HOWm

CHRISTDPHER HHRT
WATSeN -GUPTILL PUBLICAT leNS/ NEW Y e R ~
This book is dedicated to anyone who has ever
read a comic and thought, " Man, I'd like to draw
like that "-because that 's where it alf begins.
CEBHTRIBUTIHG ARTISTS
Grant Miehm. Defee Aucion, Tom Grindberg, Andy Kuhn,
Drew Johnson, Rich Faber. Gray Morrow, Chri stopher Hart
The names and likenesses of all Marvel-owned character s
referred t o herein are trademarks of Marvel Characters, Inc.
Sketches featur ing Marvel characters are copyright 0 2000
Marvel Characters, Inc.• and are used wit h permission.
Copyright C 2000 Christopher Hart
99'()56283
The Libr ary of Cong res s Cata logi ng-in·Publicat io n Data
Hart , Christopher.
How to draw great -looking comic book women 1Christopher Hart.
p. cm.
Incl udes bibliographica l refer ences and i n d e ~ .
15BN 0-8230·2394·X
1. Cartooning-Technique. 2. Women-<aricatures and cartoons. I. Tit le.
NC1764.8.w65 H37 2000
741.5--dc2 1
First publ ished i n 2000 in New York by Watson-
a division of BPI Communic ations, Inc.
1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036
Senior Editor: Candace Raney
Designer: Bob rune. Graphiti Design, I
Product ion Manager: Ellen Greene
\1
Special t hanks t o Bobbie Chase. at Marvel Comics.
and Renee Geer l ings. at Top Cow, f or the i nt erviews and use
of the accompanying artwork. Thanks also to Harr iet Pierce
for helping th is book be what it was meant to be.
All r ights reserved . No part of this publication may be reproduced Of used in any form or
by any meaM-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or
information storage -and -retrieval systems-without the written permission of the publisher.
prmt ed in the United States of America
123 456 /050403020100
CEDNTENTS
InTROOUCTmn 7
THE BHSICS 8
THE BOOY 26
SUPER POlUERS. lUEHPons. Hno KILLER OUTFITS 48
lUOmEn TO OlE FOR 66
FHnmSTIC SPECIHL EFFECTS 92
OynHmlC comic BOOK LHYOUTS 104
TRICKS OF THE TRHOE 120
THE InTERVIElUS 130
InOEX 144
I NTRE9 DU CTI E9 N
ave you ever run into diffi culty
trying t o draw great- looking
comic book wo men? You' re not
alone. Many aspiring artists, as
well as seasoned professionals,
have st ruggled wit h thi s probl em. The great -
looking women of comics pose certain unique
challenges. On the one hand, t hey must be
t ough and rugged. On the ot her hand, they
must also be beautiful and sexy
The step-by-step approach of this book
makes all your goals attai nable. All those
mysti fying drawing concepts are f ull y
explained and accompanied by breat htakin g
illustrations. For example, you' ll learn which
are the maj or muscles of the body and how
to draw them. You'll see where t o add curves
to highlig ht a female characte r's attract ive-
ness. And you' ll learn how to creat e amazing
super powers-not j ust super st rengt h, but
cutti ng-edge powers li ke shape-shif ti ng and
flying spikes.
But of course, there'smore: sections on
forced perspect ive (t he t echnique that let s
you draw comic book characte rs who pop off
the page and come right at you!); f abul ous
costume design; an in-depth look at designing
comic book panels; plus, a chapter on th e pr o-
fessi onal tricks of the trade, complete wit h a
list of comic book publishersto whom you can
submit your stu ff; and a whole lot more.
I' ve gat hered toget her th e t op comic book
art ists in th e fi eld t oday to create f or you, in
a single package, t he widest range of art
instruction possible. You'll have at your dis-
posal t he work of many art ists, inst ead of
bei ng limited to only one art ist's personal
drawi ng style. These ill ustrat ors are among
t he elite who have pencil ed and inked such
world f amous characters as X·Men, Batman,
Catwoman. Superman, Supergirl, Spider-Man.
Venom, Avengers, Aquaman. Captain
America, Daredevil, Green Lantern, and
many ot hers.
Plus, I've included two exclusive interviews:
one from Bobbi e Chase, editor at world-
famous Marvel Comi cs, and t he ot her fr om
Renae Geerl ings, editor at Top Cow, a pr esti-
gious independent comics publi sher. They' ll
t ell you exact ly how t o land your first job in
the industry, what t o include in a portf oli o,
and the common pitfall s artists should avoi d.
Rath er t han read what some aut hor tells you
he th inks th e edi tors are looking f or, wouldn't
it make more sense t o hear it fr om the editors
th emselves?That's what I thought .
So, be f orewarned: You're not getting a
tr ace-the-action-fi gur estype of book. This is
the real thing. These are comic book women
at t hei r finest. These are t he art techniques
used by the t op pros. You' re ri ding th e
cut t ing edge. Are you ready?
HEHD SHDTS
Start with an egg-shaped ou tline.
dd g€'ntly curving cheekbones that
rotrude slightly past the outline of
the face. Skt:>tch in the bridge of the
O.l E' and nostrils, fill in the eyes and
yebrows, and complete t he hairline.
Draw two gUidelines, one horizontiJl
dod the other vertical, dividing the
egg in half in both directions.
PlacE' the eyes on th4! horizontal guide-
line. Mar k some short guidelines to
indicate the placement of the tldirUne
on the foreheiJd. the eyebrows, the
nose, the ears. and the mouth.
~
/
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Now, attack the details-but k ~ p c1
li ght t ouch. Squaf€' out the j awli ne
sli ght ly, and soften the cheekbones.
Start wit h two overlapping
eggshapes.
As with the f ront view; draw a
horizontal and a vertical guideline,
di vi ding t he head in half in both
direc tions.
Place the eye on the horizon tal guide-
line and t he ear on the vertical one.
Don't draw a hard angl e where t he
forehead meets t he bridge of the
nose; however. do dra w a hard angle
wh ere t he bott om of t he nose meets
t he pl ane of t he face.
/
If you think you've hit a snag, check
the position of t he eye. That's where
most people run into problems. The
eyeshould f all at t he point where
the bridge of t he nose meets t he
forehead.
Sketch in detai ls li ke t he hai r and
an earring.
DynHmlC HEHD HnGLES
You've got to be
able to dr aw your
characters from
di fferent angles.
because t hey're
not always goi ng t o
t hrow a punch or f ly
off a buil di ng in a
per fect f rontal or
prof ile shot ; t hei r
heads are go ing to
t ilt and t urn away
f rom t he reader. So,
when drawi ng t he
head f rom different
angles. work with
the basic oval hea d
shape, but focus on
the planes of t he
face, which are
the small flat areas.
For exampl e, t he
chin is one plane.
The cheekbo ne is
anot her. The pocket
under t he eyebrow
is yet another.
Each plane fall s at
a different angle
from t he others .
Planes reflect t he
bone str ucture
underneath t he
face. You need to
indi cate t hem to
keep t he face look-
ing solid in t hese
more chal lenging
angles so t hat t he
head doesn't t urn
into one big glob.
3/4. VIEW
Rear left .
LOST In HER EYES
In comic books. th e eyes of a drop-
dead gorgeo us woma n are deadl ier
than any weapon. A sidelong glance
f rom a dangerous blonde can mean
bet rayal. A fli rtatious glint from a
smolderi ng brunette can make even
the toughest guy go weak.
However, you've got to be able
t o dra w t he shape of the eye before
you can inf use it wit h emotion. So,
her e are th e basics. The lashes shou ld
always be bigger on t he top eye lid,
smal ler on t he bottom. and should
lengthen as they t rave l away from
the nose towa rd t he ear. A shine on
t he pupil is like a shine on a new
car- it just looks go od, so include
it as often as possible.
It 's not just t he shape of t he eyes
t hat defines th e expressions. but t he
direction, as wel l. Sometimes the
eyes look straight at you, someti mes
t hey look off t o one side. The eye-
lids, including t he often-overlooked
lower lids, are also used in creat ing
expre ssions. Deta ils such as the
wrin kles nea r t he bridge of the nose,
t he shape of t he eyebrows, and t he
wrinkles above t he eyebrows all
add int ensity.
fLIRTATI6lUS
She peCl ks side wCl)'S t hrough
heavy lashes. eyebrows up.
SAD
The eyes look down,
showing only the upper
eyelids. The lashes are
CIt t heir longest here,
sweeping down and
away t oward t he ears.
SCHEmiNG
Do not, repeat, do not
t urn your back on t hi s
woman. The heavy upper
eyelids hit right at t he
t ops of t he pupils. Not e
t hat on e eyebrow li f ts
higher than t he other.
SURPRISED
The eyeli ds are way up off the irises here,
revealing lots of t he whi tes of t he eyes.
The eyebrows ri se to their highest point.
Go heavy on the top and bottom lashes.
\
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fiE RY
My favorite, t he fi ery
expression has t he
lower eyeli ds pushing
up on the eyes, while
the eyebrows push
down on them.
c:»:
1fT \ '

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)1 : ,
sligh tl y here, and t he
eyes, wi de open, dCl rf
to one side,
THOSE LIPS!
Full , sensuous, pouty l ips-without 'em, you're
j ust wasting everybody' s time. The lower lip is
usuall y fuller than the upper one, and the
upper lip often dips slightly in the middle.
lOWER LIPIS FUU(R THAN THE UPPER LIP
ffARSGlmf
Hey; i f you've got to haW'
someone suckyour bl ood,
why not her? There are worse
ways to go. Baring the teet h
is an an imalistic way of
showing bad i ntenti ons.
SEXY
Lilceshe's
almost
blowing
you a kiss.
AmUSED
Usea smile that shows
only the upper tef!th.
\\
Delineate the tef!th only at t he edges,
no t in bet ween; drawing the outline
of each tooth looles scraggly and
draws attenti on away f rom the Ii s.
I
AN G RY
The upper lip rises
for a perfect snMI .
~ ...~ ......
/
pmUTY
The upper lip di sappears under
thepushed-out l ower lip.
ANXIGlUS
Biring the lower lip isa
common comic book way
to depict feminine fear.
THE FEmininE nOSE: THE PRRT THRT RLlURYS GIVES YOU TROUBLE
How many t imes have you dra wn a pretty wo man's face. only t o add
the nose and ruin the who le t hing? Thi s part of the female f ace has
been known to dr ive lesser artists completely insa ne. Don 't end up
as just another st at ist ic. The secret lies in dra wing less, not more.
Keep t he nose subtl e and light, wit h as little deta il as possible.
Any attempt to etch in t he nose wit h a heavy
hand wi lt surely backfire. For an att ractive
look. keep t he nose slightly upturned.
'\
""-THESEPTUM ISSOMETIMES
SHOWN WITH A SLIGHT
INDENTATION.
'he nose is not to tally
mobile; it is capable
limited movements,
ch <IS flaring nostrils
dcrinkling.
SfJLOn OE comic: tHHRSTYlES
Awoman's ha irstyle makes a
statement about her atti t ude.
It 's personal and unique, like
her style of dress or t he way
she wa lks. Comic book women
should be stylish and, generally,
severe. Pay attention to t he way
the hai r falls on t he face and
shoulders or, in short cuts, t he
way it stands up and flops over.
Draw groups of ind ividual
strands with care, curving the m
in one di rection and then balanc-
ing t hem off wi th mor e strands
curving in t he opposite direction .
On jet black hair, sometimes you
may want to add a shine; a shine
on slicked-back hair makes it
look wet.
IDEHlIlEO PROPORTIOns
I
A
Comic book women, li ke the
women depicted in fashion
il lustrat ions, are mu ch ta l ler t han
real women but also have well-
muscled. well-endowed frames.
Avoid makin g your comic book
women too skinny or too bu lky;
they're nei ther bean po les nor
bodybuil ders. Despit e their
obvious physical st rength, comic
book women are first and always
feminine. with sweeping curved
forms, wide shoulders, t hin wa ists,
wide hips. and shapely legs.
Todetermine t he height of a
figure, artis ts conside r how many
hea d lengt hs f it in th e t otal body
length, with t he average person
bein g approxi mately 6
1
/ 2 head
lengths tall. However, the ideal-
ized comic book woman is 9' 12
heads tall !
Hew TALL SHeULD
SHE R.EALLY BE?
Is t he 9 1 h ~ h e a d s rule written in
stone? No. As I said, it's t he ideal.
You can go taller (see facing page)
or shorter, but I guarantee t hat if
you stick with a tota l hei ght of
6'/2 heads (that of a normal pe r-
son), your comic book babe will
look amazingly dumpy. So keep
her st retched out.
All of t hese wo men are popular
comic book heights. The ta ller t he
wo man, th e more impressive and
otherworldly she seems. The closer I-- - - - J
she is to 9' 12 heads ta ll, t he more
of a "reg ular" person she appears
t o be, he r costume notwi t h-
standing. So, t he wo men on t he
left and in t he middle here may
not be as imbued with a super-
natu ral au ra, but because t hey' re
closer t o "normal" height, t hey fit
into t he role of a friend or confi-
dante more eas ilyth an t aller char-
acters. Plus, readers can relate
mor e to t hem as peo ple. However,
when th ey fig ht evil, t hey'r e st ill
rough-and-tumble he llcats!
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"I. HEADS 10'/' HEADS 11'1' HEADS
IDEHLlZED BomES In fULL BHTlLE GEHR
Here are the same three women from the
previous page, only th is t ime in action pose s
and cost umes. They're ready to ta ke on the
world and win. Quite an impressive
array of ta lent . Even a const ructio n
worker on his lunch break would
be afraid t o whist le at them.
Awoman's skeleto n is st rikinglysimilar t o that of a
man, but there are some diffe rences. Most importantly,
the female pelvis is short an d wide . (Afte r all, she
del ivers the babies, so she needs more room in t hat
erea.) The male pelvis is long and narr ow. The female
rib cage is smaller than the ma le rib cage. And all t he
bones in a woman's li mbs have less thi ckness t han
those of a man.
I
, r.
FEmHlE VS. mHlE SHELETOn
Despite t hese things, however, bot h skeletons do
have some impo rta nt common aspects. The rib cage is
round and has considerable dept h, as does th e pelvis.
Whe rever major bones meet, t he joints they create
are bulbous, whether t hey're t he shoulder, el bow, hip,
knee, or ankle joints. The knees also have a sma ll bone
t hat covers the joint, called a patella. And, the heel
bone sticks out in back.
SECTIOns OF THE BOOY
Rarely will an arti st sketch out th e ent ire ske let on as a
precursor to dra wing the bod y. It 's too intricat e, not
necessary, and besides. we don 't wa nna do it! We do,
howeve r, need some sort of a foundation. so we use an
anatomical short ha nd. dividing the body up into sec-
t ions that fi t t ogether like l ego. We'r e st ill aware of
the skeleton, but we don 't need to dra w ea ch rib and
bone. We' re only interest ed in the major body masses,
how t hey f it together, and their correct proportion s. A
wooden artist's mannequin, which you ca n find at any
art supplystore, provides a go od gu ide t o the basic
body masses.
THE FIGURE In HCTlOn
Simplifying the
body into basic
masses isn't on ly
useful as a gu ide
for creat ing static
poses; it can also
help you create
every imagi nable
motion, by break-
ing down difficult
action poses int o
t hei r most basic
forms. Whenever
you' re having
trouble drawing a
chall engi ng pose,
break it down, or
block it out using
an artist 's manne-
quin. These figures
can be moved,
t wist ed, and tu rned
into vari ous poses
for artistic refer-
ence. They make a
great founda tion
for you r eye-
popping female

HHnDS WITH Hn HTTITUDE
Very deli cat e, daint y hands have no pl ace in t he modern comic
book. The hands of qreet-looki nq comic book women shoul d be
sleek and beaut iful. but also st rong, confide nt . an d dramat ic.
I '
l'
r
I
knuckle
at the base - +_- ---tlfil----+_
of the middle
finger is half-
..+ _w,.a
y
down
the length
of the hand
In coovc book poses.
the wrist is ii/most always bent
.• the hand appearing
.. CItan angle to the arm.
{ } 1/2 The
I
I
knuckle of
- \- - -- - - the thumb
1/2 is hdlfway
\
1/2 between
L
the wrist
I andtop
-/t- - -+-II'<' - --.J of thumb::. , ';-_ ",,-' -t- - ;-
1/2
ISOLHTInG THE DIFFEREnT mUSCLE GROUPS
Women have the same muscles as men, but women's
muscles shoul d be longer and leaner, and not bunch as
much when cont ract ed. Here's the deal : A comic book
wo man shoul d look li ke a gymnast; a comic book man
shoul d look li ke a piano mover.
The best way to stud y muscles is individuall y, one at
a time. A good way to see one muscle individuall y is to
flex it, whi le leaving the other muscles relaxed, and
t he best way to do this is to l ift weig ht s (an activity in
which you can f ocus specif ically on each muscle group).
PRESSinG mOTIOns
Pressing motions involve
the shoulder (front
deltoid), chest (pectora l),
and forearm (extensor
digitorum) mu scles. But
don't sweat it-no comic
book artist can name
all the mu scles i n Lat i n.
Most can't even do it in
Engl ish. However, they
can dra w them, and that's
the point. Note that you
shoul d keep a woman's
forearm muscles
to a minimum,
which is the
opposit e of
t he approach
taken f or comic
book gu ys.
lEU mUSCLES
The leg muscles are some 01
th e longest muscles of the body.
Comic book artists are basically
concerned wit h the th ree groups
highlighted below. As you dra w.
keep in mind that the comic book
woman's thighs and calves should
be muscular, but not as defined
and striated as those of a man .
THE mUSCLES In HClmn
Now t hat you've
had a look at
t he ind ividual
muscles on t he
precedi ng pages,
see if you can
ident ify them
at wo rk on this
page. Muscles are
li ke reservists in
the army: you call
up th e ones you
need depending
on the task
at ha nd.
CURVES
-
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CHHRHCTER "TURnHROUnOS"
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11
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THE PWnES OF THE BOOY
I
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"
I
The planes of t he body
look especially awesome
in ref lect ive out f it s
(opposite page) . The
shiny. reflecti ve look is
created through the use
of flowing, swi rl ing lines
of varying thicknesses,
and jf you look closely,
you'll notice t hat t hese
lines are grouped in speci-
fic areas re lating to t he
various planes and angles
of the body. For example,
light fa lls from above onto
th e t op half of th e breast
but lea ves th e bottom half in
shadow, as indicated by t he
aforement ion ed swirling lines.
Parts of t he t high s and stomach
also provide good exam ples of
t his effect . Note t hat t he planes
of t he body may ap pea r to be in
one place in one pose and in a
different place in another. This
is due to changes in light and
body position, and t o the
movement of the cost ume.
So, experiment.
THE PLANES lDF
THE BlDDYIN
R.EF LE CT I V E
ClDSTUmES
When l ight shines down on a person f rom
above (usually from indoor overhead
lighting or from the sun), any pa rts of th e
body that protr ude on the figure will cast
shadows on other parts of the body. Since
the surface of the body is filled with hill s
and vall eys of muscles. bones. and fatty
areas, t hese surfaces, or planes.
wil l either be i ll umi nat ed by ~ . - . . . . , . ...
the light or fall into shadow.
This effect adds a mood ier,
more dramatic feeling to your
wor k and also makes your
characters seem more realistic
and three-dimensional .
THE PDInT DF BRUmCE
To f ind t he point
of balance- the
place where the
wei ght of t he body
is i n equil ibri um, or
equall y balanced
on either side of
the body-draw a
stra ight l i ne f rom
the base of the
neck to t he fl oor
in your drawings.
You can generally
divide the bo dy in
two along t his l ine,
wit h ha lf t he mass
falling on one side
of the line and half
on the ot her. Of
course, there are
al wa ys except ions,
such as the pose in
the lower left- hand
corner here. in
which t he major it y
of th e bod y mass
f alls t o t he left of
t he point of bal-
ance. Since the
heroi ne is thrusting
so much of her
energy and weight
onto her left (our
r ight ) hand and
foot, her body
mass is unevenly
di stri but ed; as a
result , she is off-
balance and woul d
fall if she weren't
steadying herself
on the rock.
DYNAmIC STATIC DYNAmiC
KnOCKOUT POSES
After learning to
dra w the f igur e,
the next step is
learning to draw
the f igure i n dra -
matic, eye-catching
poses. You don't
want to draw a
great-looking
woman, only to
have her stand
st iffly, li ke the lady
who ladles out
corn soup in the
high school cafe -
te ria. First and
foremost, a pose
mus t have a
thrust-a sense of
mot ion or direc-
t ion-to it. It has
to "want to be"
something. The
body must seem to
be striving, reach-
ing, stretching, or
curvi ng. This is true
even if the cha rac-
ter is just standing
sti ll. Compare the
dynamic and static
poses in these
t hree figure pairs.
HmHZmG HClmn POSES
With comic b
poses it's . oak action
noth.' either all or
mq Wh
acter en a cha r-
kicks th s. pun ches, or
, ere can b
reservati e no
Ion what
Her entire b d soever.
1no-per c 0 y must be
ent com .
to th . rnitted
e action d .
equally true th is is
acter on th e char-
end of the e re:eiving
punishment.
There's no po
puncher is to the punch shown
whole body into 5tfiJi.ght up, rathert: because the
example to see wh:r Compare her
I erence body I e argl' r
anguage makes.
Sil houetted woman ar e
shrou ded i n myste ry;
hence, t he imagi nation
is left t o won der what's
wi t hi n t he shadows,
te ased by the attract ive
outline of t he bo dy.
Sf XY
To indicat e act ion poses i n sil houett e,
pose the charact er wi th l egs placed
wi de apart for balance, or with
l imbs bent and bod y coiled up,
or wi th the bod y perf orming
a specifi c act ion .
Sil houettes can be very effecti ve
design and storyt elli ng elements.
Art ists use t hem to create dra mat ic
and moody moments, and as a
change in visual pacing Silhouettes
can be sexy, dyna mic. and stylish.
You see only t he outl ine of t he
shape and. t her efore, notice the
f igure's curves t hat much more.
The secret to draw ing good
sil houettes is to keep as many of
th e limbs away from t he body as
possibl e. If the arms are pressed
against th e body, they won' t show
and wi ll be subsumed by the bla ck-
ness. This wi ll destroy the ou tl ine of
the bod y. Of course, there can be
some overla ppi ng of forms, but you
shoul d st riv e f or silhouet t es t hat
sho w cl early where t he l imbs are.
In t his way. you r sil houettes wi ll
successf ully convey the emot ions
of t he pose.
SILHOUETTES
ARm PGlSITHIlNS
Thearms become especially important in sil-
houettes. because t hey create a sense of sym-
metry or balanc e. Positioning one ar m up and
one down forms a sing le, fl ow ing l ine; and
thiswould be less apparent if the figure we re
bathed in li ght. as we would then be distract-
ed bythe patterns and folds of the clothing.
mGlGlD
Sil houettes are good for creat ing
subtle moods that are based on
body gesture and atti t ude, rather
th an on fac ial expression or costume.
There's a pensive fee l ing to
these poses, as if something
ausp iciou s were i n the ai r.
The charact ers are light
on their feet -finger-
t ips outstretched and
heads hel d high.
fORCED PERSPECTIVE
This is an exagg erat ed
applicat ion of the pr inci -
ples of foreground and
background perspect ive,
which tel l us t hat an
obj ect that is closer to us
appears lar ger t han an ./../
object th a t is fa rt her ,/ )
away. This is true /" ~
not just for A ~
objects, but ({ . I-........:'-.......
for the bo dy, "<,
as well. To show ~
f orced perspect ive,
you need to choose a
pose that places some
parts of th e bod y d oser
to t he reader and others
f arther away. In this way,
you can exaggerate th e
parts that are nea rer the
reader. A f lat pose (one
in which the bod y is al l
on one plane) won't do,
because t here's no reason
to exaggerate anything-
no one part of t he body
is closer t o t he rea de r
than any other.
You must have a
reason for using forced
perspective- for exam-
pie, to make a character
look more impressive or
to brea the mor e li fe i nto
a st atic scene. Or, perhaps
t he scene you' re draw ing
requires it, because
you're looki ng up or
down at a character,
which, by defa ult, results
in an extreme sense of
perspective.
LEIlEilKING UP AT
A CHARACTER
The lower half of the f igure
is much nearer to the reader
th an the upper half. To
emph asize this, place one
leg for ward, br i nging her
even cl oser t o the reader.
Exaggerat e t he near leg
and the lower half of the
bod y, while reduci ng the
upper half of t he body,
especi ally the head.
I
LSSIUNG OSWN
AT A CHARACTeR
St aging a scene in which you look down at a character
requir es you to use f orced perspect ive- you can't
draw her as a fl at figur e. So, enl arge t he top half of
t he body, which is closer t o the reader, and reduce
th e lower half , which is fa rt her away. The result is
highly effective, making her t reacherous wal k along
th e tree seem th at much more precar ious.
FLYIHG-fkelHT VIEW
ACTIGlN PGlSES
Fi gur es i n more act ive poses,
such as f lying or reaching,
requ ir e t he use of f orced
perspect ive due to t he
extreme nat ure of t he
posit ions. Remember that
whi le it's always fun t o
exaggerate t he body parts
t hat are closer to you, it' s just
as import ant to reduce t hose
parts t hat are farther away.
I
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, . ~
/
/ ,// I (
I
,
(
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J
FLYIHG-kEAk VIEW
REACHING
I
\
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ASCENDING
HYING-
41
SPECIHl THlEnTS
ATGlmlC PUNCH
This goes way past ordina ry supe r
strengt h; it's a power so great t hat
each blow splits atoms, creating a
small nuclear explosion.
SHAPE-SHIfTING
This is a mor e dramat ic version
of mor phing or evolving. Prov oked
to respond wi t h great force, t his
characte r summons all her energy
and vi olent ly changes form into an
awesome monster. Note the motion
lines ar ound the characte r, which
indicate a pr ocess in action.
\
\
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\
/

""",
\
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Cha ract e rs now have wea pons as
\
pa rt of t hei r bodies. The spikes
\
gr ow out of this well -protected
<,
babe a nd shoot out at anyon e
who t ri es to get in her way. Hey,

it beat s a can of pepper spray.

/
<,
,

.....

""
-/'
HYPNtIlTISm
Don't stare at her eyes! Too l ate. You're
a slave. See ho w easy that wa s? Now, go
get me a pizza wit h ext ra che ese. Welt,
I didn't say it worked every time. All
it takes t o indicat e t hese i rr esist ible,
mesmerizing power s ar e diab oli cal
hand gestures, a dead pa n stare into
read ers' eyes, and a background of
swi rli ng, expan ding concent ric circles.
ULTRA-meNTAL
Talk about usinq your brai nv!
By t ocustuq her hu ge ni ental
power s into d .. ill gl t>, hig h-
powered beam, this gal r an
t erce dnyone 10 do her biddi ng

..
••

'.




eARTH s u m m e x r s c
With po we rs, an earth
SUrlHnQIl l"f r an create d whirl pool of
rock and scll1 d, bur yi ng t il t:" bad guy"
alive in d swirling vort ex from wlurh
ther e is no escape. MWd-hd -hd · hd
l
PY Re - T E R R e ll.
This charact er sprays powerful,
hot flame. She's better than any
ordinary f lamethrowers because
shenever runs out of jui ce and can
vary the widt h of t he spray by
combining the beams fr om both
her hands int o one wide burs
Bring marshmallows.
BEAm BLASTING
Power beams always come i n
handy when you're walking to a
desolate parking garage after
work. Not e that a power beam
emits a burst of ene rgy at its origin.
In addition, t he area surrounding
the power beam should be filled
wit h a darker pattern to emphasize
and contrast with the beam.
FIIJHTlnn womEn
Why t alk things out and co me t o a peacef ul resol ution
when ~ o u coul d j ust as easily kick butt and w in? When you
stage fiqht scenes for women, you have to be a litt le more
creat ive than you might be with male charact ers who can
j ust pound each other int o submi ssion . This is because
women generall y have less girth and physical weight t han
men and must , t heref ore, be more inventive in their
martial errs moves to have any real effect .
/
/
/
"
THE DlDUBLE x r c x
The ru le in draw ing comi c book f ights is: Be
flashy. If a sing le kick wi ll do, then a double
kick wi ll do even bett er. Not e that most kicks
are executed with t he heels, not wi t h the t ips
of the t oes, so draw ki cking charact ers wi th
their feet pulled back and f lexed, not poi nted.
~ I '. .
I
THE PQlWER. PUNCH
Notice all the space between these
two women. You might think this woul d
defeat the purpose of a f ight scene,
and beginning artists t end to draw their
fighterscloser t ogether-but that would
lessen t he impact . Only a terr if ic blow
could send the victi m reeling backward
liket his. Closing t he distance between
thefigures would minimize the power
of the punch. By adding space, you add
impact. Al so. note ho w far apart t he
puncher's legs are. The ha rder the
punch, the wider the puncher's footing .
,
,
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I
AND DGlN "T CALL
ms " " S W ~ ~ T I ~ ! " "
Some guys ne ver learn. This ad vanced
martial arts move com bines a cho ke
(leg wrap), grappl ing (hai r pu ll ), and a
stri ke (punch). It makes f or a dramat ic
pane l because it's unique. But equall y
important is t hat it's not so co mplex
that you can' t see what's go ing on .
You can use mart ial arts magazine s as
reference material when drawing
these types of moves .
I
)
KNEE STRIKE
The se t hree mov es a re t echni ques
t hat e ver y fe mal e f ighter shoul d
have in he r ma rt ial a rt s ar se na l.
Used pr imari ly in f ig ht ing mu lt i pl e
opponent s, t he se moves must be
quick; you r her oine mu st be able
t o i mmedi at el y t ake on t he next
assai lant and con tinue f ight i ng.
TRHE THfn!
IUDe fLIP
ELBew PUNCH
All your weapons
should boast lots
of fire power. Your
charact er coul d carry one
monster weapon.
or wear several
of them on thigh
belts and shoulder
cneps. lhe fun of drawi ng
cutti ng-edge weaponry is
that you get t o make up
you r own designs. It's
not about whether t he
weapo ns will work. it's
about whet her they look
good. Most weapons are
high-tech g uns of some
sort . Some ga dget ry on
them-such as viewfinders,
supply packs, retractable
flaps, and the like-is
good. But don't make
t hese gizmoStOO
complicated; keep in
mind that the weapon
sti ll has to look like
a gu n.
Often, when a
charact er carries a
weapon int o battle,
she also wears
protect ive clothing.
This, rather than
just st icking a gun in
her hands. creates a re al
fighting look. She ' II usually
have some kind of head
gear or visor and. perhaps.
knee shields. some arm
bracelets. an d boots.
OVERSIZED WEHPOnS
With the excepti on of
mystery and western
genres, comic book
weapons shoul d always
te nd t oward t he
ov ersized. (Not e the
equall y l arge holst er.)
The reason for this is
simpl e: If you ( arry iii
small gun, you' re
f ight ing iii small vill ain;
if you carry iii monster
gun . .. well, you get the
i dea. Big weapons creat e
big moments- an d an
even bigger st ruggle to
survive. Your comic book
wo ma n can' t just inju re
th e nef ar ious creatures
rising up f rom the mi re
and t hen ho pe t o
survive; she has to blow
them to smit hereens!
Some beg inni ng
art ists wo rry t ha t giving
their char act ers big
weapons wi ll lessen t he
drama (because iii
character with a big
weapon may appear
invi nci bl e) and w i ll kill
any suspense ab out t he
outcome of t he scene.
However, thi s j ust isn' t
t rue . In the scene here,
ou r heroine has a huge
we apon, but this is still
an even -money fight
at best.
\
ROCKET PHCKS
Rocket packs are a cool, high-tech way to travel. Of course,
you don't get t he fr ee bag of peanut s, but you can't have
ever ything. Rocke t packs allow the ent ire figure to rema in
clearly in view, which is an ad vantage over, say, having a
charact er most ly covered i n an enclosed helicopter.
THE SPORTS eRR STEP BY STEP
Alwa ys block out the f igures in the car at th e beg inning
sketch st age. If you don't , you may st art to sketch a ca r
wi t h t he peo ple in it and real ize that. whi le t he angl e of
t he shot makes t he ca r loo k pretty, it doesn't show the
people effect ively. If you' re st i ll at an early drawing
stage, you ( an easil y scrap your init i al sketch and beg in
aga in. If you' d f in ished t he car fir st however, before
drawing t he people in it. you' d have wasted a lot of
time before real izi ng t hat the angle didn 't work . By
t hen, you mi ght be tempted t o use a less effect ive
image so as not t o wast e what you' d drawn.
Note the netr blowing
in the wind as the cer
makes a sharp turn.
GREfH-LOOKmG COSTUmES
What a difference an outf it makes. Fashion
is one of t he most powerful weapons i n the
comic book art ist 's arsenal. A " bad-gal"
expression, for example. doesn't necessarily
indicat e t hat you r charact er is evil -she
coul d just be having it bad day. But it
bad-gal costume on a woman wit h a nasty
disposit ion means only one t hing" She 's
trouble. The cost ume defines the charact er,
clarifi es her role, and, of course. highl ights
her physical attr ibutes, of which there
shou ld be many. As shown here, f ashion
is such it powerf ul tool that by simply
changi ng the cost ume, you ( an alter
th e character.
5.imE' b" bl",
n l!"W ( Oltum..
Now she's iI IUpPf
<rime fi ght E'r. no
doubt .. bout it.
Your besic,
SE'nSdtion"lIy b uilt
PE'dE'H, i.)n.
f n h d n<p ( OHum!"
w ,th 01 (oIPl" and
h, gh ( oll;,r, oInd shl"
01 (rtmp f' gh tp f
wIt h sp P(;,11 and
5t/ Png ths
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THIGH CUff
AND I V E E E9 E9 W C H!)
NAVEL RING
,
CH E9'-' E R WITH
HANGING E9RNAmENT
Act ion heroines just never seem
t o have enough closet space.
Here a re some accessories that
can add zip to a costume's design.
POPULHR HCCESSORIES
f l A RE D
SHE9UlDER
PA D S
RAD IAT IE9N
GE9GGl ES
ms r s r i r c
ARm CUffS
WRIST GUARDS
e ·
\
FOR
G REAT-LOOKING COMIC
book women will surely cat ch a
person's eye, but to keep readers
turning page after page, and
coming back issue aft er issue,
you have t o devel op dynamic
and varied characters. In this
chapter, you' ll f ind j ust about
every t ype of beauty t o ever
grace the pages of a comic book.
THE VHLLEY GIRL
\
/
This is, like. a t otally cool character!
Ever y suburb need s a few of t hese
good-looki ng gals who never take
off t heir sunglasses. They' re out
cruisi n' around on a Saturday night
at t he mal l shoppi ng for gum, or at
a rock concert meet ing the roadies.
Valley girl characters are flirts, so
dress t hem to reflect t hat, but add
youthful touches, such as bows in
t he hai r, oversized belt buckles,
t rendy boots, and young hairstyles.
Sometimes. valley gi rls ar e
gr ou ped together in comic book
stories, just as t hey ar e in horror
flic ks when a band of girls
goes camping together and
"something bad" happens.
It hel ps t he story, because a
group of girls together can scream
louder t han one girl by herself.
And, you can ki ll off t hese char-
acte rs one by one, heightening
t he suspense.
!
It
/'
When you t hink of sorcerers, you thin k of wily old guys wit h
beards in purple robes. right? Thin k again, my friend. Female
sorcerers, w it h t heir allu ri ng beauty, are an equall y powerful
presence . The so rce ress ( a n su mmon up ima ge s of t he past or
future. cast evi l spells. and generally mess t hi ngs up f or anyone
who ann oys her, This one spo rts forear m cuffs a nd a large leg
tattoo, which mak es he r different f rom just a ga l in a ba th ing
suit. Note t he hand gestures as she conjures up t ha t st uff
foatinq over he r he ad-mu st be some sort of special sorceress
st uff . Special effects are i mport ant in sorcery. (You learn t hat
in" Int ra. t o Sorcery 101 ")
THE SEXY SORCERESS
~
I
THE GHnG mEmBER
We all know that girls are better behaved than
boys, right ? Well, not every girl. Some girls. it
seems, grow up to be bad. The gorgeous wo men
of comic book street gangs would rather rob you
than date you. And compared to some dates I' ve
had, that'd probably be cheaper in t he end. But I
digress. Torn jeans and well-worn street clot hes
are t he signat ure cost ume for thi s character, wit h
a large wea pon that cernes in handy when she's
trying t o make a point. A reckless or aloof
attitude is also part of the statement.
ALTERNATE APPRGlACH
This isa differ ent approach t o t he gang member
rbarect er. as dr awn by a diff er e nt a rt ist. No t wo ar tist s
draw in exact ly the sa me style, nor shoul d t hey. Ma ny
times, comic book editors wi ll requ i re you t o draw
.Iready est ablished cha ract e rs exactly as t he previous
artist did. However, when t he opportunity pr esents
i ~ l f to i nt roduce a new charact er or ta ke t he comic
book in a new direct ion, seize that moment to br ing
fresh vision to t he work. break out of t he mold, and
create somet hing different. Somet hi ng w it h your style.
(
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THE FEmHLE VHmPIRE
- ~
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Vampi re women are always depi cted
weari ng eer ie clothing, usuall y capes or
long tattered gowns. Their eyelashes
should be jet bla ck and lengt hy. Thei r
f ingernai ls are way too tong. Plus, they' ve
got fangs. And. whereas most people who
li ke animals own a dog or cat, vampi re
women have bats. It 's not t hat I don't
think bats make cuddly house pet s; it's the
running t o the bl ood bank every f ew days
f or their f ood t hat I rea lly f ind ti resome.
I I
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\
HOUH BHB£
Asea -based creature must be
different from an ordinary person,
because she ain't one. Scales. ea rs,
and el fin eyes all indicate that th is
is a strange being rath er than a
human being. Be sure her hair
floats and flows gently up and
away from the face, so that the
scene reads as being underwater.
~ l
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THE STHRSHIP COmmflnDER
Resourceful. unyi elding, and
courageous. These are the hallmarks
of a good st arship commander. Space
suits are always formfitt ing and
min imalist in design . For reasons yet
unknown, most space commanders
wear cool boots. Must be a job perk.
I
mORE SPReE GRLS
Come here ofte n? It's amazing
the ki nds of creat ures you meet
on your average, methane-f illed
planetary object. l ooks li ke t his
alien wasn't expecti ng anyone for
dinner-or worse, maybe he was!
~
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86
)( '
HUEn CREHTURE
The melding of human and animal forms int o one
creature has been a te chni qu e used by artists f or
thousands of years. Nowadays. art ists t ake it one st ep
f urther, combi ni ng huma n and ali en feat ures. 1also do
it in my own gara ge laborat ory w it h surpr ising results,
but t hat 's another book. Using rept i les for reference,
you can creat e any number of eer i ly sexy al i en babes.
,
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V
THE mnm HSSHSSm
On a stealt hy mission, th is lady
wea rs t he out fit of th e ninja-
karate unif or m, hood, and f ace
mask. The boots are speciall y
designed f or added tract ion, wit h a
separation f or t he bi g t oe. The hair
must be in a bun or ponytail-not
long and f lowing, which would
draw attention to this elusive
warrior. The ninja is big on t he
ancient art of hand-to-ha nd
combat; she doesn't carry an Uzi.
Plus. she secretly stores many more
unseen wea pons on her per son.
Ther efore, she always has another
tr ick up he r sleeve.


••
..



RIlDIOIlCTIVE Gill
She ca n make toast just by
standing dose to a loaf of
bread ! She floats li ke a
specter. imbued wit h powers
f ar beyond our own. Bursts
of energy emanate from her
fi st s and emit powerful f lashes
of light that act like spot lights,
hitting her on both sides and
leaving only th e middle of
her body in shadow. This light!
shadow/light combo is an
extremely dramatic look .

I
I
\ , ~
EXPLOSIOns
Explosions ( an reall y rock you r
world. The blowout on the
previous page is on e of t he
most pop ular ty pes: the
explosive blast . It denote s
power and energ y. It 's cl ose
t o both t he reader and the
characte r-the heroine's pose
tells us she's flying fast to get
th e heck out of there! Blast
lines give the feeling that the
fl aming dest ruct ion coul d
catch up to her any secon d.
The image also breaks the
panel border to show that
she's really booki n'. (Note
th at the smoke cloud is
reall y a spird' of smoke.)
ATGlmlC INFERNGl
This is t he other pop ular exp losion
t ype . It decimates a lot of land. It's
not the urgent l-qott a-escepe-it
exp losion; it' s t he l -j ust -qot -out t e-
t bere-and- boy -am-t-qta d t ype .
Vi ewed from afar, it cast s a harsh,
fiery l ight on the heroi ne as she
strides away from a job well done,
her hair blowing i n the bl ast 's wind.
Not e how the explosi on serves to
backl igh t her figu re, illuminating
the edge of her form while
th rowing the f ront of her body
i nt o deep, sinister shadows.
IACI(GR4DUND
You can use background smoke as a t ool
to make a stealthy crime fight er pop out
against a starry sky.
smOHE
In comic books. where there's smoke.
there's mood and tension. Here are
some popular ty pes of smoke.
f4DREGR4DUND
Using f or egr ound smo ke,
you can f rame the import ant
features of a charact er. Here,
her eyes are framed, indicat i ng
suspicion and alertness.
ASAT4D4DL
You can also use smoke
(or f og) as a prop or tool. This
cha racter ;5obvious ly a sorceress ,
wi th smoke welling up around her,
caressing her. The placement and
motion of t he smoke t ell readers
she cont rols it . She's a powerful
figure, capabl e of manipulat ing
the nat ural forces of the eart h
to serve her evi l purposes.
RHIn
Slick. wet streets, Windblown downpours. Overcast skies.
Ahh, anot her perf ect day in comic book land. Rain can
indicat e a number of different moods and evoke a variety
of f eel ings, as these panels show. It's a great emotional
prop and def init ely belongs in your repertoire,
ImPENDING DARKNESS
This scene evokes a str ong mood wi th a dark storm raining down on t he
city as t he her oine waits for her enemy to stri ke . .. somewhere out t here,
PATHEilS
You just know
something bad 's
going to happen,
and th e rai n wor ks
as a great met a phor
f or tears and sorrow.
It ampl if ies t he raw
emoti on comi ng
f rom t he characte r.
URGENCY
In th is panel, you can sense
the i mpending f ight, and the
rain makes the environment
even harsher. Plus, placing
the cent er of the falling rain
at the character's feet creates
the fee ling that the reader
is rushing toward her, as
if from the point of vi ew
of her opponent. Her body
language shows t hat she 's
coi led up and ready for a
major f ight.
LIGHTninG
Lightning punctuates an i mport ant moment in a
story. It can be an omen or serve to strengthen
the cl i max of a scene. Here are a few types.
TRiumPHANT
This panel focuses on the glory of
a fighting heroine. The l ightning
brightens the night sky and
illuminates the character as she
soars upward. It also frames her
body and divides up the panel
i nt o int erest ing shapes.

This is the other side of the coin:
the dark, stealthy crime f ighter.
We're not going for glory here,
but it's still an i mport ant moment
in the story. Perhaps she has just
realized that, although the creature
who's destroying her city is also
capable of destroying her, she
has no choice but to f ight it.
The l ight ni ng not only leads the
reader' s eye to her but also serves
to heighten the tension of th e
moment . In addition, it serves as
a l ight source in an otherwise
dark rooftop scene.
THE FULL moon
Ever yo ne knows that weir d
things happen dur i ng a full
moon, and comic book art ist s
must know how t o use this
superstit ion to t hei r adva ntage.
fRAmiNG
T H ~ f A C ~
You can also use t he moon t o
fra me your heroine's face a nd
create ultr a-dra mat ic lig hti ng.
A few simpl e cr at ers o n t he
moon 's surf ace add t extu re and
con t ri bute t o t he f eel ing of t he
moon looming lar ge and br ight
in th e ni ght sky. And. for extra
moti on in a panel, you can
thr ow i n some smoke.
AS A LIGHT SeURCf
As a visual effect , t he moon is cool because you can chanqe
its size, shape. t exture, and col or. Her e, it' s a powerful light
source t ha t he lps cre ate sus pe nse a nd a n eer ie mood
n
."
AS A
SPGlTLIGHT
The moon makes a great
spo t l ight. Her e. it empha-
sizes t he character and
also creat es a fee li ng of
danger and excitement as
she leaps from the panel.
WfHER
Fountains of water and plumes of cascadin g waves rising and falling
creat e fa ntast ic, mystical comic book environment s. Water special effects
shoul d be glorious and hu ge. like t he ocean it self.
CR.ASHING
WAVES
What's t he name of
the game wi th water?
Motion. The pane l
opposite offers a
striking- yet still-
shot of our t echno-
mermaid. However,
the crashing waves
around her
add mo tion an d
vigor to th e scene.
flllUNTAINS
The other big use fo r water is to create
f low. Her e. th e arc of spouti ng water
and t he f igure's pose wor k t og ether
to create an almost rhythmic, li qui d
fe el to her movement . Her whole
body is sur rounded by the water, and
she flows ou t toward the read er
i n a fount ai n of beaut y and act ion.
VRmSHlnG LInES
Vanishing l i nes (seen here and on
page 107) are i nvisi bl e guidelines
the artist sketches light ly on a
dra wing to gu ide the direct ion.
perspective. a nd placement of
everything in the image. As t hese
li nes recede int o the background.
they event ually converge at a single
point called t he vanishing point.
Following these vanishing lines will
help you posit ion your characters,
props, and scenery cor rect ly within
your scenes.
Ther e's also somet hi ng el se t o
consider. Just as t hings appea r
sma ller as they recede into the
distance, t he opposit e is also t rue:
Things appea r bigger as they get
closer to us. This can have a huge
impact on the viewer. By greatly
exaggerat ing the size of the things
i n the f oreground of your drawing s.
you can bowl over yo ur readers
wi t h your i mages.
USING DIAGElNAL
LINES TEl CREATE
EXCITEmENT
Horizont al lines creat e a feel ing of
st abi li ty and sereni ty. This is great if
you like to med itate and eat wheat
germ cookies. But for comi c book
fans, it 's a bore. We want action,
violence, chaos! Wh en you stage a
scene al ong diagonal li nes, rather
than hor izontal ones, t hings sud- j
denl y look severe, tense, dramati c.
Observe how the vanishing lines of
the bui ldings in this drawing all J
recede diag onall y and <f-
should eventually '.1
converge somewhere c
off the lower right ... ....
side of the page.
'-
mEVHmSHlnlJ POInT
You can use a vanishing point-the place where all your
vanishi ng lines converge-t o add f ocus to a scene. You decide
where t o place the vanishin g point , and t his det ermines bot h
the direct ion of the scene and the placement of t he vanishing
j nes. In decidi ng where t he vanishing point goes, consider
the purpose of t he scene. In t hi s case, two chara cters have
been capt ured and are surrounded by an angry mob; so,
you' d want to emphasize that the crowd is bent on
the destruction of the t wo vict ims. Placing the
vanishi ng point above the victi ms makes the
aowd appear to converge towa rd them.
The vict i ms become the focal point of
the crowd' s attent ion, and this
height ens the pressure and
makes the t hr eat of t he
mob t hat much more
palpable and imminent.
h this illu str ati on, the
IQnishing point is located

VfJnlSHInG LInES fJno
SPEClfJL EfFECTS
Explosions becom
if e more a
I you use vanish" . wesome
the blast Th I ~ g tines to direct
. e vanlshi .
becomesthe 0 " og pomt
explosion w,.th
ng1n
of the
• everyt hl
t he scene emanati mg else in
spot. along t he 1".9f!om t hat
venishinq lines.
A HlDTE
THE ABlDUT
HlDRIZlDH
To understand and . L I H E
compositi on it ' organize your
ident ify t he h ' I ~ a go od idea t o
onzon I' (
the sky and gr tne where
vanishi ng poi °t
und
meet). The
n usually a
on t he horizon Ii ppears
can place it in ot her but you
create added d er spots t o
t h
rama a
e previous • s on
page.
;
,
• •

NISHING ,.

CLHRIFYInG HCLUTTERED SCEnE
-.......

'\ '
/Fe<:
; W 8l _ P ') J>"... ..
E RS PE V ( tif'"
The floor pat t £ --- - -;-- - - -
use of two above make, -
. -pomt p
IS when ther erspect ive Th"
o e are tw . IS
points in a sc 0 va nishing
and one on the richt .! on t he left
scene . right . In th
b • vanishi nq I" e above
ot h vanishi n converge t o
the crisscross 9J
omts
• creat ing
e eel on t he IIOOf.
THE RRT DF STORYTELLInG
It' s not just what 's inside the panels
t hat counts. It's how you get f rom
panel to pane l and fr om page to page
t hat reall y te ll s the st ory. Comic book
panels don't exist i n a vacuum. They're
part of an overa ll st oryline that has to
hold t he reade r with its pacing and
rhythm. It 's crucial to stage the last
pane l on a pag e in such a way th at it
seamlessty leads the read er's eye t o
the f irst pane l of the next page.
To do t his. artists first draw
thumbnai l sketches of each page-
layin g out t he seque nce of panel s in
mini ature. rough f orm wi t h stick
fi gures- before act uall y drawi ng any
of the scen es. The idea is to see if th e
story flows visually fr om panel to
panel. To see how it works. let 's
compare t wo versi ons of t he same
story. In t his sequence, the heroine is
aboa rd her space stat ion when she
get s word f rom her commander that
Vi lla in X is looting a warehouse in
New Jersey. She vows to bust him and
blasts down to Earth. Sneak ing into
th e warehouse unseen, she spi es
Vill ain X, who also spots her. A
con f rontati on and f ight ensue.
Vf:RSllBN
On the first p dg e, thl!' drtist shows the spdce stiltion and then cuts between the heroiflf
dnd the commender. In thl!' Idst pdne l on tht' pOl gf', th e heroine zooms off to th e fight,
This is very i mpor tdnt, bl!' CdUSI!' sht' Il!'dds the eye to the top of tht' nt' J(t pilgf', wh i ch
bt'gim with iI wide, estcJ blishi ng shot cJ nd thl!'n con tinues t o show t ht' iletio n imidl!' tht
wdrl!'houst' with Vill di n X.
I ~
VERSllBN 2
This sequence shows off cJ little ma rl" scpnery in sett ing up t ht' 10Ciltiom, which ere
i mpor tOl nr for this type of st ory- ont> in wh ich the mdin chcJ ril eter must fly from ant'
locil t ,on to dnother, However. the heroint' srJII fl ies out to the ri ght of t ht' test pdnt' l
on th t' fi r st pdgt', It' dding rl!'ilders to tht' top of the next pdge.
STHGlnG THE BIG FIGHT SCEnE
As wit h any secti on of a comic
book, th ere are vari ous wayst o
st age a fi ght sc ene. In combat
scenes, you don' t indicat e as much
scenery, because you want the
reader's eye t o fly over the fast-
paced scene . This is unlike the
detai led approa ch used to illust rat e
the pr evious scene (opposite). in
whi ch we wanted readers to slow
down and take in the locat ions and
conversat ions. For th e f igh t scene
here, the basic st ory element s go
as follows: first , th e heroine is
attacked by the vil lain; then, she
powers up and slams him across the
warehouse; when she checks to see
if he's unconscious, he l ifts the crate
overhead to smash her; and finally,
she sends a powe r burst across the
floor and t akes him out .
V £ R.S I $ H r
V E R. S I $ H 2
Til,S vt'n,on USPS nlOlf' . d v,m cpd p.npJ d,.s' gn. (Nolf' You should keep yo ur thu mbndl l
j<,.tches JOOIt', you', t' Just JOl tm g down ddfe-,e-nl ,dt'.s dnd se- t'mg which shOh look th e- most
af rl.m;c Al l h,s st. qt', you h.vf' rhp f, pe-dom 10 cut, pd Stt', Ndlt', dnd rt' dffdnge-J
She turns, lands a bl
t hen pICksup her r j f ~ e w ,
and finishes the Job b
,
clubbmg him over th:
eadwlth It.
DESIGninG
HBRILLlHnT
COVER
The cover sells t he
comic book. To get
readers to pic k up th e
book, a cover must
stand out a mong
dozens of competing
titles. It ha s to be
excit ing-but th at
alone won't do it.
It a lso must d early
est ablish th e mai n
cha ract er so t hat
people will recog nize
which comic book it
is. Plus. it must be
dr a ma t ic so t hat
peopl e will want to
read t he book to find
out what happens. In
addi ti on, t he ima ge
must leave enough
room fo r the ti t le-
but not so much
room that there's
dead space.
,.-
/
The example here is a good COVe" " The main character;5 in dange r We can see her clearly. The bad guy
;s about to pounce. BUf, sht' aim hill iJ gun. Will she fire it in time' Better buy the book to find out.
Bere are t he ty pi cal i ni ti al steps an artist goes t hrough
before deciding on a cover idea. The art ist roughs out a
fewversions. and t he editor notes his or her comments
ont hem. At t his st age. the art ist t hrows a bunch of
ROUGH COVER SHfTCHES
ideas at t he edito r. When t he editor likes on e, t he art ist
t hen ref ines it and sends it back f or more comments
unt il he or she gets t he go-ahead t o do the f inished
ver sion. Here are some t ypical editor's comment s.
r
CAt"T
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TRIEU fWD TRUE POInTERS

Drawing from li f e won't help you wit h
t echniques such as layout, costu me design,
ideal izati on of fea tures, or some of the other
comic book-related i nstructi on provided in th is
book. But , what it wi ll do is give you a sol id
fo undat ion i n ana tomy. Ma ny art ists cont inue
t o hon e their skills throughout t heir careers by
ta king occes ionaltite-drewinq classes. Cha nces
are t he re's a place near you that off ers classes.
You do n' t have t o enr oll full t i me; many coll eges
and art school s offer conti nui ng education
classes at night. once a week. There are
also local ar t cent ers in many t owns.

fRem
Whe t her you take your sketchpad
down to th e mall or enroll in an
act ual l if e-draw ing class, the most
importa nt t hing for you to learn to
draw is people. All t ypes of people.
Young, old, good-looki ng, we ird -
looki ng, even scary. And drawing
from li f e is t he best way t o do t his.
Carry your sketchbook wi th you It' s
a simpl e trick used by j ust about all
professional art ists at some po int in
t heir careers, Take it to t he par k, t o a
rock conc ert, t o a ball game, any place
t here are crowds you can observe. Fill
up do zens of sketch bo oks, and keep
t hem for reference .

PICTGlRIAL
REfERENCE fiLES
It' s a good idea to keep f i les
of visual refe rence materi als
on things you mi gh t need to
draw but come ac ross only
infrequently. For example, you
might see a magazine article
about a cool, amphib ious water
vehicle, and clip it out and file it .
Then, if you e ver need to draw
something like t hat , you won't
have to waste half a day go ing
to the li brary for refe rence .
A CGlmfGlRTABLE
DRAWING DESI(
Sounds obvious, doesn't it? It isn't.
You sit at a desk in an art store for 30
seconds. It' s neat looking but not th at
comfortable. However, the
sales person assu res you it's adjustable;
so you buy it , confident that when
you get home, you can get it int o the
perfect posit ion.
As a professional comic book artist,
you'll spend many hou rs a day at that
desk . Don' t buy it before you're sure it
fee ls good while you're still i n the
store. Ma ke all adj ust ments r ight then
and there, and spend some t i me
sitting at it. Take along a list of all the
things you want i n a desk, and see if
that mo del can handle it . Things to
consider : Where w ill my electri c pencil
sharpener go? Can a l ight bo x f it on it ?
Does it have enough built-in spaces
for pens, pen cils, and ru lers? And
most importantly, does it wobb le
when you lean on it? The wobble is
the ki ss of deat h.
IDEAS fGlR
GlUTRAGEGlUS
CGlSTUmES
Go to a la rge newsstand that
has an extensive selection of
i nt ernati onal magazines. look at
the European women's f ashion
maga zines. The models are very
cutting edge. ve ry weird, but sexy
Notice what the runway models
are weari ng: wi ld designs and
signature pieces never realt y
i nt ended f or t he consumer but
meant t o please f ashion indust ry
insiders and press. These outfit s
can give you ideas, because comic
book women also we ar wil d, sexy
clot hes. European magazi nes can
be exp ensive, because they're
i mported and have a limi t ed
ci rcul ation in the United Stat es,
but they' re a good buy for
you r reference f i les.
J(.EEP CURRENT
Things ar e always changi ng.
Know you r market. Know
th e trends. Know t he names
of curr ent comic book
art ists, wr it ers, editors, and
publ ishers. When you buy a
comi c book, read th e credits.
Follow other people's careers
in the indust ry. It will gi ve
you ideas and make you more
conversant wi th the pros in
your field. If an editor is
looki ng for a drawing style
l ike so-and-so, you'll know
who so-and-so is and won't
need it explained to you.
DeN 'T fALL IN LeVE
WITH v e u a w e s x
Obviously, your work will suffer if
you' re such a pe rfect ioni st th at you feel
compel led to f ine-t une every drawi ng
you begi n. Understand t hat everyt hi ng
you draw wo n' t be pe rfect. nor shou ld
it be. You should feel free t o make
mist akes, beca use in those mist akes will
lie some flashes of brilliance. And rest
assured t hat eve n when you fee l a
drawing is per fect, your edi tor wi ll wa nt
changes and more changes. And you' ll
have to make t hem. So you can get
jazzed about your dr awings, but don 't
fa ll in love with them unti l th ey go to
t he print er.
UPDATE v e u a
pellTfeLle
Always re place t he good
draw ings i n your portfolio with
better ones. Also updat e your
portfolio if your style needs to
become more contemporary
to fi t in with a curre nt trend,
or if t he drawings no longer
repr esent the type of wo rk for
wh ich yo u' re becomi ng known.
Thi nk of your portfoli o as a
livi ng, breathi ng t hi ng t hat
should be constantly changi ng.
...
p :
,, '
'"
o
,
a
..,
USE eVERNIGHT
mAIL SERVICE
When you send your work t o a publisher
as part of a contracted job, you have t o
send or igi nals. However, you don' t wa nt
your artwork damaged or lost in t he mail.
So, send or iginals via an overn igh t delivery
service. I really, really recommend against
send ing anyt hi ng by snail mail , because
if there's an unexplained delay, or if
somet hing gets lost , it has been my
exper ience t hat it 's extremely difficult
t o t rack it down and ret rie ve it .
USE THE PHeNE
When you publi sh something
not eworth y, make phone calls to
apprise editors of what you're doing .
If you can take t hem out to lunch, so
much t he better. If t hey' re too busy t o
take you r calls, or you sense they' re not
that approachable. mail them copies of
your newest st uff wit h a brief, fr iendly
note. Keep yourself in t hei r mind bu t
no t i n t hei r face . Don 't be pushy. Also,
remember t hat many executives switch
jobs, so un less you kee p in cont act,
you ' ll lose co ntact .
fILE v e u a TAXES
If you ' re worki ng as an i ndependent
cont ract or " f or hi re" as most f reelance comic
book artists do, you're going to have t o file
your taxes quart erl y rather than annually.
Check wit h an accountant so that you don't
fall behind and have to pay penalt ies.
STICK WITH A

Some i nkers make your work look
better th an ot he rs. You ma y have
the op portunit y t o recommend
your favorite in ker to your editor,
and the inke r can reciprocate the
gesture. It 'll hel p yo u f ind work and
make your work look its best.
IEIlB

IN ANlmATIEIlN
There are ma ny animated television shows t hat
featu re act ion -he ro cha ract e rs, and t hese shows
need animators who ( an draw in a comic book styl e.
Never rul e out any possibi l it ies. Check t he credits at
t he beg inni ng or end of a show t o fi nd t he name of
the studi o. Call them up and ask t hem to dire ct you
to t he perso n responsible for hiring an imators and
st or yboa rd ar t ist s for that part icular show.

Much busi ness is done by
l icensin g charact ers. Art ist s are
const antly needed t o illust rat e
everything from t oy boxes t o
cards t o games wi th act ion
f igures on them.
comic BOOK PUBLISHERS
Here a re t he names a nd addresses of
many of the top comi c book publ ishers
t oday. Wh en sending submissions,
address them to the Submissions Editor
and include a self -addressed stamped
envelope fo r the ret ur n of your
art work. (For deta ils on exact ly what t o
submit. see the int ervi ews start ing on
page 130.) You can also request a copy
of a company' s submissions guidelines
bef ore sending anything in.
ACCLAIM COMICS
One Acclaim Pl aza
Glen Cove, NY 11542
www. dccl ai n.nE. t1comicsisubmi t .ht ml
We bsite lists submi ssions guidelines .
ARCHI ECOMIC PUBLICATIONS
325 Fayette Avenue
Mamaroneck, NY 10543
(9 14) 381-51 55
www.archiecormcs.com
CHANTI NG MONKSSTUDI OS
360· AW Merr ick Road. Suite 350
Vall ey St ream, NY 11580
(516) 285-5545
www.medi asi.com/chantingmonks
CHAOSCOMICS
76S5 East Geld ing Road
Scottsda l e, AZ 85260
(888) CHAOS13, ext . 556
www.chaoscornics.com
DARK HORSECOMI CS
10956 SE Ma in St reet
Milwa ukie, OR97222
www.dar khorse.com
Website lists submissions guidelines.
DC COMICS
1700 Broadwa y
New York, NY 10019
www. dccornics.com/gu i de.ilgui des.htm
Website lists submissions guidelines.
DISNEYCOMICS
500 S. Buena Vista Street
Burbank , CA 91521
(818) 567·5739
www.westbra bant.netldcw
FANTAGRAPHICSBOOKS
7563 Lake City Way
Seatt le, WA 98155
(206) 524-1967
www.fenta qr aphics.com
GLADSTONEPUBLISHING
P.O. Box 2079
Prescott, A2 86302
(602) 776-1300
HARRIS PUBLICATIONS
1115 Broadway, 8t h f l oor
New York, NY 10010
(212) 807-7100
IMAGECOMICS
1440 Nort h Harbor Road, #305
Fullert on, CA 92635
(7 14) 871-8802
MARVELCOMICSGROUP
387 Park Avenue Sout h
New York, NY 10016
attn: Darren Auck
www.marvelcomi cs.comJcommunity
Website lists submissions guidelines.
SIRIUSENTERTAINMENT, INC.
P.O. Box 128
Stanhope, NJ 07874
(201) 347-6611
sir ius.edqegIobal.com
\
TOP COW PRODUCTIONS, INC.
1223 Wi lshir e Boulevard #496
Santa Monica, CA 90401
(310) 286-0758
WVI/W. topeowconvtopccwrtccztaqldxhtrrd
Wpbsite li sts submissions guidelines.
A D D I T I < D N A ~
ADDIlESS Il£SGlUIlC£
In addi tion to the addresses listed
here, t he Indy Magazine Int ernet
database is an excellent source
of comic book pub lisher s and
industry addresses. You can find it at:
www.nexlus-hcbbles.coevtndy
worldlreferencelindustry.shtml
Not e that industry addresseschange,
so it 's best to see if a company has its
own website and t hen use the
address listed t her e.
REcommEnDED REROInG

o
<:I
If you' re looki ng t o keep current on t he
comics business, ref ine your drawing
~ k i l l s . and learn new techn iques. here's
the master recommended reading list.
mAGAZINU
Comic Book Profiles
As You lik e It Publ icat ions
Dept . W
P.O. Box 20S5
Poughkeepsie. NY 12601
www.comicsfun.com/c bprofiles
In-dept h coverage of indust ry
prof essionals.
The Comi cs
Robin Snyder
2284 Yew St reet Road, #86
Bell ingham, WA 98226
www.comicsf un.com/ t hecomicsl
index.ht m
Contains info rmation from comic
book publishers. artists, and wri ters,
and covers upcoming industry trends
while also providing a history of the
comics business.
Comics Buyer's Guide
Krause Publ icati ons
700 E. St ate Street
lola. WI 54990
www.k ra use.comlcomicslbg
For professi onals and fans alike,
feat ures news about comics and
profiles o f comic book artists
and writers.

Wizard
Wiza rd Press
PO Box 656
Yorktown Height s. NY 10598
www.wizardworl d.com
All the latest on comic book characters.
publishing, industry news. artists, and
writers.
.88U
Chelsea, Davi d. Perspect ive! For Comic
Book Artists. New York: Watson-Guptill
Publ icat ions. 1997.
Haines, un ene. The Business of
Comics. New York: Wat son-Gupti ll
Pubncettons. tass.
Hale. Robert Beverl y. Albinus on
Anatomy. Mineola (New York): Dover
Publ icat ions, 1989.
Hart. Christ opher. How t o Draw
Animation. New Yor k: Watson-Guptil l
Publications. 1997.
Hart, Christopher. How to Draw Comic
Book Bad Guys and Gals. New York:
Watson-Gupti ll Publicati ons.1998.
Hart, Christopher. How to Draw Comic
Book Heroes and Vill ains. New York :
Watson-Guptil l Publicat ions, 1995.
Hogarth, Burne. Dynamic Figure
Drawing. New York : Watson-Guptill
Publicat ions, 1996.
129
AN INTERVIEW WITH BOBBIE CHASE,
EDITOR, MARVEL COMICS
CH: How import ant is it for a com ic
book artist to be ab le t o draw very
attract ive comic book women ?
BC: Very attract ive comic book women
and men. There's an exaggerat ion on
both ends. The physical attr ibutes of
male and fe male characters are
CH: 1loved all those characters when I
was a ki d. But something wa s al most
especially dangerous about The Hulk
BC: Yes, we ll, Hulk has always been an
incredibl y diff icult charact er. In fact , for
years a lot of people wouldn't consider
wri ti ng The Incredible Hulk, because it
was hard to thi nk of a maj or charact er
- almost a prot agonist-who was
almost a villa in in the series. He cou ld
be very hard to play. He could be very
hard to make sympathet ic. But of
course, he's also a lot of fu n becau se
he's a l ot of kids' f irst power f ant asy.
S T R E9 N GJlwE9 mis N
1
,
Chris Hart: Tell me about you r
background and how you came to
wo rk at Marvel, as we ll as about some
of th e comic books you 've wor ked on .
Bobbie Chase: I've been at Marvel fo r
14 year s. It was ba sically my fi rst real
j ob out of coll ege. I was an English
major with a theater minor . I did
theate r design, whi ch is act ua lly very
applicable when it comes to t his job.
I didn't know anyt hing about comic
books. The person who hi red me
t hou ght that th is was a good thing,
because somet imes people ( orne in
with pre conceived not ions about the
characters and w ith 20 years of l ove
of comic books, and t hey want to see
a spe cific t hing or have stories go a
cert ain way. So, I came in here really
as a novice, not knowing who the
Fantasti c Four we re or any of the
characters, hav ing heard of Spider-Man,
basically. That was it.
I' ve worked on j ust about every
maj or Ma rvel char act er. Right now I' m
worki ng on Fanta5tic Four, Iron Man,
Captain America, and Warlock. I ed ited
The Incredible Hulk f or 10 year s.
exaqqereted and enhanced. The advice
I give a lot of enut s just vtartinq out is:
Take t he elonqated form of the f ashio n
f igure. end add muscles on t op of th is.
Some art i st s st art out drawing fr om
muscle rnaqazmes. But t hat doesn ' t
qui te accurately depi ct the W<l Ycomi c
book heroes and heroi nes look,
because [i n comics! you get those
eton qetec fcrros and t hey ' re much
lerqer t han l i f e.
CH: And they' re so much more
femin ine. They' re not masculi ne
versions of women . They have t his
incredible stren gth and incredible
f emini ni ty at the same t ime.
BC: Oh yes. Of course, the char act ers
are most often wri tten by men, so
there is some skewing of how women
act uall y react . but a lot of guys act uall y
get i t very WE'll.
CH: When it comes to dra wing f emale
comic book char act ers. what do you
look fo r in an art ist ?
BC: I li ke t o see someone who wi ll treat
t he female fo rm wi th a cert ain amo unt
of respect . I don't like t o see too much
exaggerated anatomy, t oo many
ell.aggerated brea st shot s. or poses t hat
are a litt le bit t oo cheesy or " pin up."
Also, t here's a who le school of artists
now who are leaminq to dra w f rom
studying other comic book art, and I
think thai 'S a t err ible short coming .
t here are certain comic book shortcuts
t hat you can get f rom looking at a
comic boo k, in ter ms of moving
ctie recters. but li fe drawinq is
absolutel y essent ial.
CH: How have t he female characters in
comics chanqed in the past 10 years?
Be: There are a lot more women in
combat. rat her than women as cannon
f odder. In other words. i f WE' wE' rE'
t alking about t t wIn(fpdible Hulk. the
Bett y Banner character was the woman
in danger. t he woman who want ed to
be rescued Now, however, there are a
lot mor e [f emalE' r baracter s] who are
ect uanv tea m leaders, who ar e put in
supervisory roles.
CH: How import ant is it f or someon e
t rying to qet int o tbe business to
networ k at comic book convent ions ?
(
BC: It's not essenti al. but i t hel ps
because you qet the chance to act uall y
speak to an E'ditor- you know. the
person who coul d possibly be hiring
you. If I get wor k into the office. I
respond. It takes me an incredi bly long
amount of t ime , but I do respond to all
of the submissions I get . However, it's
usually a letter with maybe a littl e ext re
not e saying, "This would be he lpful for
you ." But that 's rar e. because there just
i sn't t he ti me. So, a comic book
convention is a great place to meet 10
edi t or s, get 10 opinions on your work,
and absorb it .
CH; When someon e gets a portfolio
together and meets you, an edi t or, at a
convent i on or in an intervi ew, what
exactl y do you want to see? How many
pieces shoul d t here bE'? Should they be
in col or?
BC; If a penciler is coming in wi th a
portfol io, i t shoul d onl y be of penciled
work. At least f ive pages of conti nuous
panel-to-pa nel st oryt elling so that WE'
can see t hat he or she understands all
of the aspect s of putting together a
st ory. Also. t he work should show

I
CH: Can you offer any ti ps on design ing
eye -catctunq costumes for female
characters?
BC: We'r e getting aWilY from spa nde x
We were rece nt ly redesigni ng a char -
acter's costume. For years, she just
wo re a ba t hinq suit . This is il woma n
who . . . well, she 's a sea -base d
character. She 's an Atlanti an. She
lives un derwater. So the bat hing suit
seemed to ma ke sense. But she did all
her fight ing in Ma nhat ta n. We ga ve
he r some thing a little bit more
ut ilitarian a nd fu nctional-c-pants.
idennfia b!e Mar vel cha racters so t hat
we know th e art ist can do our
ch ar act e rs to our specif ications.
An inke r should co me in with a
variety of ink sa mples, ma ybe two
oaqes each of a var iety of oeocners
work so t ha t we can see t hat th ey ca n
ha ndle som e body else's style. If we're
hiring a pe ncile r, we don't wan t t o see
t he wor k inked And if we' re hiring an
inke r, we don' t reall y want to see inks
over that Inke r's pen cils, unless we ' re
hiring a pe nciler -inker who is going t o
be doing th e wh ole job.
CH: How impor tant is a good com puter
colorist to a great- looking co mic book?
BC: Essential And t hat's rea lly only
been in t he last 10 years. When I
star t ed at Ma rvef t he col oring was
still done on little flat eels by these
little old ladies in a wor ksho p out in
Connecti cut, paint ing eels. Now, it's
all done by com puter. The color is
ce rtainl y il much more integral pa rt
of t he a rt sce ne t han ever before.
CH: Is it d ifficult, in t his polit ically
correct age, t o port ray se xy
female comic book cha racters
without off ending someone,
somewhe re?
BC: Our societ y is certainly
cra zier a bout sex th a n
violenc e. Eve ry once in a wh ile
someone will say, "Oh, it 's
but we also pol ice ourselves. We have
comics co de. We se nd [our material]
to th e Comics Code Aut ho rity t o make
CH: And ho w many people do bot h?
BC: It's not co mmon, beca use it's so
diff icult to do 22 paqes in one month's
time. Redlly, t he industr y's st an da rd is
fo r il pe nciler-an d- inker t ea m t o wo rk
together.
,
"f
J
\'

. ..
su re that we don't go over the t op with
anyt hing, but we're act ually more
stringent in [t he] company. And comic
book companies who produce mater ial
t hat doesn't have the code on it put
" For Mat ure Reader s" on those comic
books. Also, if we have book s t hat
don 't have the code on them,
we don't dist ribut e them to the news-
stands; t hey on ly get dist rib uted to
the specialty stores.
CH: 50, if art ists want t o go really over
the t op, t hey can. There are publishers
for that. But it woul dn' t be t he
mainstream.
BC: Right , and we consi der ourselves a
pret ty mai nstream company.
CH: What are some of your most
successful f emale comic bo ok
charact ers? And, how have those
charact ers chan ged over the years?
BC: Ther e are lots. Bet t y Banner [f or
exampl e]. Bett y Ross Banner-Bruce
Banner 's (The Incredi ble Hulk's) wif e.
Shestarted ou t as hi s girlf r iend, and
over the years, she has ma rried him and
gone from good li ttle wife t o, qu it e
oft en, sidekick. She's a t ough char act er
and j ust a very strong woman. In recent
history, she has been depicted as
working for help hotli nes and even
working with some teams that The
Hulk has been associated wit h.
Sue Storm, the ori ginal Invisi ble Gir l
in the Fant astic Four, i s now Sue Storm
Richard s, married t o Me Fantastic. [Now
she's] The Invi sib le Woman-she was
undated, from " girl" to "woman," over
the years. Gon e from, " I'm going t o
f aint because I've used my powers," to
being the tough leader of t he gr oup
who says, "Okay, Ben you go here. And
Reed, you go here. And John ny you go
here and we'll meet in the mi ddle."
We also have Jennifer Wal ters (She
Hulk) who is The Incredi bl e Hulk's
cousin and anot her tough heroine.
Then there's the x -Men team. One
of the reasons it's ou r most popular
comic bo ok franchise i s because it's just
ridd led with so many good, strong
female char acters. Kit t y Pride, Marvel
Girls, Storm, so many women. l ot s of
new women in the team now. In fact, it
tends to be very heavily skewed toward
f emales in the group. And t hey all have
very uni que per sonalit ies and abilit ies.
CH: Is there a dan ger in chan ging a
,
character t oo much as i t evolves, and a
risk of losin g its orig inal f an base?
BC: Yes, t here cert ainly is. That 's what
editors are here for. We' re character
police. We make sure t hat, as the
wri t ers and arti sts fo r t he books
change, the characters stay t rue to their
per sonalit ies and l ooks. And [we al so
ensure that ] as other edit ors, writers,
and arti sts borrow characters for other
comic book s, t hey're also consistent .
Over such a lon g history as this
company has had, the characters have
evolved but we li ke to keep t hem
consistent wit hin the t ime fr ame.
CH: Wh at are some ty pical weaknesses
you spot in the art wor k of beginning
cartoonists?
BC: Typicall y, when artists approach me
wi th a por t fo l io, they'll say, "What's the
most important thing?" Quit e often I
get that quest ion. Is it storytelling? Is it
anatomy? Is it perspect ive? And I'll say,
unfo rtunately, it's all of it . Quite often,
t he thi ng that artists have the hardest
t ime wit h i s comic bo ok storyt elling.
We ty pically use t he silent film analogy.
In a comic book, you should be able to
t ake all of the [word ) balloons and
capt ions off [the pict ures) and look at
22 pages of art and see exactly what 's
going on and understand the story.
A lot of artists have a har d time
accomp lishing that, because they don't
put the time in to do establishing shots
and [work on ] backgrou nds and
perspecti ve, and make character s move
in a li near f ashion. They concentrat e on
doing mo re pin-up t ype work, which i s
great for covers and an occasional
break-out shot. Obvi ously, it needs to
be dynamic looking, but art ists can't
sacri fice storytelling.
And t hat also brings up other
shortcomings, in terms of art ists
learning to draw from [t he work of]
other comic bo ok artists. Qui te often,
they'll leave out background s and
est abl ishing shots simply because
they don't understand t he perspect i ve
and the more complicat ed issuesof
dra wing. Because they concent rated so
har d on learn ing how to draw comic
bo ok f igur es.
CH: What gives Marvel characters their
speci al appeal?
Be: Ma rvel Comics has always pri ded
itself on having the best characters
i n the comic book industry. [The
e ) ~ ~
. ~ ~ ~
(I
J '
characte rs] have these great powers,
but they also have great limi tat ions
and complicated li ves and emot ions
and sho rtcomings-day-to-day prob-
lems t hat readers can ident if y with.
A character like Spider -Man has such
limit at ions, His web f lui d runs out, and
he can't accompl ish th ings. Or, he' ll fi nd
himself in t he mi dd le of a battl e sit ua-
ti on, and there's no fil m in his camera ,
The on ly way he makes a livi ng is deliv-
ering shots of f ight s t o The Daily Bug le,
and he's under a deadline, and he doesn't
have any shots f or hi s edi tor, and he can' t
make any mo ney. Or, he has anot her
f ight with Doctor Octopus and he has a
dat e with his gi rl fr iend. And of cou rse,
she's go ing to be f ur ious wi th hi m. You
know, these simple life problems.
CH: How does a comic boo k editor
int eract with t he artists) Does the
edi tor work with them intermittent ly
dur ing t he drawing pr ocess, or only
after the work is handed in ?
BC: Depends on the art ist. It 's the
editor's job to hire t he art team, put
together people who will wor k best
together. Sometimes, you'll wor k wit h
someone new who needs more
at tent ion . There' s a lot less correct i on
work done on comi c books t han there
used t o be. Artists who've been in the
business f or a long t ime say that, in t he
ol d days, they' d t urn in t heir 22 pages
and get back 22 pages to make
correct ions on. Art is a lot mo re
complicated- the l ine work i s a lot
more complicate d-now. It t akes a lot
l onger for an art ist to draw a comic
book. We t end to go with t he art we
get in, alt hough t hat usually means we
t end to do a l ot of up -front work wi t h
a comic book-working on char acter
desi gns and sketches and making sure
the characters are r ight so t hat the
work comes in and is usual l y f ine. Some
art ists, obviously, need more help,
Usually, we work wit h people who are
profession al enough to get it in and
have it be great.
THE ImPEDRTANCE
EDf DRAWING
AN INTERVIEW WITH RENAE GEERLINGS,
EDITOR, TOP COW PRODUCTIONS
\

_. ,-,.
• - '!Ii>
Chr is Hart : Ho w did you (orne to work
at Top Cow?
Renae Ge erli ngs: I act ually came to
Los Angeles to do act ing a nd singing
And I was t emping. t ended up havin g
t o tem p 40 hou rs a wee k, because you
don't ma ke much money tempinq So I
ended up temping all t he t ime without
even being abl e to audit ion. I came int o
t his bu ildi ng one day, and it wa s Top
Cow Product ions, an d I remember
lau ghin g about t he na me,
I wa l ked in and it was fu ll of boxes,
and all t his art work wa s han gin g off
the wa ll s. I thoug ht, "What t he heck i s
this place ?" It wa s so di sorgani zed and
j ust a li ttl e studio at t he t ime. Then I
found out th at t hey produced com ic
books I t ho ug ht th at was cool. I was
onl y t here f or t wo days answering
phones, But I had so much fun t hat I
ended up saying I wanted to go back
there and work aga in.
Mea nwhi le, I called an old friend of
mine who wa s int o comic books and
sai d, "Hey, by the way, I worked at t his
place called Top Cow Produc t i ons, "
And th er e was silence on t he other
end of t he phone, and he said, " Marc
Sil vestri?" Tot all y awes truck , I had no
idea who [Marc Silvestr i ] was. I' d only
read comic books through either ex-
boyf riends or my brother. It was really a
boy t hing. But I ended up gett ing int o
Sandman, Batman, Dar k Knight.
diff erent Batman tit les, My brother
li ked Iron Man and Spider-Man. I
remember my friend fr om hi gh school
was reall y int o X-Men. And t hat's, of
cou rse, how he knew Marc Silvest r i,
because Marc drew Wolver ine . So, he
exp lained t o me t hat I wa s working
w ith this, sort of , god.
I called back t he t emp agency. I sai d
I' d l ike to work t here aga in. I ended up
gett ing a two-week opening and got to
know everyb ody. It was so much f un.
i
!
;
o
They en ded up call ing me and asking
me back el Sthe presi dent 's assista nt f or
a coupl e of weeks. Then he had to go
to el conventi on, so I asked, " Does
anybody el se here need help?" Because
I couldn't afford mi ssing a cou ple days
of a paycheck. They sai d Edit or i al
needed he lp . I w orked for them for
two days, and t bat was how I go t in .
CH: In t his com peti tive cli mat e,
populated by g iants l ike Marvel and DC
Comics, how is Top Cow abl e to
compet e so well?
RG: Marc (Silv est ri) and Todd Mcfarl ane
and Rob Liefeld -c-those guys who were
giants at Mclr vel an d DC when t hey
made their own companies-not only
moved on from Mar vel and DC, but
they moved on from [makin g] t hat
[t ypical kin d) of [comi c] book . The
mar ket has changed. rnst eec of a-veer-
aids t o t a. vear -c l ds readinq t he book s,
now you'vP got anywhere fr om 12· to
50-yeel r-ol ds [readinq t hem] .
CH: what have bpen your most popul ar
female charact ers. and what do you
t hink makes them so pop ular ?
RG: Def ini t ely witchbt ade. Alt ho ugh
[pencil er) Mi chael Turner has moved on
f rom t he book, Witchblclde put us ove r
t he top. In t hi s book, you get a woman
who's a profl"ssional, a cop. Not only
is she a cop, but she's also ext remely
pret t y. But , shl"'s not st upi d-pretty,
she's not a sidekic k to some guy. I think
reaoets latched on to her because
of her whole vulnerabil ity. She was
mult if aceted An d on t op of that . she
was intelligent an d st ron g And she
was on her own. Batt ling aqainst Ian
Nott ingham. Batt ling and w inning
aga inst t hese melle charact ers, these
ext reme ly str ong mal e charact ers. A
lot of women read Witchbldde. [The
char acter I is perf ect . large bre aste d,
smell hipped, very thin, tall, lon g hair .
Yet, female readers still get int o her
because they don't look at her and
t hink , "Oh, she's j ust got big breasts.
It goes beyond that. It 's her personality,
her strength, her intell igence.
Deep insi de, all of us, all women,
wa nt to be bea utif ul. It's easy to hate
beautiful women . However, this
woman yo u can 't hate, because she's
not aware of her beauty nece'l-Sarily.
Yeah, she wears short skirts, but she
also wears torn j eans and she's a cop.
She hangs w ith the guys. Most of her
f r iends are male. And she's cl little
euenat ec from most of t he f emales in
the boo k.
CH: For people wh o ere thi nk ing, " How
can I get my first job?" do you, as an
editor, and do independent publi shing
houses, such as Top Cow, keep an eve
out f or new, self -publ ished comics that
mi ght hol d pro mise?
RG: We're al ways looking for new
t al ent. The independent comic books
are so di ff icul t because there are so
many, and it's so hard to keep up ,
especi all y as an editor, when YOU'(t"
not just f ocusing on finding new talent
but you've also got to get fi ve books
out t his week. So, it's har d as the
submissions ar e st ackmq up. Wf.> go
t hr ough t hese submissions, and we do
loo k at the m. It 's hard t o f ind exactly
wh at we neec because. usually, we're
loo king for vornethinq wp neec now,
At ti mes, we find somebody and Scly,
" There's a lot of t el l ent here. We can't
necessarily USl" hi m now, but we can
bring him in." But that's har der to do ;
th at's t aking a rea! chance .
CH: So, if art ists get reject ion letters
f rom you Sclying that you can' t use their
work rig ht now but that yo u li ked it ,
t hey shoul dn 't just walk awa y, t hey
shoul d keep in t ouch .
RG: Def ini t ely. In fact, that 's one of t he
most import ant things I tell peo ple .
Keep trying, and try el gel in. I melY look
at your submi ssi on one week, and say I
can't use t his r ight now. It also depends
on t he fra me of mind, where we ar e.
What are we looki ng for ri ght now'>
But , t wo weeks l at er we've got a whole
different f rame of mi nd on what we' re
looking for. And perhaps t his person
has now improved sli ghtly: t hey' ve
studi ed anat omy, studied storytelling,
they' ve wor ked on it. So the next t ime,
we may pull out {their work] and say,
"rbis is what we're looking for now."
But we are always, always looking.
CH: What are some of the mistakes you
woul d advi se aspiring comic book
art ist s t o avoid making when trying to
land their first job? What
look amate urish t o you and what qets
your seri ous att ent ion ?
RG: One of the fi rst things we look at
is: Are they drel wing bodies [t hat are]
anat omically correct'> Are the th ighs
th ree ti mes longer th an the cal ves?
And sometimes, t hat's a stylistic cho ice,
anu t hat can work But , if it l ooks lik e
they're j ust doing this because they
don' t know. , , . It's helr d, because ar t
is so subject ive.
CH: Not j ust t he art. but what about
their overa ll packelgf.> and how they
submit it?
RG: We t hree paqes of sequ enti al
art. Pin-ups are f ine t o send in, but
we can't reall y t ell how someone is
at te lli ng el st ory fr om th at . Do you
always te ll a st ory from t tie same
angl e? Do yo u show the same shot
in ever y scene ? How do you l ely t he
panels out ? Is it int eresti ng? Does it
catch the eye'> Does i t Ieac the eye
th rough the story? it dynamic?
Is it creating a mood?
Also, it's amazinq how many people
draw reall y buff bodies and really
poorl y drawn f aces, Faces are so
import ant . We get cl lot of guys who
are good at drawinq square f aces, but
when it comes to female f aces, [square
taces! are just not pret ty.
And el isa backqrou nds-c-t hat's
usual ly one of t he important things
we look at . because when we pun
someone in as a new elrtist, we're not
going to t hrow them on a book. We
don't know how t hey work and what
other t hings t hey can do. So, we usually
use them to help on backgrounds for
other ert tsts.
CH: Almost like an apprenticeship.
RG: Exact ly. The more detailed th e
background s, th e more time i t l ooks
lik e t hey' ve scent on it, the mor e it wil l
catch ou r eye, And a lot of people
for get about the backgrounds, They
don't do backgrounds. They'll do a lot
of fiqures, or t hey' ll do big fi ght scenes.
but we' re not going t o pull someone in
t o do d fi ght scene immed iate l y We're
go ing to pull them in t o do a
backg round, so that helps us a lot.
CH: Do co mic book artists usuenv work
t hrough aqe nts or t hrough word of
mouth ?
RG: It depends. We' ve gotten a few
more eet tsts that work through aqe nts.
Sometimes it he lps. Somet imes it's
really irri t at ing I end up helving to ta lk
to the artist myself, and when t here's
an aqent , it j ust means that inst ead of
mel king one phone call, I have to make
two. An d there's the whole rumor
game of, I said t his to t he agent and
the agent said something sl ight ly
different to the art ist and t he artist
comes back t o me and I have to correct
it. It get s a l itt le difficul t . But on the
other hand, it's also nice to know t hat
not on ly am I on t heir case about their
deadlines , but so is t he ir agent . And it
helps for book keepi ng, and the agent
takes care of things like vouchering for
them. It can he lp. It can kee p things a
little mo re organi zed.
CH: If you were in hi gh school or
coll ege right now and were seriously
consider ing gett ing int o comic book art
as a profession, what would be your
next move)
RG: We get letters f rom really young
ki ds, 11 and 14, writing, "I really want
t o be a comic boo k artist. " That 's
perfect, because we usuall y pull people
in at a really young age . The thing is, if
you' re 25 years old and can't see things
correct ly, you can still teach yourself,
t hrough a lot of ha rd work, to be able
to see somet hing an d to recreate it . But
usually i t 's t here when you're younger.
That's the sort of talent t hat people
tend to have. I'm not saying that you
can't trai n yourse lf to do that . It's j ust a
lot harder the older you get. It's harder
and ha rde r to t rai n yourself t o do that.
It takes a l ittle more time.
We get a lot of young ki ds saying we
want to be comic book artists and I j ust
tell them to keep drawing. Submit,
submit, submit. Send your stuff.
Sendin g your stuff through the mail is
the hardest way t o get in, because I' m
not looking at you f ace to face, I' m
most likely going to send you a f or m
letter because I have 80 submissions to
go through, and I don' t have t ime to sit
down and wri te a criti que of every
single one. Whereas, if they br ing [t heir
drawings] to a convention. And a
lot of it is knowing somebody. Say you
have a friend who knows somebody at
Top Cow and t hey can bring you in,
people wi ll t ake a look at it and tell
you what they think. You just really
need t o be a go-getter. And you reall y
need t o go t o a convent ion and pu l l
somebody aside and say, "What do I
need to do?"
CH: Are there any part icular art sc hools
that impressyou?
RG: The name of t he school doesn't
impress me at all. In fact, most of the
peo ple we hire in, we hire straight ou t
of high school. Or straight out of
college. (t doesn' t matter where you
went to school. What matters is what
you did with it. What you can do You
could be 17 years old and in high
school, and if you're drawing mind -
blowing things, I'm going to do my best
to get you in here .
CH: If I were to talk to you five years
f rom now, where would you env ision
Top Cow t o be as fa r as story li nes and
female characters are concerned?
RG: Right now, for example, Spirit of
the Tao has a very young character. She
was an engineering student and found
out all of t hese things about herself .
And her best i s friend Lance, so it's a
qirl.quy, yin-yang th ing All the
characters are very we ll written. You
can't side with any of them-there's no
clear- cut good and bad . She's not the
" evil " charact er; she's not the " good
li tt le gir l" character. [Characters ] are
tendi ng t o go t hat way in com ic books,
inst ead of being so stereotyped. She's a
no rmal human being
Fathom, another book that is huge
ri ght now, is simil ar. She was just this
no rmal young woman who f inds out
she has t hese amazing powers, and
she's st ill not sur e where they're go ing
I th ink the key to this type of
storytell ing is that everybody feels that
there's something ahead f or them.
Everybody fee ls that somewhere inside
t here's somethi ng reall y special. And
these char acters f ind that t hing ou t.
The reader goes, " Yeah, I could have
that. I just do n' t know about it yet. "
INDEX
abdominal muscles, 29
action pose. Stoe pose
agents, 141, 143
al iens, 88-89
amused expression, 15
androids, 87
angles, 12-13, 34-35
angry expression, 15
animat ion jobs. 127
anxious expression. 15
armor,77
at omic inferno, 94
atomic punch. SO
backgrounds. 141
back muscles, 29
bea m blasti ng powers, 53
body
angl es. 34-35
curves. 26-27, 33
idealized,20
muscles, 28-32
planes of, 36-37
point of balance. 38
proportions, 18-19
sections of, 22-23
silhouettes, 42-43
skeleto n, 21
see afso head; pose
( alvei, 31
cars, 62-63
Chase, Bobbie, 7. 132-37
cnese seqoence.uta-tz
comput er colorist. 134
costumes
accessories, 65
and characterization. &4
android, 87
Egypt ian queen, 76
functional. 134
gang member, 70-71
gloves. 24
goddess, 7S
ideas for, 124
ni nj a. 90
pr imeval, 74
ref lect ive, 36-37
sorceress, 69
space/planetary cha racters, 78, 83-86
underwate r charact e rs, 79-81
un iforms, 82
yalley girl. 68
vampire, 72-73
warriors, 20, 58, 77
weapo ns, 59-61
cover des ign, 118-19
delto id muscles, 28, 29, 30
diagonal lines. 106
drawing, 122-23, 133
Ea rth summoning powers , 52
editor s, cont acting, 126, 133
Egypt ian queen, 76
eq uilibrium, perfect, 38
explosion special effects, 94
expressions. facial. 14- 15
eyes. 14
fearsome express ion. 15
fiery expressi on. 14
fight ing
pose, S4-57
st aging, 113
wa rrior costumes, 20, 58, 77
f1ameth rowing powers. 53
flirtatious expression, 14
flying pose, 46-47
focus, 110
forced pers pective, 7, 44-47
ga ng member, 70-7 1
Geerli ngs, Renee, 7, 138-43
gloves, 24
goddess, 75
hai rst yles, 17
ha nds, 24-25
head
angles, 12- 13
feat ures , 14-16
front, 10
ha irstyles, 17
side, 11
he ight, 18-19
horiz on line. 108
hypnotic powers. 51
information sou rces, 129
inkers, 127, 134
job search, 127. 133-34, 141, 143
kick, 54
knee st rike, 57
layeri ng, 109
layo uts, 104-1 9
leg muscles, 31
light ning specia l eff ect s, 98-99
lips, 15
mai ling artwork, 126
ma nnequi n, art ist's, 22, 23
martial arts, 56-57. 90
Marvel characters, 132- 37
mental powers, 52
mer chandising jobs. 127
mood, 14-1 5. 43
moon special effects, 100-101
mouth. 15
muscles. 28-32
na ils, 25
ninja assassin. 90
nose, 16
pencilers, 133-34
perspective
forced, 7. 44-47
two-point , 111
vanishing lines/ poi nt. 106-11
pilot. fighter, 82
planes
body, 36-37
face, 12
portfolio, 125, 133-134
IX""
basic masses, 23
dynamic vs. st atic, 39
fight ing, S4-57
flying, 46-47
muscles in. 32
1co-pe-cent commit me nt in. 40-41
radioacti ve. 91
super power, 48-53
pouty expression, 15
prehis10r ic woman , 74
princess, planet a ry, 78
profile, 1" 12
proportion s, 18-19
publishe rs, 128
punches, 40-41 , SO, 55. 57
quadriceps, 31
radioact ivity, 91
rain specia l effects, 96-97
reference files. 123
reflective cost umes, 36-37
rocket packs, 61
sad expression. 14
scheming expression, 14
scuba girl. 79
sea creature, 80-81
sexy characte rs, 134-35
sexy expression, 15
shape-shifting power. SO
silhouettes, 42-43
skeleton, 21
smoke, 95
sorcer ess, 69
space/ planet ary cha racters, 78, 83-86
spiked body,S1
sports ca rs, 62-63
st oryline, 112-1 7
super powers, 48-53
surprised exp ression. 14
taxes, 126
t eeth. 15
314 view, 12. 13
t humbna il sketches, 112-13
Top Cow Prod uct ions, 138-43
t rape zius muscles. 29
underwater characters, 79, 80-81
valley girl. 68
va mpire, 72-73
van ishing lines/point. 106-11
wa rrior cha ract ers. 20, 58, 77, 133
wat er spec ial effects, 102-3
weapons, 59-61
worried expression, 14
$19.95 USA
Cover design by Bob Fillie.
Graphit; Design. Inc.
Front cover art by Grant Miehm
WATSON-GUPTlLL PUBLICATIONS
151 5 Broadway
New York,. NY 10036
Manufactured in the United States of America
144 pages. 8
1
/2 x 11· (21. 5 x 28 em).
310 illustrati ons, 200 in full color. Index.
rom classic superheroines t o t oday' 5 modern
women and everyt hi ng in bet ween, f emal e
characters provide a st rong and consistent
presence in comic books and are an
integral part of many story lines. This
lat est offering from well -known author
Christopher Hart is t rul y t he ultimate
book on how to draw sexy heroines,
beautiful bad gals, powerful techno-
babes. appealing aliens, and much more. Filled
with art from top contemporary comic book
artists, int erviews with current comic book
editors (including one at Marvel Comics).
and featuring instructions on anatomy, f1;
action poses, costumes, character types, } ; ~
perspective, storytelling. comic book (f
layout, and cover design. How to {,
Draw Great-Looking Comic Book
Women is an invaluable resource
and the only book you need
on this popular topic.
Christopher Hart is
the best -selling author
of watson -Guptill's most
popular how-to-draw
books. cover ing
everyt hi ng f rom
cartooni ng t o
animati on to comic
books. His books have
been translated into
ten languages. and
he is a gu est writer
f or Cartoonist Profiles.
a trade magazine. He
attended the Disney
animation pr ogram at The
California Institute of the Arts and earn ed a B.A.
f rom New York University' s fil m school. A f ormer
staff member of the worl d-famous Blondie comic
stri p. Hart has been a reg ular cont ri butor t o Mad
Magazine and has written comedies f or many t op
film and 1V st udios, includi ng MGM, Paramou nt,
Fox. NBC. and Showtime. He lives in Connecticut
with his wi fe and two daughters.

CHRISTDPHER HHRT WATSeN -GUPTILL PUBLICAT leNS / NEW YeR~ .

Includes bibliographica l refer ences and i nde ~ . How to d raw g rea t-looking comic bo ok women 1Christopher Hart. NY 10036 The Libr ary o f Cong re s s Cata logi ng-in·Pu b licat io n Data Hart . Women-<aricatures and cartoons. Inc. Special t hanks t o Bobbie Chase. Chri stopher Hart The names and likenesses of all Marvel-owned character s referred t o herein are trademarks of Marvel Characters.5--dc2 1 99'()56283 All r ights reserved . Gra ph iti Design. " Man. or mechanical. including photocopying. Gray M orro w. recording. Cartooning-Technique. Christophe r. 1 5BN 0-8230·2394·X 1.w65 H37 2000 741. cm. Tom Grindberg. at Top Cow . No part of this publication may be reproduced Of used in any form or by any meaM-graphic. Inc. Defee Au cion. prm t ed in the United States of America 123 456 /050403020100 \1 .• and are used w it h permission. Inc. Thanks also to Harr iet Pierce for helping th is book be what it was meant to be. Andy Kuhn. Rich Faber. Tit le. CEBHTRIBUTIHG ARTISTS Grant M iehm. Sketches featur ing Marvel characters are copyright 0 2000 Marve l Characters. I. 2.8 . p . 1515 Bro adwa y. o r information sto rage -and -retrieval systems-without the written permission of the publisher. I Product ion M anag er: Ellen Greene Copyright C 2000 Christopher Hart First published in 2000 in New York by Watsona division of BPI Comm unic ations.This book is dedicated to anyone who has ever read a comic and thought. electronic. NC1764 . Dre w Johnson. New Yo rk. Senio r Editor: Candace Raney Designer: Bob rune. I'd like to draw lik e that"-because that's wh ere it alf begins . f or the int erv iews and use of the accompanying artw ork . and Renee Geer lings. at Ma rvel Com ics.

CEDNTENTS InTROOUCTmn THE BHSICS THE BOOY 8 7 26 SUPER POlUERS. Hno KILLER OUTFITS lUOmEn TO OlE FOR 66 48 FHnmSTIC SPECIHL EFFECTS OynHmlC comic BOOK LHYOUTS TRICKS OF THE TRHOE THE InTERVIElUS InOEX 144 120 92 104 130 . lUEHPons.

.

Are you ready? . Plus I've included two exclusive interviews: . and t he ot her fr om super powers-not j ust super st rengt h. w hat t o include in a portf oli o. Avenge rs. These are comic book wo me n at t hei r fin est. And you' ll learn how to creat e amazing drawi ng sty le. a chapter on th e pr ofession al tricks of th e trad e. Green Lantern. an in-depth look at designing co mic book panels. These ill ustrat ors are amon g t he elite w ho have penciled and inked such wor ld f am o us characte rs as X·Men. All th ose mysti fy ing draw ing concepts are f ull y explained and accompanie d by breathtakin g illustrations. and the common pitfall s artists shou ld avoi d. Supe rgirl. But of course. On th e ot her hand . Capta in Am erica. t he w idest range of art instruction possible. You 'll see w here t o add curves to high lig ht a fem ale cha racte r's attract iveness. f abul ou s costu me design. So. a pr estigio us independ ent comics pu bli sher. Catw om an. th ey must also be beautiful and sexy The ste p-by-step approach of this book makes all yo ur g oals attai na ble.I NTRE9 D U CTI E9 N ave you ever run into difficulty tryin g t o draw great. an d many ot he rs. Rath er t han read w hat some aut hor te lls you he th inks th e editors are looking f or. You' re ri ding th e cutt ing edge. The great looking wome n of com ics pose certa in unique posal t he work of many art ists. These are t he art techniqu es used by th e t op pros. be f orew arn ed : You're not getting a tr ace-th e-action -fi gur es ty pe of book. have st ruggled w it h thi s probl em . On th e one hand . but cutting-edge pow ers li ke shape-shifti ng and flying spikes. and a w ho le lot more. com plete w it h a list of com ic book publishersto whom you can submit your stu ff. there's more: sections on forced perspect ive (t he t echn ique th at let s you draw comic boo k characte rs w ho pop off the page and come right at yo u !). one fro m Bobbi e Chase. Aquaman. editor at wor ldfam ous M arvel Comi cs. editor at Top Cow. They' ll t ell yo u exact ly how t o land yo u r first job in th e indu stry. wo uldn't it make more sense t o hear it fr om th e editors th emselves? That's w hat I th ou ght .loo king comic book wo me n? You' re not I've gat hered toget her th e t op com ic bo ok art ists in th e fi eld t od ay to create f or you. Venom. Ba tman. For examp le. as we ll as seasoned professionals . t hey must be tough and rugg ed . yo u' ll learn w hich are th e maj or mu scles of th e bod y and how to draw th em. Many aspiring artists. inst ead of bei ng limited to only one art ist's personal cha llenges. Daredevil. plu s. You'll have at yo ur dis- alone. Ren ae Geerl in gs. in a sing le package. Supe rma n. Th is is th e real thing . Spider-Man.

.

.

Draw two gUidelines. and soften the cheekbones.l E' Now. PlacE' the eyes on th4! horizontal guideline. d ividing the egg in half in both directions. attack the details-but k~p c1 li gh t touch. the eyebrows. and complete t he hairline. .HEHD SHDTS Start with an egg-shaped ou tline. o ne horizontiJl dod the other vertical. fill in the eye s and yeb ro ws. the nose. and nostrils. Squaf€' ou t the j aw li ne sli gh tly. / ~ = -- dd g€'ntly curving cheekbones that rotrude slightly past the outline of the face. M ar k some short guidelines to indicate th e placement of the tldirUne on the foreheiJd. and the mouth. Skt:>tch in the bridge o f the O. the ears.

Place th e eye on the horizon tal guideline and the ear on the vertical one. dividin g the head in half in both direc tions.Start wit h two overla pping egg shapes. check the position o f the eye. draw a horizontal and a vertical guideline. Don't d raw a hard an gl e w here the forehead meets the bridge o f th e nose. do dra w a hard an gle wh ere the bottom o f the nose meets the p lane o f the face. / If you think you've hit a snag. Sketch in details li ke the hair an d an earring. . That's where most peop le run into problems. The eye should fall at the point wh ere the bridge of the nose meets the forehead. however. As with the fro nt view.

work w ith the basic ova l hea d sha pe. w hen drawing t he head f rom d ifferen t angles. bu t focus on the p lanes of t he face . which are the sma ll flat area s.DynHmlC HEHD HnGLS E You've got to be able to dr aw yo ur cha racte rs from di fferent angles. t hei r heads a re go ing to t ilt and t urn away f rom t he reader. t he chin is one plane. Fo r exampl e. Planes reflect t he bo ne str ucture underneath t he face. The pocket under t he eyebrow is yet another. beca use t hey're not always goi ng t o t hrow a pun ch or f ly off a bu il di ng in a per fect f ro ntal or prof ile shot. The cheekbo ne is anot her. So. You need to indi cate t h em to keep t he face look- ing solid in t hese mo re chal lenging a ng les so t hat t he head doesn 't t urn into one big g lob. . Each plane fall s at a d ifferent angle from t he others .

VIEW Rear left . .3/4.

\ . rep eat. wh ile th e eyebrows p ush down on th em. So. including t he often-overlooked SCHEmiNG lower lids. A sidelong gla nce f ro m a dangerous blo nd e can mean bet rayal. and should len gthen as they t rave l away from the nose to wa rd t he ea r.LOST In HER EYES In comic books. the fi ery expression has the lower eyelids pu shing up on th e eyes./ the toug hest gu y go weak . Sometimes the eyes look stra ight at yo u. swe eping down and away to ward the ears. ~ '~ ~ \' SURPRISED The eyeli ds are way up o ff the irises here. The heavy up per eyelids hit right at the wrinkles a bove t he eyebrows all top s o f the pu pils. It 's not just t he shape of t he eye s t hat defines th e expressions. Deta ils such as the wrin kles nea r t he bridge of the nose. . revealing lots o f the wh i tes o f the eyes. her e a re th e basics. smaller on t he bottom. are also used in creat ing Do not. However. The lashes shou ld always be bigger on t he top eye lid. The lashes are CIt their longest here. turn your back o n this t he sha pe of t he eyebrows. Go heavy on the top and bo ttom lashes.~ fLIRTATI6lUS She peCl ks side wCl)'S thro ugh heavy lashes. fiE R Y My fa vorite.:::':k1~' ~)l~' ~ iI ~~ sligh tl y here.~. No te add int en sity. 1fT c:»: \ . as wel l. sho w ing only th e upper eyelids. The eyelids. but t he direction. and t he wom an. you've got to be able t o dra w t he shape of the eye befo re you can inf use it wit h emotion .it just looks go od . A fli rtatious g lint from a smoldering bru nette can make even SAD The eyes look down. A sh ine on t he pu pil is like a shine on a ne w car. ~)1 r~ :. eyebrows up. th e eyes of a d ropdead gorgeo us woma n are deadlier than any wea pon. that on e eyebro w li fts higher than the other. so include it as often as possible. The eyebrows ri se to their highest po int. wide op en. someti mes t hey look off t o one side. and the eyes. do not expre ssions. dClrf to one side.

THOSE LIPS!
Full, sensuous, pouty lips-without 'em, you 're just wasting everybody's time. The lower lip is usuall y fuller than the upper one, and the upper lip often dips slightly in the middle.
lOWER LIP IS FUU(R THAN THE UPPER LIP

pmUTY
The upper lip disappears un der the pushed-out lower lip .

AN G RY
The upper lip rises for a pe rfect snMI .

~ ~

...

......
SEXY
Lilceshe's almost blowing

you a kiss.

I

AmUSED
Use a smile that shows only the uppe r tef!th.

\\
ANXIGlUS
Biring the lower lip is a common comic book way to depict feminine fear.

/
ffARSGlmf
Delineate the tef!th o nly a t the edges, no t in be twe en; drawing the outline of each too th looles scraggly and draws attention away from the Ii s. Hey; if you've go t to haW' someone suck yo ur blood, why not her? The re are worse ways to go . Baring the teeth is an an ima listic way of showing bad in ten ti ons.

THE FEmininE nOSE: THE PRRT THRT RLlURYS GIVES YOU TROUBLE
How man y t imes have you dra w n a pretty wo man's face. only t o add
the nose and ruin th e w ho le t hing ? This part of th e fe ma le f ace has

been known to dr ive lesser artists comple tely insa ne. Don 't end up as just anothe r st at ist ic. The secret lies in dra wing less, not more. Keep t he nose subtl e and light, wit h as little deta il as possible. Any attempt to etch in t he nose wit h a he avy ha nd wi lt surely backfire. For an att ractive look. keep t he nose slightly upturned .

'\

""-THE SEPTUM ISSOMETIMES SHOWN WITH A SLIGH T
INDENTATION.

'he nose is not to tally mobile; it is capable

limited movements,
ch <IS flarin g nostrils dcrinkling.

SfJLOn OE comic: tHHRSTYlES
A woman's ha irstyle ma kes a statement a bout her atti t ude.
It 's personal and unique, like

her sty le of d ress or t he way
she wa lks. Comic boo k wome n

shou ld be stylish and, generally, seve re. Pay attention to t he way
the hai r falls o n t he face and

shoulders or, in short cuts, t he way it sta nds u p and flops over.
Draw grou ps of ind ividual

stra nds with ca re, curving the m
in one direction and then balancing t hem off with mor e stra nds curving in t he opposite direction . On jet blac k hair, sometimes you

may want to add a shine; a shine
on slicked-back hair makes it

look wet.

All of t hese wo me n a re po pula r comic book he ights. comic book women are firs t and always fe minine. li ke the women de picted in fashion il lustrat ion s. As I said. a nd shapely legs. th e mo re impressive a nd otherworldly she seems. t hin wa ists.EALLY BE? Is t he 9 1 h~h ead s rule written in stone ? No . So keep her st retched out. with sweeping curved fo rms. bu t I gua rantee t hat if you stick with a tota l heigh t of 6'/2 he ad s (that of a normal pe rson). well-e ndowed fram es. To determine t he heigh t of a figure. wide hips. However. when th ey fig ht evil. t hey fit into t he role of a friend or confidante mo re eas ily th an t aller characters. You can go taller (see facing page) or sho rter. So. Plus. but becau se t hey' re close r t o "normal" heigh t. Avoid makin g yo ur com ic book wo me n too skinny or too bu lky.IDEHlIlEO PROPORTIOns Comic book wome n.. Ho w ever. they're nei ther bean po les nor bodybuilde rs. t hey'r e st ill rough-and-tumble he llcats! I-.. wide shoulders. The closer she is to 9' 12 heads ta ll. he r costu me notwi t hsta nding.J . artis ts conside r how man y hea d le ngt hs f it in th e t ota l bo dy length. readers can relate mor e to t hem as peo ple . Despit e their I A obvious ph ysical st rength.. The ta ller t he wo man. th e idealized comic book wo ma n is 9' 12 heads tall ! Hew TALL SHeULD SHE R. w ith t he average person bein g approximately 6 1/ 2 head lengths tall. your comic book ba be will look am azingly dum py. it's t he ideal. t he wo me n on t he left a nd in t he midd le here ma y not be as imbued with a superna tu ral au ra. are mu ch ta ller t han real women but also have wellmu scled. t he mo re of a "reg ular" person she a ppea rs t o be.

·.1 HEADS 10'/' HEADS .I Z I Z ~ I ~ L L 5 ~ L \ 5 6 ~ '. I 6 5 6 1 \\ \ I'\' \ I \ ~ I ' iI / 1 1 8 / \7 1 8 8 \ \\ 9 ( 9 0 I 11'1' HEADS 9 10 II "I.

only th is t ime in action pose s and cost umes. Even a const ructio n wo rker on his lunch break would be afraid t o whist le at them. They're ready to ta ke on the wo rld and win. .IDEHLlZED BomES In fULL BHTlLE GEHR Here are the same three women from the pre vious page. Quite an impressive array of ta lent .

hip. mHlE SHELETOn Awoman 's skeleto n is st riking ly similar t o that of a man. whe ther t hey're t he shoulder. And all t he bones in a woma n's li mbs have less thi ckness t ha n those of a man. The knees also ha ve a sma ll bo ne t hat cove rs the jo int. knee. elbow. Most importa ntly. r.) The male pe lvis is long and narr ow. The fe male rib cage is smaller th an the ma le rib cage. (Afte r all. the heel bon e sticks ou t in back. Whe rever major bon es meet. I . or ankle joints. however. called a patella . Despite t hese things. she del ivers the babies. the female pelvis is sho rt an d wide . as does th e pelvis. t he joints they create are bulbous. so she need s more room in t hat erea. And.FEmHlE VS. but there are some d iffe ren ces. . bot h skeletons do have some impo rta nt co mmo n aspects. The rib cage is ro und an d has considera ble dept h.

howeve r.SECTIOns OF THE BOOY Rarely will an arti st sketch o ut th e ent ire ske let on as a precursor to dra wing th e bod y. we don 't wa nna do it! We do. provides a go od gu ide t o the ba sic bod y masses. how t hey f it together. not necessary. . and besides. whic h you ca n find at any art supply store. so we use an anatomical sho rtha nd. It 's too intricat e. A wood en artist's mannequin. We'r e still aware of th e skeleton. d ividing the body up into sect ions that fi t t ogeth er like l ego. but we don 't need to dra w ea ch rib and bone. and th eir correct proportion s. need so me sort of a foundation . We're only interested in th e major body masses.

. t wist ed. and tu rned into vari ous poses fo r artistic reference. or block it out using an a rtist 's mannequin.::. it can also help you create every imagi nable motion.::::. These figu res ca n be moved.~~ Cha racte rs.THE FIGURE In HCTlOn Simplifying the body into basic masses isn't on ly useful as a gu ide for creat ing static poses. Whenever you' re havin g trouble draw ing a chall eng ing pose. They make a grea t foun da tion for you r eyepopping female t'. by breaking down difficult action poses int o t heir most basic fo rms. break it do wn .

HHnDS WITH Hn HTTITUDE
Very delicate, daint y hands have no place in t he modern co mic book . The hand s of qreet-looki nq comic book wo men sho uld be

slee k and beaut iful. but also st ro ng, confide nt. an d d ram at ic.
I
Th~

'

knuckle

at the base - +_of the middle
1/2
finger is half-

---tlfil--- -+_

. .+ _ w,. y down a the length
of the hand

{}
\- - - - -

1/2 The lo~r

1/2

L

I

-

I

knuckle of the thumb is hdlfway

:....-I-If-+-1I--~r

\

1/2 between the wrist I andtop

I
",,-'

r

l'

-/t- - -+-II'<' -

--.J

of thumb::.';-_ ,

-t- - ;-

In coovc book poses. the wrist is ii/mos t always bent

.•~!!f~!IIg!!!!!:!lI!~W;th the hand appearing 2 an angle to the arm. .. CIt

A good w ay to see one muscle individ uall y is to flex it. .ISOLHTInG THE DIFFEREnT mUSCLE GROUPS Women have the same muscles as men . but w omen's mu scles sho ul d be longer and leaner. The best w ay to stud y muscles is indiv id uall y. and t he best w ay to do th is is to lift w eig ht s (an activity in w hich yo u can f ocus specif ically o n each muscle group). one at a time. w hile leaving the other muscles relaxed . a comic book man shoul d look like a piano mover. and not bu nch as mu ch w hen cont ract ed . Here's the deal : A comic book wo man shoul d look li ke a gymnast.

.

PRESSinG mOTIOns
Pre ssing motions invo lve
the shoulder (front

deltoid), che st (pectora l),
and forea rm (extensor dig itorum) mu scles. But

don't sweat it-no comic book a rtist ca n name
all the mu scles in Lat in.

Most can't even do it in
English. However, they can dra w them , and that's

the point. Note that you
sho uld keep a woman's forearm muscles to a min imum, w hich is the opposit e of

t he approach
taken f or comic

book gu ys.

lEU mUSCLES
The leg mu scles are some 01
th e longest muscles of the body.

Comic book artists a re basically concerned wit h the th ree groups highlighted below. As you dra w. keep in mind that the co mic bo ok woman's thighs a nd calves shou ld
be muscular, bu t not as defined

a nd striated as those of a man .

THE mUSCLES In HClmn
Now t hat yo u've

had a look at t he ind ividu a l muscles on t he preceding pages, see if you can ident ify them at wo rk o n this pag e . Muscles are like reservists in the army: you call up th e ones yo u need depend ing

on th e ta sk
at ha nd.

CURVES .~ ~ . _---.. ...

// 1" .' I: .' ~.CHHRHCTER "TURnHROUnOS" 1 1 ! 'd . I ./ .

and jf you look closely.. any pa rts of th e body that protr ude on the figure w ill cast shadows on other parts of the body.EF LE CT I V E ClDSTUmES The pla nes of t he body look especially awesome in ref lect ive o ut f it s (opposite page) ... reflecti ve look is created through the use of flowing . THE PLANES lDF THE BlDDYIN R. more dramatic feeling to yo ur wor k and also makes your characters seem more realistic and three-dimensional . The .THE PWnES OF THE BOOY W hen ligh t shines dow n o n a person f rom above (usually from in door overhead lighting or from the sun).. or planes.. Since the surface of the body is filled with hills and vall eys of mu scles. and fa tty areas. Parts of t he t high s and stomach also provide good exam ples of t his effect . as indicated by t he aforem ent ion ed swirling lines. This effect add s a mo od ier.. ligh t fa lls from a bove onto th e t op half of th e bre ast but lea ves th e bottom half in shadow.I. and t o the movement of the cost ume . will either be illumi nat ed by ~. t hese surfa ces. So.. experiment. Fo r exa mple. This is due to changes in light and body position. Note t ha t t he plan es of t he bod y may ap pea r to be in one place in one pose and in a d ifferent place in another. . swirling lines of varying thicknesses.. the light or fall into shadow. bones.-. I " shiny. you'll notice t hat t hese lines are g rou ped in specific areas re lating to t he various planes and angles of th e bod y.

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the place where the w ei ght of t he body is in eq u il ib ri u m. . she is offbalan ce and would fall if she w eren 't stea dying herself on the rock. with ha lf t he mass fa lling on one side of the line and half on the o t her.hand corner here. in which t he major it y of th e bod y mass f alls t o t he left o f t he po in t o f ba lan ce.THE PDInT DF BRUmCE To f ind t he poin t of ba lance. You can generally divide the bo dy in two along t h is line. he r bo d y mass is unevenly di stri but ed. Since the h eroi ne is thrusting so mu ch of her energy and weight onto he r left (our r ig ht ) hand an d foot. as a resu lt . such as the pose in the lower left. there are al wa ys except ions . Of co urse. or eq ua lly balanced on eith er sid e of the body-draw a stra ight line f rom the base of the neck to t he fl o or in yo ur d rawings.

This is true even if the cha racter is just standing sti ll. or curving. li ke the lady who ladles out corn soup in the high school cafe te ria. a pose mus t have a thrust-a sense of mot ion or direc - t ion-to it. It has to "want to be" something. . eye -catch ing poses. You don't want to draw a great-look ing woman. the next step is learning to draw the f igure in dra matic. Compa re the dynam ic and static poses in these t hree figu re pairs . First and foremost. stretching. reach - ing. The body must seem to be striving.KnOCKOUT POSES DYNAmIC STATIC DYNAmiC After learn ing to dra w the f ig ur e . on ly to have her stand st iffly.

owing her Compare Ianguage makes.' either all or mq Wh acter le~p en a cha rk icks th s. 1no-per c 0 y mu st be ent com . rnitted d . equally true ~.. oak action noth. or . e argl' r because th e I t: . pun ches.eren ce bodyWit~nt~hr. rather example to see wh:r ~h ~C~?(.~h th is is acter on th e cha rend of the e re:e iving pun ishment.HmHZmG HClmn POSES With comic b poses it's . to th e action . There's no po puncher is sta~~~ to the punch shown whole body into 5tfiJi. ere can b reservatiIon what e no Her entire b d soever.ght up.

. t her efo re. te ased by the attract ive outline of t he bo dy. Of cou rse. hence. b ut yo u sho ul d st riv e f or silh ouet t es t ha t sho w clea rly w here t he limbs are. You see o nly t he outlin e of t he sha pe a nd. In t his w ay. you r silho uettes wi ll successf ully convey the emo t ions of t he pose. To in dicat e act io n po ses in silho uett e. notice the f igure's cu rves t hat much more. This wi ll destroy the ou tl ine of the bod y. Art ists use t he m to create d ra mat ic an d moody mom e nts. or wi th the bod y pe rf orm ing a spe cifi c act ion . dyna mic. pose the charact er with legs p laced wide ap art for ba lance. The secret to d raw ing good silhouettes is to keep as ma ny of th e limbs away from t he bod y as possibl e. t he imagination is left t o w on d er w hat's wit h in t he sh ad ows. Sf XY Silhouetted wom an ar e sh rou ded in m yste ry. they w on 't show and wi ll be subsumed by the bla ck ness. a nd as a chan ge in visu al pacing Silhouettes ca n be sexy. a nd stylish . there can be so me ove rla ppi ng o f fo rms. or with lim bs be nt and bod y co iled up .SILHOUETTES Sil houettes can be very effective de sign and sto ryt elli ng elements. If the arms are pre ssed aga inst th e body.

The cha ract e rs are light o n their feet-finge rt ips outstretch ed and heads hel d high . Positioning one ar m up an d one down forms a sing le. ARm PGlSITHIlNS The arms become especially im portant in sil- houettes. . an d this wou ld be less ap pare nt if the figu re we re bathed in light. There's a pens ive fee ling to these poses.mGlGlD Sil houettes are good for creat ing subtle moods that are based on body gesture an d attit ude. as we would then be distracted by the patterns and fo lds of the clothing . fl ow in g line. as if someth ing ausp iciou s w ere in the air. rather th an on fac ial expressio n or co stu me. becau se t he y create a sense of symmetry or balanc e.

To show ~ f orced perspect ive. You must have a reason for usin g for ced perspective.... . ./ object th a t is fa rt her ./ aw ay. to ma ke a cha racter look more imp ressive o r to brea the mor e li fe into a st atic scene ./. as well. To em ph asize this. p lace one leg for w ard. Exag gerat e t h e near leg and the lowe r half o f the bod y. br inging her even closer t o the reader. while reduci ng the u p per half of t he body. for the bo dy. you ne ed to choose a not just fo r A~ ~ pose that places so me parts of th e bod y d o ser to t he read er and others f arther away. but ({ . A f lat pose (one in wh ich the bod y is all on one p lane) won't do. "<. you can exaggerate th e parts that are nea rer the rea der..fORCED PERSPECTIVE This is an exagg erat ed app licat io n of the pr incip les o f foregroun d and ba ckgro und pe rspect ive. beca use t here 's no reason to exaggerate any thingno o ne part of t he body is close r t o t he rea de r than any other. Or. w hic h tel l us t hat an obj ect that is closer to us appears lar ger t h an an . perhaps t he scen e yo u' re draw ing requires it. . results in an extreme sense of perspective.. Th is is true /" ) o bje cts. .... especi ally the he ad. wh ich. LEIlEilKING UP AT A CHARACTER The lower half of the f igure is much ne arer to the read er th an the u p pe r half. because you're look ing u p or do w n at a character.:'-. I-. by d efa u lt.fo r examp ie. In this w ay.

enl arge t h e to p half of t he body.LSSIUNG OSWN AT A CHARACTeR I St aging a scene in which you look d ow n at a cha racter req u ir es you to use f orced perspect ive. and reduce th e lowe r half . The result is high ly effec tive. . w h ich is closer t o the read er. So.you can 't draw he r as a fl at fig ur e. w hic h is fa rt her away. mak ing her t reacherous w al k alo ng th e tree seem th at mu ch more p recar iou s.

it's just as importa nt to reduce t hose parts t hat a re farther awa y.FLYIHG-fkelHT VIEW I ACTIGlN PGlSES Figur es in more act ive poses.// I / . / . requ ir e t he use of f o rced - perspect ive due to t he extrem e nat ure of t he posit ion s.I ( I \ J FLYIHG-kEAk VIEW .. Rem ember that w hile it's always fun t o exagg erate t he bod y parts t hat are close r to you. such as f lyin g or reachin g.~ ( .

ASCENDING I \ / REACHING 41 .HYING .

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Note the motion lines ar ou nd the characte r. \ ATGlmlC PUNCH Th is goes way pa st o rd ina ry sup e r strength. w h ich in dicate a pr o cess in action .SPECIHl THlEnTS SHAPE-SHIfTING Th is is a mor e dra mat ic version of mor ph in g or evolving. t h is characte r summons all h er energ y and vio lent ly ch ang es form into an awesome monster. Prov oked to respo nd wit h great fo rce. . it's a powe r so grea t t hat each b low sp lits atoms. creating a sma ll nuclear exp losion.

Hey. -/' HYPNtIlTISm Don 't stare at her eyes! To o late . See ho w easy th at wa s? Now. a dead pa n stare into read ers' eyes. ~'" . You 're a slave. . expan din g co nce nt ric circles. I d id n 't say it wo rke d eve ry time .. me smerizin g power s ar e d iab o li ca l han d gestu res. A ll it takes t o ind icat e t hese irr esist ib le.\ <.. . We lt. The spikes gr ow out o f th is well -protected bab e a nd shoot out at any on e who t ries to g et in her w ay. ~ ~ \ \ "" / / Cha ra cte rs now have wea pons as pa rt o f t heir bod ie s... g o get me a pizza w it h ext ra che ese. \ \ \ I / SUP~R SPIK~S """~ . <. it beat s a can o f pep per spray. an d a backgro u nd of swi rli ng.

• eARTH With su m m e x rs c •• • t r<Hl~( E"ll d E'n t po we rs.. • •• . ill gl t>. M Wd-hd -hd ·hd l SUrlHn QIl l"f r an create d . b ur ying t il t:" bad guy" alive in d swirlin g vort ex from wlurh th er e is no escape . a n earth whirl pool of rock an d scll1 d. h ig h powered beam. this g al r an t erc e dn yone 10 d o he r b idd ing • ' .ULTRA-meNTAL Talk abo ut usin q you r b rai nv! By t ocustu q he r hu g e ni enta l power s into d .

. She's better than any ordinary f lameth row ers because she never ru ns o ut of jui ce and can vary the width of t he sp ray by com bining the beams fr o m both her hands int o one w ide b urs B ring marshmallows . PY R e .BEAm BLASTING Power beams always come in ha ndy when yo u're walking to a desolate parking garage after wo rk. t he area surrou nding the power beam should be filled w it h a darker pattern to emphasize and contrast with the beam. hot flame. Not e that a powe r beam emits a burst of en e rgy at its o rigin. This charact er sprays powerful. In addition.T E R R e ll.

FIIJHTlnn womEn Why t a lk th ings out an d co me to a pea cef ul resol ution when ~o u coul d j ust as easily kick butt and w in? When you THE DlDUBLE xrc x stage fiqht scenes for women. then a double kick wi ll d o even bett er. ~I '. so draw ki ck ing charact ers with their fee t p u lled ba ck and f lexed . you have to be a litt le mo re creat ive tha n you might be with male charact ers w ho can just pound each other int o submi ssion . The ru le in draw in g co mi c bo o k f ig hts is: Be fla shy. Not e that most kicks are executed with t he he els. be more in ventive in the ir ma rtial errs moves to have any rea l effect . not wi t h the t ips o f the t oe s. t heref o re. . If a sing le k ick wi ll d o. / / / " I . This is because wom en g enerally ha ve less g irth and physical w eigh t t han men and m ust . n ot pointed.

<. I " " --. . yo u add impact. and beginning artists t end to dra w their fighters closer t ogether-but that w ou ld lessen t he impact . .THE PQlWER. Closing t he distance between the figures would m inim ize the po wer of the punch. On ly a terr if ic blow . PUNCH N otice a ll the space between these two women. You might think this woul d defeat the purpose of a f ight scene. the wide r the puncher's footing .' could send the victi m re e ling ba ckward like t his. note ho w far apart t he . I ~~ .~\( ~ \ J ?~er v' puncher's legs are . Also. The ha rder the punch. By add ing space.

This ad van ced ma rtial arts move com bines a cho ke (leg w rap). You can use mart ial arts magazine s as referen ce materia l when drawing these types of mo ves . grappl ing (hai r pu ll ). and a strike (punch). But eq uall y im po rtant is t ha t it's not so co mple x that you can 't see w hat's go ing on .AND DGlN "T CALL ms "" S W ~ ~ T I ~ ! " " Some g uys ne ver learn. It makes f o r a dramat ic pane l because it's unique . I ) .

TRHE THfn! The se t h ree mov es a re t ec hni q ues t h at e ver y fe male f ig hte r shoul d h av e in he r ma rt ial a rt s ar se na l. you r her o ine mu st be ab le t o imm edi at el y t ake o n t he next assailant an d con tinue f ig ht ing . Used pr im arily in f ig ht ing mu lt iple oppone nts. t he se mo ves mu st be qu ick. ELBew PUNCH KNEE STRIKE IUDe fLIP .

an d boots. keep in mind that the we a po n sti ll has to look like a gu n . su pply packs. . pe rhap s. Most weapons are high-tech g uns of some sort . knee shields. and the like -is good . Your cha ract er coul d ca rry one monste r wea pon. Some ga dgetry on them-such as vie wfinde rs. Ofte n. lhe fun of drawing cutti ng-e dge w e apo nry is that you get t o make u p you r own desig ns. rather th an just st icking a gun in her hands. It's not about whether the wea po ns w ill work. so me arm bracele ts. she a lso wears protect ive clothing . cre ates a re al fighting look . o r wear sev e ral of them on thigh belts a nd sho ulder cneps. it's about w het he r they look good. This.All your wea pons sho uld boa st lots of fire power. But don't make these gizmo S tOO co m plicate d. She ' II usually have so me kind of head gear or viso r and. retractable fla ps. when a cha ract e r ca rries a wea pon int o battle.

(No t e the equa lly large holst er. but th is is still an even -money fight at be st. com ic bo ok w eapo ns shoul d alw ays te nd t o ward t he ov ersiz ed . . Ho w ever.an d a n even bigge r st rugg le to survive. you' re f ig ht ing iii small vill ain. thi s j ust isn' t t rue .. she has to blo w them to smit hereens! Some beg in n ing a rt ists w o rry t ha t giving the ir char act e rs big w eapo ns wi ll lessen t he drama (because iii cha ra cte r w ith a big weapon m ay appea r inv incibl e) and w ill k ill a ny suspense ab out t he outcome of t he scen e . . you get the idea. if you carry iii monster gu n . Big w eapon s creat e big moments. ou r hero ine has a huge we apon.) The reaso n for th is is sim pl e: If yo u ( arry iii small gun . w ell. In the scene here. Your comic book wo ma n ca n' t just inju re th e nef ar ious creatures rising u p f ro m the m ire an d t he n ho pe t o su rvive.OVERSIZED WEHPOnS W ith the exceptio n o f myste ry and w estern genres.

w hich is an ad vantage o ver. but you can't have ever ything . hig h-tech w ay to travel. say. Of cou rse. \ . you don 't get t he fr ee bag of pean ut s. having a charact er most ly cov ered in an enclo sed helico pter.ROCKET PHCKS Rocke t packs are a co ol. Rocke t packs allow the ent ire fig ure to rema in clea rly in vie w.

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If you 'd f in ished t he car fir st however. If you don 't . Note the netr blowing in the wind as the cer makes a sharp turn. w h ile t he an gl e o f t he sho t makes t h e ca r loo k pretty. be fore d raw ing t he people in it. yo u' d have w asted a lot of time before real izi ng t hat the ang le d idn 't work . it doesn 't show the peop le effect ive ly. yo u may start to sketch a ca r wit h t he peo p le in it and real ize that. you mi g ht be tempted t o use a less effect ive image so as not t o w ast e w hat yo u' d d raw n. you ( an easily scrap you r in it ial sketc h and beg in aga in .THE SPORTS eRR STEP BY STEP A lwa ys b lock ou t the f igures in the car at th e beg inn ing sketch st ag e. . By t he n. If you' re st ill at an early drawing stage.

for example. As sho w n here.. th e chara cter. SE'nSdtion"lIy b u ilt PE'dE'H . w . oInd shl" bp(o m~s 01 (rtm p f' g h tp f w It h sp P(. doesn't necessarily in d icat e t hat you r ch aract er is evil -she coul d jus t be ha ving it bad da y. you ( an alter Your besic. i. h igh lights her ph ysical attr ibutes. 5. A " bad -g al" expression. Fashion is one of t he most po werful w eapons in the com ic book art ist 's arsenal.th 01 (oIPl" and h. n o doubt .)n..l fY 5t/ Png ths .bou t it. gh ( oll.. f ashion is such it pow erf ul too l that by sim p ly changing the co st ume. an d. But it bad-gal costume on a w oman w it h a nasty d ispo sit ion m eans on ly one t h in g" She 's troub le. The co st ume define s the charact er. clarifi es her role.. of cou rse. f n h d n<p th~ ( OHum!" fUf th~.imE' b" b l". of w h ich there shou ld be many.GREfH-LOOKmG COSTUmES What a d ifference an outf it makes. Now she's iI IU pPf <rime fi gh t E'r.11 po~ rs a nd l"~ t 'il Ofdl/l. n l!"W ( Oltum.r.

POPULHR HCCESSORIES ms r s r i r c ARm CUffS Act ion heroines just never seem to have e nough closet space. f l A RE D SHE9UlDER PA D S THIGH CUff AND I V E E E9 E9 W C H!) NA VEL RING WRIST GUARDS . Here a re some accessories that can add z ip to a costume's design. RAD IAT IE9N GE9GGl ES CH E9'-'E R WITH HANGING E9RNAmENT (. / .

e· \ FOR G REAT-LOOKING COMIC bo ok women w ill surely cat ch a person 's eye. In this chapte r. and co ming back issue aft e r issue. you have t o develop dynam ic and varied characters. you'll f ind j ust about every typ e of beauty t o ever grace th e pages of a comic book . but to keep read ers turning pag e after pag e. .

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such as bows in \ t he hai r. you can k ill off t hese characte rs one by one.THE VHLLEY GIRL This is. va lley gi rls ar e gr ou ped together in comic book stories. a tota lly cool character! Ever y su burb ne ed s a few of t hese good-looki ng g als who never take off t heir sung lasses. heightening t he suspense . just as t hey ar e in ho rror flic ks w hen a band of girls goes ca mping together a nd "something bad " happe ns. oversized be lt buckles. because a gro up of girls together can scream lo u der t han one girl by herself. A nd. so d ress t hem to reflect t hat. / . Valley g irl characters a re flirts. or at a rock concert meet ing the roadies. They' re out cruisin' aro und on a Satu rday n ight at t he ma ll shoppi ng for gum. a nd young ha irstyles. t rendy boots. but add youthful touches. like. It helps t he sto ry. Some times.

yo u th in k of w ily old guys w it h beards in purple robes. righ t? Thin k again. w h ich mak es he r d iffere nt f rom just a ga l in a ba th ing suit. (You learn t hat in " Int ra . Th is o ne sp o rts forear m cu ffs a nd a larg e leg ho tattoo. t o So rcery 101 ") . are an eq uall y powerfu l prese nce . Female sorcerers. and genera lly mess t h ings u p f or an yon e w a nn oys her. Special effects are import ant in sorcery. my friend. Note t he hand ge stures as she conjures up t ha t st uff foatin q over h e r he ad-mu st be some so rt of special sorceress stuff . cast ev il spells . The so rce ress ( a n su m mo n u p ima ge s of t he past o r future.THE SEXY SORCERESS ~ /' ! It I W hen yo u t h ink o f sorcerers. w it h t he ir allu ring beauty.

. wit h a large wea po n that cernes in han dy w hen she's trying t o make a point. that'd pro bably be chea pe r in t he e nd . And compared to some dates I've had . Torn jea ns and well-worn stree t clot hes a re t he signat ure cost ume for thi s character. A reckless or aloof attitude is also part of the statement. Some girls. grow up to be bad.THE GHnG mEmBER We all know that g irls are better behaved than boys. it seems . right ? Well. But I digress. not every girl. The gorgeous wo me n of comic book street gangs would rather rob you than date you.

1 • ' r . wh en t he o pportun ity pr esents rtist i~ l f to int ro duce a ne w charact er or ta ke t he com ic book in a ne w d irect ion .= - ~ 0\:. '~ 0=0 -.s: ~ o=' roo' "" = u J ~ . break out of t he mold. I ( j ~ = . Somet h ing w it h your style .ALTERNATE APPRGlACH T is a differ ent approa ch t o t he gang me mber his rbarecter.. comic boo k ed itors wi ll requ ire yo u t o dra w . No t wo ar tis t s draw in exact ly the sa me sty le . ".. seize that moment to br ing fres vision to t he wo rk . Ma ny times. no r shoul d t hey. However. r-J.. t= ~ . as dr awn by a d iffer e nt a rt ist. and h create somet h ing d ifferen t.Iready est ablished cha racte rs exactly a s t he p re vious a did .

And. usuall y capes or long tattered gowns.THE FEmHLE VHmPIRE Vampi re w omen are alwa ys depi cted w eari ng eer ie clothing. Th eir f ingernai ls are w ay too tong . vampire w omen have bats. Plus. w hereas most peop le w ho li ke anima ls own a dog or cat. It 's not t hat I don 't think bats make cudd ly house pet s. \ \ / . Their eyelashes -~ should be jet bla ck and lengt hy. they've got fangs. it's the running t o the bl ood b ank every f ew days f or their f o od t ha t I rea lly f ind ti resome.

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HOUH BHB£ A sea -based creature must be different from an ordinary person. and elfin eyes all indicate that th is is a strange being rath er than a human being . Be sure her hair floats a nd flows gently up and awa y from the fa ce. so that the scene reads as be ing underwater. . becau se she ain't one . Scales. ea rs.

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un yielding. most spa ce com ma nders wear cool boo ts. For reason s yet unknown. an d courageous. .THE STHRSHIP COmmflnDER I Resourceful. Must be a job perk . These are the hallmarks of a good st arship com mande r. Space suits are alwa ys formfitt ing and min imalist in design .

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mORE SPReE GRLS Come here ofte n? It's amaz ing the ki nds of creat ures yo u meet on your average. metha ne-f illed planeta ry object. looks li ke t his alien w asn't expecti ng anyone fo r dinner-or worse. mayb e he w as! )( ' ~ -== 86 .

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Nowadays. but t hat 's another bo ok.HUEn CREHTURE The me lding of h um an and an im al forms int o on e creature has been a te chni qu e used by artists f or th ousands of years. Usin g rept iles fo r reference. r () c \ \ Q . you can creat e any nu m ber of eer ily sexy al ien babe s. f\\ .:::. com bini ng hu ma n and ali en fe at u res. art ists t ake it one st e p f urthe r. \ "-. 1also do it in my own gara ge laborat o ry w it h surpr ising resu lts. V .

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THE mnm HSSHSSm On a stealt hy mission. The hair must be in a bun o r ponyta il-not lo ng and f low ing . an d f ace mask. Ther efore. The boots are speciall y desig ned f or added traction. Plus. she doesn't carry an Uzi. she alw ays has another tr ick up he r sleeve. . she secretly stores many mo re unseen wea pons on her person. th is lady wea rs t he outfit of th e ninjakarate unif or m. The ninja is big on t he ancient art of ha nd-to-ha nd combat. w hich would draw attention to this elusive warrio r. w it h a separation f or t he bi g t oe. hood.

~ I I shadow/light combo is an extremely dramatic look . Bursts o f energy emanate from her fi st s and emit powerful f lashes of light that act like spot lights. hitting her on both sides and leaving on ly th e middle of her bod y in shadow. • • • • • She ca n make toast just by standing d ose to a loaf of bread ! She floats like a specter.RIlDIOIlCTIVE Gill • • . .. imbued w it h powers f ar beyond our o wn . This light! \.

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EXPLOSIOns Explo sions ( an reall y roc k you r world . her hair blowing in the blast 's win d. The image also breaks th e pa ne l border to show that she's really book in'. It's not the urgent l-qott a-escep e-it exp losion. It decimates a lot of la nd . It de n ote s po wer and ene rg y. it' s t he l-j ust -q o t -out t e t bere-and. illuminatin g the edge of her form while th rowing the f ront of her bo dy int o d eep. it cast s a harsh. fiery light on the heroi n e as she strides away from a job well do ne. Viewed from afar. Not e how the exp losi on serves to backligh t he r figu re. It 's close t o both t he reader an d the characte r-th e he roin e's pose tells us she's flying fast to get th e heck out of the re! Blast lines give the feelin g that the fl aming de st ruct io n coul d catch u p to h er an y secon d .boy -am-t-qta d t ype . The b lo wout on the pre vious page is on e o f t he most pop ular ty pes: the explosive b last .) ATGlmlC INFERNGl This is t he o ther pop u lar exp losion t ype . (Note th at the smoke cloud is re ally a spird' of smok e. . sin ister shadows.

5 o bvious ly a sorceress . Here a re some p op u lar ty pes of smoke. where there's smoke. . ASAT4D4DL You can also use smoke (or f o g) as a p rop or too l.smOHE In comic boo ks. ind icat ing suspicion and alertness. her eyes are framed. Here. f4DREGR4DUND Using f or egr ound smo ke. yo u can f rame the im port ant feature s of a cha ract e r. cap abl e o f man ipu lat ing the natural fo rces of the eart h to serve he r evi l pu rp oses. ca ressin g he r. there's mood and tension. Th is cha racter . IACI(GR4DUND Y can use background smoke as a t ool ou to make a stealthy crime fight e r pop out against a starry sky. with smoke welling u p aro un d her. The place me nt a nd motion o f t he smoke t ell readers she cont rols it . She's a powerful figure.

A h h. somewhere out t here . Overcast skies.. . anot her pe rfect d ay in co mic bo ok lan d . Wind blown downpours. It amp lif ies t he raw emoti o n comi n g f rom t he cha racte r. and th e rain w or ks as a great met a phor f or tears an d sorrow. ImPENDING DARKNESS This scene evo kes a str o ng mood wi th a d ark storm raining down on t he city as t he her o ine w aits for he r enemy to stri ke . . as these p anels show. Rain can in dic at e a num ber of d ifferen t moo ds and evo ke a variety of f eelings. It's a g reat emotional p rop and d ef in it ely belongs in your re pertoire . PATHEilS You jus t kn ow somethin g bad 's g o ing to ha ppen. wet streets .RHIn Slick.

Her body language shows t hat she 's coiled up and ready for a major f ight. placing the ce nt e r of the fa lling ra in at the cha racte r's feet creates the fee ling that the reader is ru shing toward her. . you can se nse the im pending f ight. Plus.URGENCY In th is pane l. and the ra in makes the en vironment even harsher. as if from the point of vi ew of her o pponent.

It also frames her body and divides up the pane l int o int erest in g shapes . but it's still an im port ant moment in the story. stea lthy crime f ighter. although the creature who's destroying her city is also capable of destroy ing her.LIGHTninG Lightn ing punctuates an im port ant moment in a story. she has no choice but to f ight it. Pl!lRT~NTl!lUS This is the o ther sid e of the coin: the dark. The lightn ing brightens the night sky and illuminates the character as she soa rs upward. Perhaps she has just realized that. It can be an omen or serve to strengthen the climax o f a scene. TRiumPHANT This panel focuses on the glory of a fighting heroine. . Here are a few types . The light ni ng not only lead s the reader's eye to her but also serves to heighten th e tension of th e moment . We're not going for glory here. it serves as a lig ht source in an otherw ise dark rooftop scene. In addition.

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for extra mo ti on in a pa ne l. it' s a po w erfu l light so u rce t ha t he lps cre ate sus pe ns e a nd a n eer ie mood n" . fRAmiNG TH~ fAC~ You can also use t h e moon t o fra me your heroine 's fac e a nd crea te ultr a -d ra mat ic lig hti ng. t he mo on is co ol be cause you can chanqe its size. t extu re. . and comic book art ist s must kno w how t o use this superstit ion to t hei r adva ntag e. and col or. shape . Her e. yo u can thr ow in some smo ke.THE FULL moon Ever yo ne k no w s that weir d things hap pen dur ing a full moon. A nd . A few sim pl e cr at ers o n t he mo on 's su rface add t extu re and con t ri bute t o t he f eeling o f t he moon lo omin g lar g e and br ight in th e ni ght sky. AS A LIGHT SeURCf As a visu al effect .

it empha - sizes t he cha racter a nd also creat es a fee li ng of da ng er and excitement as she leaps from the pa ne l. Her e. .AS A SPGlTLIGHT The moon makes a g reat spo t light.

like t he ocean it self. mystical comic boo k environment s. . Wa ter sp ecial effects shoul d be glo rious and hu ge.WfHER Fountains of wa te r an d plumes of cascadin g waves rising and fallin g creat e fa ntast ic.

CR. flllUNTAINS The other b ig use fo r water is to cre ate f low. Her e. the crashin g w aves around her add mo tion an d vigor to th e scene. How eve r. and she flows ou t tow ard the read er in a fou nt ain of bea ut y and act ion. li qui d fe el to her movement .yet stillshot of our t echn o mermaid.ASHING WAVES What's t he na m e of the gam e with w ate r? Motion . th e arc o f spouti ng water and t he f igure 's p ose w or k t og ether to create an almo st rh ythm ic. The pa ne l opposite offers a strikin g. . Her who le body is sur roun d ed by the water.

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. an d sce ne ry cor rect ly within you r sce ne s. t hings suddenly look severe.. tense. a nd placement of everyth ing in the image. dramatic. ~' - '- . yo u can bow l over yo ur readers wit h your imag es.~)~ - c '~ '. . This is great if you like to med ita te and eat w heat germ cookies. . This ca n have a huge impact o n the viewe r. it 's a bo re.VRmSHlnG LInES Vanishing lines (seen here and o n page 107) are invisibl e guide lines the artist sketches light ly on a dra wing to gu ide the d irect ion.11 j . they eve nt ually conve rge at a sing le po int called t he vanishing po int.1 ~~ .. We w ant action. As t hese lines recede int o the background. Follow ing these va nishing lines w ill help yo u posit ion your characters.' -<7J. By greatly exaggerat ing the size of the thing s in the f oreground of yo ur dra w ing s. ~ < f- J ~. Just as t hings appea r sma ller as they recede into the d istance.. perspective. USING DIAGElNAL LINES TEl CREATE EXCITEmENT Ho rizont al lines creat e a feel ing of st ability and serenity. ~'---.... "M f ii!jr~""~ . rather than h or izonta l ones. t he opposit e is also t rue: Things appea r bigger as they get closer to us. ch aos! Wh en yo u stage a scene alo ng diagonal lines. But for comi c book fa ns. props. Ther e's also somet hing el se t o consider. Ob serve how the vanishin g lines of the bui ldings in this drawing all recede diag onally and should eventually converge somewhere off the lower right side of the page. violence.

two chara cte rs have been capt ured and are surroun ded by an angry mo b. and t his det erm ines bot h the direct io n of the scene and th e placement of t he vanishing jnes. th e IQnishing point is loca ted oHt~ pdg e. you'd w ant to emphasize that the cro wd is bent on the destruction of the t wo vict ims. .m EVHmSHlnlJ POInT Y can use a vanishing point-the place where all your ou vanishi ng lines con verge-t o add f ocus to a scene. so. and th is height ens the pressure and m akes th e t hr eat of t he m t hat m uch more ob palpable and imminent. Placing the v anishing point above the victi ms makes the aowd appear to converge towa rd them . h this illu str ati o n. conside r the purpose of t he scene . In decidi ng w here t he vanishing poin t goes. In t his case. You decide where t o pla ce the vanis hin g po int. The vict ims beco me the focal po int of the crow d's attent ion .

• s o n onzon I' ( the sky and gr tne w here und vanishi ng poi °t meet).th everyt hl of the t he scene emanati mg else in spot. L I H E organize your on t he horizon Ii ppears can place it in ot her but you create ad ded d rama spots t o er a t he previous pa ge. becomesthe 0 ng1 og pomt " n the blast Th Explo sio ns becom e more a if I you use vanish " . I~g tines to d irect . .9 f!omlines. alo ng t he ve1". The n usu a lly a ident ify t he 'hI ~ a go od idea t o .. t hat nishinq .VfJnlSHInG LInES fJno SPEClfJL EfFECTS explos ion• w. wesome . e vanlshi A HlDTE ABlDUT THE HlDRIZlDH To und erstand and compositi on it ' .

• •• • . .NISHING .

CLHRIFYInG HCLUTTERED SCEnE - .. ......

l 1: ~rn V £ ~{ '\ ' ~ (~ ' /Fe<: ( tif'" -- .-..----L . W 8l _ P The floor pa tt E RS PE use of two above make. b I" ot h van ishi n l~es co nverge t o o mts the crisscross e eel on creat ing 9 • t he II OOf. In the above .Y ') J>".- scene • vanishinqright .! on t h e left J . and on e on the ric ht ... when ther -pomt p erspect ive Th " IS e are tw ... IS points in a sc 0 va nishing o 8~~T1N~T:----~~~=-.-. . ..

sh e spi es Villain X. ro ugh f orm wi t h stic k fi gu res. estcJ blishi n g sho t cJ nd thl!'n con tinu es to sho w t ht' iletio n imidl!' tht w drl!'houst' w ith Vill di n X. It 's crucial to sta ge the last pane l on a pag e in such a way th at it seamlessty lead s the read er's eye t o the f irst pane l o f the next pag e. To see how it works. The idea is to see if th e sto ry flows visu ally fr om pa ne l to pa ne l. A con f rontatio n and f ight ensue. This is very impo r tdnt.befo re act ua lly draw ing any of the scen es. let 's co mpare t wo versi ons of t he same story. She vows to b ust h im and blasts down to Earth.THE RRT DF STORYTELLInG It' s no t just what 's inside the pa ne ls t hat coun ts. The y're part of a n ove ra ll st oryline that has to ho ld the reade r with its pacin g a nd rhythm. VERSllBN 2 I~ This sequ ence sho w s off cJ little ma rl" scpnery in setting up t ht' 10Ciltiom. It'dding rl!'ilders to tht' top o f the nex t pdge. wh o also spo ts he r.o nt> in wh ich the mdin chcJ ril eter m ust fly from ant' locil t . However. . artists first d ra w thum bnai l sketches of each pagelayin g out t he seque nce of pa nel s in miniature. b l!'CdUSI!' sht' Il!'dds the eye to the top o f tht' nt' J(t pilgf'. It's how you get f rom pa nel to pane l and fr o m page to page t hat really te lls the st ory. In t his sequence. th e heroine zooms off to th e fight. wh ich bt'g im w ith iI w ide . w hich ere imp or tOl nr fo r this type of st ory. Vf:RSllBN On th e first p dg e. Sneak in g into th e w areh ouse unseen.on to dnother. Comic book panels don't exist in a vacuu m . In thl!' Idst pdne l on tht' p Ol gf'. thl!' drtist sho ws the spdce stiltion an d then cu ts between the heroiflf dnd the commender. the he roine is aboa rd he r space stat io n wh en she get s word f ro m her com mand er that Vi lla in X is lootin g a warehouse in New Jersey. the heroint' srJII flies out to the ri g h t o f t ht' test pdnt' l on th t' fir st p dgt'. To do this.

s' g n . d nd rt' dffdnge-J . you d on't in dicat e as much scenery. she po w ers u p and slams him across the w arehouse.STHGlnG THE BIG FIGHT SCEnE As wit h any secti on of a comic book . yo u'. Th is is un like th e d etailed approa ch used to illust rat e the pr evious scen e (o pposite). because you w ant the read er's ey e t o fly o ver the fastpaced scene .d t'. d v. Ndlt'. S I $ H 2 Til. V £ R. she send s a powe r bu rst acro ss the floor and t ak es h im out . For th e f igh t scene here..m.s st. you h.tches JOOIt'.vf' rhp f.most af rl. he lifts the crate o verhead to smash her..S I $ H r V E R. in which w e w anted readers to slow do w n an d take in the locat ion s and conversat ions. In combat scenes. t' Just JOl tm g d own ddfe-. qt'. (N olf' Y ou should keep yo u r th u mb nd l l j<. when she checks to see if he's unconscious . pe-dom 10 cut.s dnd se. the basic story eleme nt s go as follows : first.t'm g which sh Oh lo ok th e. an d fin ally. then.S vt'n.m cpd p. th e heroine is atta cked by the vil lain. pd Stt'.c Al l h .on USPS nlOlf' .e-nl .npJ d. th ere are vari ous w ays t o st ag e a fi ght sc en e.

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. eadwlth It. clubbmg him over th: . lands a bl then pICksup he r and finishes the Job b rjf~ew.She tu rns.

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It a lso must d early estab lish th e mai n . Will she fire it in time' Better buy the book to find ou t./ cha ract er so t hat peop le will recog n ize which comic boo k it is. To ge t readers to pic k u p th e bo ok. t he ima ge must leave enough room fo r the ti t le- but not so much room that there's dea d space. It ha s to be excit in g-but th at alon e won't d o it. . The bad guy hill iJ gun. BUf.s about to pounce. Plus. it must be dr a ma t ic so t hat peopl e will want to read t he bo ok to fin d out w hat ha p pens. In addi ti o n.DESIGninG HBRILLlHnT COVER The cove r sells t he comic bo ok .5 in dange r We can see her clearly.. a cov er must stand out a mo ng dozens of com pe tin g titles. sht' aim The e xample here is a good COVe" " The main character. .

The art ist ro ughs out a few versions./'I'1?nIO£ /.EL-r eo l r r l L ~A . ~ElK/l IF .r~F ~cl-J 7'0~ lYI. r U G. ~'" . onthem.-\.EO CAt"T ...V F -nJ A tVEA .AI. and t h e ed itor notes h is or her comments ideas at t he ed ito r. the art ist t h rows a bunch o f r l r l r-#F G'/ 2L 1 . IIiA'} /IAI CA.ROUGH COVER SHfTCHES Bere are t he ty pical ini tial steps an artist goes t h rou gh before deciding on a cover idea. At this stag e.::I'lJ. Here are some t ypic al editor's com ment s../(. G . . -rlrLE- GUo.. t he art ist t hen ref ines it and sends it ba ck f or more comments unt il he or she gets t he go-ahead t o do the f inished ver sion.EO. tft'c / F"(F A I'v //1. J?r '/la:w. When t he ed itor likes on e." G C-O? JOJG.

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we ird loo king. Llf~-DRAWING CLASS~S Drawing from lif e won 't help yo u wit h tech n iq ue s such as layo ut. what it wi ll do is g ive you a solid fo undat ion in ana tom y. o ld. A ll t ypes of people. Ma ny art ists co nt inue to h on e the ir sk ills throughout t he ir careers by ta king oc ces ionaltite-d rewinq classes. co stu me d esign . th e most importa nt t hing for you to learn to draw is people . Take it to t he par k. t o a roc k conc ert. Cha nces are t he re 's a p lace near you that off ers class es . and keep t hem for refe rence . .TRIEU fWD TRUE POInTERS S"~TCHING fRem Llf~ Whe t he r you take your ske tc hpad down to th e ma ll or enro ll in an act ual lif e-draw ing class. You do n' t ha ve t o enr oll full t ime. t o a ba ll game. once a week . id eal izati on of fea tures. Fill u p do zen s of sketch bo oks. And draw ing from li f e is t he best w ay t o do t his. even scary. Carry yo ur sk etc h bo ok wi th yo u It's a sim pl e tric k used by j ust abou t all professio na l art ists at som e po int in t heir careers. The re are also local ar t cent ers in many t owns. You ng. many coll eg es and art sch ool s o ffer co nti nui n g educatio n classes at nigh t. any p lace t here are crow ds you can observe. But . goo d -look ing . or some of the other com ic book -re lated instructi on provided in th is book .

pen cils. Ma ke all adj ust ments r ight th en and there. you can get it int o the perfect po sit ion . you wo n't have to waste half a day go ing to the li b ra ry for re fe rence . doesn't it? It isn't. and ru lers? And most importa ntly. does it wo bb le when you lean on it? The wo bble is the ki ss of deat h . Then. if you e ver need to d raw somethin g like t hat . For example. Th ings to consider : Where w ill my electri c penc il sharpener go? Can a light bo x f it on it ? Do es it have enou gh built-in spaces fo r pens. . the sales person assu res you it's adjustable. amp h ib ious water vehicle.• A CGlmfGlRTABLE DRAWING DESI( Soun ds obv ious. However. so you buy it. You sit at a d esk in an art store for 30 seconds. Do n't b uy it before you're sure it fee ls good while you're still in the store. and spend some t ime sitting at it. an d clip it out and file it . you might see a magazine article about a cool. It's neat looking but no t th at comforta ble . PICTGlRIAL REfERENCE fiLES It's a go od idea to keep f iles of visual refe rence materi als on things you mi gh t need to draw b ut come ac ross only infrequently. confident that when you g et home. As a profess iona l comic book artist. and see if that mo del can hand le it . Take along a list o f all the things you want in a desk . you'll spend many hou rs a day at that desk .

wr it ers. Know t he na mes of cu rr ent comic bo ok art ists. If an ed itor is looki ng fo r a drawing sty le like so-and -so. . you'll know w ho so-and -so is an d won 't need it explained to you . These outfit s can g ive you ideas. It w ill gi ve you id eas and make yo u more con versant wi th the p ro s in your fie ld . Know you r market. When you b uy a comi c bo ok.IDEAS fGlR GlUTRAGEGlUS CGlSTUmES Go to a la rge newsstand that has an extensive se lection of int ern ati onal ma gazines. J(. and pub lishers. b ecau se comic b oo k women also we ar wil d. b ut they' re a good buy for you r reference f iles. editors. ve ry weird. Follow other people's careers in the ind ust ry. look at the European w omen's f ashio n maga zines. Know th e trends. sexy clo t hes. read th e credits. but sexy Notice w hat the runway mode ls are w earing : wi ld designs and signature pieces ne ver realty int end ed f or t he consumer but me ant t o p lease f ash ion in dustry in sid ers and press. The models are very cutting edge.EEP CURRENT Thing s ar e always changi ng . because they're im po rted and have a limi t ed circul ation in the United Stat es. Euro pean magazi nes can be exp en sive.

your editor wi ll wa nt changes a nd mo re cha nges. You sho uld feel free t o ma ke mista kes. . UPDATE v e u a pellTfeLle Always re place t he good draw ings in your portfolio w ith .. . ' '" p: o . a better ones. Un derstand t ha t everyt hi ng you draw wo n't be pe rfect.DeN 'T fALL IN LeVE WITH v e u a w e s x Obviously. . Thi n k o f yo u r po rtfoli o as a living. And you' ll have to mak e t he m. no r shou ld it be . . Also updat e your portfolio if your style needs to become mo re contem pora ry to fit in with a curre nt trend. breathing t hi ng t hat should be constantly changi ng. And rest assured t hat eve n w he n you fee l a d raw ing is per fect. beca use in those mist a kes will lie so me flashes of brillian ce. or if t he drawings no lo nger repr esent the ty pe of wo rk for wh ich yo u' re b ecom ing known. yo ur work will suffer if you' re such a pe rfect ioni st th at you feel compel led to f ine-t un e every drawing yo u beg in... So you ca n get jazzed about your dr aw ing s. but don 't fa ll in love with them unti l th ey go to t he print er..

However. Check wit h an acco u ntant so that you don 't fall beh in d and have to pay pen alt ies. you ' ll lose co ntact . so un less you kee p in cont act. . you're going to have t o file your taxes qu art erl y rathe r than an nua lly.USE THE PHeNE When you publish so mething not eworth y. I rea lly. or if so met h in g g ets lo st . it has been m y exper ien ce t hat it 's extremely d ifficu lt t o t rack it down an d ret rie ve it . Also. Don 't be p ushy. send or igina ls via an ove rn igh t delivery serv ice. mail them co p ies o f your newest st uff w it h a brie f. fr ie nd ly note. really recom mend aga inst send ing anyt hi ng by snail mail . you d on 't wa nt your artw ork d amag ed or lo st in t he ma il. If you can take t he m out to lu nch. Keep you rself in t heir min d bu t no t in t hei r face . make phon e calls to apprise editors of what you're d o ing . remember t hat many executives switch jobs. so mu ch t he better. So. or you sense they' re no t that app ro achab le. If t hey' re too busy t o take you r calls. you have t o send or ig ina ls. because if there's an u nexp lain ed de lay. USE eVERNIGHT mAIL SERVICE W hen you send you r work t o a publisher as pa rt of a contracted job. fILE v e u a TAXES If you ' re work ing as an independent cont ract or " f o r hi re" as most f ree lan ce co mic book artists do.

Never rul e out any po ssib ilit ies. S ome in kers make you r wo rk lo ok better th an o t he rs. You ma y have the op po rtu n it y t o reco mmend your favo rite in ke r to yo ur ed itor.IT~ A INK~R. .TUNITI~S IN ANlmATIEIlN There are ma ny anim ated te lev ision sh o ws t hat fe atu re act ion -he ro ch a rac te rs.STICK WITH FAVEllR. and t he se sh ows need an imato rs who ( an draw in a comic boo k styl e. INV~S TIGAT~ IEIlB EIlPPEllR. Chec k t h e credits at t he beg in n ing or en d o f a sh ow t o fi nd t he na me of the stu di o. Call them u p and ask t hem to dire ct you to t h e perso n re sponsib le for h iring an imato rs and st or ybo a rd ar t ist s for that part icu la r show. m~R. and the in ke r can recipro cate the gestu re. It 'll help yo u f ind w o rk and make your w ork lo ok its be st. CHANDIS ING M uch business is done by licensin g charact ers. Art ist s are const an tly nee de d t o illust rat e eve rything fro m t oy boxes t o cards t o games wi th act ion f igures on the m.

t1co micsisub mit .westbra bant.nexlus-hcbbles.chaosco rnics.ht ml We bsite lists su bmi ssio ns guidelines . ACCLAIM COMICS One Accla im Plaza Glen Cove. P Bo x 128 . A2 86 302 (602) 776-1300 HA RRIS PUBLICATIONS 1115 Broadwa y. SIRIUS ENTERTAINM ENT.) You can also request a co py of a co mpany's submissions guidelines be f ore sending anything in . NY 10543 (9 14) 381 -51 55 www.comic BOOK PUBLISHERS Here a re the nam es a nd addresses of many of the top comi c book p ub l ishers t od ay. You can find it at: Web site lists submissions guidelines.com/chantingmonks CHA OS COM ICS 76S5 East Geld ing Road Scottsda le.co m/gu id e. CA 91 521 (8 18) 567 ·5739 www. so it 's best to see if a company has its own website and t hen use the address listed t her e. DC COMICS 1700 Broad wa y New Yo rk. NJ 07874 (20 1) 34 7-66 11 sir ius. \ add ress them to the Submissions Editor and include a self -addresse d stam ped env elo pe fo r the ret ur n of your art w o rk .archiecormcs. AZ 85260 (888) CHAOS13. OR 97222 GLADSTONE PUBLISH ING P.com DA RK HORSE COMI CS 10956 SE Ma in St reet M ilwa uk ie. WA 98155 (206) 524 -1967 www.marv elco mi cs.O . 1223 Wi lsh ir e Bou levard #496 Santa Mon ica.comJcommunity TOP COW PRODUCTIONS. #305 Fulle rt o n.ilguid es.fen ta qr aphics.dar khorse .com We bsite lists submissions guide line s. NY 10016 attn: Darren A uck www. ARCHIE COMIC PUB LICA TIO NS 325 Fayette Avenue M amaro neck. ext . dcclai n . NY 11542 www. dccornics. Bue na Vista Street Burba nk .netldcw FANTAGRAPHICS BOOKS 7563 Lake City Way Seatt le.htm ADD ITI<DNA~ ADDIlESS Il£SGlUIlC£ In ad d ition to the addresses listed here. . CA 926 35 (7 14) 871 -8802 MAR V EL COM ICS GROUP 387 Park Ave nue Sout h New York.O. topeowconvtopccwrtccztaq ldxhtrrd Wpb site lists subm issions guidelines.com Website lists submissions guide line s.com www.medi asi. NY 10019 www. Box 2079 Prescott.edq eg Io ba l. t he Indy Magazine Int ernet database is an excellent sou rce of comic book p ub lisher s and industry ad d resses. NY 11580 (5 16) 285-55 45 www.com CHANTI NG MONKS STUDI OS 360· AW Merr ick Ro ad . DISNEY COMICS 500 S. INC. Suite 350 Vall ey St rea m. Stanhope. NY 10010 (212) 80 7-7 100 IMAGE CO MICS 1440 No rt h Harbor Road. (For deta ils on exact ly what t o subm it. see the int erview s start ing on pag e 130. INC. 556 www. CA 9040 1 (3 10) 286-0758 WVI/W.shtml Not e that industry addresseschange. Wh en sending submissions. www.nE.coevtndy worldlre fe rencelin dustry. 8t h f loo r New York.

David. 199 5. How to Draw Comic Book Bad Guys and Gals.k ra use. 129 . publishing.comlcomicslbg For pro fessionals and fans alike. un ene. industry news. 1997. mAGAZINU Comic Boo k Profiles As You lik e It Publicat ions Dept .ht m Contains in fo rma tio n from comic book publishers. A lbinus on Anatomy. New York : Watson-Gu ptil l Pub licat ions. 1989. The Comics Robin Snyd er 2284 Yew St reet Road. refine your drawing ~kills. Dynamic Figure Drawing. and wri ters. Hart. W Wizard Wiza rd Press PO Box 656 York town Heig ht s. Comics Buyer's Guide Krause Publ ications 700 E.1998. NY 10598 www. Hart.O. 1997. New York: Watson-Gupti ll Pub lication s. P.wiza rdworl d. #86 Bell ingham. Perspective! For Comic Book Artists.• • o <:I REcommEnDED REROInG If you're looki ng t o keep curren t on t he comics bu sin ess. Christopher.com icsf u n. St ate Stre et lola.com All the la test on comic book characters. Hog arth. Haines. here's the master reco m mended reading list. 1996. New Yor k: Watson-Gu ptil l Publications. . artists. Robert Beverl y. The Business o f Comics. M ineola (New York): Dover Publ icat ions. a nd lea rn new techn iqu es. New York : Wat son-Guptill Pubncettons. Hale. Box 20S5 P ough keepsie. New York : Watson-Guptill Pub licat ions. WA 98226 www. How t o Draw A nim ation. tass. Burne.88U Chelsea.com/ t hecom icsl index. Christopher. and writers. WI 54990 www. NY 12601 www. New York : Watson-Guptill Publicat ions. Hart.comicsfu n. feat ures news about comics and profiles o f comic book artists and w riters . Ch rist ophe r. How to Draw Comic Book Heroes and Villains.com/c b profiles In-dep th coverage of industry pro f essionals. artists. and co ve rs upcomin g industry tre n ds while also provid ing a history of the comics b usiness.

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and t hey want to see a spe cific t h ing or have stories go a cert ain way. There's an exagger at ion on both ends. because it was hard to thi nk of a majo r charact er . I d idn't kn o w anyt hing about co mic books. whi ch is act ua lly very app licable when it co mes to t h is job. Bobbie Ch ase : I've been at Marvel fo r 14 year s. he's also a lot o f fu n becau se he's a lot of k ids' f irst power f ant asy. Cap tain America. for years a lo t o f peop le wou ldn 't cons ider w riti ng The Incredible Hulk. But of course. He cou ld be very hard to play. That was it. theate r design. as we ll as about some of th e comic books you 've wor ked on . I came in he re really as a nov ice. I ed ited The Incredible Hulk f o r 10 year s. EDITOR. M ARVEL CO M ICS S T R E9 N GJlw E9 m is N Chris Hart: Tell me about you r backgroun d and how you ca me to wo rk at Marvel. CH: How im po rt ant is it for a com ic book artist to be ab le t o draw very attract ive com ic book women ? BC: Very attract ive com ic book women and men. Iron Man. But someth ing wa s al most especia lly d angerous about The Hu lk BC: Yes.A N INTERVIEW W ITH BOBBIE CHAS E. In fact. not knowing who the Fantastic Four we re or any of the characters . I've worked o n j ust about eve ry maj or Ma rve l char act er. Hulk has always been an incred ibly diff icu lt charact er. The physical attr ibutes of ma le and fe ma le characters are . bec ause somet imes peop le ( o rne in with pre conceived not ions a bou t the characters and w ith 20 yea rs of love of co mic books. and Warlock . we ll. The person who hi red me t hou g ht that th is was a good th ing.alm ost a prot ago n ist-w h o w as almost a villa in in the series. basically. He cou ld be very hard to make sympathet ic. hav in g hea rd of Spider-Man. It w as ba s ica lly my fi rst rea l jo b out of college. I w as an Eng lish major w ith a theater minor . I did 1 . So. Right no w I' m working on Fanta5tic Four. CH: 1lo ved all those characters when I was a kid .

S me artist s st ar t out d raw ing fr om o muscle rnaq azmes . or po ses t hat are a litt le b it t oo cheesy o r " pin up. an ed it o r. w ho ar e put in supervisory ro les. in ter ms of moving ctie recters. if WE' w E'rE' t alking about t t w In(fpdible Hulk. I respond . CH. rat her than w o men as can no n f odd er. CH: W he n it comes to dra w ing f emale comic book ch ar act ers. But t hat doesn 't qui te accurately depict the W<l Y co mi c book heroes and heroi n es loo k. w hat exactly do yo u w an t to see? Ho w many pieces sho ul d t here bE'? Shou ld the y be in col o r? BC. b ut a lo t o f g uys act ua lly get it very WE'll. because there just isn't t he time . but I d o respo nd to all of the subm issions I get . If a pe nciler is co m ing in wi th a portfolio . They have t h is incred ib le stren gth and incred ible f emini ni ty at the sam e t im e. at a co nvent ion o r in an intervi ew. and ab so rb it . The ad vice I g ive a lot of e nut s just vtartinq o ut is: Take t he elonq ated form of the f ashio n figure. the perso n w ho could possib ly be hiring yo u. t he w ork should sho w . "This would be he lpfu l for you . t he re's a w ho le school of artists now who are leaminq to dra w from studying o th er com ic book art. but it hel ps because you qet the chance to act ually speak to an E'ditor. At lea st five pages of co nti nu o us panel-to-pa ne l st o ryt elling so that WE' can see t hat he or she understands all of the aspect s of putting together a st o ry. what d o you look fo r in an art ist ? BC: I li ke t o see som eone w ho w i ll treat t he female fo rm w ith a cert ain amo unt of respect . so th ere is som e skewing of how w o men act ua lly react . there are a lot mor e [f emalE' r baracter s] who are ect uanv tea m leaders. I don 't like t o see too muc h exaggerated anatomy. In other word s. it's usually a letter w ith m aybe a littl e ext re no t e saying . it sho ul d o nly be of pe nciled w o rk . If I get wor k into the office. a co m ic book convention is a great p lace to mee t 10 ed it or s. It takes me an incredi bly long amou nt of t ime . Of co urse. CH: An d they' re so much m o re fem in ine . CH: How impo rt ant is it f or som eon e t rying to qet int o tbe bu siness to networ k at com ic boo k conven t ions ? BC: It's not essential. However. t o o ma ny ell. the char act ers are mo st o fte n w ri tten by men. the Bett y Ban ner characte r w as the wom an in da nger. They're not masculi ne versio ns of w o men ." Also. but li fe d rawinq is absolute ly essent ial. an d I th ink thai'S a t err ib le shortcom ing ." But tha t 's rar e. the w o man w ho w an t ed to be rescued Now. because [i n co m ics! you get those eton qetec fcrros an d t hey 're m uch lerq er t ha n l if e.aggerated brea st sho t s.( exaqq ereted and en ha nced . CH: How have t he fema le cha racters in co mics chanqed in the past 10 years? Be : There are a lot mo re w om en in com bat.yo u know. t here are certain co mic book sho rtc uts that yo u can get f rom looking at a co mic boo k. end add m uscles o n t o p o f th is. get 10 opinions on your work. Also. When so meon e gets a portfolio together and meets yo u. however. BC: Oh yes. So.

w e don' t reall y w ant to se e inks over that In ke r's pen cils. We have ~ a co mics co de . ~""""" " bu t w e also pol ice ou rselves. An in ke r sho uld co me in w ith a variety o f ink sa mples. CH: Is it d ifficu lt. Eve ry o nce in a wh ile someone w ill say. If w e're h iring a pe ncile r. ma ybe two oaqes each of a var iety of oeocners work so tha t we can see t hat th ey ca n ha ndle som e bo dy e lse's style. But she did a ll her fig ht ing in Ma nh atta n .inker t ea m t o wo rk together. This is il woma n who . For years. CH: How im por tant is a go od com puter co lo rist to a g reat. We se nd [o ur m aterial] to th e Com ics Code Aut ho rity t o make ~. J \' "f . Now. I . CH: Can you offer any ti ps on d esign ing eye -catctun q costu mes for female characters? BC: We'r e getting aWilY from spa nde x We were rec e nt ly re d esigni ng a char a cte r's costume. So the bat hing su it seemed to ma ke sense. in t his po lit ica lly correct age. Redlly. w e don 't w an t t o see t he wor k inked And if w e 're hiring an inke r. it's all do ne by com pu ter. un less we 're hiring a pe nciler -inker w ho is go ing t o be d o ing th e wh ole jo b. "Oh . id ennfia b!e Mar ve l cha racters so t hat w e know th e art ist can do ou r ch ar act e rs to our specif ications. t he industr y's st an da rd is fo r il pe ncile r-an d. she just wo re a ba t hin q suit . She 's an Atlanti an. she 's a sea -b ase d character. CH: And ho w many peo ple d o bo t h ? BC: It's no t co mmon . beca use it's so d iff icu lt to do 22 pa qes in o ne month's tim e. We ga ve he r so me thin g a little b it more ut ilitaria n a nd fu nctional-c-pants. somew he re? BC: Ou r societ y is certainly cra zier a bout sex th a n vio lenc e . The color is ce rtainly il much more integral pa rt of t he a rt sce ne t han ever be fo re .loo king co mic book? BC: Essential And t hat's rea lly only been in t he last 10 years.. well. When I star t ed at Ma rvef t he col o ring w as still d one on little flat eels by these little o ld la die s in a wor ksho p o ut in Connecti cut. ~". it 's te rrible. She lives un derwater. . t o portra y se xy fema le comic book cha racters witho ut off end ing so meone. pa int ing eels. .

in terms of art ists learning to d raw fro m [t he work of] other comic bo o k artists. CH: Is there a dan ger in chan ging a cha racter t oo m uch as it evolves. " I'm go in g t o f aint becau se I've used my powers. Is it storytelling? Is it anato my? Is it perspect ive ? And I'll say. W e' re cha racter police. is now Sue Storm Richard s. t hey on ly g et d ist rib uted to the specialty sto res." W e a lso hav e Jen nifer Wal ters (She Hulk ) who is The Incre di bl e Hu lk's cousin an d ano t her tough heroine. t hey can. and over the years. [Now she's] The Invisib le W o man-she w as undated. t hey're also consistent . it tends to be ve ry heavily skewed toward f em ales in the group. "What's the most im portant th in g?" Qu it e often I ge t that quest io n . they'll say. Quite often. and artists borrow cha racters for other comic book s. which is g reat for covers and an occasio nal b reak -o ut shot. they'll leave o ut backg ro und s an d est abl ishing shots sim ply because they don't understand t he pe rspect ive and the more com plicat ed issues of dra w in g. CH: W hat are some of yo ur most successful f em ale comic bo ok charact ers? A nd. so many women. They con centrat e on do ing mo re p in-up t ype w o rk. We m ake sure t hat. In a comic bo o k. as the wri t ers an d artists fo r t he books change. t he re cert ainly is. Because they concentrate d so har d o n learn ing how to d raw comic bo o k f ig ur es. t he thi ng that artists have the ha rdest t ime w it h is co m ic bo ok storyt elling.su re that we don't go over the t op with anyt h ing . Storm. the characte rs have evo lved bu t w e li ke to keep t hem co nsisten t w it hin the t ime fr ame . BC: Rig ht . One of the reasons it's ou r most popular comic bo o k franc hise is because it's just ridd led with so many good. . sidekick. the orig inal Invisi ble Gir l in the Fant astic Four. A lso. if w e have book s t hat don 't have the co de o n them. Then there 's the x -M en team. it's all of it . Over such a lon g history as this com pany has had. she has been d ep icted as w orkin g for he lp hotli nes and even w orking with so me teams that The Hulk has been associated w it h. CH: Wha t g ives Marvel characters their special ap peal? Be : Ma rvel Comics has always p rided itself o n having the best cha racters i n the comic bo ok industry. Betty Ro ss Ban ner-Bruce Banner 's (The Incredi ble Hu lk's) wife. And t hat also brin gs u p other shortcomings. and a risk of losin g its orig ina l f an base? BC: Yes. Bet t y Ban ner [f or exam pl e]. And John ny you go here an d w e'll meet in the mi dd le . She's a t ough char act er and just a very strong w om an. fro m " g irl" to "wom an. writers. she has ma rried him an d gone from good li ttle wife t o. l ot s of new women in the te am now. CH: 50 . And Reed . Ben yo u go here. [The . A nd comic book compan ies who p rod uce mater ial that doesn't have the cod e on it put " Fo r M at ure Reader s" on those comic boo ks. stron g female char acters. we d o n't d ist ribut e them to the newsstands. In fact. m arried t o M e Fantastic. yo u go he re . In recent history. an d ma ke character s mo ve in a li nea r f ashio n. But it w oul d n' t be t he mainstream. A lot of artists have a har d time acco mp lish ing that. She sta rted ou t as hi s g irlfr iend ." ove r the ye ars. how hav e those charact ers chan g ed o ver the years? BC: Ther e are lots. but we're act ually mo re strin g ent in [t he] com pa ny. and w e consi de r o u rselves a pret ty mai nstream com pany. That 's wh at edito rs are he re for. because they do n't p ut the time in to do esta blis hing shots and [work on ] backg rou nd s and perspecti ve. Quite often. bu t artists can't sacrifice sto rytelling. Gon e from. Sue Storm. There are publishe rs fo r that. it nee ds to be dy na m ic loo kin g. if art ists w ant t o go really o ver the t o p. We ty pically use t he silent film analogy. And [we also ensure that ] as other ed it o rs. you should be able to t ake all o f the [wo rd ) balloons and capt io ns off [the pict ures) an d look at 22 page s of art and see exactly what's go ing on an d understand the story. Ob vio usly." to being the toug h leade r of t he gr o u p who says. An d t hey all have very uni q ue per so na lit ies and ab ilit ies. when artists ap proach me wi th a por t fo l io. Ma rvel Girls. qu it e often. "Okay. un fo rtu nately. Kit t y Prid e. the characters stay t rue to their per sona lit ies and loo ks. CH: Wh at are some ty pical weaknesses you spot in the art wor k of beginning cartoonists? BC: Typ ically.

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A rt is a lo t mo re co mp licated. The on ly way he m akes a livi ng is delivering shots o f f ig ht s t o The Daily Bug le. Some art ists. need mo re he lp. and he's under a dead line. we wo rk wit h peop le who are p rofess ion al enough to get it in an d have it be great. CH: Ho w does a com ic boo k ed itor int eract w ith t he artis ts) Does the edi tor wo rk with them interm ittent ly dur ing t he d rawing pr o cess. and he can' t make any mo ney. Artists who've been in the b usiness f o r a lo ng t im e say that. You k now.the l ine work is a lot more co mp licate d -now. Sometimes. or o n ly after the wo rk is hand ed in ? BC: Depends on the art ist. It 's the ed ito r's job to hire t he art team.characte rs] have these great powers. and he can't accom pl ish th ings . these simple life problems. It t ak es a lot lo ng er for an art ist to d raw a com ic book. he' ll fi nd himself in t he mi dd le of a battle sit uati on . His web f lui d runs out. Or. The re' s a lot less co rrect io n work done on comi c books t han there used t o be. you'll wor k w it h someone new who needs mo re at te nt ion . he has anot her fight w ith Docto r Octopus an d he has a dat e w ith h is gi rl fr ien d. We t end to go w ith t he art we ge t in. the y'd t urn in t he ir 22 pages and get back 22 pag es to ma ke co rrect ions o n . Or. and he do esn't have any shots f or his edi tor. alt ho ug h t hat usually m eans we t end to do a lot of up -fro nt work wi t h a com ic book-wor king on char acter desi gns an d sketches and mak ing su re the characters are r ig ht so t hat the work co mes in and is usual ly f ine. And of cou rse. obviously. and there's no fil m in his camera . in t he ol d days. she's go ing to be fur io us wi th hi m . Usually. . but they also have g reat limi tat ions and comp licated lives and emot ions and sho rtcom ings-d ay-to-day problems t hat readers can id ent if y with. A cha racter like Sp ider -Man has such limit at io ns. put together peop le w ho will wor k best together.

an d I rem em ber lau g hin g about t he na me. I thoug ht. d iff erent Ba tm an tit les. and it wa s Top Cow Product ions. I called back t he t em p agen cy. because Marc d rew W o lve r ine . "What t he heck is this p lace ?" It wa s so d iso rgan ized and j ust a littl e stud io at t he t ime. I ha d no id ea who [M arc Silve str i] w as. " A nd th er e w as sile nce on t he other end of t he pho ne. I calle d an o ld frien d o f m ine w ho wa s int o co m ic boo ks and said. M y b rothe r li ked Iron M an and Spider-Man.'!Ii> . by the way. Bu t I ended up gett ing int o Sandm an. " M arc Silvestri?" Tot all y awes truck . • . So. I'd o n ly re ad co m ic books throu gh either exboyf riends or my brother. sort of.-. I end ed u p gett ing a two -wee k o pening and got to know everyb o dy. an d he said . But I had so much fu n t hat I end ed up say ing I w anted to go back there and work aga in . . EDITOR. god . The n I fo u nd out th at t hey produced com ic bo o ks I t ho ug ht th at was co ol.THE ImPEDRTANCE EDf DRAWING AN INTERVIEW WITH RENAE GEERLINGS. It was so m uch f un . a nd a ll t his art work wa s han gin g off the wa ll s. It was rea lly a boy t h ing . of cou rse. I was only t here f o r t w o days answering phones. A nd t hat's. t end ed u p h avin g t o tem p 40 hou rs a wee k.. because you don't ma ke m uch money tem pinq So I en d ed u p tempin g all t he t ime w ithout even be ing ab le to audit ion . he exp laine d t o me t hat I wa s work ing w ith th is. \ • _. Dar k Kn ig h t. how he knew M arc Silvest r i. I worked at t h is p lace calle d Top Cow Pro duc t ions. "Hey. Batman. I wa l ked in an d it was fu ll of bo xes. I sai d I'd l ike to wo rk t here aga in . I re mem ber my fr iend fr om hi gh scho ol was rea ll y in t o X-Men. TOP COW PRODUCT IO NS Chr is Ha rt : Ho w d id you (orne to work at Top Cow? Rena e Ge e rlings: I act ua lly cam e to Los Angeles to do act ing a nd sin ging And I was t em p ing . I came in t o t h is bu ildi ng one day. Mea nwhi le.

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but when it comes to female f aces. always look ing . " There's a lot of t el lent here . I have to m ake two. the mor e it wil l catch ou r eye. t hey shoul d keep in t ouch . and say I can't use t his r ig ht now. A nd a lot of peo p le for get about the backg ro unds. but sh e's also ext remely pret t y. And she's cl little euenat ec from mo st o f t he f em ale s in the boo k. I think reaoets latched on to her because of h er w hole vu lnera bil ity. it's amazin q how many peo ple d raw rea lly buff bo d ies and really po o rl y d raw n f aces. b ut we can bring him in . vear -c lds readin q t he book s. she w ears short skirts. We get cl lot of g uys who are good at d rawin q square f aces. . Yeah. Sometimes it he lp s. And el isa backq rou nds-c-t hat's usual ly one of t he im portant th in gs we look at . thes e ext reme ly str ong m ale charact ers. t w o weeks lat er w e've g ot a wh ole different f rame of mi nd o n w hat w e' re look ing fo r. And perha ps t his person has now im proved sli g htly: t hey' ve studi ed anat omy. The mar ket has chan g ed. CH: For peo ple wh o ere thi nk in g. So. They do n 't do backg ro u nd s. We ' ve gotten a few more eettsts that w o rk through aqe nts . They sai d Ed it or ial needed he lp . large bre aste d. t hat's a stylistic cho ice. she's just got big breasts. Most o f her f r iends are male. if it loo ks lik e they're just d oing this because they do n't know. her strength. very thin. studied storytellin g. Pin-u ps are f ine t o sen d in. so I asked. "Oh. and t bat w as how I go t in . We can't necessarily USl" hi m now. Yet. smell h ip ped. CH: In t h is com peti tive cli mat e. ~ It goes be yond that. where w e ar e. but we can't rea lly t ell how som eon e is at te lli ng el st ory fr om th at . w e may pu ll o ut {their work] an d say. The more detailed th e background s. we usually use them to help on backgrounds for other ert tsts. th ey' ve w or ked on it. In t h is book. th e more time it loo ks lik e t hey' ve sc ent o n it. It 's her perso na lity. now you'vP got anywh ere fr o m 12· to 50-yeel r-ol ds [readinq t he m]. all w omen. In fa ct. We d o n't k now h ow t hey work and what other t h ings t he y can do. It also dep end s o n t he fra me of mind. b ut we' re no t g o ing t o pu ll someo ne in t o do d fi ght scene im med iate ly We're go ing to pu ll them in t o do a ba ckg ro u nd . such as Top Cow. sh l"'s not st upi d -pretty. She w as mult if aceted An d on t o p o f that. Then he had to go to el co nv enti o n. as an ed itor. CH: W hat are some o f the mistake s yo u w oul d advise aspiring co mic boo k art ist s t o avo id making when try ing to land their first job? What su bmis~ io ns look amate urish t o you and what qets your seri ous attent io n ? RG : One o f the fi rst thing s w e lo ok at is: A re they d rel w ing bo d ies [t hat are ] anat o mically co rrect'> Are the th ighs th ree times longer th an the calves? And sometimes. th at's t aking a rea! chance . CH: So. Deep insid e.> and how they sub m it it? RG : We ~ely. and do in de pen dent pu bli shing houses. Faces are so im port an t . but she also w ears torn jeans an d she's a co p. No t o nly is she a co p. CH: Do co mic book artists usuenv w o rk t hrough aqe nts or t hrough wor d of mouth ? RG: It de pends. this woma n yo u can 't hate. w hen YOU'(t" not just f ocusin g on fin ding new talent but you 'v e also got to get fi ve books out t his w eek. CH: Almost like an apprenticeship. but they moved on from [m akin g] t hat [t yp ical kin d) of [co m ic] book . an d we d o loo k at the m." But that's har der to do . Somet imes it's really irri t at in g I end up helving to ta lk to the artist myself. because w hen w e p un someone in as a new elrtist. RG: Definit ely. She hangs w ith the g uys. "rbis is what we're looking for no w . [sq uare taces! are just not p ret ty . because ar t is so subje ct ive . usually. Ho wever." But w e are alw ays. . fema le readers still ge t int o her because the y don 't lo ok at her and t h ink . h ow is Top Cow able to co mp et e so w ell? RG : Marc (Silv est ri) an d Todd M cfa rl ane and Rob Liefeld -c-th ose g uys who were g iants at Mclr vel an d DC when t hey made the ir own co m pan ies-not o nly mo ved on from M ar vel and DC.They en de d u p call ing m e and asking me back elSthe preside nt 's assista nt f o r a couple of w eeks. w e fin d som ebo dy and Scly. especially as an editor.> go t hr o ugh t hese subm issio ns. she's not a sid ekic k to some g uy. [The char acter I is pe rf ect . and it's so hard to keep up . So. t he y shoul dn 't just walk awa y. Batt ling aqainst Ian Nott ing h am . it just means that inst ead of mel k ing one p ho ne call. Wf. " Ho w can I get my first jo b?" do you. Batt ling and w in n ing aga inst t hese m elle ch aract ers. all of us. But. So the next t im e. At ti mes. RG : Exact ly. an d what do yo u t h ink makes them so p op u lar ? RG: Def in it ely witchbt ade . rnst eec of a-veera id s t o t a. W itch b lclde put us ove r t he top. It's easy to hate beautifu l w omen . anu t hat can work But . It 's hard t o f ind exactly wh at w e neec because. it's har d as the submissions ar e st ackm q up . and when t here's an aqent. Do yo u always te ll a st ory from t tie sam e an gl e ? Do yo u show the same shot in ever y scene ? How do you lely t he pane ls out ? Is it int eresti ng? Does it catch the eye'> Does it Ieac the eye th rou gh the story? I ~ it dynamic? Is it creatin g a mood? A lso. CH: Not just t he art. o r t hey'll do b ig fi g ht scenes. A lt ho ugh [pencile r) M ichael Turner has move d on from t he book. w e're loo king for vornethin q w p neec now. keep an eve out f or new. An d there's the wh ole rumor . wa nt to be bea utif ul. t hree paqes of sequ ential art. popu lated by g iants l ike Ma rvel and DC Com ics. I m elY look at your submi ssion o ne week. " Does anybody el se here n eed help?" Because I co u ld n 't afford mi ssing a cou ple day s of a paycheck . It's helrd. Keep trying. so that helps us a lot. her intell igence. she w as intelligent an d st ron g A nd she w as on he r own . I w o rk ed for them fo r two day s. but what about their overa ll packelgf. you g et a w om an wh o's a profl"ssiona l. we're no t going to t hrow them on a book. if art ists get reje ct io n letters f rom you Sclying that you can't use their w o rk rig ht now but that yo u li ked it . The in d ependent co mic book s are so diff icult because there are so many. that's one of t he most im portant things I tell peo ple . A lo t of women read W itchb ldde . tall. They'll d o a lot of fiq u res. CH: what have bp en your most po p ular fema le cha ract e rs. because she's no t aware of her beauty nece'l-Sarily. self -pu bl ished co mics that might hold pro mise? RG : We 're alw ays looking for new t alent. a co p . lon g hair . and try el gel in . . W hat are we lo oki ng for rig ht now'> But.

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Sendin g you r stuff through the ma il is the hardest way t o get in. "I re ally wa nt t o be a comic b oo k artist. 11 a nd 14. to be ab le to see somet h ing an d to recreate it . I'm not saying that you can't trai n yo urse lf to do that . It can he lp . But on the other hand . It's j ust a lot harder the old er you get. Or straight o ut of college. submit. CH: If you were in h ig h school or coll ege righ t now an d were seriously consider ing gett ing int o com ic boo k art as a profes sion. " That 's pe rfect. inst ead of being so stereotyped .game of. And these char acters f ind that t h ing ou t. yin -yang th ing All the characters are very we ll written. She's not the " evil " charact er. Tha t's the sort of talent t hat people tend to have. And it he lps for boo k keepi n g. And yo u reall y need t o go t o a conve nt ion and pu l l somebo dy aside and say. What you can do You could be 17 years o ld an d in h igh school. [Characters ] are tendi ng t o g o t hat way in com ic books. and she's st ill not sur e where they're go ing I th ink the key to th is type of storytell ing is that everybody feels that there's something ahead f o r the m. " Yeah. if you' re 25 years o ld an d can't see things co rrectly. It can kee p things a little mo re organ ized . Say you have a friend who know s somebody at Top Cow and t hey can bring you in. Subm it. w ritin g. Whe reas. wha t would be yo ur next move) RG: We get letters f rom really youn g ki ds. It get s a l itt le d ifficult . Spirit of the Tao has a very young cha racter.quy. most of the peo ple we hire in. is simil ar. if they br ing [t heir And a draw ings] to a convention . and the agent takes care of things like vouchering for them. it's also n ice to know t hat not on ly am I on t he ir case about their dea d lines . I just do n' t know about it yet. The thing is. " . because I'm not lookin g at you f ace to face . t h roug h a lo t o f ha rd work. for exam ple. I'm most likely going to send you a f o r m letter because I have 80 submissions to go through. CH: If I were to talk to you five years f ro m now. so it's a qirl. where would you env ision Top Cow t o be as fa r as story li n es and female characters are concerned? RG: Righ t now. She was just this no rma l young woman who f inds out she has t hese am azing powers. She's a no rmal hum an being Fathom.cut good and bad . peo ple wi ll t ake a look at it and te ll you wh at they think . It takes a l ittle more time. But usually it 's t here when you're younger. you can still teach yourself. lot of it is kn ow ing som ebo dy. What matters is w hat you did with it. we hire stra ight ou t of high school. Yo u can't side w ith any of them-th ere's no clear. Send you r stuff. I said t his to t h e agent an d the agent said someth ing sl ight ly different to the art ist and t he artist come s b ack t o me and I have to correct it. I'm going to do my best to get you in here . W e get a lot of yo ung ki ds saying we w ant to be comic book artists and I j ust tell them to keep draw ing. and if you're drawing m ind - blow ing things. submit. And her best is friend Lance. Th e reader goes. she's not the " g oo d li tt le gir l" character. You just really need t o be a go-g etter. It's harder and ha rde r to t rai n yourself t o do that. Everybo dy fee ls that somewhere inside t h ere's somethi ng reall y specia l. (t doesn' t matter w here yo u went to school. I could have that. She was an eng ineering student and found out all of t hese th ings about herse lf . "What do I need to do ?" CH: Are there any part icu lar art sc hools that im press you ? RG: The name of the school do esn't im press me at all. bec ause we usuall y pu ll peop le in at a really young age . In fact. anothe r bo o k that is huge ri ght now. b ut so is t he ir agent . and I do n' t have t ime to sit dow n and w rite a critiq ue of every single o ne.

&4 android. 79 sea creature. 134 gang member. 16 pencilers. 43 moon special effects. 80-81 valley g irl. 102-3 weapons. S4-57 staging. 7. 14 scheming expression. 57 quadriceps . 133-134 IX"" ba sic masses. 96-97 refere nce files. 82 planes body. 54 knee strike. 29 action pose . 36-37 rocket pa cks. 80-81 sexy characte rs. 65 and characterization. 29 underwater characters. 108 hypnotic powers. 138-43 tra pe zius mu scles. fighter. 70-7 1 Geerli ngs. 42-43 skeleto n. 58. 91 rain specia l effects. static. 28-32 planes of. 58. 57 layeri ng. 25 ninja assassin. 138-43 gloves. 36-37 point of balance. 17 ha nds. 17 side. 94 atomic punch. 46-47 muscles in.S 1 sports ca rs.15 eyes. 38 proportions. 141 back muscles. 69 spa ce/p lanetary cha racters. 129 inkers. 100-101 mouth. 12 portfolio. 20. 83-86 underwa te r charact e rs. 78. 36-37 face. 110 fo rced pers pective. 59-61 cover des ign. 31 cars. 87 Egypt ian queen. 28. 83-86 spiked body. 22-23 silhouettes. 18. 51 information sou rces. 90 Marvel characters. facial. pose ( a lvei. 14 scuba girl. 75 hairstyles. 7S ide as for. 128 pun ches. 74 princess. 30 diagonal lines. 26-27. 24 godde ss. 12. 143 al iens. Bobbie. artist's. 68 vampire. 62-63 storyline. 106 drawing. 123 reflective costumes. 18-19 horiz on line. 141. 24-25 head angles. 59-61 worried expression . 79-8 1 un iforms . 44-47 two -po int . 12-13. 90 nose. 77. 14-1 5. 39 fight ing . 23 martial arts. 126 teeth . 15 fiery expressi on. 74 ref lect ive. 13 thumbna il sketc hes. 72-73 van ishing lines/point. 104-1 9 leg muscles. 7. 68 va mpire. 18-19 vanishing lines/ poi nt. 133 Ea rth summoning po wers . 14-16 front. Stoe pose agents. 133 Egypt ian q ueen. co ntacting. perfect. 15 armor. 33 idealized. 12. 9 1 super power. 53 flirtatious expression. 23 dynam ic vs. 20. 61 sad expression. 62-63 Chase . 127 an xious expression.20 muscles. 134-35 sexy expression. 76 functional. 94 expressions. 118-19 de lto id muscles. 126. 127. 58. 22. 29 bea m blasting powers. 34-35 curves. 15 shape-shifting power. SO silhouettes. 14 taxes.INDEX abdominal mu scles. 70-7 1 gloves. 126 ma nnequi n.19 pu blishe rs. 88-89 explosion spe cial effects. 11 he ight. plan eta ry. 78. 48-53 pouty expression. 127 mood. 133-34 perspective fo rced . 31 light ning specia l eff ect s. 20. 48-53 surprised exp ression . S4-57 flying . 69 spa ce/plan et ary cha racters. 14 1. 56-57. 106-11 wa rrio r cha ract e rs. 7. 32 1co-pe-cent co mmit me nt in. 34-35 angry expression.13 feat ures . 15 314 view. 113 wa rrior costumes. 14 flying pose. 125. 132-37 cnese seqoence. 72-73 warriors. 31 rad ioa ct ivity. 14 sections of. 79.37 mental powers. Re nee. 15 androids. 77 f1ameth rowing po wers. 133 water spec ial effects. SO. 40-41 ra dioactive. 1" 12 proportion s.uta-tz com put er colorist. SO backg rounds. 134 jo b search. 95 sorcer ess. 21 see afso head . 44-47 ga ng member. 24 go ddess. 14. 134 costumes accessories.77 at omic infern o. 40-41 . 87 angles. 133-3 4. 14 figh ting pose. 78 profile. 143 kick. 53 body angl es. 77 wea po ns. 10 ha irstyles. 76 eq uilibrium. 15 mai ling artwo rk. 21 smoke. 112-13 Top Cow Prod uct ions. 90 pr ime val. 15 muscles. 52 mer chandising jobs. 55. 7. 98-99 lips. 106-11 pilot. 28-32 na ils. 14 fearsome express ion. 124 ninj a. 82 yalley g irl. 46-47 focus. 132. 52 editor s. 15 animat ion jobs. 111 amused expression. 42-43 ske leton. 122-23. 36-37 sorceress. 38 . 112-1 7 super powers. 127. 109 layo uts. 29. 15 pre his10r ic wo man .

perspective. f emale characte rs provide a st rong a nd cons iste nt presence in comic books and are an integral part of many story lines. and Showtime . int erviews with current comic book editors (including one at Marvel Comics).. Design. }. NY 10036 Manufactured in the United States of America . Graphit. Index. comic book layout.$19 . 310 illustrati ons. Filled w ith art from top contemporary comic book artists. f rom New York University's fil m school. Fox. How to Draw Great-Looking Comic Book Women is an invaluable resource and the only book you need on this popular topic. Paramou nt. Cover desig n by Bob Fillie. appealing aliens. and much more. A f ormer staff member of the worl d-fa mous Blondie comic stri p. 200 in full colo r. He attended the Disney animation pr ogram at The Californ ia Institute of the A rts and earn ed a B. cha racter types. beautiful bad gals.A. This lat est offering from we ll-known author Christopher Hart is t rul y t he ultimate book on how to draw sexy heroines. and featuring instructions on anatomy. powerful technobabes. NBC. cover ing everyt hing f ro m cartooning t o animation to com ic books . and he is a gu est w riter f or Cartoonist Profiles. f1. storytelling. Inc. (f {. Hart has bee n a reg ular cont ri butor t o Mad Magazin e and has written comed ies f or many t op film and 1V st udios. action poses. He lives in Connecticut with his wi fe and two daughters. 144 pages .95 USA rom classic superhero ines t o t oday ' 5 modern w om en and everyt hi ng in bet w een.5 x 28 em). 8 1/2 x 11 · (21. and cover design. His book s have been translated into ten languages.~ Christopher Hart is th e best-selling author of watson -Guptill's most popular h ow-to-draw books. includi ng MGM. costumes. Front cove r art by Grant Miehm W ATSON -GUPTlLL PUBLICATION S 151 5 Broadway New York. a trade magazine.

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