuerbach made Marx immune to the 'mind' and nothing but 'mind' of the left-wing school of Hegelians. Feuerbach still belonged to bourgeois ideology. of course. even after the departure of the 'Eleven Theses'.Page 252 Instead of Feuerbachian generic man. P. embraced both: the exploiting class as well as that of the exploited. Marx was a materialist at the latest from 1843 onwards. perceives in it its own powerlessness and the reality of an inhuman existence' (MEGA I. thus represent the formulated departure from Feuerbach. 'the first class feels happy and confirmed in this self-alienation. a historically changing ensemble of social relationships now clearly appeared and above all: one that is antagonistic in class terms. 'The German Ideology' fundamentally * Max Stirner. 1806–56. together with a highly original entry into a new original inheritance. to be the finally discovered source of alienation. with his abstract naturalness which always remains the same. such as Bruno Bauer and Stirner.* also had to implicate him in 'The German Ideology'. and with it scientific socialism. that is. But in such a way that in places the philosopher himself supplied the handle of the logical weapon with which Marx also intervened against him. The adopted standpoint of the proletariat allowed Marx to become causally and concretely.

it would have been much more difficult to have worked out human activity materialistically as the root of all social things. and via which he makes productive progress. Feuerbach's anthropological materialism thus marks the facilitated possible transition from mere mechanical to historical materialism. so philosophy now put man (with the inclusion of nature as his basis) in place of Hegel. out of the materialism of the base behind the lines into that of the Front. ahistorical notion of the human being indicates the un. This means: just as the Hegelian philosophy of reason had overcome church-belief. Feuerbach's 'Provisional Theses for a Reform of Philosophy' of 1842 and the 'Principles of the Philosophy of the Future' of 1843 also come into consideration. and lay too much under the influence of Hegel. However. Only from that time on did the earlier Hegelian say his first thought had been God. and his third and last was man. both as a transit point and as the only contemporary philosopher of whom an analysis is at all possible. The basic thoughts to which Marx critically reacts in this way. The critique states: without the concretization of what is human into really existing. are essentially contained in Feuerbach's central work 'The Essence of Christianity' of 1841. the simply inner idealistic 'conquering' of idealism. It was only the 'Eleven Theses' that became signposts out of mere anti-Hegelianism into reality which can be changed. 5. Marx stresses on the other hand that Feuerbach 'is to be greatly preferred to the "pure" materialists in that he realizes that man is also a "sensory object"'. was too unoriginal. however. about the connections of their critique with their own material surroundings' (MEGA I. at least until 1839. Only from that time on did Feuerbach apply the Hegelian concept of self-alienation to religion. 10). In fact. 'It has not occurred to any of these philosophers to inquire about the connections of German philosophy with German reality. despite all 'anthropology'. however. materialism and history would have in fact continually fallen apart. he rejected. starting out from his critique of religion. Despite all this. and above all socially active men. P.and indeed anti-Feuerbachian character of fully developed Marxism itself. since Feuerbach. the recognition cited above indicates the importance of Feuerbach for the early development of Marxism just as much as the critique of his abstract. Feuerbach could not find the path to reality. precisely the most important aspect of Hegel: the historical-dialectical method. In this connection. Feuerbach always remains important for Marx. with real relationships to one another and to nature. The earlier writings of the philosopher can hardly have been of any importance for Marx. clarifying and fruitful. The recognition states: without man equally being a 'sensory object'.Page 253 begins with the name of Feuerbach and criticizes. . his second reason.

do not always make the reason for their division and sequence evident. But numbering is not systematics. does the continuously productive coherence of their brevity and depth also open up. 2. that is. Theses 6. 8). In doing this. Theses 10. 8. since there are several other such arrangements quite different in terms of content. 7. They also present the same content in another place. thirdly. dealing with proof and probation (Theses 2. For the way they stand.Page 254 Question of Grouping How the theses should be ordered is both an old and a new question. Finally there follows the most important thesis. 3). 3 are under the heading: Unity of Theory and Practice in Thought. coveting civil. Then there appears: firstly. in that they allow it to remain eternally entrenched. they repeatedly overlap. 10). arising out of the common cause itself. the epistemological group dealing with perception and activity (Theses 5. Hence the theses must be grouped philosophically. There is. The requirements of teaching have thus occasioned various attempts to rearrange the theses as they belong together and hence to divide them into groups. in a direct row. 7. only when there is one. the order of the theses is solely that of their themes and contents. Theses 4 and 5 under: Understanding of Reality in Contradictions. 9 under: Reality itself in Contradictions. its real cause and true materialism (Theses 4. as if it was a series of stamps. secondly. not arithmetically.C. but with whose use they cease to be nothing but * Twelve Table Law – the earliest Roman legal code. as far as can be seen. it shows how little instructive the mere place value of the numbers is here. the anthropological-historical group dealing with self-alienation. For example. just as if the 'Eleven Theses' could be subsumed one after the other. criminal and religious law. not intended for publication. as in the Twelve Table Law* or in the Ten Commandments. 9. for private reference. . the password that not only marks a final parting of the minds. while on the other hand they treat it in too lowly and formalistic a fashion. 1. 11 under: Location and Task of Dialectical Materialism in Society. still no commentary on the Eleven Theses. 6. the uniting or theorypractice group. such a grouping which sticks to the numbers looks as follows: Theses 1. the attempt is sometimes made to let the sequence of numbers stand. introduced in 451–450 B. This is the arrangement according to figures. Each of these arrangements treats the order in too exalted a fashion on the one hand. and Marx needs this substitute least of all.

the depiction of which announces itself here. his feet cannot yet move and the ground itself remains unnegotiable.e. forming a coherent unified whole. And Thesis 1 reproaches the whole of previous materialism for only understanding perception 'under the form of the object'. since these theses describe the two basic theories of Feuerbach which Marx relatively accepts. the anthropological-historical group by Thesis 4. complementary movement of voices. is and remains the beginning where all materialist cognition identifies itself. i. between the individual theses within each respective group there is free. The basic theory adopted is the rejection of abstract thinking in Thesis 5. since idealism obviously does not know real sensory activity as such'. Epistemological Group: Perception and Activity Theses 5. But Thesis 5. Thesis 5 stresses this contribution: Feuerbach is 'not content' with cerebrality. not the concept which is merely taken from it. just as. as real basis of cognition.Page 255 minds (Thesis 11). immediate. including that of Feuerbach. And corresponding to the first basic feature of materialist dialectics. not subjectively'. the rejection of human self-alienation in Thesis 4. both make clear that with contemplative sensoriness. 'not however as human. concept and nothing but concept. he remains standing in a state of comfortable enjoyment. fundamentally beginning knowledge: sensoriness as knowledge. between the groups themselves. sensory activity. . as human-sensory activity'. continual correlation is taking place. practice. Hence Thesis 5 teaches: mere perceiving 'does not understand sensoriness as practical. the only kind Feuerbach understands. The person who perceives in this way does not even try to move. Perception. Hence it happened that the active side. 1. 'was developed from idealism – but only abstractly. Strictly speaking. And this happens even within the context of the sensory. he wants his feet on the perceived ground. 3 It is recognized here that even when thinking we can only proceed from the sensory. is thus replaced by the human activity factor. and which he goes on beyond in the remaining theses of the respective groups. and then above all Thesis 1. Feuerbach reminded us of this at a time when every academic street-corner still resounded with mind. the epistemological group is opened by Thesis 5. The inactive perception in which all previous materialism persists. in contrast to materialism.

Both morally. this concept of 'producing' particularly exaggerated in bourgeois rationalism. which detach themselves from the surface of things and flow into the person who is perceiving and knowing. this capitalist vita activa contrasted with aristocratic idleness. in the shape of a concept of activity. On . the first great materialist. As it survives contained in the concept of 'Theoria' itself. this is only the case in capitalist society in so far as work. monkish.e. Whose profit-dynamic. i. the bourgeois. and epistemologically. But then even Democritus. becoming free in the new age. who in fact sets the tone until Marx. Work. differed from the ancient and also scholastic cognitive concept of mere receiving: vision. or rather: the appearance of work around the ruling class. Even Plato is. also certainly makes itself evident in the superstructure and activates the base itself. preached particularly by the Calvinists for the purpose of creating capital. which had been held in contempt in the ancient slave-owning societies. thinking. for however ideally and purely related to ideas his vision pretends to be.Page 256 is thus by no means the same as (contemplative) perception. a work logos in cognition. it is in fact still essentially receptive vision. is likewise trapped in this work-shy ideology which does not reflect the work-process. out of the forces of production being unleashed in this profitsociety. through which for him the truly real is known. passive depiction. and the thought-process is consistently understood in keeping with sensory perception. The work ethic. in the shape of a so-called work ethic. visio. in contrast to all prebourgeois societies is here no longer a dishonour. but only from that developed in the new bourgeois age. the so-called homo faber. ultimately a receiving sensualist in this manner. This results out of the necessity of making profit. However. but is respected. the real dimension of the atoms together with their mechanism. forming the new bourgeois age. In parallel fashion. consistent with the original vision-sense of the word. still by a long chalk progressive. The concept of activity which is thus stressed by Marx in Thesis 1 in fact derives from idealistic epistemology. and not from idealistic epistemology as such. is obviously not reflected in the thoughts of the ruling class either. scholarly existence. even in feudal society with its system of serfdom (in Athens even sculptors were counted as philistines). cum grano salis. Even Democritus only understands cognition in passive terms. the work logos in cognition. and also with the vita contemplativa of a quiet. work. in total contrast to the ideology of the entrepreneur. For this concept pre-supposes as a base a society where the ruling class sees or wishes to see itself in activity. is explained here solely by the impression of corresponding little pictures (eidola).

at least in historical-idealistic terms. This was also far superior to the merely mathematical-idealistic 'production' pathos. which. 156). which never distanced itself very far from its ancient progenitor Democritus. and therefore as materialism. is thus. 3. which means here: the absence of despised work-activity in the philosophical superstructure. omitting 'human-sensory activity'. was able to define philosophy as theory of the mathematical-mechanical motion of bodies. had influenced their semi. with the help of this principle. for his part he just as little succeeded in getting beyond the 'form of the object' criticized by Marx. the 'Phenomenology of Mind' was the first work to discuss seriously the dynamics of the epistemological concept of work. Hence in fact it understands the Object. than Marx in the 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts': Marx sees the greatness of the Phenomenology precisely in the fact that it 'understands the essence of work and comprehends Objective man. reality. sensoriness only 'under the form of the object'. Whereas Hegel's Phenomenology occupied. materialistically more common than the pathos of 'production'. P. objectsubject on to each other. up to and including Feuerbach: previous materialism lacks the constantly oscillating subject-object relation called work. both epistemologies are united by the slave-owning society. This statement thus best explains the deficiency mentioned above of merely perceiving materialism. This was first decisively achieved in Hegel. true because real man. as a result of his own work' (MEGA 1. which was not in the least understood by Feuerbach.or total idealism. which often distanced itself far from Plato. and especially of the dialectical reciprocal depiction of subject-object. Spinoza. And now: the paradox appears that rationalism. up to and including Feuerbach. There is no better witness to this significance of Hegel's Phenomenology. Among the more recent materialists only Hobbes teaches rational 'production'. the idealism of the new age. namely beyond merely contemplative materialism. 'the standpoint of modern political economy' (1. The calmly depicting mirror. Feuerbach. p. Leibniz. 157). Something different occurred within idealism when 'production' passed from geometric construction into the real work-form of historical genesis. with the principle which is valid until Kant: only such objects are knowable which can be constructed mathematically. reflected the work-process much more powerfully in epistemological terms than the materialism of the new age. .c. in the case of the great rationalists of the manufacturing period.Page 257 the question of epistemological non-activity there is therefore no difference at all between Plato and Democritus. Descartes. this omission of the concept of work. But greatly though Hobbes. as Marx says..

e. this continuing sensory working and creating. who wishes to get away from abstract thinking. who seeks real Objects rather than reified thoughts. Of course the priority of external nature remains at the same time. 33f. does not exist for Feuerbach either' (MEGA 1. i. produced through generatio aequivoca. ultimately wage-earners. This has quite astonishing consequences. At the same time Marx of course makes it clear that bourgeois activity is still not the complete. abstract relationship to it. manual workers. confused circulation of goods on the free market allowed nothing more than an ultimately passive. the Being that conditions everything now itself contains active men. but from peasants. he mentions secrets which only became apparent to the eye of the physicist and chemist. sensory activity as such'. 5. 'since idealism of course does not know real.Page 258 however. However. still occupied in epistemological terms the standpoint of slave-owning society or even of serfdom. is emphasized in these lines as an important. How crucially human work. and of course all this is not applicable to original men. but very soon also miss the whole human world and his own ability to perceive. reified. but this distinction only makes sense in so far as man is regarded as being different from nature. still contemplatory element in his materialism. which precisely as an Object is completely homeless in Feuerbach. they make . right kind. indeed his own existence. P. through sensory activity of men. even the bourgeois materialist Feuerbach. This is strikingly elaborated in the introduction to the 'German Ideology': 'Feuerbach is speaking specifically of the perception of natural science. It cannot be so precisely because it is only appearance of work. And because the abstract. This nature which precedes human society is not incidentally the nature in which Feuerbach lives. on account of the non-active. because the production of value never emanates from the entrepreneur. The activity.). not the nature which no longer exists anywhere today except perhaps on one or two Australian coral islands of more recent origin. Accordingly. For this reason Thesis I stresses: even the epistemological reflection of activity could only be an abstract one. this production is so much the basis of the whole of the sensory world that. external. even if it were interrupted for only a year. he understands it 'not even as Objective activity'. but where would natural science be without industry and trade? Even this 'pure' natural science of course receives its purpose and material only through trade and industry. therefore. Feuerbach would not only find an enormous change in the natural world. if not the most important Object in the world which surrounds men. omits human activity from this real being.

apparently materialistically related concept. Hence Marx speaks of the 'material' which natural science only receives through trade and industry. was fetched from the forest by work or hewn out of the rocks or extracted from the depths of the earth. so the subject-object-mediation.Page 259 Thesis 3 above all especially important – challenging not only Feuerbach. They concern. a changeable concept that would not be valid if there were no subject to which alone something is given or can be given. he exaggerated it mechanistically. are therefore worth noting in this truly Objective connection. and even the raw material. However. In reality. semantically. every Object of our normal environment reveals itself to be by no means sheer datum. they are most intimately related to it. only surface contemplation shows the given. does employ a perfectly legitimate. but admittedly not only 'under the form of the object' either. is instead so far from being cancelled by the mediation of work with the external world that it is in fact ultimately formulated by it. a bad one and one that is often misunderstood. the empiricist favourite children or even trump-cards of that supposedly activity-shy perception which sees the 'circumstances' merely as that which is standing around men. but only counts and wins the trick from the surface standpoint. however. in that he omitted activity here too. after all. Within the province of normal human environment. . is likewise a piece of external world. independence of being from consciousness is by no means the same as independence of being from human work. i. there is in the world which constitutes the human environment hardly anything given which is not equally something worked on. however. namely the primacy of being over consciousness. after a little probing. In epistemological terms this primacy expresses itself as the external world which exists independently of human consciousness. One is so-called givenness. But once again Feuerbach hardened this truth one-sidedly. its Objectivity. For just as human activity is itself Objective activity. So much for the first passive trumpcard which is obviously not one at all. The second trump-card of supposedly activity-shy perception. apart from the fact that it is.e. in that it occurs. in historical terms as priority of the material base over the mind. apart from the fact that it is totally changed. i. This external world also exists independently of consciousness in that it does not itself appear under the form of the subject. It proves itself instead to be the end result of previous work-processes. a particularly object-based. but also vulgar Marxists. Two further concepts of the 'sensory world'. in fact decidedly materialistic concept to begin with.e. The independence of this external world from consciousness. does not fall out of the external world.

but which on the other hand also prescribes to it its own conditions of life and gives it a particular development. Above this one-sided. which ends in fatalism of being. it does however give human consciousness the most real place in the 'circumstances'. climate) Thesis 3 now posits the truth which is so superior to the previous standard materialism. 'that circumstances are in fact changed by men. itself has consciousness in it. changed men therefore products of other circumstances and a different education'. namely economic being contains an inordinate amount of objective consciousness. and against the idealistic subject-theory. But the human method of production. constantly dialectical kind. One passage in the 'German Ideology' thus thoroughly complements Thesis 3. namely because it deals with the most salutary reciprocal movement of men and circumstances. which is passed on to each generation by its predecessor. with man as blossom. however. Mechanistic environmentalism asserts 'that men are products of circumstances and of education.and activity-factor. and that the educator must himself be educated'. illuminatingly. capital and circumstances which is indeed on the one hand modified by the new generation. Marx is waging a war on two fronts at this point. he is struggling both against mechanistic environmentalism. but in fact simply as blossom. autarkical primacy. or at least in exaggerated activity-optimism. a sum of productive forces. often even very naturalistic theory of depiction (milieu like soil. even the relations of production as base. likewise the material base in every society is again activated by the superstructure of consciousness. of subject-object mediation of a constantly interacting. as purely pre-human base. natural base. but once again historically decisive.Page 260 But in fact it represents the interacting mediation of subject and object. despite the priority of economic being. a class of productive forces. So that in history 'on every level a material result. not as separate natural force. precisely inside the external world which it helps to form. all this. the metabolism with nature which occurs and is regulated in the work process. which ends in putschism. Rather. that is. a historically created relationship to nature and of individuals to one another is to be found. in such a way that being does indeed determine consciousness everywhere. a special character – so that circumstances make men just as much as men make circumstances' . But it is information which gives no pleasure to vulgar materialism. Thesis 3 is especially informative concerning the interaction in this being-consciousness relationship. This does not of course mean that this change of circumstances could now happen without reference to that objective lawfulness which also binds the subject. All being is for Feuerbach.

Because he acts on and changes nature outside himself through this movement. Das Wesen des Christentums. which he only knows as a demeaning business: 'Practical perception is a dirty perception stained with egotism' (Feuerbach. who felt no revolutionary mission whatsoever and who also never got beyond man as a nature-based generic being. indeed represent its root. moreover as the most important piece. now committing man quite decisively to the external world. 1841. p. . This is ultimately the reason why history does not appear in his purely perceiving materialism and why he does not manage to get beyond the contemplative attitude. he simultaneously changes his own nature . 'Das Kapital' provides a final elaboration of Thesis 3. 1947. but presupposes a whole series of other working materials before it can serve as working material in agriculture. And how much arrogance of this kind there was later when the 'perception' increasingly 'stained with egotism' was added ideologically to socalled pure perception. and how clearly even the subject-factor understood in these terms remains inside the material world. Even the idea (in theory) becomes a material power. He thus looks down on practice from on high. 5. according to Marx.). 264).Page 261 (MEGA 1. 27f. in order to acquire natural material in a form useful for his own life. which again primarily conditions the consciousness that follows. increased by human activity. and also its capability for radical change. 185. even with the audible precedence of the circumstance-man-relationship over the reverse. in fact to nature: 'He sets in motion the natural forces pertaining to his physical nature. As stated above. It is this passage to which Marx is ultimately referring in Thesis 1 when he says that in Feuerbach 'practice is only understood and fixed in its dirty-Jewish manifestation'. the interaction between subject and object is particularly emphasized in this passage. Thus his relationship to the object remains ancientaristocratic. had no appreciation whatsoever of this increased primacy of nature. in fact as radical practice precisely at the base of material being. The earth is itself a working material. 187). if it seizes the masses. however. Thus human activity with its consciousness is itself explained as a piece of nature. in such a way. p. head and hands. . Feuerbach. and an already relatively high development of working capacity' (Das Kapital I. then with a so-called truth . p. arms and legs. Dietz. as it were. in illogical contrast to the pathos of man which he put – again only in purely theoretical terms and as mere blossom of existing nature – at the centre of his critique of religion (and no other). how unequivocally the technological-political changing of circumstances is such a power. that man and his activity always remain the specific part of the material historical base.

' Feuerbach. Thesis 4 states the theme: Feuerbach revealed self-alienation in its religious form. His work therefore consisted in 'dissolving the religious world into its worldly basis. and in fact also anti-vulgar-materialistic consequences. 7. Thus Marx emphasizes. au dessus de la mêlée (apart from the dirt in itself). had put religious existence on to a worldly basis in so far as he dissolved it into human existence. 6. belongs in Marx decisively with the material base. 9. this subject-object relation living in all 'circumstances'. especially since it cast a sharp glance at the contribution of human wishes. Feuerbach's 'anthropological critique of religion' derived the whole of the transcendental sphere from wishful imagination: the gods are the heartfelt wishes transformed into real beings. precisely inside being itself. after the completion of this work. Without the comprehended work-factor itself the primacy of being. an Objective one. that is. even the subject in the world is world. At the same time there arises through this wish-hypostasis a doubling of the world into an imaginary and a real one. they make this part of the Feuerbach Theses particularly valuable. precisely as a materialist. Marx continues. cannot be comprehended in human history. as Thesis 6 determines more precisely. But'. high on its horse. It is therefore necessary to remove this self-alienation. exactly like the objective factor. And this has powerful. to fetch . the main task still remains to be done. This was an important undertaking in itself. when man shifts his best being from this world into a celestial other world. Working man. With great presentiment Marx already posited the pathos of 'revolutionary. knowingly in league with dirty practice.Page 262 for its own sake. How much 'equestrian science' then arose. 10 It is recognized here that as human beings we always proceed from alienation. restraining from the correct kind. 'he overlooks the fact that. Anthropological-Historical Group: Self-Alienation and True Materialism Theses 4. which is in no way a factum brutum or given fact. how much aristocracy of knowledge (without aristoi). the subjective factor of production activity which is. practical-critical activity'. It most certainly cannot be mediated with the best aspect of active perception with which Thesis 1 closes. with 'the revolutionary. practical-critical activity' against such pure lack of understanding as Feuerbach's.

does indeed localize his abstract genus of man empirically. which did not stop at the abstract genus of man.Page 263 back heaven to men again through critical anthropology and by identifying its origins. did the concept of humanitas arise as both a generic and value concept at the court of Scipio the Younger. the cosmopolitan empire of Rome. and their Universal was not the ancient oecumene which was supposed to eliminate nations. With his abstract genus of man Feuerbach then above all absorbed the neo-Stoicism which – again with hollow arc between individual and generality – had emerged in the new bourgeois age. seeks the private lamplight' (MEGA I.e. 133). This ultimately in the abstract-sublime concept of the citoyen and in the Kantian pathos of humanity in general. in the ideas of tolerance of the new bourgeois age. which reflected the citoyen in a German and moral way. as the general human house. the abstract genus of man. Thesis 6 therefore stresses: 'But human existence is not an abstract inherent in the single individual. with his hollow arc between single individual and abstract Humanum (while omitting society) Feuerbach is little other than an epigone of the Stoics and of their after-effects in Natural Right. this moral-humanitarian generic ideal. Only this human house was not the vanished polis. Feuerbach. who had reproached Hegel so strongly on account of his concept-reifications. Marx says in his doctoral dissertation. without social history. however. but only in such a way as to allow it to be inherent in the single individual. and half – with abstract utopia – a fraternal human league of enlightened individuals. skipping all national social conditions. free of society. 1/1. Not without reason. 'the good fortune of its time. of the recta ratio for all times.' Indeed. was supposed to assert itself in the Stoics as a sole Universal over single individuals. as the place of the communis opinio. p. Here. and the Stoic Panaitios was its author. incorporated into the equally general-good world house. but – with idealization precisely of the ancient polis – the generality of bourgeois human rights with the abstract citizen above it. therefore. however. which is quite unstructured in class and historical terms. the logical Marxist argument comes into force. among all peoples: i. On the other hand. it is the ensemble of social conditions. In its reality. Nevertheless. not Stoic private pillars. thus the moth. The individuals of the new age are of course capitalists. there are important economically conditioned correspondences here (otherwise there would have been no neoStoicism in the seventeenth and eighteenth . when the common sun has gone down. but it was half – with assiduous ideology – the Pax Romana. Even Stoic morality had fallen back upon the private individual after the decline of the Greek public polis: this was.

as a critique of religious self-alienation. an abstract ideal of humanity. human society or socialized humanity. after Feuerbach's fashion. and now blocks history and society in his anthropology. however.' The Humanum therefore does not always lie in every society 'as inner. which however is only valid and accepted to be valid as a socialist humanism: 'The standpoint of the old materialism is bourgeois society. i. humanness. pro-letarian standpoint. silent generality which unites the many individuals in a merely natural way'. as a generality which unites the many individuals in a merely natural way. is therefore not only logically consistent.e. it does not lie in any kind of existing generality at all. the same barrier which blocked revolutionary activity in Feuerbach's epistemology. the real removal of his self-alienation as its goal. Marx therefore incorporates the very motif of the epistemological Thesis-group into Thesis 9. the standpoint of the new materialism. far from removing the value-concept of humanism. with the creation of dialectical-historical materialism. as communism. as an abstract genus equipped with all too sublime humane sacraments per se. Thus . But Thesis 10 nevertheless states with all the value-accent of a humanistic opposition. however. namely of Feuerbach himself or of final. in practice allows it to come home for the very first time. and the more scientific the socialism. the new. Marx still definitely retains the value-concept of humanity of course.' A class barrier is thus finally noted. The expression 'real humanism' with which the preface to the 'Holy Family' begins is of course abandoned by the 'German Ideology'. Marx. but also a renewed demystification. here as there an abstract genus rises above it.Page 264 centuries): here as there society is atomized into individuals. the materialism which does not comprehend sensoriness as practical activity. That is why Thesis 6 is directed both against Feuerbach's ahistorical view of humanness per se and – connected with this – against the purely anthropological generic concept of this humanity. of a 'real humanism' therefore. is the perception of single individuals in ''bourgeois society". in connection with the rejection of any trace of bourgeois democracy. Certainly not. criticizes precisely this abstract above mere individuals. with the gaining of the proletarianrevolutionary standpoint. in fact defines human existence as 'ensemble of social conditions'. For this very reason. the more concretely it has precisely the care for man at its centre. this time against Feuerbach's anthropology: 'The highest to which perceiving materialism can attain. he does so clearly in Thesis 10. it is to be found instead in difficult process and gains itself only together with communism. Marx's continuation of Feuerbachian anthropology. anthropological fetishization.

The social conditions themselves are inwardly torn and divided. which is also progressive in practical revolutionary terms. the critique of religion thus requires the critique of the conditions which underlie heaven. 614f. little familiarity is required with the history of the Roman Republic. of their wretchedness.e. struggles between these two classes and hazy ideologies of the Above. the earthly family must first be discovered as the secret of the heavenly one.). an enslaved. but Thesis 4 acquires it: 'The very fact that the worldly basis sets itself off from itself and fixes itself as an independent realm in the clouds can only be explained by the self-conflict and the selfcontradiction of this worldly basis. not so that man has to wear the dreary chain devoid of imagination. In order to do this. In order to do this.c. Hence for example. The latter itself must therefore first be understood in its contradiction and then be revolutionized by eliminating the contradiction in practice. with the categorical imperative of overthrowing all conditions in which man is a debased.Page 265 Marx leads us from general-ideal man. . imaginary resolution of these contradictions. had no eye for this. i. p. – itself a This World compared with the abstract-anthropological This World of Feuerbach.' In order to be truly radical. 1/1. To find this closer aspect of the worldly basis was for Marx precisely the work whose main task still remained to be done. p. show an Above and a Below. namely a social one. but so that he can throw off the chain and pick the living flower' (1. by the 'root'. the former must now itself be criticized and radically changed in practice. . Only after this progressive critique. either as deception or even as compensation: 'The critique has picked to pieces the imaginary flowers on the chain. for . this consciousness arises together with its religious reflection from a much closer split. a forlorn. of their contradictions and their false.. right down to that matured economicmaterialistic 'secret science' which then causes Marx to say in 'Das Kapital': 'Besides. Men double their world not only because they have an inwardly torn. wishing consciousness. according to Marx's definition: in order to grasp things by the radix. via mere individuals. the glance at the processes which really underlie alienation was necessary. Rather. after the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the holy family. to the ground of real humanity and possible humanness. of which the religious is only one among many. an undialectical stranger to history. 608). do we arrive at a situation which no longer requires any illusions. Marx had already formulated this so forcibly and unmistakably in the 'Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right' of 1844: 'The critique of religion ends . Feuerbach. a contemptible being' (MEGA I.

inevitably causes an idealism of an embarrassed kind in this philosopher at the end of his philosophy. Feuerbach himself had claimed that he was a materialist looking backwards (i. to know that the history of property forms its secret history' (Das Kapital I. that is. as soon as they venture out beyond their specialized field' (Das Kapital I. 1947. 88). P. the act of producing can and must not be forgotten over the product. which was the only kind Feuerbach knew. the analysis of religious self-alienation. regarding ethics and even the philosophy of religion). Furthermore the 'German Ideology' states: 'In Feuerbach materialism and history completely fall apart'. Once again the governing influence here is merely. fundamentally goes beyond ideologies to the closer role of the state. 'the perception of single individuals in "bourgeois society"'.e. Since. and whenever he takes history into account. but once again even religion. P. history and its dialectic in Feuerbach's materialism. Achieves it as social-scientific basic insight into the 'relation of men to men and to nature'. as Thesis 7 stresses. which had ostensibly been disposed of. in order for it to be a truly radical one. to the very closest political economy and achieves here for the first time real 'anthropology'. The latter is the only materialistic and therefore scientific method. 1947.e. history does not appear in his work.Page 266 example. not socially criticized. precisely the feeling occasioned by this that life is missing in the old mechanical materialism. a religion which was merely derived anthropologically by him. makes itself apparent in Feuerbach. 5. thus establishing the basic difference between dialectical-historical materialism and the old mechanical kind: 'Whenever Feuerbach is a materialist. The defects of abstractly natural scientific materialism which excludes the historical process can already be seen from the abstract and ideological ideas of its spokesmen. Dietz. 34). Consequently. untenability of Feuerbach's dissolution: 'It is in fact much easier to find the earthly core of the nebulous shapes of religion through analysis than conversely to develop deified forms from the respective conditions of real life. but an idealist looking forwards (i. he is no materialist' (MEGA I. as Thesis 9 says. but essentially only their displacement into an other world and thus the weakening of man and . It revealed itself clearly in his ethics of life. p. 389). as it is by the unhistorical. The following passage in 'Das Kapital' once more refers to this ultimate half-measure. This is evident in the way that Feuerbach does not actually criticize the contents of religion. 'the religious disposition is itself a social product'. undialectical Feuerbach. Precisely the omission of society. Dietz. regarding the basis of nature). it shows itself in the hints of a certain Sunday-brotherhood sentimentality.

therefore. with and in which it merely commences. is omnipotent. the problem: humane legacy of religion. it has just moved from its heavenly location to a certain abstract region. this was evaluated nominalistically. Moreover. Who would wish to underestimate precisely the depth of humanity. he allows almost all the attributes of the father-god to remain. Instead of: God is merciful. Accordingly. with reified virtues of the 'natural basis'. did not arise. conversely. there are of course undoubtedly problems involved in this reduction. is no 'idealism forwards' even with regard to religion. In so far as he consequently sought to remind 'human nature' of its squandered wealth again.Page 267 his This World. thought definitely does not aim into the poorly general. with unparalleled heart. hearing prayers are divine. which Engels correctly identifies in Feuerbach's stale dregs of religion. omnipotence. in Grünewald. the humanity of the depth in religion-charged art. Theory-Practice-Group: Proof and Probation Theses 2.or father-contents. In Marx. wealth of materialism without a poorly demystified heaven which must be brought down to earth. working miracles. but religion came at a reduced price. which has not the least in common either with the other world of mythology. in Bach and ultimately even perhaps in Bruckner? But Feuerbach. abstract. because it leads away from the individual into the general. and only the heavenly god is struck from the list. as virtues in themselves so to speak. in the unavoidable emptiness of his 'idealism forwards'. works miracles. the whole apparatus of theology remains intact. makes out of all this almost a kind of non-denominational pectoral theology. Marxism. Feuerbach had denigrated thought. however. but materialism forwards. Into an other world beyond hardship. which Feuerbach probably had in mind. love. 8 It is not recognized here that thought is pale and feeble. In this way. to suit a poorly demystified habitual embourgeoisement. Thesis 2 sets it above sensory perception. in Giotto. which is called dialectical-historical materialism. however. hears our prayers – all that can be said now is: mercifulness. but just the opposite: it opens up precisely the mediated essential context of the . also posits the transformation of the world from within itself. soul brotherhood and melting soul. is love. or with its master. The truly total explanation of the world from within itself.

Thus thought. one which is still sealed to the mere sensoriness in the appearance. Thus Thesis 2 states: 'The question of whether Objective truth is appropriate to human thinking is not a question of theory. theoretically acquired practice. but a practical question. Thought must of course lead once again to perception. Just as every truth is a truth for a certain purpose. immediate Feuerbachian kind. as pervasive. the reality and power. In practice man must prove the truth. So the function of thought is. Since. The proof can instead only lie in the mediatedness of the perception. that is. a school-bound question in the sense of a dosed thought-immanence (including mechanical-materialistic thoughts). is concrete precisely when it is mediated. This is however ultimately the sensoriness of theoretically mediated. thoughtless sensory material is abstract. in comparison. In both cases. previous philosophy really does appear 'scholastic'. The argument about the reality or non-reality of a thinking which isolates itself from practice is a purely scholastic question. solely in that sensoriness which has been theoretically processed and has thus become Thing For Us. since in fact it never gets beyond mere inner 'agreement'. but even at this end this perception is by no means the passive. whereas conversely.' That is. so too there is no complete proof of a truth from within itself as a truth which merely remains theoretical. as observed above. Correctness is not yet truth. in other words: there is no theoretically-immanently possible complete proof. except as self-deception or whimsy. In other words: truth is not a theory relationship alone. depiction of reality and also the power of intervening in reality according to the measure of its known agencies and laws. this contemplative boarding-school was the space of all previous concepts of truth. the This-worldliness of his thinking. in order to prove itself. even more than sensory perception. insistent. which Feuerbach only allows to be abstract. in the ages of the ancient and feudal contempt for work and in the age of the bourgeois work-ethic (without concreteness of work). however. a critical. was regarded at best . an activity.e. but even here it proves to be only a partial proof of a specific kind. With its theory-practice relationship. Only a partial proof can be achieved purely theoretically. in the latter. Thesis 2 is therefore wholly creative and new. or on the other hand activity as bourgeois-abstract activity was not truly mediated with its object. practice. and there is no truth for its own sake. both technological and political. that is. i. logically consistent 'correctness'. revealing activity. mostly still in mathematics.Page 268 appearance. and the best proof is thus the practical testing of this deciphering. but a definite theory-practice relationship. either ancient and medieval epistemology did not reflect activity.

however. science remains autarkical. does not lie in practice. so to speak. Changed in the sense of the inductive method. The various 'philosophies of action'. All that was proved. as in Marx. have even less similarity with Marx's practice-criterion. but with ethics as the fruit. Hegel comes closest to a premonition of a practice-criterion. and then again. Every confrontation in the history of philosophy confirms in this case the Novum of the theory-practice relationship as opposed to mere 'application' of theory. despite all opposition to purely theoretical knowledge and contemplative cognition. but. the founder of the site of the medieval papal church. but the theory nevertheless led its own abstract. the nominalist destroyer of the papal church in favour of rising national states. as at the end of the Middle Ages in William of Occam. Thus the right thought and doing what is right finally become one and the same. the proof. it simply served not so much to better the world of the Not-I by processing it as to remove it completely. by this basically world-hostile 'practice' was the in any case settled subjective starting-point of Fichtean ego-idealism. and in fact characteristically on account of the . Fichte's 'active deeds' may itself have shown power and line on important national political points. not an additional colour brought in from elsewhere. and only its method is to be changed. he wanted to re-establish the whole of science and to give it a new aim. And even Bacon. arose in the left-wing school of Hegelians. Even when a part of the theory was already aimed at practice: as in Socrates. as in Plato when he tried to realize his utopian state in Sicily. as ars inveniendi. In the end. not however an objective truth which first develops with and through the world. this is rather regarded even here only as the fruit and reward of truth. at best like an idea to its utilization. going back to Fichte. Not as attestation that the theory is a concrete one. The colour of the resolution is its own in this conclusion. practically unmediated separate existence. not as its final criterion and as demonstration. As in Augustine.Page 269 as the 'application' of theory. There was undoubtedly a social and practical mission behind all these. like a prince to his people. the methodically directed experiment. of true depiction into intervention with power over being. as in the Stoics with logic as mere wall. It only condescended to 'application' to practice. in the sharp bourgeois-practical utilitarianism of the new age: he did indeed teach that knowledge is power. Activity and partisan attitude are contained within it from the beginning. and therefore emerge again as true conclusion at the end. not as the functional change of the key into the lever. but ultimately it always proved ethereal. physics as mere tree. which derived from Fichte and from Hegel.

thus ultimately prevailed over the dialectical process-thinker Hegel with his crypto-practice. but . 'free mind' was to result. . thinking) to the antithesis 'practical mind' (feeling. 'in the chapter "The idea of cognition" . a work which expressly presents it as necessary to use philosophy to change the world. And also. 1838. wants what it knows and knows what it wants. 133). Dietz 1949. It only appears as the thought of the world in the time after which reality has completed its formation-process and finished itself. a transition occurs in Hegel's psychology from 'theoretical mind' (perception. Thus this synthesis proclaimed itself as the self-knowing will. out of which then. 'philosophy always comes too late anyway. 'science of appearing knowledge' and nothing more. Feuerbach himself identified this in Bruno Bauer. see the Theses on Feuerbach' (Aus dem philosophischen Nachlaß. when Marx was young.). the substance) almost as far back into the subject as Fichte does. . according to Hegel's famous statement at the end of the preface to his 'Philosophy of Right'. undoubtedly means that in Hegel practice is a link in the chain in the analysis of the process of cognition . 'All this'. . but also of what is simply real' is appropriate to the practical good (Werke V. bliss). p. However. which ultimately. . driving will. synthetically. . so that not instinctive. 320f. as will which thinks and knows itself. This was the 'weapon of criticism'.' The closedcircuit thinker Hegel. But what was at work here in fact was essentially only a return from the objective idealism of Hegel to the subjective idealism of Fichte. notes Lenin. in 'the rational State'. so that in the end. Consequently Marx is establishing a direct link with Hegel when he introduces the criterion of practice into epistemology. in so far as 'not only the dignity of what is general. at the end of his Logic. Likewise the 'practical idea' is already classed above the 'idea of contemplated cognition' in Hegelian logic. but 're-minding'. just as at the end of his Phenomenology and of his fully-developed system.Page 270 relationship to work in his phenomenology. the so-called 'philosophy of action'. In addition. This series of so-called philosophies of action began with the otherwise not uninteresting work by Cieszkovski: 'Prolegomena to Historiosophy'. Thus in these 'Prolegomena' there are even appeals for rational research into the tendencies of history: so that the correct course of action can be taken. the object. p. it is not practice which crowns truth. soon also sharp practice of the left-wing Hegelians and all that goes along with it. imagination. Hegel leads the world (the Object. There is still – in order to measure the distance of Marx's doctrine of practice even in the immediate environment of his youth – the practice. the antiquarium of what is unalterably already existing.

the 'critical critique'.Page 271 conscious actions form world history. And rather than merely being glued on to theory. in such a way that theory continues to pursue its own life and its immanent self-sufficiency even in its proofs. and the whole will towards the future ultimately ended in a theosophy of – Amen in the orthodox church. resulted in absolutely nothing even in Cieszkovski's other writings. theory and practice continually . on his own account. as is evident. so that the will is brought to the same peak to which reason had been brought by Hegel. according to Marx and Lenin. merely paraded in the Tattersalls of self-importance. a kind of l'art pour l'art-practice of the arrogant mind with itself. to reduce itself to reform of moral consciousness – a 'philosophy of action' without developed economic theory behind it. In Marx's own circle there was still Bruno Bauer's work of course. even one of the Last Judgement. from the 'Closed Commercial State' to the 'Speeches to the German Nation'. 3. in such a way that thought remains purely scientific and does not in the least require 'application'. however. in Bruno Bauer it immediately retreated into individualism. and yet it remained only declaratory. did at least still have energetic directives in view. p. he philosophized the French out of Germany. in fact into an egocentricity contemptuous of the masses. Bauer's 'critical critique' was simply a battle in and between thoughts. And.but also post-theoretical practice can gain space. When reactionary thinking under Friedrich Wilhelm IV put this 'weapon of criticism' to the test. in the cause of genuine practice and its unmistakableness. Cieszkovski's rejection of speculation became a rejection of reason. closer to Marx. so that in this way a not only pre. and eventually Stirner's 'The Lone Individual and his Property' developed from it. from the doctrine of unity between theory and practice. let alone of Fichtean subjectivism. In the cause of revolutionary practice: beginning with the proletariat. but in fact the most subjective of all. published at the time of the 'Communist Manifesto'. in fact the 'interests of the future' became more and more irrational and obscure in his work. the virtuous man of wrath. The concepts of practice until Marx are therefore completely different from his theory-practice conception. without a timetable of dialectically comprehended tendency within it. likewise a 'philosophy of action'. 189). This all sounds significant. Marx himself has said the decisive thing about this in the 'Holy Family'. equipped with the fruitful aspect of the Hegelian dialectic and not with abstractions from the 'wilted and widowed philosophy of Hegel' (MEGA I. Fichte. even in the work of the thoroughly honest Socialist Moses Hess action had a tendency to detach itself from social activity. activity became an activity of 'active intuition'.

nor to establish its kingdom. And warmth also definitely seeks to be inherent in thinking here. It is sated all too easily by its own excellence. from a bourgeois-conformist. In this case not a l'art pour l'art-critical self-confidence. he reveals the lack of any social cognition even here by retreating to mere individuals and their eternally languishing relationships.Page 272 oscillate. . becomes the haze of a new pseudo-active selfconfidence. then it quite obviously follows from this that this love which has not been able to conquer hatred does not supply the active energy necessary for social reforms. Concrete thought had never been valued more highly than it was here. where it became the light for action. sanctimonious. for this very reason general 'socialism' of love recommends itself to all the crocodile tears of a capitalistically interested philanthropy. But when experience teaches that this love has not become effective in 1800 years. This statement is from the 'Principles of the Philosophy of the Future'. without which no true knowledge combined with good action is at all possible in socialist terms. Indeed these feelings bring partiality into play. since it is helpful thinking. just as it itself further releases and needs new theory in order to continue a new practice. where it became the crowning of truth. From a past which. but a sentimentally uncritical one which is stifling and vague. practice presupposes theory. of hatred of the exploiters. He defuses love into the general emotional relation between I and You. As in Feuerbach himself: he always set his equivocation 'sensation' in place of practice. does not in the least seek to change the world today for the good. Hence Marx and Engels: 'The kingdom of love was preached precisely as opposed to bad reality. very often. 1846. that it has not been able to transform social conditions. The warmth of wanting-to-help itself. But a feeling of love which is not itself illuminated by cognition blocks the very helping action on which it would like to embark. of love for the victims. p. Tartuffishly sabotaging past. and never had action been valued more highly than here. indeed. Feuerbach's caricature of the Sermon on the Mount excludes all harshness in prosecuting injustice. to hatred . in fact it is the action-substitute from the past. Since both alternately and reciprocally swing into one another. . He effeminates humanity thus: 'The new philosophy is in relation to its base (!) itself nothing more than the nature of sensation raised into consciousness – it affirms only in and with reason what every person – the real person – admits in his heart' (Werke II. but to perpetuate it in the bad. precisely because of its abstractly declamatory love of mankind. while including total laxness in the class struggle. This love gets lost . as in Bruno Bauer. 324).

do help themselves. non-denominational philistinism mentioned above. But the mysteries of today's profound babbling which is no longer even idealistic – almost as different from Feuerbach's mysticism as this was from the mysticism of Meister Eckhart – hide their heart up their sleeves. and the newly contrived love is only there for the sake of the war. forest of uncomprehended contradictions as still uncomprehended in reality. and those. Their hypocritical love of mankind is however only the weapon of war of a much more total hatred: namely of communism. And that is why the real conditions of this world. . And even the word mysticism is not used without reason by Marx on the subject of . are the other. has spread in quite a different way than in Feuerbach's relatively harmless time. the sharp contrast in society today between capital and work. and it will pave the way for the socialist reforms through transformation of present conditions of trade sooner than all the love which glows in all the hearts brimming with feeling in the world' (Circular against H. . can lead into mysticism. which are idolatry of darkness for its own sake. But even things that are simply unfathomed. what Thomas Münzer would not only have called 'contrived belief' but also 'contrived love'.' Here of course a distinction is being made between two types of mysteries: namely those which present what is unclarified. a supporter of Feuerbach. and the rational solution only human practice.e. those who must help themselves. which keeps to humanity (rather than the forest). Thesis 8 says: 'All mysteries which lead theory into mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the rational solution of this practice. for this very reason only rational practice is the human solution here. and instead of the empty rosy mist there is today a nothingness exploited by the bourgeoisie. Therefore deprivation gives man strength. This iron necessity creates a wide audience and active adherents for socialist endeavour.Page 273 in sentimental phrases through which no real. as they appear in their most developed form in industrial trade. among renegades and pseudo-socialists. aporias. and especially the misty-line in them. Together with the mysticism which is not lacking even in Feuerbach. 11th May 1846). had no worse shortcoming than the poorly demystified. called actual mysticisms. and which. more powerfully bubbling source of the socialist world-view. Since then. progressive. of the desire for social reforms . factual conditions can be removed. i. in the formless roaring of the fulfilment of its heart. which here still at least wished to be 'forward idealism'. of its God-the-Fatherliness made anthropological. between bourgeoisie and proletariat. it makes man lethargic with the enormous emotional pap on which it feeds him. Kriege.

Without factions in love. 34. certainly have nothing in common with that which later emerged as rottenness and night-irratio. just as the German disaster-line leads from Schopenhauer to Nietzsche and the consequences. there is no genuine love. Marx's theory for the sake of practice started both functioning. Feuerbach lies instead on that German salvation-line which leads from Hegel to Marx. Or even worse. is undoubtedly an imperative agent in socialism. the love-mysteries without clarity. in so far as it proceeds towards real knowledge. and ethics at last becomes flesh. One reason why it notices nothing of it is because the world can so easily be rearranged in false representations that nothing real appears in the book at all. which leaves things as they are. Hence Marx also attacks in Feuerbach a dangerous inflatedness. which believes it cannot help but rearrange things.* and if Christians of feeling remain locked in defeatism. And love of mankind. in so far as it clearly understands itself as being directed towards the exploited. in fact it is used against the non-sword of abstract love which leaves the Gordian knot alone. without partiality of the revolutionary class standpoint there only remains backward idealism instead of forward practice. At the ethical conclusion of Feuerbach's philosophy of the future both philosophy and future are missing. . To repeat: Feuerbach's mysteries. one which enjoys itself as it is. how much more so socialists of feeling in pharisaical betrayal. while the world itself notices nothing of it. but only in the book. Every step outwards would be damaging here to the * 'Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour. But if the salt can lose his savour. The Password and Its Meaning Thesis 11 It is recognized here that the future aspect is the nearest and most important. Without the primacy of the head to the very end there are only mysteries of resolution rather than the resolution of mysteries. with an equally concrete pole of hatred. how much more so the sugar its sweetness. on the bottom line a pectoral practice which achieves the opposite of what the altruism it preaches to and its ineffably universal love intend. But not in fact after Feuerbach's fashion. Which contents itself from beginning to end with contemplation.Page 274 Feuerbach. which never sets sail. wherewith shall it be seasoned?' Luke 14.

Underlying American pragmatism is the view that truth is nothing more than the commercial usefulness of ideas. like Feuerbach's. Then from time to time they cause us difficulty. one successfully achieved at last 'in terms of a work'. there is a so-called aha-experience of truth.Page 275 neatly figured-out book living in its own nature reserve and would disturb the private life of invented thoughts. Especially if. Nevertheless. 1907). because the work – even if. but the point is to change it. very much against their will. it sets up principles of the future – could then no longer hover through the ages in such an autarkical manner. his arms. ultimately downright disreputable. the public was wholly confined to the equally contemplative reader. But even the most authentic books and doctrines often show the typically contemplative desire to be satisfied with themselves in their framed context. in this case difficulty which is hostile to intelligence.' A significant difference to every previous impetus to thought is thus strikingly designated. the businessman. at least alien to intelligence. from a region which is hostile to it. as we noted at the beginning. but seems to have misunderstood its colloquial application. . sometimes seem as if they can be assessed more quickly than they in fact can. And with celebrated propositions there is sometimes the problem that. repeatedly subscribe to Marx's proposition. as was again the case in Feuerbach. Short propositions. In William James ('Pragmatism'. just as if it was – American cultural barbarity. Hence. bustlers. as soon and in so far as this is aimed at practical success and actually shows itself to be suitable for bringing it about. but it remained a mere vantage point. The standpoint may have been a new one. they no longer stimulate reflection. 'busy bodies'. and which could not be further from the sense of the proposition.e. intellectually inferior. conceptual invention thus gave no instructions for real intervention. What exactly is intended by Thesis 11 then. his actions were not addressed. Consequently they even fear a change in the portrayed world which might possibly arise out of themselves. The latter stems from a region which is utterly alien to Marxism. how must it be understood in Marx's invariably precise philosophical sense? It must not be understood or rather: misused by mixing it in any way with pragmatism. * as they say in America. as 'American way * Bloch is using the English expression here. i. Marx states the celebrated Thesis 11: 'Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. or that we swallow them too raw. Consequently. this was supplemented by an intended or naive political indifference. briefly and antithetically.

What served the German nation. interchangeable. there arises on the site of the 'trial and error method'. made pragmatism ripe even for horse-trader ideology. their intention revolutionary. of practicism. How speciously a truth for its own sake was spurned here too. according to the war situation. even in an almost life-promoting and optimistic way. These were therefore. of tinkering. This is why pragmatism initially also professed to be the patron of those various. their will is pure. i.e. How speciously concrete too was the demand here for the probation of truth in practice. and yet how harmlessly. in the fullness of time. even less such a thing as a humanitarian businessman than there is such a thing as a Marxist playboy. the second partially imperialist war of the Nazi aggressors. logical 'instruments' with which the higher order of businessman achieves almost 'humanitarian success'. and what appeared to be useful for its purposes. what furthered the interests of life. what served German capital finance. the consequences of pragmatism. not even as if it were at least an 'instrument' to be maintained. their goal humanitarian. they do not have the least in common with the pragmatists. How great the falsifiability of Thesis 11 is then in the heads of scorners of intelligence and practicists. Now it is no longer a question of truth at all. without saying that this was done on account of a lie for the sake of business. Certainly. was right. Two imperialist wars. i. until finally the utterly disgraceful pragmatism of the Nazis appeared. in moral terms. Both on account of the pink packaging of American capitalism still possible at that time. and the pink package of 'humanitarian success' completely went to the devil who was in it from the beginning.e. maximum profit. to a certain extent still appears to be generally human. and consequently nothing less than the whole wealth of Marxist theory together with the critical appropriation of the cultural legacy within it. Now ideas wavered and changed like share prices. that cruel falsification of Thesis 11 which is reminiscent of pragmatism in . But by omitting the head here. thus after James. But there is no more such a thing. and above all on account of the tendency of every class society to present its special interest as that of the whole of humanity. as far as practicists in the socialist movement are concerned. as is self-evident. was truth. the business situation.Page 276 of life'. is so to speak garnished in a humanitarian way. indeed how deceptively it may have also looked like 'theory-practice'. even in 'changing' the world. pragmatism in America and in the whole of the world-bourgeoisie quickly showed itself for what it is: the final agnosticism of a society stripped of any will towards the truth. the first generally imperialist war from 1914 to 1918.

Page 277 methodological terms. the danger has always existed that contact with reality would suffer. but ignorance of a consequence is no protection against stultification. a reality which is never to be interpreted schematically and simplistically.e. a theory advancing with great strides. The practicists. especially complicated theory. But it can thus refer even less to the most valuable thesis on Feuerbach. Lenin formulates the same idea in the pithy dictum: 'Marx's doctrine is allpowerful because it is true. with at best short-term credit for theory. where practice was otherwise supposed to succeed in socialist terms. Practicism which borders on pragmatism is a consequence of this falsification. still at least an activity. holds open. one which is as always uncomprehended. Thus just as there has been a lack of socialist theoreticians. they can still be closed again and again by an interested misinterpretation of Thesis 11. – Ratio keeps watch on this stretch of practice. By one which ironically enough believes it can detect in the highest triumph of philosophy – which takes place in Thesis 11 – an abdication of philosophy. Three Sources and Three Components of Marxism). It must therefore be repeatedly emphasized: in Marx a thought is not true because it is useful. then the . For if the destruction of reason sinks back into the barbaric irrational. Precisely that future aspect is poorly served here which no longer comes towards us uncomprehended. English political economy and French socialism. i. greatest in that they were the most reliable truth-witnesses.' And he continues: 'It is the rightful heiress of the best that humanity produced in the nineteenth century in the shape of German philosophy. create in the middle of the Marxist system of light the darkness of their own private ignorance and of the resentment which so easily goes with ignorance. Even if these are open doors which the anti-pragmatism of the greatest practice-thinkers. misunderstanding then becomes blasphemy. since the schematism of unthinkingness also lives from its own. but it is useful because it is true. but to which conversely our active knowledge comes. Sometimes in fact not even practicism.' And he states a few lines previously: 'The whole genius of Marx consists in the fact that he gave answers to the questions which the progressive thinking of humanity had already posed' (Lenin. in fact a kind of non-bourgeois pragmatism. In other words: real practice cannot take a single stride without having consulted theory economically and philosophically. Just as it keeps watch on every stretch of humanitarian road home: against the irrational which ultimately also shows itself in any practice devoid of concept. from inactive anti-philosophy. is necessary to explain such alienation from theory.

not with contemplative quiet – raised above his major work of learned research. what is its apparent contrast between knowing and changing? There is no contrast. though the latter does not of course shed blood. we must jump out of . MEGA I. but rather broadening particle 'but' is missing in Marx's original (cf. is as inevitable as it is suitable. not however that they – have philosophized. in painstaking examination. and from nothing else. Even banality is thus counter-revolution against Marxism itself. right at the end. but ruins Marxism. not 'Guide to Success' or even 'Active Propaganda'. But interpretation is related to contemplation and follows from it. even the not contrary. the 'German Ideology'. contains the strongest polemical attack: 'We must set aside philosophy. of an active philosophy. So much for false understanding. The identification of the first part of the proposition thus pushes off from the philosophers who 'have only interpreted the world in various ways'. And previous philosophers are reproached for the fact – or rather: it is identified as a class barrier in them – that they have only interpreted the world in various ways. 5. which was in fact a non-philosophy. non-contemplative knowledge is thus now distinguished as a new flag which truly carries us to victory. as the second part of the proposition reveals: on that of a new. characteristically. there is just as little sign of an either-or. it does set sail. but only on an extremely well thought-out voyage. The false equally requires elucidation precisely because Thesis 11 is the most important – corruptio optimi pessima. But precisely against a particular kind of contemplative philosophy. towards knowledge of the dialectical laws of development in nature and society as a whole. At the same time this thesis is the most succintly expressed one. But as a flag of knowledge. since Marxism is the consummation (not the Americanization) of the most progressive thoughts of humanity. whenever it was important philosophy from a great age. so a commentary here must go into the literal meaning much more than with the others. which was aimed at these epigones. it is not a sort of recipe for a quick heroic deed ante rem. This major work is a clear directive for action. With the course set towards comprehended necessity.Page 278 ignorance of reason sinks back into the stupid irrational. So what is the significance of the wording in Thesis 11. namely that of the Hegel epigones of his time. philosophizing contextual exploration of the most difficult reality. but it is called 'Das Kapital'. where it surfaces. but stands in the middle of the res. but not against contemplative philosophy per se. Undoubtedly Marx did direct harsh words against philosophy. p. Hence. as the same flag which Marx – though with action. in order to achieve change. 535). one which.

as we know full well. and if we then come across people like Kuhlmann or Stirner again. It was not directed at Hegelian philosophy and other great philosophies of the past. subsequently of revisionism and similar 'political realists'. we find that we have had them ''behind" us and below us for a long time. The limitation of its field of vision does not rank philosophy as well in the precincts of German reality or imagine it even under the rubric of German practice and the theories that serve it. only with reverse factors. for which there is enormous material even in literature. but you forget that the real living seed of the German nation has until now only proliferated beneath its skull. Of real previous philosophy. It believes it can achieve that negation by turning its back on philosophy and murmuring a few irritated and banal phrases about it with its head turned away. You demand that we should start from real living seeds. apply ourselves to the study of reality. quite rightly. it did not consider that subsequent philosophy itself belongs to this world and is its. of which philosophers are of course unaware. no matter how contemplative these were considered to be. was committed by the theoretical political faction which dates from philosophy. with the accent on abolition. It saw in the present struggle only the critical struggle of philosophy with the German world. albeit ideal. the minds of the Prussian reaction. the most knowledgeable encyclopedist since Aristotle. is said for the 'theoreticians': 'The same wrong. 216). In a word: You cannot abolish philosophy without realizing it. Where it is quite wrong is not in the demand but in stopping at the demand which in all seriousness it neither implements nor can achieve. is said for the 'men of practice': 'Hence. This kind of objection was raised to Hegel by minds fundamentally different to Marx and Engels. The names Kuhlmann (a pietistic theologian of the time) and especially Stirner show only too dearly to which address or kind of philosophy this mighty invective was directed. as ordinary people. p. Marx would have been the last person to have missed a 'study of the real world' in the concrete philosopher Hegel. it was directed at philosophical windbaggery. 5. namely in the sense of a creative real entry into an inheritance. Philosophy is about as similar to study of the real world as masturbation is to love-making' (MEGA I. on the other hand.' The second. The former. Previously the 'Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right' of 1844 had already clearly established that philosophy could not be abolished without realizing it. could not be realized without abolishing it. with the accent on realization. . completion.Page 279 it and. Marx speaks quite differently even in the 'German Ideology'. the practical political faction in Germany demands the negation of philosophy.

613). is well-versed in ultra-violet. However. but the absolutely new aspect does not consist in the idea that the only philosophy which is capable of changing and destined to change the world concretely is not – philosophy at all any more. that is: in the future-laden properties of reality. of the critical 'repose of knowing'). to autarkical-contemplative philosophy. concerning the changing of the world.e. not to every possible and future philosophy in general. We will reserve a closer portrayal of this faction for the moment' (it occurred in the 'Holy Family' and in the 'German Ideology'. it does not refer to one which changes the world in a revolutionary way. Marx thus gives both factions of the time an antidote for their behaviour. i. p. with staying power. change can also be brought about through megalomania. Indeed. despite all the contemplation. even through the ravings of mental illness which Hegel calls a 'perfect . and greater abolition of philosophy on the theoreticians. Because it is so like never before. there is. although these – assuming they are justified – are conversely only to be obtained through the negation of subsequent (!) philosophy. it behaved uncritically towards itself. The 'negation' refers to philosophy with truth for its own sake. in each case a reverse medicina mentis: he imposes greater realization of philosophy on the practical men of that time. 'Its basic defect can be reduced to this: It believed it could realize philosophy without abolishing it' (MEGA I. even without a concept. with full cultural inheritance. even inside the 'subsequent philosophy'. 1/1. of philosophy as philosophy. the Huns also changed things. Marxism would not be a change at all in the true sense if it were no theoreticalpractical primacy of true philosophy before and in it. so much 'study of the real world' that even German classical philosophy does not figure in a totally impractical way among the 'three sources and three components of Marxism'. Changing in the untrue sense is easy of course in many ways. Not least philosophy which. with the severest critique of degenerate contemplation.Page 280 Critical of its adversary. even the 'negation' of philosophy (itself a very highly philosophically charged concept deriving from Hegel) refers in a most explicit way here to 'subsequent philosophy'. to one which simply interprets the world in an antiquarian way. which is of course so fundamentally different from the Hegel epigones. in that it began with the assumptions of philosophy and either stuck at its given results or issued demands and results of philosophy imported from elsewhere. hence precisely the triumph of knowledge in the second part of the proposition of Thesis 11. through anarchism. in its proletarian revolutionary mission. The absolutely new aspect in Marxist philosophy consists in the radical changing of its basis.

abolition accentuated against the 'theoreticians'). as the sharpest symptom of human selfalienation.Page 281 depiction of chaos'. Its thought (the knowledgeconscience of all practice. the true resurrection of nature. the proletariat cannot abolish itself without the realization of philosophy. The dialectical unity of correctly understood accents reads. In the sense in which Marx expresses it in the 'Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts'. p. the accomplished naturalism of man and the accomplished humanism of nature' (MEGA I. But sound change. as soon as it is not only grasped as a class. 1/1. Philosophical change is change with unstinting knowledge of its context. as Marx teaches. . of real possibility. The final perspective of changing the world which Marx attempted to formulate shines here. especially that into the realm of freedom. which are only placed antithetically: concerning realization or abolition of philosophy (realization accentuated against the 'men of practice'. 3. and neither have those empiricists whom Engels called 'induction asses'. of dialectical tendency. Philosophical change is thus a change according to the stipulations of the analyzed situation. is undoubtedly a long act: a total abolition of this kind coincides with the final act of communism. it certainly is the separate knowledge and conscience of this Totum in all sciences. And seen from this point of view. incapable of interpretation. as is well-known: 'Philosophy cannot realize itself without the abolition of the proletariat. since the Totum does not itself stand as a Factum. Thus society is the perfect essential unity of man with nature. schematists with a horde of quotations. cited above. It is the progressive consciousness of the progressive Totum. Out and out philosophers have subsequently changed the world in this way: Marx. but equally. have not changed it. as it creates resurrection of nature. 116). but solely circulates with the still Unbecome in the gigantic context of Becoming.' And the abolition of the proletariat. of objective laws. Engels. which is generally incapable of contemplation. Lenin. in which the still distant Totum is mirrored) undoubtedly demands just as much newness of philosophy. Practicists from the hollow of the hand. at the end of the already quoted 'Introduction' (MEGA I. That is why therefore in the end philosophical change takes place essentially in the horizon of the future. Marx also rose above the changing accents. with ever more precisely mastered necessity. 621). comes about solely through sound knowledge. for if philosophy does not represent a separate science above all other sciences. but is discernible in a Marxist sense. with a perspective which is at home precisely in the philosophically most extreme 'Eschaton': 'Only here for him (for man) has his natural existence become his human existence and nature for him become man. p.

e. furthermore. let alone perpetuate things as they are. the beginning philosophy of revolution? It is surely not the new. often falsely sublime character. Already in Thesis 4 the Archimedean point had been discovered from which the old world could thus be lifted off its hinges and the new one on to its hinges. what is it finally that discovered the starting-point of the 'Eleven Theses'. Neither is it only the critically and creatively claimed inheritance of German philosophy. with the other early writings. one not experienced by Feuerbach. but rather used it as material power. on to the barricades. . of English political economy. ultimately it becomes expert at being so. Because it has become a truly political song. necessary though these three enzymes. 'the past rules over the present. And precisely because it has relinquished its earlier. a short time later: 'The communists are directing their main attention on Germany. 1848.' Hence the particular impetus. did not appear in any previous philosophy whatsoever. and the German revolution can therefore only be the immediate prelude to a proletarian revolution. in fact has hardly been fully considered by and in Marx himself. because Germany is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution and because it is achieving this radical change under more progressive conditions of European civilization in general and with a much further developed proletariat than England in the seventeenth and France in the eighteenth century. But rather what finally led to the Archimedean point. were for the formation of Marxism. Knowledge Related Not Only to What Is Past. that is. which immediately brought the new philosophy. did not take. and with this to theory-practice. 'In bourgeois society'. the Archimedean point in the 'worldly basis' of today: 'The latter itself must therefore first be understood in its contradiction and then be revolutionized by eliminating the contradiction in practice. but Essentially to What Is Coming Up To begin with the mind became so powerful. of French socialism.' And so. however decisively it tore itself free from contemplation. which did not countenance the mind as ether. proletarian mandate alone. the point in time is once again important when. in statu nascendi. finally managed to get beyond contemplated and past material to the present. i. says the Communist Manifesto. in those days. To a present. Marx wrote about it in the 'Communist Manifesto'. primarily Hegel's dialectic and Feuerbach's renewed materialism. To understand this. the 'Eleven Theses' emerged into this powerful light.Page 282 The Archimedean Point.

in the sense of enclosed definability. and on account of the apparent Fixum at the back of men. essence is the . the openness in front of them. but also in fact in the mere relation to Becomeness inscribed in every contemplation. The New thus remained beyond its grasp. 'searching and learning are purely and simply – memory. but the Object of knowledge had to be simply material that has been thoroughly formed. and consequently the producing element on account of the reified product. Thus the beginning philosophy of revolution. of changeability for the better. in fact it has its origin precisely where the work process was not at all considered in cognition. Marx himself notes the same block: 'Feuerbach's whole deduction regarding the relationship of people to one another only goes to prove that people need and have always needed each other. occurrence is totally bent under its finished history. says Socrates in the 'Meno' dialogue (81B–82A) and points to vision precisely in the primal past of the soul.' It is the spell of this contemplative antiquarium which – despite all social changes in the concept of knowledge – has kept philosophy until Marx not only in contemplation. remained an embarrassment.' And the present rules together with the horizon within it. simply vision. Aristotle. Factum. This is the proper place for Plato's anamnesis: 'For truly'. since only this can be contemplated. the 'What-Was-Being'. statuary distinctness. Thinking in commodityform has particularly intensified this old traditional impotence. the great dialectical process thinker. He seeks to establish consciousness via this fact. which is the horizon of the future. like the other theoreticians. i. but it also makes evident: the thought-form commodity is itself the intensified thought-form Becomeness. so that knowledge not only had to be. the present. On account of this Factum the Fieri is particularly easily forgotten. whereas for real communists it is a question of .e. he therefore seeks. in which the Becoming of the New has its Front. All knowledge was however previously related essentially to what is past. and beingness simply Been-ness. Even for the thinker of development. as shown above. since the way capitalism turns all men and things into a commodity not only lends them alienation. and essence is the reality that has become. with the science of the New and power to guide it. the space of new. Not least in Feuerbach. feasibly better present. But the false reciprocal relationship between knowledge and past is very much older. was ultimately revealed on and in the horizon of the future. merely to produce a correct consciousness via an existing Factum. and which gives to the flow of the present specific space. in which it 'is one with its appearance'.Page 283 in communist society the present rules over the past. Even for Hegel.

more than the Middle Ages. and especially to crucial problems of the future. the more adequate therefore their isolation appears to the repose of contemplation. 5. even less does it make the one which lies closer to it into a science-free moratorium. Whereby such large sections of bourgeois erudition. over and above all class interests. how greatly its power has passed to the present. 31). the more so. Even the incomparably superior scientific pioneers of bourgeois society. Whereas. and Egypt. the longer it persists. In fact the apparent total Over of physical nature stands or stood there as a kind of super-Egypt or potential of Egypt. but also on account of the barrier against the future. always confronted what was coming up in their own revolutionary class with illusions or unconcretely overshooting ideals. without any concrete knowledge-relationship to the present. in the actuality of each decision. in recent times. therefore. The effect of all this was simply for the spirit of anamnesis to seek its power of cognition precisely where present. in tendency-control towards the future. who certainly were kept in relation to the present and the future. which until Marx was consistently erected with the class barrier. And indeed all the more at home. as happens in bourgeois contemplation.Page 284 overthrowing what exists' (Deutsche Ideologie. either confronted this latter epoch helplessly when it demanded decision. or in a relationship of the most short-sighted bourgeois class standpoint. and especially future is least to be decided. with the granite Becomeness of a matter which was pronounced dead. not only on account of their respective class barriers. the Crusades permit more 'scientificality' so to speak than both the last two World Wars. In Marxism. the great and pure ideologists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. as both a primitive communist history and as a history of class struggles. the mere relation: knowledgepast stands in an almost exclusively tub-thumping relationship to questions of the present. MEGA I. How convincingly its new. But how different all this is in Marxism. not without methodological jubilation. This all unites. or. Hence. it only feels at home as it were (though without the perpetuated class standpoint coming to an end) in the seclusion of the preterite. the more distant the objects lay back in the past. since history. does not even make the epoch which lies furthest back in the past into a museum. its general science of occurrence and change proves itself precisely on the Front of occurrence. sold themselves to anti-Bolshevism. precisely with the anamnesis or the contemplative-static knowledge-block against . a very long way back in the past. the past is not graded in an increasingly antiquarian manner either. p. which is even more distant. in the relation: knowledge-past. with scandalous ignorance and lack of wisdom.

precisely when the demystifying role of this materialism was long since over. to which earlier. only the muscle movements remained.Page 285 what is really advancing and coming up. which is common to all living things in any case. Here. which Marxism occupies. from which the world is lifted on to its hinges. the night in which all cows are grey. gives reality its real dimension. mechanical materialism saw the heart of the matter. this is true both of the enlightening Marxist method and of the enlightened. So that. The dialecticalhistorical tendency science of Marxism is thus the mediated future science of reality plus the objectively real possibility within it.e. In this reduction to atomics and nothing but atomics. the rescuing of appearances. could not be more illuminating. Neither must we forget here the new location of the Archimedean point itself. formlessness in the future. It likewise does not lie a long way back. with that of the past as the ante-room. not only had the Battle of Marathon completely disappeared. the knowledge-tendency-relationship grasps the What For of its knowledge as a whole: as the mediated new construction of the world. and the latter into chemical and physical ones. the first great materialist. What was missing was what Democritus. Only the horizon of the future. the Greeks and the Persians together with the social content of this battle disappeared into entirely sub-historical muscle movements. unenclosed matter within it. Feuerbach did the young Marx a great service with his not physical but 'anthropological' materialism. now quite decisively: where the knowledge-past-relationship sees only embarrassment in the present and chaff. for which after all an explanation was supposed to be given. in fact all there was in reality here was that night of which Hegel once spoke. This subsequently produced an unchecked retrograde effect. and which he called for in methodology. what is finished and done with. in what is past. right down to the atomic 'basis' of each and every thing. of course. And likewise. but the whole constructed world was apparently submerged in the generality of a total mechanism – with the loss of all its appearances and differences. Thus. These then dissolved again out of physiology into organic chemical processes. i. and organic chemistry in turn. merely contemplative materialism had reduced the world by analysis. say of the Battle of Marathon for example. of course. finally landed up in the dance of the atoms. even of historically highly-charged appearances. it dissolved historical appearances into biological ones. all this for the purpose of action. The difference from the anamnesis of the Become. together with all its variations. wind. a service . termed . precisely as the most general 'basis' of each and every thing.

. In fact. was not a contemplative materialism. it discovered at the specific location of its Archimedean point not only the key of theory. which means: relation of people to people and to nature. which came to replace the Feuerbachian human Abstractum./Gift of the Gods. then the Archimedean point (for history) is for Marxism working man. the social exchange process with nature itself: all this was now recognized as the only relevant and real basis as far as the realm of history and culture is concerned. Thus once again Thesis 10 states: 'The standpoint of the old materialism is "bourgeois" society. a world which implies happiness. – precisely the hope of the knowledge of life became a real event in Marx. is the reconstruction of the world into homeland. . Marxism thus least destroys this lever or. a historically characteristic basis. The event is not closed. Atoms and then the whole of biology do indeed underlie every further construction in evolutionary terms. This was also a material basis. There is likewise no changeable world without the grasped horizon of the objectively real possibility within it. the new organization of living matter to which the lever raises us. Thus the totality of the 'Eleven Theses' testifies: socialized humanity. the higher. world-changing of this kind occurs solely in a world of qualitative reversibility. in fact a much more distinctively material basis than that of the invisible atomic processes. for what is knowledge of life! and you. of the historical In-Vain. changeability itself. allied with a nature that is mediated with it. the 'ensemble of social conditions'. in contrast to one-sided natural scientific materialism. since it is itself a single Forwards in the changeable world.Page 286 which is recognized in the whole tenor of the 'Eleven Theses'. a genuine light. face of the prophets! enchanting voice/That sings in premonition!'.' And correspondingly. but precisely because it was a more distinctive basis. not in that of the mechanical Time and Time Again. but also the lever of practice. Instead it brought light for the first time. so that it might really be such knowledge. His social modes of satisfying needs. . correspondingly. in which simultaneously the Archimedean point lay. the standpoint of the new materialism is human society or socialized humanity. as Engels later called it in the 'Dialectic of Nature'. The hope which Herder sought to invoke hymnically in the 'Genius of the Future': ' . it did not make historical appearances and characters into night. but the 'startingpoint'. a great deal more power of creation has become visible in the worldembracing dialectic of Marxism and comes to science. otherwise even its dialectic would be one of marking-time. of pure quantity. And precisely because historical materialism.

There is no more to be said now.Page 287 20— Summary Anticipatory Composition and Its Poles: Dark Moment – Open Adequacy But who drives on within us? Someone who does not occupy himself. It is completely immersed in the juice in which it is stewing. That within us which makes us capable of being stimulated does not stimulate itself. In fact. it expresses itself in the fact that it does not have what belongs to it. this inner dimension sleeps. However unexpressed its inner dimension may be. Room for Possible Advance But what is driving in the Now at the same time continually surges forwards. the respective content of what has just been lived is not perceived. The That and Now. the moment we are in. that is. does not yet emerge. is it not only lived. therefore. the heart beats without us being able to sense what has set the pulse in motion. since the That of life is greedy. Correspondingly. Pulse and Lived Darkness For this very reason we cannot feel that we are alive. Precisely this immediate pulse beats alone. weaving within itself. imagination and so on do not step outside the immediate darkness of their occurrence. thus what has just been lived itself is the most immediately. Acts like the fulfilment of desire. burrows in itself and cannot feel itself. As immediately being there. Only when a Now has just passed or when and for as long as it is expected. But the Now itself ultimately remains the most dark in which we each find ourselves as experiencing beings. Only what is just coming up or what has just passed has the distance which the beam of growing consciousness needs to illuminate it. but . but also experienced. then nothing under our skin can be felt at all. if there is no disturbance. the least previously experienceable. Healthy life sleeps. The Now is the place where the immediate hearth of experience in general stands. stands in question. The blood runs. it lies in the darkness of the moment. It therefore never remains weaving within itself.

e. i. There is a driving in things in which our affairs can still be conducted. they sense what future is. . its urging. it is not receptive. that is. with bated breath. but rather as circumscribed as what happened yesterday. two moments ultimately constitute source and outflow. whereby the urging does not continue endlessly unsatisfied. 9.e. plans live within it. The Now of the driving only has room among unclosed things to realize. which is the same as genuine future. still choose. firmly established walls around the urging after what the subjective lacks. wishing. but it is prepared for its Possible and is thus at least receptive as something prepared. a Front in which our future. stands in the balance. Eccles. precisely this. This corresponding something is not itself settled and guaranteed as such. something is still open to it. can be decided. in which history. the approaching possible. still depart. Ages in which nothing happens have almost lost the feeling for the Novum. Such ages are the place to experience the correlate of the Possible particularly intensely. And urging not only has its outlet or its free space there.* But as it is. on their leading edge. But as it is. by working to promote what is approaching. where becoming is still possible. and dreams. have the feeling for the Novum in the extreme. And the Outside into which the subjective reaches must lie at least within its reach. however. What is not can still become. Source and Outflow: Astonishment as Absolute Question If something is properly realized. If there were nothing but narrow.Page 288 rather searches for it and intends it outside. Such changeable material is by no means self-evident: there could in fact also be nothing new under the sun. lay a new path. perhaps for centuries. future composed of what has never been like this. to make its contents increasingly manifest. There is this open dimension in people. definitely still a Still and a Not-Yet. suffocating. i. doing has room. where it can still go. beyond shattered Becomeness. life comes to the place where it has never been. But ages like the modern one. i. there is in the flow of things.e. In this possible realization of something still possible. still take a new path. 1. then there would not even be any urging there. but apart from the path there is in the objectively Possible something which possibly corresponds to us. they live in habit and what is coming is no such thing. that it is hungry. The open dimension is also in things. of events. it comes home. what is realized presupposes Possible in its material. let alone a solution. * Cf.

there is utopia as Front-determination of objects themselves (cf. the same. Particularly. this material capable of ripening makes itself evident as still continuing tendency. otherwise they would not be experiences of mere symbol-intention and not utopian. let alone central utopian ones. exactly as it was. Examples of this are given in the book 'Traces'.).). or be referred to any material already settled anywhere in the available world. where 'questioning. an old woman in the hut. Invariance of something constantly intended or of a utopian end which is in the direction. in which such an ultimate symbol-intention was first characterized as 'shape of the unconstruable question'. but in short. 192). however. it is Unum Necessarium in the direction. p. as shape of questions which cannot be bent or construed towards any readily available solutions: 'A drop falls. still dawning latency. in which realization rises. adequate openness on the other. this solely valid invariance has also already been distinguished (cf. echoing within themselves. It has already been seen: in the process of realization there is something itself unripe and not yet realized. p. The briefest symbol-intentions of an Absolute have always been experienced in this keeping still. 1930. subjective at first. and it is here. Dark moment on the one hand. is an always identically disposed element of the utopian final state. p.Page 289 The source is characterized by the darkness of the Now. autumn evening. 221). this unripeness makes itself evident in the darkness of the lived moment. p. on the contrary: in which the latter presents itself as open adequacy. wind outside. bottomless astonishment' is explained with reference to a passage from Hamsun (Ernst Bloch. this means in fact. or we read that Dimitri Karamazov wonders in his . Such experiences of a utopian final state certainly do not fix it. the outflow by the openness of the object-based background. in 'The Spirit of Utopia'. Outflow. a hut. It has further been seen: in the object-based background or correlate there is openness. in fact appearing to be lyrical and yet arch-philosophically founded in the matter itself. they are the poles of anticipatory consciousness as well as that which corresponds to it in object-based terms. characterizes a moment of the final state which signifies more than adequate openness. And now: open adequacy does not make itself evident in experiences of the continuing world-process. the child cries. 204f. This question cannot be construed towards any readily available answer. strange experience of an anticipated keeping still. hence it weakens (cf. heath. however. and it is here again. still decidable Real-Possible. and in fact as final question. consequently characterize source and outflow of the process of coming up. towards which hope goes. namely in a flash of utopian final state. Spuren. But they actually do touch upon the core of latency. with experimented outflow. 274ff.

into its darkness. hopedfor world would have reached their goal. but nobody could ever discover and put into words this inconspicuous. stays in its bed-chamber. 364). This blind spot in the mind. but as an unmistakable allusion to the immediate darkness of the Now. Geist der Utopie. enormous thing' (Ernst Bloch. miserable. but always identical in their significance. Not as a clearing. here in this direction the ineffable lies. this night can be lifted. I. then conceived hope. the unconstruable. wakes itself up least of all with feeling. does not stimulate itself. . identifying both in intense consternation towards one moment. where the nerve enters the retina. such questioning astonishment. peculiar verse from Goethe's "Wedding Song". When past material is increasingly covered by night. at the point where these plunge into the Now. what is touched in the Here. "let the rat rustle as long as it likes! If only it could find a crumb!". even if only patchily. We can see from this that it is quite figurative occasions and contents to which the subject thus possibly inclines. must nevertheless be thoroughly distinguished from the darkness of forgotten or past events. between subject and object. memory helps out. that which the little boy left behind when he came out of the mountain again. It sleeps warm and at the same time in darkness. in so far as its central latency in terms of content nevertheless depicts itself in such astonished questioning. and we feel with this little. Ode XI. the substance of deepest astonishment announces itself. but in these. participates in the latter's darkness. you are so fair'. "don't forget the best thing!" the old man had said to him. Even the feeling of internal and external stimuli.Page 290 dream why the peasant always says ''babby". topical consciousness only exists precisely in relation to an experience which has * This idea originally appears in Horace. 1918. Thus. Carpe Diem* That within us which makes us capable of being stimulated. p. in fact historically past material. deeply hidden. is what has just been experienced perceived by any sense. once again. the occasions and contents which are different for every person. and we sense it can be found here. If the content of what is driving in the Now. Just as little as the eye can see at its blind spot. were extracted positively. a 'Stay awhile. this darkness of the lived moment. Bk. sources and finds can be excavated. The darkness of the just lived moment. the absolute question certainly also runs towards the moment. on the other hand. we have said. Once More: Darkness of the Lived Moment. is especially objectifiable precisely for contemplative consciousness.

as artifical. with the pulseless abstractness into which it has been reified. in the lived Initself. namely of dialectical moments of the dialectical context. However. . since the punctual pulse is in fact part of life. especially by Bergson. .' And further: 'The flowing is not only flowing in general. which does decidedly consist of interruptions. all world is still dark. consequently in moments and as these? This is denied by vitalist psychologists. sees psychological life as a stream. following an interpretation which is itself reified and mechanistic. but is instead stationary in itself. but a manufactured fiction. in punctual immediacy. Thus James. supposedly manufactured according to mathematical models. but even behind Hume. Whereas the stream of the consciousness-vitalists themselves is abstract. all this vitalistic denial of the moment remains quite irrelevant in the present case. In punctual immediacy: – does all experience in fact occur punctually and atomistically. both gliding and discrete. this element of the stream of life as opposed to a waveless. namely because he is undialectical. who is so much closer to them.Page 291 just passed or for an expected advancing experience and its content. Division is regarded by vitalists in general. Together with its content. the more energetically attention is directed towards it: at this root. uninterrupted pushing and shoving. as scientific-ideal abstraction. they let mental material flow without a pulse. but each phase is of one and the same form . even Bergson not only fell back behind Hegel on this point. precisely the 'pulse of liveliness'. since what it lacks is precisely the beating pulse. it is not an abstraction from it. it does nevertheless owe its discontinuous character to them. The stream of consciousness of the vitalists is also so little a real stream that it manifests neither source nor outflow. moment by moment an As-Now-Comprehension is taking place in which the topical phase of the movement itself is constituted. regardless of the fact that he allows 'transitive parts of the consciousness'. and in fact all the more securely. the lived moment itself remains essentially invisible. As certainly as process is not 'composed' of these. and above all it has nothing in common with the only concrete concept of the stream. as Hegel says. The form consists in a Now constituting . with that of process. His theory of the 'indivisible moments of time and consciousness' is significantly more concrete than the mere superficial conception: stream of consciousness. The image of the stream of consciousness shows its own abstractness in the fact that it contains almost nothing of a real stream any more. even the moment would not be an immediate self-locatedness here. James. The correct version could even be learnt from Husserl here. at least as far as the temporal aspect in the supposed 'act-continuum' is concerned: 'As a movement is being perceived.

nor out of movement while it is still moving. 'Stay awhile. Derived from the pulse-beat. 156 D-E). this peculiar something. which is not even itself time. Plato. in Plato's words. the sudden). belonging to no time. what is moved crosses over into rest and what is resting into movement' (Parmenides. or rather: occurs analogously in the body. No flow can be thought of at all. and precisely because it is the nearest and most immanent. even to that perfectly fulfilled and so steadfast and steadily lasting moment which is stressed in Eckhart's mysticism as the trice (nunc stans) of perfection. but the moment. and a tail of retentions affiliating itself to this and a horizon of protentions' (Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins. out of which the time (not only the conception of time) of the real stream of movement arises and in which movement is united with restless rest itself. and becoming aware only stretches to the point where the lived moment can in fact be experienced and characterized as dark. in the forward-surging. 476). It figures here as momentum of transition between movement and rest. out of it. and within it. the most genuinely intensive life. the mental moment is experienced in the throbbing of its Now. in contrast to the stream of abstraction of the vitalists. so different from each other. Thus all these statements. Not the most distant therefore. 391. And finally – as regards the flow as one towards outflow (rest) – both the tenor of the Faust plan and the related tenor of mysticism has the moment as no abstraction within it. for this very reason decisively distinguishes the moment ( . the knot of the riddle of existence is to be found in this nearest. lies between movement and rest. And ultimately the pulse remains which also provides the model for the intermitting momentary character of consciousness. but 'the peculiar something'. That is. you are so fair': supposedly this can be said to the moment as a highest moment. But no more is yet revealed in this immediacy. into rest. are united in their recognition of a real Now. who has a better understanding than James and Bergson of the discontinuous continuum. for the Not-Having-Itself of that intensive time-element which has itself not yet unfolded in time and process as manifested in terms of content. let alone dialectically understood without that Now-Amidst in its time. is not yet . also transitive character of all moments. p.Page 292 itself through an impression. rest and movement: 'For nothing crosses over out of rest as long as it is still at rest. 1928. And here the crucial factor is added which has in any case driven the problem beyond mere psychology in all that has come before: the darkness of the lived moment is depictive for the darkness of the objective moment. but the nearest is still completely dark. The life of the Now.

it is only apparently at home in Auerbach's cellar* or even in philistine pleasure in possessions.). This may often be weakness of life. p. means acting concretely towards the Now. widespread even. as opened up. but very worthy objects of consideration. brought to itself as seen. most genuine. not unobjectionable ones. precisely from this perspective. However much credit is due to elementally forceful contentment. It means plucking the day. Lenau and Kierkegaard were recalled as nonmasters of the Carpe diem. From which the strange idea emerges that no person is really here yet. nothing more banality ante rem. in so far * The Leipzig wine-cellar where Mephistopheles takes Faust to show him 'how easy life can be' and where he plays tricks on the gullible drinkers. continuous being-present is not one. Because. but is so rare that it never appears as real plucking. thus it is least of all being-here. in the simplest and most basic sense. life means being-present. the case is not closed. in fact it is – contrary to the version of it in Horace – that which is dispersed. It constitutes the realizing aspect which has least realized itself – an active moment-darkness of itself. nothing with less power over being. beyond the surface of the moment of pleasure and pain. is the most inexperienced thing that there is. has power over being. . Already above (cf. is really alive. There is only a more genuine contact with the moment in strong experiences and in sharp turning-points of existence. foretaste or aftertaste. The usual Carpe diem does not get beyond the mere impressible. wasting the day in the day. after all. thoughtless enjoyment. does not mean only before or after. The Now of the existere. it still drives continually under the world. that which does not stay awhile. either of our own existence or of the time. Nothing is more fleeting from the present than that usual Carpe diem that appears to be completely absorbed in the enjoyment of the Now. which drives everything and in which everything drives. Thus the plucking of the day cannot be achieved so quickly. even with a kind of utopian neurosis. which in fact jumps from one 'moment' to the next. let alone being-evident. Carpe diem in quick. 181ff. but the powerful subject of the Egyptian Helen indicates that with weakness. unless the 'Stay awhile' spoken to the moment is in reality confused with a bed of ease. They were both condemned to see the image of the loved-one jostling with the loved-one herself.Page 293 brought before itself. even with Romantic exuberance. no person is yet really living. it seems so simple. that which is without present itself. In short: curiosity is just as little utopian as the usual Carpe diem. But precisely because our nearest.

right up to that thoroughly thought-out Carpe diem which is called the Great Socialist October Revolution. an incipient Carpe diem in the unusual. and you can say that you were present at its inception'. but the correct path to active topicality likewise only began with situation-analysis. which means here: of unfathomed history. Thus Goethe's statement on the day of the bombardment of Valmy* is relevant here: 'From here on and today a new epoch of world history commences. The situation-analyses of Marx and Engels give the most splendid example of fathomed presence of mind. of a meeting place of highly ramified mediations between past and future – in the midst of the unsighted Now. calls it 'the sobriety of genius' and continues significantly: 'To this he owed the ability to live energetically in the moment. though without ceasing to be immediate or overclose nearness. And Lenin grasped the present with historical insight all his life. as power not to miss its opportunity.Page 294 as they are noticed by the eye that has presence of mind. namely apprehending-comprehending of the topical driving forces of occurrence itself. headed by the 'Eighteenth Brumaire'. not many examples of this kind of presence of mind. but rather arch-philosophical experiences of the unconstruable question. thought to be the best in Europe. when the Duke of Brunswick's Prussian army. of absolute astonishment.' But did Caesar. to this the capability of acting at any moment with gathered strength. but vertically striking light then falls on immediacy so that it almost appears to be mediated. * 20th August 1792. This cannot be achieved by the class society which necessarily overlooked the truly producing element in face of the product. not historically horizontal. Extraordinary men of action seem to offer genuine Carpe diem. however. Mommsen gives Caesar as an example of this power. A sudden. there are. as decision at the required moment. a man furthermore who was not a man of action. Its goal remains the illumination of that which both drives and remains hidden to itself in the final That-ground of occurrence. did most men of action of the class society. Not many such observations of an otherwise unobserved moment: of a transitory moment with the most fertile motif. undistracted by memory and expectation. equally grasp the moment when they acted in terms of its historical content? This case is so rare that Goethe offers almost the only example. was forced to retreat by the army of the French Republic under Kellermann. Goethe was actually present at the bombardment. Certainly too: all societies are pervaded by in no way merely lyrical. but rather a man with incomparable concrete vision. All this of course already presupposed a totally uncontemplative stance. .

from a distance. the only kind which has remained. which is worthy of remaining. Melancholy of Fulfilment. and then in the space adjoining the just Here. Instead it also has an influence in its environment. p. that of something petrified. but. because it was immediately near him. Several proverbs have more idea of this than most previous philosophers. but he reacted helplessly towards his own case. unseen. ventures forward towards it. in the time adjoining the just Now. how much mere symbol-intention there is in this inconspicuous everyday mysticism.Page 295 genuine sense. Consequently. which has not yet become. the last to realize that he had married his own mother? He had competently solved the riddle of the Sphinx which could be contemplated from outside. Darkness of the Lived Moment. And was not Oedipus. from achieving proper and reassuring distance. Dead Space. as we have often noticed (cf.). but also not easily grasped and known. their present is at best in the forecourt of its presence which is not yet conscious. so that the existing-topical material and the environment that borders on it temporally-spatially would not in any way be made gloomy and difficult by the nearness which has this still immediate difficulty in experiencing things. For this the full Carpe diem would first be crucial. as soon as reified contemplation. of the Here-space. because he was himself standing in the light. but also above all the subject of existing stands in the incognito. Self-Mediation The lived darkness is so strong that it is not even confined to its most immediate nearness. how much timidity. wherever mere contemplation. that is. precisely therefore what is driving and ultimately what is contained in what exists itself. and even the Here of this Not-there forms a zone of silence in the very place where the music is being played. Not-there is the condition of the Now. 283f. Continuation: Foreground. or: There is no light at the foot of the lighthouse. as for example: No weaver knows what he weaves. the peculiar twilight of the respectively topical foreground arises which cannot be easily contemplated. from being contemplated in the usual fashion. not only the existing. And so on in the obscure text of the Now-time. Everywhere else. particularly as an occurring one. from the usual perspective. on the other hand. Become. But the moments still beat unheard. This influence prevents experientially real nearness. This sort of thing appears most treacherously. Consequently. arrives in .

but this particular weakness of vision together with the ideological interest in falsification is centrally encouraged by the general collapse of objective contemplation so to speak which nearness causes. The problem of the Topical for painting is: Where does the portrayed landscape begin in a picture? The painter does not include himself in the painting. the persisting darkness and the persisting disorder of the Here and Now. In this case the atmosphere of immediacy. although he is also immediately located in the landscape. the academic became the tub-thumping or even jingoistic senior primary school master. precisely at the point where the darkness of immediacy together with its outskirts begins to stop. in that and in so far as it concerns the difficulty of the Topical together with the adjoining Now-foreground. Then the habituation to the kind of contexts to which the distancing aspect had given rise way back in the past is torn apart. as the innermost ring of the Immediate. at a distance from it. Hence to the question: Where does the landscape begin? Where does coherent objectification start? we can only answer: beyond detrimental space. opinions intrude in place of the previous contextual judgements. precisely as . outside the painter who is painting it. Here-foreground. the second ring of immediacy: the authentic foreground of the picture. of nearness. that is. The portrayed landscape therefore does not only begin.Page 296 the present and attempts to say its piece to this something which is near. Even the relative nearness of the nineteenth century makes bourgeois historians characteristically embarrassed when they arrive at this century in the course of their account. and the false judgements of bourgeois partiality step with particular engagement into the breach of topical immediacy which can never be overcome by mere contemplation. a space from which the atmosphere has not yet wholly escaped. A concept taken from the physics of the air pump will make this clear: the foreground is for the portrayal dead space. However. And precisely the confusion created by nearness causes the relative lack of developed form of the spatial foreground too. All this may be elucidated by considering a problem from landscape painting. And since this curious gap always lies between subject and object of contemplation. happening. can also only be objectified with difficulty. it still has too much nearness to the standpoint of the painter. as is obvious. becoming. but also beyond the still diffuse objects of his nearer environment. This not only because of the class-conditioned unconcrete attitude of the bourgeois to the annexes of the Now. And the completely baffling unscientific approach of these historians is to be remembered when history went to world war. the fact that it does not really belong to the authentic landscape.

appears only later in time-consciousness and in time-phase. i. mutatis mutandis. And it participates in it in a way which constitutes the most essential characteristic of the future: being sealed off from contemplation. can as it were conclude within it. and by the fact that an unfinished trace of nearness does not announce itself in the repose of this conclusion. and for this reason cannot after all be compared with the objectified landscape. just as the Now itself still contains unopened future. the future as completely as. in fact only for contemplation. On the contrary: what contains the future in the Now-topicality remorselessly continues on its way – above and beyond all other past forms – even in its foreground-topicality and in all its horizonenvironments. and is not only an example of it. the former with all its foreground. newness. as foreground of time. not even in the basic science of mastered occurrence. Whereas the Now-time.e. For otherwise this knowability would have to get in its objective grasp what subsequently surrounds the Now-time. i. but active tendency-lore. darkness. and surges forward to meet it. does not automatically run over into what can be comprehended. This connection between moment. from which the atmosphere of unmediated immediacy has not yet been sufficiently removed: the difficult problem of the foreground of the landscape painting sharply corresponds methodologically to the above-mentioned difficulty of occurring topicality. Within this.e. And it cannot be so because the future dimension – in contrast to spatial distance – itself contains unmastered Now. as regards the future. and the grand perspective. and thus can ostensibly be compared with the objectifiable spacelandscape.e. this dimension which is only ostensibly closed. and in fact – a new difficulty – not automatically into knowability either. however. But since the future thus belongs to topicality. except for the next step to be taken. quite obviously cannot be the case.and future-darkness was formulated for the first time in 'The Spirit of Utopia' thus: 'The darkness is intensified . Past. which is not passive contemplation. only after the surging into future. occurring in time. i. in the finally concre te tendency science: Marxism. Which. This is already demonstrated by the fact that the Here-space as spatial foreground can ultimately cross over into landscape.and horizon-objectivities also participates in the darkness of the lived moment.Page 297 dead space sui generis. but also still relatively unknown to tendencylore. formed and known. as in the composition of painting. the landscape-picture the landscape behind the Here-space. which directly adjoins space-topicality and stands behind it as finished. and the next after that. the influence of the lived darkness is still incomparably more significant than the subject-matter is itself in the spatial attention-relief.

The authentic. 372). which is called upon to reveal what is contained in the moment. so precisely is it assigned to the Novum in both. than our darkness in the bearing of its womb. hence as soon as we turn to the future dimension. the Carpe diem or present of the absolute goal-content stands in the same ground in which the subject of existing stands. So widely. In line with this uncanny formulation the darkness of the lived moment therefore coincides in its total depth with the essential. solely this opened transcendere into the Novum opens up immanent existing in terms of content. the more blind topicality frees itself. However.Page 298 as soon as not only we ourselves but also the other. has not yet been brought out. and it is likewise intensified with regard to God as the problem of the radically New. but who contains himself only as hope. and from the same ground as the latter the goal-content as a Realized* goalcontent is still outstanding: from the ground of that unclarified hearth of existence which is unmythologically termed agent and core of developing matter. brings the immediate being of the driving-concealed moment to itself and up. but not here-existing mode of existence of the goal-content itself. with * As in section 16. which itself. so deeply therefore the root darkness of the lived moment extends. p. and which. . and the more radical the self-apprehension of the history-forming subject. like us in the shadowy dimension of what has not occurred. The nearer the presence is here to the existential creator of occurrence. The latter and its compounds are indicated with capitals. that does not yet exist here. which was once intended by the mythological term God. And it is likewise the same future: what is contained in the womb of the ages. in so far as it is above all logically new. 1918. as Not-Being-For-Itself. of existing itself. but the foreground problem. Bloch once again begins to alternate 'verwirklichen' and 'realisieren' for to realize. the more effectively it can be recognized as the transit point of widely ramified dialectical mediations. means nothing other than our expanded darkness. turned side remains undecided. who must not only become visible for us in order to be. to the Ultimum of the content. Solely the capability-of-being. according to the passage quoted above. in the expansion of its further history. so that the whole world-process is reduced elastically to a movement relationship between two "separated" realities. hence – historically – to man. of what is still unreal' (Geist der Utopie. which has been encouraged to develop the power of guidance and has been opened up. is in fact the goal-content. metaphysical darkness of the lived moment is not yet or only initially illuminated by means of such historical subject-comprehension.

Page 299 the crack of Here and Now in the depictions of the world context. So the darkness of nearness also gives the final reason for the melancholy of fulfilment: no earthly paradise remains on entry without the shadow which the entry still casts over it. precisely when it reaches its realization-goal. It is assimilated into the problem of the mediated transit point and therein of topical-concrete decision on the Front of world-occurrence. are only spared this melancholy because they in fact contain merely lightning signs of a here-existing Now. There is a realizing which disregards the deed of the realizers themselves and does not contain it. Precisely in the melancholy of fulfilment this most profoundly not yet fulfilled aspect in the subject announces itself in exactly the same way as the insufficient aspect in the fixed material of the ideal criticizes itself within it. dreamed out. And the experiences of central astonishment. or when all too sublime dreams jeopardize their fulfilment. abstractly fixed. but plucks the fruits of a fulfilled hope. consequently disappears. even an abyss in the realizing itself. Everywhere else there is a crack. remote from tendency.or ideal-content. A trace in Realizing itself is even still felt and is present where appropriate goals have been Realized. whereas the kind of realizing which has been available so far does not darken in a foreground of any kind. and this in representative. in the unconstruable question. It is therefore also necessary increasingly to set free the element of realizing simultaneously with the element of the future society. or where monumental dream-images appear to have entered reality with skin and hair. even in non-contemplative life. unrealized aspect of their realizers. not yet in the realized subject-matter in and for itself. seeing is only dimmed by all too near distance. and this abyss is that of the ungrasped existere itself. there are ideals which pretend to be elevated. arrives at a point of darker reality than it possessed . in the actuated-topical entrance of what has been so beautifully foreseen. namely when it is not merely presence of mind. and thus also suppress the unfinished. but in the realized material itself. But the blind spot. Not that this crack in life. also in fact appears in every realization. with body and soul. Even genuine Carpe diem is not exempted from this melancholy. but not. Indeed. For ultimately the influence of the lived darkness is not confined to the various foregrounds mentioned above either. often ludicrous Objects. a Here and There. It is not just that a fiasco threatens when too far-fetched dreams are supposed to be realized. is finally grasped. this not-seeing of the immediately entering Here and Now. A similar process has in fact already been seen in the problem of realization (Egyptian Helen): the wish.

that towards unknown nature. a bloody . all humanistic wishful dreams are directed towards this. Growing self-mediation of the producer of history is thus not merely the help to realize concrete tendency-anticipations concretely. And to repeat: Realization. A being-human which in its sphere of existence is no longer encumbered with anything that is alien to it. even when external anxiety. utopian. but the correlate problem of utterly pervasive horror. Neither the neurotic anxiety which may stem from unusable libido. never acts entirely as Realization. The one location remains anxiety. it is not predicated. The Directly Utopian Archetype: Highest Good We said that what is driving in the Now also surges forward in the future into something open. to create the creator himself. To remove it. of a kind which is all the greater the more uncertainly it can expect its causes from all sides. This openness has a double location in mental activity behind it. however much it cancels contemplative distance. when it is a full one. a Realizing element that is itself Realized: this is the border-concept of realization as fulfilment. ultimately this is what is announced in the darkness of the lived moment. even fear of ghosts only border atavistically on this anxiety. hell was populated with nothing but phobias of this kind. but rather an anxiety which is both unconditional and related to something final. they are the most radical and the most practical. Hell has disappeared thanks to the Enlightenment. because there is something in the subject-factor of Realization itself which has never realized itself. it is also the help to introduce realization without its peculiarly bitter trace. More on Astonishment as Absolute Question. For the believer. to Realize the Realizer himself. merely existing real character. but they do indicate the direction. The subject-factor of lending existence is itself not yet here. Without that remaining minus which characterizes the immediate aspect of existing itself that has remained dark. has remained.Page 300 in the hovering. Even anxiety-dreams. and which ultimately constitutes the element of non-arrival in arrival. Its abode is always the Now. not Realized. in the Shape of Anxiety and of Happiness. nor the normal real anxiety in dangerous situations is relevant here any longer. And this incognito still remains the basic impediment which accompanies every realization. of metaphysical horror. as already noted. from which its fruits are expected and also driven. even children's horror of the dark. to educate the educator himself. no longer needed to be anything like as great. not objectified.

though not always pathological figment. but precisely its completely uncollected nature is indicated by the ensemble. Its element is the unbearable moment. the ground into which Melencolia is gazing. anxiety as the contact with a possible abyss which does not even have a bottom on which the fall is dashed. 'can't you hear the terrible voice which is screaming around the whole horizon and which we usually call silence?' And in Büchner's 'Woyzeck'. Büchner's fragment about the poet Lenz going mad gives us an unforgettable account of this: 'Can't you hear anything?' asks the mad poet. paranoia supplies the images of it closest to the anxiety-dream. This in fact means: Dürer's engraving 'Melencolia' pictures. in Dürer's 'Melencolia'. an almost crippling terror in itself. by the evening sky. on the wall behind the figure. seems to have a particularly close connection with this unbearable state. there could be no greater contrast than between this ensemble and the tidied one in the engraving 'St Jerome in his Cell'. threatening the poor devil from every direction. It is beyond doubt that such an immediate horror exists. whose emblems fill the engraving. that it is of a different kind from the terrible real anxiety towards the really Become. perhaps in the sphere in the foreground. Collection is only in the eye of the figure. the star of brooding and yet also of collection. in the aura before the attack. however. scattered. anxiety is aroused everywhere by a roaring nothingness. nor in the object at which the figure is gazing. in fact both this side and the other side of the astrological references contained within it. does not explain. by the wind. Saturn. Dürer's 'Melencolia' is thus the invaluable . staring nothingness in the Real-Possible. with astrological aids. Even on the other side of the Saturn shining out of the eyes of the woman figure. but not in the ensemble of Objects. an often. Dehio strikingly drew attention to the dissolute aspect of this interior: the compasses rest idly in her hand. on the side of the strangulating.Page 301 gash in the darkness of the Now and of what is to be found within it. Epilepsy. above all things. the order which otherwise characterizes scholars' studies of the sixteenth century is completely missing. This object itself is not in the picture. perhaps even in the dog curled up asleep. although he is also the star of misfortune. only interrupted by the friendlier square of Jupiter. Anxiety appears in all these testimonies which are still so very distant from one another as an expectation on the uncertain darkest side. mournful light lies on scattered Objects. The engraving pictures stupor into which a desperation opened up in enduring Now stares. This unpicturable thing is also noted pictorially. by the expectation of an uncertain negative something below. the anxiety-dream in broad daylight.

Hence often the same cause which produces negative astonishment is capable of producing happiness as the Positivum of astonishment. in an ineffable incidental detail. Nevertheless. hope mysteriously confirmed in the inconspicuous. Because the changing face.Page 302 document of negative astonishment. eternity. There is a parallel here with the experience of the fatally wounded Andrei Bolkonsky on the battlefield of Austerlitz who glimpses the starry sky as never before. yet not as a bloody gash in the darkness of the Now and what is to be found within it. Even in the negative there are therefore forms of the unconstruable. as if it lay only in man's blindness not to see it. more centrally than in any apotheosis. but hope begins to blossom. the absolute question. even in the Melencolia the Gorgonian is not alone in the world. appears to become clear. The element of this positive astonishment is the reposeful moment. Of course: the abyss is not present alone in this location. despite or because of this. since they are only precise in that they signify radically indeterminate horror. only in the weakness of his flesh not to enter. even without the determination of Saturn. the connection with the inconspicuous symbol-intentions is unavoidable. there are unbearable moments of astonishment. is lacking least of all in radical astonishment. the moment where an otherwise quite insignificant perception or an image felicitously shatters and – catches the existing-intensive. in the location of the abyss. almost ridiculous central incidental detail of the shrubs in the snowstorm very definitely with the rare great moments in which. suddenly homecoming and answer appear in this landscape. and this indicates intentionally the other location of what is still open. with positive symbol-intention breaking into this darkness. storm and cold ruled hostile to life. but beside the stupor of astonishment there is in fact a Jerome-repose of astonishment. mostly at the moment of death. One and All suddenly becomes clear for men. much too contrived in its theological Object to cope with the modesty of the peripheral. which was already to be seen in all radical emotional states. Tolstoy speaks in the 'Death of Ivan Illyich' of shrubs in the snowstorm. precisely without spooks or hell. and also with the experience of unity of Karenin and Vronsky at Anna's deathbed. the 'counter-sense of primal words'. The house stands already real in all conventional religious experiences. particularly in the expectant emotions. And here too the location is always the Now. totality is again much too big and too determined. Tolstoy even associates the little. never formulated material. . They are correspondingly more blurred than the latter's positive qualities. the landscape itself lay in the most extreme desolation. – but also of course: this unio mystica with meaning.

the humanization of nature) is still open: not only with regard to its future entrance. quite small signs: the world-knot. Unconstruable question and its astonishment were defined above as the flash of the at last Real-Possible breaking in upon itself. which befits the final character of the Authentic and of tendency in general. And they also call it in central peripheralness. as that of the not yet existing Absolute itself. equally undecided concentration. this without doubt. however. . they call the comprehensible-incomprehensible name of good existence. in anticipated silence. in quite weak. because it takes place at the source of everything. of anticipating world-composition itself. But the outflow itself takes precedence over everything as a living question. as that into the Absolute. stands in mere real possibility. still driving and still hidden in the darkness of the lived moment. so real astonishment with open adequacy as content represents the other. but also with regard to its still unfixable content which lies one jump ahead of everything that has so far been gained. though a content of horror can most definitely be interwoven with that of the wonderful. of an absolutely human-adequate There. The There which announces itself in this way. As a sign of the paradoxical nature of the wonderful or in fact of the Not-Yet-Determinedness. At all stages here. this adequacy (the naturalization of man. the symbol-intention of the Absolute and Omega points to the darkness of the Alpha or nearest nearness. which is concealed nowhere else but in the immediate That of existing. Therefore just as the darkness of the lived moment represents one pole of anticipatory consciousness. It is the source or beginning of the world. And this stop occurs precisely in the driver of the Real-Possible itself: the overbright consternation of the astonishment at flashing moments and signatures of adequation thus has the most precise connection with the That of existing in the bed-chamber of the lived moment. concerning the core of latency. Utopia of the end touches man in such objective. whether it is reached is another question. which grasps and dissolves itself for the first time in the signatures of its outflow. the RealPossible gives itself a hand to make a stop. And an outflow is inherent in the source. This kind of thing only takes place in the separate Now. Grasps and dissolves only in an anticipatory way. and they attract each other intensely.Page 303 they are contained in all these experiences of consternation like seeds of a summum bonum. ceases to be endless. at the same time object-based astonishment. with equally abrupt. and all the positive symbol-intentions only evoke its sign in man. by breaking in upon itself in this way. Not-YetDecidedness. close beside anxiety-consternation.

through evidences in nearness. of course – and this is also the major plus of hope-consternation in terms of its prospect – equally the Optimum . had contact with fine signature and incorporated it. Here lies the pre-appearance of the Andante. even the idyll as finale. since what is final is silent and simple. is the only thing which has remained of the earlier putative closeness to the gods. silently. with that Tao of the world which Lao Tzu claims has no taste. as real-symbols. the fine signature of these evidences. into the truth and the word that solves things is made which is irrevocable. precisely to Ithaca he came sleeping. But equally. 1923. and which therefore has the sharpest taste. Repose. However. So firmly. thrones – were considered essential. is not yet established was demonstrated in the equally negative and positive utopia which opens up at this end and has not yet become reality precisely in its ultimate aspect. in fact which has always formed the core in it. emerges in the world and no longer leaves it' (Ernst Bloch. Between both there still exists even in unconditional astonishment the dangerous merging of an ultimately undecided alternative. in front of and behind each pre-appearance. in so far as it seemed to contain an ens perfectissimum. p.Page 304 is also only disentangled through the most intensive nearness to this most immanent Thatintensity. since what had also appeared in them as final symbols. depth has always been founded in this inconspicuous element and has remained designable: 'But not as if the secret drawer in every object still had to contain great unfurlings and documents as in earlier times. Geist der Utopie. into the more deeply identical. But instead. 248). and into that Ithaca which can in fact be the way that this pipe is lying there or however else something wholly inconspicuous suddenly presents itself and what has steadily been intended finally appears to perceive itself. either as negative reality of the Pessimum and its Nothing or as positive reality of the Optimum and its All. so very immediately evident that a leap into the Not-Yet-Conscious. The great pre-appearances of genuine mysticism remain as such in experimenting force. the fact that the final state. when enormous wrappings still accompanied all depth and these wrappings – gods. Odysseus came to Ithaca. embedded everywhere. that simultaneously with the sudden last meaning-intention of the viewer in the object the face of something still nameless. Precisely the so very nearest inconspicuous aspect. and it exists in object-based fashion in the outflow-problem of the world. heaven. great powers. sleeping. The thunder which believes it is the ultimate and the apparent expression of this ultimate has become decadent. the element of the final state. even in the most inconspicuous astonishment. that Odysseus called Nobody. glories.

which lives in the evidence of nearness. it brings to its Alpha. Summum bonum would be perfectly successful appearance of the Successful: hence it has also withdrawn from appearance. The archetype: highest good is the invariance-content of the most felicitous astonishment. a utopian summum of those inconspicuous symbol-intentions through which every appearance passes over into the matter itself. plan. The invariant of this direction leads in the end. to the appearing genesis of Alpha and Omega at the same time. The content of the most basic desirability which the highest good designates is of course still just as much in the fermenting incognito as that which wishes this content in people. hence circle or surround the Optimum of this breaking into the successful achievement of the Omega.Page 305 of the goal-content has in its favour the openness of the historical process which is continuing and has by no means been defeated up to now: it is not yet the evening to end all days. in which the riddle-Alpha of the That or world-impulse emerges as solved. The archetype of the highest good is therefore not archaic. every night still has a morning. symbol-intention. its utopian Totum continuously governs the outflowtendencies in well-managed process. Even less does it return. hence it is itself inconspicuous. will. all-surpassing summum bonum. And the last symbol-intention remains in fact the homelandbased one of the unconstruable question of the 'Stay awhile. As long as wish. to that of the still unknown. becoming better are exhausted in history and world. cipher of the One-Thing-Intended still have space in process. to the immemorial dimension of a perfection in order to fill its Optimum with it. pre-appearance. as we are now in a position to say. . All the forms of the unconstruable absolute question. you are so fair' in its Optimum. not even historical. into its completely resolved That. That is: to the purely utopian archetype. Even the defeat of the wished-for good includes its future possible victory as long as not all possibilities of becoming different. because there has never been a single appearance which could have even begun to fulfil its image. its possession would be that which transforms in the moment and in fact as this moment. But its intended All always designated the peak of the dreams of the better life. through its Omega. in fact form virtual paradises in process. The place to which this archetype of unconstruable happiness returns is solely the itself still completely unappeared origin at which it stops off and which. as long as the Real-Possible with its dialectically utopian process has in fact not yet been finally fixed. with Plato's anamnesis. to the only archetype which has nothing archaic about it. in their bright part.

around which every Something is still built. Thus the driving in living things is depicted with Not: as drive. but because it is thus the Not of a There. is only undefined to begin with. These concepts thus illuminate the basic emotions. thus it is a driving towards what is missing. precisely therefore as abhorrence of the Not at the Nothing. as the start of the beginning. Because the Not is the beginning of every movement towards something. it is precisely for this reason by no means a Nothing. in privation the emptiness mediates itself precisely as horror vacui. The darkness of the lived moment refers to the Not. undecided. just as positive astonishment refers to the All. whereas the Nothing is something definite. through which they burn. but at the same time the Not-There. Since only the emotions. striving and primarily as hunger. as the basic emotions do the ontological basic concepts. is instead related in a driving way to the There of a Something. desperation (annihilation). It presupposes exertions. The Not is lack of Something and also escape from this lack. or rather the thoughts which have been made emotionless. the Not of a There announces itself as a Not-Having. The Not is of course emptiness. in hunger.Page 306 The Not in Origin. need. it is not simply Not. but at the same time the drive to break out of it. The Not lies in origin as the still empty. The Not is not there. but an annihilation. only negative astonishment to the Nothing. and in fact definitely as a Not. reach so deeply into the ontic roots that concepts which appear to be so inherently abstract like Not. and which they . particularly at this point. The Not with which everything starts up and begins. it is clear that categorial basic concepts (fundamentals) are made accessible solely by a thorough knowledge of the theory of the emotions. not as a Nothing. the Not-Yet in History. Instead: Not and Nothing must first be kept as far apart as possible. a driving. All. not the emotionless thoughts. As such the Not cannot bear the presence of itself. in that they make the intensive substance evident to them from which they spring. become synonymous with hunger. together with their distinctions. And even at this point. confidence (rescue). In the latter. however. a fermenting Not. like that of the Not. and the act of Nothing is not. undefined. Nothing. the Nothing or Conversely the All at the End That which in itself and immediately proceeds as Now is thus still empty. long erupted process which is finally thwarted. the whole adventure of definition lies between them. The That in the Now is hollow.

Its expression is creation renewed in and by every moment. negative or positive towards us. The start of the beginning of all Being-Here lies here always in the darkness which is still unmediated with itself. these sharply compressed basic concepts designate real categories. In such a way.Page 307 illuminate. however. unchanged in nearest nearness or in the continuing That of all existing itself. But on the contrary: the darkness of the origin remains. not an immemorial darkness at the beginning of time. tending towards the manifestation of its content. as immediate darkness. The Not-Yet characterizes the tendency in material process. Above. intensity-substance in the three principal moments of the process-matter.e. The Nothing or conversely the All characterizes the latency in this tendency. Even this latency. since their concise ontology most nearly approaches a depiction of the objective emotion-substance. emptiness (the zero of the immediate That of existing) mediates itself precisely as horror vacui. to the satisfaction of this interest which is breaking in. that the Not. however. of the origin which is processing itself out.e. we described this unresolved element as the world-knot which is concealed in the unresolved That of existing. Consequently. the mysterious question of why anything is at all is posed by the immediate existing itself as its own question. chiefly on the foremost Front-field of material process. the fiat of all world-movements occurs most immediately in this darkness. and this continued creation appears also as preservation of the world. Ontological basic concepts: here then the Not. as noted: in hunger. the Nothing or conversely the All are distinguished as those which make evident in the most abbreviated terminology the intensively moving world-substance in its three principal moments. This horror vacui is the original Thatfactor and positing factor. characterizes the intensive. keeps it going as experiment of the spilling of its That-content. namely area categories of reality in general. the intensive realization-factor which sets the world going and keeps it going. i. the world as process is the experiment towards the resolution of the always and everywhere driving question of origin. unable to bear the presence of itself. The start of the beginning and the starting-point . namely in the darkness of the Now or of the just lived moment. in privation. a long since passed beginning masked by continuation or cosmos. the Not-Yet. Furthermore. thus the world creates every moment anew in its immediate Being-Here. This That is still unresolved in every moment. ultimately interest-based origin (the That-based Realizing element) of everything. to the filling of what is intended in its hunger. And the darkness is in fact not a far removed. namely of the world-process. refers again only to the content of the intensive origin. i.

the Never-Yet-Been-So or Novum on the horizon. Every lived moment would therefore. And the constantly new positing mediates itself in historical terms towards particularly distinguished points: towards the breakthrough of a historically New. either as definite Nothing or definite All. i. The beginning occurs in it time and time again for as long as it takes until the undefined Not of the That-ground is decided.or content-objectifications. hunger becomes . but rather preservation in the sense of Becoming.e. for what is good. however. as not yet manifest. The Not as Not-Yet passes straight through Becomeness and beyond it. if it had eyes. which is why the temporalspatial sphere of influence is no less covered with innumerable fragments and husks. with wild saurian-like monstrosities. must be driven out continually in historical terms. Because the Not gets involved in its What. is in the year zero of the beginning of the world. namely of One Thing that has not yet been found. for what will bring a solution. at the same time the Not also inevitably appears – taken here in its continuation – as Not-Yet: in terms of occurrence and of history. into which it finally tends to flow out with single purpose. every moment. when it has not emerged. This origin in the strict sense has itself not yet arisen. but which has not yet moved out of itself. but which has itself not yet become historical. as progressive preparations appear for the One Thing.Page 308 called origin and world-ground is to be found in precisely that Now and Here which has not yet emerged from itself. together with the repeatedly possible Novum. So the creation which it constantly posits anew is not preservation in the sense of Becomeness. Precisely because the most basic content of existing. arisen out of itself.e. that is. which has not yet moved from its place at all. ceaselessly in fact. i. according to its content. it opens up as this. since it now itself stands in the temporal-spatial process which it posits and in which it experimentally spills its content. The origin remains the incognito of the core which moves throughout all times. in that into which it is streaming. of experimenting with the content of the That-core. every moment therefore likewise potentially contains the date of the completion of the world and the data of its content. Similarly. the formation process repeatedly develops Front-appearances of this material which has not come. equally a persistent lack. in so far as it becomes mediated it changes. through the experimental definitions of the world-process and its forms. The whole manifold fullness in this search of the core for its fruit is of course. its Not is therefore in fact precisely the one which is ultimately driving history and tailoring historical processes to its requirements. be a witness of the beginning of the world which begins in it time and time again.

Thus the Not-Yet is of course also destructive or the dissolving contradiction in all Becomeness. we must further keep the crucial point in mind: the Not as mere Not-Yet alone could both subjectively and objectively only in fact unsettle inadequate Becomeness. The Not seeking its All thus also enters – in the Die . as hunger and what actively joins on to it. The contradiction to Becomeness expresses itself both in the subject and the object of the process. it could not immanently explode it in the way we have described. as noted. As a denial which is growing up in the positive positing itself. Hence the world as process is itself the enormous testing of its satisfied solution. But the Not expresses itself also as dissatisfaction with what has Become for it. As meaning and intending. hence it is both that which is driving beneath all Becoming. its tendency to what is fulfilling all the stronger. as the ripened tendency towards the form of existence which is due next and which is more mediated with the forces of production. and in fact ultimately from the perspective of the adequate final state of the All. The Not as processive Not-Yet thus turns utopia into the real condition of unfinishedness. the more the tasks which it sets itself have become objectively soluble. The Not appears in every previous definition to the Something as the unappeased denial which says: but this predicate is not the ultimately adequate definition of its subject. that is. The Not expresses itself. of the realm of its satisfaction. as the two sides of the same moved reality. And it is this contradiction precisely because every stage of the definition must also become a barrier again for what is defined and reared by it. In the conscious or human subject the subjective contradiction arises to Becomeness which is insufficient or which has become inhibiting. Explosion is annihilation: and the act of annihilating by definition and by nature is only obtainable from the circulating Nothing. in the object the objective contradiction corresponds to this which appears in the Become itself. the only place where the Not would come to rest.Page 309 the force of production on the repeatedly bursting Front of an unfinished world. with all visualizations of the Something that is missing. wish. Now. namely to the positive rendition of what is intended in it. of only fragmentary essential being in all objects. in other words: because no Becomeness in the tendency towards the All already represents a successful achievement. will. as negation which drives on ahead in a utopian and dialectical fashion. however. in accordance with the materialist dialectic. and what is driving on ahead in history. Thus in fact the Not makes itself evident as active-utopian Not-Yet in process. The Not-Yet here becomes all the more defined. waking dream. as longing.

in fading an – as always still insufficient – All is circulating. above all in masterpieces: otherwise there would only be forgetting of the past and not also the partially rescued and rescuable element which is called history and after-ripening. This dialectical use of the Nothing in no way conceals the already noted basic difference between Not and Nothing. Even fading. not to the furthering of history. a piece of light annihilated as it opens up. however. There is no dialectic of the determined mightiness. the Thirty Years War. that which makes relative successfulness possible. between the start and horror vacui on the one hand. especially in negations immanent in the matter.e. or concretely: human beings and the whole world still find themselves rebus sic stantibus in prehistory. no progressive negation of the negation: annihilations like the Peloponnesian Wars. it was cited as that which says and reveals: this predicate is surely not the ultimately adequate definition of a subject. The connection of the Not and the Not-Yet with the Nothing is however not one of the goal. The connection of the Not and the Not-Yet with the All is one of the goal. Hitler. namely in the sense of the annihilation of inadequate Becomeness by immanent explosion. a quite different impression is in fact created by the connection of the use which occurs in not so determined appearances of the Nothing. not to mention annihilation. i. Then the Nothing must definitely serve for the best. However. as well as having one with the All. determined pre-appearance of this kind of Nothing. is only constituted by the fact that in the change involved in process and as this change the Nothing is circulating or the constantly threatening frustration.Page 310 and become* – into a connection with the Nothing. Nor does the dialectical usefulness of the Nothing conceal the completely anti-historical pre-appearance which the Nothing has as downright destruction. as a den of murderers repeatedly opening up in history.' . Similarly. in exile. are merely misfortunes. all these apparently satanic outbursts belong to the dragon of the final abyss. The verse runs: 'And until you have possessed this truth: Die and become! You are just a gloomy guest In the earth's dark medium. since in this den there is certainly very much a piece of history. not dialectical change. the possible Definitum of annihilation and mors aeterna on the other. therefore in those in which history continues. the mortification of Nero. but rather it is one of the use to which dialectical negation puts the Nihil of annihilation. and the act * From Goethe's 'Selige Sehnsucht' in the 'West-östlicher Divan'.

every advent contains nihilism as something utilized and defeated. Blackness prevents levelling out. But the dialectic through Nothing has even included worldannihilation within itself. but as their important foil. the logic of the apocalypse presuppose the dialectical functional change of the fire of annihilation which is otherwise considered to be satanic. as according to the Law of the Large Numbers. as harmony of Becomeness. utopianly even the birth of a totally fulfilling All. not as their danger here. by rotten apotheosis. It thus appears as the whole of movement which does not move. Blackness is at home in this obstruction. And this dialectic through Nothing intermixes not least with all significant positive aspects. an elapsed. a positive stability. has certified temporariness for the universe. in so far as it is produced by cheap gloss. ** The Law of Large Numbers. by using the Nothing. Frustration and annihilation is of course the constant danger for every process-experiment. Indeed. the included element of roughness. the dialectic through Nothing even refers to the monstrous complex of Becomeness which raises itself not as the All.Page 311 of annihilation becomes productive as negation. in mythological terms conversely as world-conflagration. Thus dialectic through Nothing consists in the fact that all that which still unsuccessfully exists carries the seed of its fading within it. The Orcus which is described in physical terms as freezing death. The cosmos is the first astral mythical. new earth. so that in fact at the same time war is declared on persistence in the temporary material of each attained Becomeness. as obstruction of their evidence. . of eeriness which prevents pure rosy red even in higher regions. then mechanistic substitute for the All and stands in its place as the embodiment of the given world and of satisfaction in it. and the German 'All' meaning cosmos. but as mere cosmos* or universe out of process. but it is also the means to break inadequate statics.** balance each other out. This war must combine with the constant demandingness of the Not-Yet and be at its service: the inadequate is cleared away from the path to the All. above all as negation of the negation. physically contains the birth of another cosmos or universe. death as something devoured in the victory. passes from the Becomeness into the No-Longerness of the Orcus. New heaven. then pantheistic. and even substitutes itself for the All in all purely cosmic perspectives of philosophy. Bernoulli's theorem – a concept in probability theory. in which the differences of Becoming and the deficit of particulars. from Parmenides to Spinoza. the coffin that constantly waits beside each hope. in * Bloch is playing on the connection between the German 'Alles' meaning 'all'.

glories. as something that has not yet happened. in the positive sense. to all contrived solution which is conceived in and devoured along with the shudder of sublimity. breaking out with greater and greater strength in history. behind the cracked ontology of a supposedly attained. precisely through non-smoothness. only when enormously raised consciousness of the Nothing in the world. Utopia presses forward. the pathos of Being is therefore now at work in it which was previously devoted to a supposedly already completely founded. Here it depends on the work of militant optimism: just as without it proletariat and bourgeoisie could perish in the same barbarism. Thus the Nihil into which Dürer's Melencolia gazes is also a useful and formative element of positive astonishment or of the perception of the All in the confident sense. and not in fact increasingly obscured by it. The latter now completely encompasses the Not-Yet and the dialecticization of the Nothing in the world. a path of increasingly perceived Nothing. is the tested will towards the Being of the All.Page 312 their place. even hypostatized static being. What ultimately remains therefore is the changeable alternative between absolute Nothing and absolute All: the * Cf. so without it in the broader and deeper perspective. as little out of the question as is. Goethe's 'Faust'. Part II. in its concrete form. 6272. through roughness. though consequently also of utopia. it does not in fact ignore the danger of annihilation. sea without shore. If shuddering is the best part of mankind. midnight without easterly point could still threaten as Definitivum. the Definitivum of an all-fulfilling All. of an All emerge. especially in the conspicuously false supernatural world. . the deep and the sublime are encountered. even supernatural world order. has given constitutive power to the dialectic towards the All itself. and it is. but it just as little suppresses in the Real-Possible the open alternative between absolute Nothing and absolute All. in the will of the subject and in the tendency-latency of the process-world. even finished There. even the still hypothetically possible Definitivum of a Nothing. successfully existing world order. But this pathos acts as one of Not-Yet-Being and of hope for the summum bonum within it. does the central inconspicuousness of a landing. Utopia. Indeed.* then it is precisely the Nothing to all smoothness. Thus the path of conscious reality-process is in fact increasingly one of the loss of fixed. is taken seriously. powers. This kind of Definitivum would then designate the absolute In-Vain of the historical process. which had previously been masked by cosmic jubilation or even by thrones. and: despite all use of that Nothing in which history still continues. Consequently. the advanced state of Nothing.

But just as little should there be an endlessly drifting dreaming in which present enjoyment is impeded. even shunned. ultimate triumph of the All as heaven: in reality the All is itself nothing but identity of man who has come to himself with his world successfully achieved for him. 1237. around me and inside me everything is empty. poorly external Carpe diem. which reads: 'The insufficient Here becomes an event. he will not let them move into the present at all. it fades and makes way for the next. when. ' ** Bloch is compressing the words of the Chorus Mysticus from Goethe's 'Faust'. then you might say. When – with genuinely felt darkness of the lived moment. After all. Hence Jean Paul's sentiments are true when he says: 'If there was nothing except the moment for the heart. Cf. The ultimate triumph of the Nothing has been conceived mythologically as hell. also John 1. 'Faust'. because nothing in it has yet been properly achieved. 12106-9. but every present in the following manner: 'Since you can never experience beautiful days as beautifully as they later shine in memory or previously shine in hope: you would rather * Cf. what is just past and the simultaneity of the surrounding space. no longer one pieced together out of Now. should not be like this. even future instead. Goethe.' But he says the wrong thing about this emptiness when he reifies past. Of course. Part II. but a Genuine One in Genuine Present The Now as something merely fleeting is nevertheless not correct. Part I. 1. 'In the beginning was the Word . the substance of utopia is ultimately nothing if it does not refer to the Now and seek its spilled present. Our intention-invariant within it remains: naturalization of man. The That-proposition: In the beginning was the deed. Therefore after All: Carpe Diem.* the All-proposition: The insufficient. in a romantic and idealistic way. humanization of nature – of the world totally mediated with man.Page 313 absolute Nothing is the sealed frustration of utopia. . Utopia No Lasting State. the absolute All – in the pre-appearance of the realm of freedom – is the sealed fulfilment of utopia or Being as utopia. . even hope – he disparages not only a still insufficient. here it is done** – both unidealistic propositions define the tendency-arc of matter which is qualifying itself. Genuine present. the mere immediate fleeting Now is too little. The indescribable Here it is done. yet equally with stay made absolute in memory.' .

45th cycle. for the sake of 'Dawnings for Germany'. so too there should be present instead of utopia. not fulfil them. but one day it will be free. and since one only hears the gentle music of the spheres at both poles of the elliptical vault of time and nothing at all in the middle of the present. Just as there should be a hold instead of the repeatedly fleeting moments or merely tasted points in time. It is also the political aspect of the democrat in him which. only the wish for escape and the tired wish for contrast are driving us on. and the future is tugging at the other end. Jean Paul himself thus gives the last word to a will towards the present. * A political work by Jean Paul. with Goethe and Gottfried Keller the greatest master of graphic description in the German language and of the golden superabundance of the world. but past and future – both of which no man can experience. and we would – sigh as we do here' (Titan.Page 314 ask for the day without either. you would rather remain in the middle and listen. sighing itself out of Arcadia again. This kind of thing is of course only spoken in a melancholy spirit and not with approval. even in the prophesied endlessness of longing a warning is issued against that utopianism which considers an Arcadia as intensified summer holiday or even as resigned sheep-farm to be the final wish-content. which appeared in 1809. as in the case of Arcadia. towards utopian present: 'The present is chained to the past as prisoners used to be to corpses. I say.' Thus nothing is more repugnant to utopian conscience itself than utopia with unlimited travel.* finally breaks free from being besotted with the Not-Now in a mere romantic dream. the escape of course easily runs on further – in fact longing itself.' Even where a complete present and reality is conceded to the future by the idealism of Jean Paul. a lost and regained Miltonic paradise – you do not want to hear at all or let them come near. consequently reification of striving. and within utopia at least present in spe or utopian present tense. endless striving is vertigo. so that you can just nest deaf and blind in an animal present. eternalizing of utopia. a disparagement of this tangibility. an Iliad and an Odyssey. But where from the outset. poetry became life and our pastoral world a sheep farm and every dream a day: this would only heighten our wishes. ultimately refuses the eternalized utopian. . manifests itself: 'If in this world. Though of course Jean Paul himself. because they are only two different poetic genres of our heart. and at every sunrise we would see a deep starry sky departing. hell. conclusion). the higher reality would only give birth to a higher poetic art and higher memories and hopes – in Arcadia we would pine for utopias.

Utopia works only for the sake of the present which is to be attained. open adequacy (for the That-intention) reach the point. as the point of unity dawns pre-consciously. it goes instead into the content of this presence. in the realization of the proletariat as abolition of philosophy. Precisely because utopian conscience will not be fobbed off with what is poorly existing.e. an object that is no longer estranged from the subject. in the abolition of the proletariat as realization of philosophy. i. for the Intensivum of this That basically just wants a concise result instead of endless process. for which reason and for the illumination of which the world-odyssey is under way and not yet odyssey of quiescence. with which it wishes to coincide instead. precisely in the sense of begun abolition of the distance of subject and object. what is intendable as such presence. and so in the end present. every halt is still correct in which the utopian present moment of the final state itself is not forgotten. There are such moments in all concrete revolutionary work. present tense. it is distanceless Being-Here. Even if a stationary halt in the On The Way is as bad as or even worse than On The Way itself made absolute. on the contrary. where the two poles of utopian consciousness: dark moment. is sprinkled into all utopian distances. The magnetic needle of intention then begins to sink. because the pole is near. there should at long last be Being as utopia. into the presence of the That-content. The essential content of hope is not hope. precisely because the furthest-reaching telescope is necessary to see the real star of the Earth. They are in every articulation of unknown self-being through artistic preappearance and in the hearth of all articulations of the central question. as such manifested identity does not yet lie anywhere in a Becomeness. Accordingly utopia cannot go any further here. the distance between subject and object diminishes. in which it is retained by the agreement of the will with the anticipated final purpose (summum bonum). no longer alien world. but it lies irrefutably in the intention towards it. as the finally intended distancelessness. does not throw itself forever into designing and process. There is definitely utopian present in this. in the intention which is never demolished. therefore also of self-abolishing utopian distance itself. and the telescope is called concrete utopia: precisely for this reason utopia does not intend an eternal distance from the object. together with its no longer alienated. As is unfortunately only too evident. and lies unmistakably in the historical and world process . They are even in the stupor of negative astonishment.Page 315 if utopia is no longer necessary. as a landing announced by bells. but since it does not allow precisely the latter to be wrecked. and all the more so in the shiver of positive astonishment. The That. coincide.

the chosen one must look like this in order to be chosen.Page 316 itself. utopias themselves and is also the gold ground on to which the concrete utopias are applied. it is the still unfound. even if it is long. A glance. there it becomes bigger and bigger and I spread it out further and further. just as if it were a beautiful picture or a pretty person. The latter most certainly has not been damaged by a decisive In-Vain and Nothing. the less we have already experienced. The All in the identifying sense is the Absolute of that which people basically want. —Mozart The Tender Morning We dream all the more. and the thing really becomes almost ready in my head. in fact as the utopissimum in utopia and precisely in concrete utopia: but this most hoped-for thing of all in hope. so that subsequently I can survey it at a glance in my mind. the one boy vaguely. so that it excites us. 21— Daydream in Delightful Form: Pamina or the Picture As Erotic Promise It then inflames my soul. and I do not hear it at all consecutively in my imagination in the way it must subsequently come. and the external stimulus must be commensurate with them. Thus this identity lies in the dark ground of all waking dreams. It imagines the one girl. That is why the identity of man who has come to himself with his world successfully achieved for him does admittedly present itself as mere border-concept of utopia. more and more brightly. a way of walking. before the consequently lovable creature has appeared in person. Every solid daydream intends this double ground as homeland. called highest good. always paints its Own earlier than it has it. otherwise it cannot excite us as one to be loved. above all. The beloved features hover ahead like a picture. Love. The external stimulus is thus not only accepted here. also represents the region of final purpose in which every solid positing of a purpose in man's struggle for liberation participates. an outline. for instance as the . the experienced Not-Yet-Experience in every experience that has previously become. but as if all together at once. are dreamed. hopes.

Käthchen von Heilbronn and Graf Wetter vom Strahl* appear to one another across time and space on somnambulant New Year's Eve. best described by a fairytale. a dream of what we do not know or what cannot yet be attained. A fulfilling appearance hovers and strides ahead of those who are awaited. What is then intended. but it is chosen as an exciting stimulus by inner inclination. even Helen first appears in the Emperor's palace as a similar spectre. sometimes in a face in a picture. Effect through the Portrait It expresses itself more clearly when it sees itself in a picture. sometimes in the street. The scene where Faust first glimpses Helen in the witches' mirror. themselves await. Then. based on a Schwabian legend. it often has a lasting effect. possibly even non-will through enchantment. Many girls and many boys have made their infatuated choice very early in this way. Or the girls went to a witch who. With this eye. something to be loved rises in the morning. Part I. the actual portrait appears. The dream with the picture in it is loved for a long time. preparation.Page 317 first which has appeared. something distant stands outside the door. as is only right and proper. in individual features of father and mother. however. by Grimm's fairytale of Faithful John: 'After my death'. which increases its aura.** with the 'most beautiful image of a woman'. the coming features of the figure are of course not seen clearly. erotically compelling the will. after an anxious curiosity had intoxicated them. showed them their bridegroom in the socalled mirror of the earth. ** Goethe's 'Faust'. written in 1808. Elsa von Brabant sees her knight in similar rapture. Thus long ago girls believed they would see their future husband on St Andrew's night. The enchantment extends from the silhouette and the photograph to the surrogate painting of the woman not yet known. said the old King * The lovers in Heinrich von Kleist's play 'Das Käthchen von Heilbronn'. Much remains inward here. this outline. and alone. Sometimes the choice occurred at home. but clearly and selectively sought after. the original can moreover be surrounded by danger or can itself be a danger. . with secularized magic which can be much more easily experienced. The special medium of love that is created in this way is. Once again a mirror of the earth is set up in the magic mirror of the witches' kitchen.

is presented in more detail than in Grimm in the story of Prince Kalaf and Princess Turandot in the Arabian Nights. countless dangers. and into the ghostly depths of hell. enchantment which is supposed to strike the person represented. not a Chinese one: nevertheless. What Turandot promised as a picture. and not in fact. including the Sultan of Ancient Babylon. Through the burning lens of the painting. but he immediately falls for the fire which inflames him from the pre-appearance. If he sees the picture.' The young King nevertheless sees the forbidden painting and shirks no danger until he has won his beloved and brought her home. I stood transfixed. even hopes to discover defects in it. my gaze was drawn towards a woman's portrait of stirring wondrous charm. but you must not show him the last chamber down the long gallery in which the picture of the Princess of the Golden Dwelling stands hidden. fantasizing erotically from the painted object. obstacles. the original European dreamknight.Page 318 to Faithful John. This kind of love-potion effect. but one which conversely strikes the viewer. her triumphant and murderous features. and violently a feeling seized me deeply in my soul. Amadis of Gaul. Drives him into adventures. portrait magic makes complete Orient out of love here. Mortimer's first appearance before the queen definitely falls into this category: One day. of woman as image and like the image in a picture. as in sympathetic magic. an English princess. he will be overwhelmed by love for her and will fall down in a swoon and will get into great danger on her account. excites utopian unrest in him. but a full ray of Amadis and his courtly love. But then the bishop said to me: Well may . until the union is consummated and Oriana sinks into the arms of the prize of chivalry. Schiller merely reworked the theme of Turandot. Thus enchantment is created by the portrait. into the whole of the known world at that time. saw the picture of Oriana. The Chinese motif spread from the Orient into European chivalry and into its dream-figure. Amadis' lady kept during the whole course of her winning and did not lose after he had won her. the spell of a distant sun strikes the person standing in front of it. conveyed by painted anticipation. it overwhelmed me so. Prince Kalaf tries to contemplate without being aroused the picture of the dangerous Turandot. still fell on Maria Stuart. while I was looking round the bishop's palace. Amadis of Gaul then. 'you must show my son the whole castle.

which took up the motif of being sent far afield. concerning Stolzing.' Characteristically. the most delicate of frames. musically in the demonic ballad. but the Baroque. The distant quests of the knights have long since been forgotten. Thus Mortimer saw Mary's portrait in France. far from fairytale and opera.Page 319 you linger by this picture with emotion. In fact. in the picture of David 'as Master Dürer painted him for us. not painted in Elsa's Lohengrinvision. even the photograph lends itself to utopian tenderness. the Turandotmotif recurs again in Wagner. in the 'Flying Dutchman'. she drifts in front of Tamino as a magical image and as the musical form of his love. The loveliest of all the women living. in Tamino's song: 'This portrait is enchantingly beautiful. Pamina is regarding the boy even in the unearthly beauties of his song itself. The motif however remains the portrait-utopia of the Gothic and also of the Baroque romance of chivalry: passion is combined with devout worship of the image. echoes in wonderfully pure fashion in Mozart. long before she saw him. she most deserves our pity of them all. the sensory-supersensory splendour of Catholicism radiated from it and sparked off a rush of images which drove the knight in the same breath to the Scottish queen and to the heavenly Mary.' Pamina presents the sweetest figure of all dream-beloved and with the music of her pre-appearance the epitome of them. into the crusader bent on rescuing the damsel in distress. The fine miniature of Pamina lies in Tamino's hand and is enclosed by it. in a miniature which understandably the painting has now become. With heavy coarsening. though only indirect. preparation in the 'Meistersinger'. in experience. painted in Eva's. though also magnetization of the miniature from the 'Magic Flute'. Wagner's neo-Baroque in general particularly likes to modify this spell. with such a vividly exchanged and secularized adoration of Mary that it makes the knight into Perseus who frees Andromeda. enduring for the sake of our belief her suffering in your own fatherland. His picture keeps Senta under its spell and in hope: optically in the disturbing likeness over the door. There are many such examples. 'What made me feel such sudden anguish was the fact that I had seen him long ago in the picture'. they all tempt us to the dream and promise. It is not even necessary for the picture itself which stimulates the dream to be a particularly good one. . the still Baroque building of the opera has the Turandot-picture hanging on its walls more often than the play.

it remains as such. Taken to the point of comedy: a ridiculous picture of happiness in ridiculous unhappiness. but only fleetingly. agonizing. outlines and colours itself. when the picture is completely painted over by love. it comes to a very hasty farewell with unanswered. and her most faithful dreamer: in Dulcinea and Don Quixote. frozen. aloof Princess Turandot the archetype of Andromeda is still at work. he quickly brings the girl's photograph to his lips and kisses it. imago substitutes as well as sending us out into the unknown. Hence none other than Don Quixote's Dulcinea is and remains the concentration of all these picture-beloved. who finds herself in the power of a dragon. this creates the deepest seduction alongside beauty. In this Dostoevsky-world the portrait is 'the collective contradiction of a person. in 'The Idiot'. condensed to the basic phenomenon of all mere erotic dream-beings: to Dulcinea as the femme introuvable. Nevertheless. Ultimately this is so even when the idol does not stop at any picture. No matter how brief the first impression may have been. suffocated love. This was ultimately the case in all instances of portrait-magic we have considered and only culminates in the purest dream-woman there is. if not basically itself painted by it. he sees the suffering. vanishing woman stops still. The enchanted have after all. Reason enough for the sick saint or holy fool to be dedicated to this woman through her portrait. the portent of beauty in suffering'. but pictorially decided. but to free her from her face through love. Then an image also closes in around the event. Even behind the painting of the unfortunate. in a strange place. it does not only arouse the desire to find this woman. Betrothal This is different again when the woman has already been seen in the flesh. Or instead. lets Myshkin hear about Nastasia Filippovna through Rogozhin. Nimbus around Encounter. to a farewell in which . one that is won from the first or the last impression. The glance at the passing. not lived out. not even the most exquisite. far removed from love.Page 320 Dostoevsky. both the cautionary and the most completely utopian one. the picture of the beloved creates the first strong waking dream even in happy situations in life. he sees her picture. besides the danger which surrounds their beloved. yet arrogant expression. almost invariably also seen the sorrow caused her by the fact that she is herself far removed from her beloved. to fulfil her longing for childhood and innocence which the picture promises besides her beauty.

which nevertheless possesses nothing that has been lived to the end. in Mörike's Mozart novella. 1832. o picture of pity-sweet agony. though once corporeal wishful image there is the agony of a love which does not live and does not fade. there can be unhealthy imago in this nimbus. It was just like a dream to think who had been sitting at it a few hours before. but of course also composes itself. 'Mozart auf der Reise nach Prag'. Mörike's Peregrina* songs capture the same interrupted feeling not in a sentimental. as she crossed the big room upstairs which had just been cleared and set straight again. but is still confronted by the fullness which was possible. The impression is preserved in both cases as remembered image. we sat as strangers keeping grief at bay until my sobbing burst out in the end and hand in hand we left the house as friends. returns eternally and departs eternally. is decorated with the few features of a happiness missed. yesterday into the lighted nursery by flickering of dainty candles arrayed where I forgot myself in noise and play you stepped. 1855. Heine's poem: I stood in darkening dreams and stared upon her likeness enters completely into this fruitless melancholy. but moving precisely in what is left unsaid. the drawn green damask curtains of which admitted only a soft twilight. Eduard Mörike. it was your ghost who came to dine with me. but in a shocking way: Oh. In this unfulfilled. Then not the first. which wanders in its morning twilight. but the last impression remains.** the poet of Peregrina relates the encounter of a young bride (the happy bride of another) with Mozart and the afterglow of this encounter: 'A few moments later. ** . The same imagemotif of Ahasueric beginnings repeats itself. in a much weaker form. she stopped and stood wistfully by the piano. and yet again it can also indicate a most human kind of love.Page 321 the briefly experienced sinks away again. Again. She looked thoughtfully at the keyboard for a long time which * These were included in Eduard Mörike's Bildungsroman 'Maler Nolten'.

Tolstoy.Page 322 He had last touched. In fact. preserves this in its untouched landscape. at least its mental picture. heavenly morning glow'. so perfectly feminine. an image of this imminent. makes the red belt of a girl glow. Thus the imago of the passing woman never found again is also radically added to the wishful images composed of fragmentary or incomplete reality. a whole spectacle of goodness shining forth. spellbound in fine fetishes. curiously. as the quintet in the 'Meistersinger' sings. non-imminent presence is sprinkled even at the beginning of successful love. then she quietly closed the lid and pulled out the key. even the later ascetic memory has not forgotten the belt. No miniature drifts ahead here. . In the midst of this beautiful beginning the image leaps out in this way. in the 'Kreutzer Sonata'. With what a felicitous flash even the space around Werther's Lotte* stands still: she herself appears. absorbed in the tender gesture of sharing out the bread to them. Yet you will live in me forever more. * In Goethe's 'Die Leiden des jungen Werthers'. which points ahead in utopian fashion. though extraordinarily significant reality has framed itself. with the children round about her. as music lingers in a silent room. Hebbel wrote a sad song to the unknown woman in a similar vein: But now my eyes will never know you again. was won from unfulfillable love. love is ignited by it. the rising morning then stands still. but it forms itself in love at first sight and creates with a tune which is so purely emotionalized in this frame 'dream of the highest graces. and though I cannot shape the form you wore. and should strange lips your destiny explain I would not recognize the name they say. no form can drag you with it to the tomb. as it were. sharp and abiding down to the pale-red bows on her arms and breasts and the black bread in her hand. like that of Pamina.' Here a fleeting. jealous to ensure that no other hand might open it again so soon. not even if you pass me by one day. even remains afterwards as the shape of the secret betrothal.

one who was by no means vilified for being romantic in her time. sea-related element is also in Ellida Wangel herself when she is constantly gazing out at the ocean and at the strange man of her first love. and did not want to swap the images for the dishes. also reifies a hardly realized beginning and consequently ruins her marriage. In a very radical bohemian way in 'Love's Comedy'. T. when pathologically sharpened.Page 323 Too Much Image. Here we may once more recall Lenau. Above all. where Falk and Schwanhild leave each other voluntarily. includes all this. Ellida Wangel. but no more over-blown than the shock Menelaus experiences when confronted with his Egyptian Helen. Very romantic spirits who fell deeply in love with the fairytale-time of young love and who are weak in reality have thus generally been notable for their fear of fulfilment. where the leaves fall. This woman. are brought into focus and made clear. Hoffmann's conductor Kreisler can be recalled as another example. And the imaginary. Darkness of the lived moment and reification of the Trojan Helen are romantically travestied in all this kind of thing. though equally tangible figure of E. so that their 'spring love' does not disappear in marriage. with the same initial value complex. This is over-blown of course. impelled to remain forever in the company of the image of the loved-one only out on the wild sea. but also. Even a naturalistic late or half-Romantic like Ibsen celebrated and exaggerated in a particularly instructive way the sheer morning value of love. A. But it does not necessarily disappear. And no more over-blown than another reactionary character of Ibsen's. when the dream-image nourished itself more from the lover who had it than from the loved-one it referred to. Spitteler also portrayed it in the dream-obsessed hero of his novel 'Imago' and in the beautiful Theuda. who saw only heavenly images in love. as we have seen. only smashed soup-dishes in marriage. opposed in a decidedly unrealistic way to a world which invariably appears to it as the narrowness of the fiords. in fact too much initial image is reluctant to become flesh. finally. as it would in reality. at the silhouette which he forms far out in the ocean. Rescue from It. which returns here. is again relevant for it all. And the abstractly utopian trade in eroticis goes on. love as sheer morning value. especially for their hatred of marriage. precisely out of the deepest affection. spurned out of . then of course the fantasy around her ebbs away. Nimbus around Marriage If the intended woman is won. but so to speak for being ultramodern: the 'Woman from the Sea'. Though the undomestic. But the limitless image of abduction remains essential.

The name derives from the fictitious. The pitiful hungering for the pure dream-image ante rem thus almost gets into the state where it appears to itself indiscriminately. the woman he worshipped. It is this melancholy which drives back so dubiously into the love-dream before the real matter or even at the beginning of the real matter. deranged out of the world. his job brings him work and aggravation. After all. by the advocate of reality: 'However long a man has been knocking around the world. Werke X2. Here is a source for genuinely utopistic neurosis: namely for lingering in the waking dream. the poet's muse herself will not stand for it. his wife holds the purse strings. as one which essentially only contains distant love.). is not improved again until he changes from the sensory-supersensory suitor into the supersensory one once more. Biedermeier also suggests petit-bourgeois domesticity. has been pushed around by it. reality would not stand for it either. and the situation. And in fact precisely because its fantasy. Much of this may also have remained true outside this Biedermeier* embourgeoisement. abstract utopia is then even more certain to be remembered. causes it to encapsulate itself and reify itself as distant love per se. hapless poet Gottlieb Biedermeier satirized in the comic Munich weekly 'Fliegende Blätter' (Broadsheets). the 'governor'. for the image getting stuck in the first signs. and 'Meier' is a very common surname. but her visionary poet will not acknowledge reality. suggesting ordinariness. the decrescendo through darkness of the lived moment and through its repercussions. who was at first the only one. the various conductor Kreislers do seem to have their case confirmed even by the anti-Romantic enemy of all wishful dreams. marries and becomes a philistine just like all the others. 'Bieder' means respectable. marriage a shrewish wife. . precisely as the melancholy of fulfilment which at this level accompanies anything invested with too much image. and so the whole miserable business of all the rest has arrived' (Hegel. as Spitteler indicates. in the mere initials of reality. but what remains true about it is: all too heavenly love never becomes earthly love. I. children come along. p.Page 324 loyalty to her image. as the higher thing itself. the one disturbs the other. Thus precisely also in love-marriage the so much more general problem of realization is discernible. Theuda-imago must not become real. ebbs away once the reality is perceived. makes her into 'a slice of bread'. in fact particularly when discriminated in the world-light. usually he still ultimately gets his girl and some sort of a position. 'Imago' is bizarrely excessive. after so much fantasy. an angel. * See Vol. p. starts to look more or less just like all the others. 40n. 216f. Being married to another.

but the utopian imago she created is still in fact her own. Where the image in it not only seeks to be preserved. Love. Not only the youth of love then runs away from Hegel's unveiled shrewish wife. thus keeps faith with the love-object in what may also have been a wishful image of itself in the object. which they seem to be not without reason and radiate as preappearance. in contrast to the happy marriage. The probation of the imago thus occurs in terms of the object and by means of the object. that is. of moving the latter towards it. however. Thus what is true of every imago drawn from a person is especially true of the erotic image: those who know how to create it are poetic natures. however. With real possibility of becoming in a good climate that which reaches into the imagination. but proved in flesh and blood. so that it can at least appear in this way. If. where space remains for a dream-image which was constitutive to prove itself. . which does not exhaust itself post festum in the enjoyment or in the disappointment of its images. therefore. in such unrestrained overflowing unreality that Helen truly does appear to him in every woman:* then the catastrophe of the image is completely unavoidable. p. What was loved will never again become in this marriage what it was before. this power of exposure through an image is missing. Pamina when encountered in reality is perhaps not the same as she appeared to Tamino in the picture. or if the lover alone was the poetic nature. namely a founded wishful image within it itself. unhappy marriage knows no other remedy than at most to become banal. 2603–4. See also Vol. has also been sufficiently stimulated by the Object itself. not every love-object has the power of reaching into the imagination through its imago. a propensity towards the self-transcendence beyond what is innate and what has become in it. In particularly acute instances of the living image-effect an attraction must have been contained in the object itself. And that becomes the course of the matter itself. instead of merely proliferating subjectively in itself.Page 325 The case is immediately different. to develop what has been exposed in it. 159n. even when there is such receptive disposition or mere analogy of the original with its image. After all. and the power to act as this wishful image. Part I. possibly. Goethe's 'Faust'. in this way it finds accommodation. those with a high degree of objective imagination in them. that is. Because the imago of an already perceived loved person can definitely manifest traits which may not be completely unfounded in the Object. a shadow in the numbness of limbo. as soon as the pre-appearance. I. And here simultaneously * Cf. where the fantasy does not block itself off from what is coming.

Though the wishful image here is not one of passion. the common wounds and victories. because it no longer needs to posit the family as a refuge from the struggle of life. imago of marriage posits the developing space of house exactly around two people. For precisely what is utopian is by no means. but keeps it going as the nearest manifestation of solidarity. This above all in socialist society. the rich maturing of old jokes. and indeed an open one despite all its closedness. The house is itself a symbol. it has already communicated itself to the Lotte-image. thus Chesterton says very tightly here in a felicitously conservative way: 'All the things that make monogamy a success are in their nature undramatic things. something strangely new: the adventure of erotic wisdom. So that it represents the successful or * From 'George Bernard Shaw'. marriage also contains its own specific utopia and a nimbus which does not coincide with the morning of love. . This hope is so original that it does not give way to the morning images of love. confined to the Alpha. the accumulation of customs. precisely in comparison with it. in line with Romantic psychology. This phenomenon is full of tension and yet it is not dramatic. with the alliance of unique intimacy based on special differentness. Sane marriage is an untheatrical thing. This utopia arises in fact from the probation of the love-imago. with its many careers beyond philistinism. but thoroughly epic. Rather. The wishful image is most definitely not one of being provided for sexually and socially.Page 326 a freshness proves itself which can be in a position to dispel the whole usual. Marriage is just as little visualized as an objet d'art. of rationalized sexuality which made marriage into the most bourgeois institution in the bourgeoisie. a person already detaches himself from passion. all too usual alternative between initial dream and apathy in this field. 1935. it has as its background the goal-hope of the homeland-symbol. with a limited life right from the outset. by feeling affection. and its poetry is always one of prose. hence by no means fades with it. which is never a constituent of marriage. in such a way that the following alphabet of things is merely problematic stretching of something already known. With the partner as constant guest in the house. on the contrary. though of a prose with the richest of backgrounds: of the house. as an inner bourgeois revolt against anticipated philistinism.'* And yet marriage is so far from being a mere moral appendage to love that it represents. Rather. to both the landscape of secret betrothal and the spectacle of goodness shining forth. which persists throughout most wishful dreams and stands at the end of all. the silent growth of an instinctive confidence.

this therefore becomes the imago of marriage and the nimbus it undertakes to win. Corpus Christi or Previous Cosmic and Christ-Like Utopia of Marriage The ship which takes us on board in this way was painted in a doubly luminous way. High Pair. almost even as mere chance. which is in fact called marriage. Bachofen conspicuously avoided it. with resignation as the rule. Just as the pain of love is a thousand times better than unhappy marriage. The first can be described as that of the High Pair. Nevertheless it has its utopian nimbus with justification: only in this form does the by no means simple. In earthly and celestial colours. of the steadfast befriending of gender in everyday life. but the friendship of love. burning otherness. the other classifies marriage as Corpus Christi. not even with the death of one partner. even though it emerged immediately after the matrilinear society. And yet the high couple developed . Often making the wrong choice. and which does not end with old age. the cryptic wishful symbol of the house work. thus its probation is not only. peaceful unity in fine. in fact ultimately no longer at all that of the painted Pamina picture. no longer passion. as is well-known. Marriage initiates and survives the fireordeal of truth in the life of the partners. Guest in the house. they present two mythical utopias of marriage. the music of the ordeals by fire and water is added to the utopia of the Pamina picture in Tamino's hand. with happiness as the exception. is there any prospect at all of good surprise and ripeness. it is aristocratic-pagan. Thus marriage appears as the utopia of one of the most friendly and most strict expressions of the substance of human life.Page 327 unsuccessful experiment of a communion which finds no equal either in sexual love or in any social community which has previously appeared. not merely more real than all the songs of the bride. the virginal one of encounter. Significantly. fruitless pain. Rather. but marriage. Pamina herself guides the music of fidelity or the probation of the imago far beyond the first mere enchantment by this imago. therefore deeper. so too the landlocked adventures of love are diffuse compared with the great sea voyage which marriage can be. And seldom does marriage become the outbidding truth of what was initially hoped for. always placed only woman or man alone on the respective matrilinear or patrilinear peak. in which there only remains pain. this music now no longer designates and signifies the bride. Little attention has been previously paid to the category of High Pair.

as priest of the Syrian sun-god Baal. In two people. the category of the High Pair thus sought to cause to appear what did not combine in the cults. 'concept and Sophia'). married the priestess of the Carthaginian moon-goddess Tamit – day and night. in fact of whore and prophet. in the external firmament: moon and sun simultaneously. a hetaira from Tyre. around Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. allowed no or only indistinct High Pairs on this earth. Whereas late antiquity also provided especially adventurous examples for the category of High Pair: thus the Emperor Eleagabal. not only of the partners. it was preserved in the cabbala. both can or should be at work and dispense in the High Pair together in the human heaven. an echo of this Simon-Helen cult at the time of Christ lived on throughout the whole of the Middle Ages and was preserved. the man the radiant light system. with its womanless God the Father. 'light and life'. A further astral myth streamed in heavily here. the FaustHelen image under the continuing influence of Simon Magus and Helen of Tyre – these continue poetically to consummate the ancient nuptials. the world appeared redeemed to them through the rediscovery of this primally male. the other powerful and dominating-good. The woman has in her favour the glittering moon-goddess or the primally wise earth-goddess. the Gnostic of Jesus' time. even in the eyes of its viewers. Simon. but gnostic-cabbalistic Judaism most definitely did. of grace and power. around the 'Helios' Anthony and the 'Isis' Cleopatra. Woman and man are each imagined here concentrically within themselves as a picture. The last two. the Tamino-Pamina image deriving from Hellenistic sources. and also earth and sun. Whether the misera contribuens plebs itself ever came to see this .Page 328 the most peculiar wishful image of marriage. The High Pair nimbus lies around Pericles and Aspasia. Baal and Tamit in one. with equal intensity in the sky. in heaven. in the erotically fixed couple. in the FaustHomeric Helen relationship. a hetaira like Helen of Tyre. primally female element. the one graceful and providing-good. Thus around 1650 the pseudo-Messiah Sabbatai Zewi had his wife Sara. only their connection brings blessing per se. around Simon Magus and Helen. were particularly venerated by their followers – as 'Dynamis' and 'Sophia' in unity. It lived in gnosis when this divided up its powers of imagery shining down from above into male and female ('primal ground and silence'. Christianity. the Babylonian myth of a 'sacred wedding' in God himself. however. It appears as unity of tenderness and sternness. Indeed. Helen. as 'second person in divinity' beside him. After all. by changing its characters. all this here with the old astralmythic background of moon and sun.

as the house. it probably contented itself with the sight of its demi-gods. The bravest of the loyal band. does in fact live on in the FaustHelen legend. And though Christianity no longer justified the High Pairs theologically. Nevertheless. Marriage becomes community in nuce. The compatible partner for the most beautiful woman has long engaged the imagination of erotic fulfilment. Millions still believe in it. but in an extra-worldly way and thus completed. no longer has a place for it not only on account of its womanless God the Father. Christianity. the Corpus Christi imitated by wife and husband. heir to the throne and his highborn consort) and gave a powerful highlight on marriage even where the aristocratic background and the astral myth had disappeared. maidenliness and leadership are not to be combined in a worldly. as externalities with which the cosmic utopia of marriage likewise sinks. but above all in fact as non-astral-mythic religion. an inner one which promises and binds in a different way. that is. as in the sacrament of marriage. No place in a world in which moon and sun now equally sink. the image of such a union still runs through the nimbus of every young marriage. acting like a guiding image. however. In all this the double unity of sexuality seems so peculiarly large and did not rest until it believed it had found a hold in the firmament itself. for them marriage is made in heaven and remains there until death. The image has been expressly preserved in kitsch as well as in dynastic pairs (robber and robber's bride. To designate they were elected. in the Pamina-Tamino union (further dealt with by Goethe in 'The Magic Flute Part Two'). connected The highest world-pair in the land. with sensory-supersensory brilliance. expressly related to the simultaneity of crescent moon and sunrise and to what it means to unite the former's refinement with the latter's power: The Sultan managed this. when it occurs between well-favoured people. In this too there is an image which first begins with marriage and has its erotic promise in marriage. Indeed. a sacrament of sun and moon. A unity of people who are man and woman in a fuller sense than Adam and Eve. however. despite possible earthly wretchedness . it is ranked very highly as 'image of our bliss' in the Suleika book in the 'West-östlicher Divan'. Instead. as perfect pairimage of grace and power. Devotion and strength.Page 329 dream-image is debatable. this pair-myth. its second face rises.

as the creator of children's souls. Pius IX impressed on us. in order to belong to him in the new house. as devotion of the head to the body.* Sulamith's love for Solomon in the Song of Songs. and of his bones. Sexual communion and fidelity to it are completely connected in this image of marriage with religious and with social communion – though only in the form of the Christian community related to the other world. According to the teachings of the church. which means 'community' and is the word Bloch is using here.** this glowing wedding song is clerically transformed and presented allegorically as the love-talk of Christ with his community. which it only makes into a full one through its ratification. is the collaboration of the priest necessary. with breasts sweeter than wine. In St Paul. 2. to feed in the gardens. temples of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. not so that marriage becomes sacred. ** Cf. 16–19). of his flesh. and shall be joined unto his wife and they two shall be one flesh. Then of course. in order to devote themselves to the extension of this body. 5. always in such a way that marriage is rooted in the marriage of Christ with the community and with its extension and continuing effect. . in the sacramentum plenum. to the beds of spices. our bodies are the limbs of Christ. Despite the Fall.Page 330 or catastrophe. Though the human creature added a great deal of water and misfortune * 'Church' in the Authorized Version corresponds in versions of the German Bible to 'Gemeinde'. and to gather lilies. comradeship between the sexes ideally becomes comradeship of the cult. they themselves already enter into relation with God. as purification of the body through the head. in the only sacrament which the church itself does not dispense. The marriage partners themselves consummate the sacrament through marriage. is in itself a sacrament. marriage becomes the connection of disciple and female disciple out of kinship and convention. they come together as consecrated limbs of Christ's body. This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church' (Eph. wife and husband stand in imago beyond compare. in order to blend themselves in the image of the new God. even if only an empty one. with the beloved who has gone down into his garden. a vast gold ground should emerge in marriage to the believer. 30–32). The Song of Songs 6. to the spreading of the kingdom of God in the rational human creature. its organ and depiction in the rational human creature. Every marriage. The bond of Christ with his community remains the image and model image of marriage: 'For we are members of his body. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother. but because marriage is sacred. 6.

. however. the vision of the never achieved farewell. Bloch's first wife Elsa. and a promise * 'Blessed' is the ordinary term of endearment in German for a departed husband or wife. this principle of a cryptic collective was reflected here as the faith.Page 331 to the wine of this miracle. Rather. not even transfiguring memory of a less insipid kind. a waking dream is restored again in images.* this caricature is never the subject of discussion. The magic wand of the first impression was followed. hope also repeatedly rises out of memory in such cases. there is widespread self-deception here. nor any loneliness à deux. fulfilled and yet. as late Roman. But the utopia of the grapevine and the vines was nevertheless at work in the refuge as which the family wanted to preserve itself non-antagonistically within class society. with the man as 'head'. This after-image is as distant as possible from the Peregrina-vision composed of unfulfilled love. there was no utopia of love which could have considered marriage to be as deeply important and made its image as deeply binding as the former. no afterimage of love is unequivocal. it will not always remain so. Then. especially the absolutely un-Christ-like society in which in fact. in its brilliance. the Corpus Christi did not exactly reveal itself in perfect form in the social context. right down to the kitsch which forms in the memory around the so-called late blessed husband or wife. feudal. Even if it is not carried to the grave. its time is past. the gold was pure. Unus Christianus nullus Christianus. not fulfilled. The essential patriarchal feature. As in the Peregrina-vision. in so far as it only interrupts externally. but what was visible and alive for it. then of course. whose death in 1921 caused him so much grief. it remains an afterimage of love. the body is which it found. was nevertheless included in a community of love of a more extensive order in which there was to be no more domination. Death does not cut love off. After-Image of Love Even if a dream becomes real. Since even the woman happily loved can become Peregrina through death. patriarchal features and despite the extra-worldly vanishing and reference point. capitalist society respectively. unless already able to develop in the lifetime of its object. love. it is unerring. seems to be very much present in this passage. then again. in so far as death is alien to her. Despite all strongly patrilinear. Undoubtedly. and yet related in one point. hope of marriage.

only here the statue of a past-unpast life is brought to life again. But the distinction must be made: the falsely celebrated after-image closes off new life and closes in old life in an authentic Now. in his lonely study with the picture of his late wife over his writing-desk.Page 332 out of the after-image. and also in the man entering his second marriage. in Shakespeare's mysteriously light game. 2. Curiously. and it seemed to him as if he were walking at her side. And out of the imagination of the man who was looking down into this loneliness. but only draw it into an intermediate state between ghostly spring and after-ripening.' Storm's hero is thus prone to seduction by the dead. because of a crime. the light of the moon could not reach down. only where the steep path led down between black pyramid-shaped conifers to the bamboohut did white gravel glimmer between them. 180–1. is full of the power of the erotic after-image: it is at work in the culpable longing of the King in front of the statue of Hermione. The retrospective glance goes there. Horatio! the funeral bak'd meats Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.* Shakespeare's 'Winter's Tale'. Theodor Storm's novella 'Viola Tricolor' circles around this problem twice. He takes it on lonely paths. This is a fairytale solution. 1. by the window which opens out on to the garden. a peculiar and extremely complex infidelity appears: he breaks his marriage to his second wife by committing adultery with a shadow. thrift. causes a powerful pull towards the past and makes it present again. Hamlet. only the marriage tables of funeral baked meats were a problem. the after-image goes and lives there: 'The sky was full of clouds. a deep jest causes a desire to go back again. HAMLET: Thrift. just as if for the avenger. down to the little hut which he has not entered for so long. Down there in the little garden the overgrown shrubbery lay like a dark mass. Since unsatisfied-remembering wishfulness is at work here both in the child who garlands the picture of his dead mother with roses and because of his stepmother least of all forgets his own mother. a lovely figure stepped who no longer belonged to the living. and he too takes a long retrospective glance. this very disturbing kind of after-image seldom appears in great literature. however. everywhere else in life awkward complications surround the erotic afterimage: as one which is uneasy about being merely an image of What Has Been. A differently beautiful love is easily offered witches' brews here which do not rejuvenate. . with all the disadvantages of what may also be called * 'Hamlet'. he saw her down there wandering on the path. only here.

become finished for it. the imago does not make us long fruitlessly for the past but has the same effect as a star shining from the future. as we have seen.Page 333 'repeated mirroring' in spiritual optics. through the brave man. as sacred perfection.' she floats on the waters. That is why it cannot forget what is missing. no matter how far hope outweighs for the brave man. when it appears to open on to pleasant objects. to me she appeared where young womanhood flowers. the vanished Pandora shines through: In thousands of patterns her shape is concealed. awaits. itself still approaches us out of this future. they keep each other hovering in the balance. hope too. In death sancta illuminates the Beyond. in sacred proportions she flashes and sounds. since it shines in that sphere in which even in the past something Unbecome still awaits and approaches. why it holds the door open in all things. in Goethe's 'Pandora'. but also in visualization. Wherever such inconceivable consolation arises. The door that is at least half-open. the beloved the after-image represents proves to be descended from Beatrice's line. one of continuing encounter with perfection. must . which can deceive with will-o'-the-wisp. Though. Whereas the correctly secured after-image. receives. However. albeit transparently. which has not the least in common either with return through after-taste or with death-cult. not only at the grave. sees the after-image even in tangible aspects of the existing world. The Good Thing That Remains Every dream remains one by virtue of the fact that too little has yet succeeded. the founded fidelity to it just as surely plants hope. she strides in the field. However little the image ends as promise. completes. In Dante's Beatrice this kind of erotic promise found its most silent power. may be the most fruitful. are lent the highest of powers. is marked hope. 22— Daydream in Symbolic Form: Pandora's Box. there is no hope without anxiety and no anxiety without hope. which lend it. their content ennobled within formal bounds. Epimetheus. The dead loved-one has moved out of mere memory.

this is how the Stoics wanted to leave the images of hope behind them. may appear as an evil on the side of uncertainty. a very contradictory legend or version of the legend. But of course. although she is winged. dazzling as Helen. covered in veils and fleeing. even from jack-o'-lantern. in a world which has not become a prison. Hence a later. an enticing picture of beauty itself. Hellenistic version (even Goethe's 'Pandora' adopted it) portrays Pandora's dowry not as container of misfortune but. She comes from Zeus. But this provides no real understanding in Hesiod's account unless in fact hope as evil refers to its deceptive aspect. allows himself to be seduced. with which after all Zeus also wanted to help the men created by Prometheus to get over their weakness. i. trouble. hunger. The ancients had depicted Elpis in this way. but Epimetheus. Now this contained. so much less endowed with possessions than memory. Only at the end Zeus closed the lid. The same effect is created by the unforgettable Spes which Andrea Pisano depicted on the door of the Baptistry in Florence. since hope. Pandora is tender as Pamina. Pandora's box . of good things. and so Pandora opens the box she has brought with her. has not in fact been distributed among men. like Tantalus. the deliberator after the event. the unfounded kind certainly is one. before hope came out too. even to the powerless aspect which it still represents for itself alone. is so far removed from evil. just like those of anxiety and fear. And founded hope especially. the whole army of evils which has subsequently descended on men: disease. but in a demonic way. all flew out. Prometheus refuses her. on the contrary. hope mediated with the real Possible. that it in fact represents the at least half-open door appearing to open on to pleasant objects. and despite her wings. however. lies here amidst the explicit evils. which is not a prison. Thus hope. according to Hesiod's portrayal of the legend. This is. deformity. supposedly in sympathy. ultimately as a box of mysteries.e. she sits waiting. but evil or sent with evil intention and so after all like the usual snake in the myth of the Fall. who seeks through her to take his revenge on Prometheus for stealing fire. but with a sealed collection of dangerous gifts. and the deceptive. the less the ancients sought to relinquish hope. that is.Page 334 be of a knowing kind. The consistently curious Pandora legend has hope brought to men by a woman. tender. one that is in itself thought out in advance. In Hesiod's version it is distinguished from the other evils only by the fact that it remains untapped. The longer time went on. she raises her arms towards an unattainable fruit. even unfounded hope cannot be ordered among the usual evils of the world as if it were the same as illness or worry.

the half-opened door with adventistic dawning in advance. in latency. for the same reason. full of charms. the box opens as the deep warm study. the Front of process. but really founded hope. thus. concrete anticipation is as familiar with enlightenment (destruction of illusions) as it is with genuine mystery (That-fiddle. with the golden red morning clouds over the horizon. in which man can become man for man and the world homeland for man. These too. And that is why no moment of comprehended hope is missing from the theorypractice of Marxism which is kept total and not kept up artificially.* Both aspects are equally the perspective of philosophy which finally replies to hope materialistically and openly and is sworn to the new earth of the Totum. felicitous talents. Thus. through which subjectively and objectively hope is indicated. Mechanical materialism. Thus in the long run the second version of the Pandora myth is surely the only true one. Illusions and their good things which have in any case never been existent have flown out of Pandora's box. i. as the only good thing left. the strongest there is. with utopian elements of the final state. which its latency represents. is true as materialism. came out of the box. accordingly. which has in no way already ripened but which has also in no way been destroyed. is the Pandora-box of the unfinished world itself. it is approaching. In fact. With a landscape symbol. when the sun is no longer far away and the day begins which may also be praised before the evening comes. With a historical symbol. steadfastness and non-resignation in the face of those which fail to appear. * Bloch is reversing the standard German proverb here 'Don't praise the day before evening comes'. that is. but in contrast to the vices they completely escaped and were not distributed among men. together with the hollow space with sparks (ciphers. but it is untrue when.e. according to the Hellenistic version of the myth. This Totum or All still stands in process and its tendency. it teaches an as it were stupid world. utopian Totum). as merely mechanical materialism. It keeps up courage for the good things that are missing. positive symbol-intentions). with heavy evening clouds in the storm. the 'all-talented' woman. As much with a maximum of freedom from illusion as with a maximum (pregnant with decision) of optimism. the box opens as the open sea. the cabin on land in which the promising light of home burns.Page 335 is Pandora herself in this version. hope nevertheless remained in the box. gifts. the friendliest there is. which would be equivalent to the English 'Don't count your chickens before they are hatched'. . of course. hope is the good thing that remains for men. as explanation of the world in terms of itself. the process pending in the world gets lost. has remained. and where it vanishes.

in mediation with the human-historical one. its days. And such an auroral aspect not only breaks forth repeatedly in human-historical terms. It is as powerfully removed as mechanical materialism from the idealisms of reason as creator. of the alienated towards identity. of the surrounding world towards mediated homeland. quodditas – are full of the tendency of the Not-Yet towards the All. ciphers of the development of a homeland. humanization continue to work. it even qualifies and embraces the landscape of the physical world. precisely within it. half to be full. – crooked seeks to be straight. There is also within it. have neither unchanging number and proportion nor anywhere near their full weight. which are equally ours. depicted by its objectively positive tendency. The real open world is that of dialectical materialism. of the true atomic nucleus: existere. But this is not the world in which the contradictions occur that drive us ahead. above all in the whole of the world. which is in no way merely quantitative and cyclical. but also such an apparently so much greater 'anthropomorphic aspect' as anticipation. as does idealism. on the basis of the as yet so little reflected morning-land: objective-real possibility. The hope of the goal. of spirit as demiurge. necessarily at one with revolutionary thoroughness. in which better life. Thing for Us are really possible. with the old cycle of becoming and fading. We cannot think well enough and greatly enough about matter. however. have space in forward development and capability of development. moved without goal. which is not carrying any mechanistic eggshells. . becoming human. which mechanical materialism still venerates. Not only movement and such an apparently 'anthropomorphic aspect' as contradiction (with movement itself as first contradiction) are its modes of existence. is necessarily at odds with false satisfaction. locked to the chain of unchanging necessity. from bible-bashing and hypostases of the other world. but also from the statics in the particular.Page 336 certainly a half and narrow world. The substance-formations of the world – right down to the unleashing of the most intensive force of production. Even after and precisely after the building of a classless society these substance-problems (tasks) of salvage.and latency-concept. This is felt out and opened up by hope.

THEATRE) .Page 337 PART THREE— (TRANSITION): WISHFUL IMAGES IN THE MIRROR: (DISPLAY. FILM. FAIRYTALE. TRAVEL.

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what others wear. that is consequently all that is allowed to him in the petit-bourgeois urge to be considered top dog. as it were. Equally. To appear more than he is. so he blossoms out in accordance with the image which he sees as his own. as they say. but not with the state of rich and poor in general. however. this reversed formula is not imitated by any grooming. . show off. The woman. So he smiles at this in a really friendly way. make-up. and what is therefore quite willingly seduced. from their best side. at least their wishing is genuine. out of the cave. But most want to make a good impression and strive to do so. they are attracted outside only by what has already existed for a long time in their own wishes. It sees how others behave. The most external way of doing this is the easiest here. The drab person colours himself as if he were glowing. gestures and things. and places itself into it. The ego changes itself into a commodity. To be more than he appears. Grooming is soon learnt and fleeting. borrowed plumes help the dream of themselves. only moves upwards in a conventional way. But not as if it were possible for someone to make themselves completely false. the assiduous young man of this type is dissatisfied with the state in which he finds himself. people cannot make of themselves what has not already previously begun within them. Which means from that side which is most readily marketable. however. it is still not often worn apart from the tie. in fact betrays itself in the pose they strike.Page 339 23— Making Ourselves More Beautiful Than We Are Not everyone looks a bit special. even sparkling commodity. which is why there is never so much kitsch as in the class which tolerates itself not being genuine. or rather the one which he is made to see as his own. Of course. This shows itself. into a saleable. the applicant show themselves. What is ours and non-fading. Wishing. pep up the little bit that is really there or falsify it. Lipstick. what is on display in the shop-window. Then they go and pose. Thus many shine in front of others. in terms of pretty wrappings. even if only vaguely.

He puts himself at an advantage in this way. The feminine aspect of the employee consists of pink. as creaseless as his suit and holds himself accordingly. The intention here is that they should resemble each other as one egg does another. the threatened man looks at himself with the eyes of his master. the young man the way he should carry himself. when he wants to rely on his employees. this is now the American mark of the gentlemen who are no such thing. But for the little employee it usually just means to be finished. Good at Cringing Those who offer themselves for sale have to please. With eyes which tell him how the boss wishes him to be. . To keep them both up to scratch there is therefore a mirror hanging in the street too. at the office. they are therefore also put on show outside. on pain of destruction. The girl the way she should be. the employee wants to be as slim. but at that advantage which the real masters gain from the little man. The face now composes itself as smoothly as possible.Page 340 24— What the Mirror Tells Us Today I was privileged to serve. If he is not yet that. the masculine of wax (but must be smart). even the man who has no choice but to be mirrored believes it. and nothing but creeping chickens hatch out. As the ruling class requires. then the applicant must be conscious of himself as spruce and dressed accordingly. Of course the mirrored man believes he sees himself as he wishes to see himself. that is really something. wishes himself to be. This kind of thing is standardized like the gloves in the shop. and if he does not want to end up like that. in every public place. A mirror is part of getting dressed. To keep smiling through anxiety and in tedium. shortly before his appearance in public. Therefore the glass does not even reflect the way he wishes himself to be but simply the way he is wished to be. in fact. —Saying Being Slim Not to give oneself a second glance. like the shop-smile of the salesman that has become a general and prescribed smile.

However.Page 341 there are lots of them hanging wherever they go. All in the manner of a lie which must be sweet though impossible enough to intoxicate us and yet still keep us in harness. to the perfect marriage of the castrated husband. provides a refuge. The boxer stands in the ring. quite different peak performances would emerge if there were medals for being first in suffering in silence. and jewellery is even older than these clothes. as a spectator. —Saying Nobody can shed their skin of course. so that he buys. She is a new woman in new clothes. champion at swallowing your pride. the swimmer improves on records only in the water. what he would like to be in petitbourgeois terms. Thus above all he pleases those who keep the duped punch-ball pinned down. but the boss does so in terms of profit. a new coat covers the whole past of the man just released from prison. The window-display mirrors and by doing so increases what is supposed to be happening in the buyer. almost extinct for small people. the clean shirt lies spread out in the morning like the new day. Of course. seriousness is left standing. the Illuminated Display A velvet collar polishes. hence all grooming is in fact getting dressed. to the travelling man-in-chains. 25— New Clothes. genuine wishes are felt here at the start. dishes it out. in the fine lather of feminine finery. at grinning and bearing it. to coming out when the bell goes. But the field is narrow. of fruitless appearance. Sport seems to be a real escape from the tedium. the wish to try oneself out in various ways also begins for most other people with . but the one who can take it best stands outside the ropes. competition.and film-matter of the West supplies many such images of desirable good conduct. it sets them off even today by standing out. Is the true master when it comes to taking the right hook to the jaw. without a lie. But it is easy to slip into a new one. These are the unhailed victors of that life which is really still offered to people on the capitalist road through life. Deceitful signposts are erected here: to the dancing work-animal. getting ahead is just a game. for being number one cringer. With garments women in particular put on a new part of themselves. In any case. Clothes which can be chosen distinguish men from animals. The usual reading.

only needs to fling his bride into it. Hence old or sedentary people feel most comfortable always being dressed in the same way. watching. Dutch-Indian air lulls the purchaser in. For the purpose of fulfilling the wish closest to the heart of the businessman himself: making profit. in downfeather . Coffee. Others immediately feel they have no creases if their trousers do not show any. like most of us. pigskin gloves. candle-lit. schnaps are best presented against Delft tiles. primarily those with 'the personal touch'. He sees behind the windows. characteristically in the West above all. to stimulate elegant wishful life. Dining-room. Well Laid Out After this. But what is calling here is the commodity dazzlingly illuminated behind glass. blossom-white. however great the uneasiness of his desire for possession. and calls. will find it behind the windows of the furniture store. A good window-display must therefore be suggestive. The wanderer. and thus it makes us uneasy about lingering before shop-windows. tea. and it still possesses. always presents parts to represent the whole and the parts themselves again as merely intimating ones. out on to the busy street. is not made rebellious. and all those others who. a soft hat waits beside it. bedroom. drawing room – everything is ready like a made bed. on red varnish. Thus in addition to the sewing-pattern there is the window-display. the capacity to stimulate needs. Here is a ladies' fashion shop of higher distinction: outfits gathered in to an unbelievable slimness at the height of fashion like little else in the world and yet a kind of other world: no earthly women walk like that. studio. Here is a tailor's for general managers and for those who would like to be like them: the ulster has been thrown over the Chippendale chair in an inimitable way.Page 342 the both spotless and variable illusion which a tailor can lend. Anyone who is after more cosy happiness. however. waiting for guests who are as refined as it is itself. itself idle. however. Here is a china shop: in the middle the laid table. and the young civil servant who no longer feels the need to go chasing infatuated round the park. The window-display first came into being with the open capitalist market. precisely by what is all too high. from the square at the end. cannot afford to buy. Light comes through the trees from the bright houses. shoes that look as if they were made out of the cover of an old Florentine book. looking for customers. crystal. Here is the delicatessen with dishes we cannot help but call appetizing.

The dream of the beautiful house fills itself with the furniture on display which is itself living beyond its means. make out of the commodity everywhere a so-called Christ-child. the Faustian studio. but also the enticing image which arises between men and commodities. but where is it to be found? Around Christmas. especially in the seraglio of the Turkish Sultan. the baby Jesus who brings the children presents at Christmas. he builds with happiness and glass. Light of Advertising But the commodity always still needs a label which praises it. go blue.Page 343 and salmon-pink. At every corner the shop-window thus forms wishful dreams. to make the rich people who have no money draw it out of their pockets. He does not only set out commodities.** As much a cute picture as the overfilled shop-windows are a deceitful one. the most legitimate bourgeois wishful dream. With double. but not made rebellious (for the magic behind the glass of course shows no enviably visible owner). And no one knows better when it comes to this sort of dream than the dresser who arranges its displays. red. the wishes glow up and down. . the petit bourgeois affirms precisely in front of the displays which are beyond his means the elegant and praiseworthy aspect into which the bosses shape their lives. green. but also that fulfillable for the fewest of all: the dream-house for two from inside. The woman must exist for these flowers.* the Californian bar-top. Which makes it especially appealing in competition and does not only make it shine in the shop-window. when we do not give presents to ourselves. presupposes these and is supposed to make us forget them. yellow. And the passer-by continues to build on this capitalist enticing image in a purely human way. billow as tobacco smoke. The designed and spoken display. with factory-goods which are always got up in fancy dress: the broad odalisque-style armchair. but to others. even though it exists close by slums or cheerless streets of bourgeois conformity. the shopping streets of the cosmopolitan cities become almost pious. for this perfume. the big drum for * Odalisque – a woman slave or concubine in an Eastern harem. treble intensity the neon-adverts. there must be the abundance of life. Uneasy. The coffee which is poured into the sea does not need to be put on display first. pour drinks. ** The German equivalent of Santa Claus. certainly.

The lady in the illustration who is dabbing eau-de-cologne on her temples. until a customer ripens out of him. Atlantic hits like the following now emerge: Spring hats are no longer a luxury these days. the car for the successful businessman. just as even today a coalmerchant's might commend itself. over a hard-coal shop 'Heavenly Embroidery'. over an opium shop 'The Threefold Uprightness'. a parade of Christmas and Easter values throughout the whole year. The so gleaming and acclaimed commodities become. their money. and to transform every real and possible need into a weakness. even if. highly recommended commodities. but it was more contented self-importance than a weapon in the acquisitive struggle. into the customer. and the many lights of the several faces of Berlin West. the man in advertising plays on the piano of wishful dreams. Even in old Peking there were the following business signs: over a basketmaker's 'The Ten Virtues'. even out of the most incidental commodity. Modern design is modern design. But these are poems. Even earlier ages. Buying ladies' stockings causes a literal rebirth. only serve to increase the darkness. not big draws. Thus the employees are charged up without them exploding. Shop-windows and advertising are in their capitalist form exclusively lime-twigs for the attracted dream-birds. as Marx says. almost mockingly. who is accepting Swiss chocolate from gentlemen. over a charcoal-shop 'Fountain of All Beauty'.' Thriftiness. all of them rotten. over a butcher's 'Mutton-shop of the Morning Twilight'. Call for Philip Morris. All this is made possible by painted. as 'Orcus'. it even ironized the commodity. Purity and a big bottle. countries that were not capitalist had a kind of advertising. the bait with which people try to entice the essence of the others. styled with an eye for the world of tomorrow. that's Pepsi Cola. guarantees the New York Times: 'Van Raalte covers you with Leg Glory from sunrise till dark. It especially transforms man into the most sacred thing there is next to property.Page 344 this is called advertising. Even more beautifully than the window-dresser. they do long precede capitalist advertising. over a wine-shop 'Neighbourhood of the Highest Beauty'. Buick. . It skipped over. wish for the latest thing and morning red have a rendezvous even for gentlemen and at a cheap price: 'Howard Clothes. as enticement and exaggeration. to themselves. becomes the picture of happiness precisely by doing so. so to speak. a magic in which each and every thing will be solved if only we buy it.' Advertising makes magic out of the commodity. making them irresistible in the stimulated person.

prince. but a small fulfilment. the good life is only possible in affluence. there * Bloch is presumably quoting from Gershwin's 'Summertime' here. The mask enables the bourgeois not only to look as he wishes to be and to be taken for at parties. The means of doing this is not dress. but dressing up in disguise. even if they come from the scum of the earth. The housewife. the dream of the colourful or great animal. The mask is superficial to begin with. The wish emerges for a mask which is most definitely not an everyday one. —Jazz song* The obsession with transforming ourselves lures us even more strongly. it suits his style better than his everyday coat. would-be exploiters. a colourful image of themselves takes their place. it also allows him to act in a really boisterous way. That dressing up in disguise takes place which in many cases is not dressing up at all. are petit-bourgeois. And we see which role the disguised man would like to play in life. All criminals.Page 345 26— Beautiful Mask. that is. often when he is dressed up as a criminal. He is by no means only masked as hangman. the wearer caters for himself with it. forced upon him. In fact. that is how they look on the inside. . indeed denies the previous ego. as such it hides. Those who have dressed up in a good disguise have undressed. so to speak. the ego portrayed in previous life. but becomes unrecognizable in them. which is. With this disguise he throws a dream over himself. even could play if he was not prevented. Ku Klux Klan. The Crooked Paths It more seldom turns out that someone is a colourful animal on the outside as well. the salesman disappear. that is what they want. This is now carried over on to the body. Crime. if you know how to use the night as well as the man of property knows how to use his day. but your mamma's good-looking. hangman or pasha. so it seems. It is surprising that more crimes are not committed simply for richly striking effect. for poor. the Glossy Magazines Your daddy's rich. makes rich overnight. sex murderer. A person does not then only put on new clothes. Doubtless.

only because the consequences require very good nerves. but very self-relishing criminal style. is too great. the following may be deserving of your special attention. The lure of the revolver is succumbed to relatively seldom in the petit bourgeoisie. Since my beginning lies in another region. ** . however. they are furthermore poetic in a terrible way. around 1930. a letter to the police. the confidence trickster is what he wishes to be. my girl has to walk home in the evening from Hilden. but their contents were true: * A rural feast where freshly slaughtered pigs are eaten. In Langenfeld (north of Cologne) was the beginning and. What is longed for and intended as such a role is verified by their testimonies. but there are also really droll robbers and murderers. and also have many Black Fridays. from the Düsseldorf sex-murderer Kürten who murdered nineteen times. crime itself loves and preserves the anarchic romanticism in which the petit bourgeois cloaks it. will also be the end of my affliction. who to all intents and purposes ply their trade in a kind of dream-game. in the role which is ultimately not only one they play. even outside the masked ball. 'Black Friday' is also the expression for the Wall Street Crash in German. I enclose a sketch of her route. A creature lives there. the image of the wish for bloodshed. if my luck holds. For example. She must still die. so says an old saying. She is my next victim' – and a later letter closes with verses which read like something written on the toilet-walls of Cockaigne.Page 346 is a persistent urge to go into the underworld. yet suffering draped in moral sentiments. a prince. ** It's an honest man who only dreams of the crimes which the others commit. mostly with wishes for revenge. and thus exaggerate it in a theatrical way. Now things are going better for me. and it remains at the planning stage. but her totally pure body overcame the poison. into what is for them a cross between a killingfeast* and a beggars' banquet. even if it costs me my life. In fact. dripping with bloodthirstiness and grinning suffering. above all sex-murderers. the beggars' banquet is often retained as working clothes even by more capital criminals: the crooked road is supposed to be and remain at the same time the colourful-eerie road. the pleasure taken in the role. Thus wayward youth is seduced by the image of the gangster. That she cannot belong to me has driven me to all my terrible actions. I wanted to poison her. which in its moral life and in its thoughts is hardly comparable with any other soul. The sex-murderer is skilled at being doubly chilling and writes: 'I expect you are interested in my activities. They dupe the police in letters which lead to their discovery. and in a smarmy.

where these descend to the level of kitsch. death's-heads. joke articles which travelling salesmen put on to amuse fellow passengers in railway compartments. And which is marked with a stone. Something of the Nazi announced itself in all this. apaches. the Jewish sweethearts with shorn heads in the train triggered salvos of laughter.Page 347 At the foot of Pappendelle At the spot my cross foretells. the self-satisfaction in the committed. but also during the day. All wishes came true which the petit bourgeois had acted out at Carnival time. he conjured with half-crazy names. Where no weeds have grown. Papa had recently gone to a fancy-dress party at the Glee Club as Judge Lynch and it was unanimously declared the best mask of the evening. but for real and faultless. and the Jews with cut-off trousers and with witty placards around their necks. knights of the Fiery Night-shirt enlivened the streets. . Now he was the same in the street. to hang. including those of the gallows at the end. 'Regression' broke out. in person. it became fascist seriousness. Public seriousness made political. he later sucked in many droll robbers and murderers. then came the Night of the Long Knives and its day. but also to the level of the well-oiled. The mask did not only move beyond the fancy-dress party among old-fashioned private criminals. The crooked paths are thus filled with cruel wishful images in a particularly precise way. every scream of blue murder. Lies a corpse one and a half metres deep. before they triggered different salvos. 'Wolf's fangs' and 'Scary monsters'. and to burn them at the stake. became party insignia. Ku Kluxers. The fascist charlatan reached for the werewolf mask. Success through Terror More and more people of this kind clamoured to be disguised in life too. moral sex-murderers. and in particular the wishes of those who as Lynchers. police made them doubly insecure. Grotesque masks and hoods are not only desired by Mr Would-be at balls. The letters were put in black-bordered condolence envelopes. hooded avengers and the like drove false revolt into genuine barbarity. draw and quarter them. with scenes from horror stories. with the inconceivable cruelty of which the Christian bourgeoisie has for centuries sweetened the misfortune of not being allowed to break people on the wheel. yet still draped murder is great.

The beginning of the movement is instructive here. Followers of Brutus!!! Rally. hearts. birds. but a fiery cross burns on the hills where they meet. which will perhaps appear again. stars. This mummery is intended to appear extremely different. The clan called itself the Invisible Empire. the realm has an 'Imperial Wizard' at its head. even of the medieval Vehmgericht. Shadows of Martyrs. frogs. There are 'Clan-wolves' and 'Clan-eagles'. There were insignia in the shape of a Bowie Knife.* of the exclusively dark Middle Ages in general. Following in the footsteps of Red Indian stories and totems. the Lynch revolution. scissors. wheels. the material was dark with white insignia sewn on which were supposed to look ghostly in torch-light. and its proclamations were the first to colour with their wishful images the 'revolution' from the right. half-moons. the reactionary underground movement of the Southern States of America after the Civil War. there were also bullets. and gaze upon the list of condemned traitors.Page 348 serviceably built schizophrenia of the bourgeois conformist. Work in darkness Bury in waters Make no sound Trust not the air Strike high and sure Vengeance! Vengeance! Vengeance! * A secret court which operated in Westphalia from the late twelfth century to the middle of the sixteenth century. rally. The gang wore domino robes with a hood. then again after the First World War. moons grow dim and stars tremble. of the Cockaigne of emergency. the names of the ordinary members are the same as the motifs on their dominorobes. as the American magazines imagine them to be. – When shadows gather. this too comes from the golden West. Phantoms from gory fields. glide to the Council Hall and wash your hands in tyrant's blood. Blood must flow. the 'Great Titan'. cattle. The true must be saved. The masks of the Ku Klux Klan were thus the first fascist uniform. The time has arrived. barbarically colourful. The American Ku Klux Klan still sets the tone for this.2 Spirit Brothers. . the 'Great Cyclops'. snakes. followed by the 'Great Dragon'. That is. rally. the call to the Arkansas Klan in April 1868. which runs as follows: KKK Special Order No. so that the bloodthirsty Babbitt can make a taboo out of himself. crosses.

for the would-be beauty-queen. and in the as it were poetically plotted sweetness. in bestsellers. however. in the sweetness with plot. Syrupy Stories But this pleasure in transforming oneself must also be able to wander in friendlier fields. . merely to participate more than usual in the wishful idol it represents for it. In the truly primitive person the mask-wearer intruded through his disguise into the creature that is portrayed by the mask. These can just be cosmetic books. The bestsellers are those which. in short. To these we may add the guidance counsellors in life's struggle. It is to be found both in prose.Page 349 This immediately sounds like the sex-murderer Kürten's criminal language quoted above. with or without the use of elbows. The night of 9th/10th November 1938 when the Nazis launched a pogrom throughout Germany. and to paralyse through terror. coated with marriage into the business. but above all also in order to arouse horror. This genre flourishes most extensively in North America. Illustrations (teaching good manners) back up the explanation. Even the dancing dervish. burning and looting Jewish homes and synagogues. finally the employee is shown his goal in a grand tableau: he is sitting at the dinner table with the boss's family. promise the path to contrived happiness. they are like the French chef who knew how to make a beefsteak out of a glove. concludes the bestseller. how to win friends and influence people. monogamy. next to him the half-won daughter. precisely this is part of the business. when he is turning on his axis. feels himself to be a heavenly body turning around the sun. in this way in his imagination he pulls down the powers of the sun to himself. The headings of a 'Popular Guide to Desirable Living' run: 'How to live your life. Civilized barbarity. Bestsellers. The wild man in the lion's mask becomes the Lion-god himself. by no means uses the mask. * Kristallnacht. And the mask fitted like a glove when big business summoned it. in this case that of the man-eater. The secrets of health. he imagines he can act like him. for the prospective lucky devil. in the magazine story. when 'moons grew dim and stars trembled' and the Kristallnacht* came out on to the streets. the wild Babbitt runs to it in the end. Since behind all its criminal images there in fact lies something spruced up by the petit bourgeoisie. but with revolutionary masquerade. Love and marriage.

which the ars amandi had already long since become. This is all promised by the guide to life and slips from prose entirely into poetry. Among bestsellers belong even the various manuals of sexual erudition. of nesteggs already home and dry. they make people magnetic. The dream-book of accomplished love-making bows before the significantly more American dream-book of well-to-do accounts. arts. But love fades and the insurance company remains. How to make people like you. the respectable dirty-joke book. in so far as they are not pure substitutes or there simply for voyeurs. They awake 'the secret powers' in man. Success with your children. in the German version it looms dimly out of the time where boy gets girl. Servant girls marry successful gold-diggers or . and it guides to the perfect Babbitt. And the trick by which the rise is achieved is always the same. also irrational ones. this is a veritable Pharos in the wishful sea of the petit bourgeoisie. Never too old to love.Page 350 How to make money. The peak of bourgeois conformity was reached in van de Velde's 'Ideal Marriage'. The privately published edition for winedealers. those who read without pretension are not. create social lions and the man to whom ladies will gladly hand over the tiller of the little boat that is their life. with forest and lake and the friendly postman at the gate. Unmarried. counselling father confessor of old. where otherwise panic at the closing of the gates threatens. So much for rational success courses and their winner's purse. the pedantic guide on the roundabout route to pleasure. there are. How to talk about books. but —. Right at the end. music. as Upton Sinclair once said. in the American version it downright lies. How to sharpen your memory. Even if all pretentious strivers are disappointed.' In short. theatre. that is. there thus appears in the insurance brochure an exclusive house set back from the road. just bringing the insurance annuity to the rose-growing head of the house and his slumbering wife. on paper. They are offered the magazine story. Here faked lives are surveyed on a rising curve. They relieve shyness in contact with the opposite sex. to the wishful goal of the Babbitt with credit. that of the impossible coincidence. they establish: 'The intensive demands of today's hectic business life cause many men to experience a premature decline in the best of their powers'. however. at the same time creating a substitute for the wise. up to money and splendour. now becomes mother's milk with whisky. to our least surprise. it is. The way to charm. that is why every how-to-succeed book is ultimately dedicated to the latter or to the instincts which lead to it. namely into the rosepink which no longer exists for any would-be capitalist who has to reach for a bestseller.

is full of these swift changes in private fortunes. even if with equally stout prose. he flies * Marlitt. her lover takes her on a few modest trips which give him the opportunity of discovering the noble character of his beloved. . The parasitical life of the upper class is presented by it as highly acceptable. towards the aristocratic highlands of bourgeois-conformist respect. namely as the boss in person. interspersed with emotion from the plush age of the previous. The poor devil does not rebel. doesn't it? Or a lad who is as poor as he is pretty stops a horse which has bolted and so gets to know the rich heiress who then becomes his wife – a golden bed of free enterprise in the midst of monopoly capitalism. with the constantly open arms of the happy end. heavy curtains at their doors. seeks to teach it. but ultimately he discovers himself to her. disseminate it. this time in bourgeois-conformist Germany. especially in America. It mediates the view from the fence. All this. All this. The pen-name of Eugenie John (1825–87). wealth is grace.' The magazine story thus remains the most deeply moved story in its feudal images. can. once again upwards. with a merry jingle out into the winter splendour. full of false hope. the rot-gut epic of the jackpot. fairy-like inside – with their magnificent brocade walls. What a strange and fantastic spectacle confronts us there! Intrigue lurks at every door. It exudes deep contentment with the upper class. for dusk had fallen earlier than usual today with the driving snow. it echoed like joyful bells in the hearts of youth as if heralding only happy and beautiful things for the whole of life to come. The magazine story. Poor shorthand typists who spare every calorie for silk stockings meet an employee. of transfiguration: 'These old castles.Page 351 men with a heart of gold who soon afterwards discover a kerosene dump. as far as the dream of success is concerned. And the stout greenwood logs crackled in all the glowing stoves. and even outside in the great hall warmth streamed from a great old-fashioned tiled stove. the most miracle-believing in its capitalist images. with impossible coincidence. it is.' Or still again à la Marlitt:* 'And then it was ding-a-ling. popular novelist. there is no other end.' Or romantically demonic. and carries his bride home – sounds like magic. preserve it intact. must. but along the half-lit corridors love ties its delicate bond. in fact of the capitalist-feudal one. love follows. sombre and taciturn from outside. namely upturns on to the peaks of society. into the richest circles.' Or romantically solid: 'How cosy it was in the manor house! In all the downstairs rooms the shaded lamps burned in pretty colours. will not be. in no way extinct century: 'I know a seat where the wild thyme blooms. run off in millions.

not even a track. I'm going to get help. so nobody would hear.* which is consequently detested by noble bourgeois conformists. here are Gretel and Hansel. and the blessing which it brings the lucky devil multiplies. No bridge. and then went down into the market-place with muffled steps and out along the Niedergasse.' When father had come home and fallen asleep. the cheap Don Quixotes of meaningless hope. impossible aspect. Then I wrote a note: 'You shouldn't work your fingers to the bone. stole out of my bedroom and got dressed. I climbed out of bed. the Lungwitzer Weg which leads via Lichtenstein and Zwickau to Spain.' I put this note on the table. —Karl May. The book I had been reading bore the title: 'The Robbers' Cave in the Sierra Morena or The Angel of All the Oppressed. Mein Leben und Streben * Bloch is using the term here to mean the genre of popular literature comprising adventure story. But I did not sleep. In general. quietly. . take us over on your white back. This complacent. the helpers in need. nothing happens in the mirrors of this scribbled kitsch-dream except coincidence. which does not however upset any of the rules of the game. to the land of the noble robbers. put a piece of dry bread in my pocket together with a few pennies from my skittles money. in Fairytale and Colportage Duckling. drew another deep sobbing breath. 27— Better Castles in the Air in Fair and Circus. but quietly. —Hansel and Gretel Then we went to bed. I racked my brains for a solution. crept down the stairs.Page 352 of his own accord into the lap of the rich heiress. already alone distinguishes the kitschy happiness of the magazine story from the far less passive colportage. I'm going to Spain. opened the door. duckling. in all its Atlantic magic. I thought about who could help. picaresque tale and thriller which he sees as distinct from the magazine story. I lay awake.

* Even in the fairytale there is suffering. If schooners. The wiser youngsters of to-day: – So be it. badly treated Cinderella goes to the little tree where her mother's grave lies. there is enough happiness to go round.Page 353 If sailor tales to sailor tunes Storm and adventure. Can please. Gentle. It is always the little heroes and the poor folk here who manage to reach the place where life has come good. Kingston. islands. but a more colourful or lighter Elsewhere. His ancient appetites forgot. And those who live happily ever after there. distant things which seem better and nearer move up around us. as once they pleased of old. The insignificant world near at hand disappears. through the unplanned expeditions of the imagination the quarry is not infrequently raised which carefully planned philosophy can use in its well-ordered household. . but it changes. or Ballantyne the brave. retold Exactly in the ancient way. and maroons. The fairytale always turns golden in the end. little tree wake yourself and shake yourself. an alternative to 'And they all lived happily ever after'. are still alive to this day. And all the old romance. if they are not dead yet. Treasure Island. also! And may I And all my pirates share the grave Where these and their creations lie! —Stevenson. and the slippers are all golden. And Buccaneers and buried Gold. and does so for good. Or Cooper of the wood and wave: So be it. a dress falls down. To the Hesitating Purchaser Through the unplanned wanderings. heat and cold. If studious youth no longer crave. and fall on! If not. —Lichtenberg Towards evening is the best time for telling stories. * A traditional ending to German fairytales. the most splendid and dazzling Cinderella has ever seen. Once upon a time: in fairytale that does not only mean something past.

Thus in the fairytale a tailor can become a king.Page 354 Courage of the Clever Not all are content just to wait for this goodness. Fantastic though the fairytale is. there is a touch of enlightenment. When the peasant was still in bondage. the giant picks up a stone and squeezes it until water drips out. the clever fellow overcomes all obstacles. Courage and cunning are their shield. the boy who went out to learn what fear was.The valiant little tailor in Grimm's fairytale. The Golden Age is sought and mirrored when you could see right to the back of paradise. And when the world was still full of devils. staves off anxiety all along the line. a born flyswatter. But the tailor outdoes the giant by squeezing a cheese to pulp instead of a stone and by throwing a bird so high in the air that it never comes down again. goes out into the world because he thinks the workshop is too small for his valour. once bitten and with its wits about it. But the fairytale cannot be fooled by today's owners of paradise. another fairytale hero. They go out in search of their happiness. at the end of the fairytale. it is still always clever at overcoming difficulties. wins the king's daughter and half the kingdom. long before the Enlightenment existed. as Lenin says. clever versus rough. Cunning of reason is the human part of the weak. a king without taboo who has got rid of all the malevolent mischief of the big men. so it is rebellious. it does not cast their towers to the ground. the fairytale soldier deceived witches and devils from beginning to end (only the fairytale stresses the 'stupid devil'). the poor fairytale boy thus won the king's daughter. in courage and sobriety and hope. always existing revolutionary elements which kick over the given traces here in the imagination. When educated Christendom trembled in fear of witches and devils. but the poor man answers: 'I don't want you as a godfather because you give to the rich and leave the poor to starve. throws another stone up so high that it can hardly be seen any more. * 'Gevatter Tod'. Courage and cunning also succeed in a very different way in the fairytale than they do in life. .' Always here. and not only that: it is. Finally. You can climb up a beanstalk to heaven and see how the angels mill money there. their spear is reason. In the fairytale 'Godfather Death'* dear God offers himself as a godfather to a poor man. He meets a giant. Since courage alone little helps the weak against the fat lords. This carries a double significance in the Grimm fairytale because it also means 'Death the Reaper'.

.Page 355 he sets corpses on fire to keep them warm. Thus in the fairytale even shoes with holes in them must serve those who know all about them to their best advantage. when wishing still helped. but it does not discourage. Bloch sees a hopeful counterpart for him in the fairytale. a poor outcast boy. back and front. the Golden Ass and the Cudgel in the Sack': a hero. begins the fairytale of the Frog King. he spews out gold pieces on demand. magically. and a big glass of red wine stands by the plate. The Magic Table has many brothers in fairytale wishful magic: the flying slippers in Hauff's story of little Muck and his little walking-stick that is really a divining rod. the piece of wood in the fairytale 'The Fates of Said'. If one says 'Table spread yourself'. The most striking example of this is Grimm's fairytale 'The Magic Table. Magic Table. even when he has become rich and happy. and this fun is also enlightened. are on hand here too. There is no lack of gentle fun poked at mere wishing or the simple fairytale means of reaching the goal. The devil himself can be deceived in the fairytale. the wood underneath the ship-wrecked boy * Stupid Augustus is the hopeless clown in the German circus. But rather the clever Augustus* of the fairytale practises the art of not letting himself be impressed. it instantly spreads itself with food which is so good no innkeeper could have procured it. But the boot has a hole in it. becomes a joiner's apprentice and when his time is up there he receives a little table which looks rather unremarkable but has remarkable properties. through which the weak man can see his way to victory. the soldier places it over a deep pit. a poor soldier deceives him by selling his soul on condition that he fills the soldier's boot with gold. In olden days. finally the cudgel in the sack appears or the magic weapon without which the poor boy cannot exist in this world. Together with this comes an ass which can work miracles. The power of the giants is painted as one with a hole in it. plays skittles with ghosts in the haunted castle. so the devil has to drag along sacks and sacks of gold until the first cock's crow and then go away empty-handed. Genie of the Lamp Good things. such as have never been seen before. takes the chief of the evil spirits prisoner and gains a treasure in the process. – so the fairytale does not pretend to be a substitute for action. Above all wishful gadgets of the handiest kind offer themselves to the weak.

A gentle command: and in an instant the lamp transposes the palace from China to Tunis. for a power which is not confined to particular goods as in the case of the Magic Table. he manages to get himself into heaven with it. the wicked uncle murmurs mysterious words and suddenly the cave opens with its hidden treasures which are heaped up in the name of Aladdin. wish becomes command. then a comb. and jewels grow on the trees instead of fruit. In the Arabian Nights the 'magic horse' flies. it carries us up to heaven. rather the lamp brings its master everything. beauty of the body and instant prowess as a knight. so smooth that the sprite cannot get across any more and has to give up the chase. eight devils. refinement of speech and intellect. the Genie of the Lamp appear – both hallucinated primal wishes for power. of the mothers as well as of the daughters' – it is the same geomantic board with which . In Andersen a flying suitcase carries us to the Land of the Turks. has children throwing a brush. Grimm's fairytale 'Brother Lustig' has a satchel into which the Brother can conjure anything he wishes: roast geese. the effort of doing things drops away. then a combmountain with teeth. absolutely everything that he desires. then a mountain of mirrors. with treasure-chambers. he designed a sandboard. separating time. He builds a palace overnight. which is equipped with an enormous cudgel-in-the-sack. the most powerful fulfiller of wishes: the Genie of the Lamp. The smoky lamps are lit. one day among many. then a mirror behind them to stop the evil sprite. even separating space. Grimm's fairytale 'The Water-sprite'. royal stables and an armoury. the bricks are made of jasper and alabaster. and immediately he established for certain the sequence of the figures. Highly typically. then back to the old place without the carpet in front of the portal even having been disturbed by the wind. by throwing the satchel into heaven. The Slave of the Ring. The Genie of the Lamp bestows countless treasures. lucky galoshes take a Chief Justice back to the Copenhagen of the fifteenth century. 'Then. with folded arms. however. precisely this most lavish fairytale 'Aladdin and his Magic Lamp' is based on pure wish-utensils for acquiring what is not available. the windows of gems. game and magic have a free hand in the fairytale. Thus in general. ultimately. A subterranean garden appears.Page 356 turns into a dolphin which carries Said to the shore as swift as an arrow. and he spread the figures out and explored their sequence exactly. the like of which the earth has never contained. and there too waits. We must not overlook the magic board which gives the wicked uncle near omniscience of the events taking place on earth. These become first a great brush-mountain with thousands of bristles.

outside of the fairytale. but not therefore worse literary fairytales or fairytale legends*** (with authors as different as Hauff. Hoffmann. Little Muck in Hauff's story: he went * Bloch is using a German saying here which is the equivalent of 'to cut one's coat according to one's cloth'. Keen perception and smoky lamps are necessary for this in the Aladdin fairytale.* a bed of sloth in nature. The roast pigeons in it:** this sounds moreover as if we were already listening to a social fairytale. ** Bloch is thinking of Pieter Brueghel's picture of the Land of Cockaigne here. utopian nature. to rea